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Sample records for hakukansho ipomoea batatas

  1. Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn, Convolvulaceae) extract (IBE) in stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and its anti-oxidant properties. Methods: Cell viability assessment was performed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

  2. Effects of feeding sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ) leaves on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-five (45) weaner rabbits were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments (T) to evaluate the effects of graded levels of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves (SPL) and pelletized concentrate feed (PCF) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits. The treatments were: T1 (0% SPL; 100% PCF); T2 (25% ...

  3. Effect of sweetpotato leaf (Ipomoea Batatas) extract on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of plants and herbs as food supplements and medicinal additives is fast gaining grounds and recognition in the world especially in Africa. Sweet potato leaves (Ipomoea batatas) decoction is a folk remedy for asthma, bugbites, burns, catarrh, diarrhea, fever, nausea, stomach distress and tumours. Also this plant has ...

  4. Possibilities of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] value chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FAOUZIATH

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... Key words: Benin, sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, nutritional composition, orange flesh cultivar, value chain. INTRODUCTION ... largely consumed after processing into garri, traditional flour, lafun, and improved flour. ..... foods give them a role in human health and they can serve as substrates for the ...

  5. Wound healing activity of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato

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    Madhav Sonkamble

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. from the family Convolvulaceae is the world’s sixth largest food crop. The tubers of Ipomoea batatas commonly known as sweet potato are consumed as a vegetable globally. The tubers contain high levels of polyphenols such as anthocyanins and phenolic acids and vitamins A, B and C, which impart a potent antioxidant activity that can translate well to show wound healing effects. To check their effects on wound healing, the peels and peel bandage were tested on various injury models in rats in the present study.Methods: The methanolic extracts of the peels and peel bandage of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato were screened for wound healing by excision and incision wound models on Wistar rats. Three types of gel formulations were prepared, viz., gel containing 3.0% (w/w peel extract, gel containing 6.0% (w/w peel extract and gel containing 10% (w/w peel extract. Betadine (5% w/w povidone iodine cream was used as a reference standard. In the incision wound model, Tensile strength of the skin was measured. Epithelization time, wound contraction, hydroxyproline content of the scab, and ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde content of the plasma were determined in the excision wound model.Results: In the incision wound model, high tensile strength of the wounded skin was observed in animals treated with the peel extract gels and the peel bandage when compared with wounded control animals. The increase in tensile strength indicates the promotion of collagen fibers and that the disrupted wound surfaces are being firmly knit by collagen. In the excision wound model, significant wound closure was observed on the 4th day in rats treated with all three gel formulations when compared with the wounded control rats. A significant increase inFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 10:403-415hydroxyproline and ascorbic acid content in the gel-treated animals and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde content in the

  6. Sensorial, physical and chemical evaluation of bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas

    OpenAIRE

    Mara N.G. Santos; Joice V.C. Orsine; Alexandre I. de A. Pereira; Roberto Cañete; María R.C.G. Novaes

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bio-fortified sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck beta-carotene rich, has been included in the most vulnerable population’s diet with the purpose of reducing health disturbances associated with hipovitaminosis. Aims:To evaluate a physical and chemical analysis of total carotenes and beta-carotene and to determine the antioxidant potential as well as to carry out a sensorial analysis of the bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck (BDB) in nature and processed. Method...

  7. Bio-deterioration of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The biodeterioration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was investigated at Port. Harcourt, south southern Nigeria. Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer,. Botryodiplodia theobroma and Penicillium sp. were found to be associated with deteriorating sweet potato tubers and used for ...

  8. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, D., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Halide, H., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Kurniawan, D. [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia); Wahab, A. W. [Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  9. Pneumonia intersticial em bovinos associada à ingestão de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas mofada Interstitial pneumonia in cattle fed moldy sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Fighera

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma doença respiratória foi diagnosticada em cinco dentre 23 bovinos (21,7% após terem sido alimentados com batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas mofada em uma pequena propriedade rural em São Vicente do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Três dos cinco bovinos afetados morreram espontaneamente, e o quarto foi sacrificado para necropsia quando mostrava sinais clínicos respiratórios avançados. A manifestação clínica iniciara cerca de 24 horas após a ingestão das batatas-doces e a evolução clínica foi de 1 a 4 dias. Os sinais clínicos incluíam dispnéia (respiração laboriosa e abdominal, taquipnéia, pescoço estendido com cabeça baixa e dilatação ritmada das narinas. Dois bovinos foram necropsiados. Os achados de necropsia incluíam pulmões distendidos, pálidos e de consistência borrachenta, que não colapsavam quando o tórax era aberto; enfisema e edema acentuados eram evidentes no pulmão. Os linfonodos e o baço apresentavam alterações características de hiperplasia linfóide. Histologica-mente, as lesões eram típicas de pneumonia intersticial. Os septos alveolares estavam espessados por fibroblastos e células inflamatórias, havia hipertrofia e hiperplasia de pneumócitos tipo II; os septos interlobulares estavam distendidos por edema e enfisema. A cultura de amostras das batatas-doces mofadas produziu Fusarium solani e F. oxysporum.Cases of respiratory disease were diagnosed in five out of 23 cattle (21.7% after they were fed moldy damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas on a small farm in the county of São Vicente do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Of those five cattle, three died spontaneously and another one was euthanatized for necropsy while showing advanced respiratory clinical signs. The disease manifested itself approximately 24 hours after the ingestion of the sweet potatoes and lasted from 1 to 4 days. Clinical signs included dyspnea (labored breathing and abdominal respiration, tachypnea, extended

  10. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam..

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    Caroline Roullier

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., Convolvulaceae counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.

  11. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.

  12. Phyotoxicity of diesel soil contamination on the germination of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Lewu, Francis Bayo; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-11-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil on germination rate of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas, at two concentrations ranges (0-6ml and 0-30ml), were investigated and compared. Diesel soil contamination was simulated and soil samples were taken from contaminated soil at 1, 5,10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days should be after planting. The result showed that in both plant species, diesel inhibited germination in a concentration dependent manner, Also, the influence of diesel contamination diminished with increased time duration; suggesting possible reduction in diesel toxicity over time. However, germination of lettuce was significant and negatively correlated (r2 = -0.941) with diesel contamination as compared to sweet potato (r2 = -0.638).Critical concentration of diesel in relation to seed germination of L. sativa was lower than vegetative germination of I. batatas, indicating that germination of I. batatas was less sensitive to diesel contamination as compared to L. sativa.

  13. Comparative Study on the Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extract and Carotenoids Extract from Ipomoea batatas var. Oren (Sweetpotato) Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Seow-Mun Hue; Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce; Chandran Somasundram

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas (Sweetpotato) is currently ranked sixth in the total world food production and are planted mainly for their storage roots. The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the antioxidant properties of the leaf and carotenoids extract from the Ipomoea batatas var. Oren leaves. Total flavonoids in the leaf extract was 144.6 ± 40.5 μg/g compared to 114.86 ± 4.35 μg/g catechin equivalent in the carotenoids extract. Total polyphenols in the leaf extrac...

  14. Somatic embryogenesis in Malaysian cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    OpenAIRE

    De Silva, Angela Ee

    2017-01-01

    Three Malaysian sweet potato cultivars, namely Ipomoea batatas (L.) cv. Gendut, Jalomas and Telong, were investigated for their abilities to produce somatic embryos. Shoot meristems were used as the starting materials and cultured on Murashige and Skoog basal media (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) in the presence of auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). Auxin 2,4,5-T at 5 µM was most effective for the initiation of primary embryogenic formati...

  15. Identificación in silico de un grupo de secuencias ortólogas conservadas (COS de Ipomoea batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Solís Calero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe una serie de procedimientos bioinformáticos para la predicción de un grupo secuencias ortólogas conservadas (COS de Ipomoea batatas, así como la evaluación de su potencial utilidad para la generación de marcadores moleculares y estudios de diversidad en esta especie. Con ese propósito usando los programas BLAST X y TBLASTN se realizó una comparación reciproca por similaridad entre secuencias ESTs procedentes de librerías de cDNAs de Ipomoea batatas, propias o disponibles de modo público en la base de datos GenBank, con secuencias COS de Arabidopsis thaliana. La anotación funcional de las secuencias COS predichas en Ipomoea batatas se realizo usando los programas BLASTX, INTERPROSCAN y PSI-BLAST. Se obtuvieron en total 204 secuencias COS candidatos de Ipomoea batatas, siendo 16 secuencias provenientes de una librería generada a partir de raíces de reserva. Se evaluó de modo computacional el polimorfismo de las secuencias COS de raíces de reserva, obteniéndose SNPs en 8 secuencias, y secuencias repetidas en tandem en una de ellas.

  16. Characterization and effect of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas associated with Ipomoea Batatas of Colombian Caribbean

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    Jazmín Vanessa Pérez-Pazos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR is an alternative to replace chemical fertilizers for the cultivation of agricultural crops. The aim of this research was to search, selection and characterization of PGPR from the genus Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas natives from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas plants and rhizosphere of representative production regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Selected isolates were identified by molecular methods and they were screened in vitro for activities related to plant growth such as phosphate solubilization, indole production and acetylene reduction. The strains were tested in the greenhouse on plants of Ipomoea batatas produced in vitro. The height, root length, dry mass of the shot and root were evaluated. Associated with sweet potato crop us finded strains identificated as Azotobacter vinelandii, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum lipoferum, Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas denitrificans. The strains were able to solubilize phosphate, synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and reduce acetylene. The inoculation of bacteria selected increased growth parameters such as root length, height, dry weight root and shoot in plants of sweet potato in greenhouse. Those results catalog to the isolated obtained as possible microorganisms with potential as biofertilizers in sweet potato.

  17. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis of yield contributing characters in sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.D.; Rabbani, M.G.; Mollah, M.L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of 30 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) genotypes for yield contributing characters and tuber yield per plant revealed high phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation (PCV and GCV, respectively) for number of tubers per plant, average tuber weight and tuber yield per plant. The heritability and genetic advance were higher for tuber yield per plant, average tuber weight and number of tubers per plant. These three characters also reflected high heritability as well as high genetic advance. As high positive significant correlation, as well as positive direct effect of average tuber weight and number of tubers per plant on tuber yield per plant were found, these characters should be given prime importance for selecting high yielding sweet potato genotypes. (author)

  18. Morphohistobiochemical characteristics of embryogenic and nonembryogenic callus cultures of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A; Debata, B K; Mukherjee, P S; Malik, S K

    2001-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas callus culture raised in a medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) alone or 2,4-D in combination with benzyl adenine, were found to be embryogenic. Supplementation of exogenous chemicals, such as 5 g/l NaCI or 0.7 g/l proline together with a mild dose of 0.2 mg/l 2,4-D, enhanced somatic embryogenesis significantly in all the genotypes tested. Morphological, growth, physiological, histological, and biochemical characteristics of the embryogenic callus were different from the nonembryogenic callus. The former was compact, slow growing, and nodular compared with the fast growing, fragile, nonembryogenic callus. The embryogenic callus tissue had more dry matter, protein and reducing sugar contents compared with the less embryogenic callus. The somatic embryogenic response remained steady in the cultures for up to 96 weeks.

  19. High throughput sequencing identifies chilling responsive genes in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zeyi; Zhou, Zhilin; Li, Hongmin; Yu, Jingjing; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Tang, Zhonghou; Ma, Daifu; Zhang, Baohong; Han, Yonghua; Li, Zongyun

    2018-05-21

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a globally important economic food crop. It belongs to Convolvulaceae family and origins in the tropics; however, sweetpotato is sensitive to cold stress during storage. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing to investigate the sweetpotato response to chilling stress during storage. A total of 110,110 unigenes were generated via high-throughput sequencing. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis showed that 18,681 genes were up-regulated and 21,983 genes were down-regulated in low temperature condition. Many DEGs were related to the cell membrane system, antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism, and hormone metabolism, which are potentially associated with sweetpotato resistance to low temperature. The existence of DEGs suggests a molecular basis for the biochemical and physiological consequences of sweetpotato in low temperature storage conditions. Our analysis will provide a new target for enhancement of sweetpotato cold stress tolerance in postharvest storage through genetic manipulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Processamento de barras de cereais com adição de farinha de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas L.) Processing of cereal bars with added sweet potato flour (Ipomea batatas L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, José Raniere Mazile Vidal; UNICENTRO; Rigo, Maurício; UNICENTRO; Teixeira, Ângela Moraes; UNICENTRO; Angelo, Mariana Alves; UNICENTRO; Czaikoski, Aline; Graduanda em Engenharia de Alimentos, bolsista Fundação Araucária. BIC/Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste - UNICENTRO.

    2015-01-01

    Considerando o crescimento do segmento de barras de cereais, a importância da cultura da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas L.) e seu valor nutricional, este trabalho teve por objetivo a elaboração de barras de cereais com adição de diferentes teores de farinha de batata-doce e sua avaliação de aceitação sensorial, e ainda, a determinação da composição proximal da formulação melhor avaliada sensorialmente. A farinha da batata-doce e as barras de cereais adicionadas a farinha foram submetidas às det...

  1. Changes in electrophoretic profiles of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato induced by gamma radiation

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    Celso Luiz Salgueiro Lage

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of nodal segments of Ipomoea batatas to differentiate shoots and roots was evaluated after gamma irradiation. Shoot differentiation was less sensitive to irradiation than roots. However, at 90 Gy, no shoot was able to regenerate a new plant; in contrast 76 % of the roots from irradiated nodal segments continued to grow. The gamma radiation also induced changes in electrophoretic profiles of peroxidases of storage roots. Plants originated from irradiated storage roots presented changes in leaf peroxidase profiles very similar to those produced by leaves directly irradiated. The peroxidase profile of absorbent roots from irradiated storage roots was different from that obtained from directly irradiated absorbent roots.A capacidade de Ipomoea batatas diferenciar parte aérea e raízes foi avaliada após irradiação com raios gama. A diferenciação da parte aérea foi menos sensível que a das raízes. Contudo, na dose de 90 Gy nenhum broto diferenciado regenerou planta, enquanto 76 % das raízes diferenciadas dos segmentos nodais irradiados manteve o crescimento. A radiação também induziu mudanças no perfil elotroforético de isoperoxidases. Plantas originadas de raízes tuberosas irradiadas apresentaram alteração no perfil de isoperoxidases foliares semelhantes ao perfil de folhas diretamente irradiadas. O perfil de isoperoxidases de raízes absorventes irradiadas diretamente não apresentou o mesmo padrão do perfil das raízes absorventes desenvolvidas de raízes tuberosas irradiadas.

  2. Sensorial, physical and chemical evaluation of bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara N.G. Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bio-fortified sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L. Lamarck beta-carotene rich, has been included in the most vulnerable population’s diet with the purpose of reducing health disturbances associated with hipovitaminosis. Aims:To evaluate a physical and chemical analysis of total carotenes and beta-carotene and to determine the antioxidant potential as well as to carry out a sensorial analysis of the bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas (L. Lamarck (BDB in nature and processed. Methods: BDB was processed as sweet (in natura, paste and syrup and physicochemical characteristics were compared, total carotenoids, beta-carotene, antioxidant activity (DPPH and microbiological and sensory analyses were performed. Results:The analysis of total carotenoids, beta-carotene and anti-oxidant potential showed the following results: BDB in nature – 11.81 mg/100 g/440.5 mg/100 g/26.30%; sweet paste – 0.61 mg/100 g/53.5 mg/100 g/53.40% and savored syrup – 0.85 mg/100 g/46.0 mg/100 g/14.30%. The methods of conservation avoided the coliforms growth at 35 and 45°C, Staphylococcus coagulasa positivo, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella in all elaborated candies. The sensorial analysis didn’t detect significant differences among the syrup or paste. Conclusions: The conservation methods have an important function keeping the physical, chemical characteristics and sensorial of BDB, although they can influence in their chemical and nutritional composition, mainly in relation to the quantity of total carotenoids and beta-carotene.

  3. Producción de alcohol a partir de genotipos de batata (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. en medios fermentativos

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    Amanda Cantos Lopes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available El etanol es uno de los combustibles más prometedores en Brasil, pero su producción está centralizada en el cultivo de la caña de azúcar, y actualmente se están buscando otras fuentes de biomasa productora de alcohol para reemplazar el monocultivo de la caña de azúcar. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las variables del proceso de fermentación como el tiempo de fermentación (72 y 96 horas, adición de nutrientes (con y sin adición y levaduras (levadura orgánica seca y fresca empleadas en la producción de etanol a partir de dos genotipos de batata (Ipomoea batatas L.: UGA 05 y UGA 77. El contenido del alcohol evaluado en °GL se realizó en un diseño completamente al azar según dos esquemas factoriales (22 y 23, y los resultados obtenidos se analizaron con el software Design Expert® versión 8. Los resultados del diseño factorial 22 indican que el tiempo de fermentación en la producción de alcohol tuvo un efecto significativo en el proceso, lo que sugiere que la producción de alcohol es más eficiente en 72 horas de fermentación y sin la inclusión de nutrientes. En el diseño factorial 23, las interacciones entre el tiempo de fermentación con genotipos, y entre el tiempo y la inclusión de la levadura mostraron efectos significativos y alteraron la producción de alcohol. El proceso de fermentación muestra una diferencia significativa en función del material genético y las levaduras utilizadas, señalando la fermentación del mosto de harina del genotipo UGA 77 bajo acción de levadura fresca y 72 horas de fermentación.

  4. IPOMOEA BATATAS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    c bowl. Six young plants of sweet potato were transplanted to each of the plastic bowl and allowed eight weeks to grow and stabilize. ... processes by bacteria and plants [5]. Petroleum and ... associated microorganisms to degrade, contain or.

  5. ipomoea batatas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    design with three replications was conducted at the same location as in 2005. ... alcohol, pharmaceutical and textile industries is widely .... Table 2: Number of leaves/plant and vine length (cm) of two sweet potato varieties as influenced by time ...

  6. Ipomoea Batatas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tope

    The use of plants and herbs as food supplements and medicinal additives is fast gaining grounds and recognition in the world especially in ... Southeast Asia, they can also be used as forage and the leaf has rich protein content that helps to.

  7. Polyphenols and phenolic acids in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Musilová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is one of the most important food crops in the world. They are rich in polyphenols, proteins, vitamins, minerals and some functional microcomponents. Polyphenols are bioactive compounds, which can protect the human body from the oxidative stress which may cause many diseases including cancer, aging and cardiovascular problems.The polyphenol content is two to three times higher than in some common vegetables. Total polyphenols (determined spectrophotometrically and phenolic acids (i.e. caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and isomers - using high performance liquid chromatography contents were determined in three varieties of sweet potatoes (O´Henry - white, Beauregard-orange and 414-purple. Phenolic compounds contents were determined in raw peeled roots, jackets of raw roots and water steamed sweet potato roots. For all analysis lyophilised samples were used. Total polyphenol content ranged from 1161 (O´Henry, flesh-raw to 13998 (414, peel-raw mg.kg-1 dry matter, caffeic acid content from the non-detected values (414, flesh-raw to 320.7 (Beauregard, peel-raw mg.kg-1 dry matter and 3-caffeoylquinic acid content from 57.57 (O´Henry, flesh-raw to 2392 (414, peel-raw mg.kg-1 dry matter. Statistically significant differences (p ≤0.05 existed between varieties, morphological parts of the root, or raw and heat-treated sweet potato in phenolic compounds contents.

  8. Production of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) juice having high anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyanti, G.; Siswaningsih, W.; Febrianti, A.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to retrieve procedure of production of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) juice with the best total anthocyanin and antioxidant activity. Purple sweet potato was processed into purple sweet potato juice through a process of heating with temperature variations of 700C, 800C, and 900C and various duration of heating, which are 5 mins, 10 mins, and 15 mins. The total anthocyanin was determined by using pH differential method. The antioxidant activity was determined by using DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl) method. Total anthocyanin of purple sweet potato juice declined in the range between 215.08 mg/L - 101.86 mg/L. The antioxidant activity of purple sweet potato juice declined in the range between 90.63% - 67.79%. Antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin purple sweet potato juice decreases with increasing temperature and duration of heating. The best characteristics found in purple sweet potato juice were made with warming temperatures of 800C. The product with the highest antioxidant activity, total anthocyanins, and good durability was prepared at 800C heating temperature for 5 mins.

  9. AMIDO DE BATATA DOCE (Ipomoea batatas L, Lam: II – CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA E ESTUDO DE ALGUMAS PROPRIEDADES FUNCIONAIS

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    José Paschoal BATISTUTI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfologicamente e estudar a relação estrutura: função do grânulo de amido extraído de tubérculos, de diferentes cultivares de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas L, Lam. Nas condições do experimento e mediante os resultados obtidos, observou-se que o amido dos diferentes cultivares estudados mostrou diferenças acentuadas na sua morfologia. Foram observadas, também, diferenças nas propriedades viscoamilográficas, devidas particularmente à heterogeneidade de forças envolvidas na manutenção da estrutura do grânulo. O amido obtido, dos cultivares estudados, mostrou maior resistência à desintegração mecânica, durante a gelatinização, quando comparado aos padrões comerciais testados. Apenas um cultivar mostrou pico de viscosidade máxima. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Batata-doce; amido; funcionalidade; morfologia.

  10. Characterization and development of EST-derived SSR markers in cultivated sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas

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    Li Yujun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently there exists a limited availability of genetic marker resources in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas, which is hindering genetic research in this species. It is necessary to develop more molecular markers for potential use in sweetpotato genetic research. With the newly developed next generation sequencing technology, large amount of transcribed sequences of sweetpotato have been generated and are available for identifying SSR markers by data mining. Results In this study, we investigated 181,615 ESTs for the identification and development of SSR markers. In total, 8,294 SSRs were identified from 7,163 SSR-containing unique ESTs. On an average, one SSR was found per 7.1 kb of EST sequence with tri-nucleotide motifs (42.9% being the most abundant followed by di- (41.2%, tetra- (9.2%, penta- (3.7% and hexa-nucleotide (3.1% repeat types. The top five motifs included AG/CT (26.9%, AAG/CTT (13.5%, AT/TA (10.6%, CCG/CGG (5.8% and AAT/ATT (4.5%. After removing possible duplicate of published EST-SSRs of sweetpotato, a total of non-repeat 7,958 SSR motifs were identified. Based on these SSR-containing sequences, 1,060 pairs of high-quality SSR primers were designed and used for validation of the amplification and assessment of the polymorphism between two parents of one mapping population (E Shu 3 Hao and Guang 2k-30 and eight accessions of cultivated sweetpotatoes. The results showed that 816 primer pairs could yield reproducible and strong amplification products, of which 195 (23.9% and 342 (41.9% primer pairs exhibited polymorphism between E Shu 3 Hao and Guang 2k-30 and among the 8 cultivated sweetpotatoes, respectively. Conclusion This study gives an insight into the frequency, type and distribution of sweetpotato EST-SSRs and demonstrates successful development of EST-SSR markers in cultivated sweetpotato. These EST-SSR markers could enrich the current resource of molecular markers for the sweetpotato community and would

  11. Structure of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas diversity in West Africa covaries with a climatic gradient.

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    Kodjo Glato

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan agriculture has been identified as vulnerable to ongoing climate change. Adaptation of agriculture has been suggested as a way to maintain productivity. Better knowledge of intra-specific diversity of varieties is prerequisites for the successful management of such adaptation. Among crops, root and tubers play important roles in food security and economic growth for the most vulnerable populations in Africa. Here, we focus on the sweet potato. The Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas was domesticated in Central and South America and was later introduced into Africa and is now cultivated throughout tropical Africa. We evaluated its diversity in West Africa by sampling a region extending from the coastal area of Togo to the northern Sahelian region of Senegal that represents a range of climatic conditions. Using 12 microsatellite markers, we evaluated 132 varieties along this gradient. Phenotypic data from field trials conducted in three seasons was also obtained. Genetic diversity in West Africa was found to be 18% lower than in America. Genetic diversity in West Africa is structured into five groups, with some groups found in very specific climatic areas, e.g. under a tropical humid climate, or under a Sahelian climate. We also observed genetic groups that occur in a wider range of climates. The genetic groups were also associated with morphological differentiation, mainly the shape of the leaves and the color of the stem or root. This particular structure of diversity along a climatic gradient with association to phenotypic variability can be used for conservation strategies. If such structure is proved to be associated with specific climatic adaptation, it will also allow developing strategies to adapt agriculture to ongoing climate variation in West Africa.

  12. Structure of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) diversity in West Africa covaries with a climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glato, Kodjo; Aidam, Atsou; Kane, Ndjido Ardo; Bassirou, Diallo; Couderc, Marie; Zekraoui, Leila; Scarcelli, Nora; Barnaud, Adeline; Vigouroux, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Sub-Saharan agriculture has been identified as vulnerable to ongoing climate change. Adaptation of agriculture has been suggested as a way to maintain productivity. Better knowledge of intra-specific diversity of varieties is prerequisites for the successful management of such adaptation. Among crops, root and tubers play important roles in food security and economic growth for the most vulnerable populations in Africa. Here, we focus on the sweet potato. The Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was domesticated in Central and South America and was later introduced into Africa and is now cultivated throughout tropical Africa. We evaluated its diversity in West Africa by sampling a region extending from the coastal area of Togo to the northern Sahelian region of Senegal that represents a range of climatic conditions. Using 12 microsatellite markers, we evaluated 132 varieties along this gradient. Phenotypic data from field trials conducted in three seasons was also obtained. Genetic diversity in West Africa was found to be 18% lower than in America. Genetic diversity in West Africa is structured into five groups, with some groups found in very specific climatic areas, e.g. under a tropical humid climate, or under a Sahelian climate. We also observed genetic groups that occur in a wider range of climates. The genetic groups were also associated with morphological differentiation, mainly the shape of the leaves and the color of the stem or root. This particular structure of diversity along a climatic gradient with association to phenotypic variability can be used for conservation strategies. If such structure is proved to be associated with specific climatic adaptation, it will also allow developing strategies to adapt agriculture to ongoing climate variation in West Africa.

  13. Two rubisco activase genes from ipomoea batatas have different roles in photosynthesis of arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Rubisco activase (RCA) that functions as a molecular chaperone regulates the activity of the Calvin-Benson cycle via regulation of the Rubisco activity. In plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Spinacia oleracea, and Oryza sativa, there are two RCA isoforms from two mRNAs that are produced from alternative splicing of the transcribed pre-mRNA of a single RCA gene. However, this research reported that the transcripts of the two IbRCA isoforms in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were transcribed from two different genes. To study the roles of these two IbRCA isoforms in photosynthesis, we inserted these two IbRCA genes into the genome of Arabidopsis with deletion of RCA gene (RCA), resulting in IbRCAs- and IbRCAl-expressing plants, respectively. Analysis of these transgenic Arabidopsis indicated that the IbRCAs-expressing plants were similar to wild-type plants under ambient CO/sub 2/ concentration and 22 degree C conditions, suggesting that expression of IbRCAs gene was sufficient for functional complementation of RCA plants under normal conditions. However, IbRCAs-expressing plants were more susceptible to moderate heat stress (26 degree C) compared to wild-type plants. In contrast, although the IbRCAl-expressing plants had to grow normally in high CO/sub 2/ concentration conditions, there were almost no differences in growth and photosynthesis between normally grown and heat-treated plants, implying that IbRCAl-expressing plants had a better heat-resistance than IbRCAs-expressing plants. (author)

  14. KORELASI KARAKTER ANATOMI DAUN UBI JALAR (Ipomoea batatas L. KULTIVAR TAHAN DAN TIDAK TAHAN TERHADAP INTENSITAS PENYAKIT KUDIS DAUN

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    Ade Winda Pradana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is one of alternative food sources beside than rice. Sweet potatoes are contains minerals, nutrients, sources of energy, protein, vitamins A and C. Sweet potatoes have lower productivity than rice and cassava. The low productivity of sweet potatoes due to several factors, which one of them is a leaf scab disease caused by pathogens Sphaceloma batatas Saw. The purpose of this study is to determine the character of the anatomy of sweet potato leaf cultivars that resistant and unresistant to the intensity of leaf scab disease, as well as the correlations between the anatomy character of sweet potato leaves with leaf scab disease intensity. The method used in this study is an experimental method with factorial completely randomized design. The first factor is the character of the anatomy of four cultivars sweet potato leaves, Cangkuang and Sukuh cultivars (cultivars resistant, cultivars Cilembu and Beta (unresistant cultivars. The second factor is the inoculation treatment S. batatas Saw. The parameters were observed thickness of cuticle, epidermis, mesophyll, the size (length and width stomata, density of stomata and trikomata as well as the intensity of the disease were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. To determine the correlation between the anatomy character leaves with disease intensity using regression correlation analysis. The results showed that Cangkuang cultivar has cuticle, epidermis and mesophyll thickest. Beta cultivars have stomata size of the longest and widest. Cilembu cultivar has the highest density of stomata. Sukuh cultivars has the highest density. The anatomy characters include of a thick cuticle, epidermis, stomata size (length and width, as well as the density of stomata and trikomata correlated with intensity of leaf scab disease.

  15. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas

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    Colin Kahlil Khoury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  16. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  17. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. growing in conditions of southern Slovak republic

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    Miroslav Šlosár

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. belongs to very important crops from aspect of its world production. It is grown in large areas in Asia, on the contrary, sweet potato production in Europe presents minimal part of its total world rate. The sweet potato is less-known crop, grown only on small area in home gardens in Slovak Republic. Tubers of sweet potato are characterized by anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties due to the presence of valuable health-promoting components, such as carotenoids or vitamin C. The main objective of study was testing of sweet potato growing in conditions of southern Slovak Republic with focus on quantity and quality of its yield. The field trial was realised on land of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in 2015. Within trial, effect of cultivar and mulching on the selected quantitative (average tuber weight; yield per plant; yield in t.ha-1 and qualitative (total carotenoids; vitamin C parameters were tested. One certified cultivar of sweet potato 'Beauregard' was used as a comparative cultivar. Other two cultivars were marked according to the market place at which were purchased and sequentially used for seedling preparation. Tubers of first un-known cultivar were purchased in the Serbian market (marked as 'Serbian'. Tubers of next sweet potato cultivar were purchased on the market in Zagreb (marked as 'Zagrebian'. Outplating of sweet potato seedlings were realised on the 19th May 2015. The sweet potato was grown by hillock system. Each cultivar was planted in two variants (rows: non-mulching (bare soil and mulching by black non-woven textile. All variants were divided to three replications with 6 plants. Difference between rows was 1.20 m and seedlings were planted in distance of 0.30 m in row. The harvested tubers were classified in two size classes: >150 g (marketable yield and <150 g (non-marketable yield. Total carotenoid content was determined spectrophotometrically. The

  18. On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

    2013-06-01

    New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change.

  19. Pengaruh Penambahan Susu Bubuk Fullcream Terhadap Mutu Produk Minuman Fermentasi dari Ekstrak Ubi Jalar Merah (Ipomoea batatas L

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    Novelina Novelina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to find exact volume of fullcream milk powder which added in the fermented beverage of red sweet potatoes extract (Ipomoea batatas L, as well as to investigate physical and chemical characteristics, and organoleptic. So it was obtained the fermented beverages which fulfilled the quality requirements of yogurt according to SNI 01- 2981-1992. Analysis was conducted on total Lactobacillus, total plates count, total lactic acid, pH, total solids, viscosity, and fat content. Organoleptic test of the color, texture, flavor, consistency, and taste was also carried out. The best product was analyzed for the chemical properties such as protein content, ash and crude fiber. The design used in this study was completely randomized design (CRD with four treatments of fullcream milk powder addition 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% respectively with 3 replications. The organoleptic test of the most preferred by the panelists was a fermented beverage with the addition of 10% fullcream milk powder. This product contained Lactobacillus total; 7.3 x 108 CFU/ml, total plate count; 1.4 x 107 CFU/ml, total lactic acid; 1.56%, pH; 4.42, total solids; 25.62%, viscosity; 25.5 dPa.s, fat content; 3.4%, protein content; 6.34%, ash content; 0.11%, and crude fiber content; 0.17%.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jumlah penambahan susu bubuk fullcream yang tepat pada minuman fermentasi ekstrak ubi jalar merah (Ipomoea batatas L, sertakarakteristik fisik, kimia dan organoleptik, sehingga diperoleh minuman fermentasi dariekstrak ubi jalar merah yang memenuhi persyaratan mutu yogurt menurut SNI 01 - 2.981- 1.992. Analisis dilakukan pada total Lactobacillus, angka lempeng total, asam laktat total, pH, total padatan, viskositas, kadar lemak dan organoleptik warna ,tekstur, rasa, konsistensi, rasa. Produk terbaik yang didapatkan dianalis sifat kimia seperti kadar protein, abu dan serat kasar. Rancangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah rancangan

  20. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica

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    Perceval S. Bahado-Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years. The GI varied between 41 ± 5–93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5–50 ± 3, while those processed by baking (82 ± 3–94 ± 3 and roasting (79 ± 4–93 ± 2 had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Antioxidant and prebiotic activity of five peonidin-based anthocyanins extracted from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hanju; Zhang, Pingping; Zhu, Yongsheng; Lou, Qiuyan; He, Shudong

    2018-03-22

    Twelve kinds of anthocyanins from the Chinese purple sweet potato cultivar (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were extracted and identified using LC-MS/MS, which had a high content of peonidin-based anthocyanins. Five peonidin-based anthocyanin monomers (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5) were isolated by preparative liquid chromatography with structural analyses using an Impact II Q-TOF MS/MS. Then, the functional properties of the anthocyanin monomers, such as the antioxidant activities, proliferative effects on probiotics, and their inhibition on harmful bacteria in vitro, were investigated. The peonidin-based components in purple sweet potato anthocyanins (PSPAs) showed good properties regarding scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and superoxide anions, and had good potential in reducing the total power activity and Fe 2+ chelating ability. While the order of the antioxidant abilities was as follows: P4 > P5 > P3 > P2 > P1 > PSPAs. Microbial cultivations showed that P1, P2, P3, P4, P5 and PSPAs could induce the proliferation of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and they inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium, suggesting the anthocyanins might have prebiotic-like activity through the modulation of the intestinal microbiota. Our results indicate that peonidin-based anthocyanins could be further utilized in health foods and pharmaceutical developments.

  2. Efficient embryogenic suspension culturing and rapid transformation of a range of elite genotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Bi, Hui-Ping; Fan, Wei-Juan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was developed using embryogenic suspension cell cultures of elite sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) cultivars, including Ayamurasaki, Sushu2, Sushu9, Sushu11, Wanshu1, Xushu18 and Xushu22. Embryogenic suspension cultures were established in LCP medium using embryogenic calli induced from apical or axillary buds on an induction medium containing 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. Suspension cultures were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pCAMBIA1301 with the hpt gene as a selectable marker and an intron-interrupted uidA gene as a visible marker. Several key steps of the sweet potato transformation system have been investigated and optimized, including the appropriate antibiotics and their concentrations for suppressing Agrobacterium growth and the optimal doses of hygromycin for transformant selection. A total of 485 putative transgenic plant lines were produced from the transformed calli via somatic embryogenesis and germination to plants under 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin and 200 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. PCR, GUS and Southern blot analyses of the regenerated plants showed that 92.35% of them were transgenic. The number of T-DNA insertions varied from one to three in most transgenic plant lines. Plants showed 100% survival when 308 transgenics were transferred to soil in the greenhouse and then to the field. Most of them were morphologically normal, with the production of storage roots after 3 months of cultivation in the greenhouse or fields. The development of such a robust transformation method suitable to a range of sweet potato genotypes not only provides a routine tool for genetic improvement via transgenesis but also allows us to conduct a functional verification of endogenous genes in sweet potato. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of IBA in environmental remediation using skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumbu, K. [Department of Chemistry, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Mars, J.A.; Gihwala, D. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and is of cardinal importance in economic development and poverty alleviation. Furthermore, economies with low levels of industrialisation are gradually shifting dependence from agriculture to the industrial sector, while developed economies, with a high level of industrialisation, are shifting from the industrial to the service sector [1]. Amongst the various industrial sectors, a substantial portion of effluents containing heavy metals are generated by electroplating (nickel, lead, zinc and copper), tanneries (chrome) and other chemical industries. Many engineering processes have been designed to remove the heavy metals from the polluted parts of the ecosystem. These processes are however highly capital intensive. To establish a less costly means of removal of heavy metal pollution, the dried skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were pulverized and used in the absorption of the heavy metals Ni and Pb. After adsorption by the metals, the powders were dried and then pressed into tablets. For quantification of the elemental adsorption, PIXE, using the Geo PIXE computational software, is a versatile multi-element analytical technique, and has minimum detection limits down to concentration ranges as low as 0.1 parts per million [2,3]. To determine the composition of the major elements such as C, O and N, Backscattering Spectrometry, using SimNRA software, [4] was used. In this study we report on the economic viability of using the skins of cocoa and sweet potato in the removal of Ni and Pd from polluted waters. (author)

  4. Digital gene expression analysis based on integrated de novo transcriptome assembly of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam].

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    Xiang Tao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.] ranks among the top six most important food crops in the world. It is widely grown throughout the world with high and stable yield, strong adaptability, rich nutrient content, and multiple uses. However, little is known about the molecular biology of this important non-model organism due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to get a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and better understanding of gene expression patterns in different tissues and at various developmental stages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina paired-end (PE RNA-Sequencing was performed, and generated 48.7 million of 75 bp PE reads. These reads were de novo assembled into 128,052 transcripts (≥ 100 bp, which correspond to 41.1 million base pairs, by using a combined assembly strategy. Transcripts were annotated by Blast2GO and 51,763 transcripts got BLASTX hits, in which 39,677 transcripts have GO terms and 14,117 have ECs that are associated with 147 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, transcriptome differences of seven tissues were analyzed by using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE tag profiling and numerous differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were identified. Moreover, the expression characteristics of genes involved in viral genomes, starch metabolism and potential stress tolerance and insect resistance were also identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combined de novo transcriptome assembly strategy can be applied to other organisms whose reference genomes are not available. The data provided here represent the most comprehensive and integrated genomic resources for cloning and identifying genes of interest in sweet potato. Characterization of sweet potato transcriptome provides an effective tool for better understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular processes including development of leaves and storage roots

  5. Application of IBA in environmental remediation using skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumbu, K.; Mars, J.A.; Gihwala, D.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and is of cardinal importance in economic development and poverty alleviation. Furthermore, economies with low levels of industrialisation are gradually shifting dependence from agriculture to the industrial sector, while developed economies, with a high level of industrialisation, are shifting from the industrial to the service sector [1]. Amongst the various industrial sectors, a substantial portion of effluents containing heavy metals are generated by electroplating (nickel, lead, zinc and copper), tanneries (chrome) and other chemical industries. Many engineering processes have been designed to remove the heavy metals from the polluted parts of the ecosystem. These processes are however highly capital intensive. To establish a less costly means of removal of heavy metal pollution, the dried skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were pulverized and used in the absorption of the heavy metals Ni and Pb. After adsorption by the metals, the powders were dried and then pressed into tablets. For quantification of the elemental adsorption, PIXE, using the Geo PIXE computational software, is a versatile multi-element analytical technique, and has minimum detection limits down to concentration ranges as low as 0.1 parts per million [2,3]. To determine the composition of the major elements such as C, O and N, Backscattering Spectrometry, using SimNRA software, [4] was used. In this study we report on the economic viability of using the skins of cocoa and sweet potato in the removal of Ni and Pd from polluted waters. (author)

  6. Improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses in transgenic sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas expressing spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Fan

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait

  7. POTENSI BAKTERI ENDOFIT AKAR UBI JALAR (IPOMOEA BATATAS L. ASAL KABUPATEN SORONG PAPUA BARAT SEBAGAI AGENSIA BIOKONTROL MELOIDOGYNE SPP.

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    Tuminem .

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Potency of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. root endophytic bacteria from Sorong District West Papua as biocontrol agent of Meloidogyne spp. Root knot nematodes/RKN, Meloidogyne spp. is one of the important pathogens in sweet potato plant. The disease incidence rate by the RKN on sweetpotato crop in Sorong District reached 88.77%. This study aims to get the sweet potato root endophytic bacteria that have potential as biocontrol agents against Meloidogyne spp. Endophytic bacteria was isolated from the roots of healthy sweet potato sampled from Sorong District, West Papua Province. Isolation and selection of bacteria using TSA media. Selected bacterial isolates, which were non-pathogenic to plants and humans then were identified with PCR technique using universal primer 63-F / 1387-R. The ability of bacteria to produce the lipase enzyme was selected using the media NB agar and rhodamine B. The protease enzyme-producing bacteria were selected using skim milk media. The chitinase enzyme-producing bacteria were selected using the colloidal chitin media. Production of cyanide was detected using filter paper soaked in a solution of CDS. The effectiveness of culture filtrate of bacteria as biocontrol agents was measured based on the percentage of 2nd juvenile mortality and egg hatching of Meloidogyne spp. Four isolates of endophytic bacteria, that were Enterobacter sp EAS (1a, Enterobacter sp. EAS (3a Enterobacter ludwigii EAS (4, and Burkholderia cepacia EAS (6 produced lipase and protease. In addition, B. cepacia EAS (6 also produced chitinase. Those isolates caused mortality of the 2nd juvenile 81.4 to 95.2% and inhibited the egg hatching of Meloidogyne spp. 53.13 to 81.92%.

  8. Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas Modulates Radiation-induced Oxidative damage in Liver and kidney of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, M. M.; Farag, M. F. S.; Osman, N. N.

    2010-01-01

    Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas, one of the major vegetable crops consumed worldwide, is rich in phytochemicals, which displayed antioxidant activities. This work aims at assessing the radio-protective properties of sweet potato tubers on liver and kidney tissues. Male albino rats were whole body exposed to 0.5 Gy day after day for a period of 20 days. Animal received orally prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers (100 mg kg/body weight), one week before irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure. The results demonstrated that irradiation of rats induced a significant increase in lipid peroxides level measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concomitant with a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidney tissues. Administration of a freshly prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers to rats, one week pre-irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure has significantly of ameliorated the oxidative stress in both tissues. The significant amelioration in oxidative stress was substantiated by improvement of liver and kidney enzymes Treatment of rats with sweet potato has significantly reduced the increase in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, serum creatinine and urea levels. Furthermore, hyperglycemia and alteration in lipid profile manifested by a significant increase in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), were improved in sweet potato-treated irradiated rats compared to those only irradiated. According to the results obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that sweet potato through its antioxidant activities could protect cellular membrane from radiation induced oxidative damage in animals and preserve the

  9. Influence of diesel contamination in soil on growth and dry matter partitioning of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil was investigated on growth and dry matter partitioning in Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas in greenhouse pot experiment at two concentration range (0-30 ml and 0-6 ml diesel kg(-1) soil) for 14 weeks. The results indicated thatwhole plant biomass, stem length, root length, number of leaves and leaf chlorophyll in two plants were negatively correlated with increasing diesel concentrations. The critical concentration of diesel associated with 10% decrease in plant growth was 0.33 ml for lettuce and 1.50 ml for sweet potato. Thus, growth of lettuce in diesel contaminated soil was more sensitive than sweet potato. The pattern of dry matter partitioning between root and shoot in both plants were similar. In 0-6 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to shoot system was favoured resulting in high shoot: root ratio of 4.54 and 12.91 for lettuce and sweet potato respectively. However, in 0-30 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to root was favoured, which may have been an adaptive mechanism in which the root system was used for storage in addition to increasing the capacity for foraging for mineral nutrients and water. Although lettuce accumulated more metals in its tissue than sweet potato, the tissue mineral nutrients in both species did not vary to great extent. The critical diesel concentration for toxicity suggested that the cause of mortality and poor growth of sweet potato and lettuce grown in diesel contaminated soil was due to presence of hydrocarbons in diesel.

  10. H+ -pyrophosphatase IbVP1 promotes efficient iron use in sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weijuan; Wang, Hongxia; Wu, Yinliang; Yang, Nan; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies limiting crop production globally, especially in arid regions because of decreased availability of iron in alkaline soils. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] grows well in arid regions and is tolerant to Fe deficiency. Here, we report that the transcription of type I H + -pyrophosphatase (H + -PPase) gene IbVP1 in sweet potato plants was strongly induced by Fe deficiency and auxin in hydroponics, improving Fe acquisition via increased rhizosphere acidification and auxin regulation. When overexpressed, transgenic plants show higher pyrophosphate hydrolysis and plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity compared with the wild type, leading to increased rhizosphere acidification. The IbVP1-overexpressing plants showed better growth, including enlarged root systems, under Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient conditions. Increased ferric precipitation and ferric chelate reductase activity in the roots of transgenic lines indicate improved iron uptake, which is also confirmed by increased Fe content and up-regulation of Fe uptake genes, e.g. FRO2, IRT1 and FIT. Carbohydrate metabolism is significantly affected in the transgenic lines, showing increased sugar and starch content associated with the increased expression of AGPase and SUT1 genes and the decrease in β-amylase gene expression. Improved antioxidant capacities were also detected in the transgenic plants, which showed reduced H 2 O 2 accumulation associated with up-regulated ROS-scavenging activity. Therefore, H + -PPase plays a key role in the response to Fe deficiency by sweet potato and effectively improves the Fe acquisition by overexpressing IbVP1 in crops cultivated in micronutrient-deficient soils. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Construction of a genetic map using EST-SSR markers and QTL analysis of major agronomic characters in hexaploid sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Chung, Il Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2017-01-01

    The Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, is difficult to study in genetics and genomics because it is a hexaploid. The sweet potato study not have been performed domestically or internationally. In this study was performed to construct genetic map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A total of 245 EST-SSR markers were developed, and the map was constructed by using 210 of those markers. The total map length was 1508.1 cM, and the mean distance between markers was 7.2 cM. Fifteen characteristics were investigated for QTLs analysis. According to those, the Four QTLs were identified, and The LOD score was 3.0. Further studies need to develop molecular markers in terms of EST-SSR markers for doing to be capable of efficient breeding. The genetic map created here using EST-SSR markers will facilitate planned breeding of sweet potato cultivars with various desirable traits.

  12. Caracterización postcosecha y composición química de la batata (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lamb. variedad Topera.

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    Auris Damely García-Méndez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la composición química y calidad postcosecha de la batata variedad Topera proveniente de una producción semi-mecanizada con buenas prácticas agrícolas (BPA. El estudio se realizó en el Laboratorio de Procesamiento Primario de Productos Agrícolas y Bioquímica de Alimentos de la Facultad de Agronomía (FAGRO de la Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV durante el año 2014. La metodología permitió determinar algunas características físicas, texturales y composición química por los métodos de AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Se obtuvieron batatas con un menor coeficiente de variabilidad en el peso (CV: 20,12%, forma (CV: 5,63% y tamaño (CV: 12,80%. Esta respuesta permitió establecer tres categorías de calidad con una baja incidencia de defectos (2,15% y daños físico-mecánicos (30,25%, esta última asociada a la alta resistencia del material (6,25+0,05 kgf/mm. Las batatas presentaron contenidos de azúcares reductores de 9,88%, fibra de 6,19% y proteína de 4,13%; estas características nutricionales sugieren su uso como suplemento alimenticio. La producción semi-mecanizada con la implementación de las técnicas de las BPA, permitió obtener batatas con características de importancia para la agroindustria procesadora de alimentos IV Gama y, a nivel del consumidor, con una calidad física homogénea.

  13. Ipomoea batatas (L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La patate douce est une culture négligée alors que sa contribution dans la sécurité alimentaire est importante au Bénin. Ce travail a permis ... l'alimentation animale (Owori et al., 2007). Dans l'industrie, les tubercules servent à la ... douce et la valorisation des tubercules par la fabrication de farines infantiles ont été ...

  14. ipomoea batatas (l

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    containing ... varieties vary depending on the soil type, soil pH and the type of minerals in the soil. The value of ... Countries such as USA, Canada, Australia, South. Africa and ..... Sugar Estate, located in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. According to ...

  15. ipomoea batatas (l

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    ISSN: 0379–2897. CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNGAL EXTRACTS FROM TRICHODERMA ISOLATES: .... agents include mycoparasitism, antibiosis, com- petition, lytic enzyme ..... isolates formed coiled structures around the hyphae of the test ...

  16. Produção da batata-doce adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante Yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. fertilized with cattle manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produção da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante, conduziu-se um experimento no período de Janeiro a Junho de 2004, em NEOSSOLO REGOLÍTICO, psamítico típico, na Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia-PB. O delineamento experimental empregado foi de blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições com os tratamentos distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 t ha-1 e ausência e presença de biofertilizante. As parcelas foram constituídas por 80 plantas, espaçadas de 80 x 30 cm. O número de raízes comerciais por planta atingiu valores máximos estimados de 2,0 e 1,7 raízes, respectivamente, nas doses de 26 e 25 t ha-1 de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. O peso médio de raízes comerciais da batata-doce aumentou com elevação das doses de esterco bovino, atingindo na maior dose 360 e 224 g na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. As doses de 25,6 e 24,4 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pela máxima produção total de raízes de 21,4 e 21,2 t ha-1, respectivamente, na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. As máximas produções de raízes comerciais, 15,2 e 12,9 t ha-1 foram alcançadas com 25,5 e 21,3 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, na presença e ausência de biofertilizante, respectivamente.Aiming to evaluate the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. yield fertilization with bovine manure and biofertilizer, an experiment was carried out from January to July, 2004, on ustipsamment soil, at Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia-PB. The Experimental outline used was randomized blocks, with four replications and, treatments distributed in factorial arrangement 6 x 2, being six levels of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 t ha-1 and absence and presence of biofertilizer. Plots were constituted by 80 plants, spaced 80 x 30 cm. Commercial roots number per plant reached

  17. Ocorrência da broca do coleto (Megastes spp. no banco de germoplasma de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam do SMGP-CECA/UFAL

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    Jair Tenório Cavalcante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência da Broca do Coleto (Megastes spp. no banco de germoplasma de batata doce (Ipomea batatas (L.Lam.  do Setor de Melhoramento Genético de Plantas do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Alagoas (SMPG/CECA/UFAL, no município de Rio Largo – AL, no ano de 2011. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 14 tratamentos, em duas épocas de plantio (estação chuvosa e estação seca e com cinco avaliações (aos 30, 45, 60, 75 e 90 dias após o plantio - DAP. Os genótipos avaliados foram: 12 clones obtidos pelo SMGP e duas variedades: Sergipana e Rainha de Penedo. As avaliações foram realizadas após o trigésimo dia do plantio através de escala de notas segundo a metodologia idealizada por Azevedo et. al., (1996. Os resultados permitiram concluir que há um ataque mais intenso da broca durante a época estação seca, a maior ocorrência aos 90 dias após o plantio, certamente não causará redução significativa na produção de raízes tuberosas, pois nesta fase a cultura praticamente já se encontra em condições de colheita. Os clones 2, 4, 6 e 14 e as variedades Sergipana e Rainha de Penedo, são de grande valia para o programa de melhoramento genético da cultura da batata-doce. 

  18. Etude comparative de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe de guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée aux feuilles et tiges de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (régime Panipo) ou à l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (régime Paneuph) chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) et le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kouakou, NGDV.; Kouba, M.; Thys, E.

    2016-01-01

    Digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (Panipo diet) or poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (Paneuph diet) in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) and in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.). A comparative study of in vivo digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (Panipo diet) or with poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L.)...

  19. Bioethanol production from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. flour using co-culture of Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Swain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the optimiation of co-culturing of Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1:4 ratio on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. flour (SPF for the production of bio-ethanol in solid-state fermentation (SSF. Maximum ethanol (172 g/kg substrate was produced in a medium containing 80% moisture, ammonium sulphate 0.2%, pH 5.0, inoculuted with 10% inoculum size and fermented at 30ºC for 72h. .Concomitant with highest ethanol concentration, maximum ethanol productivity (2.8 g/kg substrate/h, microbial biomass (23×10(8 CFU/ g substrate, ethanol yield (47 g/100g sugar consumed and fermentation efficiency (72% were also obtained under these conditions. Cell interaction was observed familiar between the viable cells of Trichoderma sp. and S. cerevisiae when co-cultured. Ethanol production ability by the co-culture was 65 % higher than the single culture of S. cerevisiae from un-saccharified SPF.

  20. The effect of partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with graded levels of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf meal on growth performances and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, Aberra; Alemu, Temesgen; Banerjee, Sandip; Berihun, Kefyalew

    2016-06-30

    This study was designed to assess the effects of partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performances and carcass components of broiler chickens. The experiment was a completely randomized design consisting of five dietary treatments replicated four times with ten chicks each. The control diet (treatment 1, T1) contained roasted soybean seed as the major protein source without SPLM and treatment diets containing SPLM at the levels of 30 g/kg (treatment 2, T2), 60 g/kg (treatment 3, T3), 90 g/kg (treatment 4, T4) and 120 g/kg (treatment 5, T5) by partially substituting the roasted soybean seed in the control diet. The results indicated that the body weight gain in chickens reared in T1 was (pchickens reared in T1 was (pchickens fed on T1 was (pChickens fed with T2 diet had numerically higher values of slaughter, dressed carcass and breast than those reared in T4 and T5 diets. It can be concluded that the partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with sweet potato leaf might be economically feasible feeding strategy of broiler chickens in smallholder poultry farm settings.

  1. IPOMOEA BATATAS SYRUP DECREASE MALONDIALDEHYDE AND INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE PLASMA LEVELS AMONGST MODERATE SMOKER WORKERS AT DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Ayu Intan Dwi-Primayanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cells and tissues are continuously damaged by reactive oxygen species. Cigarette smoke is one of an exogenous source of free radical containing more than 4000 chemical compounds, that triggering the formation of free radicals related to diseases and aging process. Anthocyanins are potent antioxidants that are widely distributed in fruit, vegetables, red wines and Ipomea batatas. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ipomea batatas as a source of antioxidants in decreasing levels of alondialdehyde (MDA and increasing of Nitrous oxide (nitrite/nitrate/NOxplasma in moderate smokers of workers at Denpasar.Method: This was an experimental study with a pretest-posttest control groups design. There are 33 moderate smokers who were divided into three groups, control group (placebo, treatment group with 15 ml purple sweet potato syrup (P1 and 30 ml (P2, for 14 days. All groups were performed the laboratory examinations for MDA and NOx plasma before and after the treatment.Results: This study showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05 both in MDA and NOx plasma levels in the control group, P1 and P2. The decrease of MDAlevels on P1 was 35.39% and on P2 was 49.87%. The increase of NOx plasma levels was 7.78% for P1 and 14.68% for P2.Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that Ipomea batatas syrup contains of 8mg/mL anthocyanins, probably play a role in reducing the free radical and thus reducingthe risk of disease and slowing the aging process.

  2. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoids total of ethanolic extract of Ipomoea batata L. leaves (white, yellow, orange, and purple)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewijanti, Indah Dwiatmi; Banjarnahor, Sofna D.; Triyuliani, Maryani, Faiza; Meilawati, Lia

    2017-11-01

    Antioxidant activity, phenolic and total flavonoids from sweet potato ethanol extract (Ipomea batatas L.) of different varieties (white, yellow, orange and purple) were studied. Sweet potatoes were collected from Research Centre for Chemistry. Sweet potato leaves have been used for numerous oxidative-associated diseases such as cancer, allergy, aging, HIV and cardiovascular. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to investigate antioxidant activity in leaves, in which the yellow and purple varieties showed the highest and the lowest scavenging activities of 47.65 µg/ ml (IC50) and 87.402 µg/ ml (IC50), respectively. In this study, the yellow leaves showed the highest concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoids contents at 11.293 µg/g and 44.963 µg/g, respectively. Therefore, sweet potato leaves can be used as a prospective natural antioxidant.

  3. Development and identification of SSR markers associated with starch properties and β-carotene content in the storage root of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1,824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1,476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1,278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato.

  4. Bocadito con alto contenido proteico: un extruido a partir de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet y camote (Ipomoea batatas L.

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    Katherine Pérez Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo la elaboración de un bocadito extruido de elevado tenor proteico, a partir de quinua ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd., tarwi ( Lupinus mutabilis Sweet y fécula de camote ( Ipomoea batatas L.. Para su formulación se aplicó el método de diseño de mezclas usando la herramienta computacional - estadíst ica Design Expert® versión 7.0, siendo las variables independientes las harinas de quinua, tarwi y fécula de camote; y las variables dependientes el contenido de proteína, índice de expansión, densidad aparente y dureza de los extruidos. La formulación ópt ima se determinó aplicando la prueba de deseabilidad basada en los modelos de regresión ajustado, dicha formulación se obtuvo maximizando el contenido de proteína e índice de expansión; y minimizando la dureza y densidad aparente de los extruidos. La formu lación óptima tuvo un porcentaje de quinua, tarwi y fécula de camote de 57%, 26% y 17 % respectivamente. El análisis fisicoquímico de la fórmula óptima dio como resultado 20,16% de proteína, 2,19 de índice de expansión, 0,220 g/cm 3 densidad aparente y 9,31 N de dureza. La calidad proteica de la formulación óptima fue determinada mediante los ensayos de digestibilidad verdadera y valor biológico verdadero en ratas, obteniéndose 83,5% y 62,9% respectivamente.

  5. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato.

  6. Agronomic performance of locally adapted sweet potato (Ipomoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ELISA established that field plants had a higher virus titre compared to the tissue culture regenerated plants. Key words: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), tissue culture, ..... Commercial Vegetable Production Guides (CVPG) (2003). Sweet.

  7. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  8. Involvement of an ABI-like protein and a Ca2+-ATPase in drought tolerance as revealed by transcript profiling of a sweetpotato somatic hybrid and its parents Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. and I. triloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yufeng; Wang, Yannan; Jia, Licong; Yang, Guohong; Xu, Xinzhi; Zhai, Hong; He, Shaozhen; Li, Junxia; Dai, Xiaodong; Qin, Na; Zhu, Cancan; Liu, Qingchang

    2018-01-01

    Previously, we obtained the sweetpotato somatic hybrid KT1 from a cross between sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Kokei No. 14 and its drought-tolerant wild relative I. triloba L. KT1 not only inherited the thick storage root characteristic of Kokei No. 14 but also the drought-tolerance trait of I. triloba L. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism of the drought tolerance of KT1. Four-week-old in vitro-grown plants of KT1, Kokei No. 14, and I. triloba L. were subjected to a simulated drought stress treatment (30% PEG6000) for 0, 6, 12 and 24 h. Total RNA was extracted from samples at each time point, and then used for transcriptome sequencing. The gene transcript profiles of KT1 and its parents were compared to identify differentially expressed genes, and drought-related modules were screened by a weighted gene co-expression network analysis. The functions of ABI-like protein and Ca2+-ATPase, two proteins screened from the cyan and light yellow modules, were analyzed in terms of their potential roles in drought tolerance in KT1 and its parents. These analyses of the drought responses of KT1 and its somatic donors at the transcriptional level provide new annotations for the molecular mechanism of drought tolerance in the somatic hybrid KT1 and its parents.

  9. Utilization effect of cassava (Manihot esculenta and potatoe (Ipomoea batatas on pigmentation, carotenoids pull on egg yolk and performance yield hens Influencia de harinas de yuca y de batata sobre pigmentación, contenido de carotenoides en la yema y desempeño productivo de aves en postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos L Hernán

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Utilization effect of cassava (Manihot esculenta and potatoe (Ipomoea batatas on pigmentation, carotenoids pull on egg yolk and performance yield hens. Eight diets (T1:without pigment, T2: commercial pigment, T3: cassava meal 15%, T4: cassava meal 30%, T5: sweet potato meal 15%, T6: sweet potato meal 30%, T7: cassava and sweet potato meal 15% each, T8: cassava and sweet potato meal 25% each in a randomized design using four replicates of three hens each during seven experimental periods were evaluated. Diets were iso-energetics (2.9 kcal/g and iso-proteis (14.5% CP. Carotenoid concentrations (UV-visible chromatography had differences (P<0.01 among diets. Pigmentation (Fan Roche and carotenoid concentration in egg yoks to come from cassava and sweet potato diets did not show differences (P>0.05 A comparison with egg yolk to come from test diets significant differences (P<0.01 were detected. Diet with commercial pigment showed the highest pigmentation and carotenoid concentration in egg yolk. The other hand, there saw not differences (P>0.05. A comparison with egg yolk to come from test diets significant differences (P<0.01 were detected. Diet with commercial pigment showed the highest pigmentation and carotenoid concentration in egg yolk. The other hand, there saw not differences (P>0.05 between egg yolk to come from diet without pigment and cassava and sweet potato diets. Lutein, -carotene, -carotene, and 9-cis-- carotene were the

  10. Influência da adição da fécula de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas L. sobre a viscosidade do permeado de soro de queijo Influence of sweet potato starch at permeate whey viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Leite Pinto de Andrade

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A viscosidade é um parâmetro importante na aceitabilidade de bebidas lácteas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal fornecer dados relativos ao comportamento da viscosidade uma base de permeado de soro de queijo adicionada de fécula de batata-doce, dados que poderão ser utilizados na elaboração de uma nova bebida láctea. A fécula de batata-doce utilizada apresentou um grau de gelatinização de 72,64%, umidade média de 7,88% e a seguinte composição centesimal média em base seca: 82,59% de amido, 9,33% de fibras dietéticas totais, 4,90% de proteínas, 2,08% de cinzas e 1,11% de lipídios. O permeado de soro foi adicionado a três diferentes concentrações de fécula e submetido a diferentes tratamentos térmicos. A viscosidade mais adequada, em função dos dados obtidos junto aos produtos comerciais, estaria no intervalo de 45mPa.s a 70mPa.s. Assim sendo, a porcentagem de 6% de fécula de batata-doce e um tratamento térmico de 90ºC por cerca de 5 minutos mostrou-se ser o mais adequado. O fluido obtido apresentou um comportamento pseudoplástico.Viscosity is an important parameter of milky drinks acceptability. This work supply data of the viscosity properties of permeate whey plus sweet potato starch basis; these data will may be used at development of a new milky beverage. The used sweet potato starch presented 72.64% of gelatinization, 7.88% of humidity and the following dry composition: 82.59% starch, 9.33% total dietary fibres, 4.90% proteins, 2.08% ashes and 1.10% lipids. The permeate whey had mixed at three different percentages of potato starch and had submitted at various thermal treatments. The most appropriate viscosity, in accord of commercial products, it would be in the interval of 45mPa.s to 70mPa.s. Therefore, the percentage of 6% of sweet potato starch and a thermal treatment of 90ºC for about 5 minutes it was shown to be the most appropriate. The fluid presented a pseudoplastic properties.

  11. Suppression of the invasive plant mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha) by local crop sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) by means of higher growth rate and competition for soil nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shicai; Xu, Gaofeng; Clements, David Roy; Jin, Guimei; Chen, Aidong; Zhang, Fudou; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2015-01-28

    There are a variety of ways of increasing crop diversity to increase agricultural sustainability and in turn having a positive influence on nearby natural ecosystems. Competitive crops may provide potent management tools against invasive plants. To elucidate the competitive mechanisms between a sweet potato crop (Ipomoea batatas) and an invasive plant, mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha), field experiments were carried out in Longchuan County of Yunnan Province, Southwest China, utilizing a de Wit replacement series. The trial incorporated seven ratios of sweet potato and mile-a-minute plants in 25 m(2) plots. In monoculture, the total biomass, biomass of adventitious root, leafstalk length, and leaf area of sweet potato were all higher than those of mile-a-minute, and in mixed culture the plant height, branch, leaf, stem node, adventitious root, flowering and biomass of mile-a-minute were suppressed significantly (P competition was less than interspecific competition. The competitive balance index of sweet potato demonstrated a higher competitive ability than mile-a-minute. Except pH, other soil nutrient contents of initial soil (CK) were significantly higher than those of seven treatments. The concentrations of soil organic matter, total N, total K, available N, available P, available K, exchange Ca, exchange Mg, available Mn, and available B were significantly greater (P competition of sweet potato in the mixture. Evidently sweet potato has a competitive advantage in terms of plant growth characteristics and greater absorption of soil nutrients. Thus, planting sweet potato is a promising technique for reducing infestations of mile-a-minute, providing weed management benefits and economic returns from harvest of sweet potatoes. This study also shows the potential value of replacement control methods which may apply to other crop-weed systems or invaded natural ecosystems.

  12. Caracterização química e informação nutricional de fécula de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas L. orgânica e biofortificada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila de Oliveira do Nascimento

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE O consumo de alimentos de alta qualidade nutricional é uma das melhores estratégias para combater as carências nutricionais, como a hipovitaminose A. Essas carências afetam numerosos grupos populacionais, fato que demanda pesquisas para elucidação da composição química de vegetais de baixo custo, cuja produção seja sustentável, para contribuir com o tratamento de indivíduos acometidos por essas desordens nutricionais. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a composição química e a informação nutricional de fécula de batata-doce orgânica e biofortificada. Em cada 100 gramas de amostra úmida foram encontrados 7,05 g de água, 2,8 g de cinzas, 5,4 g de proteínas, 0,6 g de lipídeos, 65,1 g de carboidratos e 18,8 g de fibras. O rendimento do processo de obtenção da fécula foi de 13,8% em massa. O teor de carotenoides totais também foi expressivo, igual a 18 x103 µg/100 g. O consumo de uma porção de 20 g da fécula foi suficiente para fornecer 54 Kcal e satisfazer a 100% das necessidades diárias de vitamina A de um homem adulto. Considerando os resultados encontrados, é possível afirmar que a fécula apresentou um elevado potencial de utilização na biofortificação de alimentos da merenda escolar, contribuindo, dessa forma, com o fortalecimento da agricultura familiar orgânica.

