WorldWideScience

Sample records for hakkuutaehteen korjuun vaikutukset

  1. Sosiaalisen median negatiiviset vaikutukset käyttäjälle

    Vidgren, Lilli

    2018-01-01

    Tutkielma on kirjallisuuskatsauksena toteutettu kandidaatintutkielma, jonka tutkimusaihe ja -otsikko on sosiaalisen median negatiiviset vaikutukset käyttä- jälle. Negatiivisia vaikutuksia tutkittiin vapaa-ajan käytön näkökulmasta. Sosiaalinen media on tullut nopeasti tärkeäksi ja välttämättömäksi osaksi ihmisten jokapäiväistä elämää, ja sen jatkuva läsnäolo vaikuttaa sen käyttäjiin negatiivisella tavalla. Negatiivisten vaikutusten tutkimisella ihmiset tulisivat enemmän tieto...

  2. IAS 17 standardin mahdollisen uudistuksen vaikutukset pörssiyhtiöiden tilinpäätösinformaatioon

    Vepsäläinen, Marjo

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on ollut ottaa selvää, kuinka IASB:n suunnittelema muutos IAS 17 vuokrasopimuksia koskevassa standardissa tulisi vaikuttamaan pörssiyhtiöiden tilinpäätösinformaatioon toteutuessaan. Muutoksella halutaan, että kaikki vuokrasopimukset tulisivat näkymään yritysten tilinpäätöksessä varallisuutena ja velkoina. Muutoksen luonnos on julkaistu 16.5.2013 ja työn tavoitteena on ollut etsiä tietoa siitä, että mitä muutos pitää sisällään ja mitkä vaikutukset sillä on pörssiyht...

  3. Development of a bundler for logging residues; Hakkuutaehteen tiivistykseen perustuvan niputuslaitteiston kehittaeminen - PUUY16

    Pressler, F. [Biowatti Oy, Espoo (Finland); Nousiainen, I. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    Traditional logging residue purchase methods have based either on chipping at the lot or in the roadside storages. However, methods have been developed also for long-distance transportation of complete logging residues. In this case chipping would be carried out at the power plant. New methods, based on on-site chipping, are being developed for purchase of logging residues. The bundling equipment used in these purchase chains has been developed in Sweden. The purchase chains under development would enable the forest haulage and long-distance transportation of logging residues by present forest and long-distance transportation equipment, and it would ease the storage of logging residues. The objective of the project was to develop, on the basis of the idea of Biowatti a continuously operating logging residue bundling device. Because the success of compaction is the critical factor effecting on the operation of the equipment, the project was carried out in two stages. The objective of the first stage, presented in this report, was to develop, construct and test the compaction method. Several modifications were made to the device during the research. New tests were carried out after the modifications in order to determine the operation of the equipment, the compactness of the bundles, and determination of the further development required. The final version of the device was equipped with a feeding table in which the feeding of logging residues occurred by the aid of a lamellar chain track, equipped with shear keys, and with a pressing roller. Test runs showed that by using the continuous compression method, developed in the project, it possible to obtain the compression target (45 %). The capacity of the bundler could not be tested properly because the test runs were relatively short. The power demand and capacity measurements of the bundler will be carried out wider in the second part of the project, as soon as the compression equipment has been developed further. On the basis of the preliminary experiences, the weak point of the delivery chain of bundling has been e.g. the high investment costs of the bundler, and relatively low productivity of the device compared to investments. However, the project created a new solution, by which it is possible to improve the competitiveness of the purchase chain and hence to promote the development of a new purchase method for logging residues, supporting the methods already in use in Finland. (orig.)

  4. Videopelien vaikutukset 7-18 -vuotiaiden psyykkiseen ja sosiaaliseen terveyteen

    Alastalo, Miika; Tiilikainen, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää kirjallisuuskatsauksen keinoin, mitä psyykkisiä ja sosiaalisia terveyshyötyjä ja terveyshaittoja videopelaamisella on alaikäiseen lapseen ja nuoreen. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli antaa tutkittuun tietoon perustuvia tuloksia videopelaamisen hyödyistä ja haitoista. Tavoitteena oli, että kirjallisuuskatsauksen tuloksia voitaisiin käyttää tulevaisuudessa lasten- ja nuorten videopelivalistuksessa. Kirjallisuuskatsauksessa oli kaksi tutkimuskysym...

  5. Theraplay-terapian vaikutukset lapsiperheen arkeen ja vuorovaikutukseen

    HELLINEN, ELISA

    2009-01-01

    Tämän pro gradu -tutkielman aiheena on Theraplay-vuorovaikutusterapian vaikuttavuuden arviointi. Tarkoituksena on tutkia Theraplay-prosessin vaikutuksia lapsiperheen arkeen ja vuorovaikutukseen. Arviointi on tässä tutkimuksessa toteutettu asiakasnäkökulmasta. Tutkielman teoreettinen viitekehys keskittyy lapsiperheen määritelmään, arjen hallintaan sekä lapsiperheen vuorovaikutukseen ja siinä ilmeneviin ongelmiin. Lisäksi tutkielmassa esitellään lyhyesti Theraplayta, leikin avulla toteutettavaa...

  6. Influence in the car taxation system. Henkiloeautojen vermuutosten vaikutukset

    Alppivuori, K; Kallberg, H; Pekki, M

    1986-06-01

    In Finland the car prices are exeptionally high due to car taxes included in the new car prices. The gasoline price, which is at international leve, includes also taxes. The aim of this study was to calculate the effects of reducing the car taxes and correspondingly rising fuel taxes so that the state income car taxation does not change. The study was performed in two stages: an interview and a simulation study. The interview was aimed at the general public (postal poll) and at experts in car trade (personal interview). The aim was to reveal the parameters in the economic models explaining the behaviour of the public in car purchasing and car use. The simulation study was performed to calculate quantitative changes in, e.g. car park, traffic volumes and energy consumption caused by supposed changes in the taxation. One of the main results was that unchanged taxation is leading to rapidly increasing traffic volumes and total taxes for car use.

  7. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Kuitto, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains

  8. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Kuitto, P J

    1997-12-31

    VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains

  9. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy and industrial wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Ranta, T [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    A computer based model has been developed for calculating the production costs of industrial wood and wood fuel. Several calculation situations, which might be useful for decision-making in energy wood supply, are included into this software. The model will be easy to use for practical purposes and flexible so that different new model and changes in the basis of calculations are easy to implement. Model will offer open interfaces for importing and exporting information. Model includes selected wood delivery chains and open interfaces for adding data from different procurement sources. The cost analysis model is built on Windows-based software, SQLWindows, using different sources of data (ODBC). With the model it is possible to manage these SQLBase databases with SQL-queries. The data included in the databases origins from various energy wood sources (local communities or part of them, forestry boards planning areas or even stands ready for cutting). By knowing the planned share of first thinnings, final cuttings and other harvesting operations it is possible to estimate the potential amount of wood fuel from each area. Also databases from energy wood users, forest and transportation machinery and distances are available in the system. Using the information it is possible to find out the fuel demand of power and heating plants in each moment (e.g., amount and quality), costs of various machines (harvesters, forwarders, trucks) as well as distances between energy wood sources and users. (orig.)

