WorldWideScience

Sample records for hair thread tourniquet

  1. Hair-Thread Tourniquet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gokcen

    2016-01-01

    Two month-old male infant was brought to the emergency service with the complaint of fever, uneasiness, and swelling on 4th-5th toes of right foot.  Apparent swelling, rubescence and increase in heat were seen and a constrictive band was observed to surround proximal phalanges of both toes in the physical examination of the patient (Figure 1.  A hair was found on the constrictive band surrounding both toes. The hair was removed by means of forceps. Oral antibiotic was administered to the patient. The patient was treated successfully by not letting a necrosis develop on the toes. It should be remembered that hair-thread tourniquet syndrome may be observed in the infant patients applying to the hospital with the complaints of unexplained fever and uneasiness. Figure 1: Appearance of the toes right after the hair was removed. Arrows show the constrictive band. 

  2. [Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, I; Pasian, N; Maréchal, C; Salanne, S; Debuisson, C; Grouteau, E

    2010-05-01

    Describe the epidemiology of tourniquet syndromes and a cohort of such children admitted to the pediatric emergency department (PED), analyze the family's social situation to detect neglect behaviors, and analyze subsequent hospital admissions. From 1st January 2003 to 31st May 2009 in the PED, all patients admitted for tourniquet syndrome were included in the study. The data collected were day and time of admission, age, sex, length of stay, medical coverage, type and location of the constrictive agent, therapeutic management, progression, and complications. PED social workers in relation with child protective services (CPS) recovered information on the family's social situation. During the study period, 57 children were registered. The mean number of admissions per year was 8 (range: 2-15). The mean age was 5.5+/-4 months. The toe was the most frequent location (95%). The penis was injured in 2 cases and labia majora in 1 case. The constrictive agent was often a hair (95%). One case of abuse was detected. The analysis of family social situations showed that 53% had no or incomplete medical coverage, 67% were already followed by CPS with extreme poverty or lived in dilapidated housing. Insufficient hygiene or neglect was found in 67% of the families with incomplete or no social coverage. The analysis of 2003-2007 period for later admissions identified that 15 accidents in the home occurred in 12 children. Among these families, 58% were already known by CPS for neglect behavior. Although most tourniquet syndromes seem accidental, this entity is often associated with a lack of hygiene. Several and distant locations (e.g., toes and genitals), multiple and/or separated knots, constrictive agents inconsistent with a safe environment for the child, and penile location in an infant require meticulous investigation because of a higher incidence of child neglect. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Penile hair tourniquet resulting in hypospadias failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisieux E Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile hair tourniquet (PHT is a painless form of penile ischemia, typically seen in toddlers with long-haired mothers, caused by entanglement of hair on the balano-prepucial sulcus, normally associated with circumcision. Its association with hypospadias has been reported only once. A school-aged boy admitted for surgery to treat hypospadias failure was incidentally detected to have PHT and severe hourglass deformity of the penis. Urethral anastomosis and glanuloplasty were done after removal of the constricting ring, without complications. Normal erections were reported during follow up. Treatment may involve urethral reconstruction and penile reimplantation in extreme cases.

  4. Near total penile amputation caused by hair tourniquet, managed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hair tourniquet syndrome is an unusual phenomenon which can cause severe damage to the affected organ, sometimes even its loss. This problem requires urgent attention and prompt management to ensure anatomical and functional preservation. Herein we report a case of penile hair tourniquet which was ...

  5. Near total penile amputation caused by hair tourniquet, managed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    V.K. Dikshit

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Abstract. The hair tourniquet syndrome is an unusual phenomenon which can cause severe damage to the affected organ, sometimes even its loss. This problem requires urgent attention and prompt management to ensure anatomical and functional preservation. Herein we report a case of penile hair ...

  6. Hair toe tourniquets: a review of two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Julia; Morse, Tim

    2018-05-22

    Digit hair tourniquets are relatively uncommon. There are reports in the literature of hair tourniquets involving other appendages, such as the penis and uvula, however the phenomenon is not widely recognised and is often overlooked by healthcare professionals. This article discusses two case studies in which hair was responsible for creating a tourniquet around a digit. The article explores possible causes and management options for patients, with reference to the case studies. Midwives and health visitors are central to minimising the risk of injury to children as they can educate expectant mothers about this potential problem. © 2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  7. Hair Coil Penile Tourniquet Syndrome in an Unusual Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Kursad; Ozdamar, Mustafa Yasar; Albayrak, Sebahattin; Tanik, Serhat; Atar, Muhittin; Bakirtas, Hasan; Imamoglu, Muhammed Abdurrahim; Gurdal, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Penile tourniquet syndrome (PTS), a rare urologic emergency, may lead to undesirable results including necrosis and amputation of penis, if not diagnosed and treated appropriately. Sometimes these injuries may be accepted as a forensic case. Miscellaneous objects used for strangulation can be metallic or nonmetallic. Of all ages, the most vulnerable period is infancy. Telogen effluvium is the most common cause of PTS in infants who are 0–6 years old. In the literature, telogen effluvium as a reason of PTS was not found except for this age group. Therefore, we aimed to present a boy who is 8 years old diagnosed as PTS because of his mother's hair coil. PMID:25763288