  13. Potencial productivo de esquejes de boniato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. procedentes de una nueva tecnología de producción de semilla agámica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Díaz Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El trabajo se realizó en el Instituto de Investigaciones en Viandas Tropicales durante el periodo de septiembre del 2008 a abril 2009, con los objetivos de determinar la cantidad de esquejes que proporciona el vivero y la frecuencia de corte, así como comparar el potencial productivo de cada corte. El Experimento consistió en el montaje de cámaras de aproximadamente 1m de ancho y 15m de largo, se utilizaron raíces tuberosas del clon comercial INIVIT B2-2005 como material de plantación. Se comprobó que durante la fase del vivero este proporcionó un total de nueve cortes tanto en la época frío como en primavera con un total de 764 y 1390 esquejes respectivamente. Después de cortados los esquejes fueron llevados al campo donde se realizó un estudio para determinar los rendimientos correspondientes a cada tratamiento (número de cortes. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatros réplicas. Los resultados mostraron que en pequeñas áreas de viveros se puede obtener un número significativo de esquejes y de muy buena calidad productiva además de que los esquejes procedentes de diferentes momentos de cortes presentan igual comportamiento en cuanto al rendimiento. Productive potential of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam cuttings from a new technology for agamic seed production. ABSTRACT The work was conducted at the Research Institute of Tropical Root and Tuber Crops from September 2008 to April 2009 with the objectives of determining the amount of cuts provided by the nursery and cut frequency, as well as, to compare the productive potential of each cut. The experiment consisted of mounting chambers about 1m wide and 15m long. Tuberous roots from the commercial clone INIVIT B2-2005 were used as planting seeds. During the nursery stage, nine cuts were provided in the winter and rainy seasons with a total of 764 and 1390 cuttings respectively. Cuttings were transferred to field conditions to determine corresponding

  14. Composición mineral y comparación de raíces reservantes de variedades de batatas (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. cultivadas en la isla de La Palma, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Isabel Montes Hernández

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los minerales Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn y Mn fueron determinados, mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, en raíces de 15 variedades de batatas cultivadas en La Palma (De papa o maní, Parado, Cubana, Cubana de baselo gordo, Cubana de hoja redonda, Blanquita, Saucero o Lanzarotero, Pata de Gallo, Padrón de Seda, Alicantina, Amarillo de Año, De Lanzarote, Matojo, Matojo Fino y Rajada; las 5 primeras de cultivo corto y las 10 restantes de cultivo largo. Se realizó análisis de varianza y prueba de rango múltiple de Duncan a los datos de las variables estudiadas. Se calcularon los coeficientes de correlación de Pearson (r para establecer grados de relación de los minerales entre las variedades; prueba de t de Student para comparar clasificando a las muestras según ciclo de recolección (Temprana y Tardía; análisis factorial para interpretar las relaciones existentes a través factores y análisis discriminantes (de paso a paso con criterio de selección la lambda de Wilks (λ e introduciendo todas las variables validados a través de análisis de validación cruzada. El elemento mineral (en mg/kg presente en mayor concentración en la totalidad de las muestras fue K (2086 ± 418, seguido de Ca (974 ± 486 y Mg (244 ± 70, siendo el Zn el menos presente (1,12 ± 0,61. Las variedades con mayor contenido mineral fueron Alicantina (Ca: 1809 ± 327 y Cu: 2,97 ± 0,23 y Padrón de Seda (Mg: 435 ± 46 y Mn: 3,08 ± 0,49 y la de menor aporte fue Parado (Cu, Mn, Ca, K y Mg. Las variedades Tardías presentaron mayores concentraciones de Cu, Fe, Mn, Ca, K, Mg y menores de Zn y Na en relación a las variedades Tempranas (p < 0,05. Se evidenció que las concentraciones de Cu, Zn y Na presentaron alto número de correlaciones significativas. El análisis factorial permitió deducir que Mg, K y Fe son las variables que permiten caracterizar el sistema perdiendo un mínimo de información total. El porcentaje de casos originales

  15. Composición mineral y comparación de raíces reservantes de variedades de batatas (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. cultivadas en la isla de La Palma, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Isabel Montes Hernández

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los minerales Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn y Mn fueron determinados, mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, en raíces de 15 variedades de batatas cultivadas en La Palma (De papa o maní, Parado, Cubana, Cubana de baselo gordo, Cubana de hoja redonda, Blanquita, Saucero o Lanzarotero, Pata de Gallo, Padrón de Seda, Alicantina, Amarillo de Año, De Lanzarote, Matojo, Matojo Fino y Rajada; las 5 primeras de cultivo corto y las 10 restantes de cultivo largo. Se realizó análisis de varianza y prueba de rango múltiple de Duncan a los datos de las variables estudiadas. Se calcularon los coeficientes de correlación de Pearson (r para establecer grados de relación de los minerales entre las variedades; prueba de t de Student para comparar clasificando a las muestras según ciclo de recolección (Temprana y Tardía; análisis factorial para interpretar las relaciones existentes a través factores y análisis discriminantes (de paso a paso con criterio de selección la lambda de Wilks (λ e introduciendo todas las variables validados a través de análisis de validación cruzada. El elemento mineral (en mg/kg presente en mayor concentración en la totalidad de las muestras fue K (2086 ± 418, seguido de Ca (974 ± 486 y Mg (244 ± 70, siendo el Zn el menos presente (1,12 ± 0,61. Las variedades con mayor contenido mineral fueron Alicantina (Ca: 1809 ± 327 y Cu: 2,97 ± 0,23 y Padrón de Seda (Mg: 435 ± 46 y Mn: 3,08 ± 0,49 y la de menor aporte fue Parado (Cu, Mn, Ca, K y Mg. Las variedades Tardías presentaron mayores concentraciones de Cu, Fe, Mn, Ca, K, Mg y menores de Zn y Na en relación a las variedades Tempranas (p < 0,05. Se evidenció que las concentraciones de Cu, Zn y Na presentaron alto número de correlaciones significativas. El análisis factorial permitió deducir que Mg, K y Fe son las variables que permiten caracterizar el sistema perdiendo un mínimo de información total. El porcentaje de casos originales

  16. Characterisation and performance evaluation of twenty accessions of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) in the coastal savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sossah, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the genetic diversity, using morphological and protein markers, as well as incidence of viral diseases among 20 accessions of sweet potato. Morphological analysis was carried out using 47 traits while protein analysis was performed with sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Sample plants collected from the field were tested for viruses using nitrocellulose membrane enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (NCM-ELISA) and PCR for a DNA virus (Sweet potato Leaf curl virus). Scions from symptomatic plants were grafted onto Ipomoea setosa, a nearly universal indicator plant for sweet potato viruses, and leaves were tested using NCM-ELISA. From the cluster analysis, the accessions were grouped into two clusters at a genetic similarity index of 61.6%. The accessions ER001 and HMA2 were shown to be possible duplicates. Accession US 020 recorded the highest total root yield and harvest index of 56.32 t/ha and 57.11% respectively. Similarly, two pairs of accession SA/BNARI and UE 007 as well as HMA I and US 029 were identified as duplicates based on their protein banding patterns. While, three entries, LOCAL I, US 004 and UK/BNARI were also identified as a single entity based on their banding patterns for leaf and tuber proteins. Symptoms observed in the field varied from vein clearing, chlorosis, leaf reduction to stunting and the highest index of symptom severity for only diseased plants (ISSdp) was 3.63 recorded for US 029. The highest disease incidence (100%) was recorded at 11 WAP and 12 WAP. NCM-ELISA test detected eight viruses out of ten, with SA/BNARI exhibiting all the eight viruses. Mixed infections ranged from duplet to octaplet. The indicator plant I. setosa grafted with scions from sweet potato showed clear symptoms similar to those observed on the field. PCR test using SPG3/SPG4 primers detected SPLCV in the UK/BNARI accessions. Based on the morphological characters as well as response to virus infection, two

  17. Genetic Diversity of Local and Introduced Sweet Potato [Ipomoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore conducted to estimate the genetic diversity of 114 Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] accessions obtained from Nigeria, Asia, Latin America and Local collections along with two improved varieties. Accessions were planted in 2012/13 cropping season at Haramaya University, eastern Ethiopia ...

  18. Etude comparative de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe de guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq. associée aux feuilles et tiges de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (régime Panipo ou à l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (régime Paneuph chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. et le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouakou, NGDV.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (Panipo diet or poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Paneuph diet in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. and in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. A comparative study of in vivo digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (Panipo diet or with poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Paneuph diet was conducted involving 16 rabbits and 16 weaned guinea pigs fed ad libitum. Paneuph was significantly better ingested (P0.05 for guinea pigs. Poison milk was better ingested than the leaves and stems of sweet potato (P0.05. The ADC of DM, OM and MAT of Paneuph exceeded 80% and were higher than those of Panipo in rabbits and guinea pigs (P<0.05. Based on the results obtained, the effects of the distribution of the Guinea grass associated with the poison milk during rabbits growing have to be further studied before recommending this new diet to farmers in areas where poison milk and Guinea grass are present and rabbit breeding enough developed.

  19. Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Yamaguchi, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Among the available transformation methods reported on sweet potato, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is more successful and desirable. Stem explants have shown to be ideal for the transformation of sweet potato because of their ready availability as explants, the simple transformation process, and high-frequency-regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. Under the two-step kanamycin-hygromycin selection method and using the appropriate explants type (stem explants), the efficiency of transformation can be considerably improved in cv. Beniazuma. The high efficiency in the transformation of stem explants suggests that the transformation protocol described in this chapter warrants testing for routine stable transformation of diverse varieties of sweet potato.

  20. Produção da batata-doce adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Ademar Pereira de; Barbosa,Arthur Hennys Diniz; Cavalcante,Lourival Ferreira; Pereira,Walter Esfraim; Oliveira,Arnaldo Nonato Pereira de

    2007-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a produção da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante, conduziu-se um experimento no período de Janeiro a Junho de 2004, em NEOSSOLO REGOLÍTICO, psamítico típico, na Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia-PB. O delineamento experimental empregado foi de blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições com os tratamentos distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 t ha-1) e ausê...

  1. Embryogenesis in sweet potato, Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnino, A.; Mini, P.

    1997-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) ranks sixth among the cultivated crops of the world. In fact, it represents a major staple food in many tropical countries. Recently this crop has been proposed as a source of starch for industrial utilization. Somatic embryogenesis could prove useful as an alternative to traditional propagation by cuttings, which is labour intensive and can transmit diseases. Somatic embryos are reported to originate from single cells, so that, if regenerated from mutagenized tissues, should give rise to solid mutants. 2 refs

  2. Embryogenesis in sweet potato, Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnino, A; Mini, P [ENEA - Technological Innovation Dept., Sector of Biotechnology and Agriculture, Trisaia Research Center, Policoro (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) ranks sixth among the cultivated crops of the world. In fact, it represents a major staple food in many tropical countries. Recently this crop has been proposed as a source of starch for industrial utilization. Somatic embryogenesis could prove useful as an alternative to traditional propagation by cuttings, which is labour intensive and can transmit diseases. Somatic embryos are reported to originate from single cells, so that, if regenerated from mutagenized tissues, should give rise to solid mutants. 2 refs.

  3. Diversity analysis of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... for genetic diversity assessment on sweet potato germplasm (Jarret et al., 1992; ..... method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) algorithm of. DARwin5.0.158 ..... McKnight Foundation for the additional support. REFERENCES.

  4. (Ipomoea batatas L.) AS INFLUENCED BY PROPAGULE LENGTH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: economic analysis, growth variables, organic fertilizer, tuber yield. INTRODUCTION ..... ns - not significant at 5% level of probability. Table 3: Vine girth (cm) of sweet ..... production couple with longer vines. The significant increase ...

  5. Possibilities of sweet potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] value chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is one of the most important food security promoted root crops in the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Unfortunately, the crop is still neglected and underutilized in Benin Republic. To establish baseline data for its better utilization for upgrading its value chain, 10 selected local varieties (01 cream, ...

  6. Genetic Fingerprinting of Sweet Potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important staple crop and many varieties have been released into farmers' fields in Nigeria, but no reliable means in tracking their identity, thus causing multiple naming of these varieties among farmers. The objective of the study is to establish objectively and reliable means of identifying released, local ...

  7. Genetic Fingerprinting of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Sweet potato is an important staple crop and many varieties have been released into farmers' fields in Nigeria, ..... Tib 4 is distinct and did not form cluster while ... V. P HP P P W. Tis 2154. 5. DG DG V V. V. 1 NL. V. NP NP P P W. Tib 11. 6. P. P.

  8. Aqueous Extract of Ipomoea batatas Reduces Food Intake in Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have examined the effects on satiety, that is, how fixed amounts of carbohydrate or ... can reduce food intake: High-fiber foods take longer to eat; fiber decreases ... oxidative stress and to prevent the development of chronic diseases (such as ...

  9. [ipomoea batatas (l.) lam] by meristem culture and thermotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    infection, Hawassa Agricultural Research Centre ... personal communication). ... Production of disease-free planting material by ... into sterile Magenta boxes for multiplication and ... added to MS medium (E) and multiple shoot growth of Awassa-83 in 2 mg/l BAP added to MS ..... Africa. DFID crop protection program, a paper.

  10. Genetic Fingerprinting of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    at a space of 1m x 1m in a randomized complete block design in two replications. High genetic diversity was observed among the sweet potato genotypes examined. The morphological data revealed three distinctive clusters. In cluster I, purple vine, green petiole and light pink storage root colour were the dominant traits.

  11. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Abonyi

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... the cost of production of sheep, cattle and poultry which has implored .... Weende method, while calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents .... chemical compositions of cassava hay and its supplementation on lactating dairy ...

  12. Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... oxide (NO) levels were measured using Griess assay. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) ... IBE also scavenged DPPH radicals in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05 at 10 μg/ml ... filtered and lyophilized to obtain ethanol extract concentrate. ... temperature, 298 °K. Cell culture ...

  13. The improvement of functional food in yogurt enriched with purple sweet potato (Ipomea batatas var. Ayamurasaki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Afiati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available he research was conducted to examine the use of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas var. Ayamurasaki to improve functional food of yogurt. This experiment has 2 factors of treatments. The first factor (i was concentration of skim milk, i.e. 0%, 3% and 6%; the second factor (ii was concentration of purple sweet potato, i.e. 0%, 2% and 4% of purple sweet potato. The parameters observed were viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, pH, moisture content, protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash and crude fiber and organoleptic. The results showed that there was no interaction between the concentration of skim-milk and the purple sweet potato on total LAB, moisture content and crude fiber. However, the interaction occurred on the levels of fat, protein, carbohydrate and ash. The organoleptic test results that yogurt enriched by 2% purple sweet potato without addition of skim was more preferable by panelist with a value of 3.65.

  14. Efeito dos parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades funcionais de extrusados da farinha de batata-doce

    OpenAIRE

    Borba,Alexandra M.; Sarmento,Silene B. S.; Leonel,Magali

    2005-01-01

    Farinha de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas) foi extrusada em equipamento de rosca simples, mantendo-se fixas as temperaturas na 1ª e 2ª zonas de extrusão (20ºC e 60ºC, respectivamente). O efeito das variáveis umidade da farinha (15, 18 e 21%), temperatura na 3ª zona (100, 120 e 140ºC) e rotação da rosca (180, 210 e 240 rpm) sobre as características dos extrusados foi investigado utilizando-se metodologia de superfície de resposta. O teor de umidade e a temperatura de extrusão influenciaram signi...

  15. in vitro production of virus free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l

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    ABSTRACT: Epiphytic recruitment of trees on trees is a form of facilitation allowing trees to escape herbivory and abiotic stress. In terms of survival and reaching the upper canopy sooner, this form of recruitment may be more successful than recruitment from the ground. Hence epiphytic recruitment may play a major role in ...

  17. Pengaruh Macam dan Waktu Aplikasi Bahan Organik pada Tanaman Ubi Jalar (Ipomoea batatas L. Var. Kawi

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    Nur Edy Suminarti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diversifikasi pangan merupakan langkah tepat untuk mengantisipasi kondisi rawan pangan.  Hal ini menjadi penting karena setiap tahun luas lahan basah telah mengalami penyusutan sekitar 0,1% dari total luas lahan di Indonesia. Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut, dan dalam upaya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pangan nasional, maka pemanfaatan ubi jalar sebagai sumber bahan pangan alternatif perlu dilakukan. Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang macam dan waktu aplikasi bahan organik yang tepat telah dilakukan di Desa Landungsari, Kabupaten Malang. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Petak Terpisah, macam bahan organik ditempatkan pada petak utama, terdiri dari 3 macam, yaitu  pupuk kandang sapi, kompos azolla dan kompos sampah kota.  Waktu aplikasi bahan organik sebagai anak petak, terdiri dari 3 macam, yaitu : 30 hari sebelum tanam, 15 hari sebelum tanam dan bersamaan tanam. Pengumpulan data dilakukan secara destruktif, meliputi  komponen pertumbuhan dan panen, analisis pertumbuhan tanaman dan analisis tanah. Uji F taraf 5% ditujukan untuk menguji pengaruh perlakuan, sedang perbedaan diantara rata-rata perlakuan didasarkan pada nilai BNT taraf 5%. Interaksi nyata terjadi pada sebagian besar parameter yang diamati, dan hasil umbi tertinggi didapatkan pada kompos sampah kota yang waktu aplikasinya dilakukan 30 hari sebelum tanam : 28,03 ton umbi ha-1. Food diversification is a precise step to anticipate food shortage condition. It becomes important because wetland area is decreasing of approximately 0,1% each year of total area in Indonesia. Related to that point, also in order to meet food national demand, utilization of sweet potato as alternative food resource needs to be done. Research aimed to get information about proper kind and application time of organic matter had been done at Landungsari, Malang. The design used was Split Plot, kind of organic matter was placed as main plot, consisting of 3 kinds, ie: cow manure, azzola compost, and urban waste compost. Application time was set as subplot, consisting of 3 times, ie: 30 days before planting, 15 days before planting, and simultaneous with planting. Data collection was carried out destructively, including growth and yield components, plant growth analysis and soil analysis. F test on 5% level intended to test treatment effect, meanwhile difference between mean values based on LSD 5%. Real interaction occurred on almost all parameters observed, moreover the highest tuber yield was on urban waste compost which time application was 30 days before planting : 28,03 ton tuber ha-1.

  18. Isozyme modifications and plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

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    Cavalcante Alves, J M; Sihachakr, D; Allot, M; Tizroutine, S; Mussio, I; Servaes, A; Ducreux, G

    1994-05-01

    The potential of somatic embryogenesis was evaluated for 10 cultivars of sweet potato through extensive embryogenic response and isozyme analysis. Embryogenic callus was induced by incubating lateral buds on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for 6-8 weeks. The frequency of embryogenic response was low, and varied with genotypes, ranging from 0 to 17%. Embryo to plantlet formation could be enhanced by the use of the combination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with kinetin, both used at 0.01 μM. Embryogenic callus with its potential of plantlet formation has constantly been maintained for over two years. However, after several subcultures, 0.5 to 12% of embryogenic callus reverted irreversibly into friable fast-growing non-embryogenic callus whose ability to regenerate shoots was then definitively lost. The isozymes of esterase, peroxidase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and acid phosphatase investigated in this study were found appropriate to distinguish compact embryogenic from friable non-embryogenic callus in sweet potato. In fact, the callus reversion was associated with a loss of bands or a decline in isozyme activity. On the contrary, very small changes in isozyme activity or no specific changes at all were observed during the differentiation of embryogenic callus into globular embryos.

  19. Heritability of regeneration in tissue cultures of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton-Somers, K M; Collins, W W

    1986-03-01

    A population of open-pollinated progeny from 12 parents, and the 12 parents, was surveyed for in vitro growth and regeneration characteristics. Four different tissue culture procedures involving different media and the use of different explants to initiate the cultures were used. Petiole explants from young leaves were used as explants for initiation of callus cultures. These were evaluated for callus growth rate, friability, and callus color and texture, before transferring to each of three different regeneration media for evaluation of morphogenetic potential. Small shoot tips also were used to initiate callus cultures, which were evaluated for the same growth characteristics and transferred to growth-regulator free regeneration media. Regeneration occurred through root or shoot regeneration or through embryogenesis. Tissue culture treatment effects, as well as genotypic effects, were highly significant in determining: the types of callus produced, callus growth rates, color and texture on the two types of media used for the second and third subcultures. The family x treatment interaction was generally not statistically significant, affecting only callus color. Estimates of narrow sense heritability for callus growth rate in both the second and third subcultures were high enough (0.35 and 0.63, respectively) for the evaluation of parental lines for selection procedures. These characteristics were also the only early culture callus traits that were consistently correlated with later morphogenesis of the cultures. They were negatively correlated with root or shoot regeneration. The occurence of somatic embryogenesis was not correlated with early callus growth characteristics. Genetic and treatment effects were highly significant in the evaluation of morphogenetic potential, through root or shoot regeneration, or through embryogenesis. Regeneration of all types was of low frequency for all procedures, expressed in ≦ 11% of the cultures of the total population.

  20. KARAKTERISTIK KIMIA, FISIK DAN INDERAWI TEPUNG UBI JALAR UNGU (Ipomoea batatas Poiret DAN PRODUK OLAHANNYA

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    Ade Krisna Nindyarani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to determine the chemical and physical characteristics of purple-flesh sweet potato flour as base of suitability for processed foods production, and to determine the acceptability of products by panelists. Cookies and pound cake were made by using purple-flesh sweet potato flour as raw material and using stages of process as follows: dough preparation, molding, shaping and baking. The results showed that purple-flesh sweet potato flour contain moisture 10.92 ± 0.09 % (db, protein 6.44 ± 0.27 % (db, starch 74.57 ± 0.32 % (db, amylose 24.79 ± 0.94 % (db, reducing sugar 3.15 ± 0.30 % (db, and crude fiber 2.40 ± 0.35 % (db. Peak viscosity at 65 oC was 6.17 dPa.s and setback viscosity was similar to the peak viscosity. Starch granules of purple-flesh sweet potato were  polygonal with size of 10-25 μm. The cookies made by using mixture of 25 % wheat flour and 75 % purple-flesh sweet potato flour, and pound cake made by using 100 % purple-flesh sweet potato flour were acceptable for panelists. Keywords: Purple-flesh sweet potato flour, cookies, pound cake   Abtrak Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik kimia dan fisik tepung ubi jalar ungu sebagai dasar penentuan kesesuaian untuk pembuatan pangan olahan berbasis tepung ubi jalar ungu serta untuk mengetahui tingkat penerimaan panelis. Tepung ubi jalar ungu diolah menjadi cookies dan pound cake mengikuti tahap penyiapan adonan, pencetakan, dan pemanggangan. Dilakukan uji inderawi cookies dan pound cake melalui uji kesukaan oleh panelis yang  meliputi parameter warna, aroma, cita-rasa, tekstur, dan kesukaan keseluruhan serta uji deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tepung ubi jalar ungu memiliki berturut-turut komponen kadar air 10,92 ± 0,09 % (bk, protein 6,44 ± 0,27 % (bk, pati 74,57 ± 0,32 % (bk, amilosa 24,79 ± 0,94 % (bk, gula reduksi 3,15 ± 0,30 % (bk, dan serat kasar 2,40 ± 0,35 % (bk. Viskositas puncak tepung ubi jalar ungu pada suhu 65 oC sebesar 6,17 dPa.s, dan viskositas baliknya relatif sama dengan viskositas puncak. Granula pati tepung ubi jalar ungu berbentuk poligonal dengan ukuran 10-25 μm. Cookies yang dibuat dari kombinasi antara tepung terigu 25 % dan tepung ubi jalar ungu 75 %, dan  pound cake yang dibuat dari tepung ubi jalar ungu 100 % (tanpa tepung terigu cukup disukai panelis. Kata kunci: Tepung ubi jalar ungu, cookies, pound cake

  1. in vitro production of virus free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l

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    1 Department of Biology, Adigrat University, PO Box 50, Adigrat, Ethiopia. E-mail: mebrahtuhishe@gmail.com. 2 Department of Biology, Bahir Dar University, PO Box 79, Bahir Dar Ethiopia. E-mail: berhanu.tsegay@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT: ..... increment of mistletoes. Sometimes non-host species could be infected under ...

  2. EVALUACIÓN AGRONÓMICA DE TRECE GENOTIPOS DE CAMOTE (Ipomoea batatas L.

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    Rolbin Castillo Matamoros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar desde el punto de vista agronómico, 13 genotipos de camote para su cultivo en Costa Rica. Diez fueron introducidos de la Unidad de Micropropagación de la Universidad Estatal de Carolina del Norte, y cultivados por primera vez en Costa Rica, 2 conocidos como “Exportación y Zanahoriaˮ son de introducción reciente, pero se han cultivado en el país por al menos 5 años y el restante Criollo es el que ocupa actualmente la mayor área de siembra. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental Fabio Baudrit de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicada en la provincia de Alajuela. Los tratamientos se dispusieron en el campo en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con 13 genotipos y 4 repeticiones. El análisis de varianza mostró que los genotipos difirieron significativamente (p=0,0001 en todas las variables evaluadas: peso fresco y seco foliar; peso fresco y seco de raíz reservante; número de raíces reservantes; peso de raíz reservante/ planta; contenido de materia seca y rendimiento (t.ha-1. Todos los cultivares evaluados superaron el rendimiento de la variedad Criollo (6 t.ha-1 y el promedio nacional (5 a 7,8 t.ha-1, con rendimientos entre 12 y 48 t.ha-1. Algunos de los cultivares son promisorios para su cultivo en Costa Rica, no solo con base en su rendimiento, sino debido a su color de pulpa, amarilla o anaranjada, asociado a un mayor contenido de carotenos

  3. Effects of incorporating nonmodified sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) flour on wheat pasta functional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Lee, Youngseung; Obeidat, Hayat

    2017-12-28

    The effects of substituting wheat flour using fractions of blanched or nonblanched sweet potato flour on produced pasta functional characteristics were investigated. The use of sweet potato flour to replace fractions of wheat flour, regardless of blanching treatment, resulted in significant (p pasta water uptake and solid leaching out and freeze-thaw stability of produced pasta. For instance, treatment containing 40% of nonblanched sweet potato flour and held at 55C resulted in 27% point increase in WHC compared to the control. Sweet potato flour was also contributed to the decrease in treatments pasting viscosities and in cooked pasta hardness. Cooked pasta hardness was significantly (p pasta made using fractions of sweet potato were equivalent to or sometimes superior to that of the control sample. Results indicated the possible enhancement of pasta nutritional quality including firmness, cooking loss, and water uptake without impairing consumer acceptability. The use of sweet potato flour in pasta would enhance the nutritional and physicochemical properties of developed pasta and pasta products. Furthermore, since sweet potato is not cultivated most of the year; sweet potato flour pasta would be better utilized in food processing and is expected to enhance sweet potato consumption year around. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. in vitro production of virus free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l

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    fluoride in cereal and legume grain samples were determined by fluoride ion selective electrode. Fluoride levels in .... dered to be beneficial in the prevention of dental caries and ...... for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (ATSDR) ...

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    YIELD STABILITY OF BREAD WHEAT ... Key words/phrases: AMMI model, ANOVA, Genotype-by-Environment Interaction, main effects, ... and environments in multi-environment trials. ... Interaction Principal Component Axis (IPCA), and so on.

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    direct impact (Kebu Balemie and Fassil Kebebew,. 2006; Tigist ..... making and medicine (Azene Bekele, 2007;. Demel Teketay et al. ..... tourist attraction centre, but also a major plant biodiversity .... positive/negative perception for their edibility.

  7. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) attenuates diet-induced aortic stiffening independent of changes in body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Tyler; Ouyang, An; Berrones, Adam J; Campbell, Marilyn S; Du, Bing; Fleenor, Bradley S

    2017-08-01

    We hypothesized a sweet potato intervention would prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced aortic stiffness, which would be associated with decreased arterial oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial uncoupling. Young (8-week old) C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: low fat (LF; 10% fat), HF (60% fat), low-fat sweet potato (LFSP; 10% fat containing 260.3 μg/kcal sweet potato), or high-fat sweet potato diet (HFSP; 60% fat containing 260.3 μg/kcal sweet potato) for 16 weeks. Compared with LF and LFSP, HF- and HFSP-fed mice had increased body mass and percent fat mass with lower percent lean mass (all, P Sweet potato intervention did not influence body composition (all, P > 0.05). Arterial stiffness, assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity and ex vivo mechanical testing of the elastin region elastic modulus (EEM) was greater in HF compared with LF and HFSP animals (all, P sweet potato attenuates diet-induced aortic stiffness independent of body mass and composition, which is associated with a normalization of arterial oxidative stress possibly due to mitochondrial uncoupling.

  8. in vitro production of virus free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l

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    College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University, 2015 ... 3 Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Botswana International University of Science ...... Mappings with Application. .... Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences.

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    Porter and Orcutt (1980) and Lampert (1987) have shown that three general characteristics of blue greens, manageability, nutritional inadequacy and toxicity, tend to limit their exploitation by zoo- plankton. In addition, these algae interfere with filtration processes of grazers (Jarvis, 1986; De. Bernardi and Guissani, 1990).

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    the critical factor for the growth and enzyme production by Trichoderma isolates. Therefore, these cellulase producing Trichoderma isolates can be used in food industries, animal feed industries, brewing and wine ... However, the cost of cellulase production and optimization profoundly influences the economics of the entire.

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    lake since grazing by zooplankton does not control the common large and filamentous cyanobacteria in Lake ... zooplankton. The objective of this work was to determine the ... where V is volume of the container in ml and N is density of grazers ...

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    Due to the regional nature of the work, morphometric ... tion of elongate volcanic cones can be attributed to subsurface .... multiple eruptions, thus actually being poly- genetic. In this ..... Acocella, V., Bekele Abebe and Tesfaye Korme. (2011).

  13. Mycoflora of sun-dried sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) slices in ...

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    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... The composition of the fungal species which will be es- tablished on exposed ... fungi associated with sun-dried sweet potato slices with a view to highlighting ..... Valero A, Sanchis V, Ramos AJ, Marin S (2007). Studies on the.

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    E-mail: Henok.Tiruneh@mines.sdsmt.edu. 2 School of Earth Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa University, Addis ... Landslides are significant natural hazards in mountainous terrain all around the world. ...... for the purpose of agriculture and dwelling. Figure 9. Landslide hazard zonation of ...

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    K), which were moist to 60% water holding capacity of the soil every day, 34-44% of the applied ... biologically active soils these fertilizers pass ... 1955); organic carbon (Black, 1965); total nitrogen .... granular sst/pl n/o. Few Mn-Fe nodules. * = moist value; d/w = diffuse and .... supplying potential of Typic Hapl-udert if the.

  16. in vitro production of virus free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l

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    ISSN: 0379–2897. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF COLLETOTRICHUM SUBLINEOLUM ISOLATES ... given due consideration in future breeding programs. Such a diversity calls for ... diverse gene pools. Effective and sustainable control strategies.

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    ABSTRACT: Studies on experimental infection of Leishmania aethiopica are very limited due to lack of laboratory animal models. It was previously reported that the African green monkey (grivet monkey) could serve as a non–human primate model of L. aethiopica infection. This report provides preliminary data on the ...

  18. in vitro production of virus free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l

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    vestors in Ethiopia, lowland riverine ungulates and their corresponding predators are becoming threatened. African buffalo is one of the most threatened ungulates in the upper Blue Nile. Valley of Ethiopia due to trophy hunting and bush meat trade in addition to habitat destruc- tion and fragmentation. Conservation activities.

  19. Studies on mutation breeding in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukimura, H.; Kouyama, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Different genotypes were subjected to gamma rays and EMS to examine the effects on tuber skin colour mutation. Different mutation rates were obtained according to the genotypes. The gamma irradiation induced larger sector size of skin colour mutation than EMS. Gamma rays had an effect on inducing flowering in MV 1 which is utilized in cross breeding. Mutagenic treatment by gamma rays and EMS on the hybrid true seed which segregates in a Mendelian ratio for pigmentation in leaf, stem and tuber and for shape of leaf gave some bias to their segregation ratios. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on quantitative characters, such as dry matter content and total sugar content in tubers, were also investigated in hybrid populations. The treatments enlarged genetic variations on both the characters, being more effective on total sugar content. Clonal progenies derived from mutagenic treatment by gamma rays and EI were investigated for their quantitative MV 4 -MV 6 characters (tuber yield, dry matter content and total sugar content) in MV 4 -MV 6 . Heritabilities in a broad sense and phenotypic variances were estimated from the measurements on derivative strains obtained by random selection from mutagenic treatment plots. Artificial selection was effective only for tuber yield. Mutant clones with short stem length decreased their tuber yield and vice versa. A few mutant clones were found to excel the originals in dry matter content and total sugar content. Some aspects of mutation breeding in sweet potato are also discussed

  20. in vitro production of virus free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l

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    ABSTRACT: The phylogeny of the East African Hippopotamidae is problematic. A particularly controversial relationship is that between aff. Hippopotamus protamphibius and aff. .... ficient reconstruction of the symphysis, corpora, and canine processes has been completed to warrant a preliminary description of the fossil.

  1. in vitro production of virus free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l

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    G3pdh is under diversifying selection in both populations. This may indicate the importance for isoamylase1 in starch quality traits ... a low copy, nuclear housekeeping gene involved in glycolysis, a central ... Plant material and DNA extraction.

  2. EVALUATION OF ELASTICITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BREAD DOUGH MADE WITH REPLACED FLOUR POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATA

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    Ely Fernando Sacón Vera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the incorporation of sweet potato flour, with 30% replacement in 1kg of wheat flour was evaluated to determine the behavior of elastic and mechanical properties during the kneading and baking stage of bread. For the evaluation the following varieties were studied: Morado Brazil, Morado Ecuador, Guayaco Morado, Ina and Toquecita, and the evaluated properties were: texture (hardness, elasticity, firmness, chewiness measured by a texture meter Bloomfield and volume was measured by INEN standard (NTE INEN 0530: 80. The design employed was completely at random, using analysis of variance at 5% significance level. The results obtained showed that elasticity attribute in texture variable presented significant differences (P <0.05. Analysis concluded that including Toquecita flour in the mixture to form the dough, had the highest elasticity of 13.32mm. However, Morado Ecuador variety flour presented a 6.24 mm elasticity value, ideal for both the malleability of the dough and the freshness of the bread, and concerning volume, the inclusion of Ecuador Morado flour and Ina in the formulation of bread, showed an increase in volume at 93.30 and 93.67cm3 respectively, close to the normed value for wheat flour bread.

  3. in vitro production of virus free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l

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    eration and differentiation of cells. ... resistance, the current focus is, therefore, on RNA- ... Tobacco, as a model crop and as one of the cash ... confirmation was done by polymerase chain .... was discontinued only because of the high cost to.

  4. The effect of gamma radiation on the ultrastructure of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.

    1986-12-01

    Radiation is being used to increase the storage life of fresh foods. Various doses of gamma radiation were administered to Jewel cultivar sweet potatoes and the effects were monitored by direct observation and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Potatoes were divided into two groups: those irradiated immediately after harvest (doses = 0 kGy - 0.4 KGy) and those irradiated one week after harvest (doses = 0 kGy - 0.4 kGy). Potatoes were examined and viewed each month for 7 months. Gross observations included weight, color and texture of the sweet potatoes. Those potatoes irradiated immediately after harvest spoiled faster than those irradiated one week after harvest. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated several cellular modifications accompanying spoilage. Cell collapse was greatest at the higher radiation doses during the periods of 1 to 5 months post-irradiation. The shape and size of starch granules varied with storage time and radiation levels. The mitochondria, cell walls and plasma membranes appeared normal as seen by transmission electron microscopy until 6 months post-irradiation for potatoes irradiated both immediately after harvest and one week after harvest. Thereafter, degradative changes were observed

  5. in vitro production of virus free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l

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    fusion matrix or a contingency table is the most appropriate ... addition, a discrete multivariate statistical model of 'Kappa ... index application to report CAA because this in- .... that no matter how small a LULC class is in size or ...... and Business Media, Inc., Dordrecht. 13. ... International Organizations for Standardizations.

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    species diversity where the native habitats are heavily diminished and/or merit conservation. ... richness was influenced by distance to major roads, wealth status, farm size and family size. ...... avoid weaver birds, and to reduce competition of.

  7. Isolation and Abiotic Stress Resistance Analyses of a Catalase Gene from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Bin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Pan; Zheng, Haiyan; Fei, Xueting; Hong, Zixi; Ma, Qinqin; Miao, Yuzhi; Yuan, Xianghua; Jiang, Yusong; Shao, Huanhuan

    2017-01-01

    As an indicator of the antioxidant capability of plants, catalase can detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by environmental stresses. Sweet potato is one of the top six most important crops in the world. However, its catalases remain largely unknown. In this study, a catalase encoding gene, IbCAT2 (accession number: KY615708), was identified and cloned from sweet potato cv. Xushu 18. It contained a 1479 nucleotides' open reading frame (ORF). S-R-L, Q-K-L, and a putative calmodulin binding domain were located at the C-terminus of IbCAT2, which suggests that IbCAT2 could be a peroxisomal catalase. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) based quantitative analyses showed that IbCAT2 was mainly expressed in young leaves and expanding tuberous roots under normal conditions. When exposed to 10% PEG6000 or 200 mmol/L NaCl solutions, IbCAT2 was upregulated rapidly in the first 11 days and then downregulated, although different tissues showed different degree of change. Overexpression of IbCAT2 conferred salt and drought tolerance in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The positive response of IbCAT2 to abiotic stresses suggested that IbCAT2 might play an important role in stress responses.

  8. Evaluation of the effects of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandi, J; Glatz, P; Forder, R; Komolong, B; Chousalkar, K

    2018-02-01

    Cereal grains such as maize and wheat are used extensively in feed formulations for poultry as the primary source of carbohydrates. High cost of these grains in many developing countries necessitates the evaluation of other ingredients that are grown locally. Sweet potato is one such crop. The study was conducted as a proof of concept experiment to test the hypothesis that in the presence and absence of enzyme, sweet potato roots when included in diets of broiler chickens may affect the total metabolisable energy content of the diets which may exert certain influences on dry matter digestibility of these diets as well as impacting on production and certain gut parameters. A total of 120 chicks were raised on a commercial starter feed from day 0 to 19. On day 22, the birds were individually weighed and allocated to 96 single bird metabolism cages to conduct a 7-day classical apparent metabolisable energy (AME) assay. The test diets contained 0% and 25% sweet potato flour (SPF) with and without enzyme supplementation (Rovabio Excel AP T-flex) and replicated 24 times. AME of the control diet with and without enzyme was 14.05 and 13.91 MJ/kg whilst the AME of the SPF diets with and without enzymes were 13.45 and 13.43 MJ/kg respectively. AME of SPF was 12.08 MJ/kg. Birds fed the SPF had significantly reduced end weights (p = .002) and weight gains (p < .001) leading to significantly higher intake (p = .004) and FCRs (p < .001) in birds. These effects in growth parameters highlight the need to balance dietary protein and total amino acids when using SPF in broiler diets and may not be a negative effect of SPF per say as AME and dry matter digestibility of SPF diets were comparable to the control diet. The level of sucrase activity in the jejunum was significantly (p < .001) lower due to enzyme inclusion. Use of SPF in the current study did not negatively influence the activities of the brush border enzymes maltase and sucrase, gut morphology in the jejunum of broilers or the load of Enterobacteriaceae in the caecal of birds. This finding is promising in that the gut parameters associated with digestive capacity and gut health were not compromised with feeding of SPF to broilers. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Physiological responses of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. plants due to different copper concentrations

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    Cristina Copstein Cuchiara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At low concentrations, Cu is considered as an essential micronutrient for plants and as a constituent and activator of several enzymes. However, when in excess, Cu can negatively affect plant growth and metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate physiological responses of sweet potato plants at different Cu concentrations by measuring morphological parameters, antioxidant metabolism, stomatal characteristics, and mineral profile. For this purpose, sweet potato plants were grown hydroponically in complete nutrient solution for six days. Then, the plants were transferred to solutions containing different Cu concentrations, 0.041 (control, 0.082, and 0.164 mM, and maintained for nine days. The main effect of increased Cu concentration was observed in the roots. The sweet potato plants grown in 0.082 mM Cu solution showed increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and no changes in growth parameters. However, at a concentration of 0.164 mM, Cu was transported from the roots to the shoots. This concentration altered morpho-anatomical characteristics and activated the antioxidant system because of the stress generated by excess Cu. On the basis of the results, it can be concluded that the sweet potato plants were able to tolerate Cu toxicity until 0.082 mM.

  10. Dioscorin, the major tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas decne) with carbonic anhydrase and trypsin inhibitor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W C; Liu, J S; Chen, H J; Chen, T E; Chang, C F; Lin, Y H

    1999-05-01

    Dioscorin, the tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne), was purified successively by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DE-52 ion exchange chromatography, and Sephadex G-75 column. Two protein bands (82 and 28 kDa) were found under nonreducing conditions after SDS-PAGE; but only one band (32 kDa) was detected under reducing conditions. The first 21 amino acids in the N-terminal region of the 28 kDa form were VEDEFSYIEGNPNGPENWGNL, which was highly homologous to deductive sequence of dioscorin from cDNA of another yam species (Dioscoreacayenensis Lam) reported by Conlan et al. (Plant Mol. Biol. 1995, 28, 369-380). Hewett-Emmett and Tashian (Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 1996, 5, 50 -77) mentioned that, according to DNA alignments, dioscorin from yam (D. cayenensis) was alpha-carbonic anhydrase (alpha-CA) related. In this report, we found that the purified dioscorin showed both CA dehydration activity using sodium bicarbonate as a substrate and CA activity staining after SDS-PAGE. A polyclonal antibody, which was raised against trypsin inhibitor (TI), a storage protein of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam var. Tainong 57), cross-reacted with dioscorin, which also showed TI activity determined by both activity staining after SDS-PAGE and trypsin inhibition determination.

  11. Sweepoviruses cause disease in sweet potato and related Ipomoea spp.: fulfilling Koch's postulates for a divergent group in the genus begomovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenado, Helena P; Orílio, Anelise F; Márquez-Martín, Belén; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae), known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV), Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV) and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV). Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06) of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato) and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, 'Beauregard' and 'Promesa', were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus.

  12. Sweepoviruses cause disease in sweet potato and related Ipomoea spp.: fulfilling Koch's postulates for a divergent group in the genus begomovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena P Trenado

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae, known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV, Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV. Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06 of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, 'Beauregard' and 'Promesa', were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus.

  13. Horizontal Transmission of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) on Convolvulus and Ipomoea (Solanales: Convolvulaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Glenda L.; Cooper, W. Rodney; Horton, David R.; Swisher, Kylie D.; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Munyaneza, Joseph E.; Barcenas, Nina M.

    2015-01-01

    “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Proteobacteria) is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops (Solanales: Solanaceae) in North America and New Zealand, and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. This phloem-limited pathogen is transmitted to potato and other solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae). While some plants in the Convolvulaceae (Solanales) are also known hosts for B. cockerelli, previous efforts to detect Liberibacter in Convolvulaceae have been unsuccessful. Moreover, studies to determine whether Liberibacter can be acquired from these plants by B. cockerelli are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine whether horizontal transmission of Liberibacter occurs among potato psyllids on two species of Convolvulaceae, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), which grows abundantly in potato growing regions of the United States. Results indicated that uninfected psyllids acquired Liberibacter from both I. batatas and C. arvensis if infected psyllids were present on plants concurrently with the uninfected psyllids. Uninfected psyllids did not acquire Liberibacter from plants if the infected psyllids were removed from the plants before the uninfected psyllids were allowed access. In contrast with previous reports, PCR did detect the presence of Liberibacter DNA in some plants. However, visible amplicons were faint and did not correspond with acquisition of the pathogen by uninfected psyllids. None of the plants exhibited disease symptoms. Results indicate that horizontal transmission of Liberibacter among potato psyllids can occur on Convolvulaceae, and that the association between Liberibacter and Convolvulaceae merits additional attention. PMID:26555359

  14. Sistemas de labranza y densidades de la batata: calidad del suelo y de las raíces tuberosas.

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    Maiby Pérez-Darniz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de sistemas de labranza y densidades de siembra en la calidad de las raíces tuberosas de batata (Ipomoea batata (L Lamb.. El estudio se realizó en la Universidad Central de Venezuela, en el año 2014. Se determinaron los grados de severidad de la degradación del suelo y su correspondencia con las escalas de preferencia basadas en el peso unitario y dimensiones de la raíz tuberosa. Se usó un arreglo en franjas, donde los sistemas de labranza (SL fueron asignados a las parcelas, y las densidades de siembra (Ds a las franjas. Los SL consistieron en labranza vertical con cincel (LC, con arado de disco (LA, convencional con tres pases de rastra de disco (LCo y mínima con un pase de rastra de disco (LM. Las Ds fueron de 0,25 cm (D1 y 0,15 cm (D2 en la hilera. La calidad física del suelo fue superior en los tratamientos de LA. De estos, la combinación con la distancia de siembra más larga (LA-D1 favoreció la mayor calidad postcosecha del cultivo. Al contrario, en los tratamientos con cincel se promovió la menor aceptación del consumidor. La ligera a moderada severidad de la degradación del suelo no explicó la variación de la calidad postcosecha. Se in ere sobre la menor tasa de movimiento de agua en LC, que promovió un exceso de humedad y la más baja calidad de la raíz tuberosa.

  15. Screening for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.)) viruses and their elimination using thermotheraphy-meristem tip culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkorful, E.

    2012-11-01

    Despite its high potential for food security, production of sweet potato is constrained by viruses which reduce yield by 90%. It is therefore essential to screen for, identify and eliminate these viruses in elite clones before dissemination to farmers. In this study, visual symptomatology and PCR-based techniques were used to identify sweet potato viruses. Visual symptomatology revealed virus associated symptoms ranging from vein clearing, interveinal chlorosis, chlorotic spots, upward curling on leaf edges, leaf narrowing and distortion, purpling, blistering, reduction of the leaf blades and general leaf yellowing in all 22 accessions grown on the field. Disease Incidence (DI) significantly (p≤0.05) varied between accessions with US003 having the lowest (20%) while ten accessions had 90% DI at the end of the study. Index of symptom severity of all plants (ISSap) ranged from 1.08±0.09 to 3.67 ±0.11 with VOTCR003 having the lowest suggesting that it is a moderately susceptible accession while VOTCR002 had the highest suggesting that it is susceptible to viral diseases. Contrarily, index of symptom severity of diseased plants (ISSdp) ranged from 2.00±0.25 to 3.75±0.32. The accession VOTCR002 had the highest ISSdp. Visual symptomatology showed that VOTCR002 had the highest DI, ISSap and ISSdp suggesting that it is highly susceptible to viral diseases. Ten severely infected accessions were tested for Sweet Potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet Potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet Potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV) using PCR and RT-PCR techniques. RT-PCR did not amplify any of the virus genomes due to prolonged storage enzymes, In contrast, PCR detected SPLCV in 30% of the accessions. Plants infected with SPLCV were grown in the chamber at 35 degrees celsius for 4 weeks followed by meristem top culture. The regenerants were indexed after ten weeks for SPLCV. Fifty two percent (52.385 od the regenerants were successfully cleaned of the virus and these are being multiplied for farmers. Virus indexing will enhance the dissemination of disease-free plants to farmers. [au

  16. Comparative analysis of phytochemicals and nutrient availability in two contrasting cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shubhendu; Mishra, Divya; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2015-04-15

    Sweet potato ranks as the world's seventh most important food crop, and has major contribution to energy and phytochemical source of nutrition. To unravel the molecular basis for differential nutrient availability, and to exploit the natural genetic variation(s) of sweet potato, a series of physiochemical and proteomics experiment was conducted using two contrasting cultivars, an orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and a white-fleshed sweet potato (WFSP). Phytochemical screening revealed high percentage of carbohydrate, reducing sugar and phenolics in WFSP, whereas OFSP showed increased levels of total protein, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids. The rate of starch and cellulose degradation was found to be less in OFSP during storage, indicating tight regulation of gene(s) responsible for starch-degradation. Comparative proteomics displayed a cultivar-dependent expression of proteins along with evolutionarily conserved proteins. These results suggest that cultivar-specific expression of proteins and/or their interacting partners might play a crucial role for nutrient acquisition in sweet potato. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of gamma radiation on different explants of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) to induce NaCl tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Rosati, A.

    1997-01-01

    Clonal lines tolerant to NaCl were obtained by combining in vitro culture and gamma radiation in two Peruvian varieties 'Amarillo de Quillabamba' and 'Nemanete'. The most suitable explants were pedicel sections and leaf blades. Embryogenic callus was induced on basal MS basal medium containing 0.5 ppm 2,4-D. The embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5 Gy from a 137 Cs source. Several putative mutants appeared to be stable. (author). 9 refs, 3 tabs

  18. Effect of genotype, gelling agent, and auxin on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abidine Triqui, Zine; Guédira, Abdelkarim; Chlyah, Averil; Chlyah, Hassane; Souvannavong, Vongthip; Haïcour, Robert; Sihachakr, Darasinh

    2008-03-01

    Lateral buds of six cultivars of sweet potato were induced to form embryogenic callus in a culture medium solidified with two types of gelling agents, Agar or Gelrite, and supplemented with various concentrations of auxins, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and Picloram. Of the six cultivars screened, only three gave an embryogenic response. Best results with an average of 3.53% embryogenic response were obtained with the medium solidified with Agar, while in Gelrite only 0.45% of lateral buds gave rise to embryogenic callus. The interaction between the genotype and auxins was highly significant; particularly the optimal response was obtained with cv. Zho and 865 yielding 10.7 and 14.7% somatic embryogenesis, respectively, in the medium containing 2,4,5-T or Picloram. The plant conversion was dramatically improved by subculture of the embryogenic callus on the medium with the combination of 1 microM 2,4-D and 1 microM Kinetin or 5 microM ABA alone before transfer of mature embryos onto hormone-free medium. The embryogenic callus of sweet potato and its sustained ability to further regenerate plants have regularly been maintained for several years by frequent subculture in 5 microM 2,4,5-T or the combination of 10 microM 2,4-D and 1 microM BAP or kinetin. The embryo-derived plants seemed apparently genetically stable and similar to the hexaploid parental plants, based on morphological analysis and their ploidy level determined by using flow cytometry.

  19. Adaptation to mid-season drought in a sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam germplasm collection grown in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makunde Godwill S.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Drought has negative effects on sweetpotato production. Two experiments with two watering treatments (irrigated and water-stressed were conducted at Umbeluzi Research Station in 2015. The objectives were to (i determine response of 48 sweetpotato germplasms to mid-season drought, (ii determine best traits for improvement of storage root yield under mid-season drought and (iii assess the selection criteria for identifying drought tolerance in sweetpotato germplasms. The irrigated and water- stressed trials received 640 and 400 mm of water, respectively, throughout the season. Water stress was imposed from 30 to 70 days after planting. Each treatment had two replicates arranged in a randomized complete block design. Data collected on storage root and vine yield and derived drought tolerance indices including harvest index were subjected to analysis of variance in R. Sweetpotato germplasms with high storage root yield under mid-season drought were associated with a high harvest index. Harvest index stability and the geometric mean are key to identifying cultivars with high and stable storage root yield under both treatments. MUSGP0646-126, Irene and Ivone combined both low TOL, SSI, HI and high yield storage root yield across the treatments and over seasons. The use of drought and harvest indices is encouraged for selecting improved cultivars for varied production environments and their regular use in accelerated breeding schemes is suggested.

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on different explants of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) to induce NaCl tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Rosati, A [Biology Dept., National Agriculture Univ., La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    1997-07-01

    Clonal lines tolerant to NaCl were obtained by combining in vitro culture and gamma radiation in two Peruvian varieties `Amarillo de Quillabamba` and `Nemanete`. The most suitable explants were pedicel sections and leaf blades. Embryogenic callus was induced on basal MS basal medium containing 0.5 ppm 2,4-D. The embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5 Gy from a {sup 137}Cs source. Several putative mutants appeared to be stable. (author). 9 refs, 3 tabs.

  1. Characterization and hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. cultivar Eshu No. 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potato extract (APSPE was demonstrated. Sixty mice were randomly divided into six groups: control group [without carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or APSPE]; model group (with CCl4 only; positive control group (50 mg/kg body weight silymarin; low-dose group (100 mg/kg body weight APSPE; medium-dose group (200 mg/kg body weight APSPE; and high-dose group (400 mg/kg body weight APSPE. After 10 days intragastric administration of the respective supplements, the mice in all groups except control were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (0.15% in arachis oil, 10 mL/kg body weight, intravenous. Twelve hours after CCl4 injection, the mice were measured in terms of liver index, levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum, as well as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde in liver homogenate. Additionally, the livers of mice were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and sectioned for observation. Nineteen purple sweet potato anthocyanins were identified from the purple sweet potato cultivar Eshu No. 8 and analyzed by liquid chromatography– electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Peonidin 3-coumaryl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside was first identified in purple sweet potato. The results showed that anthocyanins in Eshu No. 8 had good hepatoprotective activity.

  2. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) composite bread as a significant source of dietary vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuni, Victoria; Alhassan, Martha Wunnam; Amagloh, Francis Kweku

    2018-01-01

    Refining food recipes with orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) has the potential to improve dietary intake of vitamin A. The objectives of this study were to utilize OFSP in the development of two composite bread types and to assess their contribution to dietary intake of vitamin A using the dietary reference intake of lactating mothers. Two composite OFSP-wheat flour bread recipes-vita butter bread and vita tea bread-were developed by incorporating 46% OFSP puree in existing 100% wheat flour bread recipes consumed by Ghanaians. A paired-preference test was used to profile the appearance, aroma, sweetness, and overall degree of liking of the vita butter bread and vita tea bread and their respective 100% wheat flour bread types. Weighed bread intake by lactating mothers ( n  =   50) was used to estimate the contribution to dietary vitamin A based on the trans β-carotene content. The developed vita butter bread and vita tea bread were most preferred by at least 77% ( p  bread was 247 g, and for vita tea bread was 196 g. The trans β-carotene content of vita butter bread and vita tea bread were found to be 1.333 mg/100 g and 0.985 mg/100 g, respectively. The estimated trans-β-carotene intake was 3,293 μg/day (vita butter) and 1,931 μg/day (vita tea) based on the weighed bread intake, respectively, meeting 21% and 12% of the daily requirement (1,300 μg RAE/day) for lactating mothers, the life stage group with the highest vitamin A requirement. OFSP therefore could composite wheat flour to bake butter and tea bread, and will contribute to significant amount of dietary intake of vitamin A.

  3. Orange‐fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) composite bread as a significant source of dietary vitamin A

    OpenAIRE

    Awuni, Victoria; Alhassan, Martha Wunnam; Amagloh, Francis Kweku

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Refining food recipes with orange‐fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) has the potential to improve dietary intake of vitamin A. The objectives of this study were to utilize OFSP in the development of two composite bread types and to assess their contribution to dietary intake of vitamin A using the dietary reference intake of lactating mothers. Two composite OFSP–wheat flour bread recipes—vita butter bread and vita tea bread—were developed by incorporating 46% OFSP puree in existing 100% whe...

  4. Differences in morphology and sugar content of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) with potassium treatment at several altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiani, R.; Rosmayati; Siregar, L. A. M.; Harahap, F.

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted at three locations in low, medium and high plains. This study was aimed to determine the morphological changes and sugar content of sweet potato caused by potassium dose treatment and climate change. Data was analyzed by factorial randomized block design in time series with two factors. The first factor was Altitude: A1 (50 meter above sea level (MASL)), A2 (750 MASL) and A3 (1450 MASL). The second factor was Potassium: K0 (0 kg/ha), K1 (50 kg/ha), K2 (100 kg/ha) and K3 (150 kg/ha). The data of plant morphology change and sugar content was descriptively analized, while agronomic and harvest component data analysis by F test and continued with Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results of morphological observations showed different types of plant growth, which in the lowlands and medium plant growth types spread, twisted, more branches, wider leaf area. However, the plateau of plant growth was relatively dwarf, erect, no twist, huddled and short rods and small leaf area. The tuber weight per plant, number of tuber yield and tuber weight per plot in high altitude were significantly higher than lowland and medium. Similarly, increased altitude will be increased the sugar content significantly.

  5. Rapid quantitative determination of maltose and total sugars in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.]) varieties using HPTLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebot, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    When a raw sweet potato root is analysed, only sucrose, glucose and fructose are present but during cooking, starch is hydrolysed into maltose giving the sweet flavour to cooked roots. This study aimed at developing an HPTLC protocol for the rapid quantitative determination of maltose and total sugars in four commercial varieties and to compare them to 243 hybrids grouped by flesh colour (white, orange, purple). In commercial varieties, mean maltose content varied from 10.26 to 15.60% and total sugars from 17.83 to 27.77% on fresh weight basis. Hybrids showed significant variation in maltose content within each group, with means ranging from 7.65% for white-fleshed, to 8.53% in orange- and 11.98% in purple-fleshed. Total mean sugars content was 20.24, 22.11 and 26.84% respectively for white, orange and purple flesh hybrids. No significant correlations were detected between individual sugars but maltose and total sugars content were highly correlated. Compared to the best commercial variety ( Baby ), 25 hybrids (10.3%) presented a higher maltose content and 40 (16.5%) showed a higher total sugars content. HPTLC was observed as an attractive, cost efficient, high-throughput technique for quantitating maltose and total sugars in sweet potatoes. Perspectives for improving sweet potato quality for consumers' requirements are also discussed.

  6. A comparative metabolomics study of flavonoids in sweet potato with different flesh colors (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aimin; Li, Rensai; Ren, Lei; Gao, Xiali; Zhang, Yungang; Ma, Zhimin; Ma, Daifu; Luo, Yonghai

    2018-09-15

    To study the diversity and cultivar-specific of phytochemicals in sweet potato, Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze the metabolic profiles of five sweet potato cultivars exhibiting different flesh colors: purple, yellow/orange, and white. A total of 213 metabolites, including 29 flavonoids and 27 phenolic acids, were characterized. The flavonoid profiles of the five different cultivars were distinguished using PCA, the results suggested the flesh color accounted for the observed metabolic differences. In addition to anthocyanins, quinic acids and ferulic acids were the prominent phenolic acids, O-hexoside of quercetin, chrysoeriol were the prominent flavonoids in sweet potato tubers, and they were all higher in the OFSP and PFSP than WFSP. The main differential metabolic pathways between the OFSP, PFSP and the WFSP included those relating to phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. This study provides new insights into the differences in metabolite profiles among sweet potatoes with different flesh colors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seleção de clones de batata-doce resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 Selection of sweetpotato clones resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 1

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    Aline Marchese

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas resistentes à raça 1 de Meloidogyne incognita e avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimação dos coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e das herdabilidades no sentido amplo. Foram utilizados 123 genótipos de batata-doce, entre os quais quatro cultivares comerciais - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca e Palmas -, e 119 acessos previamente selecionados no programa de melhoramento vegetal da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos aumentados, com três tratamentos comuns: as cultivares de batata-doce Brazlândia Branca e Palmas, e a cultivar de tomate Santa Clara, suscetível ao nematoide. A classificação dos níveis de resistência foi realizada de acordo com o fator de reprodução do nematoide e o índice de reprodução relativo à cultivar Santa Clara, de tomateiro. A relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e as herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram altas, tanto para o fator de reprodução quanto para o índice de reprodução dos nematoides, o que demonstra a eficiência do método empregado para a seleção de genótipos resistentes. Foram identificados 57 genótipos promissores de batata-doce, resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita, e selecionados para continuar no programa de melhoramento.The objective of this work was to select sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas resistant clones to Meloidogyne incognita race 1, and to assess the efficiency of the selection method deployed, through the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. Genotypes assessed comprised 123 sweetpotato entries altogether, including four commercial cultivars - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas - and 119 clones previously selected by the Universidade Federal de Lavras

  8. Soil-to-Plant Transfer of Radiocesium in Ipomoea aquatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmah Moosa; Anis Nadia Mohd Faisol Mahadeven; Mohd Noor Hidayat Adenan

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of the bio fertilizer regarding the growth promotion and radiocaesium ("1"3"7Cs) uptake was evaluated in Ipomoea aquatica. The growth of Ipomoea aquatica was enhanced with the application of bio fertilizer. The practice of bio fertilizer resulted in significant increase of "1"3"7Cs concentration in all plant parts and higher "1"3"7Cs transfer from soil to plants. TF values of "1"3"7Cs ranged from 0.555 to 6.726 for the species. The plant roots possessed the lightest weight after being harvest, and show a highest "1"3"7Cs concentration in plant roots. Ipomoea aquatica could be utilized for agricultural countermeasures and phyto remediation, to diminish the allocation of radiocaesium from soil to human. (author)

  9. Experimental swainsonine poisoning in goats ingesting Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii (Convolvulaceae Intoxicação experimental por swainsonina em caprinos ingerindo Ipomoea sericophylla e Ipomoea riedelii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossemberg C. Barbosa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii cause a glycoprotein storage disease in goats. This paper reports the experimental poisoning in goats by dried I. sericophylla and I. riedelii containing 0.05% and 0.01% swainsonine, respectively. Three groups with four animals each were used. Group 1 received daily doses of 2g/kg body weight (bw of dried I. sericophylla (150mg of swainsonine/kg. Goats from this group had clinical signs 36-38 days after the start of ingestion. Group 2 received dried I. riedelii daily doses of 2g/kg of I. riedelii (30mg of swainsonine/kg for 70 days. No clinical signs were observed, therefore the swainsonine dose was increased to 60mg/kg for another 70 days. Goats from Group 2 had clinical signs 26-65 days after increase in swainsonine dose to 60mg/kg. Group 3 was used as control. In these experiments the minimum toxic dose was 60mg/kg which represents 0.0004% of the dry matter in goats ingesting 1.5% bw of the dry matter. For goats ingesting 2%-2.5% bw of dry matter this dose would be 0.00024%-0.0003% of the dry matter. After the end of the experiment two goats were euthanized and another six were observed for recovery of clinical signs. Four goats that continued to consume swainsonine containing plant for 39-89 days after the first clinical signs had non reversible signs, while two goats that ingested the plant for only 15 and 20 days after the first clinical signs recovered completely. These and previous results indicate that irreversible lesions due to neuronal loss occur in goats that continue to ingest the plants for about 30 days after the first clinical signs. Clinical signs and histological lesions were similar to those reported previously for goats poisoned by swainsonine containing plants. No significant alterations were found in packed cell volume, red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, mean corpuscular volume, and serum levels of glucose, total protein, and

  10. Recovery of methane-rich gas from solid-feed anaerobic digestion of ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Ganesh, P; Sanjeevi, R; Gajalakshmi, S; Ramasamy, E V; Abbasi, S A

    2008-03-01

    Studies are presented on new types of anaerobic digesters in which chopped or dry crushed Ipomoea carnea was fed without any other pretreatment, in an attempt to develop commercially viable means of utilizing the otherwise very harmful plant. Two types of solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SFADs) were studied. The first type had a single vessel in which the bottom 35% portion was separated from the top portion by a perforated PVC disk. The weed was charged from the top and inoculated with anaerobically digested cowdung-water slurry. The fermentation of the weed in the reactor led to the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) plus some biogas. The leachate, rich in the VFAs, was passed through the perforated PVC sheet and collected in the lower portion of the vessel. The other type of reactors had two vessels, the first one was fully charged with the weed and the second received the VFA leachate. With both types were attached upflow anaerobic filters (UAFs) which converted the leachate into combustible biogas consisting of approximately 70% methane. All SFADs developed very consistent performance in terms of biogas yield within 17 weeks of start. The two-compartment reactors yielded significantly more biogas than the single-compartment reactors of corresponding total volume, and the reactors with which anaerobic filters (AF) were attached yielded more biogas than the ones without AF. The best performing units generated 2.41m(3) of biogas per m(3) of digester volume, as compared to 0.1-0.2m(3) of biogas, m(-3)d(-1), obtainable with conventional digesters. This indicates the viability of this technology. The spent weed can be vermicomposted directly to obtain good soil-conditioner cum fertilizer; earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae produced 540mg vermicast per animal every day, achieving near total conversion of feed to vermicast in 20 days. The proposed systems, thus, makes it possible to accomplish total utilization of ipomoea.

  11. Respiratory activity and browning of minimally processed sweet potatoes Atividade respiratória e escurecimento de raízes de batata-doce minimamente processada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso L. Moretti

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L., 'Brazlândia Roxa', 'Brazlândia Branca' and 'Princesa' were harvested at optimum maturity to evaluate respiratory activity and browning susceptibility of minimally processed roots. After harvest, non-blemished roots were graded for size (18±2cm and diameter (5±1cm, and minimally processed inside a cold room. Processed roots were placed in sealed glass jars and stored at 3±0.5°C to evaluate respiratory activity during a 4-hour period or were packed in plastic films with partial vacuum to evaluate development of browning. Packages were stored under refrigerated conditions (3±0.5°C for 5 days. Daily, minimally processed roots were evaluated for browning according to a scale ranging from 0 (extremely browned to 5 (no browning and using an objective assay (absorbance at 340 nm. Minimally processed roots showed a pronounced increase in carbon dioxide evolution immediately after processing. 'Princesa' had the highest respiratory activity among the evaluated cultivars, being 40% higher two hours after processing than the other cultivars. 'Brazlândia Roxa' and 'Brazlândia Branca' were significantly less susceptible to browning compared to 'Princesa', which was rated as unacceptable for commercial use at the end of the storage period. 'Brazlândia Roxa' and 'Brazlândia Branca' were still marketable at the end of the storage period.Batata doce (Ipomoea batatas L., 'Brazlândia Roxa', 'Brazlândia Branca' e 'Princesa' foram colhidas no ponto ótimo de maturidade hortícola, com o objetivo de avaliar-se a atividade respiratória e a suscetibilidade ao escurecimento de raízes minimamente processadas. Após a colheita, raízes sem danos mecânicos aparentes foram selecionadas para tamanho (18±2cm e diâmetro (5±1cm e foram minimamente processadas no interior de uma câmara fria. As raízes minimamente processadas foram colocadas em frascos de vidro hermeticamente fechados e armazenados a 3±0,5°C para avaliar

  12. PERKEMBANGAN AERENKIM AKAR KANGKUNG DARAT (Ipomoea reptans Poir DAN KANGKUNG AIR (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Ningsih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian tentang perkembangan aerenkim pada kangkung darat dan kangkung air telah dilakukan pada bulan Oktober 2014 sampai Februari 2015 di Laboratorium Struktur Perkembangan Tumbuhan Jurusan Biologi Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Andalas. Jaringan akar diproses dengan metode parafin, kemudian dideskripsikan secara kuantitatif. Rongga aerenkim pada kangkung air terbentuk pada minggu ke tiga dengan jumlah dua rongga sel sedangkan pada kangung darat terbentuk pada minggu ke empat. Proses pembentukan aerenkim terjadi melalui proses pelisisan sel korteks.Abstract Research of aerenchyma development on terrestrial kale Ipomea reptans poir and water kale Ipomoea aquatic Forsk was conducted from October, 2014 until February, 2015 at Laboratory of plant growth structure, the Faculty of Math and Science, Department of Biology, Andalas University. Kales were analyzed by using paraffin method then described by quantitive data. Results showed: (i aerenchyma cavities were formed in the 1st week, (ii aquatic Forsks with two cell cavities were formed in the 3rd week, (iii terrestrial kales were formed in the 4th week. The formation process of aerenchyma occurred through lysis process of cortical cell.

  13. Control of amphibious weed ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea) by utilizing it for the extraction of volatile fatty acids as energy precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq Kumar, M; Tauseef, S M; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2015-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs), comprising mainly of acetic acid and lesser quantities of propionic and butyric acids, are generated when zoomass or phytomass is acted upon by acidogenic and acetogenic microorganisms. VFAs can be utilized by methanogens under anaerobic conditions to generate flammable methane-carbon dioxide mixtures known as 'biogas'. Acting on the premise that this manner of VFA utilization for generating relatively clean energy can be easily accomplished in a controlled fashion in conventional biogas plants as well as higher-rate anaerobic digesters, we have carried out studies aimed to generate VFAs from the pernicious weed ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea). The VFA extraction was accomplished by a simple yet effective technology, appropriate for use even by laypersons. For this acid-phase reactors were set, to which measured quantities of ipomoea leaves were charged along with water inoculated with cow dung. The reactors were stirred intermittently. It was found that VFA production started within hours of the mixing of the reactants and peaked by the 10(th) or 11(th) day in all the reactors, effecting a conversion of over 10% of the biomass into VFAs. The reactor performance had good reproducibility and the process appeared easily controllable, frugal and robust.

  14. Control of amphibious weed ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea by utilizing it for the extraction of volatile fatty acids as energy precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiq Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile fatty acids (VFAs, comprising mainly of acetic acid and lesser quantities of propionic and butyric acids, are generated when zoomass or phytomass is acted upon by acidogenic and acetogenic microorganisms. VFAs can be utilized by methanogens under anaerobic conditions to generate flammable methane–carbon dioxide mixtures known as ‘biogas’. Acting on the premise that this manner of VFA utilization for generating relatively clean energy can be easily accomplished in a controlled fashion in conventional biogas plants as well as higher-rate anaerobic digesters, we have carried out studies aimed to generate VFAs from the pernicious weed ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea. The VFA extraction was accomplished by a simple yet effective technology, appropriate for use even by laypersons. For this acid-phase reactors were set, to which measured quantities of ipomoea leaves were charged along with water inoculated with cow dung. The reactors were stirred intermittently. It was found that VFA production started within hours of the mixing of the reactants and peaked by the 10th or 11th day in all the reactors, effecting a conversion of over 10% of the biomass into VFAs. The reactor performance had good reproducibility and the process appeared easily controllable, frugal and robust.

  15. Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kangkung Air (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) dan Kangkung Darat (Ipomoea reptans Poir.) yang Ditanam di Daerah Berbeda Ketinggian

    OpenAIRE

    Sijabat, Novriani

    2015-01-01

    Kangkung is a member of Convolvulaceae plants which is popular in Indonesia. Kangkung leaves contain of amino acid, fatty acid, minerals, and a high value of total phenolic content. Kangkung had been found with cyotoxic, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. There are 2 types of kangkung : water’s kangkung (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) and land’s kangkung (Ipomoea reptans Poir.) Both are growing well on different-altitude areas. The purpose of this study was to det...

  16. Produção de sementes de batata-doce, por fecundações artificiais, em casa de vegetação Seed setting of sweet potato hand pollinated under grenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Antonio Monteiro

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available No período de 1970-1977, estudou-se a produção de sementes verdadeiras de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., por fecundações artificiais em condições de casa de vegetação, cultivando-se segmentos de ramas com botões florais em vasos com água. Os resultados evidenciaram diferença de comportamento dos genótipos quanto à capacidade de produção de sementes. O genótipo SRT 252 (Rama Grossa foi o que melhor se comportou como planta feminina, com formação de 57,40% de cápsulas quando cruzado com outros genótipos e 40,20% quando autofecundado.Seed setting of five sweet potato genotypes: SRT 72-Jacareí; SRT 248; SRT 252-Rama Grossa; IAC 66-118-Monalisa and IAC 3-4-Irani was studied under greenhouse conditions. Flowers from vine cuttings growing in water were hand pollinated. All five lines functioned about equally well as pollen parents but there were significant differences in their ability to function as seed parents. Cultivars SRT 248 and SRT 72 when used as female showed a low ability to seed production both when selfed and crossed. Such ability appeared to be a varietal characteristic which affected seed set. Differences were found between the percentage of seed set of open and cross-pollinated flowers. Self incompatibility was observed for four cultivars. The highest degree of self compatibility was showed by the cultivars SRT 252. There was an observed decline in seed set during the month of June, with the highest seed set during April.

  17. KARAKTERISTIK FISIKO-KIMIA TEPUNG UBI JALAR (Ipomoea batatas VARIETAS SUKUH DENGAN VARIASI PROSES PENEPUNGAN [Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Sukuh Variety Sweet Potatoes (Ipomea batatas Flours Made with Various Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifena Honestin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato has considerable potencies to support food diversification program based on flour and starch product. Various processing methods in the flour processing show great effect on alteration of the physicochemical properties of sweet potato flour. This research investigated the effects of different flour processing methods on the physicochemical properties of sweet potato flour. The results showed that processing method had a significant effect on water content, bulk density, colour (L, a, b, microscopic properties of starch granule, water absorption index, water soluble index and pasting properties of the sweet potato flour.