  10. Development of firewood harvesting in first thinnings made by forest owners; Polttopuun korjuun kehittaeminen metsaenomistajien tekemissae ensiharvennuksissa

    Maekelae, J [Work Efficiency Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Ryynaenen, S [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the project was to increase the forest owners` own usage and deliveries of firewood. The competitiveness of the firewood was improved by developing new machines, devices and working methods for first thinnings in cooperation with machine and device manufacturers and inventors. Field tests were made during three and a half years with 16 new firewood harvesting machines and devices. Several solutions for machine felling of small wood and chunkwood were developed to serial production level. The work studies offered basic material for compiling of a cost calculation model for small-scale production of wood chips and chunkwood. The first version of the model was prepared. Basic material was collected for development of the activities and for heating contractor guide using the follow-up studies of the heating contractor targets. Firewood procurement was analysed at two district heating plants. The results of the project were reported in the form of reports, journal articles and presentations, and in exhibitions

  11. Development of firewood harvesting in first thinnings made by forest owners; Polttopuun korjuun kehittaeminen metsaenomistajien tekemissae ensiharvennuksissa

    Maekelae, J. [Work Efficiency Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Ryynaenen, S. [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to increase the forest owners` own usage and deliveries of firewood. The competitiveness of the firewood was improved by developing new machines, devices and working methods for first thinnings in cooperation with machine and device manufacturers and inventors. Field tests were made during three and a half years with 16 new firewood harvesting machines and devices. Several solutions for machine felling of small wood and chunkwood were developed to serial production level. The work studies offered basic material for compiling of a cost calculation model for small-scale production of wood chips and chunkwood. The first version of the model was prepared. Basic material was collected for development of the activities and for heating contractor guide using the follow-up studies of the heating contractor targets. Firewood procurement was analysed at two district heating plants. The results of the project were reported in the form of reports, journal articles and presentations, and in exhibitions

  12. The psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal; Kaeytetyn ydinpolttoaineen loppusijoituksen psykososiaaliset vaikutukset

    Paavola, J.; Eraenen, L. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Psychology

    1999-03-01

    In this report the potential psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal to inhabitants of a community are assessed on the basis of earlier research. In studying the situation, different interpretations and meanings given to nuclear power are considered. First, spent fuel disposal is studied as fear-arousing and consequently stressful situation. Psychosomatic effects of stress and coping strategies used by an individual are presented. Stress as a collective phenomenon and coping mechanisms available for a community are also assessed. Stress reactions caused by natural disasters and technological disasters are compared. Consequences of nuclear power plant accidents are reviewed, e.g. research done on the accident at Three Mile Island power plant. Reasons for the disorganising effect on a community caused by a technological disaster are compared to the altruistic community often seen after natural disasters. The potential reactions that a spent fuel disposal plant can arouse in inhabitants are evaluated. Both short-term and long-term reactions are evaluated as well as reactions under normal functioning, after an incident and as a consequence of an accident. Finally an evaluation of how the decision-making system and citizens` opportunity to influence the decision-making affect the experience of threat is expressed. As a conclusion we see that spent fuel disposal can arouse fear and stress in people. However, the level of the stress is probably low. The stress is at strongest at the time of the starting of the spent fuel disposal plant. With time people get used to the presence of the plant and the threat experienced gets smaller. (orig.) 63 refs.

  13. Implementation of Industrial Emissions Directive in Finland. Impacts assessment; Teollisuuspaeaestoedirektiivin toimeenpanon vaikutukset Suomessa

    Attila, M.; Groenroos, J.; Jantunen, J.

    2012-08-15

    The report deals with environmental, administrative and social effects of the Industrial Emissions Directive (Iced) implementation in Finland. The scope of industrial activities under the IED was determined and compared with the IPPC-directive and existing national environmental legislation. The sectors specifically looked into were large combustion plants, pulp and paper industry, iron and steel industry, as well as intensive rearing of pigs and poultry. Particularly the application of best available techniques (BAT), emissions and environmental impacts within these sectors in Finland were evaluated. The study included interviews of permit and enforcement authorities about their views of the effects on authority tasks, human resource needs and other aspects including administrative procedures. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were also made for industry representatives. Moreover, impacts on emergence and dissemination of innovations were assessed. According to the IED the environmental permit conditions including the emission limit values are to be based on the BAT conclusions, which are reviewed approximately every 10 years. Public consultation of permit applications, permit decisions and supervision documents through electronic media is strengthened which improves means for participation of citizens in the environmental permit process and enforcement activities. The implementation of the IED brings about significant emission reductions in large combustion plants over the next decade and thereafter. To some extent also emissions from pulp and paper industry as well as metal industry in Finland will be reduced. On European level the IED will produce positive effects through reduced transboundary air pollution. The implementation of the IED requires significant investments in large combustion plants, in particular, but also in many processing industry installations. More human resources also need to be allocated to permit and enforcement authority functions for the IED activities. Monitoring and enforcement programmes of IED industries must be reviewed. The implementation of the IED may create new markets for the Finnish Clean Tech particularly in energy production, pulp and paper sector and metal processing industry. (orig.)

  14. Osapäiväetätyön vaikutukset työhyvinvointiin Kevassa

    Pylvänäinen, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää vaikuttaako osapäiväetätyö työntekijän stressitasoon, parantaako osapäiväetätyö työntekijän vaikutusmahdollisuuksia omaan työhön, parantaako osapäiväetätyö työntekijän elämänhallintaa ja työn hallintaa, vaikuttaako osapäiväetätyö työtyytyväisyyteen, miten osapäiväetätyö vaikuttaa työntekijän työn ja vapaa-ajan yhteensovittamiseen, sekä miten muiden työntekijöiden mielipiteet ja kokemukset osapäiväetätyöstä vaikuttavat osapäiväetätyöntekijän työhyvinvo...

  15. Tributyylitina (TBT) maaympäristössä: esiintyminen, vaikutukset ja riskit

    Lukkari, Tuomas; Koponen, Kari; Tuomi, Pirjo; Dahlbo, Kim; Rossi, Esko; Järvinen, Kimmo

    2006-01-01

    Organometalleihin kuuluvan tributyylitinan (TBT) esiintymisestä, vaikutuksista ja mahdollisista riskeistä maaympäristössä on vain vähän tutkimustietoa. Tiedot perustuvat pääasiassa vesiympäristöissä tehtyihin tutkimuksiin. TBT:a ei esiinny ympäristössä luonnostaan, vaan se on peräisin ihmisen toiminnasta. TBT:n päästöt maaperään ovat peräisin mm. TBT:a sisältävien valmisteiden käytöstä, lähinnä laivojen pohjamaaleista sekä mahdollisesti pilaantuneiden sedimenttien loppusijoituksesta. TBT:n...

  16. Influence of radioactive fallout on water supply and sewerage in Finland; Radioaktiivisen laskeuman vaikutukset vesihuoltoon

    Rantavaara, A; Saxen, R; Puhakainen, M [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Hatva, T; Ahosilta, P; Tenhunen, J [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    The report reviews the practices and organization of water supply and sewerage in Finland and is related to their response to radioactive fallout situations. The contribution of drinking water to the internal radiation dose caused by radioactive fallout has earlier been small in Finland. However, in a wide-scale fallout situation, the decreasing of collective dose received from water may be justified, if the dose can be reduced at a reasonable cost, for instance by a temporary change of the raw water source. Efficient exchange of information between radiation protection and water supply experts is important for successful dose reduction measures. In Finland waterworks deliver tap water to 4.2 million people. Half of the water is ground water, and generally very well protected against fallout radioactivity. The other half is treated surface water. (6 figs., 5 tabs.).

  17. Tietohallintolaki ja sen vaikutukset sähköisen asioinnin kokonaisarkkitehtuuriin

    Lindblad-Ahonen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Tutkielman tavoitteena on tutkia miten uusi tietohallintolaki sekä sen asettamat vaatimukset vaikuttavat julkishallinnon (yhteisten) tietoteknisten ratkaisujen kehittämiseen ja toteuttamiseen. Vaikutusta pyritään selvittämään tutkimalla miten eri kaupungit ovat kuvanneet toimintojaan kokonaisarkkitehtuurin näkökulmasta, varsinkin varhaiskasvatuksen sähköisen asioinnin osalta. Tietohallintolaki edellyttää, että julkisen hallinnon viranomaisen on tietojärjestelmien yhteentoimivuuden mahdoll...

  18. Median vaikutukset 0-12 -vuotiaiden lasten terveyteen ja hyvinvointiin : Kirjallisuuskatsaus

    Paalimäki, Niina

    2015-01-01

    Digitaalinen media, kuten tietokone ja televisio, ovat nykyisin merkittävä osa lapsen arkipäivää iästä riippumatta. Lähes jokaisessa länsimaalaisessa perheessä on televisio ja lisäksi lapset altistuvat usein muullekin medialle, kuten videopeleille ja internetille, niin kotona kuin kodin ulkopuolella. Myös lehdet ja kirjat ovat edelleen osa lapsen mediaympäristöä. Mediankäytön lisääntymisen myötä media on entistä useammin noussut puheenaiheeksi eri konteksteissa ja viime aikoina etenkin lasten...

  19. Rakentamisen aikaiset vesistövaikutukset : rakennusvesistä aiheutuva kuormitus ja sen hallinnan suunnittelu

    Nurminen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin, minkälaista kuormitusta rakennustyömailta pintavaluntana johtuvat valumavedet eli rakennusvedet aiheuttavat vastaanottaville vesistöille ja mitkä tekijät vaikuttavat kuormituksen määrään ja laatuun. Yleisesti hulevesien hallinnassa keskitytään torjumaan niiden haitallisia vaikutuksia jo olemassa olevilla asuin-, teollisuus- tai kaupunkialueilla. Rakennustöiden aikaista kuormitusta ei nykyisellään huomioida riittävästi. Kuormitus on kuitenkin merkittävää ja ...

  20. Mobiilideittailusovellus Tinderin käyttö ja sen vaikutukset ihmisen identiteettiin ja itsensä esittämiseen

    Puranen, Juuso

    2016-01-01

    Tinderin kaltaisten mobiilisovellusten käyttö on nopeassa ajassa muovannut nykyajan deittailukulttuuria ja tarjonnut uusia keinoja etsiä ja tavata uusia ih-misiä. Tinderiä ei ole kuitenkaan ilmiönä tutkittu laajalti, vaikka mobiilideittai-lusovellus on tehnyt internetin välityksellä tapahtuvasta suhteiden muodosta-misesta hyväksyttävämpää ja jopa trendikästä. Tämän tutkielman tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten Tinderin käyttö vaikuttaa ihmisen identiteettiin ja itsensä esittämiseen. Teoree...

  1. International bioenergymarkets - the effects of biofuelpolicies on agriculture and arable area; Kansainvaelinen bioenergiakauppa. Biopolttoainetavoitteiden vaikutukset maatalouteen ja viljelyalan kaeyttoeoen

    Rintamaeki, H.; Aro-Heinilae, E.

    2012-11-01

    The worldwide production of biofuels has increased continuously in this millennium. The biofuels have been seen as a means to prevent the climate change, to reduce the dependence of the fossil oil resources and to promote the development of the rural areas. The encouraging factor has been official promotion measures which have operated and have provided the necessary conditions for the growth of both the demand and the supply. The rapid growth of biofuels production has raised many concerns among experts worldwide, in particular regard to sustainability issues and the threat posed to food security. The main purpose of this report was to examine and quantify as to what extent the biofuels production may alter the long-term outlook for agriculture and of the cultivation land. The subject of the examination was liquid biofuels that have been meant for traffic use. In the report several scenarios where examined after Fischer (2009) research results for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050. The scenario based quantitative results to be obtained from the study of Fischer are based on the AEZ and WFS models. The models comprise among others demographic and socio-economic factors, the dynamics of production and consumption and the dynamics of the international trade. It is supposed that the demand for liquid biofuels for transportation use is increasing 150 per cent by the year 2030 from the level of 2010. It is anticipated that the demand is increasing everywhere in the world, especially in the developing countries, when the United States and Europe remain the biggest consumers of biofuels. Even though the majority of the biofuels will be produced and spent locally in the future, it is anticipated that their international trade is increasing significantly. The methods of the expansion of the biofuel production are state subsidies, the enlarged objectives of the use of biofuels and the compulsory mixing ratios. The growth of the production of the first generation biofuels which is based on corn and the oil seed affects the prices of foods and weakens access of especially the world's poorest to the food market. Biofuels production has increased so direct as indirect changes into the use of the land. Direct changes refer to the introduction of the new land to the biofuels production. The indirect changes in the use of the land can be the result from biofuels production displacing services or commodities (food, feed, fiber products) on land currently in production. It is supposed the growth of the arable land in the different biofuel scenarios being 1-4 per cent at a global level compared with a situation without the production of biofuels. Growth pressure of arable land remain moderate, however effects to food prices with firs generation biofuels are high, which dilutes food security. This comes crucial when taken into account pressure that comes from population growth, as well as the fact that effects allocates the most towards the most poor which use prominent share of their income for staple foodstuff purchase. Development of second generation biofuels, which production is based on byproduct and wastes or biomass that is cultivated in marginal lands, is essential to meet political biofuel targets in sustainable manner. (orig.)

  2. The effects of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on regional economy; Kaeytetyn ydinpolttoaineen loppusijoituslaitoksen aluetaloudelliset vaikutukset

    Laakso, S. [Seppo Laakso Urban Research (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    The study deals with the economic effects of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on the alternative location municipalities - Eurajoki, Kuhmo, Loviisa and Aeaenekoski - and their neighbouring areas (in Finland). The economic influence of the facility on industrials, employment, population, property markets, community structure and local public economics are analysed applying the approach of regional economics. The evaluation of the facility`s effects on employment is based on the input-output analysis. Both the direct and indirect effects of the construction and the functioning of the facility are taken into account in the analysis. According to the results the total increase in employment caused by the construction of the facility is about 350 persons annually, at national level. Some 150 persons of this are estimated to live in the wider region and 100-150 persons in the facility`s influence area consisting of the location municipality and neighbouring municipalities. This amount is reached at the top stage of construction (around the year 2018). At the production stage - after the year 2020 - the facility`s effects on employment will be concentrated significantly more on the location municipality and the rest of the influence area than on the rest of the country, compared with the construction stage. The estimated employment growth in the production stage is approximately 160 persons at national level of which 100-120 persons live in the candidate municipality and in the rest of the influence area. There is a direct link between local employment and population development. The growth of jobs attracts immigrants affecting the development of both the number and the structure of population. The facility`s effects on population development in the alternative location municipalities are analysed using comparative population forecasts based on demographic population projection methods. According to the results the job growth caused by the facility will increase the population in the candidate municipality by 100-200 persons, depending on the municipality. Relative to the total number of population this means a 1-2 percent growth compared with the alternative that the facility will not be located in the municipality. The increase of population caused by the facility has an effect on the demand for housing. The increased demand may cause a temporary growth in the housing prices and privately owned residential lots, as well as an increase in the construction of new houses and dwellings. The facility has also a significant influence on local public economics. It will pay property tax to the municipality. In addition, the employment and population growth caused by the facility increase the municipal income tax. On the other hand, the growth of tax income to the municipality will cause a cut in municipal grants from the central government. The increase of population caused by the facility also influences the demand and costs of local public services provided by the municipality. (orig.) 54 refs.