  18. KARAKTERISASI TEPUNG UBI JALAR (Ipomoea batata L. VARIETAS SHIROYUTAKA SERTA KAJIAN POTENSI PENGGUNAANNYA SEBAGAI SUMBER PANGAN KARBOHIDRAT ALTERNATIF [Characterization of Sweet Potato Flour (Ipomea batatas L. var. Shiroyutaka and Assesment of the potential as Alternative Carbohydrate Source For Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beni Hidayat 1

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to characterize sweet potato flour var. shiroyutaka and assessment of its potential as alternative carbohydrate source on food product. Characterization was conducted on flour processed from sweet potato var. shiroyutaka harvested at four months was characteristic, these included whiteness degree and water absorption of the flour, ratio of amylase-amylopectin, form and size of starch granule, and starch digestibility.The research showed that whiteness degree and water absorption of the flour were 78,82% ( 0,52 and 1,25 g/g ( 0,12 respectively. The ratio of amylase-amylopectin, gelatinization temperature, maximum viscosity and invitro starch digest ability were 69.82%: 30.18%, 78-900C and 84,78% respectively. The granule of its starch was round form and with size 2-4 micron.The main potential of the flour is related with its specific characteristics which were the amylose-amylopectin ratio, the starch amylograph profile, form and size of starch granule, and the starch digest ability. These parameters implied that, the flour should be utilized in the production specific food products.

  19. The effect of coloured light on Ipomoea purpurea growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surducan, Vasile; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil

    2009-01-01

    Ipomoea purpurea is a climbing ornamental plant native to Mexico. The paper is describing the experimental setup and results for indoor growing plants exposed to white LED light (inside a reference chamber) and four different wavelength LED lights (inside a measure chamber). Four growing experiments of 12-15 days, took place in identical environmental conditions (identical temperature and relative humidity inside the reference and measure chambers, similar lighting conditions and soil moisture). At the end of the experiments, the plant chlorophyll and xanthophylls content have been measured and the plant aspect (vegetal mass, leaves colour and robustness) has been observed. The smallest content in chlorophyll (a and b) was developed by the plants growth in blue light (480 nm), however those plants where 10% taller than plants growth in white light, but less robust. The higher content in carotenoids and xanthophylls was observed in plants which growth in white and red light.

  20. The effect of coloured light on Ipomoea purpurea growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surducan, Vasile; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil

    2009-08-01

    Ipomoea purpurea is a climbing ornamental plant native to Mexico. The paper is describing the experimental setup and results for indoor growing plants exposed to white LED light (inside a reference chamber) and four different wavelength LED lights (inside a measure chamber). Four growing experiments of 12-15 days, took place in identical environmental conditions (identical temperature and relative humidity inside the reference and measure chambers, similar lighting conditions and soil moisture). At the end of the experiments, the plant chlorophyll and xanthophylls content have been measured and the plant aspect (vegetal mass, leaves colour and robustness) has been observed. The smallest content in chlorophyll (a and b) was developed by the plants growth in blue light (480 nm), however those plants where 10% taller than plants growth in white light, but less robust. The higher content in carotenoids and xanthophylls was observed in plants which growth in white and red light.

  1. Resistência de genótipos de batata a Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Maria Teresa do Rêgo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A traça Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller é considerada atualmente uma das principais pragas da batata. O uso de resistência varietal para controle desse inseto é uma alternativa promissora, mas que ainda precisa ser melhor pesquisada. A resistência de genótipos de batata à traça foi avaliada, em condições de laboratório, analisando-se o efeito de folhas e tubérculos sobre a biologia do inseto. Comparou-se também o desenvolvimento da traça em folhas de batata e tomate. Os experimentos foram conduzidos com os clones de batata NYL 235-4 e N 140-201 (ambos com tricomas glandulares tipo A nas folhas, as cultivares Aracy, Apuã e Itararé e a cultivar de tomate Santa Clara. Os insetos foram criados em folíolos e tubérculos dos genótipos, avaliando-se a duração e a viabilidade das fases larval e pupal e o peso de pupas. O desenvolvimento do inseto não foi afetado nas folhas dos genótipos de batata, mesmo nos materiais com tricomas glandulares. Entretanto, em folhas de tomate houve aumento do período larval e diminuição do peso de pupas, sendo este substrato menos favorável ao desenvolvimento da traça quando comparado às folhas de batata. Em testes com tubérculos, o clone NYL 235-4 apresentou resistência a P. operculella, provocando redução significativa na viabilidade larval e alongamento desta fase. O clone N 140-201 afetou o desenvolvimento do inseto de forma menos pronunciada, alongando a fase larval.

  2. Eradication programs of two sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas] pests, Cylas formicarius and Euscepes postfasciatus, in Japan with special reference to their dispersal ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, S.; Miyatake, T.

    2001-01-01

    Eradication programs are being implemented for 2 sweetpotato weevil pests, Cylas formicarius and Euscepes postfasciatus, in the Ryiikyu Islands located in the southernmost part of Japan by the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). As it is essential for the implementation of the programs to assess the dispersal ability of the weevils, recent studies were reviewed. Both the flight and walking ability of C. formicarius was much higher in males than in females when determined in the laboratory. Synthesized sex pheromone of C. formicarius has been used as a strong lure to capture the males in the field. Results of the mark-recapture experiments suggest that a distance of at least 2 km is needed for the range of the buffer zone to separate the SIT target area from others. Since E. postfasciatus is unable to fly, only the walking ability was evaluated in the laboratory, indicating that the females exhibited a fairly higher locomotion activity compared with the males. Since no effective attractant for E. postfasciatus has been identified yet, information on the dispersal activity in the field is limited. Fundamental studies should be conducted to determine the dispersal ability of both weevil pests to implement successfully the eradication programs

  3. Simulation of transient heat transfer during cooling and heating of whole sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) roots under forced-air conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korese, Joseph Kudadam; Sturm, Barbara; Román, Franz; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat transfer of whole sweet potato roots under forced-air cooling and heating is investigated. • Experiments were carried out in a cooling and heating chamber. • The cooling and heating rate and time was clearly depended on air velocity and roots size. • Simulated and experimental data on cooling and heating times were compared for validation. • Simulation results quantitatively agreed with experimental results. - Abstract: In this work, we investigated how different air velocity and temperature affect the cooling and heating rate and time of individual sweet potato roots. Additionally, we modified and applied a simulation model which is based on the fundamental solution of the transient equations for estimating the cooling and heating time at the centre of sweet potato roots. The model was adapted to receive input parameters such as thermo-physical properties of whole sweet potato roots as well as the surrounding air properties, and was verified with experimental transient temperature data. The experimental results showed that the temperature at the centre and the under skin of sweet potato roots is almost homogeneous during forced convection cooling and heating. The cooling and heating time was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by high air velocity and sweet potato root size. The simulation results quantitatively agreed with the experimental transient data. This research, thus provides a reliable experimental and theoretical basis for understanding the temperature variations as well as estimating the cooling and heating times in individual sweet potato roots under forced convection cooling and heating. The result from this study could be applied to design and optimize forced-air treatment equipments with improved energy efficiency as well as ensuring safety and the maintenance of sweet potato roots quality.

  4. Effect of including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) meal in finishing pig diets on growth performance, carcass traits and pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosemoli, Silvana; Moron-Fuenmayor, Oneida Elizabeth; Paez, Angel; Villamide, Maria Jesús

    2016-10-01

    The partial replacement of a commercial concentrate at 10-20% and 15-30% (the first percentage of each dietary treatment corresponded to weeks 1-3 and the second to weeks 4-7 of the experiment, respectively) by sweet potato meal (SPM; 70% foliage: 30% roots) was evaluated for growth performance, carcass yield, instrumental and sensory pork quality using 36 commercial crossbred pigs (56.8 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight). Three dietary treatments were compared in a randomized complete block design. Most growth, carcass traits and pork quality variables were not affected by the SPM inclusion. Growth performance averaged 868 g/day and feed efficiency 0.24 kg/kg. However, feed intake increased 2.2% (P = 0.04) in pigs fed the 10-20% SPM diets, in a similar order of magnitude as the decrease in dietary energy. Despite an increase in gastrointestinal tract as a percent of hot carcass weight (+14.7%) (P = 0.03) with SPM inclusion, carcass yield averaged 69.4%. Conversely, decreases in loin yield (-4.2%) (P = 0.05), backfat thickness (-6.0%) (P < 0.01) and pork tenderness (-13%) (P = 0.02) were observed with 15-30% SPM inclusion. Results suggest that up to 20% SPM inclusion is a viable feed strategy for finishing pigs, easily replicable in small farm settings. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. VARIACIÓN DE LA DIFUSIVIDAD TÉRMICA DEL LOCHE (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), LA PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L.) Y EL CAMOTE (Ipomoea batatas L.) DURANTE EL CALENTAMIENTO

    OpenAIRE

    Solano-Corenjo, Miguel Ángel; Universidad Señor de Sipan; Vidaurre-Ruiz, Julio Mauricio; Universidad Señor de Sipan

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la variación de la difusividad térmica del loche, la papa y el camote durante el calentamiento. También se evaluó la bondad de ajuste con los diferentes modelos predictivos que relacionan la variación de la difusividad térmica con respecto a la temperatura. Los valores de difusividad térmica efectiva se obtuvieron utilizando la curva de calentamiento de las muestras a las temperaturas de 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 y 90°C y se compararon los valores experi...

  6. The potential of computer vision, optical backscattering parameters and artificial neural network modelling in monitoring the shrinkage of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) during drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwude, Daniel I; Hashim, Norhashila; Abdan, Khalina; Janius, Rimfiel; Chen, Guangnan

    2018-03-01

    Drying is a method used to preserve agricultural crops. During the drying of products with high moisture content, structural changes in shape, volume, area, density and porosity occur. These changes could affect the final quality of dried product and also the effective design of drying equipment. Therefore, this study investigated a novel approach in monitoring and predicting the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying. Drying experiments were conducted at temperatures of 50-70 °C and samples thicknesses of 2-6 mm. The volume and surface area obtained from camera vision, and the perimeter and illuminated area from backscattered optical images were analysed and used to evaluate the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying. The relationship between dimensionless moisture content and shrinkage of sweet potato in terms of volume, surface area, perimeter and illuminated area was found to be linearly correlated. The results also demonstrated that the shrinkage of sweet potato based on computer vision and backscattered optical parameters is affected by the product thickness, drying temperature and drying time. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network with input layer containing three cells, two hidden layers (18 neurons), and five cells for output layer, was used to develop a model that can monitor, control and predict the shrinkage parameters and moisture content of sweet potato slices under different drying conditions. The developed ANN model satisfactorily predicted the shrinkage and dimensionless moisture content of sweet potato with correlation coefficient greater than 0.95. Combined computer vision, laser light backscattering imaging and artificial neural network can be used as a non-destructive, rapid and easily adaptable technique for in-line monitoring, predicting and controlling the shrinkage and moisture changes of food and agricultural crops during drying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Chemical composition, nitrogen degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in vines harvested from four tropical sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, R; Mlambo, V; Mangwe, M C; Dlamini, B J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of vines from four sweet potato varieties (Tia Nong 57, Tia Nong 66, Ligwalagwala and Kenya) as alternative feed resources for ruminant livestock. The chemical composition [neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN)], in vitro ruminal nitrogen (N) degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in the vines, harvested at 70 and 110 days after planting (DAP), were determined. Variety and harvesting stage did not (p > 0.05) influence CP and NDF content of the vines. Concentration of CP ranged from 104.9 to 212.2 g/kg DM, while NDF ranged from 439.4 to 529.2 g/kg DM across harvesting stages and varieties. Nitrogen degradability (ND) at 70 and 110 DAP was highest (p ruminal cumulative gas production parameters (a, b and c). The in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins, as measured by increment in gas production parameters upon PEG inclusion, had a maximum value of 18.2%, suggesting low to moderate antinutritional tannin activity. Ligwalagwala vines, with highly degradable N, would be the best protein supplement to use during the dry season when ruminant animals consume low N basal diets and maintenance is an acceptable production objective. Tia Nong 66 and Kenya varieties, with less degradable N, may be more suitable for use as supplements for high-producing animals such as dairy goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Water-Deficit Tolerance in Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.] by Foliar Application of Paclobutrazol: Role of Soluble Sugar and Free Proline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suravoot Yooyongwech

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to elevate water deficit tolerance by improving soluble sugar and free proline accumulation, photosynthetic pigment stabilization, photosynthetic abilities, growth performance and storage root yield in sweet potato cv. ‘Tainung 57’ using a foliar application of paclobutrazol (PBZ. The experiment followed a Completely Randomized Block Design with four concentrations of PBZ: 0 (control, 17, 34, and 51 μM before exposure to 47.5% (well irrigation, 32.3% (mild water deficit or 17.5% (severe water deficit soil water content. A sweet potato cultivar, ‘Japanese Yellow’, with water deficit tolerance attributes was the positive check in this study. Total soluble sugar content (sucrose, glucose, and fructose increased by 3.96-folds in ‘Tainung 57’ plants treated with 34 μM PBZ grown under 32.3% soil water content (SWC compared to the untreated plants, adjusting osmotic potential in the leaves and controlling stomatal closure (represented by stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. In addition, under the same treatment, free proline content (2.15 μmol g-1 FW increased by 3.84-folds when exposed to 17.5% SWC. PBZ had an improved effect on leaf size, vine length, photosynthetic pigment stability, chlorophyll fluorescence, and net photosynthetic rate; hence, delaying wilting symptoms and maintaining storage root yield (26.93 g plant-1 at the harvesting stage. A positive relationship between photon yield of PSII (ΦPSII and net photosynthetic rate was demonstrated (r2 = 0.73. The study concludes that soluble sugar and free proline enrichment in PBZ-pretreated plants may play a critical role as major osmoprotectant to control leaf osmotic potential and stomatal closure when plants were subjected to low soil water content, therefore, maintaining the physiological and morphological characters as well as storage root yield.

  9. Physical, chemical and sensory properties of brownies substituted with sweet potato flour (Ipomoea batatas L.) with addition of black cumin oil (Nigella sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligarnasari, I. P.; Anam, C.; Sanjaya, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Effect of addition black cumin oil on the physical (hardness) characteristics, chemical (water, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate, antioxidant IC50, total phenol and active component) characteristics and sensory (flavor, taste, texture, overall) characteristics of brownies substituted sweet potato flour were investigated. Substituted brownies was added with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20% and 0.25% of nigella sativa oil. The result showed that water content, ash, protein, fat, total phenol were increased and carbohydrate, antioxidant IC50 was decreased by the addition of nigella sativa oil. Due to the sensory characteristics, panelist gave the high score for substituted brownies which was added 0.05% nigella sativa oil. The result showed that the best formula of substituted brownies which was added 0.05% of nigella sativa oil had 24.89% water content, 1.19% ash content, 7.54% protein content, 37.79% fat content, 53.06% carbohydrate contain, 1043.6 ppm IC50 antioxidant and 0.22% total phenol. The active component on the brownies using GCMS identification were palmitic acid, oleic acid, lauric acid, theobromine and vitamin E.

  10. Physical Characteristics of White Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), Rice (Oryza sativa L.), and Tapioca (Manihot esculenta) Flours - Based Seasoning Composite Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfani, NNA; Ishartani, D.; Anam, C.; Praseptiangga, D.; Manuhara, G. J.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of seasoning composite flour that made from white sweet potato, rice, and tapioca flours, and determined the best formula of seasoning composite flour. A completely randomized design (CRD) with formula as the single factor was used. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA method and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance 5% if there was a significant difference. The best formula of seasoning composite flour was 30% tapioca flour, 30% rice flour, and 40% white sweet potato flour. The physical characteristics of the best formula were 5.689 ml/g of swelling power, 2.681 g/g of water absorption capacity, 0.887 ml/g of oil absorption capacity, and 22.03% cooking loss. Physical characteristics of the best seasoning composite flour were significantly different from the commercial seasoning flour and showed a better cooking loss, oil absorption capacity, and swelling power than commercial seasoning flour.

  11. Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) and their color modulation by the addition of phenolic acids and food-grade phenolic plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Claudia C; Nemetz, Nicole; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2017-11-15

    Anthocyanin profiles and contents of three purple sweet potato provenances were investigated by HPLC-DAD-MS n . In contrast to widely uniform profiles, the contents of total (558-2477mg/100gDM) and individual anthocyanins varied widely. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative effects of intermolecular co-pigmentation were studied by adding chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids, and food-grade phenolic apple and rosemary extracts at various dosages to a diluted purple sweet potato concentrate at pH 0.9, 2.6, 3.6, and 4.6. Addition of co-pigments generally increased pK H estimate -values of anthocyanins from 3.28 (without co-pigments) to up to 4.71, thus substantially broadening the pH range wherein colored forms prevail. The most pronounced hyperchromic shift by up to +50.5% at the absorption maximum was observed at pH 4.6. Simply by blending the co-pigments with purple sweet potato anthocyanins at pH-values ranging from 2.6 to 4.6, purplish-blue, light pink, magenta, brick-red, and intense red hues were accessible as expressed by CIE-L ∗ a ∗ b ∗ color values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Water-Deficit Tolerance in Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] by Foliar Application of Paclobutrazol: Role of Soluble Sugar and Free Proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooyongwech, Suravoot; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Tisarum, Rujira; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Cha-Um, Suriyan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elevate water deficit tolerance by improving soluble sugar and free proline accumulation, photosynthetic pigment stabilization, photosynthetic abilities, growth performance and storage root yield in sweet potato cv. 'Tainung 57' using a foliar application of paclobutrazol (PBZ). The experiment followed a Completely Randomized Block Design with four concentrations of PBZ: 0 (control), 17, 34, and 51 μM before exposure to 47.5% (well irrigation), 32.3% (mild water deficit) or 17.5% (severe water deficit) soil water content. A sweet potato cultivar, 'Japanese Yellow', with water deficit tolerance attributes was the positive check in this study. Total soluble sugar content (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) increased by 3.96-folds in 'Tainung 57' plants treated with 34 μM PBZ grown under 32.3% soil water content (SWC) compared to the untreated plants, adjusting osmotic potential in the leaves and controlling stomatal closure (represented by stomatal conductance and transpiration rate). In addition, under the same treatment, free proline content (2.15 μmol g -1 FW) increased by 3.84-folds when exposed to 17.5% SWC. PBZ had an improved effect on leaf size, vine length, photosynthetic pigment stability, chlorophyll fluorescence, and net photosynthetic rate; hence, delaying wilting symptoms and maintaining storage root yield (26.93 g plant -1 ) at the harvesting stage. A positive relationship between photon yield of PSII (Φ PSII ) and net photosynthetic rate was demonstrated ( r 2 = 0.73). The study concludes that soluble sugar and free proline enrichment in PBZ-pretreated plants may play a critical role as major osmoprotectant to control leaf osmotic potential and stomatal closure when plants were subjected to low soil water content, therefore, maintaining the physiological and morphological characters as well as storage root yield.

  13. The role of stamens in ethylene production in Ipomoea nil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Ethylene production inhibits filament and corolla growth during young stages in flower development, and it promotes corolla unfolding and senescence in Ipomoea nil. Initial studies with the in vitro application of gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), demonstrated that decreased filament growth occurred when the anthers remained attached to the filaments during the young stages in development. The removal of the anthers from intact plants did not enhance filament growth until the synthesis of wound ethylene was inhibited by applied aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) or cobalt chloride. It was hypothesized that the anthers were source tissues and that the filaments were transport vectors for the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to regulate growth events in the various floral organs. To test this hypothesis, endogenous IAA and ACC and ethylene production were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or gas chromatography. The transport of 14 C-IAA and 14 C-ACC through filament segments and filaments within intact flower buds also was examined during flower development

  14. Is Allelopathic Activity of Ipomoea murucoides Induced by Xylophage Damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Corona-López, Angélica María; Rios, María Yolanda; Aguilar-Guadarrama, Berenice; Toledo-Hernández, Víctor Hugo; Rodríguez-López, Verónica; Valencia-Díaz, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory activates the synthesis of allelochemicals that can mediate plant-plant interactions. There is an inverse relationship between the activity of xylophages and the abundance of epiphytes on Ipomoea murucoides. Xylophagy may modify the branch chemical constitution, which also affects the liberation of allelochemicals with defense and allelopathic properties. We evaluated the bark chemical content and the effect of extracts from branches subjected to treatments of exclusion, mechanical damage and the presence/absence of epiphytes, on the seed germination of the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata. Principal component analysis showed that branches without any treatment separate from branches subjected to treatments; damaged and excluded branches had similar chemical content but we found no evidence to relate intentional damage with allelopathy; however 1-hexadecanol, a defense volatile compound correlated positively with principal component (PC) 1. The chemical constitution of branches subject to exclusion plus damage or plus epiphytes was similar among them. PC2 indicated that palmitic acid (allelopathic compound) and squalene, a triterpene that attracts herbivore enemies, correlated positively with the inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata. Inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata was mainly correlated with the increment of palmitic acid and this compound reached higher concentrations in excluded branches treatments. Then, it is likely that the allelopathic response of I. murucoides would increase to the damage (shade, load) that may be caused by a high load of epiphytes than to damage caused by the xylophages.

  15. Is Allelopathic Activity of Ipomoea murucoides Induced by Xylophage Damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Flores-Palacios

    Full Text Available Herbivory activates the synthesis of allelochemicals that can mediate plant-plant interactions. There is an inverse relationship between the activity of xylophages and the abundance of epiphytes on Ipomoea murucoides. Xylophagy may modify the branch chemical constitution, which also affects the liberation of allelochemicals with defense and allelopathic properties. We evaluated the bark chemical content and the effect of extracts from branches subjected to treatments of exclusion, mechanical damage and the presence/absence of epiphytes, on the seed germination of the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata. Principal component analysis showed that branches without any treatment separate from branches subjected to treatments; damaged and excluded branches had similar chemical content but we found no evidence to relate intentional damage with allelopathy; however 1-hexadecanol, a defense volatile compound correlated positively with principal component (PC 1. The chemical constitution of branches subject to exclusion plus damage or plus epiphytes was similar among them. PC2 indicated that palmitic acid (allelopathic compound and squalene, a triterpene that attracts herbivore enemies, correlated positively with the inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata. Inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata was mainly correlated with the increment of palmitic acid and this compound reached higher concentrations in excluded branches treatments. Then, it is likely that the allelopathic response of I. murucoides would increase to the damage (shade, load that may be caused by a high load of epiphytes than to damage caused by the xylophages.

  16. Secretory structures of Ipomoea asarifolia: anatomy and histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano M. Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult., Convolvulaceae, is a weed that infests agricultural areas and is toxic to cattle. In spite of its toxicity, the leaves of this plant are used in traditional remedies in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The present work describes the leaf anatomy of I. asarifolia and characterizes the exudates of its secretory structures. The leaves have a unistratified epidermis composed of ordinary cells with straight to slightly sinuous anticlinal walls and thin cuticles. Paracytic stomata are found on both surfaces of the leaves at the same level as the ordinary epidermal cells. Trichomes producing polysaccharide secretions occur on the petiole and leaf blade and are considered colleters. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the vascular bundle of the central vein is bicollateral. Two opposed nectaries occur on the petiole near the leaf blade. Each nectary is composed of a small canal with internal ramifications and numerous secretory trichomes. The laticiferous glands are articulated, not anastomosed, and are composed of large diameter cells with thin cell walls. The secretions of the laticiferous glands are lipidic.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of carnein, a serine protease from Ipomoea carnea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, A.K.; Oosterwijk, N. van; Singh, V.K.; Rozeboom, H.J.; Kalk, K.H.; Siezen, R.J.; Jagannadham, M.V.; Dijkstra, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Carnein is an 80 kDa subtilisin-like serine protease from the latex of the plant Ipomoea carnea which displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation. In order to obtain the first crystal structure of a plant subtilisin and to gain insight into the structural determinants

  18. The use of ultrasonography to study teratogenicity in ruminants: Evaluation of Ipomoea carnea in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoea carnea (I. carnea) is a poisonous plant found in Brazil and other tropical countries that often poison livestock. The plant contains calystegines and swainsonine, which inhibit cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perinatal effects...

  19. Maternal ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on goat-kid bonding and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral...

  20. Conditioned food aversion to control outbreaks of intoxication by Ipomoea carnea and Turbina cordata in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditioned food aversion is used to train livestock to avoid the ingestion of toxic plants. This technique was used to control Turbina cordata poisoning in goats in one farm, and to control Ipomoea carnea subsp. istulosa poisoning in another farm. The goats were penned at night and the next mornin...

  1. Conditioned food aversion to control poisoning by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant often ingested by livestock in Brazil. Three experiments were conducted to determine if conditioned food aversion was effective in reducing goats’ consumption of I. carnea. In the fi rst experiment, 10 mildly intoxicated goats that had been eating I. carnea were avert...

  2. Desempenho de cultivares nacionais de batata para produtividade de tubérculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Olegario da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desempenho dos cultivares de batata nacionais BRS Ana e BRS Clara, em comparação com os cultivares importados Ágata e Asterix, em relação à produtividade de tubérculos. Os experimentos foram realizados no município de Canoinhas, SC. Foram avaliados quatro cultivares de batata: BRS Ana, BRS Clara, Asterix e Ágata. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As parcelas continham quatro linhas com 20 plantas em cada linha. Cento e dez dias após o plantio foi realizada a colheita e, os tubérculos de cada parcela, avaliados para caracteres relacionados com a produtividade de tubérculos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e agrupamento de médias, por Skott & Knott, a 5% de probabilidade. Os cultivares de batata nacionais BRS Ana e BRS Clara foram mais produtivos do que os importados Asterix e Ágata; no entanto, são mais tardios, quanto ao ciclo vegetativo.

  3. Floral biology and breeding system of three Ipomoea weeds Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de três espécies daninhas de Ipomoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.S. Maimoni-Rodella

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The floral biology of three weeds, Ipomoea cairica, I. grandifolia and I. nil (Convolvulaceae, was studied in Botucatu and Jaboticabal, São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil. The three species are melittophilous, with a varied set of floral visitors, but with some overlapping. Cluster analysis using Jacquard similarity index indicated a greater similarity among different plant species in the same locality than among the populations at different places, in relation to floral visitor sets. The promiscuous and opportunistic features of the flowers were shown, with such type of adaptation to pollination being advantageous to weeds since pollinator availability is unpredictable at ruderal environments.A biologia floral de Ipomoea cairica, I. grandifolia e I. nil - plantas daninhas da família Convolvulaceae - foi estudada em Botucatu e Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As três espécies são melitófilas, apresentando conjuntos de visitantes florais bastante diversificados, embora haja alguma sobreposição entre eles. Com relação aos visitantes florais, a análise de agrupamento, empregando-se o índice de similaridade de Jaccard, indicou maior similaridade entre diferentes espécies de Ipomoea ocorrentes no mesmo local do que entre populações da mesma espécie em diferentes localidades. O caráter promíscuo e oportunista da adaptação à polinização, presente nessas espécies, foi demonstrado, sendo essa adaptação vantajosa para plantas daninhas, uma vez que em ambientes ruderais a disponibilidade de polinizadores é imprevisível.

  4. Review of the genus Ipomoea: traditional uses, chemistry and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Meira

    Full Text Available Approximately 600-700 species of Ipomoea, Convolvulaceae, are found throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Several of those species have been used as ornamental plants, food, medicines or in religious ritual. The present work reviews the traditional uses, chemistry and biological activities of Ipomoea species and illustrates the potential of the genus as a source of therapeutic agents. These species are used in different parts of the world for the treatment of several diseases, such as, diabetes, hypertension, dysentery, constipation, fatigue, arthritis, rheumatism, hydrocephaly, meningitis, kidney ailments and inflammations. Some of these species showed antimicrobial, analgesic, spasmolitic, spasmogenic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, psychotomimetic and anticancer activities. Alkaloids, phenolics compounds and glycolipids are the most common biologically active constituents from these plant extracts.

  5. Dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dyes extracted from spinach and ipomoea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H., E-mail: f10381@ntut.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1. Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Wu, H.M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, No. 40, Sec. 3, Jhongshan N. Rd. Jhongshan District, Taipei City 104, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.L. [Department of Industrial Design, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.D. [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Jwo, C.S. [Department of Energy and Air-Conditioning Refrigeration Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Lo, Y.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1. Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-16

    This study used spinach extract, ipomoea leaf extract and their mixed extracts as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Spinach and ipomoea leaves were first placed separately in ethanol and the chlorophyll of these two kinds of plants was extracted to serve as the natural dyes for using in DSSCs. In addition, the self-developed nanofluid synthesis system prepared a TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 50 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to let the TiO{sub 2} deposit nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11.61 {mu}m. This TiO{sub 2} thin film underwent sintering at 450 {sup o}C to enhance the compactness of thin film. Finally, the sintered TiO{sub 2} thin film was immersed in the natural dye solutions extracted from spinach and ipomoea leaves, completing the production of the anode of DSSC. This study then further inspected the fill factor, photoelectric conversion efficiency and incident photon current efficiency of the encapsulated DSSC. According to the experimental results of current-voltage curve, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by natural dyes from ipomoea leaf extract is 0.318% under extraction temperature of 50 {sup o}C and pH value of extraction fluid at 1.0. This paper also investigated the influence of the temperature in the extraction process of this kind of natural dye and the influence of pH value of the dye solution on the UV-VIS patterns absorption spectra of the prepared natural dye solutions, and the influence of these two factors on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  6. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in tissue cultures of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Poir.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J R; Cantliffe, D J

    1984-06-01

    Leaf, shoot-tip, stem, and root explants of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Poir.) gave rise to two kinds of callus on nutrient agar medium containing 0.5 to 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. One callus, bright- to pale-yellow, was compact and organized, while the other was dull-yellow and friable. The former callus gave rise to numerous globular and heart-shaped embryoids. When transferred onto hormone-free medium, the embryoids readily developed into a torpedo-shape before germination. The plantlets were transplanted to soil where they flowered and formed storage roots at maturity.

  7. Efeito dos parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades funcionais de extrusados da farinha de batata-doce Effect of extrusion parameters on sweet potato extrudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Borba

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Farinha de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas foi extrusada em equipamento de rosca simples, mantendo-se fixas as temperaturas na 1ª e 2ª zonas de extrusão (20ºC e 60ºC, respectivamente. O efeito das variáveis umidade da farinha (15, 18 e 21%, temperatura na 3ª zona (100, 120 e 140ºC e rotação da rosca (180, 210 e 240 rpm sobre as características dos extrusados foi investigado utilizando-se metodologia de superfície de resposta. O teor de umidade e a temperatura de extrusão influenciaram significativamente a expansão dos extrusados. O índice de expansão apresentou valores crescentes com a temperatura sob baixos teores de umidade. A dureza dos extrusados e também o índice de absorção de água e o índice de solubilidade em água das farinhas extrusadas não mostraram modelo de regressão significativo com as condições de processo. Quanto à cor das farinhas, o componente L* (luminosidade apresentou valores crescentes e o parâmetro a*, valores decrescentes com a elevação do teor de umidade até 20-21%. O parâmetro b* e a diferença de cor entre farinhas extrusadas e não extrusadas mostraram valores decrescentes com o aumento da umidade.Sweet potato flour was processed using a single-screw extruder, with extrusion temperatures in zones 1 and 2 of 20ºC and 60ºC, respectively. The effect of flour moisture content (15, 18 and 21%, barrel temperature in zone 3 (100, 120 and 140ºC and screw speed (180, 210 and 240 rpm on extrudate attributes was investigated using response surface methodology. Moisture content and extrusion temperature had a significant (p<0.05 influence on extrudates expansion. The expansion ratio of the extrudates showed increasing values with temperature under conditions of low moisture content. The firmness of extrudates and also the water absorption index and water solubility index of the pre-gelatinized flours did not show significant regression models with the processing conditions. The flours color was

  8. Efeito de bioestimulante no crescimento inicial e na produtividade de plantas de batata-doce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Beraldo Rós

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO uso de bioestimulantes na agricultura tem apresentado efeitos positivos sobre a produtividade de determinadas culturas. No entanto, são escassos os estudos com o uso desses produtos em culturas cuja porção comercial é composta por raízes. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência de diferentes concentrações do bioestimulante Stimulate(rsobre o crescimento inicial de plantas de batata-doce e sobre a produtividade de raízes tuberosas. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, nos quais segmentos de ramas de batata-doce foram parcialmente imersos em soluções com bioestimulante. Na casa de vegetação, o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 6 x 6, sendo seis concentrações de biofertilizante (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 mL L-1e seis épocas de coleta (10, 19, 28, 37, 46 e 55 dias após o plantio de raízes e folhas. No campo, o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo os tratamentos seis concentrações de bioestimulante (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 mL L-1. A percentagem de segmentos enraizados não variou entre os tratamentos. O bioestimulante influenciou o número de raízes adventícias e de folhas por planta, mas não sua massa seca. A produtividade de raízes tuberosas não diferiu entre os tratamentos, sendo os valores médios de 25,5 e 22,3 t ha-1para produtividades total e comercial, respectivamente. Assim, a utilização do bioestimulante interfere no número de raízes e de folhas de plantas de batata-doce, mas não favorece a produtividade de raízes tuberosas até a concentração de 15 mL L-1.

  9. Bioaccumulation of metals and metalloids in medicinal plant Ipomoea pes-caprae from areas impacted by tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Lidia; Kokociński, Mikołaj; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Lorenc, Stanisław

    2015-02-01

    Tsunami events may have an enormous impact on the functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems by altering various relationships with biotic components. Concentrations of acid-leachable fractions of heavy metals and metalloids in soils and plant samples from areas affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Thailand were determined. Ipomoea pes-caprae, a common plant species growing along the seashore of this region, and frequently used in folk medicine, was selected to assess the presence of selected elements. Elevated amounts of Cd, Pb, Zn, and As in soil samples, and Pb, Zn, As, Se, Cr, and Ni in plant samples were determined from the tsunami-impacted regions for comparison with reference locations. The flowers of Ipomoea pes-caprae contained the highest amounts of these metals, followed by its leaves, and stems. In addition, its bioaccumulation factor (BAF) supports this capability of high metal uptake by Ipomoea pes-caprae from the areas affected by the tsunami in comparison with a reference site. This uptake was followed by the translocation of these elements to the various plant components. The presence of these toxic metals in Ipomoea pes-caprae growing in contaminated soils should be a concern of those who use this plant for medicinal purposes. Further studies on the content of heavy metals and metalloids in this plant in relation to human health concerns are recommended. © 2014 SETAC.

  10. KARAKTERISTIK PROKSIMAT DAN ORGANOLEPTIK UBI JALAR MERAH (IPOMEA BATATAS (L. LAM. PADA BERBAGAI PROSES PEMASAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Febriantini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L. Lam. is one of functional foods that can maintain and improve human health. Due to the very hard texture of red sweet potato, it cannot be consumed directly. Therefore, it requires various cooking methods in order to be more suitable for consumption. This study aimed at determining effects of various cooking methods on the proximate and sensory properties of red sweet potato. The research covers various cooking methods of red sweet potato through boiling, frying, baking, steaming, and one treatment without cooking process (fresh which was used as a control. The results show that various cooking methods affect almost all testing parameters significantly, except for ash content. Baked red sweet potato has the lowest moisture content (38,75% and the highest sugar value as sucrose (17,17%. Sensory properties test results show that the most preferred red sweet potato is fried red sweet potato.

  11. Solanáceas em sistema orgânico no Brasil: tomate, batata e physalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniela Pilar Campos de Melo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa científica brasileira voltada para sistemas orgânicos ainda tem sido permeada por uma lógica baseada na mera substituição de insumos. Falta um aprofundamento em relação ao reconhecimento dos componentes dos sistemas de produção (ecofisiologia; manejo e fertilidade do solo; conservação de água e solo; manejo fitossanitário e como estes podem ser investigados de forma holística. Baseado em tais lacunas discute-se neste artigo de revisão as principais particularidades relacionadas a produção orgânica de tomate e batata, principais oleráceas da família Solanaceae, e de uma frutífera exótica potencial para sistemas orgânicos, a physalis (Physalis peruviana L..

  12. Batatas Fritas, Uma História de Amor e Amizade

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    Claudia Silva Ribeiro Alves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente caso para ensino trata de uma história real de uma indústria fabricante de batatas fritas constituída na cidade de Itajaí/SC, idealizada e fundada por Silvio Zaguini em 26 de dezembro de 1989, que transformou uma pequena fábrica de batata palha em uma grande marca reconhecida no mercado catarinense. No entanto, a trajetória da empresa é marcada por momentos de amor e sofrimento, especialmente no ano de 2003, quando se depara com uma importante perda na família que desestrutura emocionalmente os sócios da empresa. Apesar da indústria apresentar resultados financeiros positivos e estar ampliando seu negócio, Silvio decide vender a marca para seu amigo Odemar Müller, proprietário da empresa DMüller, voltada para outro ramo de atividade comercial. A Distribuidora Müller foi fundada em 06 de setembro de 1965 e é líder no mercado em que atua, além de possuir solidez financeira e ser reconhecida no estado pela sua capacidade instalada, tecnologia, logística e comprometimento com seus clientes. A história de amizade e respeito envolve a venda da empresa para seu grande amigo e proprietário da distribuidora e o dilema na condução de negócios distintos. Este caso real coloca os estudantes frente a questão de tomada de decisão estratégica e mercadológica.

  13. Desempenho de clones elite de batata para caracteres agronômicos e de qualidade industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Olegario da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desempenho de clones elite de batata, em relação a caracteres agronômicos e de qualidade industrial. Os experimentos foram realizados em Pelotas, RS, Canoinhas, SC, e Londrina, PR. Foi avaliado um conjunto de clones elite, pertencentes ao Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Batata, da Embrapa. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições para Pelotas e Londrina e quatro para Canoinhas. Foram avaliados os caracteres massa total de tubérculos, massa comercial de tubérculos, número de tubérculos comerciais, percentagem de massa de tubérculos comerciais, massa média de tubérculos comerciais, peso específico, cor de fritura e ciclo vegetativo. A partir dos dados obtidos foram realizadas as análises de variância para cada local e teste de agrupamento de médias para cada caráter. Para identificação de clones apropriados ao mercado 'in natura', em que é fundamental o elevado potencial produtivo e precocidade, os clones mais promissores foram F80-03-06 e CL02-05, quando comparados à cultivar testemunha Ágata. Para o processamento industrial, em que o peso específico, a cor de fritura e o rendimento de tubérculo são caracteres importantes, destacou-se o clone F81-01-06, que apesar de não apresentar os maiores rendimentos totais, apresentou tubérculos grandes, ciclo vegetativo intermediário e boa aptidão para fritura, quando comparando-se ao cultivar testemunha Asterix.

  14. Identification and characterization of an Ipomoea nil glucosyltransferase which metabolizes some phytohormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Hayase, Hiroki; Nakayama, Akira; Yamaguchi, Isomaro; Asami, Tadao; Nakajima, Masatoshi

    2007-01-01

    A glucosyltransferase gene InGTase1 was identified from the immature seeds of morning glory (Ipomoea nil), whose product shows a broad substrate-preference, including that of some phytohormones. When 2-trans-abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid (SA) or (±)-jasmonic acid was reacted with InGTase1 and UDP-[ 14 C]-glucose, each 14 C-labeled compound with high polarity was detected after thin layer chromatography. SA metabolites were identified as SA glucosyl ester by using 1 H NMR and GC/MS. Detailed substrate-preferences of InGTase1 were examined with some analogous compounds, which elucidated that the arm length and/or orientation of a carboxyl group of the compounds or its surrounding electron density severely affected the enzymatic activity. The broad substrate-preference will greatly contribute to the synthesis of various glucoconjugates

  15. Antifungal activity and isomerization of octadecyl p-coumarates from Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Ganeshan, Girija; Lokesha, Ankanahalli N

    2011-12-01

    Bioassay monitored HPLC assisted isolation and purification of the chief antifungal fraction of the leaves of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convulvulaceae) were achieved using Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cladosporium cucumerinum as test organisms. The activity of the purified fraction was further confirmed by the dose dependent inhibition of the spore germination of Alternaria alternata and A. porri. The active fraction was identified as a mixture of (E)-octadecyl p-coumarate and (Z)-octadecyl p-coumarate. The two isomers were detected on an HPLC column with substantially different retention times, but once eluted from the column, one form was partly converted to the other in daylight. Conclusive evidence for the structures and their isomerization were obtained from the HPLC behavior, IR, UV, HRESIMS, CIMS and and NMR spectral data. Important 1H NMR and 13C NMR signals could be separately assigned for the isomers using 2D NMR techniques.

  16. Caesium Radionuclide Uptake from Wet Soil to Kangkung Plant (Ipomoea sp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putu Sukmabuana; Poppy Intan Tjahaja

    2009-01-01

    Caesium radionuclide transfer from soil to kangkung plant (Ipomoea sp) generally consumed by people had been examined to obtain transfer factor value for internal radiation dose assessment via soil-plant-human pathway. The kangkung plants were cultivated on watered soil medium containing 134 Cs with concentration of about 80 Bq/g, and the 134 Cs uptake by plants, i.e root, stem, and leaves, were measured using gamma spectrometer. The 134 Cs plant uptake was expressed as transfer factor, i.e. ratio of plant 134 Cs concentration to 134 Cs concentration on soil medium. From this research it was obtained transfer factor value of 134 C from soil to plant is 0.07, and the transfer factor for root, stem, and leaves are 0.34 ; 0.05 ; 0,03 respectively, after 45 days cultivation. The transfer factor values are less than one, indicate that kangkung plant do not accumulate Cs radionuclide from soil. (author)

  17. Bioreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia adventitious roots and its endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides for textile dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Swapnil M.; Chandanshive, Vishal V.; Rane, Niraj R.; Khandare, Rahul V.; Watharkar, Anuprita D.; Govindwar, Sanjay P.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro grown untransformed adventitious roots (AR) culture of Ipomoea hederifolia and its endophytic fungus (EF) Cladosporium cladosporioides decolorized Navy Blue HE2R (NB-HE2R) at a concentration of 20 ppm up to 83.3 and 65%, respectively within 96 h. Whereas the AR-EF consortium decolorized the dye more efficiently and gave 97% removal within 36 h. Significant inductions in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and laccase were observed in roots, while enzymes like tyrosinase, laccase and riboflavin reductase activities were induced in EF. Metabolites of dye were analyzed using UV—vis spectroscopy, FTIR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways of NB-HE2R were proposed with AR, EF and AR-EF systems independently. Looking at the superior efficacy of AR-EF system, a rhizoreactor was developed for the treatment of NB-HE2R at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Control reactor systems with independently grown AR and EF gave 94 and 85% NB-HE2R removal, respectively within 36 h. The AR-EF rhizoreactor, however, gave 97% decolorization. The endophyte colonization additionally increased root and shoot lengths of candidate plants through mutualism. Combined bioreactor strategies can be effectively used for future eco-friendly remediation purposes. - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus on Ipomoea hederifolia promotes root growth and shoot development • Endophytic Cladosporium cladosporioides synergistically degrade Navy Blue-HE2R dye • Endophyte colonized I. hederifolia roots proved superior in dye decolorization • Dye stress and toxicity was efficiently dealt by root-endophyte consortium • Root-endophyte consortium can be used as a sustainable remediation strategy

  18. Bioreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia adventitious roots and its endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides for textile dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Swapnil M. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Chandanshive, Vishal V. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Rane, Niraj R.; Khandare, Rahul V. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Watharkar, Anuprita D. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Govindwar, Sanjay P., E-mail: spg_biochem@unishivaji.ac.in [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India)

    2016-04-15

    In vitro grown untransformed adventitious roots (AR) culture of Ipomoea hederifolia and its endophytic fungus (EF) Cladosporium cladosporioides decolorized Navy Blue HE2R (NB-HE2R) at a concentration of 20 ppm up to 83.3 and 65%, respectively within 96 h. Whereas the AR-EF consortium decolorized the dye more efficiently and gave 97% removal within 36 h. Significant inductions in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and laccase were observed in roots, while enzymes like tyrosinase, laccase and riboflavin reductase activities were induced in EF. Metabolites of dye were analyzed using UV—vis spectroscopy, FTIR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways of NB-HE2R were proposed with AR, EF and AR-EF systems independently. Looking at the superior efficacy of AR-EF system, a rhizoreactor was developed for the treatment of NB-HE2R at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Control reactor systems with independently grown AR and EF gave 94 and 85% NB-HE2R removal, respectively within 36 h. The AR-EF rhizoreactor, however, gave 97% decolorization. The endophyte colonization additionally increased root and shoot lengths of candidate plants through mutualism. Combined bioreactor strategies can be effectively used for future eco-friendly remediation purposes. - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus on Ipomoea hederifolia promotes root growth and shoot development • Endophytic Cladosporium cladosporioides synergistically degrade Navy Blue-HE2R dye • Endophyte colonized I. hederifolia roots proved superior in dye decolorization • Dye stress and toxicity was efficiently dealt by root-endophyte consortium • Root-endophyte consortium can be used as a sustainable remediation strategy.

  19. Características físico-químicas e sensoriais de batata frita da cultivar BRS Ana branqueada e revestida com metilcelulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Mello LUVIELMO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O estudo propôs avaliar o efeito do branqueamento combinado ao uso de sais e de revestimentos à base de metilcelulose (MC na absorção de gordura e nas características físico-químicas e sensoriais de batatas da cultivar BRS Ana, submetidas à fritura na forma de batata chips. O experimento foi realizado com a cultivar BRS Ana e a cultivar Asterix, sendo a batata Asterix adequada para produtos fritos. Para o estudo foram definidos controles para as batatas das cultivares BRS Ana (T0’ e Asterix (T0”, batatas que não foram submetidas ao branqueamento nem a qualquer tipo de revestimento. Foram testados três tratamentos para cada cultivar; para a cultivar BRS Ana: T1: com branqueamento e sem revestimento; T2: com branqueamento e com revestimento de 1% de MC; T3: com branqueamento e com revestimento de 2% de MC; para a cultivar Asterix: T4: com branqueamento e sem revestimento; T5: com branqueamento e com revestimento de 1% de MC; T6 com branqueamento e com revestimento de 2% de MC. Para os tratamentos que receberam o branqueamento (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 e T6, foi realizada uma imersão das fatias de batata em água a 85 ºC por 3 minutos, com adição de 0,5% de CaCl2 e 2,5% de NaCl, seguida de resfriamento e centrifugação. As batatas dos tratamentos T2, T3, T5 e T6 que receberam revestimento de MC foram imersas em solução de MC 1 ou 2% (p/v, por 1 min e, em seguida, drenadas. As batatas foram submetidas à fritura em gordura vegetal a 180 ºC. A maior redução de absorção de gordura (13% durante a fritura foi para batata da cultivar BRS Ana submetida ao branqueamento e revestimento com 1% MC, obtendo-se no produto final 29,37% de gordura. Além disso, o revestimento com 1% MC não modificou significativamente a cor e a textura das batatas chips; nos resultados sensoriais esse tratamento não influenciou na preferência para os atributos testados (aparência, cor, sabor e textura e o índice de aceitação sensorial desse

  20. Characterization of the yam tuber storage proteins from Dioscorea batatas exhibiting unique lectin activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidamashvili, Mariam; Ohizumi, Yuki; Iijima, Shinichiro; Takayama, Tomo; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji

    2004-06-18

    Four major proteins designated DB1, DB2, DB3, and DB4 were isolated and characterized from the yam tuber Dioscorea batatas. The ratios of their yields were 20:50:20:10. DB1 was a mannose-binding lectin (20 kDa) consisting of 10-kDa subunits and was classified as the monocot mannose-binding lectin family. DB2, accounting for 50% of the total protein, was the storage protein, commonly called dioscorins consisting of a 31-kDa subunit. On the basis of amino acid sequence, DB2 was classified to be dioscorin A. DB3 was a maltose-binding lectin, having an apparent molecular mass of 120 kDa and composed of a 66-kDa subunit and two 31-kDa subunits (DB3S). The 66-kDa subunit was further composed of two 31-kDa subunits (DB3L) cross-linked by disulfide bonds. DB3L and DB3S (242 and 241 amino acid residues, respectively) were homologous with each other with 72% sequence identity. They showed a sequence homology to dioscorin B and dioscorin A from Dioscorea alata, with 90 and 93% identity, respectively, and to carbonic anhydrase from Arabidopsis thaliana with about 45% identity. DB3S had one intrachain disulfide bond located at Cys(28)-Cys(187), whereas DB3L had one interchain disulfide bond (Cys(40)-Cys(40)') in addition to the intrachain disulfide bond (Cys(28)-Cys(188)) to form a 66-kDa subunit. DB1 and DB3 agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes at 2.7 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. Despite the structural homology between DB2 and DB3, DB2 had no lectin activity. The 66-kDa subunit itself revealed the full hemagglutinating activity of DB3, indicating that DB3L but not DB3S was responsible for the activity. The hemagglutinating activity of DB3 required Ca(2+) ions and was exclusively inhibited by maltose and oligomaltoses (e.g. maltopentaose and maltohexaose) but not by d-glucose. DB3 could not be classified into any known plant lectin family. DB4 was a chitinase, homologous to an acidic chitinase from Dioscorea japonica. DB1, DB2, and DB3 did not show any activity of carbonic

  1. Contenido de ß-caroteno, hierro y zinc en genotipos de camote (Ipomoea batatas L.) durante el almacenamiento, cocción y elaboración de pan

    OpenAIRE

    Carpio Ramos, Rosmery Violeta

    2016-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Tecnología de Alimentos El camote es uno de los alimentos básicos que han sido asignados para combatir la deficiencia de micronutrientes en especial la deficiencia de vitamina A, hierro y zinc. El presente estudio pretende contribuir con la selección de genotipos para el mejoramiento de la calidad nutricional del camote principalmente en el contenido de β-caroteno, materia seca, hierro y zinc, ayudando a reducir los p...

  2. Efecte de l'aplicació d'ultrasons en tubercles: Impacte sobre les propietats físiques i sensorials del moniato (Ipomoea batata) mínimament processat

    OpenAIRE

    Rafí Cruz, Adriana Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The general trend that nowadays the food consumers have is to avoid the chemical products that can harm the health and the environment. The food processing industry of vegetables seeks, with the innovation, to involve this sector that every day has more weight on the market. This way the alternative technologies arise as ultrasounds, a method of microbial reduction that allows to avoid the use of chemical disinfectants. The aim of this study is to verify the effect of low frequency ultrasound...

  3. Pemanfaatan Limbah Cair Industri Tahu sebagai Pupuk Cair Organik terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Tanaman Kangkung Darat (Ipomoea Reptans Poir)

    OpenAIRE

    Aliyenah, Aliyenah; A Napoleon, A Napoleon; Yudono, Bambang

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian tentang Pemanfaatan Limbah Cair Industri Tahu Sebagai Pupuk Cair Organik Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Kangkung Darat (Ipomoea reptans Poir) ini telah dilaksanakan pada Ja-nuari - Maret 2013. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pemanfaatan limbah cair industri tahu agar dapat digunakan sebagai pupuk cair organik untuk tanaman kangkung darat. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan meng-gunakan Rancang Acak Kelompok (RAK), dengan perlakuan konsentrasi pupuk cair organik dari ...

  4. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PUPUK ORGANIK PADA MEDIA TANAH YANG MENGANDUNG TIMBAL (Pb) TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN KANGKUNG DARAT (Ipomoea reptans Poir.)

    OpenAIRE

    Listiatie Budi Utami; Ulfah Rachmawati

    2016-01-01

    Kangkung darat (Ipomoea reptans Poir.) merupakan tanaman hiperakumulator  logam timbal (Pb), padahal kangkung darat banyak dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan dan kandungan timbal (Pb) kangkung darat pada berbagai dosis pupuk organik; serta untuk mengetahui dosis pupuk organik yang paling efektif untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan menurunkan kandungan timbal (Pb) dalam kangkung darat. Penelitian dilakukan secara Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan...

  5. Likelihood analysis of the chalcone synthase genes suggests the role of positive selection in morning glories (Ipomoea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Gu, Hongya; Yang, Ziheng

    2004-01-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoides, which are important for the pigmentation of flowers and act as attractants to pollinators. Genes encoding CHS constitute a multigene family in which the copy number varies among plant species and functional divergence appears to have occurred repeatedly. In morning glories (Ipomoea), five functional CHS genes (A-E) have been described. Phylogenetic analysis of the Ipomoea CHS gene family revealed that CHS A, B, and C experienced accelerated rates of amino acid substitution relative to CHS D and E. To examine whether the CHS genes of the morning glories underwent adaptive evolution, maximum-likelihood models of codon substitution were used to analyze the functional sequences in the Ipomoea CHS gene family. These models used the nonsynonymous/synonymous rate ratio (omega = d(N)/ d(S)) as an indicator of selective pressure and allowed the ratio to vary among lineages or sites. Likelihood ratio test suggested significant variation in selection pressure among amino acid sites, with a small proportion of them detected to be under positive selection along the branches ancestral to CHS A, B, and C. Positive Darwinian selection appears to have promoted the divergence of subfamily ABC and subfamily DE and is at least partially responsible for a rate increase following gene duplication.

  6. Estabilidade de farinha de batata-doce biofortificada Stability of biofortified sweet potato flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Vercelino Alves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A farinha de batata-doce, quando elaborada a partir de raízes com alto teor de β-caroteno, é fonte de pró-vitamina A, que apresenta efeitos benéficos na saúde humana. Visando contribuir com o suprimento de vitamina A na alimentação de populações carentes, a EMBRAPA tem selecionado e melhorado culturas via biofortificação, como da batata-doce, e pesquisado o desenvolvimento de produtos com esta matéria-prima biofortificada. Complementando esses desenvolvimentos, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o efeito do tipo de embalagem e do sistema de acondicionamento do produto na preservação de carotenoides de farinha de batata-doce biofortificada. A farinha foi acondicionada com e sem vácuo, em embalagens com diferentes barreiras ao oxigênio, vapor d'água e luz (PET/Al/PEBD, PETmet/PEBD, PEBD/PA/PEBD e PEBD e estocada a 25 °C/75%UR com e sem exposição à luz por um ano. Perdas de 50% de carotenoides totais e β-caroteno ocorreram na farinha em PETmet/PEBD e PEBD sem vácuo, aos 50 dias de estocagem, em razão do teor de oxigênio residual presente no espaço livre e também da alta permeação de oxigênio pelo material no caso do PEBD, no qual a composição do ar foi mantida durante todo o estudo. Perdas de 50% de carotenoides ocorreram aos 90 dias com ou sem exposição à luz no produto em PEBD/PA/PEBD com vácuo, indicando que a reação de oxidação de carotenoides sob luz se restringe apenas à farinha em contato com a superfície da embalagem. Sob vácuo e em PETmet/PEBD, os teores de carotenoides na farinha diminuíram ligeiramente e foram mantidos no PET/Al/PEBD, até 360 dias de estocagem. Os resultados indicaram que a redução do teor de oxigênio no espaço livre da embalagem por meio da aplicação de vácuo aliada ao uso de materiais de embalagem com barreira ao oxigênio da ordem de grandeza de PET com metalização barreira são os fatores mais importantes na preservação de carotenoides em farinha de batata

  7. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. as dentin hypersensitivity desensitization gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chariza Hanum Mayvita Iskandar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dentin hypersensitivity is a short sharp sense of pain in the teeth when exposed to excitatory stimulus. A total of 74% of world population experiencing dentin hypersensitivity. Home treatment topical desensitization is rarely found in Indonesia. The use of dentrifice is less practical because it must be done with regular brushing. Indonesia has abundant natural resources, one of which is purple sweet potato. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. has highest potasium ions compared to other foodstuffs. Potassium ions can be a solution of dentin hypersensitivity by temporary blocking the suffix pulp nerve impulses. Purpose: The research objective was to determine the effectiveness of the 10% purple sweet potato extract gel of the dental pain threshold score. Method: An experimental study carried out by dental pain threshold score measurements using vitality tester into the teeth with gum recession. Samples included 32 respondents with a single blind and pre-post test control group design. They were divided into treatment group and negative control group. Paired T-test and Wilcoxon were used as data analysis. Result: The results showed dental pain threshold score increasing either in treatment group and negative control, although not as significant as in the treatment group. Conclusion: 10% purple sweet potato extract gel containing potassium ions is able to reduce the pain of dentin hypersensitivity.

  8. FITOREMEDIASI KADMIUM (CD PADA LEACHATE MENGGUNAKAN KANGKUNG AIR (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (STUDI KASUS TPA JATIBARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Zamhar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leachate TPA Jatibarang yang tercemar kadmium (Cd kemungkinan dapat dibersihkan secara fitoremediasi menggunakan kangkung air (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan kangkung air sebagai fitoremediator dalam menyerap Cd dalam leachate TPA Jatibarang. Sebelum penelitian, dilakukan uji pendahuluan kandungan Cd dalam leachate maupun dalam kangkung air. Kangkung diaklimatisasi dalam air bersih selama 3 hari, selanjutnya ditimbang seberat 300 gram kemudian diletakkan ke dalam ember berisi 10 L leachate. Sampel leachate dan organ tanaman diambil setiap 2 hari sekali (2 hari, 4 hari, 6 hari, dan 8 hari. Faktor intensitas cahaya diambil setiap hari pada pukul 08.00-09.00 WIB menggunakan lux meter, sedangkan nilai pH dan suhu leachate diukur menggunakan kertas indikator pH dan termometer sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan. Perameter yang diamati adalah akumulasi Cd dalam akar, batang, dan daun kangkung air pada masing-masing lama waktu pananaman. Akumulasi Cd diukur dengan AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Data penyerapan Cd dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lama waktu kangkung air ditanam dalam leachate berpengaruh terhadap akumulasi Cd pada tanaman. Penyerapan Cd oleh kangkung air mencapai jenuh pada hari ke-8 dengan total penyerapan 0,052 ppm. Akumulasi Cd paling besar pada akar kangkung yaitu 0,023 ppm.Cadmium (Cd that contained in TPA Jatibarang’s leachate can be cleaned by phytoremediation using water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.. This research aimed to determine the ability of the water spinach as a fitoremediator in adsorb cadmium (Cd that contained in TPA Jatibarang’s leachate. The research was conducted by using a randomized completely design (RCD factorial, with longer treatment planted time in leachate water spinach was 0 day, 2 days, 4 days, 6 days, and 8 days respectively. The observed parameters of Cd accumulation in roots, stems, and leaves of water spinach in

  9. Germination and emergence of Stachytarpheta cayennensis and Ipomoea asarifolia Germinação e emergência de Ipomea asarifolia e Stachytarpheta cayennensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Dias Filho

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how weed seed germination and emergence respond to environmental factors is critical to determining their adaptive capabilities and potential for infestations, and could also aid in the development of effective control practices. Germination of Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. decreased linearly with decreasing osmotic potentials. Also, increasing osmotic stress delayed germination of Ipomoea more than that of Stachytarpheta. Ipomoea germination was insensitive to light, while Stachytarpheta showed a positive photoblastic behavior. Nitrate had a negative effect on germination of Ipomoea seed under both light and dark conditions but stimulated dark germination of Stachytarpheta. Ipomoea emergence was not significantly affected by planting depth. However, for Stachytarpheta emergence was restrited to seeds planted at the soil surface. Emergence of Ipomoea seedlings from greater than 6cm significantly decreased the amount of biomass allocated to roots, while biomass allocated to leaves was decreased for seedlings that emerged from depths greater than 2cm. These germination and emergence responses are discussed in relation to their ecological implications and to weed control strategies.O entendimento de como a germinação e emergência de plantas daninhas respondem a fatores ambientais é de grande importância para a determinação da capacidade de adaptação e potencial de infestação, podendo ainda auxiliar no desenvolvimento de práticas de controle eficazes. A germinação de Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz e Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. Diminuiram linearmente com o decréscimo do potencial osmótico do meio de germinação, sendo que o aumento do estresse osmótico atrasou com maior intensidade a germinação de Ipomoea do que a de Stachytarpheta. A germinação de Ipomoea foi insensível à luz; já a de Stachytarpheta mostrou ter um comportamento fotobl

  10. Desenvolvimento de nanocompósitos à base de amido de batata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Macedo Brito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocompósitos de amido de batata foram preparados pelo método de intercalação por solução, com a adição de argilas montmorilonita: organicamente modificada (Viscogel B8 e não modificada argila sódica (NT25 e de sílicas: modificada (R972 e não modificada (A200. Os nanocompósitos foram caracterizados pelas técnicas convencionais de difratometria de raios X e análise termogravimétrica. Foram caracterizados também por uma técnica denominada como não convencional, a ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN de baixo campo, que é alternativa e efetiva na caracterização de nanocompósitos. Com ela, pode-se investigar a dispersão das nanocargas pelo grau de intercalação e/ou esfoliação, além de verificar a distribuição e modificações da mobilidade molecular da matriz polimérica. Os materiais nanoestruturados obtidos com as argilas apresentaram boa dispersão e formação de nanomateriais mistos, com diferentes graus de intercalação e esfoliação. Ao adicionar as sílicas na matriz de amido pode-se observar uma diminuição da mobilidade do material, este efeito foi observado para ambas às sílicas utilizadas. Utilizando a técnica de TGA verificou-se um ligeiro aumento na estabilidade térmica do material produzido em relação ao amido.

  11. Antioxidant activities of dioscorin, the storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W C; Lee, M H; Chen, H J; Liang, W L; Han, C H; Liu, Y W; Lin, Y H

    2001-10-01

    Dioscorin, the storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) tuber (which is different from dioscorine found in tubers of Dioscorea hirsuta), was purified to homogeneity after DE-52 ion exchange column according to the methods of Hou et al. (J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999, 47, 2168-2172). A single band of 32 kDa dioscorin was obtained on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel with 2-mercaptoethanol treatment. This purified dioscorin was shown by spectrophotometric method to have scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in a pH-dependent manner. There is a positive correlation between scavenging effects against DPPH (8-46%) and amounts of 32 kDa dioscorin (5.97-47.80 nmol) added in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.9), which are comparable to those of glutathione at the same concentrations. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for DPPH radical detection, it was found that the intensities of the EPR signal were decreased by 28.6 and 57 nmol of 32 kDa dioscorin in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.9) more than in distilled water compared to controls. EPR spectrometry was also used for hydroxyl radical detection. It was found that 32 kDa dioscorin could capture hydroxyl radical, and the intensities of the EPR signal were significantly decreased dose-dependently by 1.79-14.32 nmol of 32 kDa dioscorin (r = 0.975) compared to the control. It is suggested that 32 kDa dioscorin, the storage protein of yam tuber, may play a role as antioxidant in tubers and may be beneficial for health when people take it as a food additive or consume yam tubers.

  12. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotardo, André T; Pfister, James A; Raspantini, Paulo C F; Górniak, Silvana L

    2016-03-16

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of prenatal ingestion of this plant on dams and their kids. Twenty-four pregnant goats were randomly allocated into four treatment groups and received the following doses (g/kg BW) of fresh I. carnea: 0 (control group), 1.0 (IC1), 3.0 (IC3), and 5.0 (IC5) from day 27 of gestation until parturition. Dam and kid bonding and behavior were evaluated by several tests, immediately after birth until six weeks of age. Dams from IC3 and IC5 groups spent less time paying attention to the newborn. There was a lack of maternal-infant bonding due to I. carnea intoxication. Kids from treated dams had difficulty in standing, suckling, and in recognizing their mother hours after birth. I. carnea can also compromise the kids' ability to learn and to retain spatial memory. We suggest that kids from pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays that may compromise their survival.

  13. EVALUATION OF SUBLETHAL EFFECTS OF Ipomoea cairica LINN. EXTRACT ON LIFE HISTORY TRAITS OF DENGUE VECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Fatma ZUHARAH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant derived insecticides have considerable potential for mosquito control because these products are safer than conventional insecticides. This study aimed to investigate sublethal activities of Ipomoea carica or railway creeper crude acethonilic extract against life history trait of dengue vectors, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. The late third instar larvae of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti were exposed to a sublethal dose at LC50 and larvae that survived were further cultured. Overall, Ipomea cairica crude extracts affected the whole life history of both Aedes species. The study demonstrated significantly lower egg production (fecundity and eggs hatchability (fertility in Ae. albopictus. The sublethal dose of crude extracts reduced significantly the width of larval head capsule and the wing length of both sexes in both Aedes species. The significance of sublethal effects of I. cairica against Aedes mosquitoes was an additional hallmark to demonstrate further activity of this plant despite its direct toxicity to the larvae. The reduced reproductive capacity as well as morphological and physiological anomalies are some of the effects that make I. cairica a potential candidate to be used as a new plant-based insecticide to control dengue vectors.

  14. Phytoextraction of cadmium by Ipomoea aquatica (water spinach) in hydroponic solution: effects of cadmium speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Huang, Lung-Chiu; Lee, Hong-Shen; Chen, Pai-Ye; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2008-06-01

    Phytoextraction is a promising technique to remediate heavy metals from contaminated wastewater. However, the interactions of multi-contaminants are not fully clear. This study employed cadmium, Triton X-100 (TX-100), and EDTA to investigate their interactions on phytotoxicity and Cd phytoextraction of Ipomoea aquatica (water spinach) in simulated wastewater. The Cd speciation was estimated by a chemical equilibrium model and MINEQL+. Statistic regression was applied to evaluate Cd speciation on Cd uptake in shoots and stems of I. aquatica. Results indicated that the root length was a more sensitive parameter than root weight and shoot weight. Root elongation was affected by Cd in the Cd-EDTA solution and TX-100 in the Cd-TX-100 solution. Both the root length and the root biomass were negatively correlated with the total soluble Cd ions. In contrast, Cd phytoextraction of I. aquatic was correlated with the aqueous Cd ions in the free and complex forms rather than in the chelating form. Additionally, the high Cd bioconcentration factors of I. aquatica (375-2227 l kg(-1) for roots, 45-144 l kg(-1) for shoots) imply that I. aquatica is a potential aquatic plant to remediate Cd-contaminated wastewater.

  15. CNS Depressant and Antiepileptic Activities of the Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk

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    Dhanasekaran Sivaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS depressant and antiepileptic activities of the methanol extract of the leaves of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (IAF were investigated on various animal models including pentobarbitone sleeping time and hole-board exploratory behavior for sedation tests and strychnine, picrotoxin and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. IAF (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., like chlorpromazine HCl (1 mg/kg, i.m., produced a dose-dependent prolongation of pentobarbitone sleeping time and suppression of exploratory behavior. IAF (200 and 400 mg/kg produced dose-dependent and significant increases in onset to clonic and tonic convulsions and at 400 mg/kg, showed complete protection against seizures induced by strychnine and picrotoxin but not with pentylenetetrazole. Acute oral toxicity test, up to 14 days, did not produce any visible signs of toxicity. These results suggest that potentially antiepileptic compounds are present in leaf extract of IAF that deserve the study of their identity and mechanism of action.

  16. Population dynamics and evolutionary history of the weedy vine Ipomoea hederacea in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campitelli, Brandon E; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-06-03

    Disentangling the historical evolutionary processes that contribute to patterns of phenotypic and genetic variation is important for understanding contemporary patterns of both traits of interest and genetic diversity of a species. Ipomoea hederacea is a self-compatible species whose geographic origin is contested, and previous work suggests that although there are signals of adaptation (significant leaf shape and flowering time clines), no population structure or neutral genetic differentiation of I. hederacea populations was detected. Here, we use DNA sequence data to characterize patterns of genetic variation to establish a more detailed understanding of the current and historical processes that may have generated the patterns of genetic variation in this species. We resequenced ca. 5000 bp across 7 genes for 192 individuals taken from 24 populations in North America. Our results indicate that North American I. hederacea populations are ubiquitously genetically depauperate, and patterns of nucleotide diversity are consistent with population expansion. Contrary to previous findings, we discovered significant population subdivision and isolation-by-distance, but genetic structure was spatially discontinuous, potentially implicating long-distance dispersal. We further found significant genetic differentiation at sequenced loci but nearly fourfold stronger differentiation at the leaf shape locus, strengthening evidence that the leaf shape locus is under divergent selection. We propose that North American I. hederacea has experienced a recent founder event, and/or population dynamics are best described by a metapopulation model (high turnover and dispersal), leading to low genetic diversity and a patchy genetic distribution. Copyright © 2014 Campitelli and Stinchcombe.

  17. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotardo, André T.; Pfister, James A.; Raspantini, Paulo C. F.; Górniak, Silvana L.