  3. Raskauden vaikutukset suun terveyteen : Oppimateriaali raskaana olevien suun terveydestä Oulun Ammattikorkeakoulun kätilöopiskelijoille

    Lesonen, Jemina; Pääkkönen, Pauliina

    2015-01-01

    Raskaus vaikuttaa suuhun usealla tavalla esimerkiksi estrogeenin ja progesteronin pitoisuuksien muutosten vuoksi. Raskausaikana sylki happamoituu ja sen puskurointikyky heikkenee, suu voi tuntua kuivalta ja mikrobien määrä suussa kasvaa. Esimerkiksi nämä tekijät yhdessä mahdollisen napostelun ja raskauspahoinvoinnin kanssa vaikuttavat raskaana olevan karies- ja eroosioriskiin. Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tuottaa selkeä ja asiantuntijatietoon perustuva sähköinen o...

  4. Effects of the 2011 energy tax reform to the Finnish national economy; Vuoden 2011 energiaverouudistuksen kansantaloudelliset vaikutukset

    Honkatukia, J.; Tamminen, S.

    2013-05-15

    In this report, we use a dynamic AGE model to study the effects of the energy tax reform that took place in 2011 and is to be completed by 2015. We construct a counterfactual baseline which evaluates, how the economy would develop had the reform not been implemented. We find that the reform curbs domestic consumption and pushes domestic wages down compared to the baseline, improving the country's external balance. We also study the effects of the 2009 removal of a part of the employers' social security contributions, which the energy tax reform was intended to finance. The 2009 reform increased overall labour demand, resulting in higher wages and higher domestic demand, which had the opposite effects on external balance. (orig.)

  5. Developing harvesting of fuelwood in first thinnings carried out by forest owners in Finland. Final report; Polttopuun korjuun kehittaeminen metsaenomistajien tekemissae ensiharvennuksissa. Bioenergian tutkimusohjelman tutkimusprojektin 108 (1993-1995) loppuraportti

    Ryynaenen, S

    1997-12-31

    The objective of the nation-wide Bioenergy Research Programme (1993-98) is to promote the economically profitable use of bioenergy in Finland by means of technical development. The purpose of this Work Efficiency Institute`s project was to promote the small-scale use of fuelwood by developing, in co-operation with the machine manufacturers, wood harvesting technology and methods based on the use of agricultural tractors in first-thinnings. An equipment register and a computation model version for research purposes and for the calculation of the costs of small-scale production of fuel chips and chopped fuelwood was formulated in the course of the project. Field studies were conducted on six new harvesters for mounting onto the hydraulic cranes of agricultural tractors. Fuelwood-chopping machines equipped with feeding devices can be used to double the productivity when compared to conventional machines. Due to the loading imposed by the work, the job of transferring longwood to the machine should be done using a crane. In commercial production of fuelwood, improving the quality of the chopped fuelwood requires further development of the machines used for this purpose. According to the results of the study covering seven agricultural-tractor-mountable chippers, the chip size distributions obtained were good for all timber assortments. Energy entrepreneurship offers the farmer-forest-owner with opportunities for marketing fuelwood harvested from his woodlot, lifting the degree of utilisation the farm`s harvesting equipment, and extra income

  6. Jäsen 360° -datan vaikutukset Ylöjärven seurakunnan työn kehittämisprosessissa

    Korppoo-Seppänen, Riikka

    2017-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, onko Ylöjärven seurakunnan työn kehittämisprosessissa hyödynnetty Jäsen 360° -dataa ja miten se on vaikuttanut työn tekemiseen ja koko seurakunnan toiminnan suunnitteluun ja ohjaukseen. Tarkoituksena oli myös selvittää minkälaisissa tilanteissa ja miten kehittämisprosessi on muuttanut henkilöstön toimintatapoja sekä onko Jäsen 360° -datan avulla muutettu toiminnan suuntaamista. Tutkimuksen avulla selvitettiin Jäsen 360° -datan käytön rajoitteit...

  7. -30 per cent EU-wide emission cut from the perspective of the Finnish economy; 30 prosentin vaehennystavoitteeseen siirtymisen energia- ja kansantaloudelliset vaikutukset

    Honkatukia, J.; Koljonen, T.; Lehtilae, A.

    2013-03-15

    The Eu is considering the adoption of a tighter emission target, to replace the agreed -20 per cent emission target already agreed on. In this study, we analyze the implications of the proposed -30 per cent EU-wide emission cut from the perspective of the Finnish economy. We use an energy system model to study the technological choices and direct energy and investment costs of the stricter target, and an applied general equilibrium model to analyse its economic implications at industry and macroeconomic levels. We find that the stricter target increases the economic costs roughly proportionally to the abatement effort and consist mostly of the welfare losses of taxation. (orig.)

  8. Potential and impacts of car-sharing in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Tampere and Turku; Autojen yhteiskayton potentiaali ja vaikutukset paakaupunkiseudulla, Turussa ja Tampereella

    Voltti, V.

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the potential and impacts of car-sharing in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Tampere and Turku. Car-sharing means flexible car rental suitable for everyday needs. It is a service that is growing rapidly in Central Europe and North America. The number car-sharing users has increased, for example, in Belgium by approximately 35% and in Great Britain by up to 70-100% each year. The characteristics of car sharers have been studied on the basis of an online questionnaire aimed at the customers of the City Car Club operating in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The potential number of car-sharing customers has been estimated, for example, with the so called 'Kulkuri' postal survey material and the National Travel Survey (HLT) material, based on a population-based cohort. In addition to the questionnaire material, overseas studies and statistical data from car-sharing operators in various countries have also been used as source and reference material. Car sharers are typically young adults. In the Helsinki metropolitan area, almost half of car sharers are families with children. The most popular reasons for using car sharing cars include shopping trips and various leisure trips. The daily travel of car sharers relies strongly on public transport. As a result of its transparent cost structure, a car-sharing car is not used in vain, and therefore public transport, cycling and walking remain as primary modes of travel. Approximately 60% of households using the car-sharing service have not owned a car before joining the car-sharing service. After joining, about 80% of households do not own a car. Approximately 30% of customers give up a previously owned car and about 20% of customers who did not own a car will not purchase one, either. One car-sharing car replaces about 20 private cars, and therefore more widespread use of car-sharing will save street space to a considerable extent. The mobility options for car sharers who were previously without a car will improve, but passenger car kilometres and emissions will increase. Those giving up their car or giving up purchasing one are in a minority in numerical terms, but their passenger car kilometres are significantly reduced. As a net impact of various changes, carbon dioxide emissions from transport will fall by approximately one-third as a result of car-sharing. Studies conducted in Finland, Europe and North America have reached more or less the same conclusion. There are approximately 100,000 potential car sharers in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Turku and Tampere. This potential amounts to some 5% of the population. A more narrowly determined key potential is approximately 40% of the full potential, i.e. about 40,000 car sharers. Based on a European comparison, reaching the key potential is realistic with a time span of 10-20 years. The study presents a forecast of the number of car sharing users based on the current trend as well as in the target situation for 2020 and 2030. The impacts of car-sharing in forecast situations are also presented in the study (orig.)

  9. Finland's water resources and climate change. Effects and adaptation. Final report of the WaterAdapt-project; Suomen vesivarat ja ilmastonmuutos; vaikutukset ja muutoksiin sopeutuminen. WaterAdapt-projektin loppuraportti

    Veijalainen, N.; Jakkila, J.; Nurmi, T.; Vehvilaeinen, B.; Marttunen, M.; Aaltonen, J.

    2012-05-15

    In this research climate change impacts on hydrology, water resources and lake regulation were estimated in Finland. Changes in discharges and water levels from the reference period 1971-2000 to periods 2010-39 and 2040-69 were estimated for 15 watersheds based on different climate scenarios and simulations with a hydrological model, the Watershed Simulation and Forecasting System (WSFS). On ten lakes the impacts of hydrological changes caused by climate change for the different uses and state of the lakes were evaluated. In addition climate change impacts on ground water and floods were estimated. The research was carried out in the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) as part of WaterAdapt (Finland's water resources and climate change - Effects and adaptation) -project financed by the Ministry of agriculture and forestry. Based on the results of the WaterAdapt-project, climate change will significantly change the seasonal variation of river discharges and lake water levels. Spring snowmelt floods will decrease due to warmer winters especially in Southern and Central Finland. An earlier spring will caused decreases in summer water levels in many lakes and low water levels in late summer will become increasingly problematic in some lakes. Water levels and discharges during winter will increase significantly especially in Southern and Central Finland, since a larger proportion of precipitation will fall as rain and snow will melt more during winter. Different climate scenarios produce significantly different results, but the direction of change is similar in all the scenarios. Floods decrease in some parts of Finland due to decreases in snow storage, but according to most climate scenarios increases in precipitation will cause floods to increase in large central lakes and their outflow rivers in large watersheds. The results demonstrate that current regulation permits will become impractical in many lakes when the climate changes. Adaptation to climate changes will require changes in regulation permits and practices on many lakes in order to take into account the impacts of warmer winters, earlier springs and longer summers. If the regulation permits and practices are changed, the new regulation permits should be flexible to function in a variety of conditions. Results of impacts assessments showed that, in most watersheds, changing regulation would cause the risk of negative impacts of climate change to decrease and the possibility of positive impacts to increase. Changing lake regulation is one way to adapt to climate change impacts. Other adaptation measures in water resources management include land use planning, embankments, temporary flood protection, flood insurance, introducing regulation to new lakes, construction of submerged weirs and improvements in the security of water supply systems. (orig.)

  10. Compounds in paper machine water circulations and the effect of closure on the papermaking process and product quality; Paperitehtaan kiertovesiin rikastuvat aineet ja vesikiertojen sulkemisen vaikutukset paperivalmistusprosessiin ja lopputuotteen ominaisuuksiin - MPKT 01

    Laine, J E; Paltakari, J; Paulapuro, H [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Paper Technology

    1999-12-31

    The goal of the project is to study the factors involved in the closing of the water circulation of a paper machine from the standpoint of the properties of the paper as well as the stability and the runnability of the process. The purpose is to identify critical variables of the process, their mechanisms and to find the best possible strategy to run the paper machine. (orig.)

  11. Compounds in paper machine water circulations and the effect of closure on the papermaking process and product quality; Paperitehtaan kiertovesiin rikastuvat aineet ja vesikiertojen sulkemisen vaikutukset paperivalmistusprosessiin ja lopputuotteen ominaisuuksiin - MPKT 01

    Laine, J.E.; Paltakari, J.; Paulapuro, H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Paper Technology

    1998-12-31

    The goal of the project is to study the factors involved in the closing of the water circulation of a paper machine from the standpoint of the properties of the paper as well as the stability and the runnability of the process. The purpose is to identify critical variables of the process, their mechanisms and to find the best possible strategy to run the paper machine. (orig.)

  12. Food waste prevention - effects on greenhouse gas emissions and costs for waste producers and actions to reduce waste volume; Elintarvikejaetteen synnyn ehkaeisy. Vaikutukset kasvihuonekaasupaeaestoeihin ja jaetteen tuottajan kohtaamiin kustannuksiin sekae keinoja maeaeraen vaehentaemiseen

    Teerioja, N.; Anderson, R. [HSY, Helsinki (Finland); Heino, E.; Rasi, S. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    Wasted food causes a lot of environmental effects during its life cycle. These effects are unnecessary if the generated waste could have been avoided. In addition, the wasted food causes redundant costs for the waste producers. The objective of this study is to assess, on the basis of existing studies, how much it is possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and costs for waste producers in the HSY area by means of food waste prevention. The waste producers considered in this study are households, public sector, retail and other private sector. Additionally, concrete measures to prevent bio-waste are studied. The impacts of food waste prevention are assessed by defining the CO{sub 2}-eq- emissions per one food waste kilogram in three different life cycle phases: the early phase (from primary production to retail), the usage phase (from retail to the end user's waste bin) and waste treatment. The costs that waste producers face include purchase costs, usage phase costs (e.g. cooking and storing) and waste fees. Moreover, the total effects of food waste prevention are analyzed in a case study which includes two different cases in the year 2020: the base case and the prevention case. In the base case, the food waste volume is growing, among other things, concurrently with the population, while in the prevention case the food and bio-waste prevention is improved in such a way that the amount of food waste is 30% lower than in 2009. According to the results, one kg of food waste causes 2.9- 5.2 kg CO{sub 2}-eq- emissions during its life cycle depending on the sector. The variation results mainly from different waste compositions in the different sectors. The majority of the emissions are generated during the early phase of the life cycle. Correspondingly, one kg of food waste causes a cost of euro 3.60-8.90 for the waste producer depending on the sector. On average, two thirds of the costs result from purchases, but there is a great deal of variation between the waste producers. According to the results of the case study, there will be 68 000 tonnes less food waste generated in the prevention case than in the base case in 2020: 32 500 tonnes less in households, 8 500 in public sector, 18 000 in retail and 9 000 in other private sector. There will also be 300 000 tonnes less CO{sub 2}-eq- emissions in 2020 due to food waste prevention, which on average corresponds to an annual reduction of approximately 27 000 t CO{sub 2}-eq. In addition, the waste producers save almost euro 400 million in 2020, expressed in real value year 2010. In conclusion, food waste prevention decreases global warming and saves money for the waste producers. Achieving the target of the prevention case, however, requires concrete actions from the society and waste producers themselves. (orig.)