    2016-01-01

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of prenatal ingestion of this plant on dams and their kids. Twenty-four pregnant goats were randomly allocated into four treatment groups and received the following doses (g/kg BW) of fresh I. carnea: 0 (control group), 1.0 (IC1), 3.0 (IC3), and 5.0 (IC5) from day 27 of gestation until parturition. Dam and kid bonding and behavior were evaluated by several tests, immediately after birth until six weeks of age. Dams from IC3 and IC5 groups spent less time paying attention to the newborn. There was a lack of maternal-infant bonding due to I. carnea intoxication. Kids from treated dams had difficulty in standing, suckling, and in recognizing their mother hours after birth. I. carnea can also compromise the kids’ ability to learn and to retain spatial memory. We suggest that kids from pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays that may compromise their survival. PMID:26999204

  18. Natural history of the narrow endemics Ipomoea cavalcantei and I. marabaensis from Amazon Canga savannahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiychuk, Elena; Kushnir, Sergei; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Dias, Mariana Costa; Carvalho-Filho, Nelson; Nunes, Gisele Lopes; Dos Santos, Jorge Filipe; Tyski, Lourival; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Castilho, Alexandre; Fonseca, Vera Lucia Imperatriz; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2017-08-08

    Amazon comprises a vast variety of ecosystems, including savannah-like Canga barrens that evolved on iron-lateritic rock plateaus of the Carajás Mountain range. Individual Cangas are enclosed by the rain forest, indicating insular isolation that enables speciation and plant community differentiation. To establish a framework for the research on natural history and conservation management of endemic Canga species, seven chloroplast DNA loci and an ITS2 nuclear DNA locus were used to study natural molecular variation of the red flowered Ipomoea cavalcantei and the lilac flowered I. marabaensis. Partitioning of the nuclear and chloroplast gene alleles strongly suggested that the species share the most recent common ancestor, pointing a new independent event of the red flower origin in the genus. Chloroplast gene allele analysis showed strong genetic differentiation between Canga populations, implying a limited role of seed dispersal in exchange of individuals between Cangas. Closed haplotype network topology indicated a requirement for the paternal inheritance in generation of cytoplasmic genetic variation. Tenfold higher nucleotide diversity in the nuclear ITS2 sequences distinguished I. cavalcantei from I. marabaensis, implying a different pace of evolutionary changes. Thus, Canga ecosystems offer powerful venues for the study of speciation, multitrait adaptation and the origins of genetic variation.

  19. Long-distance transport of pertechnetate in the moonflower (Ipomoea alba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Simon J.; Rogiers, Suzy Y.; Currie, Geoffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    The first research on the transport of metastable-technetium-99 ( 99m Tc) in the form of pertechnetate ( 99m TcO 4 − ) within plants suggested that 99m TcO 4 − may be mobile in the phloem. In contrast, more recent evidence indicates the anion is transported in the xylem. Here we demonstrate that observations of 99m Tc transport in the test subject of these initial investigations, the moonflower (Ipomoea alba L.), are incompatible with phloem flow. Rather, the presence of only minute amounts of 99m Tc in typical sinks for phloem solutes and 99m Tc transport out of labeled leaves when shaded but not when illuminated strongly suggest that the radionuclide is transported in the xylem. The study increases confidence in the identification of 99m TcO 4 − as a xylem mobile compound whose distribution in plants can be visualized using nuclear medicine scintigraphic imaging techniques. - Highlights: ► The vascular transport pathway of metastable-technetium-99 in plants is not clear. ► Nuclear medicine techniques were used to obtain images of 99m Tc in the moonflower. ► Translocation of the radionuclide is incompatible with transport by the phloem. ► 99m Tc transport characteristics are those of a xylem-mobile nutrient analog. ► The research has implications for 99m Tc as a tracer and modeling 99 Tc uptake.

  20. Wounding stimulates ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene and increases the level of jasmonic acid in Ipomoea nil cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Wilmowicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Allene oxide synthase (AOS encodes the first enzyme in the lipoxygenase pathway, which is responsible for jasmonic acid (JA formation. In this study we report the molecular cloning and characterization of InAOS from Ipomoea nil. The full-length gene is composed of 1662 bp and encodes for 519 amino acids. The predicted InAOS contains PLN02648 motif, which is evolutionarily conserved and characteristic for functional enzymatic proteins. We have shown that wounding led to a strong stimulation of the examined gene activity in cotyledons and an increase in JA level, which suggest that this compound may be a modulator of stress responses in I. nil.

  1. Effect of water availability on tolerance of leaf damage in tall morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atala, Cristian; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2009-03-01

    Resource availability may limit plant tolerance of herbivory. To predict the effect of differential resource availability on plant tolerance, the limiting resource model (LRM) considers which resource limits plant fitness and which resource is mostly affected by herbivore damage. We tested the effect of experimental drought on tolerance of leaf damage in Ipomoea purpurea, which is naturally exposed to both leaf damage and summer drought. To seek mechanistic explanations, we also measured several morphological, allocation and gas exchange traits. In this case, LRM predicts that tolerance would be the same in both water treatments. Plants were assigned to a combination of two water treatments (control and low water) and two damage treatments (50% defoliation and undamaged). Plants showed tolerance of leaf damage, i.e., a similar number of fruits were produced by damaged and undamaged plants, only in control water. Whereas experimental drought affected all plant traits, leaf damage caused plants to show a greater leaf trichome density and reduced shoot biomass, but only in low water. It is suggested that the reduced fitness (number of fruits) of damaged plants in low water was mediated by the differential reduction of shoot biomass, because the number of fruits per shoot biomass was similar in damaged and undamaged plants. Alternative but less likely explanations include the opposing direction of functional responses to drought and defoliation, and resource costs of the damage-induced leaf trichome density. Our results somewhat challenge the LRM predictions, but further research including field experiments is needed to validate some of the preliminary conclusions drawn.

  2. Experimental intoxication of guinea pigs with Ipomoea carnea: behavioural and neuropathological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholich, Luciana A; Márquez, Mercedes; Pumarola i Batlle, Martí; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Teibler, Gladys P; Rios, Elvio E; Acosta, Ofelia C

    2013-12-15

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that affects goats, with symptoms being characterised by nervous disorders and death. Swainsonine and calystegines are the principal toxic components isolated from I. carnea, which also yields lysergic acid derivatives. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical characterisation of experimental intoxication by I. carnea in guinea pigs through the evaluation of behavioural changes and to perform a thorough histopathological analysis of the affected CNS. Leaves of I. carnea were administered to guinea pigs. Open-field gait analysis and monoamine levels were measured. The poisoned animals exhibited increased vocalisation, lethargy, and a reduction in the locomotion frequency after the fourth week of intoxication, as demonstrated in the open-field test. Significant differences were observed in hind-limb gait width by the last week of intoxication. After 65 days, the guinea pigs were euthanised, necropsied, and examined using light and electron microscopy. At the end of the experiment, plasma serotonin decreased. In contrast, dopamine decreased, and noradrenaline increased in urine. Brain sections were evaluated with conventional histological methods and immunohistochemistry (IHC), as well as by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuoles were observed throughout the brain, but they were particularly prominent in the brainstem. In addition, there were PAS-negative regions, and the Nissl substance was dispersed or absent, which was confirmed with the Kluver-Barreda stain. Moderate microgliosis was observed by immunohistochemistry. In the medulla oblongata, numerous ubiquitin-positive spheroids together with neuronal degeneration were observed in the nucleus gracilis/cuneatus. Furthermore, vacuoles were observed in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and endothelial cells by TEM. Our results showed that the behavioural effects may have been caused by alterations in the brain in conjunction with changes in monoamine levels. This

  3. Ipomoea aquatica Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders.

  4. Natural selection maintains a single-locus leaf shape cline in Ivyleaf morning glory, Ipomoea hederacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campitelli, Brandon E; Stinchcombe, John R

    2013-02-01

    Clines in phenotypic traits with an underlying genetic basis potentially implicate natural selection. However, neutral evolutionary processes such as random colonization, spatially restricted gene flow, and genetic drift could also result in similar spatial patterns, especially for single-locus traits because of their susceptibility to stochastic events. One way to distinguish between adaptive and neutral mechanisms is to compare the focal trait to neutral genetic loci to determine whether neutral loci demonstrate clinal variation (consistent with a neutral cline), or not. Ivyleaf morning glory, Ipomoea hederacea, exhibits a latitudinal cline for a Mendelian leaf shape polymorphism in eastern North America, such that lobed genotypes dominate northern populations and heart-shaped genotypes are restricted to southern populations. Here, we evaluate potential evolutionary mechanisms for this cline by first determining the allele frequencies at the leaf shape locus for 77 populations distributed throughout I. hederacea's range and then comparing the geographical pattern at this locus to neutral amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci. We detected both significant clinal variation and high genetic differentiation at the leaf shape locus across all populations. In contrast, 99% of the putatively neutral loci do not display clinal variation, and I. hederacea populations show very little overall genetic differentiation, suggesting that there is a moderate level of gene flow. In addition, the leaf shape locus was identified as a major F(ST) outlier experiencing divergent selection, relative to all the AFLP loci. Together, these data strongly suggest that the cline in leaf shape is being maintained by spatially varying natural selection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Doença de depósito lisossomal induzida pelo consumo de Ipomoea verbascoidea (Convolvulaceae) em caprinos no semiárido de Pernambuco

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper was to reproduce the poisoning of Ipomoea verbascoidea in goats and describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by this plant in Pernambuco. For this, we studied the epidemiology of the disease in seven mu¬nicipalities in the semiari...

  6. Comparative Metabolomic Analyses of Ipomoea lacunosa Biotypes with Contrasting Glyphosate Tolerance Captures Herbicide-Induced Differential Perturbations in Cellular Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith S; Nandula, Vijay K; Duke, Stephen O; Gerard, Patrick; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2018-02-28

    Glyphosate-tolerant Ipomoea lacunosa is emerging as a problematic weed in the southeastern United States. Metabolomic profiling was conducted to examine the innate physiology and the glyphosate induced perturbations in two biotypes of I. lacunosa (WAS and QUI) that had contrasting glyphosate tolerance. Compared to the less tolerant QUI-biotype, the innate metabolism of the more tolerant WAS-biotype was characterized by a higher abundance of amino acids, and pyruvate; whereas the sugar profile of the QUI biotype was dominated by the transport sugar sucrose. Glyphosate application (80 g ae/ha) caused similar shikimate accumulation in both biotypes. Compared to QUI, in WAS, the content of aromatic amino acids was less affected by glyphosate treatment, and the content of Ala, Val, Ile, and Pro increased. However, the total sugars decreased by ∼75% in WAS, compared to ∼50% decrease in QUI. The innate, higher proportional abundance, of the transport-sugar sucrose in QUI coud partly explain the higher translocation and greater sensitivity of this biotype to glyphosate. The decrease in sugars, accompanied by an increase in amino acids could delay feedback regulation of upstream enzymes of the shikimate acid pathway in WAS, which could contribute to a greater glyphosate tolerance. Our study, through a metabolomics approach, provides complementary data that elucidates the cellular physiology of herbicide tolerance in Ipomoea lacunosa biotypes.

  7. The effect of leaf shape on the thermoregulation and frost tolerance of an annual vine, Ipomoea hederacea (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campitelli, Brandon E; Gorton, Amanda J; Ostevik, Katherine L; Stinchcombe, John R

    2013-11-01

    Leaf shape is predicted to have important ecophysiological consequences; for example, theory predicts that lobed leaves should track air temperature more closely than their entire-margined counterparts. Hence, leaf-lobing may be advantageous during cold nights (∼0°C) when there is the risk of damage by radiation frost (a phenomenon whereby leaves fall below air temperature because of an imbalance between radiational heat loss and convective heat gain). Here, we test whether radiation frost can lead to differential damage between leaf shapes by examining a leaf-shape polymorphism in Ipomoea hederacea, where leaves are either lobed or heart-shaped depending on a single Mendelian locus. We logged leaf temperature during midautumn, and measured chlorophyll fluorescence and survival as proxies of performance. Furthermore, we tested if the leaf-shape locus confers freezing tolerance using freezing assays on leaf tissue from different leaf shapes. We found that lobed leaves consistently remain warmer than heart-shaped leaves during the night, but that no pattern emerged during the day, and that temperature differences between leaf shapes were typically small. Furthermore, we found that leaf types did not differ in frost tolerance, but that a 1°C decrease leads to a transition from moderate to complete damage. Our results demonstrate that Ipomoea hederacea leaf shapes do experience different nighttime temperatures, and that only minor temperature differences can lead to disparate levels of freezing damage, suggesting that the differential thermoregulation could result in different levels of frost damage.

  8. Regeneration of three sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.)) accessions via meristem, Nodal and callus induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addae-Frimpomaah, F.

    2012-11-01

    In vitro regeneration of three sweet potato accessions UE007, UK-BNARI and SA-BNARI using meristem, nodal cuttings or callus induction was studied. Meristematic explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium supplemented with low concentration of benzylaminopurine (BAP) or kinetin resulted in callus with or without shoot development which delayed shoot emergence. The degree of callus development increased as the concentration of the cytokinin in the culture medium increased. Although, callus development was comparatively lower on kinetin amended medium than BAP amended medium, Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1BAP had the highest shoot induction (80%). For further differentiation of callus or shoots into distinct stem and leaves, the culture were transferred into fresh MS medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1 mg/1 NAA and 0.1 mg/1 Gibberellic acid (GA 3 . To overcome the delay in shoot initiation using meristem culture, nodal cuttings of sweet potato were used as explants and cultured on MS medium amended with 0.3 - 0.9mg/1 BAP. All explants cultured on 0.3 or 0.6mg/1 BAP developed shoots. Furthermore, liquid MS medium amended with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1mg/I NAA, and 0.1mg/1 GA 3 also enhanced early shoot development from nodal cutting explants compared to solid culture. Post flask acclimatisation of meristem or nodal cutting-derived plantlets showed that meristem derived plantlets were better acclimatised than nodal cutting plants due to vigorous root development leading to higher percentage survival in pots and subsequent tuber production. Callusogenesis was achieved when leaf lobe explants were cultured on CLC/ Ipomoea medium supplemented with 1.0 - 4.0mg/1 2,4-D with 4.0mg/1 2,4-D being the optimal concentration. However, the calli were non-embryogenic and therefore could not produce embryos when transferred to 0.1mg/1 BAP amended medium but rather produced either single or multiple shoots. The highest percentage shoot (83

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic activity of Ipomoea imperati (Vahl Griseb (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.B. Paula

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea imperati (Convolvulaceae lives on the sandy shores of the Brazilian coast and in other areas of the world. The anti-inflammatory activity of a methanol-water extract of the leaves of I. imperati was investigated in experimental models of acute and subchronic inflammation. Topical application of the extract (10 mg/ear inhibited mouse ear edema induced by croton oil (89.0 ± 1.3% by the lipid fraction with an IC50 of 3.97 mg/ear and 57.0 ± 1.3% by the aqueous fraction with an IC50 of 3.5 mg/ear and arachidonic acid (42.0 ± 2.0% with an IC50 of 4.98 mg/ear and 31.0 ± 2.0% with an IC50 of 4.72 mg/ear. Phospholipase A2, purified from Apis mellifera bee venom, was also inhibited by the extract (5.0 mg/ml lipid and aqueous fraction in vitro in a dose-dependent manner (85% by the lipid fraction with an IC50 of 3.22 mg/ml and 25% by the aqueous fraction with an IC50 of 3.43 mg/ml. The methanol-water extract of I. imperati (1000 mg/kg administered by the oral route also inhibited the formation of cotton pellet-induced granulomas (73.2 ± 1.2% by the lipid fraction and 56.14 ± 2.7% by the aqueous fraction and did not cause gastric mucosal lesions. I. imperati extracts (10 mg/ml also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the muscle contractions of guinea pig ileum induced by acetylcholine and histamine (IC50 of 1.60 mg/ml for the lipid fraction and 4.12 mg/ml for the aqueous fraction. These results suggest the use of I. imperati as an anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic agent in traditional medicine.

  10. Suspected natural lysosomal storage disease from ingestion of pink morning glory (Ipomoea carnea) in goats in northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Elvio E; Cholich, Luciana A; Chileski, Gabriela; García, Enrique N; Lértora, Javier; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Guidi, María G; Mussart, Norma; Teibler, Gladys P

    2015-07-01

    This study describes an occurrence of pink morning glory (Ipomoea carnea) intoxication in goats in northern Argentina. The clinical signs displayed by the affected animals were ataxia, lethargy, emaciation, hypertonia of the neck muscles, spastic paresis in the hind legs, abnormal postural reactions and death. The clinico-pathologic examination revealed that the affected animals were anemic and their serum level of aspartate aminotransferase was significantly increased. Cytoplasmic vacuolation in the Purkinje cells and pancreatic acinar cells was observed by histological examination. The neuronal lectin binding pattern showed a strong positive reaction to WGA (Triticum vulgaris), sWGA (succinylated T. vulgaris) and LCA (Lens culinaris). Although I. carnea is common in tropical regions, this is the first report of spontaneous poisoning in goats in Argentina.

  11. Analysis of Metabolites in Stem Parasitic Plant Interactions: Interaction of Cuscuta–Momordica versus Cassytha–Ipomoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takemichi; Iwase, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Cuscuta and Cassytha are two well-known stem parasitic plant genera with reduced leaves and roots, inducing haustoria in their stems. Their similar appearance in the field has been recognized, but few comparative studies on their respective plant interactions are available. To compare their interactions, we conducted a metabolite analysis of both the Cassytha–Ipomoea and the Cuscuta–Momordica interaction. We investigated the energy charge of the metabolites by UFLC (ultra-high performance liquid chromatography), and conducted GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis for polar metabolites (e.g., saccharides, polyols) and steroids. The energy charge after parasitization changed considerably in Cassytha but not in Cusucta. Cuscuta changed its steroid pattern during the plant interaction, whereas Cassytha did not. In the polar metabolite analysis, the laminaribiose increase after parasitization was conspicuous in Cuscuta, but not in Cassytha. This metabolite profile difference points to different lifestyles and parasitic strategies. PMID:27941603

  12. Analysis of Metabolites in Stem Parasitic Plant Interactions: Interaction of Cuscuta–Momordica versus Cassytha–Ipomoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Furuhashi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta and Cassytha are two well-known stem parasitic plant genera with reduced leaves and roots, inducing haustoria in their stems. Their similar appearance in the field has been recognized, but few comparative studies on their respective plant interactions are available. To compare their interactions, we conducted a metabolite analysis of both the Cassytha–Ipomoea and the Cuscuta–Momordica interaction. We investigated the energy charge of the metabolites by UFLC (ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, and conducted GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for polar metabolites (e.g., saccharides, polyols and steroids. The energy charge after parasitization changed considerably in Cassytha but not in Cusucta. Cuscuta changed its steroid pattern during the plant interaction, whereas Cassytha did not. In the polar metabolite analysis, the laminaribiose increase after parasitization was conspicuous in Cuscuta, but not in Cassytha. This metabolite profile difference points to different lifestyles and parasitic strategies.

  13. Analysis of Metabolites in Stem Parasitic Plant Interactions: Interaction of Cuscuta-Momordica versus Cassytha-Ipomoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takemichi; Iwase, Koji

    2016-12-07

    Cuscuta and Cassytha are two well-known stem parasitic plant genera with reduced leaves and roots, inducing haustoria in their stems. Their similar appearance in the field has been recognized, but few comparative studies on their respective plant interactions are available. To compare their interactions, we conducted a metabolite analysis of both the Cassytha-Ipomoea and the Cuscuta-Momordica interaction. We investigated the energy charge of the metabolites by UFLC (ultra-high performance liquid chromatography), and conducted GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis for polar metabolites (e.g., saccharides, polyols) and steroids. The energy charge after parasitization changed considerably in Cassytha but not in Cusucta . Cuscuta changed its steroid pattern during the plant interaction, whereas Cassytha did not. In the polar metabolite analysis, the laminaribiose increase after parasitization was conspicuous in Cuscuta , but not in Cassytha . This metabolite profile difference points to different lifestyles and parasitic strategies.

  14. Faecal and protozoan parasite contamination of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) cultivated in urban wastewater in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anh, Vuong Tuan; Tram, Nguyen Thuy; Klank, Lise Tønner

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify the level of contamination with thermotolerant coliforms (ThC), intestinal helminth eggs and protozoan parasites in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) cultivated in a wastewater-fed lake in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods The investigation was carried out from July 2004 to May...... into a stream. Water spinach samples were harvested at each of the three locations with and without wastewater contact according to the normal practices of farmers, and analysed for ThC, protozoan parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora), and helminth eggs (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichura...... and hookworm) using standard methods. Wastewater samples were also collected at each of the three locations and analysed for ThC and helminth eggs. Results High concentrations of ThC (approximately 10(5)-10(7)/g) were found in water spinach samples. ThC mean counts did not differ significantly, neither between...

  15. Operational performance of the mechanized and semi-mechanized potato harvest Desempenho operacional da colheita mecanizada e semimecanizada de batata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. A. R. da Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato is an important crop plant throughout the world. Harvesting is a fundamental step in its production system. Maybe, it is the most complex and expensive operation. Thus, the objective of this work was to compare the cost of the mechanized and semi-mechanized harvest, the operational capacity and the production losses during the potato harvest process. The work was accomplished in a commercial farming, cultivated under pivot system, in the municipal district of Perdizes - MG, Brazil. A completely randomized design with two treatments was used: mechanized and semi-mechanized harvest. The mechanized harvest used a self-propelled harvester. In the semi-automated harvest, a digger mounted on tractor was used and the potato was manually harvested. It was concluded that the cost of mechanized harvest was 49.03% lower than the cost of semi-mechanized harvest. On average, the harvester had a work for 23 workers in manual harvest. Mechanized harvest showed losses of 2.35% of potato yield, while the semi-mechanized harvest showed losses of 6.32%.A batata é a cultura olerácea mais importante em todo o mundo. Dentre os processos que compõem seu sistema de produção, a colheita apresenta-se como etapa essencial, sendo uma das operações com maior custo agregado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a colheita mecanizada e semimecanizada da cultura da batata no que diz respeito aos custos, capacidade operacional e perdas de produção. O trabalho foi realizado em lavoura comercial, cultivada em área sob sistema de pivô central, no município de Perdizes-MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos: colheita mecanizada e semimecanizada. A colheita mecanizada foi realizada utilizando-se de uma colhedora autopropelida. Na colheita semimecanizada, empregou-se um arrancador tratorizado seguido de catação manual. De acordo com os resultados, pôde-se concluir que o custo da colheita mecanizada foi 49

  16. Experimental poisoning of goats by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa in Argentina: a clinic and pathological correlation with special consideration on the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio E. Ríos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, aguapei or mandiyura, is responsible for lysosomal storage in goats. The shrub contains several alkaloids, mainly swansonine which inhibits lysosomal α-mannosidase and Golgi mannosidase II. Poisoning occurs by inhibition of these hydrolases. There is neuronal vacuolation, endocrine dysfunction, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal injury, and immune disorders. Clinical signs and pathology of the experimental poisoning of goats by Ipomoea carnea in Argentina are here described. Five goats received fresh leaves and stems of Ipomoea. At the beginning, the goats did not consume the plant, but later, it was preferred over any other forage. High dose induced rapid intoxication, whereas with low doses, the course of the toxicosis was more protracted. The goats were euthanized when they were recumbent. Cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons and colliculi, were routinely processed for histology. In nine days, the following clinical signs developed: abnormal fascies, dilated nostrils and abnormal postures of the head, cephalic tremors and nystagmus, difficulty in standing. Subsequently, the goats had a tendency to fall, always to the left, with spastic convulsions. There was lack in coordination of voluntary movements due to Purkinje and deep nuclei neurons damage. The cochlear reflex originated hyperreflexia, abnormal posture, head movements and tremors. The withdrawal reflex produced flexor muscles hypersensitivity at the four legs, later depression and stupor. Abnormal responses to sounds were related to collicular lesions. Thalamic damage altered the withdrawal reflex, showing incomplete reaction. The observed cervical hair bristling was attributed to a thalamic regulated nociceptive response. Depression may be associated with agonists of lysergic acid contained in Ipomoea. These clinical signs were correlated with lesions in different parts of the CNS.

  17. Compatibility and economic assessment of sweetpotato and garden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecological zone of Nigeria, to determine the compatibility and economic viability of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) and garden egg (Solanum gelio) intercrop during 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons. Two sweetpotato varieties; NR05/022 and ...

  18. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SORGHUM-PIGEON PEA COMPOSITE. BLEND USED FOR THE .... after cleaned, sorted was milled into flour, stored and designated as a ...... L. verdc) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) flour.

  19. EXPLOITATION OF GENETIC POTENTIAL OF SWEETPOTATO FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) is a staple food globally, but it has remained ... The strong positive genetic association between dry matter and starch .... Storage roots selected were approximately 3 cm ...... gelatinisation properties.

  20. Studies on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is the sixth most impor- tant crop in the world after ... mediated transformation system does not involve sophis- .... (w/v) agarose gel. .... This work was supported by National Natural Science.

  1. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Vol 13, No 8 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancement of In Vitro Skin Transport and In Vivo Hypoglycemic Efficacy of ... of Liquid Paraffin, White Soft Paraffin and Initial Hydration on Viscosity of Corticosteroid Cream ... Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn, ...

  2. Sweetpotato breeding for northeastern Uganda: farmer varieties, farmer-participatory selection, and stability of performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abidin, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Agro-biodiversity, farmer varieties, indigenous knowledge, farmer-participatory research, genetic diversity, genotype-by-environment interaction, germplasm collection, Ipomoea batatas , specific adaptation, yield stability, sweetpotato, variance component

  3. Avaliação da eficácia de taboa (Typha domingensis Pers. e batata-de-purga [Operculina hamiltonii (G. Don D.F. Austin & Staples] in natura sobre nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos, naturalmente infectados, em clima semi-árido Evaluation of the effectiveness of "taboa" (Typha domingensis Pers. and "batata-de-purga" [Operculina hamiltonii (G. Don D.F. Austin & Staples] in natura on gastrointestinal nematodes of goats, naturally infected, in the semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficácia da Typha domingensis (taboa e da Operculina hamiltonii (batata-de-purga in natura sobre nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos, naturalmente infectados, em clima semi-árido. Foram utilizados 30 caprinos da raça Moxotó, e o rizoma da taboa e a raiz da batata-de-purga, avaliados através da fitoquímica. As fezes foram coletadas nos dias zero, sete e 25, após, o tratamento da contagem de OPG. Os animais foram distribuídos inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Grupo I tratado com Moxidectina 0,2% em dose única de 0,5 mg Kg-1; o Grupo II tratado com Taboa na dose (10 g 20 Kg-1 peso vivo; Grupo III com batata-de-purga na dose de 9 g 20 Kg-1 p.v.; Grupo IV tratado com taboa 10 g 20 Kg-1 p.v. associada a batata 9 g 20 Kg-1 p.v. durante três dias consecutivos, todos administrados oralmente e o Grupo V como grupo controle. Os grupos tratados apresentaram redução no número médio de OPG aos 7 e 25 dias pós-tratamento, quando comparado com o grupo controle no respectivo período, sendo a batata-de-purga com maior redução aos 7 e a taboa aos 25 dias. A maior eficácia foi da batata-de-purga de 84% e 70%, nos dias 7 e 25 pós-tratamento. Verificou-se que a batata-de-purga foi eficaz no controle de nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos no clima semi-árido e que a taboa associada com a batata tem potencial para serem utilizadas em programas alternativos de controle parasitário.The effectiveness of Typha domingensis ("taboa" and Operculina hamiltonii ("batata-de-purga" in natura was evaluated on gastrointestinal nematodes of goats, naturally infected, in the semi-arid region. Thirty Moxotó goats were used, and the rhizome of "taboa" and the root of "batata-de-purga" were analyzed through phytochemistry. Feces were collected on days zero, seven and 25 after the treatment for FECs. The distribution of animals was completely at random, with five treatments and six replicates. Group I was

  4. Interferência de populações de Euphorbia heterophylla e Ipomoea ramosissima isoladas ou em misturas sobre a cultura de soja Interference of populations of Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea ramosissima isolated or in mixture in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rizzardi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as principais espécies daninhas que infestam as lavouras de soja do sul do Brasil, destacam-se Euphorbia heterophylla (leiteira e, mais recentemente, Ipomoea ramosissima (corda-de-viola. Objetivou-se avaliar a habilidade competitiva relativa entre espécies daninhas e soja e quantificar a interferência de infestações mistas de leiteira e corda-de-viola quando em convivência com plantas de soja. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, comparando associações de leiteira ou corda-de-viola com soja, utilizando-se cinco proporções de plantas de leiteira e soja ou corda-de-viola e soja (0:8; 2:6; 4:4; 6:2; 8:0. Em um terceiro experimento, mantiveram-se constantes quatro plantas de soja por vaso e utilizaram-se cinco proporções de plantas de leiteira e corda-de-viola (0:8; 2:6; 4:4; 6:2; 8:0, estabelecidas em duas épocas de emergência das plantas daninhas em relação à soja. Verificou-se que a redução na biomassa da soja é mais intensa quando em presença de corda-de-viola do que de leiteira e, principalmente, em situações nas quais a planta daninha se estabelece antes que a cultura. Quando em infestação mista, corda-de-viola é mais competitiva do que leiteira.Euphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia, and, more recently, Ipomoea ramosissima (morningglory are among the main weeds infesting soybean crop in southern Brazil. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of wild poinsettia and morningglory as single or mixed populations in coexistence with soybean. Two experimentswere conducted to compare associations of wild poinsettia or moningglory with soybean, using five ratios of wild poinsettia plants and soybean or morningglory (0:8, 2:6, 4:4, 6:2 and 8:0. In a third experiment, four soybean plants per pot were kept constant and five ratios of of wild poinsettia and moningglory plants were used (0:8, 2:6, 4:4, 6:2 and 8:0, established in two weed emergence periods related to the soybean. The results indicated that a higher

  5. Intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense Spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae poisoning of cattle in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia A.B. Antoniassi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense. As investigações iniciaram após a morte de 12 bovinos, de um rebanho de 500 animais, criados em uma extensa área intensamente infestada por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa com escassa disponibilidade de outra forragem. As mortes ocorreram entres os meses de junho e setembro de 2006. O quadro clínico foi caracterizado por emagrecimento e sinais neurológicos com dificuldade locomotora. Um bovino foi necropsiado sem que se observassem alterações macroscópicas significativas. Histologicamente havia tumefação e vacuolização celular, em neurônios, células acinares pancreáticas, tubulares renais e foliculares da tireóide. Bovinos com quadro clínico similar foram retirados da área invadida por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa e colocadas em áreas com pastagem nativa e de Brachiaria sp. e apresentaram melhora clínica após período de 15 dias.A spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro poisoning of cattle in the county of Poconé, Brazilian Pantanal, is reported. The investigation began after 12 cattle had died from a flock of 500 animals maintained in an extensive area intensely infested by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa with scarce availability of other fodder plants. The deaths occurred from June to September of 2006. Clinical signs were loss of weight and neurological deficits with hypermetry and incoordination. No significant gross lesions were observed at postmortem examination of one bovine. Histological changes comprised widespread cytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, cells of the thyroid, kidney and pancreas. Cattle with similar clinical picture, that had been removed from the area invaded by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa and placed into areas with native and Brachiaria sp. pasture, recovered clinically within 15 days.

  6. Tomate revestido com filme de fécula de batata e óleos de sálvia e manjerona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Milléo Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi caracterizar tomates cv. Rasteiro revestidos com filmes a base de fécula de batata e óleos essenciais de sálvia e manjerona. Os filmes foram produzidos a base de fécula de batata e adicionados de óleos essenciais de sálvia e manjerona, segundo planejamento experimental fatorial 22. Os indicadores de qualidade avaliados foram massa fresca, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, pH, firmeza e analisados segundo análise de componentes principais (PCA. Ao final do período de armazenamento (288h os tomates revestidos com filmes de fécula de batata mostraram maior estabilidade nos parâmetros de pH e firmeza, quando combinado com o óleo de sálvia foram eficaz no equilíbrio dos sólidos solúveis, e ao apresentarem os dois óleos, sálvia e manjerona, proporcionaram maior eficiência na manutenção da acidez e massa fresca dos frutos. A análise multivariada auxiliou na discriminação do tomate de acordo com o tempo de armazenamento, ou seja, a acidez total titulável e a firmeza tiveram maior efeito significativo no início do período de armazenamento, os sólidos solúveis totais em 72h, o pH e a perda de massa nos tempos de 168h e 216 horas. 

  7. Qualidade de tubérculos frescos de cultivares de batata em função da nutrição fosfatada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Mazetti Fernandes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O fósforo (P é essencial para aumentar a produtividade e a qualidade nutricional dos tubérculos de batata. Porém não se sabe se a influência da adubação fosfatada na qualidade dos tubérculos produzidos pode variar em função da cultivar e da disponibilidade de P no solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adubação fosfatada sobre a qualidade e composição nutricional dos tubérculos comercializáveis de cultivares de batata. Foram conduzidos experimentos em solos com baixa, média e alta disponibilidade de P, utilizando delineamento de blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial 2 × 5, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por duas cultivares de batata (Agata e Mondial e cinco doses de P2O5 (0, 125, 250, 500 e 1.000 kg ha–1. A adubação fosfatada aumentou o teor de P e de amido, o tamanho e a produtividade de tubérculos comercializáveis, com resposta mais expressiva às maiores doses nos solos com baixa e média disponibilidade de P. A cultivar Mondial foi mais produtiva, por apresentar maior massa média de tubérculos e maiores aumentos nessa característica em resposta a adubação fosfatada. A cultivar Mondial produziu tubérculos com polpa mais firme, com maior percentagem de matéria seca e com maiores teores de Ca, Cu e Zn do que a Agata. Em solo com baixo P disponível, a adubação fosfatada reduziu o teor de Zn mas, de maneira geral, teve pouca influência na composição nutricional dos tubérculos de batata.

  8. Intoxicação por Ipomoea asarifolia em bovinos e ovinos no Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio K. de L. Carvalho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia é uma das principais plantas tóxicas para ruminantes nas regiões Norte e Nordeste. A intoxicação ocorre na época das secas quando há escassez de forragem e é mais frequente em ovinos do que em outras espécies, porem casos espontâneos também são relatados em caprinos, bovinos e búfalos. Este trabalho relata a ocorrência de 18 surtos de intoxicação em bovinos por I. asarifolia que ocorreram de agosto de 2012 a fevereiro de 2013 no estado do Rio Grande Norte. De um total de 1704 bovinos, 202 (11,8% adoeceram e 34 (2% morreram. Em seis propriedades onde havia ovinos estes também se intoxicaram. Foram observados também sinais clínicos em bezerros e cordeiros confinados, sem acesso às pastagens, que se intoxicaram pela ingestão do leite das mães que ingeriam I. asarifolia a pasto.

  9. Element contents and food safety of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) cultivated with wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle; Jørgensen, Karin; Holm, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive aquatic or semi-aquatic production of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) for human consumption takes place in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to assess the concentrations of 38 elements in soil and water spinach cultivated under different degrees of wastewater exposure...... in Hanoi, Vietnam. The results showed no effect of wastewater use on the overall element concentrations in soil and water spinach. Mean soil concentrations for selected potentially toxic elements at the studied field sites had the following ranges 9.11-18.7 As, 0.333-0.667 Cd, 10.8-14.5 Co, 68-122 Cr, 34...... concentrations in water spinach were 0.139 As, 0.032 Cd, 0.135 Cr, 2.01 Cu, 39.1 Fe, 57.3 Mn, 0.16 Ni, 0.189 Pb and 6.01 Zn mg kg(-1) fresh weight (f.w.). The site and soil content of organic carbon were found to have high influence on the water spinach element concentrations whereas soil pH and the total soil...

  10. Atividade alelopática dos lixiviados de Asemeia extraaxillaris (Polygalaceae sobre o crescimento de Ipomoea cordifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B. SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a atividade alelopática dos lixiviados das raízes e folhas secas de Asemeia extraaxillaris sobre o crescimento de corda de viola Ipomoea cordifolia em casa de vegetação, para avaliação dos efeitos sobre o estresse oxidativo. Nos bioensaios foram utilizadas três concentrações (0,25 - 5,00 e 10,00 g e um controle, com quatro repetições de 10 plantas, cultivadas em solo durante 30 dias. Os lixiviados possuem ação alelopática e o maior efeito foi verificado para o pó das raizes. O efeito inibitório foi dose-dependente e o aumento do estresse oxidativo foi observado pelos níveis da catalase, peroxidase, superóxido dismutase, glutationa redutase, peroxidação lipídica e síntese de formazan. Concluiu-se que A. extraaxillaris possui substâncias capazes de afetar a emergência, o crescimento e o estresse oxidativo de I. cordifolia.

  11. Photometric Characterization of the Reductive Amination Scope of the Imine Reductases from Streptomyces tsukubaensis and Streptomyces ipomoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, Philipp; Krautschick, Lukas; Höhne, Matthias

    2017-10-18

    Imine reductases (IREDs) have emerged as promising enzymes for the asymmetric synthesis of secondary and tertiary amines starting from carbonyl substrates. Screening the substrate specificity of the reductive amination reaction is usually performed by time-consuming GC analytics. We found two highly active IREDs in our enzyme collection, IR-20 from Streptomyces tsukubaensis and IR-Sip from Streptomyces ipomoeae, that allowed a comprehensive substrate screening with a photometric NADPH assay. We screened 39 carbonyl substrates combined with 17 amines as nucleophiles. Activity data from 663 combinations provided a clear picture about substrate specificity and capabilities in the reductive amination of these enzymes. Besides aliphatic aldehydes, the IREDs accepted various cyclic (C 4 -C 8 ) and acyclic ketones, preferentially with methylamine. IR-Sip also accepted a range of primary and secondary amines as nucleophiles. In biocatalytic reactions, IR-Sip converted (R)-3-methylcyclohexanone with dimethylamine or pyrrolidine with high diastereoselectivity (>94-96 % de). The nucleophile acceptor spectrum depended on the carbonyl substrate employed. The conversion of well-accepted substrates could also be detected if crude lysates were employed as the enzyme source. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Study on Pb Content in 3 Week and 6 Week Old Kangkung (Ipomoea reptans Poir Planted in Pb containing Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Hartatie Hardjo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A study on the content of Pb in kangkung has been conducted. Land kangkung (Ipomoea reptans was used as the sample, and was planted in hydrophonic media, and watered with Multigrow Complete Plant Food (2000 mg/L and Pb solution (2 mg/L twice a day. Samples were taken based on the age (3 and 6 week old, and part of the plant (root and all parts without root. Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer (ICPS Fison 3410+ was used to measure the Pb content. It was shown that in the plant the accumulation was mostly happened in the root. The 6 week-old plant contained Pb not just in the root (3.36 mg/kg sample but also in the other part of the plant (2.09 mg/kg sample and those were exceeded the maximum dietary allowance (2 mg/kg sample regulated by the Indonesian FDA; while in the 3 week-old plant the Pb content in the root was 1.86 mg/kg sample and in the other part of the plan was 1.13 mg/kg, which is not exceeded the dietary allowance. So it is advisable to harvest the kangkung vegetable at the most of 3 week-old.

  13. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PUPUK ORGANIK PADA MEDIA TANAH YANG MENGANDUNG TIMBAL (Pb TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN KANGKUNG DARAT (Ipomoea reptans Poir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listiatie Budi Utami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kangkung darat (Ipomoea reptans Poir. merupakan tanaman hiperakumulator  logam timbal (Pb, padahal kangkung darat banyak dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan dan kandungan timbal (Pb kangkung darat pada berbagai dosis pupuk organik; serta untuk mengetahui dosis pupuk organik yang paling efektif untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan menurunkan kandungan timbal (Pb dalam kangkung darat. Penelitian dilakukan secara Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan perlakuan pemberianpupuk organik dengan dosis 0 gram, 50 gram, 100 gram, 150 gram, 200 gram, dan 250 gram dalam 2 kg tanah dari TPA Piyungan, Bantul. Setiap perlakuan diulang 4 kali dan dilakukan selama 4 minggu. Pengamatan meliputi tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, panjang daun, panjang akar, dan berat basah tanaman. Pada minggu ke-4, dilakukan pengukuran kadar timbal (Pb dalam daun. Dilakukan uji ANOVA dan BNT 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pupuk organik dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman kangkung darat. Dosis yang paling efektif untuk pertumbuhan tanaman kangkung darat adalah 200 gram dalam 2 kg tanah. Pemberian pupuk organik tidak dapat menurunkan kandungan Pb dalam tanaman kangkung darat.

  14. Pengaruh Penyiraman dan Dosis Pemupukan terhadap Pertumbuhan Kangkung (Ipomoea reptans pada Komposisi Media Tanam Tanah+Pasir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD RIFQI FAUZI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Water Requirment and Fertilization on Growth of Kangkong (Ipomoea reptans in media composition soil+sand. Kangkong plant is a tropical vegetable widely cultivated in Indonesia. Village has a wide adaptability to climate and soil in the tropics. This experiment aimed to see the effect of watering and fertilization on the growth of kangkong plants. Experiments was carried out in the garden experiment Cikabayan, IPB on March-April 2011. This experiment was arranged with randomized complete design which consisted of two factors are 3 levels of watering (watering every 1 day (A1, every 2 days (A2, and every 3 days (A3 and fertilization with 5 doses (100% dose recommendation (P1, 75% (P2 , 50% (P3, 25% (P4, and 0 (P5. Planting medium was a mixture of soil : sand (1:1. The results of this study indicate that the frequency of watering significant effect on plant height and weight of wet kangkong plants. Watering once every 2 days to produce the highest plant height (41.41 cm. While fertilization had no effect on all observed variables. Conclusion of the experiment is watering is one of important factor for plant production which significant effect on plant growth.

  15. Development of hydroethanolic extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae using factorial design followed by antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory evaluation

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    Daniela Vieira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. R. Br., Convolvulaceae, is a medicinal plant that grows abundantly as a pan-tropical stand plant. The 3² (two factors and three levels factorial design, was applied to determine the best time and drug/solvent proportion to maximize the flavonoid content in the hydroethanolic extract by maceration process. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied at 5-20 mg/kg, i.p., using the writhing test and carrageenan-induced pleurisy models in mice. The optimized extract was able to inhibit more than 50% of abdominal writhing at 20 mg/kg, with 55.88%±2.4 of maximum inhibition. Indomethacin, used as positive control, inhibited 64.86% at 10 mg/kg. In the pleurisy model, the extract produced dose-dependent inhibition of the first phase of inflammation (4 h in the pleural cavity induced by injection of carrageenan (1% in mice. It inhibited 50%±0.82 (p<0.01 of exudation induced by carrageenan, and 60.88%±0.14 (p<0.01 of leukocyte migration to the pleural cavity. In conclusion, the results validate the technological conditions of the maceration process to produce an optimized bioactive herb extract for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory phytopharmaceuticals using 70 ºGL ethanol, a plant to solvent ratio of 12.5% (w/v, and ten days of maceration.

  16. Técnica para o estudo da anatomia da epiderme foliar de batata A technique for the anatomical study of potato leaf epidermis

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    Fernanda Bastos Segatto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Embora a batata (Solanum tuberosum seja uma espécie de grande valor econômico, são poucas as informações disponíveis sobre a anatomia foliar, principalmente de características estruturais da epiderme. O estudo da anatomia foliar assume grande importância básica, para a ecologia e fisiologia, e aplicada para a fitopatologia e o melhoramento genético. Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar uma técnica histológica que permite a confecção de lâminas semipermanentes para avaliar a epiderme foliar, em vista frontal, de um grande número de plantas de batata em um curto período de tempo. O corte paradérmico a mão livre, o método de Jeffrey e as técnicas de hidróxido de potássio e de impressão da epiderme foram avaliados. Lâminas semipermanentes foram confeccionadas da secção frontal da epiderme de folíolos principais do terço médio de plantas de batata. A impressão da epiderme em lâmina foi a única técnica que possibilitou a avaliação adequada de todos os clones de batata utilizados. A impressão da epiderme é uma técnica muito rápida, de baixo custo e de fácil execução, que atende os requisitos necessários para a identificação e seleção de características anatômicas de um grande número de plantas em um programa de melhoramento genético de batata.Even though potato (Solanum tuberosum is an economically important crop, information about leaf characteristics of anatomical structure has not been well studied. Studies of leaf epidermis have significance for basic fields as ecology and physiology and for applied fields as plant pathology and breeding. The objective of this research was to identify a fast and easy technique to prepare semi-permanent slides for studying the anatomy of potato leaf epidermis. Para dermal free hand cut, Jeffrey method, potassium hydroxide and epidermal fingerprint on glass slide techniques were evaluated. Semi-permanent slides were prepared from the longitudinal section of

  17. Dust loadings on some common plants near Lucknow city. [Acacia melanoxylon, Bauhinia malabarica, Bougain-villea glabra, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus, Ipomoea fistulosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, M.; Dwivedi, A.K.; Kulshreshtha, K.; Ahmad, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Eight plant species - Acacia melanoxylon, Bauhinia malabarica, Bougain-villea glabra, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus, Ipomoea fistulosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum - were collected from a newly established suburb colony of Lucknow city, where the major pollutant is dust, to study the dust cleansing efficiency of the plant canopy and also to establish the correlation between the leaf morphological characteristics and their dust trapping potential. The dust load, in milligrams per square centimeter of leaf surface, was measured and related to foliar epidermal and cuticular characteristics, and morphological features.

  18. Producción de metabolitos secundarios en cultivo de raíces in vitro y suspensiones celulares de Ipomoea carnea spp. carnea Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Idrogo, Consuelo; Kato, Massuo J.; Delgado-Paredes, Guillermo E.; Segal Floh, Eny Iochevet; Handro, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Ipomoea carnea spp. carnea Jacq. es un arbusto dominante en el bosque estacionalmente seco del Perú y Ecuador. Los cultivos de raíces fueron establecidos en medio MS con diferentes concentraciones de AIB, sacarosa y combinaciones de AIB-sacarosa. Diversos explantes obtenidos de plántulas in vitro y plantas silvestres se cultivaron en diferentes combinaciones de 2,4-D, AIA, ANA y BAP, para inducir callos friables, dependiendo del tipo de explante y los reguladores de creci...

  19. Eficácia de herbicidas em diferentes quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar no controle de Ipomoea grandifolia Effectiveness of herbicides through different amounts of sugar-cane straw on the Ipomoea grandifolia control

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    Patricia Andrea Monquero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar, colhida sem queima prévia do canavial, na eficácia de alguns herbicidas no controle de Ipomoea grandifolia. O experimento foi desenvolvido em campo no Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, em Araras (SP. Os tratamentos consistiram dos herbicidas ametryn + trifloxysulfuron-sodium (1463 + 37 g ha-1, imazapic (84 g ha-1, imazapyr (200 g ha-1, ¹diuron + hexazinone (1170 + 330 g ha-1 e ²diuron + hexazinone (1330 + 160 g ha-1 aplicados em pré-emergência de I. grandifolia e de cinco quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 t ha-1. A eficácia de controle das plantas daninhas foi avaliada aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Com a adição de palha (15 e 20 t ha-1 ao solo foi reduzida a população de I. grandifolia. À medida que a quantidade de palha foi aumentada, reduziu-se a eficácia dos herbicidas; com 15 t ha-1 de palha, o controle foi considerado insatisfatório para todos os tratamentos utilizados. Com 20 t ha-1 nenhum herbicida foi eficaz, entretanto, a palha foi eficiente na supressão desta espécie, verificando-se que o número de plantas emergidas foi menor mesmo na testemunha.This work had as objective studies the effect of different amounts of sugarcane straw picked without burns about effectiveness of some herbicides in the I. grandifolia control. The experiment was conduced in field in the Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, in Araras, SP. The treatments consisted of herbicides herbicidas ametryn + trifloxysulfuron-sodium (1463 + 37 g ha-1, imazapic (84 g ha-1, imazapyr (200 g ha-1, ¹diuron + hexazinone (1170 + 330 g ha-1 and ²diuron + hexazinone (1330 + 160 g ha-1 applied in pre emergence of Ipomoea grandifolia and on five growing amounts of sugarcane straw ( 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 t ha-1. The effectiveness of control of weeds was evaluated to the 7, 14, 21 and 28

  20. Interferência de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas com predominância de Ipomoea hederifolia na cana-soca Interference of a weed community with predominance of Ipomoea hederifolia on sugar cane ratton

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    I.A.B. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos recentes da flora de plantas daninhas associada à cultura da cana-de-açúcar apontaram Ipomoea hederifolia como uma das espécies mais importantes. Em virtude disso, objetivou-se determinar o potencial de redução da produtividade da cana-de-açúcar e da qualidade do caldo em resposta à interferência de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas com predomínio de I. hederifolia, bem como o período anterior à interferência (PAI. Foi instalado um experimento em Pitangueiras, SP, em que constituíram tratamentos nove períodos crescentes de convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura (0, 16, 30, 44, 69, 97, 135, 160, 188 e 229 dias após o cultivo e adubação e início da brotação - DAB. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com cada tratamento em quatro repetições. Concluiu-se que o potencial de redução do número final de colmos e de produtividade foi de 34% e 46%, respectivamente. O PAI foi do início da brotação e se estendeu por 33 dias. Com o aumento do período de convivência com a comunidade infestante, houve antecipação do processo de maturação dos colmos, cujo caldo tendeu a apresentar maior valor de açúcar total recuperável (ATR. Com a redução de produtividade devido à interferência, o valor de ATR ha-1 tendeu a ser negativamente afetado.Recent surveys on weed community associated with sugar cane have pointed Ipomoea hederifolia as one of the most important species. Thus, this work aimed to determine the potential for reducing the productivity and quality of sugar cane in response to weed community interference with a predominance of I. hederifolia, and the period prior to interference (PPI. An assay was installed in Pitangueiras , Brazil, with the treatments consisting of nine periods of coexistence of the weeds with the culture (0, 16, 30, 44, 69,97, 135, 160,188 and 229 days after cultivation and fertilization and days after sprouting. The experiments were arranged in a

  1. Eficiência fotossintética e consumo de água de Ipomoea triloba após aplicação de herbicidas Photosynthetic efficiency and water consumption of Ipomoea triloba after herbicide application

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    R. Araldi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a fluorescência através da taxa de transporte de elétrons, consumo de água e intoxicação de plantas de Ipomoea triloba após aplicação de quatro herbicidas de diferentes mecanismos de ação. Os herbicidas aplicados foram: glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, diuron e amicarbazone. A aplicação foi feita com auxílio de um pulverizador estacionário instalado em laboratório; após a aplicação dos tratamentos, as plantas foram mantidas em casa de vegetação. Foi avaliada a taxa de transporte de elétrons (ETR, o consumo de água e a intoxicação das plantas em vários períodos após o início do experimento. Os dados de ETR e fitointoxicação foram expressos em porcentagem da testemunha e submetidos à análise de variância e à comparação das médias. Quanto ao consumo de água, os dados foram acumulados e ajustados por modelos de regressão. Assim, pode-se dizer que o fluorômetro é uma ferramenta adequada para verificar a intoxicação antecipada em plantas de I. triloba tratadas com os herbicidas amicarbazone e diuron, visto que a inibição da ETR foi verificada antes de qualquer intoxicação visual sofrida por essas plantas; o consumo de água está relacionado diretamente com o transporte de elétrons, com exceção das plantas submetidas ao haloxyfop-methyl, que não sofreram interferência no transporte de elétrons, mas reduziram o consumo de água.This work was carried out to evaluate fluorescence through electron transport rate (ETR, water consumption and intoxication of Ipomoea triloba after application of four herbicides with different mechanisms of action. The herbicides glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, diuron, and amicarbazone were applied using a stationary sprayer installed in the laboratory. After application, the plants were kept under greenhouse conditions. Electron transport rate, water consumption and plant intoxication were evaluated at various periods

  2. Germinação de sementes de plantas daninhas de pastagens cultivadas: Mimosa pudica e Ipomoea asarifolia Seed germination of weeds from cultivated pasture areas: Mimosa pudica and Ipomoea asarifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Malícia (Mimosa pudica e salsa (Ipomoea asarifolia são importantes plantas daninhas que infestam áreas de pastagens cultivadas da região amazônica brasileira. Neste trabalho foram analisados os efeitos de fatores relacionados ao solo e clima na variação da germinação (percentual e índice de velocidade de germinação - IVG de sementes dessas espécies. A germinação foi monitorada em um período de 15 dias, com contagens diárias e eliminação das sementes germinadas. Os resultados mostraram que os fatores de solo alumínio, pH, cálcio e magnésio não influenciam a germinação das duas espécies de plantas daninhas. A germinação das sementes de malícia e salsa pode ocorrer tanto na presença como na ausência de luz. A temperatura ótima de germinação (percentual e IVG para ambas as espécies foi de 30 ºC contínua e 25-35 ºC alternada, embora as sementes de malícia tenham germinado satisfatoriamente em temperaturas contínuas superiores e inferiores a 30 ºC e em todas as combinações de temperaturas alternadas. Comparativamente, o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG foi mais sensível aos efeitos da temperatura do que o percentual de germinação. Ambas as espécies responderam negativamente ao aumento da salinidade, sendo a espécie malícia mais tolerante ao sal do que a salsa.Mimosa pudica and Ipomoea asarifolia are important weeds of cultivated pasture in the Brazilian Amazon Region. This research analyzes the effects of the change in soil and climate factors on the germination (percentage and germination speed index of these species. Germination was monitored for a 15-day period, with daily counting and elimination of the germinated seeds. The results showed that soil factors such as aluminum, pH, calcium, and magnesium did not influence the germination of the two weed species. The germination of both M. pudica and I. asarifolia is independent of light exposure. Optimum germination (percentage and

  3. Caracterização química e física de batatas ágata e monalisa minimamente processadas Chemical and physical characterization of fresh-cut potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia L. O. Pineli

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar química e fisicamente batatas minimamente processadas durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Batatas (Solanum tuberosum, L. ágata e monalisa foram minimamente processadas como minibatatas. Após o processamento, as batatas foram acondicionadas sob vácuo parcial e, posteriormente, armazenadas em câmaras frias a 5 e 15ºC, por nove dias. A cada três dias, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: firmeza, atividade da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase, açúcares solúveis totais, amido e vitamina C total. Nas batatas armazenadas a 15ºC, constatou-se que, após nove dias de armazenamento, sua firmeza era 3,3 vezes menor em batatas monalisa e 4,3 vezes menor para a cultivar ágata, quando comparadas com o produto recém-processado. A atividade da polifenoloxidase mostrou-se praticamente estável em batatas monalisa armazenadas a 5ºC. Batatas monalisa minimamente processadas apresentaram maior atividade da peroxidase a 5ºC, sendo 86% maior do que a atividade desta enzima em batatas ágata ao final do período experimental. O teor inicial de açúcares solúveis totais nas batatas minimamente processadas era 28% maior na cultivar monalisa, quando comparada com tubérculos de ágata. As duas cultivares apresentaram tendência de elevação do teor de amido nos primeiros três dias, para as duas temperaturas estudadas. Em ambas as cultivares, armazenamento a 5ºC possibilitou maior manutenção dos teores de vitamina C.The present work was carried out aiming to evaluate chemical and physical characteristics of fresh-cut potatoes stored under 5 and 15°C. Potatoes, (Solanum tuberosum L. ágata and Monalisa were minimally processed as baby potatoes. After processing, the material was packed under partial vacuum and stored at 5 and 15°C for nine days. Every three days tubers were evaluated for firmness, enzymatic activity (polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase, total soluble sugars, starch, and total vitamin C

  4. PEMANFAATAN TEPUNG KOMPOSIT UBI JALAR PUTIH (Ipomea batatas L. KECAMBAH KEDELAI (Glycine max Merr DAN KECAMBAH KACANG HIJAU (Virginia radiata L SEBAGAI SUBSTITUEN PARSIAL TERIGU DALAM PRODUK PANGAN ALTERNATIF BISKUIT KAYA ENERGI PROTEIN [Utilization of Composite Flour from White Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L, Germinated Soybeans (Glycine max Merr., and Germinated Mung Beans (Virginia radiata L as Wheat Flour Partial Substituent of Alternative Food, High Energy-Protein Biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry H Sunandar2

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An emergency food based biscuit product was formulated by utilizing composite flour from white sweet potatoes, germinated soybeans, and germinated mung beans. This product was designed to meet high protein and energy wich contain protein as minimum as 12% and 50% carbohydrate. Sweet potatoes, germinated soybeans, and germinated mung beans flour were obtained by using drum dryer. The flour characteristics determination showed that there were positive corelation between bulk density and wettability, and had negative corelation with stack angle. The bulk density number of sweet potatoes, germinated soybeans, and germinated mung beans flour were 0.56, 0.38, 0.45 g/m; compact density 0.63, 0.54, and 0.56 g/ml; whiteness degree 49.77, 29.82 and 34.41%; stack angle 30.56, 41.77 and 31.16 degree; wettability 1.104, 345, 20 second; and dispersibility 1.98, 1.06 and 0.70%. Wheat flour could be substituted by sweet potatoes flour as much as 80%. The range utilization of germinated soybeans and germinated mung beans flour were 12-28 % which combined with 25-44% sweet potatoes flour. The nutritional composition of high energy and protein biscuit were within average range of protein 12.34%, fat 24.56%, carbohydrate 60.65 %, and also total dietary fiber 15.01%. The result of organoleptic test showed that high energy and protein biscuit was accepted by consument, so that its very potential to ben as alternative food.

  5. Adubação da batata doce em São Paulo: Parte I - Efeito da adubação mineral

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    A. Pais de Camargo

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar a influência da adubação na cultura da batata doce para as condições do Estado de São Paulo, foram efetuadas várias séries de ensaios abrangendo diversos aspectos do problema. Neste trabalho, são apresentados apenas os resultados de 31 ensaios planejados para estudar o efeito dos elementos N, P e K, sôbre o desenvolvimento das ramas, produção, número de batatas por plantio e pêso médio das batatas, nos principais tipos de solo do Estado. Os resultados dos demais ensaios dêste plano serão objeto de outros artigos. Vários planos e delineamentos experimentais foram adotados. Como fonte de elementos minerais foram utilizados os seguintes adubos comerciais : salitre do Chile, sulfato de amônio, superfosfato de cálcio, farinha de ossos degelatinados, cloreto de potássio e sulfato de potássio. As fórmulas correspondentes a cada canteiro foram preparadas previamente, e as misturas assim obtidas aplicadas a lanço sôbre o solo antes do preparo dos camalhões. A fertilidade natural do solo e outros fatôres de ordem agrícola mostraram ter muito maior influência na produção da batata doce que a adubação. Geralmente, apenas se obtiveram aumentos substanciais de produção, determinados pela adubação, nos ensaios plantados em terras de fertilidade muito baixa. Nesses casos, apesar de se mostrarem bastante elevados os aumentos percentuais de produção, as diferenças ou aumentos absolutos foram muito pequenos, muitas vêzes, abaixo de 3 t/ha. Desta forma, os aumentos de produção não compensaram os gastos com adubos. Nos ensaios de produção normal (acima de 10 t/ha, foi verificado um único caso de efeito de nitrogênio na produção, que se deu em Mococa, em solo do arqueano. Efeitos de fósforo ou de potássio foram observados unicamente em solos de origem glacial, de Sorocaba. Um único caso de interação de nitrogênio e fósforo foi obtido em solo do arenito de Bauru, em Pindorama. Com relação ao

  6. Effect of Ipomoea aquatica ethanolic extract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats via1H NMR-based metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar Sajak, Azliana; Mediani, Ahmed; Maulidiani; Mohd Dom, Nur Sumirah; Machap, Chandradevan; Hamid, Muhajir; Ismail, Amin; Khatib, Alfi; Abas, Faridah

    2017-12-01

    Ipomoea aquatica (locally known as "kangkung") has previously been reported to have hypoglycemic activities on glucose level in diabetes patients. However, the effect of I. aquatica ethanolic extract on the metabolites in the body has remained unknown. This study provides new insights on the changes of endogenous metabolites caused by I. aquatica ethanolic extract and improves the understanding on the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of I. aquatica ethanolic extract. By using a combination of 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with multivariate analysis (MVDA), the changes of metabolites due to I. aquatica ethanolic extract administration in obese diabetic-induced Sprague Dawley rats (OB+STZ+IA) were identified. The results suggested 19 potential biomarkers with variable importance projections (VIP) above 0.5, which include creatine/creatinine, glucose, creatinine, citrate, carnitine, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, hippurate, leucine, 1-methylnicotinamice (MNA), taurine, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), tryptophan, lysine, trigonelline, allantoin, formiate, acetoacetate (AcAc) and dimethylamine. From the changes in the metabolites, the affected pathways and aspects of metabolism were identified. I. aquatica ethanolic extract increases metabolite levels such as creatinine/creatine, carnitine, MNA, trigonelline, leucine, lysine, 3-HB and decreases metabolite levels, including glucose and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates. This implies capabilities of I. aquatica ethanolic extract promoting glycolysis, gut microbiota and nicotinate/nicotinamide metabolism, improving the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and reducing the β-oxidation rate. However, the administration of I. aquatica ethanolic extract has several drawbacks, such as unimproved changes in amino acid metabolism, especially in reducing branched chain amino acid (BCAA) synthesis pathways and lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

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    Hyeon-Kyu Go

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas powder (PY, water extract of yam (EY, and allantoin (the active constituent of yam in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc, lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC, diabetic control (STZ, and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin. After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p < 0.001 compared to STZ (100%: 60% in STZ + PY, 55% in STZ + EY, and 63% in STZ + allantoin. With groups in the same order, there were significant decreases (p < 0.001 in HbAlc (100% as 24.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL, 78%, 75%, and 77%, total cholesterol (100% as 122 ± 3 mg/dL, 70%, 67%, and 69%, and low-density lipoprotein (100% as 29 ± 1 mg/dL, 45%, 48%, and 38%. There were also significant increases (p < 0.001 in insulin (100% as 0.22 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 173%, 209%, and 177%, GLP-1 (100% as 18.4 ± 0.7 pmol/mL, 160%, 166%, and 162%, and C-peptide (100% as 2.56 ± 0.10 ng/mL, 129%, 132%, and 130%. The treatment effectively ameliorated antioxidant stress as shown by a significant decrease (p < 0.001 in malondialdehyde (100% as 7.25 ± 0.11 nmol/mL, 87%, 86%, and 85% together with increases (p < 0.01 in superoxide dismutase (100% as 167 ± 6 IU/mL, 147%, 159%, and 145% and reduced glutathione (100% as 167 ± 6 nmol/mL, 123%, 141%, and 140%. The results indicate that yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose levels.

  8. Ozônio como agente fitossanitário na conservação pós-colheita da batata-baroa

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    Patrícia Helena Ribeiro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Raízes de batata-baroa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft foram imersas em água borbulhada com ozônio, para avaliar o controle de bactérias do gênero Erwinia. Além de análise visual das raízes, avaliaram-se a atividade das enzimas pectinolíticas pectinametilesterase e poligalacturonase, e as características físico-químicas (perda de massa, variação de cor, teores de açúcares e amido, durante o armazenamento. As raízes foram imersas em água ozonizada (1,52 mg L-1, por períodos de até 30 min. Em seguida, foram acondicionadas em câmara climática e avaliadas durante 10 dias. Não houve diferença visual aparente entre os tratamentos. Entretanto, raízes tratadas com ozônio por 30 min apresentaram menor atividade específica das enzimas pectinametilesterase. Houve efeito linear para açúcares solúveis totais e perda de massa, e efeito quadrático para açúcares redutores e não redutores, significativos apenas para o período de armazenamento. A imersão de raízes de batata-baroa em água borbulhada com ozônio por até 30 min não foi suficiente para o controle de bactérias do gênero Erwinia. Nas condições adotadas no trabalho, a ozonização não provoca alteração na perda de massa, no teor de amido, açúcares solúveis totais, açúcares redutores e açúcares não redutores, e na variação de cor das raízes de batata-baroa.

  9. BRS Ana: cultivar de batata de duplo propósito BRS ANA: A dual purpose potato cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arione da S Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O genótipo BRS Ana é uma nova cultivar de batata adequada para fritura à francesa, com potencial de processamento na forma de palitos pré-fritos congelados e de flocos, liberada em 2007. Foi desenvolvida pelo Programa de Melhoramento de Batata da Embrapa (Clima Temperado, Pelotas-RS, Transferência de Tecnologia - Escritório de Canoinhas-SC e Hortaliças, Brasília-DF, com base na aparência e rendimento de tubérculos, peso específico e qualidade de fritura. Os tubérculos têm película vermelha, levemente áspera, polpa branca, formato oval e olhos rasos. O potencial produtivo é alto. No ecossistema subtropical, apresentou maior produtividade (31,2 t ha-1 que as cultivares mais plantadas no país, quando cultivada no outono, e não diferiu na primavera. Em ecossistema tropical, plantio da seca, a cultivar BRS Ana foi tão produtiva (33,8 t ha-1 quanto as demais cultivares avaliadas. Produziu maior percentagem de tubérculos graúdos (55,6% e peso médio dos tubérculos (108,4 g que as testemunhas no outono do ecossistema subtropical. Em ambos os ecossistemas, a cultivar BRS Ana apresentou elevados valores de peso específico (1,086 e conteúdo de matéria seca (19,7%. Nos testes sensoriais mostrou-se adequada à fritura na forma de palitos, tanto no preparo doméstico, quanto na industrialização. É moderadamente suscetível à requeima (Phytophthora infestans e tem boa resistência à pinta-preta (Alternaria solani. A reação à podridão-mole (Pectobacterium sp. é similar à das cultivares mais plantadas. Apresenta baixa degenerescência de sementes por viroses, conferida pela resistência moderadamente alta ao PVY e baixa incidência do PLRV. Suscetibilidade a distúrbios de origem fisiológica nos tubérculos não tem sido observada. No ecossistema subtropical a tuberização é mais tardia na primavera, devendo portanto ser plantada mais cedo.The genotype BRS Ana is a new potato cultivar adequate for French fries, with

  10. Detecção de Ralstonia solanacearum em tubérculos de batata através de PCR qualitativa e quantitativa

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana de Andrade Figueiró

    2008-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum é uma bactéria transmitida por tubérculos-semente. As biovares 1 (raça 1) e 2 (raça 3) estão associadas à batata (Solanum tuberosum) e apresentam características epidemiológicas diferentes. A certificação de tubérculos-semente constitui-se num processo essencial para o manejo da murcha bacteriana, mas depende de métodos específicos e sensíveis de detecção deste patógeno. Este trabalho objetivou (i) projetar oligonucleotídeos iniciadores para diferenciação das biovares d...

  11. Fatores envolvidos no comportamento do consumidor durante a compra e utilização de batatas e repercussões na oferta de cultivares francesas em Belo Horizonte

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia

    2009-01-01

    A batata (Solanum tuberosum, L.) é uma planta que produz tubérculos com alto valor nutritivo e está entre os alimentos de maior importância e consumo no mundo em razão de sua composição, versatilidade gastronômica e baixo preço. Em Minas Gerais, a cultura da batata apresenta grande importância socioeconõmica devido, inclusive, a produtividade média ser superior à nacional. Assim, o Programa de Cooperação Técnica Brasil-França com o Estado de Minas Gerais destaca-se como iniciativa na ampliaçã...

  12. Viabilidade econômica da adubação adicional de genótipos de feijoeiro em relação ao resíduo de adubação da batata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuti Hamilton

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade econômica de genótipos de feijoeiro, com e sem adubação adicional, em relação à adubação residual da batata. Foram conduzidos, em Lavras, MG, quatro experimentos com o feijão em sucessão à cultura da batata. Em cada safra (águas 98/99 e inverno-primavera 99 foi instalado um experimento utilizando apenas a adubação residual da batata e outro que utilizou, além do mencionado resíduo, uma adubação para o feijoeiro, de 500 kg ha-1 da formula 4-14-8 na semeadura e 40 kg ha-1 de N (sulfato de amônia em cobertura. O delineamento experimental foi látice 5 x 5, com três repetições, seis cultivares comerciais e 19 linhagens utilizadas no programa de melhoramento do feijoeiro da Universidade Federal de Lavras. A análise conjunta mostrou que os genótipos de feijoeiro apresentaram comportamento não coincidente em resposta à adubação. Em ambas as safras, a adubação adicional do feijoeiro elevou o rendimento de grãos, mas apenas na safra de inverno-primavera mostrou-se economicamente viável. Os resultados evidenciaram, ainda, a possibilidade de se obterem bons rendimentos de grãos com a cultura do feijoeiro utilizando apenas a adubação residual da batata.