  13. Possible effects of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on consumer demand for goods and services produced in the host community. An overview of the Finnish study; Ydinjaetteen loppusijoituslaitoksen mahdolliset vaikutukset kuluttajien valintoihin ja loppusijoituspaikkakunnan tuotteiden menekkiin markkinoilla

    Koskinen, I.; Niva, M.; Timonen, P. [Kuluttajatutkimuskeskus, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    The report provides an overview of a series of reports evaluating the possible impacts of a proposed Finnish high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository on consumer behavior and, subsequently, on the host community` s economy. In addition to the overview, the study consists of three parts: Report I reviews the literature on the impacts of analogous industrial facilities; Report II examines the possible reactions of industry and trade, and Report III studies the consumers` risk perceptions in relation to their consuming practices. Theoretically, this series of reports is based on previous research on risk perception, with two modifications. Report II studies products currently available on the consumer market to find out what possibilities the marketplace offers to a consumer interested in environmental risks to act according to his/her risk perception. Report III studies those everyday consuming practices on the basis of which consumers define risks. These two contexts mold the consumer reaction to risks that stem from industrial installations. The proposed HLNW repository benefits the host community in various direct and indirect ways, and may create new opportunities for developing the local economy. The proposed repository may also have negative impacts on the local economy. Food production in particular and, to a lesser extent, tourism might be affected harmfully. Consumer reaction is unlikely to be targeted at other goods produced in the proposed host communities. Under normal conditions (i.e., the repository functions as planned), consumers have fairly few possibilities to identify the products of this community without an extensive search for information, given the structure of the current food market: the proposed communities have few products with specific local identity. Also, fairly few consumers are willing to spend a substantial amount of time for studying the products and their raw materials in detail. Also, consumers are confident that they can manage the risks that may lurk in products. Thus, under normal conditions, the proposed repository might primarily harm the market for more expensive products (homes, summer cottages), as well as the market for products whose image is based on cleanliness and purity, e.g. travel services based on roaming wild, unspoiled nature. There is not much of this kind of production in the areas close to the proposed repository, and the total value of such products for the local economies is small. However, some consumers have strongly anti-nuclear sentiments, and others may avoid risks due to various situational reasons (e.g. pregnancy). They are more likely to react negatively. Under abnormal conditions (e.g. large accidents and recurrent emissions) which are widely publicised, more extensive consumer reaction can be expected. However, according to the literature review, these market perturbations are usually short-lived. Still, some consumers seem to withdraw from the markets permanently after such conditions. Abnormal conditions, thus, constitute the main economic risk for the host community. (orig.)

  14. The social impacts of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the point of view of the inhabitants. Interview research; Kaeytetyn ydinpolttoaineen loppusijoituksen sosiaaliset vaikutukset kuntalaisten naekoekulmasta. Haastattelututkimus

    Viinikainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Centre for Urban and Regional Studies

    1998-12-01

    The research studied the social impacts of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel by the means of qualitative methods. The principal research material consisted of 49 theme interviews carried out in four municipalities, Eurajoki, Kuhmo, Loviisa and Aeaenekoski, all of which have a candidate site for spent fuel disposal. The interviews covered residents living near the possible disposal site, local authorities from different sectors of the municipality, social workers, youth workers and teachers, local businesses, trade and other organisations as well as environmental and citizen movements. When considering the risk conceptions and worries over safety, a fairly consistent view on the safety of the different phases of the project can be identified in all the municipalities. The transportation of nuclear waste aroused definitely the most worries over safety, especially because of the danger of sabotage and traffic accidents. When considering the encapsulation stage` the interviews revealed that risks are associated with this stage because it entails a `human factor`: the treatment of a dangerous substance in a disposal site above ground is considered hazardous. When considering the time after the closing of the disposal system, an opinion could be formed on the basis of the interviews that a final disposal system in hard bedrock would probably perform adequately in the short term but there can be no certain knowledge of risks in the long term. Confidence or lack of confidence in the safety of the project appeared as the most important factor causing social impacts. As a summary of the results, it can be concluded that especially (1) familiarity of the risk and (2) the possibility that taking risks are advantageous to oneself increase the acceptability of the risk. These are also the factors which distinguish the municipalities with nuclear power plants (Loviisa and Eurajoki) from the other two municipalities. The fair allocation of risks as well as the division of advantages and disadvantages appear to be an essential matter affecting the acceptability and risk evaluation of the project. Almost all the interviewees were of the opinion that nuclear waste should be disposed where it is produced. The views on the effects of the project on the image, nature and pleasantness of the municipality and the opinions on the economic effects and the significance on the development of the municipality differed in each locality according to the local social situation, history and development prognosis. The final disposal issue brought about conflicts connected to values, interests as well as facts (in other words probable effects) in the municipalities. (orig.) 54 refs.

  15. The target programme for water pollution control up to year 2005. The impact to alternative pollution load levels on inland waterways; Vesiensuojelun tavoitteet vuoteen 2005. Vaihtoehtoisten kuormitustasojen vaikutukset sisaevesissae

    Marttunen, M. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    The publication presents waterway-specific pollution loading surveys connected with the target programme for water pollution control up to 2005 and the results of a survey concerning inland waters. The work evaluates and compares the magnitude and significance of future pollution loads from various sources on the state of the waterway and assesses the impact on the condition of the waterway of two alternative pollution loading levels. The survey was conducted on 24 lakes or parts thereof and 10 rivers. Sixteen of these are subject to loading from the pulls and paper industry. The waterways selected for examination were especially ones for which relatively recent loading analyses were available and to which water quality models have been applied. The general classification of fitness for use was used as a benchmark for changes occurring in the water quality of the waterways. The findings show that particularly the large waterway systems can be moved into a higher fitness for use class by reducing substantially the nutrient loading. Significant improvement in the condition of eutrophic lakes and coastal rivers with their internal loads is difficult. (orig.) 26 refs.

  16. "Kukaan ei ole kysynyt pitkään aikaan, että mitä mulle kuuluu" : Elämän Eväspaketti -kurssin vaikutukset nuorten aikuisten elämään

    Viiltola, Pieta

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö on tehty Jokilaaksojen Tiimi ry:n Elämän Eväspaketti –projektille. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli kuvata kaikkien Elämän Eväspaketti –projektin kursseilla mukana olleiden nuorten aikuisten kokemuksia kurssin vaikuttavuudesta heidän elämäänsä. Tavoitteena oli selvittää, että onko projekti päässyt tavoitteisiinsa tämän kokeilu –ja kehittämishankkeensa aikana. Tutkimuksessa on tuotu esille se, että mitä hyötyä tuosta projektista oli. Tutkimusongelmina oli selvittää, mikä kunkin ...

  17. Wind farms' influences for traffic safety. Study of distance requirements for road traffic, railway traffic, sea traffic and air travel; Tuulivoimaloiden vaikutukset liikenneturvallisuuteen. Selvitys etaeisyysvaatimuksista tie-, rautatie-, meri- ja lentoliikenteen osalta

    Hytoenen, K.; Harju, M.; Piispanen, J.; Haulos, S.

    2012-11-15

    As wind power projects, both design and implementation, have increased rapidly, wind power manufacturers have stated that infrastructure of traffic restricts and complicates implementation of wind power projects. Failure of wind farm and both snow and ice thrown from blades and tower are commonly thought to be dangerous for settlement and for road, railway and sea traffic. Based on the accessible information accidents, which are connected to wind farms, won't cause notable harm for outsiders. Majority of the human injury and fatal accidents concerns the personnel of the wind farm in implementation and operational phases, not outsiders. Purpose of this study has been to clarify how distances requirements in different forms of traffic in Finland differ from other countries that are included in this comparison, and to find grounds for possibly revising these guidelines. In Finland there are still longest distance requirements when placing wind farm nearby the main roads, even after Finnish Traffic Agency revised guidelines in 2012. Regarding roads, differences between all the countries were minor. Also distance requirements regarding railways differ relatively little. Sweden has shortest distance requirement. Distance requirements in Finland and Denmark have been reduced in past few years. Any of these countries have not stated actual defined distance requirements related for example to shipping channels or lanes. International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO has settled internationally rules for obstacle limitation surface nearby airports and marking flight obstacles. Countries have stated national aviation regulations according to these rules and for this reason these regulations are quite consistent. In this study distance requirements are recommended to be calculated for certain basis. In case of roads and railways a general minimum distance requirement is suggested to be 1 x wind farm overall height. Road owner is allowed to require higher distance for reasonable reasons, for example when main road's busy junctions are nearby. Risk assessment should be required when constructing offshore wind farms and -parks. It's recommended to clarify and simplify zones of flight obstacle permits nationally for air travels part, that planning of wind farms is based on. It would be appropriate to create a continuous practice and process for performing wide-range influence and risk assessment. (orig.)

  18. PPAR agonists in modulating the inflammatory properties of macrophages

    Paukkeri, Erja-Leena

    2015-01-01

    PPAR-agonistien vaikutukset makrofagien aktivaatioon Tulehdus on keskeinen tekijä sekä perinteisten tulehdussairauksien, kuten nivelreuman, että lihavuuteen liittyvien sairauksien, kuten aikuistyypin diabeteksen ja sydän- ja verisuonisairauksien, tautiprosesseissa. Nivelreumassa liiallinen tulehdusreaktio aiheuttaa kudostuhoa ja kipua sekä hankaloittaa potilaan kykyä työskennellä ja toimia yhteiskunnassa. Lihavuuteen liittyvä tulehdus on voimakkuudeltaan hiljaisempaa kuin nivelreumassa, m...

  19. Toiminnanohjaus nuorilla aikuisilla, joilla on lukivaikeus – neuropsykologisesti arvioidun kognitiivisen suoriutumisen ja itsearvioinnin näkökulmat

    Rantaniska, Viliina

    2015-01-01

    Kehityksellisessä lukivaikeudessa henkilöllä ilmenee kouluopetuksesta ja normaalista älykkyydestä huolimatta merkittäviä puutteita lukemaan ja kirjoittamaan oppimisessa. Lukivaikeuden vaikutukset ulottuvat usein läpi elämän. Fonologiset ongelmat on yleisesti liitetty lukivaikeuteen, mutta todennäköisesti lukivaikeuden tausta on monitekijäinen, ja muun muassa toiminnanohjauksen ongelmat on liitetty lukivaikeuteen. Toiminnanohjaus on joukko erilaisia, oman toiminnan suunnitteluun, aloittamiseen...

  20. Synkkä matkailu - Matkailijan henkilökohtainen kokemus

    Riikonen, Veera; Sulkinoja, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Synkkä matkailu ei ole ilmiönä uusi, mutta akateeminen kiinnostus kohteita ja tutkimuksia kohtaan on verrattain uusi ilmiö. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, mitä synkkä matkailu (Dark Tourism) on ja kuinka moniulotteisesta ja henkilökohtaisesta matkailumuodosta on kyse. Synkän matkailun vaikutukset ja motiivit perustuvat pitkälle jokaisen matkailijan henkilökohtaisiin lähtökohtiin ja tuntemuksiin. Opinnäytetyö pohjautuu kirjallisuuteen ja haastatteluun. Puolistrukturoituihin haast...

  1. IMS-järjestelmän käyttäminen ammattikeittiöiden ilmanvaihdossa

    Marttinen, Olli

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tilaajana toimii Jeven Oy. Jeven Oy on vuonna 1989 perustettu mikkeliläinen ammattikeittiöiden ilmanvaihtoon erikoistunut yritys. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää IMSjärjestelmän käyttömahdollisuus ammattikeittiöiden ilmanvaihdossa sekä vaikutukset lämmöntalteenottojärjestelmään. Opinnäytetyön lähtökohtana oli tutustua erityyppisiin ja kokoisiin ammattikeittiöihin. Kohteiksi valikoituivat Pohjois-Karjalan Keskussairaala (PKSSK) Joensuussa, Ravintola Talli Mikkelissä j...

  2. Aistikokemusten kartoitus ja tarinallistamisen vaikutus luontoretkellä

    Palo, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Tällä opinnäytetyöllä oli kaksi tavoitetta. Ensimmäinen tavoite oli kartoittaa aistikokemuksia luontoretken yhteydessä ja toinen tavoite oli selvittää tarinallistamisen vaikutukset aistikokemuksiin luontoretkellä. Opinnäytetyö on osa Matkailijan moniaistinen palvelukokemus –hanketta, jonka tarkoituksena on palvelumuotoilun menetelmiä soveltamalla selvittää asiakkaan kokemuksia siitä, miten moniaistinen palvelutarjonta vaikuttaa palvelun kokemiseen, kohtaamiseen sekä kysyntään. Opinnäytetyön t...

  3. Addiktiivisuus ja toistokäyttäytyminen videopeleissä

    Peltola, Unna

    2014-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tutkii erilaisia psykologisia perusteita pelaamiseen ja pelaamisen aiheuttamaan riippuvuuteen. Aiheesta on useita tutkimuksia, mutta niissä on ristiriitaisuuksia ja yksikään niistä ei ole kaikenkattava. Työ esittelee erilaisia syitä pelata videopelejä - ei kaikkia, mutta niitä joita pidettiin erityisen tärkeänä. Niihin kuuluvat palkitseminen, eskapismi, haaste, aika, kustomointi, rutiini, tavoitteet ja sosiaaliset tarpeet. Niiden vaikutukset voivat olla harmittomia, mutt...

  4. Suuhygienistin käyttämät fluorilakat ja niiden vaikutus suun terveyteen

    Korpiaho, Teija

    2015-01-01

    Karies on maailman yleisimpiä infektiotauteja ja aina kun se on mahdollista, kariesvaurioiden eteneminen tulee pysäyttää. Fluorin saanti on ensiarvoisen tärkeää karieksen ehkäisyssä, estetään sairauden syntyminen. Suun omahoidolla on keskeinen merkitys karieksen hallinnassa. Suun omahoitoon kuuluu pesu 2 kertaa vuorokaudessa fluorihammastahnaa käyttäen, mutta myös säännölliset suun terveystarkastukset. Suunhoidon ammattilaiset arvioivat kotihoidon riittävyyden ja vaikutukset, näkevät alk...