  13. In vitro antiplasmodial effiacy of mangrove plant, Ipomoea pes-caprae against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain

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    Veera Venkata Satish Pothula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of mangrove plant, Ipomoea pes-caprae (I. pes-caprae (leaves, stems, flowers and roots against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain (P. falciparum and cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae and THP-1 cell line. Methods: The plants (I. pes-caprae were collected from Machilipatnam mangrove forest (latitude 16°17′ N and longitude 81 °13′ E of Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Crude extracts from dried leaves, stems, flowers and roots of I. pes-caprae were prepared through Soxhlet extraction using methanol, chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous sequentially. These extracts were tested in vitro against P. falciparum (3D7 strain adopted in laboratory. The crude extracts were also tested for their cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae and THP-1 cell line. The phytochemical screenings were also conducted with standard methods. As the part of the study, the extracts were checked for any chemical injury to erythrocytes. Results: Out of these extracts, methanolic and aqueous extracts of all plant parts and chloroform extract of stems were active, and the ethyl acetate extracts were weekly active against P. falciparum. The extracts of chloroform (except stems and hexane were inactive. Amongst these extracts, the methanolic extract of root showed excellent antimalarial activity with the IC 50 value of 15.00 µg/mL. Cytotoxic evaluation revealed that methanolic, aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts were slightly cytotoxic whereas chloroform and hexane extracts were more toxic against brine shrimp. All extracts were non-toxic to THP-1 cells. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also evaluated and it did not show any morphological changes in erythrocytes due to the effect of plant extracts of I. pes-caprae after 48 h of incubation. The phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins

  14. "allometry" Deterministic Approaches in Cell Size, Cell Number and Crude Fiber Content Related to the Physical Quality of Kangkong (Ipomoea reptans) Grown Under Different Plant Density Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, A.; Atiman, S. A.; Puteh, A.; Abdullah, N. A. P.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Zulkeefli, A. A.; Othman, S.

    Kangkong, especially the upland type (Ipomoea reptans) is popularly consumed as a vegetable dish in the South East Asian countries for its quality related to Vitamins (A and C) and crude fiber contents. Higher fiber contents would prevent from the occurrence of colon cancer and diverticular disease. With young stem edible portion, its cell number and size contribute to the stem crude fiber content. The mathematical approach of allometry of cell size, number, and fiber content of stem could be used in determining the 'best' plant density pressure in producing the quality young stem to be consumed. Basically, allometry is the ratio of relative increment (growth or change) rates of two parameters, or the change rate associated to the log of measured variables relationship. Kangkog grown equal or lower than 55 plants m-2 produced bigger individual plant and good quality (physical) kangkong leafy vegetable, but with lower total yield per unit area as compared to those grown at higher densities.

  15. Efeito da substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por farinha de casca de batata (Solanum Tuberosum Lineu Effect of the partial replacement of wheat flour for potato skin flour (Solanum Tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Felicori Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O aproveitamento dos subprodutos da agroindústria de alimentos diminui os custos da produção, aumenta o aproveitamento total do alimento e reduz o impacto que esses subprodutos podem causar ao serem descartados no ambiente. Dessa forma, alguns subprodutos da batata são aproveitados e transformados em ingredientes alimentícios, como é o caso da casca. Neste estudo utilizou-se a casca de batata para produção de farinha visando a sua utilização em produtos de panificação, sendo utilizadas as seguintes porcentagens na composição da farinha mista: 0-50-50%; 3-47-50%; 6-44-50%; 9-41-50% e 12-38-50% de farinha de casca de batata, farinha de trigo branca e farinha de trigo integral, respectivamente. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas na farinha de casca de batata, análises físicas na farinha de casca, nas farinhas de trigo branca e integral e análises reológicas nas farinhas mistas. A farinha de casca de batata apresentou bons teores de fibras e minerais, e dentro deste último, destacam-se os teores de fósforo, cálcio e magnésio. Quanto à granulometria e à diferença de cor, as farinhas de casca de batata e a farinha de trigo integral apresentaram valores mais próximos uma da outra. À medida que se aumentou a substituição da farinha de trigo branca pela farinha de casca de batata, as análises reológicas indicaram uma queda na qualidade tecnológica das massas.Reusing some agro-industrial food by-products lower the production costs, increase efficient food utilization, and reduce the impact that these sub-products cause if discarded in the environment. Thus, some potato by-products are reused utilized and transformed into food ingredients, such as potato skin. In this study, potato skin was utilized for the production of flour to be used in bakery products. The following percentages were utilized in the composition of the mixed flour: 0-50-50%; 3-47-50%; 6-44-50%; 9-41-50%, and 12-38-50% of potato skin flour, white

  16. Yield of sweet potato fertilized with cattle manure and biofertilizer Produção da batata-doce adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar P Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In Northeastern Brazil, the sweet potato is cultivated in small farms, in a family farming systems, constituting themselves an alternative way for the generation of food, employment and income. This study aimed to assess the effect of cattle manure levels and biofertilizer concentrations on the sweet potato cultivar White Queen productivity. The experiment was carried out from March to September 2007 at the EMEPA Experimental Station in Lagoa Seca, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in split split plot 6 x 4 x 2 + 1 scheme, with four replications. The plots consisted of cattle manure levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1, the subplot of biofertilizer concentrations (0, 15, 30 and 45% and the sub subplots consisted of methods of biofertilizer application, to the soil or leaves. Also, there was an additional control treatment using N, P and K mineral fertilizer. Commercial and total root productivity was evaluated. The levels of 30.8 and 31.2 t ha-1 of cattle manure were responsible for the highest commercial and total sweet potato root productivity (17.4 and 13.1 t ha-1, respectively. Biofertilizer concentrations of 29 and 28%, applied to soil and to leaves provided, respectively, the greatest productivities of total roots (15.4 and 13.1 t ha-1, whereas concentrations of 30 and 27%, also applied to soil and leaves were responsible, respectively, for the highest commercial root productivity (11 and 9.7 t ha-1.Na região Nordeste do Brasil, a batata-doce é principalmente plantada por pequenos produtores em sistema de agricultura familiar, constituindo-se numa alternativa de alimentação e geração de emprego e renda. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito das doses de esterco bovino e de concentrações de biofertilizante sobre a produtividade da batata-doce, cultivar Rainha Branca. O experimento foi conduzido no período de março a setembro de 2007 na Estação Experimental da EMEPA, em Lagoa Seca-PB, Brasil. O

  17. Protocolo para produção de material propagativo de batata em meio líquido Protocol for potato propagative material production in liquid medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Everson Scherwinski Pereira

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Os meios semi-sólidos são os mais utilizados em trabalhos de micropropagação, mas há indícios de que o estado físico dos meios de cultura influencia a multiplicação dos cultivos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um protocolo para a multiplicação de material propagativo de batata em meio de cultura líquido. Explantes de batata da cultivar Eliza, com uma gema axilar, foram cultivados em seis diferentes meios de cultura, com (semi-sólido ou sem (líquido a adição do solidificante ágar. Após 21 dias de cultivo, o meio de cultura que proporcionou os melhores resultados para crescimento e taxa de multiplicação teve sua composição modificada com o objetivo de melhorar a eficiência de multiplicação de cinco cultivares em meio líquido. Foi também avaliada a necessidade de agitação dos cultivos em meio líquido. Houve ganho na eficiência de multiplicação in vitro da batata, quando se utiliza meio de cultura líquido. Os melhores resultados são obtidos quando o material é cultivado em meio constituído pelos sais de MS na concentração plena, acrescido de ácido pantotênico (5,0 mg L-1, tiamina (1,0 mg L-1, ácido giberélico (0,25 mg L-1 e sacarose (20 g L-1, sob agitação constante.Semi-solid media are more commonly used in studies of micropropagation, but the physical state of the culture media seems to influence the growth and multiplication rate of the cultivation. The objective of this work was to establish a protocol for in vitro multiplication of potato in liquid culture media. Potato explants, cultivar Eliza, with an axillary bud, were cultivated in six different culture media, with (semi-solid or without (liquid the addition of agar. After 21 days, the culture medium that provided the best results for growth and multiplication rate had the composition modified with the objective of improving the efficiency of in vitro multiplication of five cultivars in liquid medium. The need of agitation was also

  18. Aquecimento global: efeitos no crescimento, no desenvolvimento e na produtividade de batata Global warming: effects on growth, development, and yield of potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Dutra Fagundes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A concentração atmosférica dos gases do efeito estufa, principalmente o CO2, tem aumentado nas últimas décadas devido às atividades antrópicas. A concentração de CO2 aumentou de aproximadamente 280 partes por milhão por volume (ppmv no período pré-industrial para a atual concentração de 380 ppmv. Há registros que, durante o século XX, houve um aumento da temperatura média da superfície global de 0,6±(0,2°C, e projeções indicam um provável aumento de 1,1 a 6,4°C na temperatura média global até o final do século XXI, dependendo da região do planeta. O aumento da concentração de CO2 e da temperatura afeta diretamente processos fisiológicos, como fotossíntese e respiração das plantas, o que poderá alterar o desempenho das culturas, incluindo a batata. O objetivo desta revisão foi reunir informações da literatura sobre os possíveis efeitos do aumento na concentração de CO2 e da temperatura do ar no crescimento, no desenvolvimento e na produtividade da cultura de batata. O aumento do CO2, seguido de aumento na temperatura do ar, de maneira geral, resultará em menor crescimento, redução na duração do ciclo de desenvolvimento, menor produtividade e aumento da incidência de doenças da batata. Como estratégia para minimizar os efeitos de um possível aquecimento global sobre essa cultura, sugere-se que sejam desenvolvidas cultivares tolerantes a altas temperaturas, adaptadas as épocas de plantio em cada local, alteradas as práticas de manejo da cultura e até expandidas as áreas de cultivo para regiões mais frias.The concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases, mainly the CO2, has increased in the last decades due to anthropogenic activities. The atmospheric CO2 concentration has increased from about 280 parts per million per volume (ppmv in the pre-industrial period to the currently 380ppmv concentration. There are reports that during the XX century global average temperature increased 0.6±(0.2

  19. Avaliação de processos nas linhas de beneficiamento e classificação de batatas Process evaluation on potato packing lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos David Ferreira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A batata é uma das principais hortaliças cultivadas no Brasil, sendo uma cultura de grande expressão econômica no estado de São Paulo. Após a colheita os tubérculos são submetidos aos processos de beneficiamento e classificação, sendo então destinados ao mercado consumidor. Neste trabalho realizou-se a descrição e a caracterização dos processos das unidades de beneficiamento e classificação de batatas por meio da identificação do material usado para a construção do maquinário, caracterização dimensional dos equipamentos, medidas de rotação de operação das esteiras de abastecimento e das classificadoras, determinação da velocidade de deslocamento e da rotação dos tubérculos e a produtividade dos operários. Determinou-se também os pontos críticos de impacto com queda durante o beneficiamento, utilizando-se a esfera instrumentada (70 mm, Techmark, Inc., Lansing, Michigan, Estados Unidos. Com esta, obtiveram-se dados de aceleração máxima (G e mudanças na velocidade (deltav. Este levantamento foi realizado em cinco unidades de beneficiamento e classificação para batatas localizadas no estado de São Paulo. Observou-se variação quanto ao comprimento do equipamento, atingindo 26,5%. Foi constatado também variação na vazão de água entre as unidades devido à diferença nos sistemas utilizados para a lavagem dos tubérculos, tendo os volumes oscilado de 15,4 a 168 mil litros por hora. As escovas mais utilizadas na etapa de lavagem eram compostas de cerdas com nylon cristal e fibra de coco, não sendo encontradas escovas compostas de origem animal. A rotação média para todas as unidades na etapa de lavagem foi de 157 rpm, porém verificou-se variação de 75% (112 a 196 rpm. Para a etapa de secagem, a rotação média foi de 122 rpm, tendo oscilado de 68 a 210 rpm. Os pontos das linhas de beneficiamento e classificação de batata demonstraram maior G nos pontos de transferência (entrada do lavador e

  20. Expressão de caracteres de tubérculos em função do tamanho de recipiente usado no cultivo de batata na geração de plântulas

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    Mario Alvaro Aloisio Verissimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No melhoramento genético de batata, para alguns caracteres, é possível eliminar genótipos inferiores já nas gerações iniciais, o que permite reduzir o número de genótipos avaliados a campo, proporcionando redução de custos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do tamanho de vaso na expressão de caracteres de tubérculo, em famílias de batata, na geração de plântula. Em casa de vegetação, dez famílias de batata foram avaliadas em dois tamanhos de recipientes, vaso grande (1 L e vaso pequeno (250 ml. Os caracteres de tubérculos avaliados foram: cor, aspereza, profundidade de olho, sobrancelha, formato, uniformidade de formato, apontamento, curvatura, achatamento, aparência geral, massa por planta, massa média e número de tubérculos. O vaso grande proporciona maior expressão da variação genética para os caracteres profundidade de olho, sobrancelha, curvatura, achatamento, aparência geral e todos os componentes de rendimento. As maiores médias de produção de tubérculos em número, tamanho e massa foram obtidas no vaso grande, enquanto o maior coeficiente de variação genético para os caracteres formato, uniformidade de formato e apontamento de tubérculo foi obtido no vaso pequeno.

  1. Efeito da adição de óleo essencial de Origanum vulgar e Ocimum gratissimum L. no perfil lipídico da gordura de palma usada em fritura de batata tipo chips

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Jessica Trautwein Diniz

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito antioxidante do óleo essencial de orégano e alfavacão no perfil de ácidos graxos da gordura de palma, utilizada em processo industrial de batata frita tipo chips, em diferentes etapas do processamento, visando reduzir o estado oxidativo da mesma. O óleo essencial foi obtido do resíduo do orégano da indústria de condimentos, e analisou-se também óleo essencial de orégano comercial. A atividade antioxidante do óleo essencial de orégano foi fe...

  2. Boron fertilization on sweet potato: effect of sources, rates and application formAdubação com boro em batata-doce: efeito das fontes, doses e modos de aplicação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Creste

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B fertilization can result in high yield and better sweet potato storage roots quality. However, there is few works about this subject. The objective was to evaluate the yield of sweet potato crops in response to B sources, rates and application form. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks, in factorial outline ((2x2x2+1, with three replications, which resulted of the combination of sources of B (boric acid and borax, application form (via soil and via foliar and doses of B (1 and 2 kg ha-1 and a control treatment (without B. There was no interaction between the factors studied for the commercial yield of sweet potato. No significant differences was found between B sources and application form, but they showed higher yield than the control treatment. Additionally, sweet potato yield increade with application of 2 kg ha-1 of B.A adubação boratada pode proporcionar aumentos na produtividade e na qualidade das raízes tuberosas de batata-doce, no entanto poucos trabalhos contemplam esse assunto. Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade da cultura da batata-doce em resposta a fontes, doses e modos de aplicação de B. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial ((2x2x2+1, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram aplicados em cobertura, sendo resultados da combinação de fontes de B (ácido bórico e bórax, formas de aplicação (via solo e via foliar e doses de B (1 e 2 kg ha-1 mais uma testemunha. Não houve interação entre os fatores estudados sobre a produtividade comercial de batata-doce. As formas de aplicação, via solo e via foliar bem como as fontes ácido bórico e bórax não apresentaram diferenças entre si, mas proporcionaram produtividades superiores ao tratamento sem B. A produtividade de batata-doce foi favorecida com a aplicação de 2 kg ha-1 de B.

  3. Effects of inorganic nitrogen forms on growth, morphology, nitrogen uptake capacity and nutrient allocation of four tropical aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia cucullata, Ipomoea aquatica, Cyperus involucratus and Vetiveria zizanioides)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the growth and morphological responses, nitrogen uptake and nutrient allocation in four aquatic macrophytes when supplied with different inorganic nitrogen treatments (1) NH4+, (2) NO3−, or (3) both NH4+ and NO3−. Two free-floating species (Salvinia cucullata Roxb. ex Bory...... and Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) and two emergent species (Cyperus involucratus Rottb. and Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small) were grown with these N treatments at equimolar concentrations (500 M). Overall, the plants responded well to NH4+. Growth as RGR was highest in S. cucullata (0.12±0.003 d−1......) followed by I. aquatica (0.035 ±0.002 d−1), C. involucratus (0.03±0.002 d−1) and V. zizanioides (0.02±0.003 d−1). The NH4+ uptake rate was significantly higher than the NO3− uptake rate. The free-floating species had higher nitrogen uptake rates than the emergent species. The N-uptake rate differed between...

  4. Study on The Content of Pb in Twigs And Leaves of Kangkung (Ipomoea reptans Poir Boiled With The Addition of NaCl And Acetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Hartatie Hardjo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Kangkung is a kind of favorable vegetables that used to grow near a river, and is cultivated and watered with water from the river. If the river is polluted by heavy metals, there is a risk that the plant is contaminated too. A study on the content of Pb in kangkung planted in Pb contaminated media has been conducted, and it was proven that Pb was found in the plant. Land kangkung (Ipomoea reptans was used as sample, and was planted in hydrophonic media, and watered with Multigrow Complete Plant Food (2000 mg/L and Pb solution (2 mg/L twice a day. Samples were taken based on the age of 54 days, then the twigs and leaves were boiled in different ways: I. Boiled with no addition, II. Boiled with addition of NaCl , and III. Boiled with addition of acetic acid. IV. Unboiled sample as the control. Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer (ICPS Fison 3410+ was used to measure the Pb content. It was shown that boiling the kangkung reduced the Pb content in the leaves as well as in the twigs; however, the acetic acid addition showed the least effect. In the leaves the three different ways of boiling did not show significant different, while in twigs the different was significant.

  5. Technological quality and utilization of potato tubers Qualidade tecnológica e utilização de tubérculos de batata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Feltran

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns have been verified with regard to the quality factor of potato tubers and their correct form of use and consumption. The purpose of this research was to determine the technological quality of potato tuber cultivars and identify the best forms of use and consumption. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted with 18 treatments represented by cultivars Agata, Apuã (IAC-5977, Aracy (IAC-2, IAC Aracy Ruiva, Asterix, Bintje, Dali, Clone IAC-6090, Itararé (IAC-5986, Laguna, Remarka, Liseta, Mondial, Novita, Oscar, Picasso, Santana, and Solide, with four replications. Specific gravity showed a positive correlation with starch content, texture, pulp pH, and soluble solids, and was negatively correlated with reducing sugars. The technological characteristics represented by specific gravity, dry matter content, texture, starch content, reducing sugars, pulp pH, titrable acidity, and soluble solids are influenced by genotype or cultivar. Cultivars Oscar, Itararé, IAC Aracy Ruiva, Clone IAC-6090, Aracy, Solide, Asterix, Santana, and Laguna were outstanding with best characteristics for frying, mashing and roasting. Mondial, Picasso, Novita, Dali, and Agata are appropriate for boiling, and more specifically for salads. In turn, potato cultivars Apuã, Remarka, Bintje, and Liseta are suitable for mashing and for roasting.Atualmente tem ocorrido crescente preocupação com o fator qualidade da batata e a forma correta de utilização para o consumo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a qualidade tecnológica dos tubérculos de cultivares de batata, visando identificar a melhor forma de utilização e consumo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 18 tratamentos, representados pelos cultivares Agata, Apuã (IAC-5977, Aracy (IAC-2, IAC Aracy Ruiva, Asterix, Bintje, Dali, Clone IAC-6090, Itararé (IAC-5986, Laguna, Remarka, Liseta, Mondial, Novita, Oscar, Picasso, Santana e Solide, com quatro

  6. Produtividade e principais problemas fitossanitários de cultivares de batata em Sergipe Yield and phytosanitary problems of potato cultivars in Sergipe, Brazil

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    Maria Urbana Corrêa Nunes

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Sete cultivares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. foram avaliadas durante três anos em Itabaiana-SE, com o objetivo de verificar a potencialidade de produção à altitude de 180 m e identificar os problemas fitossanitários que afetam a produtividade. Os experimentos foram conduzidos nos meses de junho a setembro, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Após a colheita foram avaliadas a produção total, comercial (tubérculos sadios e com peso mínimo de 40 g e perdas de produção decorrentes de sarna, podridão-mole, nematóide e insetos do solo. A análise conjunta das produções totais e comerciais de tubérculos revelou que as cultivares mais produtivas foram Baronesa (33,7 t/ha, Monalisa (32,7 t/ha e Elvira (31,4 t/ha. A produção comercial variou de 3,4 t/ha a 22,5 t/ha, destacando-se as cvs. Elvira e Monalisa, com rendimentos de 22,5 t/ha e 20,5 t/ha respectivamente, com apenas três pulverizações com defensivos. Os problemas fitossanitários que mais afetaram a cv. Elvira foram sarna (13,1% e nematóide das galhas (7,2%, enquanto a 'Monalisa' teve sua produção prejudicada mais pela incidência de insetos (15,1%, sarna (12,0% e nematóide (9,7%. A cv. Monalisa apresentou tubérculos com melhores características para comercialização e está sendo cultivada a nível comercial em substituição às variedades Bintje e Baraka anteriormente cultivadas na região. Os resultados indicam a potencialidade da região de Itabaiana para a produção de batata.The yield potential and main diseases affecting productivity of seven potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. were evaluated during a three years period in experiments carried out at low altitude conditions of Sergipe State, Brazil. The experimental plots were located at 180 m of sea level in a Red-Yellow Podzolic sandy-clay texture soil. The experimental design was of complete randomized blocks with five replications. Tubers were sown yearly

  7. Reação de cultivares de batata-doce à podridão-do-pé, em condições de campo

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    Cavalcanti Leonardo Sousa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando selecionar fontes de resistência em batata-doce à podridão-do-pé, doença causada pelo fungo Plenodomus destruens, estudou-se o comportamento de dez genótipos, inoculados em condições de campo. O inóculo foi produzido em palitos de madeira, previamente preparados e esterilizados, colonizados com micélio fúngico, mantidos em meio de cultura BDA, por 06 dias, em regime de luz contínua, a uma temperatura de 26 ± 2º C. A inoculação foi realizada 20 dias após o plantio das ramas através da inserção de palito contaminado na base da haste da planta. A avaliação foi realizada aos 35 dias após a inoculação, aplicando-se uma escala de notas, que variaram de 1 a 4, sendo nota igual a 1,0 para planta sem sintomas e nota 4,0 para plantas altamente suscetíveis (planta morta. As cultivares Angico, Mãe de Família També e Carpinteira apresentaram-se como suscetíveis enquanto as cultivares RC 18, C O Branca e CR 71 foram as mais resistentes, embora não diferindo significativamente das cultivares UFRPE 1-88, CNPH 004 e Princesa. O alto nível de resistência apresentado por estas cultivares as tornam indicadas para a utilização das mesmas no manejo desta doença, e ainda, em programas de melhoramento genético, como fontes de resistência a P. destruens.

  8. Capacidade de combinação de genitores de batata para caracteres de aparência e rendimento de tubérculos

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    Giovani Olegário da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as capacidades de combinação de genitores de batata, em gerações iniciais de seleção. Os experimentos foram realizados em Pelotas e Canoinhas. Foram estudadas 12 famílias, derivadas de dois grupos de genitores, cruzados em esquema dialelo parcial (3 x 4 'Eliza', 'C-1730-7-94' e 'C-1742-8-95'; 'Shepody', 'Asterix', 'White Lady' e 'Caesar'. As famílias foram avaliadas, na geração de plântula e na primeira geração de campo, para caracteres componentes de aparência e rendimento de tubérculos. Os dados foram submetidos às análises de variância e dialélica parcial. No conjunto de caracteres avaliados, verificou-se superioridade de efeitos significativos para a capacidade geral de combinação, em relação à capacidade específica de combinação, indicando predominância de efeitos aditivos dos genes, no controle dos caracteres. Em relação à capacidade geral de combinação, 'White Lady' é o genitor mais destacado positivamente, contribuindo com genes de ação aditiva para a melhoria, tanto dos caracteres que compõem a aparência dos tubérculos, quanto dos caracteres de rendimento. Quanto à capacidade específica de combinação, o cruzamento ('C1730-7-94' x 'White Lady' é o mais indicado para a geração de famílias superiores quanto a caracteres de aparência e a caracteres componentes do rendimento de tubérculos.

  9. Produção de sementes pré-básicas de batata em sistemas hidropônicos Production of potato pre-basic seeds in hydroponic systems

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    Carlos Alberto B. Medeiros

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos convencionais de produção de sementes pré-básicas de batata apresentam como característica comum a reduzida eficiência, em razão dos baixos índices de multiplicação de tubérculos. A introdução de novos métodos de produção que propiciem maiores taxas de multiplicação podem contribuir para o aumento da disponibilidade de sementes de qualidade, e por conseqüência para a elevação da produtividade da cultura. Nesse trabalho são descritos dois sistemas hidropônicos, que pelos resultados obtidos, revelam sua viabilidade para a produção de sementes pré-básicas, com aumentos significativos nos índices de multiplicação, e que podem representar um importante avanço no processo produtivo de sementes de batata.The reduced tuber multiplication rate determines the low efficiency in the conventional methods of potato pre-basic seed production. New methods of seed production, with higher multiplication rates, may contribute to improve yield by increasing the availability of good quality seeds. This study describes two hydroponic systems, suitable for growing potato pre-basic seeds, which may represent an important step in the production process of potato seeds.

  10. Atividade respiratória e aspectos microbiológicos de cultivares de batatas minimamente processadas e armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas Respiratory activity and microbiological aspects of minimally processed potatoes cultivars stored at different temperatures

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    Maria Carolina Dario Vitti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos fisiológicos e microbiológicos de diferentes cultivares de batatas minimamente processadas. Batatas das cultivares 'Ágata', 'Asterix' e 'Monalisa' foram selecionadas, classificadas, lavadas e descascadas por abrasão, sendo em seguida cortadas em cubos, sanitizadas e centrifugadas. Depois foram colocadas em frascos herméticos e armazenadas a 5, 15 e 25°C. Foram determinadas a atividade respiratória e a produção de etileno logo após o processamento e durante 10 horas. As análises microbiológicas foram realizadas no dia do processamento e após nove, cinco e um dia de conservação, a 5, 15 e 25°C, respectivamente. Observou-se que as batatas 'Asterix' apresentaram maiores taxas respiratórias em relação às cultivares 'Ágata' e 'Monalisa', independentemente da temperatura de armazenamento. Nas temperaturas de 15 e 25oC, as batatas 'Ágata' e 'Monalisa' apresentaram comportamentos semelhantes entre si. As contagens de bactérias psicrotróficas e coliformes totais, para todas as cultivares armazenadas 5oC, mantiveram-se dentro dos limites aceitáveis durante nove dias de armazenamento. Não foram detectados coliformes a 45°C e Salmonella. Ficou evidenciada a eficiência do armazenamento a 5°C no controle da atividade metabólica e na segurança microbiológica de batatas minimamente processadas.The purpose of the present research was to evaluate physiological and microbiological aspects of different minimally processed potatoes cultivars. Potatoes cultivar 'Agata', 'Asterix' and 'Monalisa' were selected, classified, washed and abrasion peeled before being diced, sanitized and centrifuged. They were then placed in hermetically closed flasks and stored at 5, 15 and 25°C. The respiratory activity and ethylene production were determined immediately after the processing and during 10 hours. Microbiological analyses were carried out on the processing day and after one, five and

  11. Ecologia da polinização de Ipomoea asarifolia (Ders. Roem. & Schult. (Convolvulaceae na região semi-árida de Pernambuco Pollination ecology of Ipomoea asarifolia (Ders. Roem. & Schult. (Convolvulaceae in the semi-arid area of Pernambuco

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    Lúcia Helena Piedade Kiill

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido no período de março/1995 a julho/1997, com o objetivo de estudar aspectos da fenologia, polinização e reprodução de Ipomoea asarifolia, na Fazenda Catalunha, Santa Maria da Boa Vista, PE. I. asarifolia é uma liana perene, com hábito exclusivamente rasteiro e floração registrada no período de março a outubro, caracterizada como do tipo cornucópia. As flores estão reunidas em cimeiras, são infundibuliformes, de cor rosa com as mesopétalas magenta, que funcionam como guias de néctar. A antese é diurna (5:30 e 6:00h e a duração das flores é de aproximadamente seis horas. A quantidade de néctar secretada por flor é inferior a 1µl. Abelhas Megachilidae e Apidae foram os principais visitantes desta Convolvulaceae. Liturge huberi Ducke foi considerada polinizador efetivo e Acamptopoeum prinii Holm. e Diadasina riparia Ducke polinizadores ocasionais. Quanto ao sistema de reprodução, I. asarifolia é autoincompatível, produzindo frutos e sementes viáveis somente após polinização cruzada. Os testes de crescimento de tubo polínico mostraram que, após 10 horas, há tubos polínicos na micrópila de óvulos autopolinizados e daqueles submetidos à polinização cruzada, sugerindo que se trata de um sistema de incompatibilidade tardia. Os testes de germinação mostraram que somente as sementes obtidas em condições naturais (93,3% e nos experimentos de polinização cruzada (100% foram viáveis, reforçando os dados obtidos no sistema de reprodução.The present work was carried out during March/1995 to July/1997, to study aspects of the phenology, pollination and reproduction of Ipomoea asarifolia growing at Fazenda Catalunha, Santa Maria da Boa Vista, PE. I. asarifolia is a perennial creeping liana with floration registered in the period of March to October, characterized as a cornucopian pattern of flowering. The flowers are gathered in cymes, with a pink funnel-like corolla with

  12. IPR 82-Araucária, cultivar de batata para olericultura sustentável IPR 82-Araucária, potato cultivar for sustainable vegetable production

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    Carlos Alberto Scotti

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available São apresentadas as principais características agroindustriais e morfológicas de uma nova cultivar de batata lançada pelo IAPAR, em parceria com a Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília (DF e a Embrapa Semente Básica, Canoinhas (SC. "IPR 82-Araucária" foi selecionada de populações clonais introduzidas do CIP, Lima-Peru, por meio da Embrapa Hortaliças e avaliada nas Estações Experimentais do IAPAR desde 1984. A nova cultivar apresentou como fatores positivos alta produtividade comercial e resistência de campo à requeima, permitindo prever reduções em até 50% no uso de fungicidas para o controle da doença. A suscetibilidade à mancha chocolate e sarna comum evidenciaram a necessidade de manejo adequado de densidade e época de plantio, calagem e irrigação para minimizar os riscos de ocorrência dessas doenças. Com essas características, "IPR 82-Araucária" apresenta potencial para atender às demandas de produtores orgânicos e para produção em áreas de mananciais de água.The main agronomic, industrial, and morphological characteristics of a new Brazilian potato cultivar released by IAPAR, Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília-DF and Embrapa Sementes Básicas, Canoinhas-SC are presented. "IPR 82-Araucária" has been selected from clonal populations derived from crosses done in CIP, Lima, Peru, and introduced for field evaluations in 1984. High yield and field resistance to late blight have been the main features of the new cultivar, allowing to predict reductions as much as 50% in fungicides applications. Susceptibility to internal brown necrosis and common scab requires special farmer's attention in respect of planting density, liming, and irrigation management to decrease risks of incidence of these diseases. "IPR 82-Araucária" is potentially suited for organic farming, and for growing in areas close to water resources.

  13. Características físicas e sensoriais de clones de batata-doce Physical and sensorial characteristics of sweetpotato clones

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    Adriana Dias Cardoso

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar propriedades físicas e sensoriais de clones de batata-doce em Vitória da Conquista - BA foi realizado este experimento, composto por 16 clones oriundos de Janaúba- G, Viçosa - MG, Bom Jardim de Minas - MG, Gurupi - TO, Santo Antônio da Platina - PR, Holambra II - SP, Vitória da Conquista - BA e Condeúba - BA. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 16 tratamentos e 3 repetições. Avaliaram-se as características sensoriais: aparência, umidade, doçura, coloração da polpa, dificuldade de deglutição das raízes tuberosas e as características físicas: tempo de cozimento e peso específico. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade, entretanto, as características sensoriais foram obtidas apenas em valores de porcentagem. O clone 25 apresentou as melhores características sensoriais e o clone 7 apresentou melhor tempo de cozimento.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the physical and sensorial characteristics of sweetpotato clones in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. Sixteen clones were analyzed, originating from Janaúba, MG, Viçosa, MG; Bom Jardim de Minas, MG; Gurupi, TO; Santo Antônio da Platina, PR; Holambra II, SP; Vitória da Conquista, BA; and Condeúba, BA. One utilized randomized blocks with 16 treatments and three repetitions. The following characteristics were analyzed: aspect, humidity, sweetness, color, deglutition difficulty, cooking and specific gravity of the storage roots. The data were submitted to variance analysis using a ScottKnott test with 5% probability. Clone 25 presented the best sensorial characteristics, and clone 7 presented the best cooking time.

  14. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

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    Chih-Chun Wen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra, Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas, Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively, and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz (designated as CBE and CBM, were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50 and 50% of viral replication (EC50 were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI=CC50/EC50 of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were>59.4,> 57.5,> 62.1,> 59.4, and>92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.

  15. Ekstrak Daun Pepaya dan Kangkung untuk Meningkatkan Daya Tetas Telur dan Kelangsungan Hidup Larva Lele (EXTRACTS OF CARICA PAPAYA AND IPOMOEA AQUATICA FOR IMPROVING EGG HATCHABILITY AND LARVAL VIABILITY OF CATFISH

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    Gina Saptiani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to investigate the potential use of leaf extract of Carica papaya and Ipomoeaaquatica lto improve egg hatchability and larval viability of catfish. Dried leaves of Carica papaya andIpomoea aquatica were macerated and extracted in water and ethanol. Eggs and larvae were tested in theaquarium size of 10 L with a a diameter of 28 cm. The extracts in concentration 600, 800 and 1.000 ppmwere tested on the egg hatchability of catfish with immersion method, and challed with Aeromonashydrophyla, Pseudomonas sp., and Saprolegnia spp. The extracts in concentration 800 and 1.000 ppm weretested on the larval viability with immersion method, and challed with pathogens. Water or ethanolextract of Carica papaya and Ipomoea aquatica can improve egg hatchability 67±8% until 90±6% andlarval viability of catfish 77±0,5 until 90±9%. Eight hundred ppm ethanol extract of Carica papaya has thebest egg hatchability and 1000 ppm can improve larval viability of catfish.

  16. Topdressing fertilization with nitrogen and potassium levels in sweet-potatoAdubação de cobertura na batata-doce com doses combinadas de nitrogênio e potássio

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    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Balanced fertilizations with N and K often increase the performance of crops, however, when there is absence of one of these nutrients in poor soils, can reduce crop response to fertilization with the other. The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity of sweet-potato, the amount of sweetpotato without quality, and leaf nutrients analysis, of sweet-potato crop fertilized with N and K. The trial was conducted in farming for commercial production, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, during February-June 2007, in a dystrophic Ultisol of medium texture. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, with four replications, on factorial 4 x 4: levels of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 (urea source combined with levels of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg K2O ha-1 (KCl source, applied to 39 days after planting of the crop. The sweet-potato is responsive to topdressing application with nitrogen and potassium, however, the greatest increases in productivity occur when doses of N and K are combined. Fertilization with N and K not increase the amount of sweet-potato without quality marketing. The highest increase in productivity of sweet-potato is reached with topdressing combined with 100 kg N ha-1 plus 120 kg K2O ha-1. A adubação balanceada de N e K frequentemente aumenta o desempenho das lavouras, contudo, a falta de um desses nutrientes em solos deficientes pode levar a decréscimos na resposta ao outro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de batata-doce comercializável, a quantidade de raízes tuberosas para descarte e a diagnose foliar de lavoura de batata-doce adubada com N e K. O experimento foi realizado em lavoura comercial, em Presidente Prudente-SP, de fevereiro a junho de 2007, em um Argissolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura média. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com 0, 30, 60 e 120 kg ha-1 de N (uréia, em

  17. Modelos matemáticos na predição do comportamento higroscópico para pó do mix de batata yacon e suco de lima

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    Regilane Marques Feitosa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A batata yacon tornou-se popular devido aos inúmeros benefícios que proporciona à saúde, porém seu tempo de vida útil é curto, aliado ao escurecimento enzimático, comum em alimentos ricos em compostos fenólicos, que reduz e restringe o seu consumo. Em virtude de ser um produto de alto valor, e com o intuito de se evitar o seu desperdício, justifica-se o estudo de meios de conservação do mesmo. A secagem seguida por transformação do produto em pó se apresenta como uma alternativa conveniente, segura e capaz de proporcionar longa vida útil ao material processado. Diante do exposto, objetivou-se verificar o comportamento higroscópico do pó obtido pela liofilização do mix de batata yacon e suco de lima ácida Tahiti nas temperaturas de 20, 30 e 40 ºC. Elaborou-se um mix de batata yacon com suco de lima ácida Tahiti, aproveitando a propriedade deste suco de atuar na inativação enzimática da enzima polifenoloxidase, além de ser fonte de vitamina C. O mix com maltodextrina foi seco por liofilização e o pó resultante foi submetido à análise de comportamento higroscópico, determinando-se as isotermas de adsorção de umidade nas temperaturas de 20, 30 e 40 ºC e ajustando-se os modelos matemáticos de Peleg, GAB, Halsey, Oswin e Smith às isotermas. O modelo de Peleg foi o que melhor se ajustou às isotermas de adsorção de umidade do pó da batata yacon com suco de lima ácida Tahiti. As isotermas foram classificadas como Tipo II e a umidade na monocamada molecular apresentou valor em torno de 7% b.s.Application of mathematical models in the prediction of the hygroscopic dehavior of the potato mix yacon powder and lemon juiceAbstract: The yacon potato became popular because of the numerous benefits it provides to health, but their life span is short, combined with enzymatic browning, common in foods rich in phenolic compounds, which reduces and limits its consumption. By virtue of being a product of high value and in

  18. Avaliação tecnologica e sensorial de novos genotipos de batata (Solanum tuberosum, L.) para industrialização na forma de pre-fritas congeladas

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    Nilo Sergio Sabbião Rodrigues

    1990-01-01

    Resumo: O presente estudo visou caracterizar e testar a aptidão para industriais. de doze genótipos de batatas plantadas em três regiões: Distrito Federal, Paraná e São Paulo, a cargo do Centro Nacional Pesquisa de Hortaliça, da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa agropecuária. A cultivar Bintje foi utilizada como padrão. Testes tecno16gicos, em conjunto com a caracterização física e dados agronômicos, possibilitarão a seleção dos melhores genótipos para fins de industrialização dado que atualment...

  19. Variation of biometric parameters and C, N, and P concentrations of Oryza glumaepatula at different depths of an amazonian lake impacted by bauxite tailings (Lake Batata, Pará, Brazil

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    A. ENRICH-PRAST

    Full Text Available Lake Batata is a typical Amazonian clear water lake which has undergone anthropogenic impacts. Thirty percent of its total area has been covered with bauxite tailings. Thus, it is possible to distinguish two areas in this ecosystem: the impacted and the natural. The goal of this research was to study C, N, and P content variation and the values of biomass, length, density, and culm diameter of Oryza glumaepatula at different depths in the natural and impacted areas of Lake Batata. The results obtained in this research suggest that the availability of P and N, in both water and sediment, is lower at the shallow site when compared to the deeper sites. On the other hand, C concentrations decreased as P and N concentrations increased. This may be explained by the structural function of C in aquatic macrophytes. At shallower sites, due to the reduced water column, individuals invest in supporting structures that display high C concentrations. The higher density and biomass of O. glumaepatula at the intermediate site indicate that this area presents the best conditions for germination and establishment of individuals of this species. The chemical composition and biometric parameters of O. glumaepatula have shown that this population has higher spatial variation in the natural area. In the impacted area, the absence of significant variations in N and P concentrations in O. glumaepatula among the three sampled sites promotes higher homogeneity in the stands. The high C:P and N:P ratios indicate that, in the impacted area, P is more limiting to the development of O. glumaepatula than it is in the natural area. The reduced values of biomass and density of O. glumaepatula in the impacted area suggest that the bauxite tailings limit the development of this population.

  20. Produção de minitubérculos de batata semente básica em hidroponia em função de doses de nitrogênio

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    Carla de Bem Santos Souza

    Full Text Available A dose ótima de nitrogênio (N na cultura da batata depende do sistema de produção. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a dose ótima de N para a produção de minitubérculos de batata-semente básica em hidroponia e verificar o desenvolvimento da planta no sistema hidropônico em plataforma de telha amianto. O experimento foi realizado em ambiente protegido, no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, utilizando o plantio de broto da cultivar Asterix. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por quatro doses de N (45; 90; 180 e 270 mg L-1, sendo 10% de cada dose de N aplicadas na forma de nitrato de amônio (N-NH4+ e o restante de N na forma de nitrato de cálcio e nitrato de potássio. O maior número (14,1 tubérculos/planta e a máxima massa de tubérculos (68,4 g/planta foram obtidos com 188,9 e 270 mg L-1 de N, respectivamente. Portanto, número e massa de tubérculos não foram otimizados pela mesma dose de N. O índice crítico SPAD na quarta folha é variável com a idade da planta sendo de 38,4 o maior valor atingido aos 58 DAT.

  1. Somaclonal variation on in vitro callus culture potato cultivars Variação somaclonal in vitro em cultura de calos de cultivares de batata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia N. Bordallo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic seeds can be an alternative for those species in which botanical seeds are not viable. One of the major problems of in vitro plant cultivation is the high level of somaclonal variation. The most common factors affecting somaclonal variation are genotype, explant source, in vitro period and cultivation conditions in which the culture is established. In this work, calli were induced using leaf and stem explants of the commercial potato cultivars Achat, Baraka, Baronesa, Bintje, and Contenda in MS culture media supplemented with 1.65 mM of picloram and 11.5 mM of 2,4-D. Seventy and 90 days after induction, DNA samples of 40 calli were compared concerning the effects of the two explant (leaf and stem and two growth regulator sources on five potatoes cultivars. A total of 20 arbitrary sequence primers were evaluated. The RAPD pattern generated by these primers suggested a high percentage of polymorphic fragments among the five genotypes, indicating a high level of genetic variation among cultivars. Cultivar Baronesa showed the highest number of polymorphic fragments for all treatments. The cultivar Contenda showed the smallest somaclonal variation, for most of the treatments, except for the treatment which consisted of stem explants, picloram (1.65 mM application, and a 70-day period of callus formation. 'Contenda' is, therefore, the most suitable cultivar for synthetic seed production.A produção de sementes sintéticas pode ser uma altenativa para culturas, cuja produção de sementes botânicas não é viável. Um dos principais problemas do cultivo de planta in vitro é o alto nível de variação somaclonal resultante. Os fatores mais comuns que afetam a variação somaclonal são genótipo, fonte de explante e duração e condições de cultivo. Neste trabalho, calos foram induzidos utilizando explantes de folha e caule das cultivares comerciais de batata Achat, Baraka, Baronesa, Bintje e Contenda em meio de cultura MS, suplementado

  2. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 27 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphate uptake and growth characteristics of transgenic rice with phosphate transporter 1 (OsPT1) gene overexpression under high phosphate soils · EMAIL FREE ... Studies on antioxidant capacity of anthocyanin extract from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  3. TRANSIENT EXPRESSION OF β-GLUCURONIDASE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2014-08-28

    Aug 28, 2014 ... production des cultivars de résistance adaptée aux charançons de la patate douce. Mots Clés: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, β-glucuronidase, Ipomoea batatas. INTRODUCTION. Plant transformation through Agrobacterium species is the most commonly used system since the transferred DNA has minimal ...

  4. Exploitation of genetic potential of sweetpotato for end-user traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) is a staple food globally, but it has remained underutilised resource in Ghana due to lack of consumer preferred cultivars. There is the need to develop staple-type sweetpotato cultivars which are preferred by consumers to increase sweetpotato use as a food security, health and industrial ...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 444 ... Vol 39, No 1 (2006), Effect of storage time on microbial quality of some spices ... for the storage of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) in Ghana, Abstract ... on the dry matter, starch gelatinization properties and the cooking ...

  6. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  7. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  8. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recorded the highest AUDPC. These results suggest that Sweetpotato landraces from low SPVD incidence areas are not necessarily resistant but should be evaluated at disease "hotspots" areas to confirm their resistance and yield potential. Key Words: Disease resistance, hotspots, infection areas, Ipomoea batatas, SPVD.

  9. thidiazuron improves adventitious bud and shoot regeneration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Induction of adventitious buds and shoots from intact leaves and stem internode segments of two recalcitrant. Ugandan sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars was investigated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with 3 different levels (0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 µM) of Thidiazuron (TDZ). Shoots were.

  10. Cloning and characterization of ATP synthase CF1 α gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATP synthase CF1 α subunit protein is a key enzyme for energy metabolism in plant kingdom, and plays an important role in multiple cell processes. In this study, the complete atpA gene (accession no. JN247444) was cloned from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction ...

  11. Diversity and evolutionary relationship of nucleotide binding site ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    site-encoding disease-resistance gene analogues in sweet potato. (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) ... terminal domain of the protein, this class of R-genes can be subdivided into TIR ... from young leaflets using the modified 2.0% (w/v) cetyl trimethyl ...

  12. Physicochemical composition and antioxidant properties of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical composition and antioxidant properties of a sweetpotato variety ( Ipomoea batatas L) commercially sold in South Eastern Nigeria. ... Results show that this sweet potato variety has potentials of biological properties and could have wide utility in food, alcohol and sugar industries. In addition, it could serve as ...

  13. Biochemical response of sweet potato to bemul-wax coating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn) tuber is a very nutritious but highly perishable crop that is subject to high wastages due to non-availability of appropriate storage techniques. This work assessed the effectiveness of treating the tubers with calcium chloride dip (CCD), bemul-wax (B-wax) and their combinations ...

  14. Sweet potato yields and nutrient dynamics after short-term fallows in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    Shifting cultivation is common in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea but little is known about the effect of different fallows on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) yield and nutrient flows and pools in these systems. An experiment was conducted in which two woody fallow species (Piper aduncum and

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. S. Nyombo Luboya

    P.O. Box 3006, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, TANZANIA. 2. Applied Human ... INTRODUCTION. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L) is grown as a food crop in most parts of the world, ... diet and health status. .... Effect of drying on ascorbic acid, carotenoids, iron, calcium, oxalates and polyphenols ..... 1983; 10: 205-210. 28. Garman ...

  16. Effects of elevated CO2 on growth of the industrial sweet potato cultivar CX-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rising concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is known to directly affect plants, increasing growth, yield, and resource use efficiency. Further, it has been shown that sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) represent a potential as a source of bioethanol production, particularly industrial...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banso, A. Vol 21 (2010) - Articles The Effect of Allium Sativum and Xylopia Aethiopica Extracts on the Growth of Fungi in Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas) Juice Abstract PDF · Vol 21 (2010) - Articles Inhibition of Growth of Fungi Isolated From Deteriorating Melon Seed By Extracts of Punica Granatum and Cymbopogon ...

  18. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research - Vol 4, No 4 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Diuretics on Salivary Flow, Composition and Oral Health Status: A ... Relationships between CD4+ Counts and the Presence of Oral Lesions in Human ... Cell Nuclear Antigen Protein Expression in Plaque, Reticular and Erosive Types of ... Aqueous Extract of Ipomoea batatas Reduces Food Intake in Male Wistar ...

  19. Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l'herbe de lait ( Euphorbia heterophylla L.) ou aux feuilles de patate douce ( Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) sur la croissance des lapins ( Oryctolagus cuniculus L.)

  20. Genetic diversity of sweet potatoes collection from Northeastern Brazil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam has its origin in Tropical America. In Sergipe State (Brazil), its production is very important, and to explore its potential in local agriculture in the State, the Embrapa Coastal Tableland created a collection with 52 accessions located in Umbaúba City. Some accessions were from ...

  1. Efeito do déficit hídrico na eficiencia de herbicidas e nas características bioquímicas de Ipomoea grandifolia Effect of water stress on the efficiency of herbicides and on the biochemical characteristics of Ipomoea grandifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Vitorino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia dos herbicidas inibidores da ALS e PROTOX no controle de Ipomoea grandifolia sob dois níveis de déficit hídrico, bem como determinar a influência desse déficit hídrico sobre o conteúdo de carboidratos solúveis, proteínas totais e aminoácidos livres da planta daninha. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, no delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo quatro herbicidas (fomesafen, lactofen, chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr e dois níveis de déficit hídrico (com e sem déficit: -0,5 MPa e -0,01 MPa, respectivamente. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação, o controle foi avaliado de forma visual, e a determinação dos solutos orgânicos foi feita 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas após a aplicação dos herbicidas. À exceção de chlorimuron-ethyl, os demais herbicidas controlaram eficientemente I. grandifolia. A eficiência de controle dos herbicidas foi afetada pela condição de déficit hídrico. Os herbicidas elevaram o conteúdo de carboidratos solúveis, independentemente da condição hídrica, e proporcionaram redução de proteínas solúveis nas plantas de I. grandifolia, bem como aumentaram as concentrações de aminoácidos livres.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ALS and PROTOX inhibiting herbicides in the control of Ipomoea grandifolia under two levels of water deficit, as well as to determine the influence of drought on the content of the soluble carbohydrates, protein and free amino acids of the weed. The study was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with treatments in a factorial scheme 4 x 2, with four herbicides (fomesafen, lactofen, chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr, and two levels of water deficit (with and without deficit, - 0.5 MPa and -0.01 MPa, respectively. At 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after application, the control was evaluated visually and

  2. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: III - Galinsoga parviflora, Crotalaria incana, Conyza bonariensis e Ipomoea cairica Leaf anatomical studies in weed species widely common in Brazil: III - Galinsoga parviflora, Crotalaria incana, Conyza bonariensis and Ipomoea cairica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Procópio

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a anatomia das folhas das espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Galinsoga parviflora, Crotalaria incana, Conyza bonariensis e Ipomoea cairica, visando melhor entendimento sobre as barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e, assim, fornecer subsídios à busca de estratégias para superar esses obstáculos. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região central, com aproximadamente 1 cm², as quais foram utilizadas em estudos da estrutura e clarificação e em observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. A principal barreira foliar potencial à penetração de herbicidas observada na planta daninha G. parviflora foi a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial. C. incana apresentou como possível principal obstáculo foliar à penetração de herbicidas o alto teor de cera epicuticular. Já em relação a C. bonariensis, alta densidade tricomática, grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial foram as principais barreiras detectadas. Grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial foram os possíveis obstáculos constatados nas folhas de I. cairica.This research aimed to study the leaf anatomy of the weed species Galinsoga parviflora, Crotalaria incana, Conyza bonariensis and Ipomoea cairica, , widely known in Brazil, to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes upon herbicide penetration, and to find strategies to overcome these obstacles. The completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth nodes were collected from spontaneous plants in the field. Three samples with approximately 1 cm² were taken from the leaves of each

  3. Interferência e nível de dano econômico de Brachiaria plantaginea e Ipomoea nil na cultura do feijão comum Interference and economic threshold of Brachiaria plantaginea and Ipomoea nil in the common bean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas Antonio Vidal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As pesquisas acerca do impacto da interferência das plantas daninhas sobre as culturas normalmente são realizadas com uma única espécie infestante, quando na realidade podem ocorrer diversas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a interferência de Brachiaria plantaginea e Ipomoea nil sobre o rendimento de grãos do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris e determinar o nível de dano econômico (NDE de cada espécie na cultura. Foram realizados dois experimentos a campo com as cultivares de feijão 'IPR Graúna' (Grupo Preto e 'UTF-06' (Grupo Carioca em convivência com infestações mistas em diferentes proporções aleatórias das espécies B. plantaginea e I. nil. Modelos de regressão múltiplos foram utilizados para determinar a capacidade de interferência de cada espécie daninha sobre a produtividade da cultura. O impacto de interferência de cada planta de I. nil correspondeu a 2,6 e 0,25 quando comparada a cada planta de B. plantaginea, dependente das proporções relativas na comunidade infestante e das condições de cada experimento. A cultivar 'IPR Graúna' apresentou maior habilidade competitiva do que 'UTF-06'. O NDE foi dependente da proporção relativa de cada espécie daninha na comunidade e foi obtido sob baixas infestações (The researches about the impact of weed interference on crops are usually performed with a single weed species, when in reality there are numerous. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interference of Brachiaria plantaginea and Ipomoea nil on the grain yield of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and to determine the economic weed threshold (EWT of each species on the crop. Two field experiments were conducted with bean cultivars 'IPR Graúna' (Black group and 'UTF-06' (Carioca group in coexistence with random proportions of mixed infestations of B. plantaginea and I. nil. Multiple regression models were used to determine the interference abi1lity of each weed species on crop productivity. The

  4. Photosynthesis and fluctuating asymmetry as indicators of plant response to soil disturbance in the Fall-Line Sandhills of Georgia: a case study using Rhus copallinum and Ipomoea pandurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D. Carl; Brown, Michelle L.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Graham, John H.; Emlen, John M.; Krzysik, Anthony J.; Balbach, Harold E.; Kovacic, David A.; Zak, John C.

    2004-01-01

    We examined net photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, and leaf fluctuating asymmetry on two species (Rhus copallinum and Ipomoea pandurata) as indicators of stress at nine sites across a gradient of soil disturbance at Fort Benning, Georgia. There were three sites for each of three disturbance levels. Physical habitat disturbance was caused by activities associated with infantry training, including mechanized elements (tanks and personnel carriers) and foot soldiers. In addition, we examined the influence of prescribed burns and microhabitat effects (within meter‐square quadrats centered about the plant) on these measures of plant stress. Net photosynthesis declined with increasing disturbance in the absence of burning for both species. However, when sites were burned the previous year, net photosynthesis increased with increasing disturbance. Developmental instability in Rhus, as measured by fluctuating asymmetry, also declined with increasing disturbance in the absence of burning but increased with disturbance if sites were burned the previous year. Developmental instability was much less sensitive to burning in Ipomoea and in general was lowest at intermediate disturbance sites. Microenvironmental and microhabitat effects were weakly correlated with measures of plant stress when all sites were combined. However, higher correlations were obtained within site categories, especially when the recent history of prescribed burning was used as a category. Finally, using all of the combined data in a discriminant function analysis allowed us to correctly predict the disturbance level of more than 80% of the plants. Plant stress is responsive to both large‐scale perturbations, such as burning, and microhabitat parameters. Because of this, it is important to include macro‐ and microhabitat parameters when assessing stress. Similarly, we found a combination of developmental and physiological indicators of stress was superior to using them

  5. In vitro organogenesis of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Atlantic for the genetic transformationOrganogênese in vitro de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Atlantic visando transformação genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Kelson Silva Rezende

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The obtaining of commercial cultivars of potato with resistance to the phytopatogen is a very promising alternative that the genetic engineering can provide, through the introduction of exogenous genes for the genetic transformation. In order to establish an efficient system of transformation, it is crucial first to optimize in vitro organogenesis protocol. This work aimed to establish an efficient protocol for the genetic transformation of potato cv. Atlantic. The efficiency of the in vitro organogenesis is influenced by the explant type and by the kind and concentrations of growth regulators used. Shoot segments of potato cv. Atlantic present better organogenesis capacity than leaf explants. It is recommended to use the woody plant medium (WPM supplied with 1,0 mg L-1 of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 5,0 mg L-1 of zeatin riboside (ZEA, to obtain shoots from shoot segments, and the carbenicilin (Cb added to this medium increased this formation. For the process to enlarge shoots, this same antibiotic when added to the WPM medium in growing concentrations (100; 250; 500 mg L-1 promoted a decrease in the height of plants, number of shoots and length of roots. After the co-cultivation of shoots segments with Agrobacterium tumefaciens these concentrations of Cb are not efficient in the elimination of the bacteria, which commits the organogenesis. However, it is possible to establish a protocol of in vitro organogenesis of potato cv. Atlantic starting from shoots segments not co-cultivated. These results will be useful for futures experiments of genetic transformation with this and another commercials cultivars of potato.A obtenção de cultivares comerciais de batata com resistência a fitopatógenos é uma alternativa muito promissora que a engenharia genética pode proporcionar, através da introdução de genes exógenos visando transformação genética. Para tal, torna-se imprescindível estabelecer um sistema eficiente de transformação, e

  6. Uma análise do efeito do aquecimento global na produção de batata no Brasil An analysis of the potato production in Brazil upon global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Lopes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Face às prováveis mudanças climáticas afetando as áreas agricultáveis do planeta, foi feita uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os efeitos do aumento da temperatura no metabolismo da planta de batata, enfatizando suas consequências no desenvolvimento vegetativo e na produtividade da cultura. Embora a ênfase maior desse artigo se prenda ao efeito do clima na redução de alimentos, alerta-se ainda para o risco de erosão genética pelo desaparecimento de espécies silvestres, de grande importância para programas de melhoramento genético. A partir dessas informações e de dados climáticos das regiões produtoras publicados em literatura nacional, foi realizada uma análise prospectiva da produção de batata no Brasil. Para tal, tomou-se como base o aumento da temperatura de até 5ºC até o final deste século e uma faixa ótima de produtividade da batata de 10ºC a 25ºC, conforme indicado em literatura especializada. Foram selecionados seis municípios representando as regiões geográficas onde se cultiva a batata: São Joaquim-SC; Guarapuava-PR; Cristalina-GO; Mucugê-BA; Vargem Grande do Sul-SP e Araxá-MG. Para municípios com prevalência de temperaturas mais baixas, como São Joaquim, o aumento de temperatura preconizado não deverá restringir a produção, porém serão necessárias adequações de épocas de plantio. Por outro lado, a situação é preocupante em regiões e épocas de cultivo sujeitas a temperaturas altas, como Mucugê e Cristalina, onde o cultivo deverá se restringir a poucos meses do ano, contrastando com o plantio contínuo, durante o ano todo, ora sendo realizado. O intuito deste artigo é alertar, e não alarmar, a cadeia produtiva de batata no sentido de se preparar para os ajustes fitotécnicos visando a preservar a bataticultura nacional face a um eventual aquecimento global. Considerações sobre o melhoramento genético para atenuar, pelo menos em parte, esta situação é discutida.The future of

  7. BATATA: a buried muon hodoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, F.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Paic, G.; Salazar, M. E. Patino; D'Olivo, J. C.; Molina, R. Alfaro

    2009-01-01

    Muon hodoscopes have several applications, ranging from astrophysics to fundamental particle physics. In this work, we present a detector dedicated to the study, at ground level, of the main signals of cosmic-ray induced showers above 6 PeV. The whole detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes buried at fix depths ranging from 120 g/cm 2 to 600 g/cm 2 and by a triangular array of water cerenkov detectors located nearby on ground.

  8. Ocorrência de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae Occurrence of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae on leaves of I. cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozana M. de A. Maia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de três espécies acarinas fitófagas é relatada pela primeira vez sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica. As espécies Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, foram coletadas sobre folhas de I. cairica nas imediações da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, em 20 de janeiro de 2005.The first occurrence of three phytophagus mites on Ipomoea cairica, is reported. The species Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks were caught on leaves of I. cairica, around Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, in January 20th, 2005.

  9. Doença de depósito lisossomal induzida pelo consumo de Ipomoea verbascoidea (Convolvulaceae em caprinos no semiárido de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane D.C.C. Lima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi reproduzir a intoxicação por Ipomoea verbascoidea em caprinos e descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e histopatológicos da intoxicação espontânea por essa planta no Estado de Pernambuco. Para isso, realizou-se o acompanhamento da epidemiologia da doença em sete municípios do semiárido pernambucano. Três caprinos espontaneamente intoxicados foram examinados e, em seguida eutanasiados e necropsiados (Grupo I. Para reproduzir experimentalmente a doença, as folhas secas de I. verbascoidea contendo 0,02% de swainsonina, foram fornecidas na dose de 4g/kg (0,8mg de swainsonina/kg a dois grupos de três animais. Os caprinos do Grupo II receberam a planta diariamente por 40 dias e foram eutanasiados no 41º dia de experimento. Os caprinos do Grupo III receberam a planta diariamente por 55 dias e foram eutanasiados no 120º dia de experimento. Outros três caprinos constituíram o grupo controle (Grupo IV. Nos grupos experimentais, as lesões encefálicas foram avaliadas por histopatologia e adicionalmente avaliaram-se as lesões cerebelares por morfometria, mediante mensuração da espessura da camada molecular, do número de neurônios de Purkinje e da área dos corpos celulares dessas células. Os principais sinais clínicos e lesões microscópicas foram semelhantes aos previamente reportados em animais intoxicados por plantas que contem swainsonina. Nos caprinos do GII e GIII, os primeiros sinais clínicos foram observados entre o 22º e 29º dia de experimento; clinicamente a doença desenvolvida por esses animais foi semelhante aos casos espontâneos. Nenhum dos caprinos do GIII se recuperou dos sinais neurológicos. Esse resultado evidencia que o consumo da planta por 26-28 dias após a observação dos primeiros sinais clínicos é suficiente para provocar lesões irreversíveis. Pela análise morfométrica, a camada molecular do cerebelo dos caprinos do Grupo I e III eram mais delgadas que

  10. Aversão alimentar condicionada para o controle da intoxicação por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Pimentel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A aversão alimentar condicionada é uma técnica que pode ser utilizada em animais para evitar a ingestão de plantas tóxicas. O presente estudo teve como objetivo testar a eficiência e durabilidade da aversão alimentar condicionada em caprinos para evitar o consumo de Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa. Foram utilizados 14 caprinos jovens da raça Moxotó, que foram adaptados ao consumo da planta. Inicialmente foi administrada I. carnea subsp. fistulosa dessecada e triturada misturada à ração concentrada por 30 dias e, posteriormente, foi fornecida a planta verde por mais 10 dias. Para constatação da adaptação ao consumo da planta os caprinos foram colocados a pastar em um piquete de 510 m² onde tinha sido plantada I. carnea subsp. fistulosa em uma área de 30m² (10 plantas/m². No 42º dia de experimento, após a constatação do consumo espontâneo os animais receberam a planta verde individualmente na baia por alguns minutos, e todos os animais que consumiam qualquer quantidade da planta foram tratados com uma solução de LiCl na dose 175mg por kg de peso vivo. Este procedimento repetiu-se por mais dois dias. Posteriormente, os caprinos foram divididos em dois grupos: Grupo 1 com seis animais, quatro deles avertidos e dois não avertidos (facilitadores; e o Grupo 2, com oito caprinos, todos avertidos. Para constatar a eficiência e duração da aversão e a influência de animais facilitadores na durabilidade da aversão, os caprinos foram colocados a pastar, em dias alternados, três dias por semana, durante duas horas, no piquete plantado com I. carnea subsp. fistulosa. Por 12 meses os animais foram monitorados durante o pastejo, identificando-se o consumo e a preferência dos animais pelas plantas presentes no piquete. No Grupo 1 tanto os caprinos avertidos quanto os não avertidos iniciaram a ingerir a planta em 1-6 semanas e gradualmente foram aumentando a planta consumida, mas nunca a ingeriram exclusivamente. Nenhum caprino

  11. Stock indexing and Potato virus Y elimination from potato plants cultivated in vitro Indexação de matrizes e eliminação do Potato virus Y em plantas de batata cultivadas in vitro

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    Luciana Cordeiro Nascimento

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L. have shown degeneration or run out caused by viruses after several cycles of propagation using seed tubers from commercial fields. This work reports the occurrence of single and mixed infections of four potato viruses in Paraíba-Brazil and presents a method for Potato virus Y (PVY elimination, by using thermo-and chemotherapies. Plants of potato cv. Baraka were tested by direct antigen coating ELISA. Antisera against PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus S (PVS, and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV were used. Materials with positive reaction to PVY were treated for virus elimination. Single node cuttings (1.0 cm length were excised and inoculated in Murashige & Skoog (MS medium, supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 of kinetin, 0.001 mg L-1 of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 0.1 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid (GA3. The thermotherapy at approximately 37ºC, during 30 and 40 days, resulted in 20.0 and 37.5% PVY elimination, respectively. Chemotherapy was undertaken with Ribavirin (RBV, 5-Azacytidine (AZA, and 3-Deazauridine (DZD. The RBV showed the highest rate of virus eradication, with 55.5% virus-free plants. Simultaneous thermo and chemotherapy had higher efficiency for the elimination of PVY, reaching rates of healthy plants of 83.3% with RBV, 70.0% with AZA, and 50.0% with DZD.Cultivares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. têm mostrado degenerescência causada por vírus após ciclos sucessivos do uso de tubérculos de campos comerciais como material propagativo. Este trabalho verifica a ocorrência de infecção simples e mista de quatro vírus da batata na Paraíba e apresenta adequação da técnica de cultivo in vitro para obtenção de material livre de Potato virus Y (PVY, incluindo uso de microestacas, termo e quimioterapia. Plantas de batata do cv. Baraka foram submetidas à indexação sorológica pelo teste "direct antigen coating" ELISA. Utilizaram-se antissoros contra o PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus

  12. Sistemas de previsão de requeima em cultivos de batata em Santa Maria, RS Forecast systems of late blight in potato crops in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Leosane Cristina Bosco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de previsão constituem alternativa para o controle eficiente da requeima em batata e consequente redução da quantidade de fungicidas utilizados, dos custos de produção e da poluição ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os sistemas de previsão de ocorrência de requeima, Blitecast e Prophy, em cultivos de primavera e outono de batata, cultivar Macaca, suscetível a requeima, na região produtora de Santa Maria (RS. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na primavera de 2006 e outono de 2007 com a cultivar Macaca. Os dados meteorológicos foram coletados no centro da área experimental com uma estação automática e com psicrômetros instalados em diferentes níveis. Os tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo diferenciados por meio dos valores de severidade acumulados, calculados pelos sistemas de previsão Blitecast e Prophy. Os valores de severidade acumulados foram utilizados como indicadores do momento de aplicação de fungicida para o controle da requeima. Verificou-se que a utilização do sistema de previsão de requeima Prophy, com acúmulo de 15, 20 ou 25 valores de severidade e do sistema Blitecast com 24 valores de severidade acumulados, para o genótipo de batata suscetível, Macaca, permite reduzir o número de aplicações de fungicidas sem afetar significativamente a produtividade de tubérculos comerciais.The forecast systems are an alternative to the efficient control of late blight potatoes and consequent reduction in the amount of fungicide and thereby reduce production costs and environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to evaluate forecast systems, Blitecast and Prophy, for late blight occurrence in Macaca potato cultivar in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experiments were carried out during Spring 2006 and Autumn 2007 with the Macaca cultivar characterized as susceptible to late blight. Meteorological

  13. Tamanho do tubérculo-semente de batata não interfere na manifestação da murcha bacteriana Potato seed tuber size does not interfere with the incidence of potato bacterial wilt

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    Carlos A Lopes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A batata-semente é comercializada no Brasil em diferentes tamanhos, conforme determinação do MAPA, variando do tipo 0 (zero, com tubérculos acima de 60 mm, até o tipo V, com tubérculos menores que 23 mm. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito do tamanho do tubérculo da batata-semente na manifestação da murcha bacteriana nas cultivares Agata, BRS Ana, Asterix e Bintje, em campo naturalmente infestado com Ralstonia solanacearum, em Brasília-DF. Foram usados tubérculos pequenos, médios e grandes, com aproximadamente 30, 50 e 90 mm em média, tamanhos correspondentes respectivamente aos tipos IV, II e 0 das normas do MAPA. Diferenças significativas quanto à incidência da doença foram encontradas entre cultivares: BRS Ana e Asterix não diferiram entre si e foram mais resistentes que Agata e Bintje que, por sua vez, tampouco diferiram entre si. As diferenças entre tamanhos de tubérculos e as interações entre cultivar e tamanho de tubérculos não foram significativas. Portanto concluiu-se que o tamanho de tubérculos dentro dos limites avaliados neste trabalho, não interferiu na manifestação da doença em testes de avaliação para resistência à murcha bacteriana.Potato seed tubers in Brazil are commercialized in different sizes as determined by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. The sizes are classified in types, which vary from type 0 (zero, tubers above 60 mm, up to type V, tubers below 23 mm. In this work, we evaluated the influence of seed tuber size on the incidence of bacterial wilt on cultivars Agata, BRS Ana, Asterix, and Bintje, grown in a field naturally infested with Ralstonia solanacearum, in Brasilia, Brazil. We used small, medium and large tubers, measuring in average 30, 50 and 90 mm, which correspond respectively to types IV, II and 0 according to the Brazilian legislation. Significant differences in bacterial wilt incidences were detected among cultivars: BRS Ana and Asterix did not

  14. Efeito do eptc + r 25788 em combinação com o diuron no controle de plantas daninhas e seletividade para a cultura da batata-doce Weed control in sweet potato

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    Maurílio F. de Oliveira

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das doses de EPTC + R 25788 combinadas com doses de diuron no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de batata-doce, realizou-se um ensaio sob condições de campo num Podzólico Vermelho Amarelo, fase terraço, argiloso, com 3,5 % de matéria orgânica. Foram avaliadas quatro doses de EP TC + R 25 78 8 aplicado em pré-plantio incorporado: 0,0; 1,6; 3,2 e 4,8 kg/ha por quatro doses dediuron : 0,0 ; 0,8 ; 1,2 e 1,6 kg/ha, em quatro repetições. O EPTC + R25788 apresentou bom controle das plantas de tiririca quando aplicado nas maiores doses, principalmente na ausência do diuron. As maiores doses de EPTC + R 25788 aplicadas isoladamente, apresentaram significativos aumentos na população de plantas de folhas largas. As maiores doses de diuron promoveram melhor controle das plantas de folhas largas, na presença das maiores doses de EPTC + R 25788. A combinação das maiores doses dos herbicidas não refletiram em maiores produções. A maior produção de batata-doce ocorreu quando se aplicou 6 L/ha de Eradicane e 1,32 kg/ha de Karmex 800.Four levels of EPTC + R 25788 (0.0; 1.6; 3.2 e 4.8 kg/ha and diuron (0.0; 0.8; 1.2 and 1.6 kg/ha with four replications were evaluated in a fatorial field experiment in a Utisol containg 3.5 % organic matter. Better control of nutsedge was obtained with the highest dosage of EPTC + R 25788, mainly in the absence of diuron. However, when the highest eradicane levels were applied as single treatments there was a marked increase in the broadleaf weed population. The best control of broadleaf weed population was achieved when the highest diuron levels were combined with the highest EPTC + R 25788 levels although this condition have not resulted in highest productions. The greatest sweet potato production was obtained with the combination of 6 1/ha of Eradicane plus 1.32 kg/ha of Karmex 800.

  15. Resistance of genetically modified potatoes to Potato virus Y under field conditions Resistência de plantas de batata geneticamente modificadas ao Potato virus Y em condições de campo

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    André Nepomuceno Dusi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the resistance of genetically modified clones of potato to Potato virus Y (PVY under field conditions. Genetically modified plants were compared with nontransformed plants of the same cultivar. The plots were flanked with potato plants infected with both PVYº and PVY N strains (spread lines, in order to provide the experimental area with the source of virus, which was naturally spread by the native aphid population. The experiment was weekly monitored by visual inspections and by DAS-Elisa in the plants produced from the harvested tubers, in order to evaluate the resistance of transgenic plants throughout the plant growth cycle. By the end of the third year, no infection symptoms were observed in the 1P clone; clone 63P showed 1% of infection, in contrast to about 90% of nontransformed plants infected. The stable expression of resistance to PVY provided by the coat protein gene was obtained in genetically modified clones of potato plants cultivar Achat under field conditions, during three consecutive years.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de clones geneticamente modificados de batata ao Potato virus Y (PVY em condições de campo. As plantas geneticamente modificadas foram comparadas com plantas não modificadas da mesma cultivar. As parcelas foram delimitadas com plantas infectadas com as estirpes PVYº e PVY N (linhas disseminadoras, para tornar disponível, na área experimental, a fonte de inóculo de vírus, que foi naturalmente disseminada pela população nativa de afídeos. O experimento foi monitorado semanalmente por inspeção visual e por DAS-Elisa nas plantas produzidas a partir dos tubérculos colhidos, para avaliar a resistência de plantas transgênicas ao longo do ciclo de crescimento. Ao final do terceiro ano, nenhum sintoma de infecção foi observado no clone 1P; o clone 63P apresentou 1% de infecção, em contraste com cerca de 90% de plantas-controle infectadas

  16. Identificação e controle com antibióticos de bactérias endofíticas contaminantes em explantes de batata micropropagados Identification and antibiotic control of endophytic bacteria contaminants in micropropagated potato explants

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    Jonny Everson Scherwinski Pereira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos isolar, caracterizar e identificar bactérias endofíticas contaminantes encontradas em tecidos de batata durante a micropropagação e selecionar antibióticos para o controle in vitro desses microrganismos por meio da determinação da concentração bactericida mínima inibitória. Brotações de batata apresentando contaminação bacteriana durante a etapa de multiplicação in vitro, foram superficialmente esterilizadas e os internódios transferidos para placas de Petri com ágar nutriente, onde permaneceram incubadas a 28°C por até cinco dias. Após purificação, as bactérias foram caracterizadas e identificadas por testes taxonômicos. Um total de oito estirpes bacterianas foram isoladas e identificadas como pertencentes às famílias Acetobacteriaceae (1 e Enterobacteriaceae (2 e aos gêneros Corynebacterium (3, Pseudomonas (1 e Xanthomonas (1. Os melhores resultados para a inibição do crescimento bacteriano foram obtidos com os antibióticos ampicilina, cloranfenicol, estreptomicina e tetraciclina em concentrações que variaram de 32 a 256 mg L-1.This work aimed to isolate, characterize and identify contaminant endophytic bacteria found in potato tissues during the micropropagation and to select antibiotics for in vitro control of these microorganisms by determining the inhibitory minimal bactericidal concentration. Potato shoots presenting bacterial contamination during the in vitro multiplication were superficially sterilized and the internodes transferred to Petri dishes with nutrient agar medium for up to five days at 28°C. After subcultures the grown bacteria were purified and identified through taxonomic tests. A total of eight bacterial endophytic strains were isolated and identified as belonging to Acetobacteriaceae (1 and Enterobacteriaceae (2 families and Corynebacterium (3, Pseudomonas (1 and Xanthomonas (1 genera. The best results for bacterial growth inhibition were obtained with

  17. Caída de presión en lecho fijo de cubos de papa, remolacha y zanahoria considerando encogimiento Queda de pressão em leito fixo de cubos de batata, beterraba e cenoura considerando encolhimento

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    Javier Telis-Romero

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo fue determinada experimentalmente la porosidad de lechos de cubos de papa, remolacha y zanahoria en función de la humedad con aristas iniciales de 8mm. La porosidad del lecho, con diferentes contenidos de humedad obtenida por secado a 70ºC por diferentes tempos, fue calculada utilizando las determinaciones experimentales de volumen del lecho y volumen real de las partículas. Estos dos volumenes fueran bien representados por ecuaciónes lineares basadas en la Ley de la aditividad de los volumens. La porosidad fue representada satisfactoriamente por una ecuación parabólica. La relación volumen del lecho adimensional y humedad fue representada por polinomios de tercer grado. Utilizando un equipamiento con sistema de control, fue determinada experimentalmente la caída de presión a través de un lecho fijo de cubos de papas, zanahoria y remolacha de 100mm de espesura y los resultados fueron representados de manera satisfactoria por una ecuación obtenida por una modificación empírica del modelo de Ergun. Como era de esperarse, la caída de pression aumento com la disminución de la porosidad del lecho, consequencia del encogimiento de los productos.Neste trabalho, o porosidade de leitos de cubos de batata, beterraba e cenoura com arestas iniciais de 8mm, foi determinada experimentalmente em função da umidade. A porosidade do leito, com diferentes umidades, obtidas por secagem a 70ºC por tempos diferentes, foi calculada utilizando-se as determinações experimentais de volume do leito e volume real das partículas. Esses dois volumes foram bem representados por equações lineares baseadas na lei da adtividade dos volumes. A porosidade foi representada satisfatoriamente por uma equação parabólica. A relação entre o volume do leito admensional e a umidade foram representadas por polinômios de terceiro grau. A queda de pressão através de um leito fixo de cubos de batata, beterraba e cenoura de 100mm de espessura foi

  18. Cultivares de batata para sistemas orgânicos de produção Potato cultivars for organic production systems

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    Fabrício Rossi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Informações a respeito de cultivares adaptadas ao sistema de cultivo orgânico são escassas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, sob sistema de cultivo orgânico, genótipos nacionais e estrangeiros desenvolvidos para o cultivo convencional, quanto ao potencial produtivo, em condições de campo. O experimento foi conduzido em 2008, no Pólo APTA Leste Paulista, em Monte Alegre do Sul-SP. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 18 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Cada parcela foi constituída por 80 batatas-semente, dispostas em quatro linhas de 5 m de comprimento, espaçadas de 80 cm, com 25 cm entre tubérculos. Os genótipos avaliados foram Agata, Asterix, Caesar, Cupido, Éden, Melody, Novella e Vivaldi, de origem estrangeira; e Apuã, Aracy, Catucha, IAC Aracy Ruiva, Itararé, Monte Alegre 172, IAC 6090, APTA 16.5, APTA 15.20 e APTA 21.54, nacionais. Foram avaliadas as características de produtividade total e comercial de tubérculos, massa média total e comercial de tubérculos, teor de matéria seca e severidade da pinta-preta (Alternaria solani. Os clones APTA 16.5, APTA 21.54 e IAC 6090, e as cultivares Cupido, Apuã, Itararé e Monte Alegre 172 foram os mais produtivos. 'APTA 21.54' superou os demais em relação a produtividade comercial (18,07 t ha-1, sendo que 'APTA 16.5', 'Cupido', 'IAC 6090' e 'Itararé' formaram o segundo grupo. As maiores massas médias de tubérculos foram apresentadas pelas cultivares Itararé e Cupido. O clone IAC 6090 e as cultivares Aracy e Aracy Ruiva foram as que apresentaram maiores teores de matéria seca, com valor médio de 22,91%. 'APTA 16.5', 'Apuã', 'Aracy', 'Aracy Ruiva', 'Éden', 'Ibituaçú' e 'Monte Alegre 172' apresentaram alto nível de resistência à pinta-preta. As cultivares Itararé, Apuã e Cupido são adaptadas ao cultivo orgânico, e os clones avançados APTA 16.5, APTA 21.54 e IAC 6090 apresentam potencial de cultivo no sistema orgânico.Information regarding

  19. Variação da composição química em cultivares de batata durante seu desenvolvimento Variation in the chemical composition of potato tubers of three cultivars during the growing season

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    Dayse Soave Spoladore

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se no presente trabalho a dinâmica de acúmulo de substâncias de reserva e glicoalcalóides totais, durante o desenvolvimento de tubérculos de três cultivares de batata - Aracy (IAC-2, Itaiquara (IAC-3551 e Teberê (IAC-4489 - criados e selecionados pela Seção de Raízes e Tubérculos do Instituto Agronômico, no ano agrícola 1982/83, em plantio "das águas" (novembro-janeiro. Os resultados obtidos são referentes às amostragens realizadas aos 64, 79 e 111 dias após o plantio (DAP, e mostraram que o cultivar Aracy acumulou maior quantidade de matéria seca, proteínas, cinzas, polissacarídeos totais e açúcares solúveis por tubérculo.In the rain season of 1982-1983 (November-January, it was studied the dynamics of accumulation of reserve substances and total glycoalkaloids in growing tubers of the Brazilian potato cultivars Aracy (IAC-2, Itaiquara (IAC-355 1 and Teberê (IAC-4489. Data are related to three sampling dates, 64, 79 and 111 days after planting (DAP. Tubers of Aracy (IAC-2 had the highest dry matter, protein, ash, total polisacharides and soluble e sugar contenta.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of 6-hydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy-1,4-henanthraquinone from tuberous roots of yam (Dioscorea batatas) through inhibition of prostaglandin D₂ and leukotriene C₄ production in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells.

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    Jin, Meihua; Lu, Yue; Yang, Ju Hye; Jo, Tae Hyung; Park, Young In; Lee, Chong-Kil; Park, Sang-Jo; Son, Kun Ho; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2011-09-01

    6-Hydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy-1,4-phenanthraquinone (PAQ) isolated from the tuberous roots of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) dependent prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) generation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 0.08 μM and 0.27 μM, respectively. In the Western blotting with specific anti-COX-2 antibodies, the decrease of the quantity of PGD(2) was accompanied by a decrease in the COX-2 protein level. But PAQ did not affect COX-1 protein level. In addition, this compound inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) dependent production of leukotriene C(4) in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC(50) of 0.032 μM. These results demonstrate that PAQ has a dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitory activity. This compound also inhibited the degranulation reaction in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 2.7 μM. Thus, these results suggest that PAQ may be useful in regulating mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  1. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

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    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield RESUMO A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl. Nos conduzirémos os três experimentos para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação da Brazília-DF, no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças no 1990. Os três experimentos (latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado, latossolo vermelho novo x adubo 4:14:8 NPK, latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK) no casa de vegetação foram conduzidos com total 29 combinações, no 5-5-3 repetições com total parcelas de 116. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA e MANOVA. Nossos principal resultados estam apresentándo abaixo. 1. A mistura de 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado e 10% de esterco de curral, apresentou os maiores valores para numero de tuberculos com 0-20 mm, peso total de tuberculos com 0-20 mm e peso total de tuberculos por vaso. 2. Há um efeito grande crescente das doses de 4N:14P:8K nos caracteres observados. 3. Analise-se do latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK experimento os resultados apresentárám-se que entre nas misturas também foi melhor a 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral. Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a outra mistura. Nossos resultados

  2. Características fotossintéticas de batata cv. Baronesa e seu genótipo transformado geneticamente para resistência ao PVY Photosynthetic characteristics of potato plants, cv. Baronesa and its genetically transformed genotype for PVY resistance

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    Marcos Antonio Bacarin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético da batata é complexo e requer uma grande demanda de tempo e energia. A tecnologia do DNA recombinante, com sua capacidade potencial de isolar e transferir genes a partir de qualquer organismo, permite incorporar nas plantas novos caracteres de interesse agrícola. No entanto, as conseqüências da inserção de determinados genes em relação às características fisiológicas da planta são, muitas vezes desconhecidas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as características fotossintéticas de plantas de batata cultivar Baronesa modificadas geneticamente com genes de resistência a vírus. Para isso, tubérculos de batata cultivar Baronesa e seu respectivo genótipo transformado foram plantados em vasos e mantidos em casa de vegetação. Durante o ciclo de vida das plantas foram avaliados parâmetros da fluorescência das clorofilas, fotossíntese líquida e fotossíntese potencial. As plantas de batata cv. Baronesa transformadas com genes de resistência ao vírus PVY apresentaram maior eficiência fotoquímica máxima e maior taxa de liberação de oxigênio do que plantas da mesma cultivar não modificadas geneticamente, embora tivessem mantido os demais parâmetros de fluorescência das clorofilas e a taxa de fotossíntese líquida iguais.Potato breeding is difficult and requires a great deal of time and energy. The use of recombinant DNA technology, with its potential capacity of isolating and transferring genes from any organism, allows incorporating in plants new characters of agricultural interest. However, consequences of the incorporation of determined genes on physiological characteristics are sometimes unknown. In this study we evaluated photosynthetic characteristics of potato plants genetically modified with resistance genes to PVY. Potato tubers of cv. Baronesa and its respective transformed genotype were planted in pots and kept in greenhouse. During the plant life cycle, parameters of

  3. Avaliação da produção de batata-doce em função de níveis de adubação orgânica = Evaluation of sweet potato yield in function of organic fertilization levels

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    João Felinto dos Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou o efeito da adubação orgânica na produçãototal de batata-doce, por meio de um experimento realizado no período de julho a novembro de 2007, na Estação Experimental de Lagoa Seca, PB, Brasil. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos (0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 t ha-1 de cama-de-aviário, em quatro repetições. A parcela foi composta por quatro leiras de 3,6 m de comprimento, espaçados de 0,80 m entre leiras e de 0,30 m entre plantas, sendo colhidas as duas fileiras centrais. As variáveis estudadas foram: produção total, raízes de tamanho graúdas e miúdas de batata-doce. A produção de raízes graúdas, miúdas e total por planta (14,20; 3,84 e 18,03 t ha-1 de batata-doce responderam de forma linear e positiva às doses crescentes de cama-de-aviário. Aadubação com cama-de-aviário aumentou a produção de raízes graúdas, miúdas e total de batata-doce.The present study evaluated the effect of organic fertilization inthe total production of sweet potato. The experiment was performed in the period between July and November 2007, at the Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, Paraíba, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 t ha-1, in four replications. The plot consisted of four 3.6 m long ridges, spaced of 0.80 m between ridges and 0.30 m between plants; the two central ridges were harvested. The variables studied were: total yield, large and small sweet potato roots. The production of large and small roots, total yield per plant (14.20, 3.84 and 18.03 t ha-1of sweet potato, responded positively in a linear fashion to increasing doses of poultry litter. The fertilization with poultry litter increased the yield of large, small and total roots of sweet potato.

  4. Produção de minitubérculos básicos de batata em três sistemas hidropônicos Potato basic minitubers production in three hydroponic systems

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    Thiago L Factor

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de minitubérculos básicos de batata em três sistemas hidropônicos de cultivo: aeropônico, DFT (deep flow technique e NFT (nutrient film technique. O experimento foi realizado em ambiente protegido, de maio a setembro de 2005, em Jaboticabal, SP. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, sendo os três sistemas hidropônicos de cultivo as parcelas principais e, as cultivares Agata e Monalisa, as subparcelas. A massa fresca e o diâmetro longitudinal dos tubérculos não foram influenciados pelos sistemas hidropônicos estudados, com valores médios de 6,2 e 30,2 mm, 6,3 g e 30,0 mm, 6,8 g e 31,0 mm, para os sistemas hidropônicos NFT, DFT e aeroponia, respectivamente. No que se refere às cultivares, Monalisa apresentou maior diâmetro longitudinal e massa fresca (32,2 mm e 7,1 g, valores significativamente superiores aos verificados para a cultivar Agata (28,6 mm e 5,8 g. O número de minitubérculos por planta e por metro quadrado teve valores médios significativamente superiores no sistema aeropônico (49,3 e 874,4 em relação aos sistemas NFT (39,5 e 246,6 e DFT (41,6 e 458,0, respectivamente. A produção de minitubérculos básicos de batata pode ser realizada de maneira eficiente utilizando-se os sistemas hidropônicos estudados, sendo o sistema aeropônico o que apresentou os melhores resultados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of potato basic minitubers in three hydroponic systems: aeroponic, DFT (deep flow technique and NFT (nutrient film technique, using cultivars Agata and Monalisa. The experiment was carried out under protected cultivation, from May to September, 2005, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a completely randomized block design, with split-plots. The hydroponic systems were assigned to the experimental plots, whereas cultivars were assigned to sub-plots. Tuber fresh weight and

  5. Concentration of nutrient solution in the hydroponic production of potato minitubers Concentração da solução nutritiva na produção hidropônica de minitubérculos de batata

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    Manuel Benito Novella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the nutrient solution concentration on potato plant growth and minituber yield were determined in a sand closed hydroponic system. Minitubers and micropropagated plantlets of the cv. 'Macaca' were used. Treatments were five nutrient solution concentrations at electrical conductivities (EC of 1.0 (T1, 2.2 (T2, 3.4 (T3, 4.7 (T4 and 5.8dS m-1 (T5. The split plot randomised experimental design was used with three replications. Plants from minitubers produced higher fresh and mean weight of minitubers, shoot dry mass and leaf area index than the micropropagated ones. However, higher dry mass of minitubers was found with micropropagated plantlets compared to minitubers. The concentration of the nutrient solution did not affect minituber number. Increasing the nutrient solution concentration decreased total and minituber dry mass production of micropropagated plantlets and plant growth and minituber production of minituber-originated plants. Low concentration of nutrient solution at an EC of about 1.0dS m-1 can be used in the hydroponic production of potato minitubers of both micropropagated and minituber-originated plants.Neste trabalho foi determinado o efeito da concentração da solução nutritiva no crescimento e na produtividade de minitubérculos de batata em um sistema hidropônico fechado empregando areia como substrato. Plântulas micropropagadas e minitubérculos foram plantados em 24 de março de 2004. Os tratamentos foram cinco soluções nutritivas com condutividades elétricas (CE de 1,0 (T1, 2,2 (T2, 3,4 (T3, 4,7 (T4 e 5,8dS m-1 (T5. O experimento foi conduzido em parcelas subdivididas no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Plantas originadas de minitubérculos produziram mais massa fresca total e média de minitubérculos, massa seca da parte aérea e maior índice de área foliar que plantas micropropagadas. Entretanto, maior massa seca dos minitubérculos foi obtida em plantas micropropagadas

  6. Reação de cultivares de batata a Streptomyces scabies, agente causal da sarna comum profunda Reaction of potato cultivars to Streptomyces scabies, causal agent of deep common scab

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    Ivan Herman Fischer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou caracterizar quanto a critérios morfológicos e fisiológicos isolados de Streptomyces causadores de sarna comum profunda em batata; avaliar o comportamento de cultivares em relação à doença e a variação na agressividade entre os isolados da bactéria. Os isolados de Streptomyces apresentaram coloração cinza em meio extrato de levedura e malte e cadeias de esporos espiraladas, produzidas sobre um micélio aéreo. Ocorreu produção de melanina em meio de tirosina-ágar e a utilização de oito fontes de carbono recomendadas, propriedades estas que correspondem às descritas para S. scabies. Batatas-semente sadias de seis cultivares foram plantadas em substrato infestado com seis isolados de S. scabies separadamente e as plantas cultivadas em vasos e ambiente aberto. A severidade da doença foi estimada com auxílio de uma escala diagramática e avaliou-se o rendimento de tubérculos (g/planta. As cvs. Mondial e Jaete Bintje foram as mais resistentes à sarna comum com severidade média nos dois experimentos de 10,5% e 14,0%, respectivamente, seguidas por Asterix (17,4%, Ágata (21,8%, Monalisa (23,0% e Cupido (23,3%. A agressividade dos isolados variou quantitativamente, com severidade maior para o isolado M4 (34,7% e menor para o isolado M1 (6,2%. Redução da produção de tubérculos foi verificada na cv. Jaete Bintje, no primeiro experimento, e quando as cultivares foram infectadas pelos isolados A1, M2 e M3, no primeiro experimento, e pelo isolado M4, no segundo experimento.This work aimed to characterize the isolates of Streptomyces, responsible for deep common scab symptoms in potato, according to morphological and physiological criteria; to evaluate the resistance of potato cultivars to the disease and the aggressiveness of bacterium isolates. The Streptomyces isolates presented gray coloration on yeast extract and malt medium and spiral spore chains, produced on aerial hyphae. Production of melanina occurred

  7. Produtividade da batata em função da irrigação e do controle químico da requeima Potato productivity as a function of irrigation and chemical control of Late Blight

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    Edenir L Grimm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho determinar o efeito de diferentes níveis de irrigação e controle químico na produtividade e ocorr��ncia de requeima na cultura da batata, cultivar "Asterix", em Santa Maria, RS. Os experimentos foram realizados no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, o primeiro no verão de 2005/2006 e o segundo no outono de 2006. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Utilizou-se o sistema Blitecast para determinar o momento da aplicação de fungicidas, através do acúmulo de valores de severidade (VS. A irrigação foi realizada por aspersão, utilizando-se a dotação de 1,0 ETm, 0,75 ETm, 0,50 ETm e sem irrigação (Test. Os resultados mostraram que em períodos relativamente secos, com temperatura alta, a produtividade foi aumentada pela irrigação, sobretudo quando a necessidade hídrica da cultura foi atendida plenamente com a reposição de 100% da ETm. Em períodos úmidos a produtividade foi influenciada pela eficiência no controle da requeima. O sistema Blitecast com acúmulo de 18 valores de severidade (Bli18 foi o mais eficiente para o controle da requeima da batata. A irrigação realizada em intervalos de pelo menos três dias, não exerceu influência significativa sobre a incidência e o desenvolvimento da requeima.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different levels of irrigation and chemical control on yield and occurrence of Late Blight in potato cv. Asterix, at Santa Maria - RS. Two experiments were conducted at the Crop Science Department, Federal University of Santa Maria. One experiment was carried out during spring-summer, 2005/2006 and the second, during fall 2006. The experimental design was a complete randomized, with four replications. The Blitecast model was used to indicate the timing of spraying, by accumulating severity values (VS. Sprinkler irrigation was used corresponding to 1.0, 0

  8. Avaliação de herbicidas de pós-emergência na cultura da batata Evaluation of herbicides on post emergent weed control in potato crops

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    Jeferson Zagonel

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado na Fazenda Escola da UEPG, Ponta Grossa-PR, em solo Latossolo Vermelho Escuro de textura média argilosa, tendo como objetivo avaliar a eficiência e a seletividade do herbicida propaquizafop no controle pós-emergente de plantas daninhas na cultura da batata. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos: propaquizafop (100, 125 e 150 g i.a./ha; fluazifop-p-butil (188 g i.a./ha; testemunha capinada e testemunha sem capina, em quatro repetições. O plantio foi realizado em 26 de outubro com a cultivar Elvira, usando-se o espaçamento de 0,70 x 0,35 m. As plantas daninhas presentes foram: Brachiaria plantaginea (capim-papuã, Digitaria horizontalis (capim-milhã e Eleusine indica (capim pé-de-galinha. As avaliações foram efetuadas aos 15, 30 e 45 dias após a aplicação dos tratamento. Observou-se que a aplicação de herbicidas pós-emergentes após a amontoa, permite controle adequado de plantas daninhas desde a emergência até a colheita; o herbicida propaquizafop mostrou-se eficiente no controle sobre capim-papuã e capim pé-de-galinha nas doses de 100, 125 e 150 g i.a./ha e sobre capim-milhã nas doses de 125 e 150 g i.a./ha. As perdas na produção causadas pela competição com plantas daninha foram da ordem de 57,4 %. Não foram observados efeitos fitotóxicos nas plantas de batata que pudessem ser atribuídos aos tratamentos aplicados.The presented field experiment was conducted at the Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil, on Dark Red Latossoil, to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of herbicides on post emergence weed control in potato crops. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: propaquizafop (100, 125 and 150 g a.i/ha; fluazifop-p-butil (188 g a.i/ha, weed free and weedy. Planting was conducted on October 26, using the cultivar Elvira. Potato plants were spaced 0.70 x 0.35 m. The

  9. Qualidade para processamento de clones de batata cultivados durante a primavera e outono no Rio Grande do Sul Processing quality of potato clones during spring and autumn grown conditions of Rio Grande do Sul

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    Sérgio Tonetto de Freitas

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A industrialização da batata (Solanum tuberosum L. tem sido limitada no Brasil, quase que exclusivamente, pela falta de matéria-prima adequada. Alta qualidade do produto processado é dependente de altos teores de matéria seca, que reduz a absorção de óleo durante a fritura e confere crocância, e baixos teores de açúcares redutores, que mantêm a coloração clara das fritas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar clones de batata de alta qualidade para processamento a partir da avaliação de tubérculos produzidos durante os cultivos de primavera de 2003 e outono de 2004 em Santa Maria, RS. O experimento foi conduzido em um fatorial (15 clones e duas épocas de cultivo no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados os clones Dakota Rose, SMINIAIporã, SMIJ461-1, SMIJ319-1, SMIJ456-4Y, SMID040-4RY, SMIE040-6RY, SMIC148-A, SMIF165-6RY, SMIH095-1, SMINIA90244-1, SMINIA793101-3, SMINIA95043-11, Macaca e Asterix nos cultivos de primavera de 2003 e outono de 2004 em Santa Maria, RS. As condições ambientais, durante o período de produção, influenciaram a qualidade pós-colheita dos tubérculos. Os clones SMIJ461-1, SMIJ319-1, SMIJ456-4Y, SMIC148-A, SMIDO40-4RY e SMIH095-1 foram os que apresentaram o melhor desempenho nas características desejáveis para processamento, sendo superiores a Asterix, cultivada para consumo de mesa ou para processamento na forma de chips nas diferentes regiões produtoras de batata. Dentre esses clones, SMIDO40-4RY e SMIH095-1 foram os menos influenciados pelas diferenças de temperatura e insolação típicas das épocas de cultivo de outono e primavera no RS. Os clones SMIJ461-1 e SMIJ456-4Y apresentaram maior teor de matéria seca e coloração mais clara do chips no cultivo da primavera.The development of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L. processing industry has been limited in Brazil, because of the low availability of tubers with adequate quality. High dry matter

  10. Selection of sweet potato clones for the region Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha Seleção de clones de batata-doce para a região do Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha

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    Valter C de Andrade Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out from December 2005 to July 2006, in the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM, in Diamantina, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, aiming at selecting sweet potato clones for the Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha. We evaluated nine clones from the UFVJM germplasm bank, using cultivars Brazlândia Branca, Brazlândia Roxa, and Princesa as controls. The experimental design was blocks at random, with four replications. Plants were harvested seven months after transplanting. We assessed the fresh mass yield of vines and roots, as well as root shape and resistance to soil insects. Genotypes did not differ from each other for the fresh mass yield of vines (ranging from 3.81 to 11.76 t ha-1. The total yield of roots ranged from 22.0 to 45.4 t ha-1 and clones BD-06, BD-113-TO, BD-15, BD-38, BD-25, BD-61, and cultivar Princesa had statistically the highest figures. However, only clone BD-06 significantly overcame the control cultivars Brazlândia Branca and Brazlândia Roxa. Clone BD-06 had also the highest commercial yield of roots (38.58 t ha-1, statically similar to most of the other clones and cultivar Princesa (25.87 t ha-1, but superior to cultivars Brazlândia Branca and Brazlândia Roxa. Most of the clones tested, including clone BD-06, produced good shaped roots and were resistant to soil insects. Considering our results, clone BD-06 stood out as a good option for growing sweet potato in the Upper Valley of Jequitinhonha.Com o objetivo de selecionar clones de batata-doce para a região do alto Vale do Jequitinhonha, conduziu-se um experimento de dezembro de 2005 a julho de 2006, no CampusJK da Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, UFVJM, município de Diamantina-MG. Foram avaliados nove clones de batata-doce pertencentes ao banco de germoplasma da UFVJM, juntamente com as cultivares Brazlândia Branca, Brazlândia Roxa e Princesa, utilizadas como testemunhas. O delineamento experimental

  11. Associação de Rhizoctonia solani Grupo de Anastomose 4 (AG-4 HGI e HGIII à espécies de plantas invasoras de área de cultivo de batata Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 4 (AG-4 HGI and HGIII associated with weed species from a potato cropping area

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    Fátima Aparecida da Silva-Barreto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os grupos 3 e 4 de anastomose (AG-3 e AG-4 do fungo Rhizoctonia solani são importantes grupos associados à batata no mundo. No Brasil, o AG-3 é relatado afetando principalmente batata e fumo. Já o AG-4 causa perdas consideráveis em culturas de importância econômica, como a soja, o feijão e o amendoim, podendo ocorrer também em hortaliças como o espinafre, o pimentão, o brócolis, o tomate, a batata e frutíferas como o melão. Recentemente foi constatada, em Brasília-DF, a associação de R. solani a plantas invasoras em áreas de cultivo de batata. Entretanto, não há informação a respeito da etiologia do patógeno bem como do papel de espécies invasoras como outras hospedeiras no ciclo do patógeno. Objetivou-se com esse estudo caracterizar isolados de R. solani obtidos de batata e de outras três espécies de plantas invasoras associadas a áreas de cultivo da cultura: juá-de-capote [Nicandra physaloides (L. Pers., Solanaceae], beldroega (Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae, e caruru (Amaranthus deflexus L., Amaranthaceae. Foi confirmada a hipótese de que os isolados obtidos de R. solani de beldroega, caruru e juá-de-capote pertencem ao grupo 4 de anastomose e são patogênicos à batata, exceto o isolado de beldroega. Estes isolados apresentaram patogenicidade cruzada às três espécies e também patogênicos à maria-pretinha (Solanum americanum Mill., uma outra espécie de Solanaceae invasora. A classificação dos isolados no grupo AG-4 HGI ou no grupo AG-4 HGIII (isolado de caruru foi confirmada através de características culturais e moleculares (seqüenciamento da região ITS-5.8S do rDNA. Os resultados deste trabalho trazem implicações importantes para o manejo das podridões radiculares de Rhizoctonia em batata.The anastomosis groups 3 and 4 (AG-3 and AG-4 of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani are important groups associated with potatoes worldwide. In Brazil, the AG-3 is reported affecting mainly potatoes and

  12. Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo parte IV: experiências comparando formas de N, P e K Fertilizer experiments with sweet potatoes IV: trials with some N, P, and K sources

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    A. Paes de Camargo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available De 1943-44 a 1945-46 realizaram-se seis experiências (três anuais, uma conduzida por dois e duas por três anos, em três localidades do Estado de São Paulo, para estudar o efeito, sôbre a batata-doce, de diversas formulas contendo sempre 60-100-40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O, mas preparadas com diferentes adubos nitrogenados, fosfatados e potássicos. Em relação ao tratamento sem adubo, foram poucos os casos em que as adubações com NPK aumentaram substancialmente a produção. Nessas condições, superfosfato se mostrou ligeiramente superior à farinha de ossos e não se notou diferença entre cloreto de potássio e cinzas de café. Sulfato de amônio, que figurou na experiênca conduzida por dois anos, e torta de algodão, nas demais, em regra com portaram-se melhor do que salitre do Chile. Individualmente, as fórmulas mais eficientes foram as preparadas com superfosfato, cloreto de potássio e sulfato de amônio ou torta de algodão. Contudo, mesmo com estas, foi muito baixa a freqüência de resultados compensadores.Six experiments with sweet potatoes were located on two soil types of the State of São Paulo to study the effects of fertilizer mixtures prepared with different, N. P, and K sources, but containing always 60-100-40 kilograms of N-P(20(5-K(20 per hectare. The yield increases of fertilized over the unfertilized plots were satisfactory only in a few of the 11 annual results obtained. Under such poor conditions, superphosphate was slightly superior to bone meal and no difference was observed between coffee ashes and potassium chloride. Ammonium sulphate, in one, and cottonseed meal, in the other five trials, as a rule, were more efficient than Chilean nitrate. Individually, the mixtures prepared with superphosphate, potassium chloride, and ammonium sulphate or cottonseed meal gave the best results but even with them the frequency of satisfactory yield increases was very low.

  13. Efeito da fertilização fosfatada na culturada batata (solanum tuberosum l. no planalto do huambo (Angola Effects of phosphorus fertilization on potato (solanum tuberosum l. crop production, in huambo country (Angola

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    Imaculada da Conceição Henriques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se ensaios realizados, no ano agrícola 2004/5, em blocos completos casualizados, para estudo do efeito na produção de doses de fertilização fosfatada da cultivar de batata-semente importada ‘Romano’ e da cultivar regional ‘Tchigembo’, plantadas em duas datas (Outubro e Fevereiro da época das chuvas e numa terceira data (Junho, na época seca, praticada em regadio. Os ensaios foram repetidos em três locais da Província do Huambo - Bailundo, Chianga e Calenga - distanciados de cerca de 50 km. Avaliaram-se os efeitos, na produção total e comercial de tubérculos (diâmetro > 25 mm, de diferentes doses de fósforo, na forma de superfosfato simples (24% de P2O5, tendo-se aplicado uniformemente ureia (300 kg ha-1 de N, fraccionada em três aplicações. As doses de fósforo ensaiadas foram 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5, comparadas com uma testemunha sem qualquer aplicação de fertilizante, azotado ou fosfatado. As modalidades de fertilização azotada receberam, uniformemente 300 de azoto. A dose que maior benefício económico originou, sem desperdício de químicos para o meio ambiente, foi a de 200 kg ha-1 de P2O5.Several trials were carried out to compare total and commercial potato yield of the imported cultivar ‘Romano’ and the regional cultivar ‘Tchigembo’, planted in two dates on rain season (October and February and in a third date (June, in dry season, with irrigation. The trials were repeated in three locations of the Huambo country - Bailundo, Chianga and Calenga. The effects on total and commercial (tubers diameter > 25 mm potato yields of different amounts of phosphorus, applied with single superphosphate (24% of P2O5 were evaluated. Treatments were: control (any type of soil fertilization null, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 kg ha-1 of P2O5. Phosphorus treatments received also 300 kg ha-1 of nitrogen (urea applied uniformly, in three times. The greatest economic benefice for both potato

  14. Início da tuberização, duração do ciclo vegetativo e tolerância ao calor em genótipos de batata

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    Danilo Hottis Lyra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação do tempo para o início da tuberização e da duração do ciclo vegetativo com a tolerância ao calor em batata. Grupos de clones com diferentes tempos para o início de tuberização e durações do ciclo vegetativo foram definidos e avaliados em dois ambientes, e seus índices morfofisiológicos foram estimados em condições de estresse de calor. A amplitude para o início da tuberização foi de 31,8 dias e para a duração do ciclo vegetativo de 30,3 dias. Os grupos de clones formados apresentaram os seguintes parâmetros: tuberização precoce e ciclo vegetativo curto, tuberização precoce e ciclo longo (PL, tuberização tardia e ciclo curto e tuberização tardia e ciclo longo. Em condições de estresse de calor, a produção de tubérculos graúdos do grupo PL apresentou média superior à dos demais grupos. Seis clones (IRF 10-24, IRF 7-61, IRF 2-71, IRF 2-14, IRF 6-104 e IRF 10-44 e três testemunhas ('Markies', CBM 16-16 e CBM 9-10 foram considerados tolerantes ao estresse de calor (média diária de 21,2ºC e responderam favoravelmente ao ambiente com temperaturas amenas (média diária de 19,0ºC. A partição de matéria seca para os tubérculos foi mais rápida nos clones do grupo PL. Os clones de tuberização precoce e ciclo vegetativo longo apresentaram maior tolerância ao calor, com maior produção de tubérculos do que os demais grupos.

  15. Ação de acibenzolar-s-methyl isolado e em mistura com fungicidas no controle da requeima da batata Action of acibenzolar-S-methyl, isolated and in a mixture with fungicides on potato late blight control

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    Jesus G. Töfoli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar o desempenho de acibenzolar-S-methyl (BTH isolado e em mistura com os fungicidas mancozeb, chlorothalonil e metaxyl-M+chlorothalonil no controle da requeima da batata, foram realizados dois experimentos em cultivos comerciais nos municípios paulistas de Pilar do Sul (cv. Baraka e Bragança Paulista (cv. Asterix, de maio a agosto e agosto a outubro de 2001, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições, com cada parcela medindo 25 m². Durante os experimentos foram realizadas um total de 10 pulverizações, a intervalos de 5 a 10 dias com pulverizador costal munido de barra de aplicação contendo 5 bicos TXKV26, pressão constante (4 bar e volume médio de 800 L/ha. Avaliou-se a severidade nas folhas (0 a 100%, nas hastes ( escala de notas de 1 a 5 e a produtividade comercial de tubérculos. O BTH apresentou efeitos significativos de controle quando utilizado isolado e em mistura com fungicidas de contato e sistêmico. Os maiores aumentos relativos de produtividade foram verificados para as misturas de BTH com mancozeb e chlorothalonil.To evaluate the performance of acibenzolar-S-methyl (BTH, alone and mixed with mancozeb, chlorothalonil and metaxyl-M+chlorothalonil, for the control of potato late blight, two experiments were carried out in commercial crops in the counties of Pilar do Sul (cv. Baraka and Bragança Paulista (cv. Asterix, state of São Paulo, Brazil, from May to August and August to October 2001, respectively. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four replications, with each plot measuring 25 m². A total of 10 sprayings was done at 5- to 10-day intervals with a backpack sprayer using a 5-nozzle (TXKV26 spray wand, constant pressure of 4 bars (58 psi and average volume of 800 L/ha. Evaluations were done in regard to the severity on the leaves (0 to 100%, on the stems (score from 1 to 5 and the commercial yield of tubers. BTH presented expressive effects

  16. Peroxidase activity in roots of arracacha affected by pH and temperature = Atividade da peroxidase em raízes de batata-baroa afetada pelo pH e temperatura

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    Luciana Nunes Menolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, roots of arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhyza Bancroft were stored at 5ºC to induce chilling injury symptoms and stress-related peroxidase activity. Later, peroxidase kinetic activity was determined in different pH and temperature conditions. For this, soluble crude extract was sequentially saturated with ammonium sulfate, obtaining a semi-purified enzyme solution used for the analysis. Activity of peroxidase induced by the chilling at 5oC was determined from pH 2.5 to 9.0 and at temperature ranging from 10 to80oC. The peroxidase had higher activity when the reaction occurred between pH 5.5 and 6.0 and at temperature of 30oC. Complete inactivation of the activity was observed in pH 2.5 after 60 minutes of pre-incubation or at 60oC for 10 minutes or alternatively at 70oCafter 5 minutes of pre-incubation. The enzyme is more susceptible to inactivation in acid than alkaline pHs or alternatively using heat treatment.Neste trabalho, raízes de batata-baroa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft foram armazenadas a 5oC para induzir injúria por frio e expressar atividade da peroxidase de estresse. Posteriormente, a cinética de atividade foi determinada em diferentes condições depHs e temperatura. Para isto, extrato solúvel da raiz foi sequencialmente saturado com sulfato de amônio, obtendo-se uma preparação semi-purificada para a análise enzimática. Atividade peroxidativa induzida pela temperatura de armazenamento de 5oC foideterminada em pHs de 2,5 a 9,0 e a temperaturas de 10 a 80oC. A atividade da peroxidase foi maior quando a reação foi realizada nos pHs de 5,5 e 6,0 e temperatura de 30oC. A inativação completa da enzima ocorreu em pH de 2,5 após 60 min. de pré-incubação ou a60oC por 10 min., e alternativamente a 70oC após 5 min. de pré-incubação. A enzima foi mais susceptível à inativação em pH ácido do que alcalino, podendo também ser inativada pelo tratamento de calor.

  17. Expressão de caracteres de tubérculos em função do tamanho de recipiente usado no cultivo de batata na geração de plântulas Expression of tuber traits as a function of pot size used to grow potato seedlings

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    Mario Alvaro Aloisio Verissimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No melhoramento genético de batata, para alguns caracteres, é possível eliminar genótipos inferiores já nas gerações iniciais, o que permite reduzir o número de genótipos avaliados a campo, proporcionando redução de custos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do tamanho de vaso na expressão de caracteres de tubérculo, em famílias de batata, na geração de plântula. Em casa de vegetação, dez famílias de batata foram avaliadas em dois tamanhos de recipientes, vaso grande (1 L e vaso pequeno (250 ml. Os caracteres de tubérculos avaliados foram: cor, aspereza, profundidade de olho, sobrancelha, formato, uniformidade de formato, apontamento, curvatura, achatamento, aparência geral, massa por planta, massa média e número de tubérculos. O vaso grande proporciona maior expressão da variação genética para os caracteres profundidade de olho, sobrancelha, curvatura, achatamento, aparência geral e todos os componentes de rendimento. As maiores médias de produção de tubérculos em número, tamanho e massa foram obtidas no vaso grande, enquanto o maior coeficiente de variação genético para os caracteres formato, uniformidade de formato e apontamento de tubérculo foi obtido no vaso pequeno.In potato breeding, the exclusion of inferior genotypes by selection in early generations provides more versatility and cost reduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of pot size on the expression of tuber traits in potato families grown as seedling generation. Ten potato families were planted in two pot sizes, large (1 L and small (250 ml, in the greenhouse. The following tuber traits were evaluated: color, roughness, depth of eye, eyebrow, shape, uniformity of shape, pointing, curvature, flattening, tuber general appearance, total mass per plant, average tuber weight and number of tubers. The larger pot provided greater expression of genetic variation for the depth of eye, eyebrow, curvature

  18. Avaliação de acessos de batata-doce para resistência à broca-da-raiz, crisomelídeos e elaterídeos Screening of sweet potato accessions for resistance to the West Indian sweet potato weevil, chrysomelids and elaterids

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    Félix Humberto França

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados para resistência a danos causados por insetos nas folhas e raízes, no campo, 366 acessos do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de batata-doce da Embrapa Hortaliças. Os insetos de interesse foram Diabrotica spp., Conoderus sp., Epitrix sp., e a broca-da-raiz da batata-doce, Euscepes postfasciatus. Considerando o estrato raízes, aproximadamente 21% dos acessos avaliados mostraram-se resistentes a crisomelídeos e elaterídeos, tendo sido identificados pelo menos sete clones melhores que a referência padrão de resistência àqueles insetos, a cultivar Brazlândia Roxa. Sete acessos, entre esses o CNPH 005, CNPH 026 e CNPH 258 mostraram-se bastante homogêneos e consistentes em três avaliações. Esses mesmos clones, além dos clones CNPH 088, CNPH 295, CNPH 314 e CNPH 318 mostraram-se entre os mais resistentes à broca-da-raiz, porque tiveram 7% ou menos das suas raízes tuberosas danificadas por Euscepes postfasciatus enquanto as cultivares Brazlândia Branca e Princesa obtiveram, respectivamente, 23,3% e 53,3% de danos. Outros nove acessos foram classificados como mais suscetíveis que essas cultivares. A aplicação desses resultados no manejo integrado de pragas em batata-doce é discutido.Three hundred sixty six sweet potato plant accessions of the Sweet potato Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Hortali��as (Brazil were evaluated in the field for resistance to the Wireworm-Diabrotica-Systena (WDS pest complex: Diabrotica spp., Conoderus sp., Epitrix sp., and West Indian sweet potato weevil, Euscepes postfaciatus. About 21% of all plant accessions showed high resistance to chrysomelids and elaterids. Seven clones, among them CNPH 005, CNPH 026 and CNPH 258 were more resistant than the standard resistant commercial cultivar Brazlândia Roxa. These sweet potato accessions and CNPH 088, CNPH 295, CNPH 314 and CNPH 318, were the most promising sources of resistance against the West Indian sweet potato weevil because they had 7% or less

  19. The Significance of Wild Plants in the Evolutionary Ecology of Three Major Viruses Infecting Cultivated Sweetpotato in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Tugume Kajungu, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis contribute to the understanding of evolutionary ecology of three major viruses threatening cultivated sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) in East Africa: Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae), Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae) and Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV; genus Ipomovirus; Potyviridae). The viruses were serologically detected and the positive results confirmed b...

  20. AcEST: DK944467 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sults ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id O24339 Definition sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP........................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP...TA_IPOBA Catalase OS=Ipomoea batatas PE=2 SV=1 248 2e-65 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Ca

  1. Alterações dos óleos de palma e de soja em fritura descontínua de batatas Palm and soybean oils alterations in the discontinued frying of potatoes

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    Eliana Rodrigues Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Óleos de palma e de soja foram utilizados em experimentos de fritura de batatas em fritadeiras elétricas domésticas de 1 L com relação inicial, superfície sobre volume, de 0,3 cm-1. Em cinco dias consecutivos cada óleo foi submetido por um período de 5 horas por dia à temperatura de (183,1 ± 1,7 °C. Após 25 horas, a perda de ácidos graxos foi de 15,0 e 62,2% (m/m, respectivamente, para os ácidos oléico e linoléico, no óleo de palma; e de 6,5; 24,9 e 39,7% (m/m, respectivamente, para os ácidos oléico, linoléico e linolênico, no óleo de soja. Os teores inicial e final de polímeros foram de 0,4 e 23,7% (m/m no óleo de palma, e de 0,5 e 30,7% (m/m no óleo de soja. A relação entre a perda dos ácidos graxos e a formação de polímeros mostrou uma correlação forte com coeficientes de correlação de 0,9951 e 0,9740 para os óleos de palma e de soja, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que maiores graus de alteração ocorreram em ácidos graxos mais insaturados; e que a alteração pode ser eficazmente verificada através da determinação quantitativa de polímeros.Palm and soybean oils were used in experiments of frying of potatoes in 1 L, household electric deep fryers with a surface-to-volume ratio of 0,3 cm-1. The oils were heated for five hours every day for five consecutive days at a temperature of 183.1 ± 1.7 °C. the evaluation of oil degradation was followed by the increase of polymer contents and changes in fatty acid composition. After 25 hours, the loss of fatty acids were 15.0 and 62.2% for oleic and linoleic acid, respectively in palm oil and 6.5, 24.9 e 39.7% for oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid, respectively in soybean oil. The content of polymers ranged from 0.4 to 23.7% and from 0.5 to 30.7% for palm and soybean oils, respectively. Linear association between the loss of total unsaturated fatty acids and polymers formation presented high correlation coefficients (0.9951 and 0.9740 for palm and soybean oils

  2. Divergência genética entre acessos de batata-doce utilizando caracteres fenotípicos de raiz Genetic divergence among sweet potato accessions based on root traits

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    Giovani O da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de quantificação da divergência genética entre acessos e caracterização dos recursos genéticos têm sido de grande importância em programas de melhoramento, auxiliando na identificação de genitores e no conhecimento do material genético disponível. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram: (1 avaliar os acessos de batata-doce pertencentes ao banco de germoplasma da Embrapa com base em caracteres de raiz; (2 calcular a importância relativa dos caracteres morfo-agronômicos quantitativos na discriminação dos acessos e, (3 obter indicações das combinações híbridas mais promissoras para cruzamentos. Foi avaliada uma coleção de 11 clones pertencentes ao Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa por meio de um experimento conduzido na Embrapa SPM/EN, em Canoinhas-SC. Os acessos foram cultivados em condições de campo no delineamento em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, onde a parcela experimental foi composta por 10 plantas. As plantas de cada parcela foram colhidas e avaliadas para 12 caracteres fenotípicos de raiz. O estudo indicou que os caracteres número e massa total de raízes e peso específico foram os que mais contribuíram para a divergência genética. A maioria dos acessos é bastante similar quanto aos caracteres quantitativos avaliados. Porém, há a possibilidade de ganhos com a heterose, geração de variabilidade genética e de progênies superiores cruzando-se os acessos dos diferentes grupamentos formados; pois os genótipos mais contrastantes '1228', '051-1' e '1270' foram agrupados entre os melhores para várias características como massa e número total de raízes, massa comercial de raízes; os dois primeiros apresentaram elevado peso específico e o '1270' apresentou coloração alaranjada intensa, indicativo de alto teor de β-caroteno.The estimation of the genetic divergence among accessions of a germplasm bank, as well as their characterization are very important in breeding programs in

  3. Fertilização de cobertura com boro e potássio na nutrição e produtividade da batata-doce Fertilization with boron and potassium on sweet potato nutrition and yield

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    Fábio R Echer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Latossolos e Argissolos apresentam elevada taxa de intemperização dos seus materiais constituintes, com pouca ou nenhuma reserva mineral de potássio (K e normalmente, baixos teores de matéria orgânica do solo, principal fonte de boro (B às plantas. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade da cultura da batatadoce em resposta à combinação de doses de adubação potássica e boratada. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de agosto de 2007 e janeiro de 2008, em lavoura comercial de batata-doce, cv. Canadense, em Presidente Prudente-SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 4x4: doses de adubação potássica (0; 50; 100 e 200 kg ha-1 de K2O e doses de adubação boratada (0; 1; 2 e 3 kg ha-1 de B, ambas aplicadas em cobertura. Os tratamentos foram aplicados aos 62 dias após o plantio. A maior produtividade obtida foi de 27,7 t ha-1, com a combinação das doses de 2 kg ha-1 de B aliada à aplicação de 200 kg ha-1 de K2O. O teor foliar de B aumentou conforme o aumento da dose de B e de K. Doses de 1 e 3 kg ha-1 de B não influenciaram o teor de Mg nas folhas, mas em doses de 0 e de 2 kg ha-1 de B o teor de Mg apresentou comportamento quadrático em função do aumento da adubação potássica.Most of Brazilian soils have little or no mineral reserve of potassium and, usually low content of organic matter in the soil, the most important source of boron for the plants. In this work we evaluated the yield of sweet potato, cultivar Canadense, in response to the combination of different rates of potassium fertilization and boron fertilization. The research was carried out from August 2007 to January 2008, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks in a factorial scheme 4x4, with three repetitions: rates of potassium fertilization (0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1 of K2O, and levels of boron

  4. Preservação in vitro da batata com ácido acetilsalicílico e duas fontes de carboidrato In vitro storage of potato under acetyl salicylic acid and two carbohydrate sources

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    Gerson Renan de Luces Fortes

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de carboidratos e do ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS na preservação in vitro da batata (Solanum tuberosum L., cultivar Macaca. Brotações de 1,5 a 2,0 cm de comprimento foram transferidas para meio de MS, acrescido de mio-inositol (100 mg L-1 e ágar (6 g L-1. Testaram-se duas fontes de carboidrato, sacarose e manitol (87,6 mM, e cinco concentrações de AAS (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 mg L-1. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições por tratamento e cada repetição formada por oito tubos de ensaio com uma brotação. O material foi mantido à temperatura de 25±2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e radiação de 19 miE m-2 s-1. O crescimento e o número de gemas nas hastes foram avaliados por três meses. Passados nove meses, a sobrevivência e o número de microtubérculos também foram avaliados. O uso de manitol, associado às concentrações a partir de 30 mg L-1 de AAS, proporcionou menor crescimento e formação de gemas nas hastes. No meio suplementado com sacarose, a sobrevivência e o número de microtubérculos foram maiores, independentemente das concentrações de AAS utilizadas, após nove meses de cultivo.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA during the in vitro storage of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cultivar Macaca. Stems derived from in vitro cultures were cut into 1.5 to 2.0 cm segments and inoculated in a MS medium supplemented with myo-inositol (100 mg L-1 and agar (6 g L-1. Sucrose and mannitol 87.6 mM and five ASA concentrations (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg L-1 were tested. The stems were cultured on 10 mL medium in test tubes (20 x 150 mm and incubated in a growth chamber at 25±2ºC, 16 hour photoperiod and 19 muE m-2 s-1 radiation. The growth and the bud number formed in the stems for a period of three months were evaluated. Nine months later the survival percentage and the number of microtubers formed

  5. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient for potato in organic farming Evapotranspiração e coeficiente de cultivo da batata em sistema agroecológico de produção

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    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the water consumption and the crop coefficients (Kc for the potato (Solanum tuberosum L., in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil, under organic management, and to simulate the crop evapotranspiration (ETc using the Kc obtained in the field and the ones recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The water consumption was obtained through soil water balance, using TDR probes installed at 0.15m and 0.30m deep. At the different stages of development, the Kc was determined by the ratio of ETc and reference evapotranspiration, obtained by Penman-Monteith FAO 56. The crop coefficients obtained were 0.35, 0.45, 1.29 and 0.63. The accumulated ETc obtained in the field was 109.6 mm, while the ETc accumulated from FAO's Kc were 142.2 and 138mm, respectively, considering the classical values and the values adjusted to the local climatic conditions. The simulation of water consumption based on meteorological data of historical series from 1961 to 2007 provided higher value of ETc when compared with the one obtained in the field. From the meteorological data of historical series, it was observed that the use of Kc recommended by FAO may overestimate the amount of irrigation water by 9%, over the same growing season.O trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a quantificar, sob manejo agroecológico, o consumo hídrico e os kcs para a cultura da batata (Solanum tuberosum L., em Seropédica (RJ, e a simular a evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc, utilizando os kcs obtidos e os kcs preconizados pela FAO. O consumo hídrico foi obtido por meio do balanço hídrico do solo, utilizando sondas de TDR instaladas a 0,15 e 0,30 m de profundidade. Nas diferentes fases de desenvolvimento, o kc foi determinado pela razão entre a ETc e a evapotranspiração de referência, obtida por Penman-Monteith FAO 56. Os kcs obtidos foram 0,35; 0,45; 1,29 e 0,63. A ETc acumulada obtida em campo foi de 109,6 mm, enquanto as ETcs

  6. Indução de embriogênese somática em genótipos de batata-doce Induction of somatic embryogenesis in sweet potato genotypes

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    Janaina S Magalhães

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A diferenciação e o desenvolvimento de embriões somáticos foram observados em 15 genótipos de batata-doce a partir de explantes de ápices caulinares com um ou dois primórdios foliares. A embriogênese foi induzida utilizando o meio composto de sais minerais MS e vitaminas, 3% de sacarose, 0,2% de phytagel, suplementado com 2,4-D (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg/L. As culturas foram mantidas no escuro à temperatura de 27ºC. A adição de 2,4-D foi necessária para a indução de calo embriogênico nos genótipos '92', '94', '184', '188', '319', '370', '374', '442', '449', '5491, '594', '645', 'PI3138463', 'White Star' e 'Jewel'. Os clones '169', '202', '605', '633' e '643' não responderam à indução de calo embriogênico. Os calos embriogênicos apresentaram a coloração amarelo claro, textura compacta e granular, enquanto que os calos não embriogênicos apresentaram coloração hialina e consistência friável. Os calos formaram-se na região periférica dos explantes. Nas condições estabelecidas, melhor produção de calo embriogênico foi obtida com 2,0 mg/L de 2,4-D. A transferência desses calos para meio sem 2,4-D favoreceu o desenvolvimento dos embriões para os estádios cordiforme, torpedo e cotiledonar.The differentiation and development of somatic embryos were observed in 15 genotypes of sweet potato using shoot tip explants with one or two leaf primordia. Somatic embryogenesis was induced using MS media and vitamins, 3% sucrose, 0,2% phytagel, supplemented with 2,4-D (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 mg/L. The cultures were maintained in the dark at 27ºC. The addition of 2,4-D was necessary for embryogenic callus induction in the genotypes '92', '94', '184', '188', '319', '370', '374', '442', '449', '549', '594', '645', 'PI3138463', 'White Star' and 'Jewel'. Clones '169', '202', '605', '633' and '643' did not respond to embryogenic callus induction. Embryogenic callus showed a yellow and opaque color, compact and granular texture

  7. Efeito da chuva na eficiência de herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência sobre corda-de-viola Effect of rainfall on the efficiency of herbicides applied in post-emergence on Ipomoea grandifolia

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    G.S.F Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da chuva na eficiência de herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência em plantas de Ipomoea grandifolia. As plantas de I. grandifolia foram cultivadas em vasos plásticos com capacidade de 2,5 L, em casa de vegetação, com uma planta por vaso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com os tratamentos dispostos em um esquema fatorial 7x8 (sete tratamentos químicos e oito períodos para ocorrência de chuva após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos químicos constaram da aplicação de glyphosate em cinco formulações comerciais (Roundup Original, Roundup WG, Roundup Transorb, Roundup Transorb R e Roundup Ultra a 1.080 g e.a. ha-1, amônio-glufosinate (Finale a 400 g i.a. ha-1 e 2,4-D (DMA 806 a 1.000 g e.a. ha-1 e de oito intervalos de tempo para simulação de uma chuva de 15 mm, com duração de cinco minutos: 15', 30', 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 8h após a aplicação dos tratamentos e uma testemunha sem chuva, Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de controle das plantas aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias após a aplicação e, por ocasião da última avaliação, determinou-se a massa seca das plantas. A ocorrência de chuvas após a aplicação de 2,4-D não alterou a sua eficiência no controle das plantas de I. grandifolia; já os herbicidas amônio-glufosinate e glyphosate, em todas suas formulações testadas, apresentaram redução na eficiência de controle quando da ocorrência de chuvas em até oito horas após a aplicação dos tratamentos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of rainfall on the efficiency of herbicides applied in post-emergence on Ipomoea grandifolia plants. I. grandifolia plants were sown in plastic pots with a capacity of 2.5L under greenhouse conditions, with only one plant per pot. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with four replications, with the treatments

  8. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado em pós-emergência para o controle de Ipomea spp. e Commelina benghalensis na cultura da cana-de-açúcar Carfentrazone-ethyl applied in post-emergence to control Ipomoea spp. and Commelina benghalensis in sugarcane crop

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    P.J. Christoffoleti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos determinar a eficácia e seletividade do carfentrazone-ethyl no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da cana-de-açúcar e avaliar curvas de dose-resposta desse herbicida em Ipomoea spp. e Commelina benghalensis. Desenvolveu-se um ensaio de campo, em pós-emergência das plantas daninhas e da cultura (cv. RB72-454. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi do tipo blocos ao acaso, com os seguintes tratamentos: carfentrazone a 5, 10, 20, 30 e 50 g ha-1 e metribuzin a 2.400 g ha-1. As plantas daninhas que infestavam a área eram Ipomoea nil, I. grandifolia, I. quamoclit, Momordica charantia e C. benghalensis. As avaliações de controle visual e fitotoxicidade foram realizadas aos 15, 30 e 45 dias após a aplicação dos herbicidas. Para elaboração das curvas de dose-resposta, um experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, com as plantas daninhas I. nil, I. hederifolia, I. grandifolia, I. quamoclit e C. benghalensis. As doses do herbicida carfentrazone foram: 10D, 4D, 2D, D, 0,5D, 0,25D, 0,125D, 0,1D e 0,01D, em que D = 20 g ha¹. Os dados foram analisados a partir de curvas de dose-resposta de controle visual e massa fresca. No experimento de campo, observou-se excelente controle das plantas daninhas, sendo a dose de 50 g ha-1 de carfentrazone a mais eficiente. Nenhum tratamento causou danos à cana-de-açúcar. O experimento de casa de vegetação permitiu concluir que a ordem decrescente de sensibilidade das espécies de corda-de-viola ao carfentrazone-ethyl é: I. hederifolia > I. quamoclit > I. nil > I. grandifolia; e que C. benghalensis é controlada pelo carfentrazone a partir da dose de 5 g ha-1.This work aimed to evaluate the efficacy and selectivity of the herbicide carfentrazone-ethyl applied in post-emergence to control weeds in sugarcane crop and to evaluate dose-response curves of this herbicide in four species of Ipomoea spp. and Commelina benghalensis. Field experiment was carried out in

  9. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, R.; De Donato, C.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Guzman, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, E.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Sanchez, F.A.; Supanitsky, A.D.; Valdes-Galicia, J.F.; Vargas Trevino, A.D.; Vergara Limon, S.; Villasenor, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm 2 . Each layer is 4m 2 and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cmx2m, oriented at a 90 0 angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4x4cm 2 . The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2μs data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  10. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro, R. [Inst. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); De Donato, C.; D' Olivo, J.C.; Guzman, A.; Medina-Tanco, G. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, E. [Fac. de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, E. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Salazar Ibarguen, H. [Fac. de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Sanchez, F.A., E-mail: federico.sanchez@nucleares.unam.m [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Supanitsky, A.D. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Valdes-Galicia, J.F. [Inst. de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Vargas Trevino, A.D.; Vergara Limon, S. [Fac. de Ciencias de la Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Villasenor, L.M. [Inst. de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas Hidalgo Morelia (Mexico); Observatorio Pierre Auger, Av. San Martin Norte 304 (5613) Malarguee, Prov. Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-05-21

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm{sup 2}. Each layer is 4m{sup 2} and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cmx2m, oriented at a 90{sup 0} angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4x4cm{sup 2}. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2{mu}s data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  11. Composição química de tubérculos de batata para processamento, cultivados sob diferentes doses e fontes de potássio Chemical composition of potato tubers for processing, grown in different levels and sources of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diomar Augusto de Quadros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A batata é considerada um dos poucos alimentos capazes de nutrir a crescente população mundial por ser fonte de energia e conter elevado teor de proteínas, vitaminas e minerais. Porém os teores desses compostos sofrem influência de diversos fatores como: cultivar utilizada, condições edafoclimáticas, safra, colheita e armazenamento. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a composição química de batatas (cvs. Atlantic, Asterix, Innovator e Shepody, cultivadas em quatro doses (0, 120, 360 e 1080 kg K2O.ha-1 e duas fontes de potássio (KCl e K2SO4. As amostras foram provenientes do município de Fazenda Rio Grande/PR, cultivadas na safra das águas. Foram realizadas as seguintes determinações: vitamina C, umidade, proteínas, lipídios, cinzas, carboidratos, energia, amido e potássio. A cv. Atlantic apresentou os maiores teores médios de cinzas (0,93% e potássio (528,80 mg.100 g-1; a cv. Asterix, a maior umidade (81,47%; a cv. Innovator, os maiores teores de proteínas (2,25%, lipídios (0,06%, carboidratos (17,72%, energia (80,40 kcal.100 g-1 e amido (16,45%; e a cv. Shepody obteve a maior quantidade de vitamina C (31,01 mg.100 g-1. Pode-se concluir que a composição química das batatas é dependente da cultivar e da adubação potássica (dose e fonte empregada.Potato is considered one of the few foods able to nourish the growing world population for being a source of energy and containing high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. However, these compounds suffer influence of several factors such as the use of cultivars, soil and climate characteristics, crop, harvest, and storage. Hence, the present paper aims to determine the potato chemical composition (cvs. Atlantic, Asterix, Innovator and Shepody, grown under four different levels (0, 120, 360 and 1080 kg K2O.ha-1 and two different sources of potassium (KCl e K2SO4. Samples of crop water production were collected from a farm in the city of Fazenda

  12. Absorção e infiltração de água por raízes de batata-doce, através de ferimentos durante a lavagem Water absorption and infiltration in sweet-potato wound roots during washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonai Gimenez Calbo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Raízes intactas e segmentos transversais de batata-doce (Ipomea batatas L. Lam foram totalmente ou parcialmente imersos em água. Raízes ou segmentos parcialmente imersos ficaram com menos de 10% da superfície externa fora da água, em um suspiro. Nestes ensaios a pressão da atmosfera interna das raízes parcialmente imersas manteve-se apenas alguns milímetros inferior a pressão atmosférica. Nas raízes totalmente imersas a pressão reduziu-se quase linearmente até mais de 1m de coluna de água e depois voltou a aumentar lentamente. Nas raízes intactas ou nos seus segmentos transversais totalmente imersos, houve maior infiltração de água nos volumes intercelulares do que nas raízes ou segmentos parcialmente imersos. Nas raízes intactas praticamente houve apenas absorção de água através das paredes e membranas celulares. Nos segmentos a infiltração de água através dos volumes intercelulares foi dominante. Considerando-se as dimensões transversais dos volumes intercelulares, sugere-se que partículas como bactérias e esporos possam ser arrastados para o interior órgão pela infiltração de água durante a lavação dos tecidos mecânicamente danificados.Intact roots and transversal root segments of sweet-potato (Ipomea batatas L. Lam were partially or completely submerged in water. In partially submerged roots less than 10% of the dermal surface remained exposed to air through a vent. Internal atmosphere pressure in partially submerged roots remained a few millimeters bellow the atmospheric pressure, while a much larger and nearly linear pressure reduction occurred in completely submerged roots. This linear phase caused a pressure reduction larger than 1m of water column. After that, the pressure started to rise slowly. The observed pressure reduction was smaller than the one observed in the constant pressure manometry procedure where the roots were sealed with epoxy resin, which precluded any water infiltration and

  13. OBSERVAÇÕES SOBRE DEGENERESCÊNCIA E COMPORTAMENTO EM DIFERENTES ÉPOCAS DE PLANTIO DE QUATRO VARIEDADES DE BATATA (Solanum Tuberosum L. COMMENTS ON DEGENERATION AND BEHAVIOR AT DIFFERENT PLANTING DATES OF FOUR POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As variedades de batata DELTA-A, HANSA, HYDRA e TONDRA foram plantadas em duas gerações, a primeira na seca e a segunda, nas águas de 1971, em Goiânia. Para o primeiro plantio, usaram-se batatas-sementes importadas, para o segundo, as filhas destas. HANSA, HYDRA e TONDRA produziram mais na segunda geração do que na primeira, devido às melhores condições da época chuvosa. A produção da DELTA-A praticamente não variou nas duas épocas. HANSA foi significantemente superior às outras, em produção total, nas duas épocas e em produção de tubérculos comerciáveis (acima de 33 mm, na época chuvosa. Neste período, seus tubérculos grandes, (acima de 40 mm apresentaram-se com superdesenvolvimento de lenticelas e manchados internamente, ficando comercialmente desvalorizados. A variedade HYDRA destacou-se das demais pela produção de batatas grandes, principalmente na seca. Mostrou-se, porém, muito suscetível à sarna comum, cujo ataque inutilizou grande parte de seus tubérculos. TONDRA foi a variedade que melhor se adaptou ao período chuvoso. Produziu duas vezes mais tubérculos comerciáveis e quase três vezes mais tubérculos grandes, que na seca.