  5. Vihreiden arvojen vaikutus matkailijoiden ostopäätökseen Rukan ja Kuusamon alueella

    Mustonen, Tiia

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni tavoitteena oli selvittää vaikuttavatko vihreät arvot Rukan ja Kuusamon alueen matkailijoiden ostopäätökseen. Tekeekö siis ympäristömerkki tuotteesta houkuttelevamman kuin tavanomaisesta tuotteesta? Viitekehys koostuu kahdesta osa-alueesta, matkailusta ja ostokäyttäytymisestä. Tarkempia aihekokonaisuuksia ovat matkailun vaikutukset, kestävä kehitys ja ympäristömerkit. Ostokäyttäytymisessä olen keskittynyt erityisesti matkailualan kuluttajakäyttäytymiseen. Työni on määr...

  6. Toiminnallinen oppitunti Kuitinmäen koulun 8. luokkalaisille unen tarpeellisuudesta

    Broman, Pauliina; Hillilä, Taru

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin osana Kuitinmäki-hanketta, joka on Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulun ja Kuitinmäen koulun yhteinen terveyden edistämisen hanke. Työn tarkoituksena oli toteuttaa Kuitinmäen koulun 8. luokkalaisille toiminnallinen oppitunti, jossa käsitellään unen merkitystä ja univajeen vaikutuksia sekä unenlaadun parantamista. Tavoitteena oli antaa oppilaille uusia välineitä oman unen parantamiseksi ja saada heidät huomaamaan mahdollisen univajeen vaikutukset omassa kehossaan. Opinnäytetyöl...

  7. Ympäristöjärjestelmän rakentaminen : Case: Inno Interior Oy

    Pirinen, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    Tavoitteena oli rakentaa huonekalualalla toimivalle Inno Interior Oy:lle, joka valmistuttaa tuotteet alihankkijoilla, sertifiointikelpoinen ympäristönhallintajärjestelmä. Yrityksellä ei ollut ympäristösertifikaattia. Asiakkaat vaativat yritykseltä ympäristöasioiden hoitamisen tason osoittamista. Ympäristöhallintajärjestelmän rakentaminen ja sertifiointi oli sopivin ratkaisu ongelmaan. Ympäristöjärjestelmän rakentamisen lähtökohtana olivat toiminnan aiheuttamat ympäristö-vaikutukset ja...

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    Ekoluoma, Heini-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Tutkin opinnäytetyössäni show- ja streettanssijoiden esiintymisjännitystä. Perehdyin jännittämisen syntymiseen, sen laukaiseviin tekijöihin ja mielen ja kehon tuntemuksiin jännittämistilanteessa. Usein esiintymisjännitystä lähestytään vain suoritusta heikentävänä tekijänä, joten halusin ottaa myös huomioon jännittämisen positiiviset vaikutukset. Lisäksi perehdyin jännittämistä ja esiintymistä käsittelevään kirjallisuuteen ja nostin osan mielenkiintoisiksi kokemistani jännittämis-teorioista es...

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    Minna Martikainen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelissa tarkastellaan inkeriläisten paluumuuttajien käsityksiä kielitutkinnosta, joka heidän oli suoritettava saadakseen oleskeluluvan Suomeen niin sanotulla inkeriläisstatuksella. Kielitutkinto oli käytössä vuosina 2003–2016. Tarkastelun kohteena ovat myös tämän kielitutkinnon vaikutukset kielenopiskeluun. Aineistona ovat paluumuuttovalmennukseen osallistuneiden, tutkintoon valmistautuneiden henkilöiden (n = 97 vastaukset kyselyyn, jonka he tekivät ennen kielitutkinnon suorittamista. Aineistoa tarkastellaan sisällönanalyysin keinoin. Aineiston perusteella kielenoppijat tiesivät tutkinnon rakenteesta ja sen suorittamisesta tietokoneella. Suorittajat olivat hyvin tietoisia myös siitä, että tutkinnon hyväksytty suorittaminen on edellytys Suomeen muutolle. Huomiota herättävää tässä aineistossa oli tutkinnon suorittajien myönteinen suhtautuminen kielitutkintoon ja kielen opiskeluun: tutkinnon lähetessä kielen opiskelusta oli tullut kiinnostavampaa ja mieluisampaa kuin ennen. Se, mitä tutkinnosta ajatellaan, voi vaikuttaa voimakkaasti siihen, kuinka tutkintoon valmistaudutaan ja miten tutkinnossa onnistutaan. Tämän aineiston perusteella inkeriläisopiskelijoilla oli hyvät edellytykset onnistua tutkinnossaan. *** "A high-stakes language exam: A gate to Finland, a stepping stone to Finnish" This is a study on perceptions of Ingrian students preparing for a language exam. Ingrians are ethnic Finns who have been living in Russia and Estonia for many generations. In order to immigrate to Finland on the basis of Finnish origin they had to prove Finnish language skills at the Common European Framework level A2. In this paper, I analyze how students describe the influence of the exam on how they study Finnish. The data consists of students’ questionnaire responses (n = 97. The method is content analysis. On the basis of this data it seems that the students were aware of the structure and the computer based nature of

  10. Some estimated effects of the planned harnessing of the Ounasjoki river on reindeer husbandry

    Pirkko Nieminen

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available The harnessing of waterways for electrical power has caused permanent pasture losses and prevented the free movement of the reindeer herds in Finland. Many great changes occurred after construction of the two large artificial lakes of Lokka and Porttipahta (total 630 km2 in the Lappi reindeer herders association in the 1960s. The planned harnessing of the Ounasjoki river consists of 10 power plants and 2 big and 12 smaller artificial lakes (total 270 km2. The plan will have effects on the income of 1070 owners in 7 reindeer herders associations. The losses in reindeer husbandry estimated by three different methods were maximally 476, 2824 and 9900 reindeer (value of meat production 0.12 to 2.5 million FIM/year, 64 jobs and various herding buildings (value 3.9 million FIM. Two new reindeer farmes would become unusuable (0.5 million FIM and in addition hay production from seasonally flooded fields (approx. 25 000 - 30 000 FIM/year would be lost. The building of new forces in the reindeer herders association areas of Ounasjoki river would require 6.2 million FIM.Ounasjoen rakentamissuunnitelman mahdolliset vaikutukset porotalouteen.Abstract in Finnsish / Yhteenveto: Vesistojen valjastaminen såhkontuottoon on tuhonnut porolaitumia ja vaikcuttanut porojen vapaata liikkumista Suomessa. Tasta on hyvånå esimerkkinå Lokan ja Portipahdan tekoaltaiden (yhteenså 630 km2 rakentaminen Lapin paliskunnassa 1960-luvulta alkacn. Ounasjoen rakentamissuunnitelma kåsittåå 10 voimalaitosta ja 2 isoa ja 12 picnempåå tekoallasta (yhteenså 270 km2. Rakennussuunnitelma vaikuttaa 1070 poronomistajan talouteen 7 cri paliskunnassa. Kolmella eri mcnetelmallå laskien jouduttaisiin enimmillåån våhentåmåån 476, 2824 ja 9900 lukuporoa (lihantuotto 0,12-2,5 milj. mk/vuosi sekå menetettåisim 64 ympårivuotista tyopaikkaa ja kocttaisiin useita eri rakennevahinkoja (arvoltaan noin 3,9 milj. mk. Kaksi uutta porotilaa jåisi kåyttokclvottomiksi (0,5 milj. mk ja