    The four potato varieties DELTA-A, HANSA, HYDRA and TONDRA were tested in the dry and in the rainy season of 1971, in Goiânia. Imported certified seed potatoes were used for the first planting and the harvested tubers, for the second. All varieties, except DELTA-A, yielded more in the rainy than in the dry season. This difference was found to be caused by the better water supply during the rainy season. There was no significant influence of the season on the production of DELTA-A. HANSA produced in both seasons significantly more in total weight than the other varieties and more marketable potatoes (over 33 mm in the rainy season. But the large

  14. Method of determination of the leaf area of the potato cultivar Ágata from linear dimensionsMétodo de determinação da área foliar da cultivar de batata Ágata a partir de dimensões lineares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Osmar Jadoski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar Ágata is currently the most widely cultivated in areas of potato production in Brazil, however, are necessaries basic information about its characteristics, especially on the development of the canopy. The work was developed in experimental area of the Unit of Research in Potato Culture and Microclimate for Agriculture, in the department of Agronomy of the UniversidadeEstadual do Centro Oeste (Unicentro, in Guarapuava (PR. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of the adjustment of different mathematic models to determine the leaf area of potato plants of the cultivar Ágata. The evaluations were performed considering the dimensions of a 100 seeds of several sizes which were randomly collected in the phase of maximum vegetative development of plants. The data obtained were submitted to analysis of regression, being tested six different mathematic models: linear, quadratic, cubic functions and the exponential models from growth, Gauss and Lorentz, using the length and the height of leaves as independent variable to the adjustment in function of the real leaf area measured in laboratory. The variable length and the product of length x width of the leaf were those who presented the best results of adjustments to the models tested. With more emphasis to the length, for which all the models testes present statistical significance. It was concluded that the leaf length is the most appropriated parameter to be used in evaluation of the leaf area of potato plants cultivar Ágata, being the exponential function of growth and Lorentz the less recommended since its lowest adjustment coefficient. A cultivar Ágata é atualmente a mais cultivada nas lavouras de produção de batata no Brasil, contudo, ainda são necessárias informações básicas sobre suas características, especialmente sobre o desenvolvimento do dossel vegetativo.O trabalho foi desenvolvido em área experimental da Unidade de Pesquisa em Bataticultura e Microclima para a

  15. Water-yield relationships of potato under different irrigation methods and regimens Relação água-produção na cultura da batata sob diferentes métodos e regimes de irrigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Erdem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Yield response to irrigation of different crops is of major importance in production planning where water resources are limited. This study aims to determine the effect of different irrigation methods and irrigation regimens on potato yield in the Trakya Region, Turkey, during 2003 and 2005. Potato was grown under furrow and drip irrigation methods and three regimens: irrigation applied when 30, 50, or 70% of the available water was consumed. The seasonal potato evapotranspiration ranged on 501 to 683 mm in 2003, and 464 to 647 mm in 2005. The furrow and drip irrigation methods had no significant effect on tuber yield for both years. Irrigation regimens influenced tuber yield (P Em casos de limitações de recursos hídricos, o planejamento da produção agrícola depende da resposta dos parâmetros de produção à prática da irrigação. Este estudo visa determinar o efeito de diferentes métodos e regimes de irrigação na produtividade da batata na região de Trakya, Turquia, durante os anos de 2003 e 2005. As batatas foram plantadas sob irrigação por sulcos e por gotejamento, em três regimes: prática de irrigação quando 30, 50 ou 70% da água disponível era consumida. A evapotranpisração sazonal da cultura variou entre 501 e 683 mm em 2003, e entre 464 e 647 mm em 2005. O método de irrigação não afetou significativamente a produção de tubérculos nos dois anos. Os regimes de irrigação influenciaram a produção de tubérculos (P < 0,05 em 2005, e as maiores produções foram registradas para o regime de irrigação 30%, 33,15 t ha-1 em 2003 e 44.56 t ha-1 em 2005. Os valores de eficiência do uso da água aumentaram de 4,70 para 6,63 nos tratamentos de irrigação por sulcos e de 5,19 para 9,47 kg m-3 nos tratamentos por gotejamento.

  16. Seleção para duração do ciclo vegetativo em batata e relação com a produtividade de tubérculos Selection for vegetative growth period and its relationship to tuber yield of potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel B Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de batata no Brasil geralmente apresentam ciclo vegetativo de 90 a 110 dias, sendo bem mais longo em países de clima temperado, podendo chegar até 150 dias. O ciclo vegetativo longo nestes países proporciona maior produtividade e constitui-se em alternativa para aumento da produção de tubérculos sob condições tropicais. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o potencial da seleção para aumentar ou diminuir o ciclo vegetativo da batata e verificar a relação entre a duração do ciclo vegetativo e a produção de tubérculos em condições tropicais. Na primeira geração clonal foram avaliados a produção de tubérculos e o ciclo vegetativo de 1.561 genótipos oriundos de 22 famílias clonais. Na segunda geração clonal foram avaliadas as mesmas características em 320 genótipos selecionados para ciclo vegetativo precoce, intermediário e tardio. A seleção nas gerações iniciais foi eficiente, tanto para diminuir permitiu obter maior ganho do que a seleção entre famílias. Os genótipos mais tardios foram mais produtivos que os mais precoces.Potato cultivars in Brazil generally present a growth cycle duration ranging from 90 to 110 days, whereas in countries located in temperate climate it can reach up to 150 days. Longer vegetative growth cycle in these countries confer higher tuber yield and, in tropical countries it also could be an alternative to increase tuber yield. In this work we evaluated the selection potential for longer or shorter growth cycle duration of potato clones and we determined the relationship between growth cycle duration and tuber yield. In the first clonal generation tuber yield and growth cycle duration were evaluated on 1561 genotypes derived from 22 clonal families. In the second clonal generation, the same traits were evaluated on 320 genotypes selected for earliness, intermediate and late vegetative cycle. Selection in the initial generations was efficient both to decrease and to

  17. The anthocyanidin synthase gene from sweetpotato [Ipomoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... The tissue expression profiles of IbANS indicated that it could be expressed in all tissues but at different ... al., 1997). Likewise, transcripts of the apple ANS gene are detected ... electrophoresis (EC250-90, E-C Apparatus Corporation) and ... Instruments Inc.) analyses and the RNA samples were stored in a.

  18. Efeito da solarização e biofumigação, durante o outono, na incidência de murcha-bacteriana e produtividade da batata Effect of soil solarization and biofumigation during autumn on bacterial wilt incidence and potato yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Josefina Baptista

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A murcha-bacteriana causada por Ralstonia solanacearum é uma das principais doenças da cultura da batata. A solarização tem sido estudada como opção para a desinfestação do solo e tem potencial para o controle da murcha bacteriana. A técnica é indicada para uso nas estações quentes do ano pois depende de condições climáticas adequadas. Devido ao período de plantio de determinadas culturas, é interessante avaliar o uso da solarização em outras épocas do ano e associada a outras técnicas para garantir sua eficiência. A biofumigação é a desinfestação do solo através da adição de matéria orgânica que, durante sua decomposição, libera substâncias tóxicas aos fitopatógenos. Neste trabalho avaliou-se durante o outono (maio a junho os efeitos da adição de cama de aves (biofumigação e da solarização na incidência natural da murcha-bacteriana e na produtividade da batata, através dos tratamentos: adição de cama de aves (20 t/ha, uréia (100 kg/ha, aplicação de brometo de metila e solo sem tratamento (testemunha, todos solarizados ou não solarizados. Avaliou-se a produção de tubérculos totais e comerciais e, a partir da incidência de murcha-bacteriana, foi feito o cálculo da área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. Na área infestada, apenas o uso do brometo de metila proporcionou reduções significativas na incidência da murcha-bacteriana. No entanto, a aplicação de brometo de metila e a adição de cama de aves em associação com a solarização possibilitaram produção significativamente maior de tubérculos de batata em relação à testemunha. Os efeitos da solarização associada à biofumigação com cama de aves sobre a produtividade da batata em área infestada com R. solanacearum devem ser melhor investigados.Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important diseases of the potato. Soil solarization has been studied as an option for soilborne

  19. Avaliação das perdas causadas por vírus na produção da batata I: Vírus do enrolamento da fôlha Evaluation of yield losses induced by potato leaf roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. P. Cupertino

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparação entre as produções de 50 pares de plantas sadias e afetadas, de nove variedades de batata, mostra que a redução na produção causada pela infecção secundária do vírus do enrolamento da fôlha foi, em média, de 60,8% no pêso total dos tubérculos produzidos e de 75,5% no pêso dos tubérculos do tipo graúdo ("especial" mais "primeira". As perdas na produção total variaram de 44,6% (variedade Patrones a 73,4% (variedade Aquila, e na de tubérculos graúdos, de 49,8% (Delta A a 86,0% (Gunda.A comparison of 50 pairs of field healthy and leaf roll infected potato plants of nine varieties indicated that the total yield reduction was on the average 60.7 per cent. Yield reduction of the two largest and most marketable potato sizes ("especial" and "primeira" reached 75.6 per cent. Aquila and Gunda had the highest yield losses (73.4 and 72.0 per cent; Delta A and Patrones had the lowest (47.6 and 44.6 per cent. Reduction in the yield of the larger tuber sizes was generally greater than total losses.

  20. Production of basic potato seed minitubers in substrate and different nitrogen rates Produção de minitubérculos de batata-semente básica em substrato em razão de doses de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla de Bem dos Santos Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal dose of nitrogen (N in potato crop depends on the production system. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal dose of N for the production of basic potato seed minitubers and evaluate the effect of N rates on physiological and nitrogen indices in the youngest fully developed leaf (fourth leaf and in the oldest leaf of the plants at 60 days after planting. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. The treatments consisted of five N rates (0, 45, 90, 180 and 360 mg dm-3, with 10% of each dose applied at planting and the remainder through irrigation water, daily, for 30 days. The nitrogen rates positively influenced the physiological indices (length, width, leaf area, number of leaves, fresh mass and dry mass and nitrogen (level and content of N and N-NO³ in the dry mass and SPAD both in the fourth leaf and in the oldest leaf. Likewise, the N rates positively influenced the number and mass of harvested tubers. The largest number (5.44 tubers/plant and the maximum mass of tubers (243.5 g/plant were obtained with 360.0 and 332.9 mg N dm-3, respectively. Therefore, the mass and number of tubers were not optimized by the same N rate. The critical SPAD index was 38.8 in the fourth leaf, which was more sensitive to the effect of N rates than the oldest leaf.A dose ótima de nitrogênio (N na cultura da batata depende do sistema de produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a dose ótima de N para a produção de minitubérculos de batata-semente básica e avaliar o efeito de doses de N sobre índices nitrogenados e fisiológicos determinados na folha mais jovem completamente desenvolvida (quarta folha e na folha mais velha da planta, aos 60 dias após o plantio. O experimento foi realizado em ambiente protegido, no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por cinco doses de N (0, 45, 90

  1. Influência do ácido acetilsalicílico, da sacarose e da temperatura na conservação in vitro de segmentos caulinares de batata Effect of acetyl salycilic acid, sucrose and temperature on in vitro storage of potato shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane M. da Conceição

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado no Laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos da Embrapa Clima Temperado (Pelotas-RS, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito do ácido acetil salicílico (AAS, associado à sacarose e à temperatura na conservação in vitro de segmentos caulinares das cultivares de batata Baronesa e Santo Amor. Os segmentos foram inoculados em meio de cultura com sais e vitaminas de MS, acrescido de 100 mg.L-1 de mio-inositol, 6 g.L-1 ágar e com sacarose nas concentrações de 10, 30 e 50 g.L-1 combinadas com ácido acetil salicílico a 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 mg.L-1. Após a inoculação o material foi mantido às temperaturas de10 e 25°C. O experimento constituiu-se de um fatorial AxBxCxD [temperatura (2 x sacarose (3 x AAS (5 x cultivar (2], em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo cada explante uma parcela. O comprimento do segmento caulinar foi analisado pelo teste de Duncan e pela regressão polinomial dos fatores. As avaliações foram iniciadas 15 dias após a instalação do experimento e continuadas a cada 15 dias, sucessivamente ao longo de 180 dias. Da variável percentagem de sobrevivência do material em conservação in vitro foi calculado apenas o valor médio. A concentração de sacarose de 30 g.L-1 no meio de cultura, e a temperatura de 10°C, foram os melhores tratamentos para a melhor conservação in vitro e maior percentagem de sobrevivência dos segmentos caulinares de batata.This work was carried out at the Tissue Culture Laboratory at Embrapa Clima Temperado Pelotas-RS, Brazil, to evaluate the influence of acetyl salycilic acid (ASA, sucrose and temperature in the in vitro storage of potato shoot cvs. Baronesa and Santo Amor. The shoot segments were inoculated on a medium containing MS salts, vitamins, myo-inositol (100 mg.L-1, agar (6.0 g.L-1 and sucrose at 10, 30 and 50 g.L-1 combined with acetyl salicylic acid at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mg.L-1. After inoculation the material was kept at 10 or 25°C. The

  2. Caracterização química e física de batatas 'Ágata' minimamente processadas, embaladas sob diferentes atmosferas modificadas ativas Chemical and physical characterization of fresh-cut 'Ágata' potatoes packed under different active modified atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Lacerda Oliveira Pineli

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações químicas e físicas em batatas 'Ágata' minimamente processadas, embaladas sob diferentes atmosferas, durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Batatas 'Ágata' foram minimamente processadas como minibatatas e embaladas em filmes de náilon multicamadas. Os tratamentos aplicados no momento da embalagem foram o vácuo parcial e as misturas 10%CO2, 2%O2, 88%N2 ou 5%CO2, 5%O2, 90%N2. Em seguida, foram armazenadas a 5ºC. A cada três dias, amostras foram avaliadas quanto ao índice de escurecimento, atividade da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase, firmeza, sólidos solúveis totais e acidez titulável. O armazenamento sob vácuo parcial foi o mais eficaz no controle do escurecimento, da minimização da atividade da polifenoloxidase e da peroxidase, prevenindo alterações nos teores de sólidos solúveis totais, redução da firmeza, encharcamento da embalagem e maior acidez titulável. Os demais tratamentos apresentaram rápido desenvolvimento do escurecimento, aumento de firmeza em decorrência de ressecamento dos tubérculos, elevação nos sólidos solúveis totais e menor desenvolvimento da acidez em comparação ao tratamento sob vácuo parcial. A utilização de vácuo parcial foi a mais recomendada para a manutenção da qualidade das minibatatas. Todavia, outros tratamentos que busquem a manutenção da firmeza e frescor, sem o desenvolvimento de off-flavors e sem escurecimento, devem ser avaliados.The objective of this work was to evaluate chemical and physical characteristics of fresh-cut 'Ágata' potatoes packed under different active modified atmospheres, during refrigerated storage. 'Ágata' potatoes were minimally processed as baby potatoes and packed in nylon multilayer films. The treatments applied were partial vacuum, and atmospheres with 10%CO2, 2%O2, 88%N2 and 5%CO2, 5%O2, 90%N2. After that, they were stored at 5ºC. Every three days, tubers were evaluated for browning index

  3. Effect of extrusion-cooking in total carotenoids content in cream and orange flesh sweet potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José de O Fonseca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas is a food crop that supplies energy, minerals and vitamins C and B. Some cultivars are very rich in carotenoids (pro-vitamin A. In this study were evaluated and compared the total carotenoids content of two cultivars and the losses on the dehydrated extruded sweet potato flour. Samples from organic and conventional crops were analyzed, in the form of fresh and dehydrated extruded samples. Total carotenoids content of the fresh product, expressed on wet basis, was of 437 µg 100 g-1 for the cream cultivar and 10,12 µg 100 g-1 for the orange cultivar. After dehydration, losses of total carotenoids were of 41% and 38%, respectively. The fresh orange cultivar presented high total carotenoids content in comparison to the cream cultivar. The extruded orange sweet potato flour showed the lowest losses in total carotenoids. Therefore, the processed flour of orange sweet potato could be used to obtain pre-gelatinized extruded flour with high total carotenoids content.A batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas é um alimento fonte rico em energia, minerais, vitaminas C e B. Algumas cultivares são ricas em pró-vitamina A. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar e comparar o conteúdo de carotenóides totais em duas cultivares de batata-doce e determinar suas perdas na obtenção da farinha desidratada e processada por extrusão. Foram analisadas amostras de sistema de cultivo orgânico e convencional, tanto as frescas como as extrusadas desidratadas. O conteúdo de carotenóides totais do produto fresco, expressos em base úmida, foi de 437 µg 100 g-1 para a cultivar creme e de 10,120 µg 100g-1 para a cultivar alaranjada. Após o processo de desidratação das amostras, as perdas de carotenóides totais foram de 41% para a batata-doce creme e 38% para a alaranjada, respectivamente. Os resultados indicaram alto conteúdo de carotenóides totais para a cultivar alaranjada fresca, quando comparado com a cultivar creme. A amostra de

  4. Extreme resistance to two Brazilian strains of Potato virus Y (PVY in transgenic potato, cv. Achat, expressing the PVYº coat protein Resistência extrema a duas estirpes do Potato virus Y (PVY de batata transgênica, cv. Achat, expressando o gene da capa protéica do PVY O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Romano

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The coat protein (CP gene of the potato virus Y strain "o" (PVY O was introduced into potato, cultivar Achat, via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Sixty three putative transgenic lines were challenged against the Brazilian strains PVY-OBR and PVY-NBR. An extremely resistant phenotype, against the two strains, was observed in one line, denominated 1P. No symptoms or positive ELISA results were observed in 16 challenged plants from this line. Another clone, named as 63P, showed a lower level of resistance. Southern blot analysis showed five copies of the CP gene in the extremely resistant line and at least three copies in the other resistant line. The stability of the integrated transgenes in the extreme resistant line was examined during several in vitro multiplications over a period of three years, with no modification in the Southern pattern was observed. The stability of the transgenes, the absence of primary infections and the relatively broad spectrum of resistance suggest that the extremely resistant line obtained in this work can be useful for agricultural purposes.O gene da capa protéica (CP do Potato virus Y estirpe "o", foi introduzido em batata cultivar Achat, via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Sessenta e três linhas possivelmente transgênicas foram desafiadas com as estirpes brasileiras PVY-OBR e PVY-NBR. Uma linha apresentou extrema resistência às duas estirpes inoculadas, e foi denominado clone 1P. Não foram observados sintomas sistêmicos de infecção e as plantas foram negativas em Elisa. Outra linha, denominada clone 63P, mostrou algum nível de resistência. Análises por Southern blot indicaram a presença de pelo menos cinco cópias do gen CP no clone 1P e pelo menos três cópias no clone 63P. A estabilidade do gene introduzido no clone 1P foi avaliada durante três anos, após várias multiplicações in vitro. Não foram observadas mudanças no padrão do Southern blot. A estabilidade do transgene, na

  5. Fermentation substrate and forage from south Florida cropping sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmbacher, R.S.; Martin, F.G.; Mislevy, P.

    1985-01-01

    Zea mays (maize), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Ipomoea batatas (Sweet potato), Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) were grown as alcohol biomass crops in various sequences in 1981 and 1982, on a sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic, typic Haplaquod soil. Herbage yield and yield of non-fermentable by-products were measured as potential cattle feed. Grain produced from Z. mays followed by S. bicolor averaged 11.4 Mg/ha and was greater (P less than 0.05) than other graincrop sequences. Highest (P less than 0.05) root yields were from I. batatas (5.1 Mg/ha) in 1981 and M. esculenta (5.3 Mg/ha) in 1982. Total nonstructural carbohydrate was greatest for Z. mays/S. bicolor (6.0 Mg/ha) and Z. mays/I. batatas (6.8 Mg/ha) sequences. Crops of I. batatas and M. esculenta were hindered by high rainfall and poorly drained soil. Cropping sequences including Z. mays and S. bicolor produced more cattle feed, and they can be expected to produce more alcohol biomass with fewer cultural problems, on south-central Florida flatwoods soils. 20 references.

  6. Density and Seasonal Dynamics of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Mediterranean on Common Crops and Weeds around Cotton Fields in Northern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiao-ming; Yang, Nian-wan; Wan, Fang-hao

    2014-01-01

    theophrasti Medicus), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and maize (Zea mays L.). The whitefly species identity was repeatedly tested and confirmed; seasonal dynamics on the various host plants was standardized by the quartile method. B. tabaci MED......The density seasonal dynamics of Bemisia tabaci MED were evaluated over two-years in a cotton-growing area in Langfang, Hebei Province, northern China on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and six other, co-occurring common plants: common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), piemarker (Abutilon...

  7. Review of major sweetpotato pests in Japan, with information on resistance breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Akira; Tabuchi, Hiroaki; Kuranouchi, Toshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Sweetpotato ( Ipomoeae batatas (L.) Lam.) is an important food crop affected by several pests throughout the world, especially in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. Although Japan is relatively free from many serious sweetpotato pests, some pests, especially soil-borne pathogens, viruses, and insects such as plant-parasitic nematodes and weevils, cause severe damage in Japan. In this review, we describe the current status and management options for sweetpotato pests and diseases in Japan and review research related to sweetpotato breeding that can promote resistance to these problems. Furthermore, we describe methods to evaluate resistance to pests and disease used in sweetpotato breeding at the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO).

  8. Sensory characterization of a ready-to-eat sweetpotato breakfast cereal by descriptive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansby, M. A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam], an important industry in the United States, has been selected as a candidate crop to be grown on future long-duration space missions by NASA. Raw sweetpotato roots were processed into flour, which was used to formulate ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEBC). Twelve trained panelists evaluated the sensory attributes of the extruded RTEBC using descriptive analysis. The samples were significantly different (Psensory attributes, which could be used to differentiate the appearance, texture, and flavor of sweetpotato RTEBC, were described. The data could be used to optimize the RTEBC and for designing studies to test its consumer acceptance.

  9. Bioregenerative life support system for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Wang, J.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.

    We have studied a modular approach to construction of bioregenerative life support system BLSS for a lunar base using soil-like substrate SLS for plant cultivation Calculations of massflow rates in BLSS were based mostly on a vegetarian diet and biological conversion of plant residues in SLS Plant candidate list for lunar BLSS includes the following basic species rice Oryza sativa soy Glycine max sweet potato Ipomoea batatas and wheat Triticum aestivum To reduce the time necessary for transition of the system to steady state we suggest that the first seeding and sprouting could be made on Earth

  10. Development of extruded Ready-To-Eat (RTE) snacks using corn, black gram, roots and tuber flour blends

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, M. Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N. Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N.; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60–80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17–20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80 ± 5 °C (heater I) and 95–105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300–3...

  11. Qualidade de tubérculos de batatas-semente tratados com paraquat e o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia simplificada de detecção de resíduo do herbicida Quality of seed potato tubers treated with paraquat and the development of a simplified methodology for paraquat residue detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington Pereira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de tubérculos de batatas-semente (Solanum tuberosum tratados com paraquat e desenvolver uma metodologia simplificada de detecção de resíduos de herbicida. Dois ensaios foram realizados no Laboratório da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas do Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de hortaliças, Brasília, DF. No experimento, tubérculos das cultivares Achat e Baronesa foram submersos em soluções de 0 e 200 ppm de paraquat ou injetados com 0,5 ml de soluções de 0 e 200 ppm do herbicida. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 8 repetições e 12 tubérculos por parcela. Os tubérculos foram colocados em câmara fria, após a aplicação com paraquat, para quebra da dormência. Após a brotação dos tubérculos avaliou-se a qualidade interna dos mesmos, amostrando, posteriormente, 2 tubérculos de cada parcela para o plantio em vasos, sob condições de telado, para verificar possíveis danos no crescimento das plantas oriundas dos tubérculos tratados. Os tratamentos de imersão não provocaram, aparentemente, nenhum dano interno nos tubérculos, ou nem mesmo afetaram a nova geração, entretanto, os tubérculos injetados com paraquat foram severamente deteriorados e carbonizados, originando plantas bastante debilitadas. Esses resultados indicam que quando o paraquat for aplicado sob condições que favoreçam sua penetração ou translocação para o interior do tubérculo, atingindo os vasos e a polpa, pode danificá-lo severamente, prejudicar sua aparência, qualidade de produção e reduzir o desenvolvimento da nova geração de plantas oriundas dos tubérculos contaminados . No segundo experimento, desenvolveu-se uma metodologia simplificada para detectar resíduos de paraquat nos tubérculos através de colorimetria, visto que o paraquat é reduzido a um radical de cor azul na presença de ditionito de sódio (Na2S2O4 a 1% em meio básico, a qual se intensifica à medida que a

  12. Adubação orgânica da batata com esterco e, ou, Crotalaria juncea: I - produtividade vegetal e estoque de nutrientes no solo em longo prazo Organic fertilization of potato with manure and, or, Crotalaria juncea: I - long term plant productivity and soil nutrient stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tácio Oliveira da Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available No Agreste paraibano, a batata (Solanum tuberosum L. é importante cultura comercial, embora seja limitada pela variabilidade e escassez de chuvas e pela baixa fertilidade do solo. O esterco é a principal fonte de nutrientes utilizada para fertilização do solo, porém geralmente não é disponível em quantidade suficiente nas propriedades rurais para suprir a demanda das culturas agrícolas. Como alternativa tem sido recomendada a adubação verde com Crotalaria juncea L. Realizou-se um experimento, de 1996 a 2002, em um Neossolo Regolítico, com o objetivo de quantificar a produtividade da batata e o estoque de nutrientes no solo, após incorporações anuais de esterco e, ou, crotalária. Os tratamentos consistiram de: incorporação da crotalária (C, adição de 15 t ha-1 de esterco caprino (E, incorporação de crotalária + 7,5 t ha-1 de esterco (CE e testemunha (T. No final do experimento, o tratamento E promoveu aumentos de 73, 45, 221 e 43 % nos teores de N total, P total, P e K extraíveis (Mehlich-1 do solo, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. Os tratamentos C e CE aumentaram o N total do solo em 76 e 63 %, mas não aumentaram o teor dos outros nutrientes. Os acúmulos médios de massa seca, N, P e K na parte aérea da crotalária nos tratamentos, ao longo dos cinco anos, foram de 3.550, 69, 6 e 55 kg ha-1, respectivamente. As produtividades médias de tubérculos, ao longo dos cinco anos de colheita, foram de 15.204, 12.053, 11.085 e 7.926 kg ha-1 nos tratamentos CE, C, E e T, respectivamente. Apesar de a adição de 15 t ha-1 de esterco ter proporcionado os maiores aumentos nos nutrientes do solo, as maiores produtividades de tubérculos ao longo do período do estudo foram obtidas quando se combinou o plantio e a incorporação de crotalária com a adição de 7,5 t ha-1 de esterco.Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is an important cash crop in the semi-arid region of Paraíba, Brazil. However, potato productivity is limited

  13. Expressão eficiente do gene reporter beta-glucuronidase nos tecidos vasculares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizando de um promotor específico (BRA3 de Agrobacterium rhizogenes Efficient expression of beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in vascular tissue of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing a specific promoter (BRA3 from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotores tecido-específico controlam a transcrição de genes em diferentes tecidos vegetais bem como em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da planta, levando à indução de distintos níveis de atividade transiente e/ou estável do gene. Tais promotores podem ser empregados para a expressão seletiva de genes de interesse. O promotor rol A de Agrobacterium rhizogenes, por exemplo, é floema-específico, sugerindo que possa ser empregado em estratégias de defesa de plantas que são infectadas por vírus com replicação restrita ao floema. A expressão do gene marcador da ß-glucuronidase (gus dirigido pelo promotor rol A (pBRA3 foi observada em plantas transgênicas de batata (cvs. Macaca e Baronesa. Entrenós e secções de folhas foram submetidos ao cocultivo com A. tumefaciens. A atividade do gene gus avaliada em brotações resistentes à canamicina não se restringiu ao floema (alto nível de expressão do gene, mas também se manifestou no xilema dos caules. As expressões transiente e estável são, no entanto, tecido-específicas, localizadas sobretudo no sistema vascular de entrenós e ausente em raízes e folhas. As plantas gus positivas foram micropropagadas, plantadas em casa de vegetação e avaliadas por PCR, utilizando-se 'primers' específicos para o gene npt II. Nenhuma alteração fenotípica foi observada em plantas transgênicas, em relação às não transformadas.Tissue-especific promoters allow the modulation of gene transcription in different tissue types as well as in different stages of plant development, leading different levels of transient and stable activity of the gene product. These promoters have been employed for selective gene expression. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol A gene promoter (BRA3 controls phloem-specific expression indicating that this promoter might have an important role in plant defense strategies against virus which replicated only in the phloem. The expression of

  14. Análise socioeconômica da produção de batata nos municípios de Sanlúcar de Barrameda / Espanha e São Lourenço do Sul / Brasil A socio-economic analysis of potato production in the municipalities of Sanlúcar de Barrameda / Spain and São Lourenço do Sul / Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lírio José Reichert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os municípios de Sanlúcar de Barrameda/Cádiz, região de Andaluzia/Espanha e de São Lourenço do Sul/Rio Grande do Sul/Brasil, têm em comum a economia baseada na agricultura familiar produtora de alimentos, dentre eles a batata (Solanum tuberosum L.. Em ambos, esse cultivo representa fator de desenvolvimento socioeconômico e cultural, se considerado que é praticado por pequenos agricultores imigrantes colonizadores e seus descendentes. O estudo, motivado por um intercâmbio acadêmico, objetivou analisar os respectivos sistemas de produção, desenvolvidos pelos agricultores, avaliando-se as dificuldades, os desafios, os custos de produção e as alternativas para superá-los. Para realizá-lo, utilizaram-se entrevistas estruturadas com dirigentes, técnicos e agricultores das duas localidades. Em São Lourenço do Sul, 20 bataticultores ecológicos foram entrevistados, fato que se repetiu em Sanlúcar com 10 famílias produtoras de batata não ecológicas. Verificou-se que o hábito de cultivo, o trabalho familiar e a organização em cooperativas são iniciativas comuns às localidades estudadas, embora a adoção de sistemas diferentes de produção. Constatou-se também que ambas têm dificuldades de ordem tecnológica, econômica e ambiental e que apoiadas por processos de articulação social, estão buscando alternativas para superá-las, proporcionando condições para a continuidade do cultivo dessa espécie alimentar.The municipalities of Sanlúcar de Barrameda/Cádiz in Andaluzia/Spain and São Lourenço do Sul/Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil, have in common a food producer family farm based-economy, among them potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. This crop is a socioeconomic and cultural development factor in both municipalities, considering that it is practiced by small farmers and their descendants that settled those areas. The study was motivated by an academic exchange, and had the objective of analyzing the respective production

  15. Antihyperglycemic effect of Ipomea batatas tuber diet in alloxan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is ranked seventh among the leading causes of death and is considered third when its fatal complications are taken into account. This metabolic disorder can be managed controllably with proper diet, exercise and use of appropriate medications. The demand for plant products with ...

  16. Observações preliminares sôbre o ciclo vegetativo da batata doce: Ipomea Batatas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pais de Camargo

    1945-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a preliminary study of four sweet potato varieties, Russia, Napoleão, Roxa and Viçosa, carried cut in 1939-40 at the Central Experiment Station, Instituto Agronomico. Comparative plots of each variety were harvested after 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 months of vegetation, the product being then examined for the following characters : a Total yield b Number of roots c Average weight of the potates d Production of different grades e Qualities of the fresh roots f Culinary value of the sweets potatoes The yield after three months of vegetation was very small for the four varieties, but increased considerably in the later harvests. The variety Napoleão attained its highest yield after six months, being early; Roxa yielded most after seven months, being medium early, and the varieties Russia and Viçosa were late, giving their maximum yield only after eight months. The last named variety, in spite of occupying third and fourth position as regard to yield up to the fifth harvest (seven months, exceeded greatly the others at the eight and nine month harvests. The number and average weight of rcots varied according to the variety, and influenced the yield in different ways. The increase in yield of the variety Roxa resulted from an increase in the number of rcots, the average weight of these remaining practically the same at the various harvests. The var. Napoleão, on the other hand, increased in yield as a result of an increase in the weight of the rcots, the number of these not varying significantly at the success ve harvests. Both factors influenced the yield of the var. Russia and Viçosa, especially the increase in weight of the roots. Grading ihe product in six different sizes showed that the yield of the var. Roxa is predominantly of small sized sweet potatc es ; the var. Russia has medium roots. Napoleão has large rcots and Viçosa, very large ones. Other characters of the roots as shape, color, etc., were also studied, and culinary te sts were made with fresh sweet potatoes and with roots that had been cured under the sun.

  17. Substancias con actividad citoquinínica estimulan la brotación de yemas en tubérculos de papa Substâncias com atividade citocinínica estimulam a brotação de gemas em tubérculos de batata Cytokinin-like substences activity promotes shoot sprouting in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Flórez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Antes de la formación de brotes el tubérculo de papa sufre un período de dormancia característico de cada genotipo. En condiciones favorables para la tuberización, se interrumpe el crecimiento longitudinal del estolón y se ensancha la región subapical entre los dos últimos nudos de cada estolón. Entre los factores participantes de este proceso es clara la acción coordinada de varios fitorreguladores. La presencia de citoquininas en S. phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Criolla Colombia y en S. tuberosum L. variedades ICA-Única y Tuquerreña fue determinada en diferentes estadios del desarrollo del tubérculo: 00 - tubérculo en estadio de dormancia; 03 - tubérculo en el final de la dormancia y con brotes entre 2 y 3 mm de longitud; y 40 - inicio de la tuberización, ensanchamiento de las extremidades de los estolones al doble de su diámetro inicial. Las citoquininas fueron extraídas por cromatografía de capa fina y su detección y cuantificación se realizó por medio del bioensayo de la masa cotiledonar de rábano (Raphanus sativus. En Criolla Colombia, la variedad precoz de S. phureja, la presencia de citoquininas fue significativa en los estadios 00 y 03. Por otro lado, en las variedades de S. tuberosum las citoquininas fueron significativas en el estadio 03 para 'ICA-Única' (variedad precoz; y su presencia no se detectó en la var. Tuquerreña (variedad tardía. Se demostró la relación directa entre la concentración de citoquininas y la precocidad de las variedades: en las precoces, las citoquininas fueron detectadas y en la tardía no se hicieron evidentes.Antes de iniciar a brotação, o tubérculo de batata passa por um período de dormência característico de cada genótipo. Quando as condições são favoráveis à tuberização, o crescimento longitudinal do estolão é interrompido e se inicia o espessamento da região subapical entre a penúltima e a última gema. Entre os fatores envolvidos nesse processo é evidente a a

  18. Agronomic performance of locally adapted sweet potato ( Ipomoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tissue culture techniques have opened a new frontier in agricultural science by addressing food security and agricultural production issues. A study was conducted to compare growth and yield characteristics between the tissue culture regenerated and conventionally propagated sweet potato cultivars. Five locally adapted ...

  19. Green synthesis of zinc nanoparticles using Ipomoea asarifolia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Eriochrome black T (EBT) dyes. Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption process were studied with the view to understand the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption isotherms were closely described by Freundlich isotherm model with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.99. The adsorption kinetics data ...

  20. An Overview of Ipomoea carnea subspecies fistulosa toxicosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It contains two toxic principles, swainsonine and calystegines causing neurological condition called acquired lysosomal storage disease. Its toxicological status is not determined in the region despite risk of poisoning. Therefore it is being reviewed for its toxic effects, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentations, ...

  1. evaluation of the performance of improved sweet potato (ipomoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IKUMOINEIN W. KURO

    combat a widespread vitamin A deficiency that results in blindness and ... and 500,000 ha from China, Nigeria, Uganda and. Tanzania ... healthy plants. Extending this to all of China's sweet ... the country's reliance on cereal imports for livestock feed. In Kwara ..... Center (CIP) Programme Report 1995-1996, Lima, Peru.

  2. PEROXIDASA DE PLANTAS TROPICALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Yu Sakharov

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la actividad de la peroxidasa (EC 1.11.1.7 en 7 frutos, 13 raíces y 31 hojas de plantas tropicales que crecen en Colombia. Se encontró que la actividad de la peroxidasa varía ampliamente de una especie a otra. Para el fruto de balazos (Monstera deliciosa se encontró que la actividad de la peroxidasa depende del grado de madurez. Por el contrario, la actividad de peroxidasa de las hojas de la palma de botella (Roystonea regia se mantiene constante todo el año. Algunas especies presentaron alta actividad de peroxidasa como la raíz de batata (Ipomoea batatas, las hojas de pasto guinea (Panicum máximum, las de dormidera (Mimosa pigra, las de higuerilla (Riciims communis L. y las de las siguientes palmas: mararai (Aiphanes caríotifolia, de botella (Roystonea regia, dactilera (Phoenix dactylifera y africana (Elaeis guineensis. Además, mediante isoelectroenfoque se hallaron peroxidasas aniónicas (pl 3.4 - 5.6 tanto en la raíz de batata como en las palmas analizadas.

  3. Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de açúcares solúveis sobre populações de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e de Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae em plantas de batata, cultivares Achat e Monalisa, influenciadas por dosagens de nitrogênio e potássio, e teor mínimo de açúcares solúveis. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: concentração de nutrientes minerais e açúcar em folha verde, folha senescente, folha em abcisão, haste, tubérculo e planta total usando extratos de infusão em etanol 80%. A maior infestação por larvas de D. speciosa foi na cultivar Monalisa a 150 kg.ha-1 de N + K com 27,03% a PThe occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum theor of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha-1 of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha-1, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensibilized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing.

  4. Adubação orgânica da batata com esterco e, ou, Crotalaria juncea: II - disponibilidade de N, P e K no solo ao longo do ciclo de cultivo Organic fertilization of potato with manure and, or, Crotalaria juncea: II - soil N, P, and K availability throughout the growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tácio Oliveira da Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Os solos do Agreste paraibano têm baixa fertilidade e a prática usual de adubação é a incorporação de esterco na época do plantio. Entretanto, dependendo da qualidade do esterco, essa prática pode causar a imobilização de nutrientes do solo durante os primeiros meses de cultivo. É possível que o cultivo e incorporação de Crotalaria juncea, combinado com o esterco, possa promover mineralização mais sincronizada com a demanda de nutrientes pelas plantas. No presente estudo, realizado em 2003, foram conduzidos experimentos de campo e em casa de vegetação para testar essa hipótese. As parcelas de campo foram previamente cultivadas com batata no período de 1996 a 2002 e submetidas anualmente aos seguintes tratamentos: plantio e incorporação da crotalária na época da floração (C; adição de 15 t ha-1 de esterco (E; plantio e incorporação de crotalária + 7,5 t ha-1 de esterco (CE; e testemunha, sem esterco ou crotalária (T. Em 2003, foram aplicados os mesmos tratamentos de adubação orgânica e foi avaliada a dinâmica da decomposição e liberação de nutrientes pelo material vegetal e esterco contidos em sacolas de náilon incorporadas ao solo das parcelas de campo. Também se avaliou a dinâmica da disponibilidade de N, P e K no solo das parcelas de campo, por meio de coletas periódicas de solo. No ensaio em casa de vegetação, foram realizados cultivos sucessivos de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L. por um período de 300 dias, utilizando-se amostras do solo das parcelas de campo. As perdas de massa e nutrientes do material incorporado ao solo foram maiores nos primeiros 30 dias da incubação, em todos os tratamentos. No final do ensaio, as proporções de matéria seca e nutrientes remanescentes foram maiores nos tratamentos E e CE que nos tratamentos C e T. No solo das parcelas de campo, o tratamento E aumentou os teores de P e K extraíveis (Mehlich-1 do solo ao longo do período do estudo, porém provocou a

  5. Estudo comparativo da ação anti-helmíntica da batata de purga (Operculina hamiltonii e do melão de são caetano (Mormodica charantia em caprinos (Capra hircus naturalmente infectados Comparative study of the anti-helminthic action of the potato of purges (Operculina hamiltonii and the cantaloups of São Caetano (Mormodica charatia in naturally infected goats (Capra hircus

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    Luciano de Brito-Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As helmintoses gastrintestinais ocupam lugar de destaque na produção de pequenos ruminantes como um fator limitante e o seu controle vem sendo realizado por meio do uso indiscriminado de anti-helmínticos favorecendo o surgimento da resistência a medicamentos. Com o objetivo de comparar a ação anti-helmíntica das plantas Operculina hamiltonii (batata de purga, Marmodica charantia (Melão de São Caetano e do moxedctin a 0,2% sobre as infecções helminticas naturais de caprinos, foram utilizados 40 caprinos, sem raça definida, fêmeas, com idade entre seis e 12 meses, naturalmente infectados, separados em quatro grupos: o GRUPO 1 (G1 - animais controle negativo tratados com água destilada; o GRUPO 2 (G2 - animais tratados com o extrato alcoólico da O. hamiltonii; o GRUPO 3 (G3 - animais tratados com o extrato alcoólico da M. charantia e no GRUPO 4 (G4 - animais controle positivo tratados com moxidectina 0,2%. Todos os grupos receberam os tratamentos por três dias consecutivos. As amostras fecais foram coletadas nos dias 0, 30 e 60 após tratamento, para a realização da contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e larvacultura. Para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos, aplicou-se o teste de redução na contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (RCOF. A RCOF do G2, G3 e G4 foram de 63 e 90; 40 e 40; 100 e 100%, respectivamente para 30 e 60 dias pós-tratamento respectivamente. Durante o período de estudo, observou-se que todas as amostras coletadas estavam positivas para larvas de helmintos da superfamília Trichostrongyloidea, com exceção para o G4, nos dias 30 e 60 pós-tratamento. O Haemonchus foi o parasita mais prevalente nas coproculturas.Gastrintestinal helminthosis occupy a place of prominence in the production of small ruminants as an edge factor. Its control has been carried through the indiscriminate use of anti-helminthic products in favor of the appearing resistance to the medicines. With the objective to compare the anti

  6. http://www.online-rpd.org/journal/view.html?uid=42&sort=&scale=&key=year&keyword=&s_v=20&s_n=2&pn=vol&year=2014&vmd=Full

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    Shin-Chul Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assay the disease incidence degree of Sclerotium rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in sixteen most popular commercial cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas in Republic of Korea. The degree of disease incidence was evaluated on pot experiments. In pot experiments using artificial inoculation, the Sclerotium rolfsii caused a stem rot on seedling of sweet potato plants and causes a crown rot on lower stems near or at the soil line at favorable environmental conditions. White mycelial mats and sclerotia were formed at the infection sites. Plants severely infected were fell over or died because lower stems near soil surface were rotten. The degree of disease incidence was varied according to cultivars. Two cultivars, Bio-mi and Deayumi, were very resistant, while five cultivars, Shinjami, Shingeonmi, Hongmi, Yeonjami, and Shinhung-3 were highly susceptible.

  7. Rheology of Potato flour Mixes and Wheat to Make Bread

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    Ely Fernando Sacón-Vera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluate the rheological properties of flour mixes Ipomoea batata and Triticum vulgare for the preparation of bread dough, was the goal of this research for it a completely randomized design, as treatments sweet potato flour was used varieties are used: Toquecita, Guayaco Purple, Purple Ecuador, Brazil and Ina Purple in a 30/70 ratio (sweet potato flour / wheat flour respectively. The rheological variables: water absorption, development time, weakening of the dough stability, water absorption index (C1, mixing rate (C2, gluten strength index (C3, gel viscosity (C4, resistance index amylase (C5 and starch retro gradation index (C6 were evaluated with Mixolab equipment. The results showed that the variety Purple Brazil showed better characteristics of flours recommended premixes for the baking process in response to these indices

  8. Estimation of the adult male population of sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) at its low-density period on Kikai Island in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Hatono, T.; Izumi, S.; Nishihara, S.; Kimura, K.; Torigoe, H.; Tanaka, T.; Miyaji, K.; Hara, Y.; Ueda, A.; Shigei, F.

    2008-01-01

    The sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) is a major insect pest of the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. We estimated the entire adult male population of C. formicarius at its low-density period on Kikai Island, Kagoshima Pref., Japan. The population of adult males at the high-density period in September was about 5 times larger than that at its low-density period in May, both of which were estimated by Yamamura's method. Using this calculation in combination with an estimate of the maximal population size (4 x 10E6) by Sugimoto et al. in 1994, the total number of male weevils at their low-density period can be assumed to be less than 8 x 10E5

  9. Value-added probiotic development by high-solid fermentation of sweet potato with Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carmen; Nanjundaswamy, Ananda K; Njiti, Victor; Xia, Qun; Chukwuma, Franklin

    2017-05-01

    Controlled fermentation of Sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ) var. Beauregard by yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii (MAY 796) to enhance the nutritional value of sweet potato was investigated. An average 8.00 × 10 10 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g of viable cells were obtained over 5-day high-solid fermentation. Yeast cell viability did not change significantly over time at 4°C whereas the number of viable yeast cells reduced significantly at room temperature (25°C), which was approximately 40% in 12 months. Overall, the controlled fermentation of sweet potato by MAY 796 enhanced protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, amino acid, and fatty acid levels. Development of value-added sweet potato has a great potential in animal feed and human nutrition. S. boulardii - fermented sweet potato has great potential as probiotic-enriched animal feed and/or functional food for human nutrition.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships in Solanaceae and related species based on cpDNA sequence from plastid trnE-trnT region

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    Danila Montewka Melotto-Passarin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intergenic spacers of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA are very useful in phylogenetic and population genetic studiesof plant species, to study their potential integration in phylogenetic analysis. The non-coding trnE-trnT intergenic spacer ofcpDNA was analyzed to assess the nucleotide sequence polymorphism of 16 Solanaceae species and to estimate its ability tocontribute to the resolution of phylogenetic studies of this group. Multiple alignments of DNA sequences of trnE-trnT intergenicspacer made the identification of nucleotide variability in this region possible and the phylogeny was estimated by maximumparsimony and rooted with Convolvulaceae Ipomoea batatas, the most closely related family. Besides, this intergenic spacerwas tested for the phylogenetic ability to differentiate taxonomic levels. For this purpose, species from four other families wereanalyzed and compared with Solanaceae species. Results confirmed polymorphism in the trnE-trnT region at different taxonomiclevels.

  11. An analytical pipeline to compare and characterise the anthocyanin antioxidant activities of purple sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yijie; Deng, Liqing; Chen, Jinwu; Zhou, Siyu; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yufan; Yang, Chunxian; Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min

    2016-03-01

    Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is rich in anthocyanin pigments, which are valuable constituents of the human diet. Techniques to identify and quantify anthocyanins and their antioxidant potential are desirable for cultivar selection and breeding. In this study, we performed a quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis of 30 purple sweet potato (PSP) cultivars, using various assays to measure reducing power radical-scavenging activities, and linoleic acid autoxidation inhibition activity. Grey relational analysis (GRA) was applied to establish relationships between the antioxidant activities and the chemical fingerprints, in order to identify key bioactive compounds. The results indicated that four peonidin-based anthocyanins and three cyanidin-based anthocyanins make significant contributions to antioxidant activity. We conclude that the analytical pipeline described here represents an effective method to evaluate the antioxidant potential of, and the contributing compounds present in, PSP cultivars. This approach may be used to guide future breeding strategies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. High-throughput microarray mapping of cell wall polymers in roots and tubers during the viscosity-reducing process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yuhong; Willats, William George Tycho; Lange, Lene

    2016-01-01

    the viscosity-reducing process are poorly characterized. Comprehensive microarray polymer profiling, which is a high-throughput microarray, was used for the first time to map changes in the cell wall polymers of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and Canna edulis Ker. over the entire...... viscosity-reducing process. The results indicated that the composition of cell wall polymers among these three roots and tubers was markedly different. The gel-like matrix and glycoprotein network in the C. edulis Ker. cell wall caused difficulty in viscosity reduction. The obvious viscosity reduction......Viscosity reduction has a great impact on the efficiency of ethanol production when using roots and tubers as feedstock. Plant cell wall-degrading enzymes have been successfully applied to overcome the challenges posed by high viscosity. However, the changes in cell wall polymers during...

  13. La agricultura de las Antillas: un aporte substancial al mundo

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    Mois\\u00E9s Blanco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del 12 de octubre de 1492, el mundo ya no fue el mismo. El almirante Cristóbal Colón tocaba tierras de un nuevo continente, al que posteriormente llamarían América. Cuando descubrió Las Antillas, encontró que estas islas estaban habitadas por diversas tribus donde la agricultura era el epicentro de sus vidas y de sus costumbres. De ella se han heredado muchas, las cuales se encuentran vigentes en el uso cotidiano. El presente trabajo hace descripción de algunas de estas vigencias y se citan ejemplos de su variada influencia como los nombres de: maní (Arachis hypogea L., maíz (Zea mays L., guanábana (Annona muricata L., pitahaya (Hylocerus undatus B & G y tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L., en usos particulares en el caso del mamey (Mammea americana L., icaco (Chysobalanus icaco L. y yuca (Manihot esculenta C., con propósito alimenticio el quequisque (Xanthosoma sagittifolium Sh, batata (Ipomoea batatas L. y topee tambo (Callathea allonia y de origen autóctono como la piña (Ananas comosus L., nancite (Byrsonima crassifolia H. B. K., guayaba (Psidium guajava L., coco (Cocos nucí- fera L., caimito (Chysophylum cainito L., guayacán (Guayacum sanctum L. y la caoba (Swietenia microphyla L..

  14. Uptake of iodine-131 in tropical crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asprer, G.A.; Lansangan, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    Vegetable crops which include sweet potato tops (Ipomoea batatas), kangkong (Ipomoea repitans) and tomato plants were grown in dark-painted jars containing Hoagland-Arnon modified nutrient solution, utilizing the technique of hydroponics. The experiments for sweet potato tops and kangkong plants were duplicated for replicate studies and steady-state conditions were simulated throughout. Tomato plants were grown in the same manner but growth was observed to be hampered when starting from mature plants. Radioiodine was added to the nutrient medium containing 0.5% non-radioactive NaI solution. The solution in the jar was adjusted daily so as to maintain a constant concentration which would simulate routine releases that are essentially continuous. After incorporating the radioiodine to the solution, 10 ml aliquot was taken and counted for radioactivity by means of a 5'' x 5'' NaI(T1) detector connected to the multichannel gamma analyzer. Both plants and solution were counted for radioactivity at different time intervals using the same geometry. Results indicate that the activity in the plants were relatively higher than that of the solution. The activity tends to level off or decrease after a few days. The concentration factor which is the ratio of the activity in the plant (uCi/gm) over the activity in the medium (uCi/ml) varied for each time interval. 12 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  15. Characterization of non-coding DNA satellites associated with sweepoviruses (genus Begomovirus, Geminiviridae - definition of a distinct class of begomovirus-associated satellites

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    Gloria eLozano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae are whitefly-transmitted, plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that cause crop losses throughout the warmer parts of the World. Sweepoviruses are a phylogenetically distinct group of begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae, including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas. Two classes of subviral molecules are often associated with begomoviruses, particularly in the Old World; the betasatellites and the alphasatellites. An analysis of sweet potato and Ipomoea indica samples from Spain and Merremia dissecta samples from Venezuela identified small non-coding subviral molecules in association with several distinct sweepoviruses. The sequences of 18 clones were obtained and found to be structurally similar to tomato leaf curl virus–satellite (ToLCV-sat, the first DNA satellite identified in association with a begomovirus, with a region with significant sequence identity to the conserved region of betasatellites, an A-rich sequence, a predicted stem-loop structure containing the nonanucleotide TAATATTAC, and a second predicted stem-loop. These sweepovirus-associated satellites join an increasing number of ToLCV-sat-like non-coding satellites identified recently. Although sharing some features with betasatellites, evidence is provided to suggest that the ToLCV-sat-like satellites are distinct from betasatellites and should be considered a separate class of satellites, for which the collective name deltasatellites is proposed.

  16. Analisis Kandungan Timbal (Pb) Dan Kadmium (Cd) Pada Kangkung Air (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk) DAN kangkung Darat (Ipomoea reptans Poir) Di Daerah Mabar-Kim Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Arisa Dian

    2011-01-01

    Kangkung is a kind of vegetables that is commonly consumed by people and it contains a lot of vitamin A. Surrounding the Industry Area in Medan such as Mabar, vegetables are planted by people, one of them is kangkung. Since the industries growth in the area of the vegetables are expanded, it is wondered that the kangkung has been contaminated by lead and cadmium metals. The purpose of this research is to know the lead and cadmium metals of water kangkung and land kangkung planted in Mabar the...

  17. Intoxicações por plantas diagnosticadas em ruminantes e equinos e estimativa das perdas econômicas na Paraíba Plant poisonings diagnosed in ruminants and horses and estimation of the economical losses in Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales S. Assis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento dos surtos de intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equinos diagnosticados no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV, do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Paraíba, no período de 2000-2007. Em bovinos 7,4% dos diagnósticos realizados pelo LPV foram intoxicações por plantas. Foram diagnosticadas intoxicações por Centhraterum brachylepis (um surto, Brachiaria spp. (um surto, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Ipomoea batatas (um surto, Marsdenia sp. (um surto, gramíneas contendo nitratos e nitritos (um surto por Echinochloa polystachya e dois surtos por Pennisetum purpureum, Palicourea aeneofusca (um surto, Prosopis juliflora (três surtos, Nerium oleander (um surto e Mimosa tenuiflora (sete surtos. Na espécie ovina 13% dos diagnósticos foram intoxicações por plantas. Os surtos foram causados por Ipomoea asarifolia (quatro surtos, Brachiaria spp. (três surtos, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Tephrosia cinerea (dois surtos, Panicum dichotomiflorum (um surto, Mascagnia rigida (um surto e malformações associadas à ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora (20 surtos. Nos caprinos, 6,4% dos diagnósticos corresponderam à intoxicação por plantas. Sete surtos foram causados por Mimosa tenuiflora, um por Ipomoea asarifolia, um por Ipomoea carnea, um por Ipomoea riedelli, três por Prosopis juliflora, um por Arrabidaea corallina, dois por Aspidosperma pyrifolium, dois por Turbina cordata e um por Opuntia ficus-indica. Na espécie equina 14% das doenças diagnosticadas foram devidas a intoxicações por plantas, sendo 12 surtos por Crotalaria retusa e um por Turbina cordata. As perdas na Paraíba por plantas tóxicas são estimadas em 3.895 bovinos, 8.374 ovinos, 6.390 caprinos e 366 equinos, que representam uma perda econômica anual, por morte de animais, de R$ 2.733.097,00. São relatados alguns aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e patologia de surtos de

  18. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN AIR REBUSAN DAUN UBI JALAR (Ipomea batatas TERHADAP PENINGKATAN JUMLAH TROMBOSIT MENCIT (Mus musculus

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    Rahma Widyastuti

    2016-11-01

    abstract The leaves of sweet potato contains a very high nutritional value, so it can be used as a vegetable and as a herbal remedy. Sweet potato leaves are often found in various regions in Indonesia. This vegetable contains polyphenols that act as antioxidants that fight disease into the body. . In the leaves of sweet potato 100g contains 117 mg of calcium, 1.8 mg iron, 3.5 mg carotene, 7.2 mg vitamin C, 1.6 mg vitamin E and 0.5 mg of vitamin K, B vitamins, beta-carotene, as well as protein. Formulation of the problem of this study was to determine whether there are effects of sweet potato leaves boiled water to increase platelet counts in mice. The purpose of this study was to determine the number of platelets which water is boiled sweet potato leaves and boiled water without being sweet potato leaves in mice. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Medicine Faculty Wijaya Kusuma Surabaya and the sample examined in the Hematology Laboratory at the Center for Health Laboratory Surabaya. The number of samples from this study there were 32 mice, 16 mice as a control group and 16 mice as the treatment group. From the results of the levels of the number of platelets in the blood samples of mice known to the average levels of platelet counts after being given water boiled sweet potato leaves as much as 210.5 / mm3 of blood and platelet count levels of mice that were not given water boiled sweet potato leaves as much as 129.7 / mm3 of blood. Statistical analyzes to test differences in the levels of T showed a platelet count between which water is boiled sweet potato leaves and boiled water without being sweet potato leaves, with a value significantly less than 0.05 (5%.   Key word : leaves of sweet potato, the levels of the number of platelets in the blood samples

  19. Karakteristik Pati Ubi Jalar Crem (Ipomea batatas Termodifikasi HMT pada Berbagai Kondisi Kadar Air dan Temperatur

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    Virna Muhardina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato starch characteristic of local variety using heat moisture treatment with different level of moisture content and temperature The aim of this study is to modify local variety sweet potato starch (cream flesh color in order to produce the optimal dried-noodle based starch. Native starch was maintained in varied water content (20%, 25% and 30% and heat moisture treatment (HMT by exposing the starch in high temperature, i.e. 90oC, 95oC, 100oC and 110oC for 3 h. The treated starch was analyzed using some parameters such as: swelling power, solubility, SEM (scanning electron microscopy and total dietary fiber. Based on this study, swelling power shows decreasing as increasing both HMT temperature and starch water content. In other hand, solubility shows not significant different among all treatments. The treated-starch granule which is exposed to high temperature has irregular shape compared to granule in lower temperature. Furthermore, total dietary fiber shows significant different among the starch moisture content and the temperature treatment. HMT modification at 100oC and starch water content of 30% is chosen as the best results

  20. Inoculation of HMA and phosphoric fertilizer requirements Ipomea batata (L. Lam

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    Alberto Espinosa Cuéllar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As well as sweet potato is a micotrófico crop, litle results where P fertilizer requirements associated with inoculation of strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (HMA are reported. For these purposes two experiments were performed, evaluating the response of the clones ‘INIVIT B2-2005’ or ‘CEMSA 78-354’ to application of five doses of phosphoric fertilizer with or without the application of the species Rhizoglomus intraradices (INCAM-11 in Phaeozems haplic calcari, in a randomized block design, factorial arrangement and four replications. Tuber yield, percentage of mycorrhizal colonization of mycorrhizal spores contained 50 g of soil and phosphorus content in the leaf, stem and root tuberous were evaluated. A significant response mineral fertilization in performance with an optimal dose of 75 kg ha-1, which decreased to 50 kg ha -1 when soil was inoculated with R. intraradices was found, while maintaining equivalent yields . This effect was similar in both clones and in both years. Inoculation significantly increased the percentage of colonization and spores and the highest values ever obtained in the treatment of 50 kg ha-1 of P2O5 , lower and upper fertilizations showed lower values. The contents of phosphorus in different organs also showed a similar response. It is concluded that efficient inoculating strain originates adequate mycorrhizal HMA performance in the presence of medium doses of fertilizer, ensuring high yields with lower doses of these.

  1. Development of nanocomposites based on potato starch; Desenvolvimento de nanocompositos a base de amido de batata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Luciana Macedo; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno, E-mail: mibt@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas

    2013-07-01

    Nanocomposites of potato starch were prepared by the solution intercalation method with the addition of organically modified montmorillonite clay (Viscogel B and unmodified sodic clay (NT25) as well as modified and unmodified silica (R972 and A200, respectively), using water as the solvent. The nanocomposites were characterized by conventional techniques of X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. They were also characterized using the non-conventional low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, which is an effective alternative technique for characterizing nanocomposites. This technique allows one to investigate dispersion of nanofillers by the degree of intercalation and/or exfoliation, in addition to determine the distribution of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix and modifications of the molecular mobility of these fillers. The nanostructured materials obtained with the clays presented good dispersion and formation of mixed nanomaterials, with different degrees of intercalation and exfoliation. The mobility of the material decreased upon adding silica in the starch matrix, which applied to both types of silica. From the TGA technique, a slight increase in thermal stability of the nanocomposite was noted in relation to the starch matrix. (author)

  2. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladejo, Ayobami Olayemi; Ma, Haile

    2016-08-01

    Sweet potato is a highly nutritious tuber crop that is rich in β-carotene. Osmotic dehydration is a pretreatment method for drying of fruit and vegetables. Recently, ultrasound technology has been applied in food processing because of its numerous advantages which include time saving, little damage to the quality of the food. Thus, there is need to investigate and optimise the process parameters [frequency (20-50 kHz), time (10-30 min) and sucrose concentration (20-60% w/v)] for ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration of sweet potato using response surface methodology. The optimised values obtained were frequency of 33.93 kHz, time of 30 min and sucrose concentration of 35.69% (w/v) to give predicted values of 21.62, 4.40 and 17.23% for water loss, solid gain and weight reduction, respectively. The water loss and weight reduction increased when the ultrasound frequency increased from 20 to 35 kHz and then decreased as the frequency increased from 35 to 50 kHz. The results from this work show that low ultrasound frequency favours the osmotic dehydration of sweet potato and also reduces the use of raw material (sucrose) needed for the osmotic dehydration of sweet potato. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Erosão em entressulcos sob caatinga e culturas agrícolas Interrill erosion under shrub and crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José de Freitas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as formas de erosão hídrica do solo, a erosão em entressulcos é uma das que causam maiores danos no processo produtivo dos solos utilizados na agricultura, por provocar perdas de solo, água e nutrientes. Frente a isso, o presente trabalho visou avaliar a proteção ambiental promovida pela cobertura vegetal da caatinga, do feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan e da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam em relação ao solo descoberto, bem como o efeito das práticas de cultivos dessas culturas, por meio das taxas da erosão em entressulcos e das características hidráulicas do escoamento superficial vinculado à erosão em entressulcos, em um Luvissolo. Para isso, foi implementada uma série de 20 chuvas simuladas em Serra Talhada, município do semi-árido do Estado de Pernambuco, sob os seguintes tratamentos: (1 solo descoberto; (2 solo coberto pela cultura do feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan; (3 solo coberto pela cultura da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam.; (4 solo coberto por Caatinga semi-arbustiva. Todos os regimes de escoamento superficial obtidos foram laminar lento. As coberturas vegetais proporcionadas pela Caatinga e pelo guandu, que deram origem aos maiores valores de cobertura do solo, responderam pelas menores taxas de concentração de sedimentos e desagregação do solo na erosão em entressulcos, em decorrência da maior rugosidade hidráulica da superfície do solo promovida por essas vegetações. As taxas de concentração de sedimentos no cultivo da batata-doce foram iguais às do solo descoberto, por conta do revolvimento do solo na preparação das leiras de plantio, e determinou as maiores taxas de desagregação do solo entre as coberturas vegetais; em contrapartida, as leiras permitiram retenção do escoamento superficial. As coberturas vegetais Caatinga, guandu e batata-doce e as respectivas rugosidades hidráulicas impostas ao escoamento superficial determinaram reduções exponenciais das perdas de solo. A cobertura

  4. Therapeutic effects of the traditional medicinal plant Ipomoea stolonifera for the treatment of liver diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Xueting

    2016-01-01

    Liver diseases are categorized into acute liver failure (ALF) and chronic liver failure (CLF). Massive cell death is a hallmark of ALF and leads to a dramatic loss of liver function. Therefore, specific interventions targeted to prevent or attenuate this massive cell death may be very effective in

  5. Pemberian Macam Konsorsium Bakteri Hasil Isolasi Tumbuhan Pantai pada Kangkung (Ipomoea reptans Poirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umul Aiman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria consortium isolated from coastal plant was used as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR which can improve the growth and yield of plant. The purpose of this research was to understand the effects of various bacteria consortium application on the growth and yield of water spinach. The research was conducted on June-September 2016 in Microbiology Laboratory, Agroindustry Laboratory and Agriculture Land, University of Mercu Buana Yogyakarta. The study used a single factor experiment with 16 treatments and 3 blocks which arranged using completely randomized design (CRD. The treatment was desinged by soaking the water spinach seed on the various PGPR consorcium. All treatments were control (seed soaking on the water or without PGPR, the seed soaking on the various PGPR consorsium including K2, K9, K15, C7, K2K9, K2K15, K2C7, K9K15, K9C7, K15C7, K2K9K15, K2K9C7, K9K15C7, K2K15C7, and K2K9K15C7. The economic weight of water spinach which soaking on K2K9K15C7 consorcium was the best treatments compare to other treatments. Application of single isolate including K2, K9, K15, C7 and rhizobacteria consortium including K2K9, K2K15, K2C7, K9K15, K9C7, K15C7, K2K9K15, K2K9C7, K9K15C7, K2K15C7 can improved the yield of water spinach compare to the treatment without application of rhizobacteria.

  6. Penetapan Kadar Kalsium, Kalium, Dan Natrium Pada Kangkung (Ipomoea Aquatica Forssk.) Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Anggita Vela

    2016-01-01

    Kangkung is one of the vegetables that are quite popular in public and this plant include in the tribe of convolvulaceae. This plant contains many important elements that needed by the body, that are carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, and mineral such as calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, and sodium. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of calcium, potassium, and sodium in land kangkung and water kangkung. Methods of research conducted by dried destruction to the...

  7. Quantitative genetic variance and multivariate clines in the Ivyleaf morning glory, Ipomoea hederacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Amanda J; Campitelli, Brandon E; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-08-19

    Clinal variation is commonly interpreted as evidence of adaptive differentiation, although clines can also be produced by stochastic forces. Understanding whether clines are adaptive therefore requires comparing clinal variation to background patterns of genetic differentiation at presumably neutral markers. Although this approach has frequently been applied to single traits at a time, we have comparatively fewer examples of how multiple correlated traits vary clinally. Here, we characterize multivariate clines in the Ivyleaf morning glory, examining how suites of traits vary with latitude, with the goal of testing for divergence in trait means that would indicate past evolutionary responses. We couple this with analysis of genetic variance in clinally varying traits in 20 populations to test whether past evolutionary responses have depleted genetic variance, or whether genetic variance declines approaching the range margin. We find evidence of clinal differentiation in five quantitative traits, with little evidence of isolation by distance at neutral loci that would suggest non-adaptive or stochastic mechanisms. Within and across populations, the traits that contribute most to population differentiation and clinal trends in the multivariate phenotype are genetically variable as well, suggesting that a lack of genetic variance will not cause absolute evolutionary constraints. Our data are broadly consistent theoretical predictions of polygenic clines in response to shallow environmental gradients. Ecologically, our results are consistent with past findings of natural selection on flowering phenology, presumably due to season-length variation across the range. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. The Cytogenetical Effects of Some Natural and Syntetic Radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corneanu, G.C.; Corneanu, M.; Pasarin, I.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Some bioactive substances extracted from plants or obtained through synthesis, present a stimulatory or/and antimutagen activity (in vivo or in vitro experiments). A total extract from Spinacia oleracea or Brassica rapa HV Komatsuna leaves, were tested for their antimutagen or stimulatory effect at in vitro culture, in Chrysanthemum hortorum and Ipomoea batatas (stem fragments with a node, inoculated on an MS medium supplied with 1.08mg/l KIN and 1.0 mg/l IAA). The shooting process and shoot length is stimulated by Komatsuna 0.6 g/l leaves extract in I. batatas, while at Ch. hortorum the process is lower influenced by the two natural antimutagen extracts. The antimutagen effect of the Spinacia oleracea leaf total extract (600 mg/l) against X-rays (104Gy) was tested at in vitro culture of the Dendrobium phalenopsis somatic embryos. The Spinacia oleracea leaves total extract enhanced the embryogenesis processes, more obviously in the irradiated variants, in comparison with the control. The fatty oil total extract from Nigella sativa seeds (Ranunculaceae) presents a high radioprotective effect against the X-rays. The magnetic fluids present a stimulatory effect as well as an anticarcinogen and antimutagen effect. In the experiments performed in vivo in Nigella damascena, a magnetic fluid on petroleum basis or a complex magnetic fluid on oleic acid basis present in the time of seeds irradiation with X-rays (40 Gy), manifest a radioprotective effect (reduce the chromosomal aberrations and initiate a recovery phenomena). (author)

  9. A sweetpotato gene index established by de novo assembly of pyrosequencing and Sanger sequences and mining for gene-based microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solis Julio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., a hexaploid outcrossing crop, is an important staple and food security crop in developing countries in Africa and Asia. The availability of genomic resources for sweetpotato is in striking contrast to its importance for human nutrition. Previously existing sequence data were restricted to around 22,000 expressed sequence tag (EST sequences and ~ 1,500 GenBank sequences. We have used 454 pyrosequencing to augment the available gene sequence information to enhance functional genomics and marker design for this plant species. Results Two quarter 454 pyrosequencing runs used two normalized cDNA collections from stems and leaves from drought-stressed sweetpotato clone Tanzania and yielded 524,209 reads, which were assembled together with 22,094 publically available expressed sequence tags into 31,685 sets of overlapping DNA segments and 34,733 unassembled sequences. Blastx comparisons with the UniRef100 database allowed annotation of 23,957 contigs and 15,342 singletons resulting in 24,657 putatively unique genes. Further, 27,119 sequences had no match to protein sequences of UniRef100database. On the basis of this gene index, we have identified 1,661 gene-based microsatellite sequences, of which 223 were selected for testing and 195 were successfully amplified in a test panel of 6 hexaploid (I. batatas and 2 diploid (I. trifida accessions. Conclusions The sweetpotato gene index is a useful source for functionally annotated sweetpotato gene sequences that contains three times more gene sequence information for sweetpotato than previous EST assemblies. A searchable version of the gene index, including a blastn function, is available at http://www.cipotato.org/sweetpotato_gene_index.

  10. Penggunaan Enzim α-Amilase dari Saccharomycopsis fibuligera R64 untuk Peningkatan Kualitas Roti Komposit Terigu-Ubi Jalar Ungu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Safari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas var. Ayamurasaki is one of typical sweet tubers which is also commonly well known as Ipomoea blackie due to blackish purple (solid purple tuber skin and flesh. The sweet potato can be transformed into flour or pasta and used to substitute wheat flour in the production of composite bread. Instead of synthetic chemical compounds, α-amylase isolated from the yeast Saccharomycopsis fibuligera can be added to the flour or dough of the composite bread to improve its quality. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of α–amylase addition on the quality of the purple sweet potato flour and pasta composite bread. The observed properties of the bread were crumbs morphology of the bread, volume increment, bread height, texture, and organoleptic test. The results showed that addition of the α-amylase to the dough of the composite bread increased the volume increment value from 155.0% to 177.1% and from 335.7% to 342.1% for the sweet potato flour and pasta bread composite, respectively. While height of the bread increased from 4.7 to 5.1 cm and from 6.9 to 7.8 cm after addition of the enzyme for the sweet potato flour and pasta bread composite, respectively. Composite bread with α-amylase addition has softer texture and higher preference. Morphology examination result showed that starch granules in the bread crums with α-amylase treatment were disrupted. Most plausibly, the enzymes degrade the starch granules and produced dextrin which inhibited the cross linking formation between starch and protein, and therefore, the speed of hardening process of the bread can be reduced.

  11. Botanical origin of dietary supplements labeled as "Kwao Keur", a folk medicine from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In the course of our study on the quality of dietary supplements in Japan, both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nrDNA and the rps16 intron sequence of cpDNA of products labeled as "Kwao Keur" were investigated. As a result, the DNA sequence of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, which is the source plant of Kwao Keur, was observed in only about half of the products. Inferred from the determined sequences, source plants in the other products included Medicago sativa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Ipomoea batatas, etc. These inferior products are estimated to lack the efficacy implied by their labeling. In order to guarantee the quality of dietary supplements, it is important to identify the source materials exactly; in addition, an infrastructure that can exclude these inferior products from the market is needed for the protection of consumers from potential damage to their health and finances. The DNA analysis performed in this study is useful for this purpose.

  12. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  13. Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas L.(Lam)l. Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryo-genesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants. They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  14. The effect of Piper aduncum invasion on soil in tropical ecosystems of Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Jaroslav; Frouz, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Piper aduncum is successful Neotropical invasive species in Papua New Guinea. Despite its interaction with aboveground part of ecosystem has been extensively studied little is known about its effect on soil. Here we report two studies, in first we compare soil chemistry and soil biota in sites invaded and non-invaded by P. aduncum near Wanang village. In other study we use benefit of previous experiment when P. aduncum was experimentally removed near Ohu village. Here we compare soil chemistry and chemistry of plant leaves growing in garden originating by slashing and burning two adjacent patches with and without P. aduncum. Soil under P. aduncum had significantly less phosphorus in 0-5 cm soil layer and less nitrates, nitrogen and carbon in 5-10 cm soil layer than soil in old gardens uninvaded by P. aduncum. P. aduncum soil also harbors fewer microfloras than uninvaded soil as shown by PLFA analysis. No difference was found in fauna communities. Gardens created on patches where old P. aduncum was removed did not differ in soil chemistry from plots which were overgrown by P. aduncum, but leaves of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) in gardens where P. aduncum was previously removed contained more nitrogen. Results suggest that P. aduncum invasion may affect some chemical and microbial properties in invaded soil. P. aduncum has negative effect on traditional shifting agriculture.

  15. Advanced propagation systems for biomass species: a model system based on sweet potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantliffe, D.J. (Florida Univ., Gainseville, FL (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    A method for somatic embryo production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) has been developed. The first step of somatic embryogenesis was to obtain embryogenic callus from 0.2 mm apical domes with 1-2 leaf primordia on medium containing 10 M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Selective proliferation of embryogenic callus has been obtained on solid media containing 10 [mu]M 2,4-D and 1 [mu]M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and in liquid media containing 5 [mu]M 2,4-D. The fraction of suspension cultures larger than 710 [mu]M was commonly used to produce embryos. Cultures were recultured every 2 weeks in liquid media and every 6 weeks on agar media. The formation of embryos was triggered by transferring embryogenic calli or cell aggregates from nutrient media containing 2,4-D to fresh media without 2,4-D. Late torpedo and cotyledonary stage embryos had the highest potential for plant formation. The automated production of synthetic seed in combination with fluid drilling technology could render economically feasible the production of sweet potato for biomass. (author)

  16. Invertase proteinaceous inhibitor of Cyphomandra betacea Sendt fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, R M; Isla, M I; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    2000-01-01

    This work describes a new invertase proteinaceous inhibitor from Cyphomandra betacea Sendt. (tomate de arbol) fruits. The proteinaceous inhibitor was isolated and purified from a cell wall preparation. The pH stability, kinetics of the inhibition of the C. betacea invertase, inhibition of several higher plant invertases and lectin nature of the inhibitor were studied. The inhibitor structure involves a single polypeptide (Mr = 19000), as shown by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE determinations. N-terminal aminoacid sequence was determined. The properties and some structural features of the inhibitor are compared with the proteinaceous inhibitors from several plant species (Beta vulgaris L., Ipomoea batatas L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). All these inhibitors share lectinic properties, some common epitopes, some aminoacid sequences and a certain lack of specificity towards invertases of different species, genera and even plant family. In consequence, the inhibitors appear to belong to the same lectin family. It is now known that some lectins are part of the defence mechanism of higher plants against fungi and bacteria and this is a probable role of the proteinaceous inhibitors.

  17. Triterpene saponin hemi-biosynthesis of a leaf beetle's (Platyphora kollari) defensive secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghostin, Jean; Habib-Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Rozenberg, Raoul; Daloze, Désiré; Pasteels, Jacques M.; Braekman, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    The adults of the leaf beetle Platyphora kollari (Chrysomelidae) are able to metabolise the oleanane triterpene β-amyrin (1) into the glycoside 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-hederagenin (2) that is stored in their defensive glands. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that oleanolic acid (3) is an intermediate in the conversion of 1 into 2 and to check whether the sequestration of pentacyclic triterpenes is selective in favour of β-amyrin (1). To this end, adults of P. kollari were fed with Ipomoea batatas leaf disks painted with a solution of [2,2,3-2H3]oleanolic acid or [2,2,3-2H3]α-amyrin and the secretion of their defensive glands analysed by HPLC ESIMS. The data presented in this work indicated that the first step of the transformation of β-amyrin (1) into the sequestered glycoside 2 is its oxidation into oleanolic acid (3) and that this conversion is selective but not specific in favour of β-amyrin (1).

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Critical Function of Sucrose Metabolism Related-Enzymes in Starch Accumulation in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The starch properties of the storage root (SR affect the quality of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.. Although numerous studies have analyzed the accumulation and properties of starch in sweet potato SRs, the transcriptomic variation associated with starch properties in SR has not been quantified. In this study, we measured the starch and sugar contents and analyzed the transcriptome profiles of SRs harvested from sweet potatoes with high, medium, and extremely low starch contents, at five developmental stages [65, 80, 95, 110, and 125 days after transplanting (DAP]. We found that differences in both water content and starch accumulation in the dry matter affect the starch content of SRs in different sweet potato genotypes. Based on transcriptome sequencing data, we assembled 112336 unigenes, and identified several differentially expressed genes (DEGs involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, and revealed the transcriptional regulatory network controlling starch and sucrose metabolism in sweet potato SRs. Correlation analysis between expression patterns and starch and sugar contents suggested that the sugar–starch conversion steps catalyzed by sucrose synthase (SuSy and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase may be essential for starch accumulation in the dry matter of SRs, and IbβFRUCT2, a vacuolar acid invertase, might also be a key regulator of starch content in the SRs. Our results provide valuable resources for future investigations aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanisms determining the starch properties of sweet potato SRs.

  19. Structure and characterization of a cDNA clone for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from cut-injured roots of sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yamanoto, Naoki; Ohashi, Yuko; Kano-Murakami, Yuriko; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA clone for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) induced in wounded sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) root was obtained by immunoscreening a cDNA library. The protein produced in Escherichia coli cells containing the plasmid pPAL02 was indistinguishable from sweet potato PAL as judged by Ouchterlony double diffusion assays. The M r of its subunit was 77,000. The cells converted [ 14 C]-L-phenylalanine into [ 14 C]-t-cinnamic acid and PAL activity was detected in the homogenate of the cells. The activity was dependent on the presence of the pPAL02 plasmid DNA. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA contained a 2,121-base pair (bp) open-reading frame capable of coding for a polypeptide with 707 amino acids (M r 77,137), a 22-bp 5'-noncoding region and a 207-bp 3'-noncoding region. The results suggest that the insert DNA fully encoded the amino acid sequence for sweet potato PAL that is induced by wounding. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with that of a PAL cDNA fragment from Phaseolus vulgaris revealed 78.9% homology. The sequence from amino acid residues 258 to 494 was highly conserved, showing 90.7% homology

  20. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Food processing methods influence the glycaemic indices of some commonly eaten West Indian carbohydrate-rich foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahado-Singh, P S; Wheatley, A O; Ahmad, M H; Morrison, E Y St A; Asemota, H N

    2006-09-01

    Glycaemic index (GI) values for fourteen commonly eaten carbohydrate-rich foods processed by various methods were determined using ten healthy subjects. The foods studied were round leaf yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), negro and lucea yams (Dioscorea rotundata), white and sweet yams (Dioscorea alata), sweet potato (Solanum tuberosum), Irish potato (Ipomoea batatas), coco yam (Xanthosoma spp.), dasheen (Colocasia esculenta), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), green banana (Musa sapientum), and green and ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca). The foods were processed by boiling, frying, baking and roasting where applicable. Pure glucose was used as the standard with a GI value of 100. The results revealed marked differences in GI among the different foods studied ranging from 35 (se 3) to 94 (se 8). The area under the glucose response curve and GI value of some of the roasted and baked foods were significantly higher than foods boiled or fried (P<0.05). The results indicate that foods processed by roasting or baking may result in higher GI. Conversely, boiling of foods may contribute to a lower GI diet.

  2. Dinomys branickii Peters, 1873 (Rodentia, Dinomyidae: consumption and food preference in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Tomaz Melo dos Santos Neto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinomys branickii is a large rodent listed as Endangered (EN, that suffers pressure from anthropogenic activities such as hunting and habitat destruction. Captive breeding methods are viable for supplementation of conservation projects, and may enhance our knowledge of main aspects of the biology of this species. The objective of this study was to determine consumption and food preferences in a captive group of D. branickii. To determine feeding preferences, the Food Preference Index (P was used for the type of food with highest consumption. The mean amount of food provided was 6.6 kg per day per group, with 4.4 kg per day/group consumed (66%. An average of 11 ± 2.9 types of food were offered daily. The consumption of fruits (71% was higher than the consumption of other food groups, followed by roots/tubers (65.3%. The food groups least consumed were cereals and seeds (39.4% and leaves (38.3%. The preferred foods were: Brassica oleracea (P = 1.38, Zea mays (P = 1.25, Ipomoea batatas (P = 1.17, Mangifera indica (P = 1.13, Cucurbita moschata (P = 1.10, Talinum esculentum (P = 1.00 and Manihot esculenta (P = 1.00. These results suggest that foods with high fiber and carbohydrate content are the best choices for D. branickii development and well-being in captivity.

  3. Species or Genotypes? Reassessment of Four Recently Described Species of the Ceratocystis Wilt Pathogen, Ceratocystis fimbriata, on Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leonardo S S; Harrington, Thomas C; Ferreira, Maria A; Damacena, Michelle B; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Al-Mahmooli, Issa H S; Alfenas, Acelino C

    2015-09-01

    Ceratocystis wilt is among the most important diseases on mango (Mangifera indica) in Brazil, Oman, and Pakistan. The causal agent was originally identified in Brazil as Ceratocystis fimbriata, which is considered by some as a complex of many cryptic species, and four new species on mango trees were distinguished from C. fimbriata based on variation in internal transcribed spacer sequences. In the present study, phylogenetic analyses using DNA sequences of mating type genes, TEF-1α, and β-tubulin failed to identify lineages corresponding to the four new species names. Further, mating experiments found that the mango isolates representing the new species were interfertile with each other and a tester strain from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), on which the name C. fimbriata is based, and there was little morphological variation among the mango isolates. Microsatellite markers found substantial differentiation among mango isolates at the regional and population levels, but certain microsatellite genotypes were commonly found in multiple populations, suggesting that these genotypes had been disseminated in infected nursery stock. The most common microsatellite genotypes corresponded to the four recently named species (C. manginecans, C. acaciivora, C. mangicola, and C. mangivora), which are considered synonyms of C. fimbriata. This study points to the potential problems of naming new species based on introduced genotypes of a pathogen, the value of an understanding of natural variation within and among populations, and the importance of phenotype in delimiting species.

  4. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

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    Pi-Yu Chao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc, Lactuca indica (Li, and Perilla ocymoides (Po contained abundant quercetin (Que, while Artemisia lactiflora (Al and Gynura bicolor (Gb were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc and Sechium edule (Se-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan and malvidin (Mal were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe, Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz. Presl (Ane, Ipomoea batatas (Ib-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content.

  5. PENGARUH DAUN UBI JALAR UNGU TERHADAP KADAR SUPEROKSID DISMUTASE TIKUS YANG DIPAPAR ASAP ROKOK (EFFECT OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO LEAVES ON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE LEVEL ON RATS EXPOSED TO CIGARETTE SMOKE

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    Inggita Kusumastuty

    2014-12-01

    Superoxide Dismutase (SOD is an enzymatic antioxidant that protects cells from oxidative stress by catalyzing dismutase from superoxide into O2 and H2O2. The purple sweet potato leave (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam is a kind of vegetable plant that contains  high polyphenol which is about 1805 mgGAE on 100-gram edible portions. This research was aimed to determine the effect of purple sweet potato leaves powder in SOD levels that had been given to an animal model with cigarette smoke exposure. 6-8 week- male Rattus novergicus-wistar’s strain was used in this experiment that weighed about 140-250 gram and the entire rats were in healthy condition and were never exposed to another treatment before. Firstly, the rats were prepared in one week which was then divided into 5 treatment groups, a group that had not been exposed to cigarette smoke (P0, cigarette smoke exposed (P1, and exposed to cigarette smoke with the addition PSPL flour treatment in varying doses: 0.07g (P2, 0.14g (P3, and 0.28g (P4 for 30 days. After that, SOD levels were measured with spectrophotometry method. The result shows that there was obviously a significant difference between the treatment groups (ANOVA, p=0.000. In short, it was found that the given PSPL dosages resulted in higher SOD’s level. Keywords :, purple sweet potato leaves, Superoxide Dismutase level, cigarette smoking

  6. Potency of Purple Sweet Potato’s Anthocyanin as Biosensor for Detection of Chemicals in Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, A.; Sunarti, TC; Fahma, F.; Noor, E.

    2018-05-01

    Bioactive compounds such as anthocyanin are a natural ingredient that produces color with typical specificity. Anthocyanin from Ayamurasaki purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) was extracted in ethanol and used as crude anthocyanin extracts. The color of bioactive anthocyanin can be used as a biosensor to detect chemical of food products because it provides a unique color change. However, the each bioactive has a particular sensitivity and selectivity to a specific chemical, so it is necessary to select and test the selectivity. Six chemicals, which were sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, sodium cyclamate (food additives), formalin, borax (illegal food preservatives), and residue fertilizer (urea) were tested and observed for its color change. The results showed that the bioactive anthocyanin of purple sweet potato with the concentration of ± 42.65 ppm had better selectivity and sensitivity to sodium nitrite with a detection limit of 100 ppm, where the color change response time ranged from 15-20 minutes. The selectivity and sensitivity of this bioactive can be used as the basic information for the development of biosensor.

  7. Vasorelaxation induced by common edible tropical plant extracts in isolated rat aorta and mesenteric vascular bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnie, I; Salleh, M N; Mohamed, S; Head, R J; Abeywardena, M Y

    2004-06-01

    In this study, the vasodilatory actions of nine edible tropical plant extracts were investigated. Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato leaf), Piper betle (betel leaf), Anacardium occidentale (cashew leaf), Gynandropsis gynandra (maman leaf), Carica papaya (papaya leaf), and Mentha arvensis (mint leaf) extracts exhibited more than 50% relaxing effect on aortic ring preparations, while Piper betle and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass stalk) showed comparable vasorelaxation on isolated perfused mesenteric artery preparation. The vascular effect on the aortic ring preparations were mainly endothelium-dependent, and mediated by nitric oxide (NO) as supported by the inhibition of action in the presence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA), an nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, or by the removal of endothelium. In contrast, vasodilatory actions in resistance vessels (perfused mesenteric vascular beds) appear to involve several biochemical mediators, including NO, prostanoids, and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs). Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities varied among different extracts and found to be independent of vascular relaxation effects. This study demonstrates that many edible plants common in Asian diets to possess potential health benefits, affording protection at the vascular endothelium level.

  8. Effects of sodium metabisulphite and citric acid on the shelf life of fresh cut sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgroppo, S. C.; Vergara, L. E.; Tenev, M. D.

    2010-07-01

    Minimally processed vegetables are products susceptible to chemical and biological changes, thus becoming highly perishable. During sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) processing, some deteriorative reactions occur affecting quality, mainly change of color. The purpose of this research is to avoid or minimize this deterioration, so the effects of application of chemical agents to fresh cut and refrigerated stored sweet potatoes were studied, evaluating the occurrence of major organoleptic, physicochemical and nutritional changes and assessing the sensory acceptability. Tests were done with sweet potato variety Colorada Correntina, which were treated with sodium metabisulphite/citric acid (pH = 2.91), arranged in polystyrene trays film, coated with PVC, and stored at 5 degree centigrade and 10 degree centigrade. Variations on the titratable acidity, pH, total sugars and ascorbic acid were registered and the surface color was evaluated through digital image analysis. The final product acceptability was determined through sensory evaluation and microbiological counts carried out at the beginning and at the end of the assays. During storage, there were slight changes in physicochemical characteristics such as absorbic acid and sugar content and in surface color as well. The microbial counts were lower than the fixed levels established by the Spanish legislature. The sensory attributes were rated as acceptable by consumers. Finally it is possible to assert that sweet potato Colorada Correntina minimally processed and treated with sodium metabisulphite 2%/citric acid can be preserved, packaged and stored at 5 degree centigrade for 14 days. (Author) 34 refs.

  9. Determination of heavy metals in medicinal plants from the wild and cultivated garden in Wilberforce Island, Niger Delta region, Nigeria

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    Edebi N. Vaikosen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adverse effects from herbal medicines may be partly due to the association of heavy metals with medicinal plants. Aims: To determine residual levels of Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in nine selected medicinal plant species and the surrounding soils collected from the Faculty of Pharmacy medicinal garden and College of Health Sciences residential quarters, Amassoma, Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Methods: Nine plant species: Jatropha tanjorensis, Ipomoea batatas, Celosia argentea, Zea mays, Colocasia esculenta, Corchorus olitorius, Vernonia amygdalina, Ocimum gratissimum and Talinum triangulare were collected with their surrounding soil samples. The samples were dried and subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS to determine the heavy metal concentrations. Results: The detection frequencies of heavy metals in medicinal plants were: Cd – 100%, Pb – 11%, Ni – 0% and Cr – 0%. The residential quarter was more contaminated than cultivated medicinal garden. Order of residual concentration in bulk soils was Cr > Cd > Ni > Pb. Bioaccumulation factor ranged from 0 – 25.93 for foliar tissues. Cadmium in plant species ranged from 0.23 to 2.44 µg/g with > 88% exceeding the WHO maximum limit for medicinal plant materials. Conclusions: The heavy metal concentrations in medicinal plants were dependent on the collection sites, plant species and physico-chemical properties of soil. Cd exhibited the greatest bioavailability in the investigated plants and soils. Cd and Pb found in plant foliage were due to uptake from soil and aerial deposition, respectively.

  10. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TUBERS FROM ORGANIC SWEET POTATO ROOTS

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    KAMILA DE OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine instead at determining chemical composition, nutritional aspects and morphological characteristic of tubers from sweet potato roots (Ipomoea batatas L. of cultivars Rosinha de Verdan, Capivara and orange-fleshed produced under the organic system. The chemical composition of flours from sweet potato (SP roots was different among cultivars. The starch content for SP cultivar ranged from 26-33 % (d. b., and the orange-fleshed roots presented 3182 μg of β-carotene/100 g. The flour yield ob-tained for SPF processing was higher in Rosinha de Verdan (25.40%, and the starch content of roots ranged from 12.48-27.63 % (d.b.. The processing condition modified the starch granular characteristics of the flours and reduced 31% the carotene content and vitamin A value of the orange-fleshed flour. The orange-fleshed flour presented higher levels of carbohydrate, starch and total energy value (TEV than others white fleshed flour. The consumption of serving size of orange-fleshed roots and flour provided higher provitamin A require-ments for children.

  11. The Use of Synbiotics to Prevent IMNV and Vibrio harveyi Co-Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei

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    ADNI OKTAVIANA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects on viral immune responses and bacterial co-infection, of different feeding frequencies of a synbiotic supplemented diet given to Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei. A synbiotic-supplemented diet was formulated from probiotic Vibrio alginolitycus SKT-bR and prebiotics from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. oligosaccharide. Pacific white shrimp were fed with synbiotic diet at different frequencies, i.e. daily (P1, twice a week (P2, and once a week (P3 for a 30 day pre-challenge test. After the 30 day feeding period, the shrimps were challenged by intramuscular injection of Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV and Vibrio harveyi. The results showed that shrimp treated with a synbiotic-supplemented diet showed significantly higher growth performance than control groups (P<0.05. Shrimp treated under regime P1 showed the highest values for phenoloxidase (PO and respiratory burst (RB parameters compared to shrimp given with other treatments. Following the challenge test, higher survival rate were seen in the P1 treatment group, in comparison to the positive control, and the P1 treatment group showed the highest values in total haemocyte count (THC, PO, and RB.

  12. Production of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus inoculum in aeroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, L L; Sylvia, D M

    1988-02-01

    Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) and industrial sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) colonized by Glomus deserticola, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices were grown in aeroponic cultures. After 12 to 14 weeks, all roots were colonized by the inoculated vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Abundant vesicles and arbuscules formed in the roots, and profuse sporulation was detected intra-and extraradically. Within each fungal species, industrial sweet potato contained significantly more roots and spores per plant than bahia grass did, although the percent root colonization was similar for both hosts. Mean percent root colonization and sporulation per centimeter of colonized root generally increased with time, although with some treatments colonization declined by week 14. Spore production ranged from 4 spores per cm of colonized root for G. etunicatum to 51 spores per cm for G. intraradices. Infectivity trials with root inocula resulted in a mean of 38, 45, and 28% of bahia grass roots colonized by G. deserticola, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices, respectively. The germination rate of G. etunicatum spores produced in soil was significantly higher than that produced in aeroponic cultures (64% versus 46%) after a 2-week incubation at 28 degrees C. However, infectivity studies comparing G. etunicatum spores from soil and aeroponic culture indicated no biological differences between the spore sources. Aeroponically produced G. deserticola and G. etunicatum inocula retained their infectivity after cold storage (4 degrees C) in either sterile water or moist vermiculite for at least 4 and 9 months, respectively.

  13. Analysis and utilization of plant antioxidative mechanism by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haeng Soon; Kwak, Sang Soo; Kwon, Hye Gyung [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The gamma radiation-induced changes of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in callus cultures of cassava (Manihot esculenta) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were investigated. Both cell lines irradiated with 50 and 70 Gy on 7 days after subculture inhibited significantly the cell growth by 50% and 80% at 14 days after treatment (DAT), respectively. In 70 Gy irradiated with cassava calli SOD and POD specific activities increased by 4 and 2.5 folds at 14 DAT, respectively, whereas CAT activity was not affected. When sweet potato calli were irradiated 10 Gy POD activity showed the highest at 14 DAT, whereas the CAT activity was not affected. In the transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress swpal encoding anionic POD cDNA or swpnl encoding neutral POD cDNA, POD and SOD activities were not significantly increased after {gamma}-radiation treatment, but swpal-plants showed a higher activity than that of swpnl-or non-transgenic plants. Plant growth was severely inhibited showing a well correlation with the dose of radiation. Specially, {gamma}-radiation affected growth of shoot apical meristem. (author). 32 refs., 7 figs.

  14. A spatial ecology study on the effects of field conditions and crop rotation on the incidence of Plectris aliena (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) grub damage to sweetpotato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Nancy L; Osborne, Jason; Abney, Mark R

    2013-10-01

    A farmscape study was conducted in commercial sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) fields in Columbus County, NC, in 2010 and 2011 to investigate the effects of the following field conditions: soil drainage class, soil texture, field size, border habitat, land elevation, and the previous year's crop rotation on the incidence of damage caused by Plectris aliena Chapman (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) larval feeding. Soil drainage and crop rotation significantly affected the incidence of damage to roots, with well drained soils having a low estimated incidence of damaged roots (0.004) compared with all other drainage classes (0.009-0.011 incidence of damaged roots). Fields with soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr] planted the preceding year had the highest incidence of root damage (0.15) compared with all other crops. The effects of border habitats, which were adjacent to grower fields where roots were sampled, showed that as the location of the roots was closer to borders of soybean (planted the year before) or grass fields, the chance of damage to roots decreased. Results indicate that growers can use crop rotation as a management technique and avoid planting sweetpotatoes the year after soybeans to reduce the incidence of P. aliena larval feeding on sweetpotato roots. Environmental conditions such as fields with poor drainage and certain border habitats may be avoided, or selected, by growers to reduce risk of damage to roots by P. aliena.

  15. Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicorns Linn. in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

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    P. Konwar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food habits and abundance of food plant species of Rhinoceros unicornis in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary were studied from January 1999 through December 2001. Totally 32 numbers of Rhino food plants were identified, of which 15 were grasses, four shrubs, five aquatic hydrophytes and eight tree species (21 terrestrial and 11 aquatic. During the dry season, the Rhino feeds on almost 90% food items from Hemarthria compressa, Arundo donax, Phragmites karka, Cerex rubro-brumee etc. The other short grasses such as Cynodon dactylon, Andropogon ssp., Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aciculatus and tender and young shoots and twigs of Schelristechya fuesche, Saccharum spontaneum, Lagerstroemia flosreginae etc. are consumed in limited portions. The rhino consumes 11 cultivated crops and vegetables, viz., Ricinus communis, Oryza sativa, Solanum melongena, Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum tuberosum, Brassica nigra, Luffa cylindrica, Luffa acutangula, Cucurbita moschata, Cucumis sativus and Ipomoea batatas etc. Highest density of food plant species observed in the study area were Cynodon dactylon (167.5/m2, Hemarthria compressa (73.75/m2, Vetiveria zizanioides (56/m2, Saccharum ravannae (51.5/m2, Pharagmites karka (50.75/m2, Leersia hexandra (46.75/m2, Brachiarea pseudointerrupta (40/m2 and Eichhornia crassipes (35/m2.

  16. Molecular characterization of the sweet potato peroxidase SWPA4 promoter which responds to abiotic stresses and pathogen infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Cha Young; Park, Soo-Young; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2009-04-01

    Previously, the swpa4 peroxidase gene has been shown to be inducible by a variety of abiotic stresses and pathogenic infections in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). To elucidate its regulatory mechanism at the transcriptional level under various stress conditions, we isolated and characterized the promoter region (2374 bp) of swpa4 (referred to as SWPA4). We performed a transient expression assay in tobacco protoplasts with deletions from the 5'-end of SWPA4 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The -1408 and -374 bp deletions relative to the transcription start site (+1) showed 8 and 4.5 times higher GUS expression than the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, respectively. In addition, transgenic tobacco plants expressing GUS under the control of -2374, -1408 or -374 bp region of SWPA4 promoter were generated and studied in various tissues under abiotic stresses and pathogen infection. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that nuclear proteins from sweet potato cultured cells specifically interacted with 60-bp fragment (-178/-118) in -374 bp promoter region. In silico analysis indicated that four kinds of cis-acting regulatory sequences, reactive oxygen species-related element activator protein 1 (AP1), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha element, ethylene-responsive element (ERE) and heat-shock element, are present in the -60 bp region (-178/-118), suggesting that the -60 bp region might be associated with stress inducibility of the SWPA4 promoter.

  17. Nitrogen and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF effect on two commercial sweet potato clones on an inseptisol soil

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    Alberto Espinosa Cuéllar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam], is the fifth most important food crop in developing countries due to its outstanding nutritional and culinary characteristics and it is also considered one of the two most important food crops along with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. The response of various crops to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is well known. The research was conducted at the The Research Institute of Tropical Root and Tuber Crops (INIVIT on an inseptisol soil. The objective was to compare the effect of five nitrogen doses in the presence or absence of an effective AMF strain oin two sweet potato clones ‘INIVIT B2-2005’ and ‘CEMSA 78-354’. Yield, colonization rate and amount of spores were evaluated. Treatments inoculated with effective strains obtained higher yields of 35 to 37 t.ha-1 with a dose of 60 kg N ha-1; and chemical fertilizer nitrogen was reduced by 37.5 % in the form of N. A yield of 30 to35 t.ha-1 was obtained with a dose of 90 kg ha-1 of N and no AMF application. In all cases the best colonization values and spore numbers in 50 g soil coincide with optimal fertilization doses for the treatment inoculated efficiently. Colonization values were in the range of 71 to 76 % and 628-659 spores for the nitrogen dose of 60 kg ha-1.

  18. Integrating biological treatment of crop residue into a hydroponic sweetpotato culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, A. A.; David, P. P.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, W. A.; Mortley, D. G.; Loretan, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    Residual biomass from hydroponic culture of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was degraded using natural bacterial soil isolates. Sweetpotato was grown for 120 days in hydroponic culture with a nutrient solution comprised of a ratio of 80% modified half Hoagland solution to 20% filtered effluent from an aerobic starch hydrolysis bioreactor. The phytotoxicity of the effluent was assayed with `Waldmann's Green' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and the ratio selected after a 60-day bioassay using sweetpotato plants propagated vegetatively from cuttings. Controlled environment chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of filtrate from biological treatment of crop residue on growth and storage root production with plants grown in a modified half Hoagland solution. Incorporation of bioreactor effluent, reduced storage root yield of `Georgia Jet' sweetpotato but the decrease was not statistically significant when compared with yield for plants cultured in a modified half Hoagland solution without filtrate. However, yield of `TU-82-155' sweetpotato was significantly reduced when grown in a modified half Hoagland solution into which filtered effluent had been incorporated. Total biomass was significantly reduced for both sweetpotato cultivars when grown in bioreactor effluent. The leaf area and dry matter accumulation were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced for both cultivars when grown in solution culture containing 20% filtered effluent.

  19. Characterization of dietary constituents and antioxidant capacity of Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bona, Gicele S; Boschetti, Wiliam; Bortolin, Rafael C; Vale, Maria G R; Moreira, José C F; de Rios, Alessandro O; Flôres, Simone H

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional content and antioxidant capacity of the tubers, leaves and, flowers of the species Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. The three parts of the plant were analyzed by physicochemical methods, atomic absorption spectrometry, spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques. The tubers, leaves, and flowers exhibited significant differences in all parameters evaluated. The leaves showed significantly higher values of protein (16.28 ± 0.02 g/100 g), total dietary fiber (27.78 ± 0.15 g/100 g) and quercetin (3798.61 ± 37.57 µg/g) when compared to the tubers and flowers. The study revealed a potential content of the protein, dietary fiber, and flavonoids the species Tropaeolum pentaphyllum , when compared with the sweet potatoes leaves ( Ipomoea batatas L.). In addition, the antioxidant activities of leaves and flowers were also higher measured by ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), and TRAP (total radical-trapping antioxidant potential) methods. Tropaeolum pentaphyllum have high nutritional potential that can be exploited to improve nutritional value of various food products.

  20. Development of extruded Ready-To-Eat (RTE) snacks using corn, black gram, roots and tuber flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y

    2014-09-01

    Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60-80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17-20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80 ± 5 °C (heater I) and 95-105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300-350 rpm screw speed, 100 ± 10 °C die temperature and 15 ± 2 kg/h feed rate. The exit diameter of the circular die was 3 mm. Sensory acceptability, physical parameters and nutrient analysis along with storage stability of the products was conducted. The fiber and energy content of the RTE extruded snack improved in experimental samples prepared using root and tuber flours. A serving of 100 g of the snack can provide more than 400 Kcal and 10 g of protein. The overall acceptability of RTE extruded products made with potato and taro were highly acceptable compared to yam and sweet potato. The study demonstrates utilization of roots and tuber flours as potential and diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties in RTE extruded snack.

  1. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN TEPUNG KETELA RAMBAT (Ipomea Batatas L SEBAGAI SUMBER ENERGI TERHADAP PENAMPILAN PRODUKSI AYAM PEDAGING FASE FINISHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Tistiana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pengunaan tepung ketela rambat sebagai sumber energi pakan ayam pedaging periode finisher terhadap konsumsi pakan, pertambahan bobot dan konversi pakan, berat karkas dan berat lemak abdominal. Materi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah 80 ekor ayam pedaging jantan Strain Lohman Platinum umur 21- 35 hari dengan berat awal 866,77± 7,449 gram. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode percobaan dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL yang terdiri dari 4 perlakuan, yakni pakan kontrol, penggantian dengan ketela rambat 10%, 20% dan 30% pakan sumber energy (jagung. Variabel yang diukur dalam penelitian ini adalah konsumsi pakan, pertambahan bobot badan, konversi pakan, berat karkas dan berat lemak abdominal. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa penggunaan tepung ketela rambat sebagai sumber energi tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata (P>0,05 terhadap komsumsi pakan, berat karkas dan berat lemak. Sementara pengaruhnya terhadap pertambahan bobot badan dan konversi pakan menunjukkan perbedaan yang sangat nyata (P 0,05.  But in body growth and feed conversion gave the significant  effect to (P< 0,01. The research yield can be concluded that utilizing cassava flour as source energy up to 10% step (PI.  The utilizing cassava flour recommended as source energy proportion last than 10% from total feed. Key Words: energy, cassava fllur, Broiler performance

  2. Potensi Tepung Ubi Jalar Ungu (Ipomea batatas L. dalam Pembuatan Bolu Kemojo sebagai Makanan Khas Provinsi Riau

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    Syahli Putra Turelanda

    2016-04-01

    ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was to obtain an optimal ratio of purple sweet potato flour to wheat flour to produce good quality kemojo cake product. This study uses a completely randomized design (CDR completely randomized design (CRD with five treatment. The analyzed of kemojo cake includes moisture content, ash content, protein content, sucrose content and sensory assessment. The result showed that  kemojo cake best treatment is TUJ2 with moisture content of 24.32%, ash content of 0.80%, protein content of 13.25%, sucrose content of 21.82% and descriptive sensory showed light purple colour (score 2.80, a hint of sweet potato flavour (score 3.00, a little bit of purple sweet potato scent (score 3.03, the chewy texture (score 3.00 and panelist favored overall (score 2.06.

  3. PERBANDINGAN METODE SOMOGYI-NELSON DAN ANTHRONE-SULFAT PADA PENETAPAN KADAR GULA PEREDUKSI DALAM UMBI CILEMBU (Ipomea batatas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanul Kiyan Al-kayyis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato cultivar Cilembu, kind of ‘rancing’ from Cilembu Village, Sumedang, West Java has really sweet taste due to the high content of reducing sugar. The amount of reducing sugar needs to be proven scientifically. The study aimed to compare Somogyi-Nelson method and Anthrone-Sulfate method in order to determine reducing sugar level in Cilembu sweet potato. Cilembu sweet potato must be stored in freezer at 15°C for 2 weeks before used as the sample. Analytical method validation was performed for the two methods. The determination results between two methods were compared. The amount of reduction sugar (glucose from Cilembu sweet potato determined by Somogyi-Nelson method was 3.42%, the value of %recovery was 99.8%, LOD = 0.00167 (mg/mL, LOQ = 0.00557 (mg/mL, and value of RSD was 3.7%. While the average amount of reduction sugar determined by Anthrone-Sulfate method was 14.9%, the value of %recovery was 74.7%, LOD = 0.0198 (mg/mL, LOQ = 0.066 (mg/mL, and value of RSD = 8.6%. The Somogyi-Nelson method was more recommended for the analysis of the reducing sugar in Cilembu sweet potato compared with Anthrone-Sulfate method.

  4. O sujeito biotecnológico na viagem pelo reino das batatas trangênicas, porquinhos fosforecentes e almas codificadas

    OpenAIRE

    Hüning, Simone Maria

    2008-01-01

    Este estudo versa sobre a centralidade que as biotecnologias vêm assumindo na constituição e compreensão da subjetividade na contemporaneidade a partir de uma pesquisa que analisa a proliferação das biotecnologias e a intensificação de enunciados sobre as mesmas na vida cotidiana. Tomando as ferramentas conceituais oferecidas pelos trabalhos de Bruno Latour e Michel Foucault, iniciase esta tese pela análise da constituição da mesma, que é permeada por questões políticas, éticas, institucionai...

  5. Copigmentation Of Anthocyanin Extract of Purple Sweet Potatoes (Ipomea Batatas L.) Using Ferulic Acid And Tannic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, I.; Wijaya, H.; Hasanah, F.; Heryani, S.

    2018-02-01

    Copigmentation is one of the methods to improve the color stability and intensity of anthocyanin extract. This study aimed to do the copigmentation of the anthocyanin extract of purple sweet potato using ferulic acid and tannic acid. The anthocyanin extraction was conducted with distilled water at pH 7 and pH 2 while the copigmentation was conducted by varying the concentration of ferulic acid and tannic acid. The results showed that best anthocyanin extraction method of the purple sweet potato was using distilled water at pH 2. The yield of freeze dried anthocyanin on the extraction with distilled water at pH 2 was 1710 ppm, while the yield when using distilled water at pH 7 was 888 ppm. Ferulic acid and tannic acid can be used for the copigmentation of anthocyanin extract of purple sweet potato by observing the maximum wavelength shift (bathochromic effect, Δλmax) and increase of color intensity (hyperchromic effect, ΔAmax). The bathochromic effect of ferulic acid began to occur at a concentration of 0.01M, while the hypochromic effect on tannic acid occurred at a concentration of 0.005M and remained up to a concentration of 0.02M. The best copigmentation concentration of ferulic acid was 0.015M, while tannic acid was 0.02M. The use of tannic acid 0.02M is recommended compared to ferulic acid 0.015M because with the same bathocromic effect (Δλmaks = 3,9) results hyperchromic effect (ΔA = 0,258) higher by tannic acid.

  6. Effect of heat–moisture treatment on digestibility of different cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam) starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K K D S; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Different heat–moisture levels were applied to native starches from different cultivars of sweet potatoes available in Sri Lanka (Wariyapola red, Wariyapola white, Pallepola variety, Malaysian variety and CARI 273) to study the digestibility level. Samples were treated with 20, 25, and 30% moisture at 85°C and 120°C for 6 h and in vitro starch digestibility was tested with porcine pancreatin enzyme. A range of 19.3–23.5% digestibility was shown by the native starches with no significant difference (P digestibility level of the hydrothermally modified starches and the moisture content showed a positive impact on the digestibility. Heat–moisture treatment at 85°C brought an overall increase in digestibility and temperature beyond 85°C had a negative impact. No significant difference (P digestibility was observed with 20% and 25% moisture at 85°C and increased level were seen at 85°C and 30% moisture. PMID:25473497

  7. Influence of development, postharvest handling, and storage conditions on the carbohydrate components of sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas Lam.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabubuya, Agnes; Namutebi, Agnes; Byaruhanga, Yusuf; Narvhus, Judith; Wicklund, Trude

    2017-11-01

    Changes in total starch and reducing sugar content in five sweetpotato varieties were investigated weekly during root development and following subjection of the roots to different postharvest handling and storage conditions. Freshly harvested (noncured) roots and cured roots (spread under the sun for 4 days at 29-31°C and 63-65% relative humidity [RH]) were separately stored at ambient conditions (23°C-26°C and 70-80% RH) and in a semiunderground pit (19-21°C and 90-95% RH). Changes in pasting properties of flour from sweetpotato roots during storage were analyzed at 14-day intervals. Significant varietal differences ( p  < .05) in total starch, sucrose, glucose, maltose, and fructose concentrations were registered. The total starch and sucrose content of the roots did not change significantly ( p  < .05) during root development (72.4 and 7.4%, respectively), whereas the average concentrations of glucose, maltose, and fructose decreased markedly (0.46-0.18%, 0.55-0.28%, and 0.43-0.21%), respectively. Storage led to decrease in total starch content (73-47.7%) and increase in sucrose and glucose concentrations (8.1-11.2% and 0.22-1.57%, respectively). Storage also resulted in reduction in sweetpotato flour pasting viscosities. Curing resulted in increased sucrose and glucose concentrations (9.1-11.2% and 0.45-0.85%, respectively) and marked reduction ( p  < .05) in total starch content (72.9-47.6%). This resulted in low pasting viscosities compared to flour from storage of uncured roots. These findings show that significant changes occur in the carbohydrate components of sweetpotato roots during storage compared to development and present an opportunity for diverse utilization of flours from sweetpotato roots in the food industry.

  8. Las plantas americanas en la obra de Charles de l'Écluse: primeras citas en las cartas de Juan de Castañeda

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    Ramón-Laca Menéndez de Luarca, Luis

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The Flemish botanist Charles de l'Écluse's works contain abundant references to American plants, for example the avocado (Persea americana Mill., the sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.], the potato (Solanum tuberosum L. and the tobáceo (Nicotiana tabacum L.. Although some of these plants were observed by L'Écluse himself during his expedition to the Iberian Península between 1564 and 1565, the majority of the American plants quoted in his works are related with shipments received from several agents around Europe. In the case of Spain, L'Écluse obtained seeds from Seville thanks to the help of Simón de Tovar and Juan de Castañeda. The latter offers in his letters important innovations: Annona cherimola Mill., Indigofera añil LJI. tinctoria L., Annona muricata L., Mammea americana L.. Annona reticulata L., Dioscorea sp., Aloysia citrodora Palau or Manihot spj M. esculenta Crantz. In most of the cases the mention of these plants represente the first record of cultivation in the Old World. A percentage of this material was used by L'Écluse in his Exoticorum libri decem, published in Antwerp in l605.Las obras del botánico flamenco Charles de l'Écluse contienen infinidad de referencias a plantas americanas, destacando entre ellas el aguacate (Persea americana Mill., las batatas [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.], las patatas (Solanum tuberosum L. o el tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L. . Algunas de ellas fueron observadas por L'Écluse durante la expedición llevada a cabo por la Península Ibérica entre 1564 y 1565. La mayor parte de plantas americanas citadas en sus obras están relacionadas sin embargo con envíos realizados por diversos corresponsales repartidos por Europa. En el caso de España, L'Écluse recibió semillas desde Sevilla gracias a Simón de Tovar y Juan de Castañeda. Este último ofrece en sus cartas importantes novedades, como el "anón" (Annona cherimola Mill., el "añil" (Indigofera añil L./I. tinctoria L., la "guan

  9. Efeitos embriotóxicos do tratamento pré-natal com extrato aquoso de Ipomoea carnea em ratos

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    Rosana Zoriki Hosomi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos embriotóxicos da exposição diária pré-natal a 0,0, 0,7, 3,0 ou 15,0mg/kg do extrato aquoso da I. carnea nos dias 5 a 21 de gestação foram estudados. Foram avaliados a performance reprodutiva materna, anormalidades esqueléticas e viscerais e malformações. Além disso, após o tratamento foram encontrados achados anatomopatológicos. Em relação às ratas mães, nossos resultados mostraram que a exposição às diferentes doses não afetou o peso corporal, ganho de peso, consumos de água e ração e performance reprodutiva. Apesar disso, apresentaram vacuolização citoplasmática de forma dose-dependente em fígado, rins, tireóide e glândula adrenal. Exames fetais não mostraram anormalidades externas ou malformações, sendo somente encontradas evidências de anormalidades esqueléticas e viscerais após altas doses do extrato. Foi observada redução dos centros de ossificação. Os presentes dados mostram que a ingestão prenatal do extrato de I. carnea induz embriotoxicidade. Estes efeitos são atribuídos à ação na homeostase maternal ou diretamente na concepção.

  10. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn.

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    Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P< 0.01 along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis- and agrave;-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of beta-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 125-128

  11. The Effect of Seed Soaking with Rhizobacteria Pseudomonas alcaligenes on the Growth of Swamp Cabbage (Ipomoea reptans Poir)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widnyana, I. K.; Ngga, M.; Sapanca, P. L. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The research was conducted to determine the effect of seed soaking with suspense of P. alcaligenes isolate KtSl, TrN2, and TmAl to the growth of swamp cabbage. The research has been initially developed on tomatoes. In this research, Randomized Block Design was chosen as its model while the data analysis was performed by using SPSS v.17 for Windows. Three types of treatment were administered towards P. alcaligenes, namely isolating, soaking, and growing the medium. Some observed parameters were germination and growth. The results showed that seed soaking treatments with suspense P. alcaligenes fostered the germination 25% faster, enhanced the crop up to 24.4%, increased the number of leaves up until 23.15%, lengthen stems to 25%, lengthen the roots up to 46.90%, and increase the fresh weight of stems up until 67.07% and oven-dry weight of stem up to 84.21% compared to the control treatment. The best response of treatment for germination speed was soaking seeds with P. alcaligenes TrN2 for 20 minutes on both NB (Natrium Broth) and PDB (Potato Dextrose Broth) media.

  12. Keamanan Pemberian Berulang Ekstrak Kangkung Darat (Ipomoea Reptans,poir) Terstandar Terhadap Fungsi Ginjal Dan Hepar Mencit Betina

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati, Farida; Murwanti, Retno; Zabrina, Ginna

    2013-01-01

    Kangkung darat terbukti memiliki aktifitas antihiperglikemia pada mencit betina galur Swiss yang diinduksi streptozotosin. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan kajian keamanan pemberian berulang ekstrak kangkung darat terstandar terhadap fungsi ginjal dan hepar pada mencit betina. Dua puluh hewan uji dibagi ke dalam 4 kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol (akuades 10 ml/ kg), dosis I (ekstrak etanolik kangkung darat 480 mg/ kg), dosis II (ekstrak etanolik kangkung darat 759 mg/ kg), dan dos...

  13. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PUPUK ORGANIK PADA MEDIA TANAH YANG MENGANDUNG TIMBAL (Pb TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN KANGKUNG DARAT (Ipomoea reptans Poir.

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    Listiatie Budi Utami

    2016-06-01

    pupuk organik dengan dosis 0 gram, 50 gram, 100 gram, 150 gram, 200 gram, dan 250 gram dalam 2 kg tanah dari TPA Piyungan, Bantul. Setiap perlakuan diulang 4 kali dan dilakukan selama 4 minggu. Pengamatan meliputi tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, panjang daun, panjang akar, dan berat basah tanaman. Pada minggu ke-4, dilakukan pengukuran kadar timbal (Pb dalam daun. Dilakukan uji ANOVA dan BNT 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pupuk organik dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman kangkung darat. Dosis yang paling efektif untuk pertumbuhan tanaman kangkung darat adalah 200 gram dalam 2 kg tanah. Pemberian pupuk organik tidak dapat menurunkan kandungan Pb dalam tanaman kangkung darat.

  14. Genetic variability and evolutionary implications of RNA silencing suppressor genes in RNA1 of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus isolates infecting sweetpotato and related wild species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur K Tugume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3, a putative hydrophobic protein (p7 and a 22-kDa protein (p22 from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3 able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in

  15. Utilización de piensos criollos con harina de Albizia lebbeck para la ceba de conejos alimentados con bejuco de boniato Use of home-made concentrate feed with Albizia lebbeck meal for fattening rabbits fed sweet potato vines

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    I. L Montejo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento durante 40 días en el módulo de animales menores de la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de evaluar la inclusión de la harina de Albizia lebbeck en un pienso criollo con diferentes suplementos energético-proteicos, para la alimentación de conejos de ceba. Se utilizaron 26 animales mestizos sanos, de 60 días de edad y 0,94 (± 0,10 kg de peso, en un diseño completamente aleatorizado con dos tratamientos (13 animales por cada uno; estos fueron: A 100% bejuco de boniato (Ipomoea batata y B 70% bejuco de boniato más 30% de pienso criollo elaborado con harina de A. lebbeck y diferentes suplementos energético-proteicos. El alimento se ofreció en los horarios de la mañana (9:00-10:00 a.m. y la tarde (3:00-4:00 p.m.. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en el peso final de los animales (A-1,47 kg y B-1,62 kg. Las mejores ganancias de peso vivo se observaron en el tratamiento suplementado B (16,3 g/animal/día, que fueron superiores (PA trial was conducted for 40 days in the small animal facility of the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages "Indio Hatuey", with the objective of evaluating the inclusion of Albizia lebbeck meal in a home-made concentrate feed with different energy-protein supplements, to feed fattening rabbits. Twenty-six healthy crossbred animals, 60 days old and with 0,94 (±0,10 kg of weight, were used in a completely randomized design with two treatments (13 animals each; they were: A 100% sweet potato (Ipomoea batata vines and B 70% sweet potato vines + 30% home-made concentrate feed elaborated with A. lebbeck meal and different energy-protein supplements. The feed was supplied in the morning (9:00-10:00 a.m. and the afternoon (3:00-4:00 p.m.. Significant differences were found in the final weight of the animals (A-1,47 kg and B-1,62 kg. The best live weight gains were observed in the supplemented treatment B (16,3 g/animal/day, which were

  16. Enhanced accumulation of carotenoids in sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbOr-Ins gene in purple-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Sun Ha; Park, Seyeon; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Joon Seol; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Yun-Hee; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] is an important root crop that produces low molecular weight antioxidants such as carotenoids and anthocyanin. The sweetpotato orange (IbOr) protein is involved in the accumulation of carotenoids. To increase the levels of carotenoids in the storage roots of sweetpotato, we generated transgenic sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbOr-Ins under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in an anthocyanin-rich purple-fleshed cultivar (referred to as IbOr plants). IbOr plants exhibited increased carotenoid levels (up to 7-fold) in their storage roots compared to wild type (WT) plants, as revealed by HPLC analysis. The carotenoid contents of IbOr plants were positively correlated with IbOr transcript levels. The levels of zeaxanthin were ∼ 12 times elevated in IbOr plants, whereas β-carotene increased ∼ 1.75 times higher than those of WT. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that most carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes were up-regulated in the IbOr plants, including PDS, ZDS, LCY-β, CHY-β, ZEP and Pftf, whereas LCY-ɛ was down-regulated. Interestingly, CCD1, CCD4 and NCED, which are related to the degradation of carotenoids, were also up-regulated in the IbOr plants. Anthocyanin contents and transcription levels of associated biosynthetic genes seemed to be altered in the IbOr plants. The yields of storage roots and aerial parts of IbOr plants and WT plants were not significantly different under field cultivation. Taken together, these results indicate that overexpression of IbOr-Ins can increase the carotenoid contents of sweetpotato storage roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Overexpression of the IbMYB1 gene in an orange-fleshed sweet potato cultivar produces a dual-pigmented transgenic sweet potato with improved antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Sun Ha; Jeong, Yu Jeong; Kim, Cha Young; Lee, Joon Seol; Bae, Ji-Yeong; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-04-01

    The R2R3-type protein IbMYB1 is a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the storage roots of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam]. Previously, we demonstrated that IbMYB1 expression stimulated anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco leaves and Arabidopsis. Here, we generated dual-pigmented transgenic sweet potato plants that accumulated high levels of both anthocyanins and carotenoids in a single sweet potato storage root. An orange-fleshed cultivar with high carotenoid levels was transformed with the IbMYB1 gene under the control of either the storage root-specific sporamin 1 (SPO1) promoter or the oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase anionic 2 (SWPA2) promoter. The SPO1-MYB transgenic lines exhibited higher anthocyanin levels in storage roots than empty vector control (EV) or SWPA2-MYB plants, but carotenoid content was unchanged. SWPA2-MYB transgenic lines exhibited higher levels of both anthocyanin and carotenoids than EV plants. Analysis of hydrolyzed anthocyanin extracts indicated that cyanidin and peonidin predominated in both overexpression lines. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that IbMYB1 expression in both IbMYB1 transgenic lines strongly induced the upregulation of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, whereas the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes varied between transgenic lines. Increased anthocyanin levels in transgenic plants also promoted the elevation of proanthocyanidin and total phenolic levels in fresh storage roots. Consequently, all IbMYB1 transgenic plants displayed much higher antioxidant activities than EV plants. In field cultivations, storage root yields varied between the transgenic lines. Taken together, our results indicate that overexpression of IbMYB1 is a highly promising strategy for the generation of transgenic plants with enhanced antioxidant capacity. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Functional characterization of Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase in anthocyanin biosynthesis of purple sweet potato underlies the direct evidence of anthocyanins function against abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Fan, Weijuan; Li, Hong; Yang, Jun; Huang, Jirong; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) is a key enzyme in the catalysis of the stereospecific reduction of dihydroflavonols to leucoanthocyanidins in anthocyanin biosynthesis. In the purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cv. Ayamurasaki, expression of the IbDFR gene was strongly associated with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves, stems and roots. Overexpression of the IbDFR in Arabidopsis tt3 mutants fully complemented the pigmentation phenotype of the seed coat, cotyledon and hypocotyl. Downregulation of IbDFR expression in transgenic sweet potato (DFRi) using an RNAi approach dramatically reduced anthocyanin accumulation in young leaves, stems and storage roots. In contrast, the increase of flavonols quercetin-3-O-hexose-hexoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside in the leaves and roots of DFRi plants is significant. Therefore, the metabolic pathway channeled greater flavonol influx in the DFRi plants when their anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation were decreased. These plants also displayed reduced antioxidant capacity compared to the wild type. After 24 h of cold treatment and 2 h recovery, the wild-type plants were almost fully restored to the initial phenotype compared to the slower recovery of DFRi plants, in which the levels of electrolyte leakage and hydrogen peroxide accumulation were dramatically increased. These results provide direct evidence of anthocyanins function in the protection against oxidative stress in the sweet potato. The molecular characterization of the IbDFR gene in the sweet potato not only confirms its important roles in flavonoid metabolism but also supports the protective function of anthocyanins of enhanced scavenging of reactive oxygen radicals in plants under stressful conditions.

  19. The sweet potato IbMYB1 gene as a potential visible marker for sweet potato intragenic vector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cha Young; Ahn, Young Ock; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Catanach, Andrew S; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Conner, Anthony J; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2010-07-01

    MYB transcription factors play important roles in transcriptional regulation of many secondary metabolites including anthocyanins. We cloned the R2R3-MYB type IbMYB1 complementary DNAs from the purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. cv Sinzami) and investigated the expression patterns of IbMYB1 gene with IbMYB1a and IbMYB1b splice variants in leaf and root tissues of various sweet potato cultivars by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The transcripts of IbMYB1 were predominantly expressed in the purple-fleshed storage roots and they were also detectable in the leaf tissues accumulating anthocyanin pigments. In addition, transcript levels of IbMYB1 gene were up-regulated by treatment with methyl jasmonate or salicylic acid in leaf and root tissues of cv. White Star. To set up the intragenic vector system in sweet potato, we first evaluated the utilization of the IbMYB1 gene as a visible selectable marker. The IbMYB1a was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves under the control of a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, a root-specific and sucrose-inducible sporamin promoter, and an oxidative stress-inducible sweet potato anionic peroxidase2 promoter. We also showed that overexpression of IbMYB1a induced massive anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco leaves and up-regulated the transcript levels of the structural genes in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the expression of IbMYB1a led to production of cyanidin as a major core molecule of anthocyanidins in tobacco leaves. These results suggest that the IbMYB1 gene can be applicable to a visible marker for sweet potato transformation with intragenic vectors, as well as the production of anthocyanin as important nutritive value in other plant species.

  20. Functional characterization of Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase in anthocyanin biosynthesis of purple sweet potato underlies the direct evidence of anthocyanins function against abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Wang

    Full Text Available Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR is a key enzyme in the catalysis of the stereospecific reduction of dihydroflavonols to leucoanthocyanidins in anthocyanin biosynthesis. In the purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. cv. Ayamurasaki, expression of the IbDFR gene was strongly associated with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves, stems and roots. Overexpression of the IbDFR in Arabidopsis tt3 mutants fully complemented the pigmentation phenotype of the seed coat, cotyledon and hypocotyl. Downregulation of IbDFR expression in transgenic sweet potato (DFRi using an RNAi approach dramatically reduced anthocyanin accumulation in young leaves, stems and storage roots. In contrast, the increase of flavonols quercetin-3-O-hexose-hexoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside in the leaves and roots of DFRi plants is significant. Therefore, the metabolic pathway channeled greater flavonol influx in the DFRi plants when their anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation were decreased. These plants also displayed reduced antioxidant capacity compared to the wild type. After 24 h of cold treatment and 2 h recovery, the wild-type plants were almost fully restored to the initial phenotype compared to the slower recovery of DFRi plants, in which the levels of electrolyte leakage and hydrogen peroxide accumulation were dramatically increased. These results provide direct evidence of anthocyanins function in the protection against oxidative stress in the sweet potato. The molecular characterization of the IbDFR gene in the sweet potato not only confirms its important roles in flavonoid metabolism but also supports the protective function of anthocyanins of enhanced scavenging of reactive oxygen radicals in plants under stressful conditions.

  1. The genome of cultivated sweet potato contains Agrobacterium T-DNAs with expressed genes: An example of a naturally transgenic food crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Tina; Quispe, Dora; Zhai, Hong; Jarret, Robert; Ghislain, Marc; Liu, Qingchang; Gheysen, Godelieve; Kreuze, Jan F

    2015-05-05

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are plant pathogenic bacteria capable of transferring DNA fragments [transfer DNA (T-DNA)] bearing functional genes into the host plant genome. This naturally occurring mechanism has been adapted by plant biotechnologists to develop genetically modified crops that today are grown on more than 10% of the world's arable land, although their use can result in considerable controversy. While assembling small interfering RNAs, or siRNAs, of sweet potato plants for metagenomic analysis, sequences homologous to T-DNA sequences from Agrobacterium spp. were discovered. Simple and quantitative PCR, Southern blotting, genome walking, and bacterial artificial chromosome library screening and sequencing unambiguously demonstrated that two different T-DNA regions (IbT-DNA1 and IbT-DNA2) are present in the cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) genome and that these foreign genes are expressed at detectable levels in different tissues of the sweet potato plant. IbT-DNA1 was found to contain four open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to the tryptophan-2-monooxygenase (iaaM), indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (iaaH), C-protein (C-prot), and agrocinopine synthase (Acs) genes of Agrobacterium spp. IbT-DNA1 was detected in all 291 cultigens examined, but not in close wild relatives. IbT-DNA2 contained at least five ORFs with significant homology to the ORF14, ORF17n, rooting locus (Rol)B/RolC, ORF13, and ORF18/ORF17n genes of A. rhizogenes. IbT-DNA2 was detected in 45 of 217 genotypes that included both cultivated and wild species. Our finding, that sweet potato is naturally transgenic while being a widely and traditionally consumed food crop, could affect the current consumer distrust of the safety of transgenic food crops.

  2. Prehistoric horticultural adaptation of soils in the middle Waikato Basin : review and evidence from S14/201 and S14/185, Hamilton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumbley, W.; Higham, T.F.G.; Low, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The middle Waikato Basin contains extensive evidence, reviewed here, for the modification of soils for horticulture (gardening) by pre-European Maori. We investigated an area of Maori gardens at archaeological sites S14/201 and S14/185 in Hamilton City. Two groups of multiple, near-circular hollows, each about 0.3 m in diameter and infilled with gravelly sand, were exposed during the site excavations. The hollows, extending through modified A horizon materials into upper B horizon materials, are interpreted as representing the lower part of small truncated mounds (puke) that had been built up by early Maori for growing kumara (Ipomoea batatas). The hollows were grouped in a distinctive quincunx-like pattern in which four hollows formed the corners of a square with one hollow in the centre. The characteristics and layout of the hollows match historical descriptions of mounds used by Maori gardeners. We also used particle-sized analysis to quantify the extent to which upper horizons of the antedecent soils had been modified by the addition of gravel and sand excavated from borrow pits in adjacent volcanogenic alluvium (Hinuera Formation). A radiocarbon date obtained from charcoal found in a fireplace under the modified A horizon and near the hollows suggests that the site was occupied in the late fifteenth century. Identification to species level of charcoal fragments found in the modified soil suggests that site S14/201 may have been cleared of large podocarp trees not long before gardening activities began. This conclusion is supported by similar evidence from another site on the same stretch of the Waikato River. If so, such late (localised) deforestation contrasts with evidence from other palaeoenvironmental studies that shows regional deforestation began considerably earlier (about AD 1300) in the Waikato region. (author). 63 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Selenium Accumulating Leafy Vegetables Are a Potential Source of Functional Foods

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    Petro E. Mabeyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium deficiency in humans has been associated with various diseases, the risks of which can be reduced through dietary supplementation. Selenium accumulating plants may provide a beneficial nutrient for avoiding such illnesses. Thus, leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus sp., Cucurbita maxima, Ipomoea batatas, Solanum villosum, Solanum scabrum, and Vigna unguiculata were explored for their capabilities to accumulate selenium when grown on selenium enriched soil and for use as a potential source of selenium enriched functional foods. Their selenium contents were determined by spectrophotometry using the complex of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine hydrochloride (DABH as a chromogen. The mean concentrations in the leaves were found to range from 7.90±0.40 to 1.95±0.12 μg/g dry weight (DW, with C. maxima accumulating the most selenium. In stems, the accumulated selenium content ranged from 1.12±0.10 μg/g in Amaranthus sp. to 5.35±0.78 μg/g DW in C. maxima and was hence significantly different (P<0.01. The cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used in cytotoxicity assays to determine the anticancer potential of these extracts. With exception of S. scabrum and S. villosum, no cytotoxicity was detected for the selenium enriched vegetable extracts up to 100 μg/mL concentration. Hence, following careful evaluation the studied vegetables may be considered as selenium enriched functional foods.

  4. Molecular characterization of tocopherol biosynthetic genes in sweetpotato that respond to stress and activate the tocopherol production in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang Yoon; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ho Soo; Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Gun-Woo; Park, Sung-Chul; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2016-09-01

    Tocopherol (vitamin E) is a chloroplast lipid that is presumed to be involved in the plant response to oxidative stress. In this study, we isolated and characterized five tocopherol biosynthetic genes from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) plants, including genes encoding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (IbHPPD), homogentisate phytyltransferase (IbHPT), 2-methyl-6-phytylbenzoquinol methyltransferase (IbMPBQ MT), tocopherol cyclase (IbTC) and γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (IbTMT). Fluorescence microscope analysis indicated that four proteins localized into the chloroplast, whereas IbHPPD observed in the nuclear. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the five tocopherol biosynthetic genes varied in different plant tissues and under different stress conditions. All five genes were highly expressed in leaf tissues, whereas IbHPPD and IbHPT were highly expressed in the thick roots. The expression patterns of these five genes significantly differed in response to PEG, NaCl and H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. IbHPPD was strongly induced following PEG and H2O2 treatment and IbHPT was strongly induced following PEG treatment, whereas IbMPBQ MT and IbTC were highly expressed following NaCl treatment. Upon infection of the bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium chrysanthemi, the expression of IbHPPD increased sharply in sweetpotato leaves, whereas the expression of the other genes was reduced or unchanged. Additionally, transient expression of the five tocopherol biosynthetic genes in tobacco (Nicotiana bentamiana) leaves resulted in increased transcript levels of the transgenes expressions and tocopherol production. Therefore, our results suggested that the five tocopherol biosynthetic genes of sweetpotato play roles in the stress defense response as transcriptional regulators of the tocopherol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The influences of purple sweet potato anthocyanin on the growth characteristics of human retinal pigment epithelial cells

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    Min Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthocyanins have been proven to be beneficial to the eyes. However, information is scarce about the effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, L. anthocyanin (PSPA, a class of anthocyanins derived from purple sweet potato roots, on visual health. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether PSPA could have influences on the growth characteristics (cellular morphology, survival, and proliferation of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells, which perform essential functions for the visual process. Methods: The RPE cell line D407 was used in the present study. The cytotoxicity of PSPA was assessed by MTT assay. Then, cellular morphology, viability, cell cycle, Ki67expression, and PI3K/MAPK activation of RPE cells treated with PSPA were determined. Results: PSPA exhibited dose-dependent promotion of RPE cell proliferation at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1,000 µg/ml. RPE cells treated with PSPA demonstrated a predominantly polygonal morphology in a mosaic arrangement, and colony-like cells displayed numerous short apical microvilli and typical ultrastructure. PSPA treatment also resulted in a better platform growing status, statistically higher viability, an increase in the S-phase, and more Ki67+ cells. However, neither pAkt nor pERK were detected in either group. Conclusions: We found that PSPA maintained high cell viability, boosted DNA synthesis, and preserved a high percentage of continuously cycling cells to promote cell survival and division without changing cell morphology. This paper lays the foundation for further research about the damage-protective activities of PSPA on RPE cells or human vision.

  6. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of fried sweet potato cultivars

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    Amaka Odenigbo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is a very rich source of starch. There is increased interest in starch digestibility and the prevention and management of metabolic diseases.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of starch fractions and predicted glycemic index of different cultivars of sweet potato. Material and Method: French fries produced from five cultivars of sweet potato (‘Ginseng Red’, ‘Beauregard’, ‘White Travis’, ‘Georgia Jet clone #2010’ and ‘Georgia Jet’ were used. The level of total starch (TS, resistant starch (RS, digestible starch (DS, and starch digestion index starch digestion index in the samples were evaluated. In vitro starch hydrolysis at 30, 90, and 120 min were determined enzymatically for calculation of rapidly digestible starch (RDS, predicted glycemic index (pGI and slowly digestible starch (SDS respectively. Results: The RS content in all samples had an inversely significant correlation with pGI (-0.52; P<0.05 while RDS had positive and significant influence on both pGI (r=0.55; P<0.05 and SDI (r= 0.94; P<0.01. ‘White Travis’ and ‘Ginseng Red’ had higher levels of beneficial starch fractions (RS and SDS with low pGI and starch digestion Index (SDI, despite their higher TS content. Generally, all the cultivars had products with low to moderate GI values. Conclusion: The glycemic index of these food products highlights the health promoting characteristics of sweet potato cultivars.

  7. Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers' perceptions of their importance and control practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonya, Joshua Sikhu; Mwanga, Robert Om; Syndikus, Katja; Kroschel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Insect pests are among the most important constraints limiting sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) production in Africa. However, there is inadequate information about farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in the management of key insect pests. This has hindered development of effective pest management approaches for smallholder farmers. A standard questionnaire was used to interview individual sweetpotato farmers (n = 192) about their perception and management practices regarding insect pests in six major sweetpotato producing districts of Uganda. The majority (93%) of farmers perceived insect pests to be a very serious problem. With the exception of Masindi and Wakiso districts where the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata) was the number one constraint, sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus) were ranked as the most important insect pests. Insecticide use in sweetpotato fields was very low being highest (28-38% of households) in districts where A. acerata infestation is the biggest problem. On average, 65% and 87% of the farmers took no action to control A. acerata and Cylas spp., respectively. Farmers were more conversant with the presence of and damage by A. acerata than of Cylas spp. as they thought that Cylas spp. root damage was brought about by a prolonged dry season. Different levels of field resistance (ability of a variety to tolerate damage) of sweetpotato landraces to A. acerata (eight landraces) and Cylas spp. (six landraces) were reported by farmers in all the six districts. This perceived level of resistance to insect damage by landraces needs to be investigated. To improve farmers' capabilities for sweetpotato insect pest management, it is crucial to train them in the basic knowledge of insect pest biology and control.

  8. Content and in-vitro accessibility of pro-vitamin A carotenoids from Sri Lankan cooked non-leafy vegetables and their estimated contribution to vitamin A requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshani, A M B; Chandrika, U G

    2007-12-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Sri Lanka, which affects especially pre-school children. Carrots (Daucus carota), pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima), squashes (Cucurbita moschata) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) of orange, yellow-fleshed varieties are good sources of provitamin A carotenoids, but have not been studied in Sri Lanka in terms of the food as eaten. The content of carotenoids in each preparation method and the in-vitro accessibility of beta-carotene and alpha-carotene were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The in-vitro method simulates the conditions in the human intestinal tract. The mean contents in dry weight (DW) in different carrot preparations ranged from 406.7 to 456.3, from 183.7 to 213.5 and from 29.0 to 39.6 microg/g for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and lutein, respectively. The content of carotenoids in different pumpkin preparations varied from 282.1 to 294.4 microg/g DW for beta-carotene, from 155.6 to 157.7 microg/g DW for alpha-carotene and from 218.0 to 228.2 microg/g DW for lutein. The squashes preparation had 44.6 and 40.0 microg/g DW for beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, respectively, and in sweet potatoes beta-carotene ranged from 204.3 to 210.3 microg/g DW. The results showed that the contribution to the recommended daily allowance is greater when these vegetables are prepared as a curry with coconut milk. The percentage contribution to recommended daily allowance from each vegetable cooked with coconut milk was 46.7, 21.8, 1.2 and 10.8 for carrots, pumpkins, squashes and sweet potatoes, respectively.

  9. MicroR828 regulates lignin and H2O2 accumulation in sweet potato on wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeng-Shane; Lin, Chih-Ching; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Chen, Yu-Chi; Jeng, Shih-Tong

    2012-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by directing mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play multiple roles in the growth, development and stress responses in plants. However, little is known of the wounding-responsive miRNAs and their regulation. Here, we investigated the expression patterns of microR828 (miR828) on wounding in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv Tainung 57). The expression of miR828 was only detected in leaves, and was induced by wounding rather than by ethylene, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), methyl jasmonate or nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) was necessary for miR828 accumulation in leaves on wounding. Two miR828 target candidates, named IbMYB and IbTLD, were obtained by cDNA cloning, and their mRNA cleavage caused by miR828 was confirmed by cleavage site mapping, agro-infiltration and transgenics studies. The reduction in IbMYB and IbTLD expression coincided with the induction of miR828, demonstrating that IbMYB and IbTLD might be miR828 targets. Furthermore, transgenic sweet potato overexpressing miR828 precursor affected lignin and H2O2 contents. These results showed that cGMP could regulate wounding-responsive miR828, which repressed the expression of IbMYB and IbTLD. Subsequently, lignin and H2O2 were accumulated to participate in defense mechanisms. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.