  8. Hair Coil Penile Tourniquet Syndrome in an Unusual Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kursad Zengin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile tourniquet syndrome (PTS, a rare urologic emergency, may lead to undesirable results including necrosis and amputation of penis, if not diagnosed and treated appropriately. Sometimes these injuries may be accepted as a forensic case. Miscellaneous objects used for strangulation can be metallic or nonmetallic. Of all ages, the most vulnerable period is infancy. Telogen effluvium is the most common cause of PTS in infants who are 0–6 years old. In the literature, telogen effluvium as a reason of PTS was not found except for this age group. Therefore, we aimed to present a boy who is 8 years old diagnosed as PTS because of his mother’s hair coil.

  9. Gold thread implantation promotes hair growth in human and mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Eun-Young; Kwon, Euna; Kim, Woo-Ho; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Yong-Soon; Yun, Jun-Won; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Thread-embedding therapy has been widely applied for cosmetic purposes such as wrinkle reduction and skin tightening. Particularly, gold thread was reported to support connective tissue regeneration, but, its role in hair biology remains largely unknown due to lack of investigation. When we implanted gold thread and Happy Lift™ in human patient for facial lifting, we unexpectedly found an increase of hair regrowth in spite of no use of hair growth medications. When embedded into the depilated...

  10. Gold thread implantation promotes hair growth in human and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Eun-Young; Kwon, Euna; Kim, Woo-Ho; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Yong-Soon

    2017-01-01

    Thread-embedding therapy has been widely applied for cosmetic purposes such as wrinkle reduction and skin tightening. Particularly, gold thread was reported to support connective tissue regeneration, but, its role in hair biology remains largely unknown due to lack of investigation. When we implanted gold thread and Happy Lift™ in human patient for facial lifting, we unexpectedly found an increase of hair regrowth in spite of no use of hair growth medications. When embedded into the depilated dorsal skin of mice, gold thread or polyglycolic acid (PGA) thread, similarly to 5% minoxidil, significantly increased the number of hair follicles on day 14 after implantation. And, hair re-growth promotion in the gold threadimplanted mice were significantly higher than that in PGA thread group on day 11 after depilation. In particular, the skin tissue of gold thread-implanted mice showed stronger PCNA staining and higher collagen density compared with control mice. These results indicate that gold thread implantation can be an effective way to promote hair re-growth although further confirmatory study is needed for more information on therapeutic mechanisms and long-term safety. PMID:29399026

  11. Tourniquets in orthopedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Prakash Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourniquets are commonly used in limb surgeries, be it orthopedic or plastic surgeries. But the inflation pressures, the duration, and release guidelines are still not clear. According to a survey, majority of orthopedic surgeons inflate the tourniquet to fixed pressures for the upper and the lower limbs without considering the baseline blood pressure of the patient on whom the tourniquets are being applied. This review was designed to recall and review the safe use of tourniquets and the various techniques that can be employed to minimize the complications of tourniquet use. Google, science direct, and pubmed were searched for appropriate literature and relevant articles were identified.

  12. Tourniquet associated chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyuk Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.

  13. The Success of Thread-embedding Therapy in Generating Hair Re-growth in Mice Points to Its Possibly Having a Similar Effect in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jong Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recently, thread-embedding therapy (TET has been widely applied in Korean medicine for cosmetic purposes such as reducing skin wrinkles. An inserted thread was reported to have induced continuous stimulation, followed by support for connective tissue regeneration. However, the potential role of TET in hairgrowth has not yet been reported. Methods: We designed this study to evaluate whether TET has a hair-growth-promoting effect. C57 black 6 (C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: normal saline-treated, minoxidil-treated, and thread-embedded groups. Normal saline or 5% minoxidil was topically sprayed on the dorsal skin of the mice once a day for 16 days. Medical threads were embedded into the dorsal skin of the mice in a single application. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using dermoscopic and microscopic observations. Sections of the dorsal skin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7, and fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF-5 were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was adopted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA expressions of FGF-7 and FGF-5. Results: TET enhanced anagen development in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. The expressions of BrdU and PCNA, both of which imply active cellular proliferation, were increased by using TET. Moreover, TET increased the expression of FGF-7, an anagen-inducing growth factor, while decreasing the expression of FGF-5, an anagen-cessation growth factor, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. Conclusion: TET enhanced hair re-growth in C57BL/6 mice. TET regulated the expressions of anagen-associated growth factors and activated the proliferation of hair follicular cells in depilated skin lesions. Considering its long-lasting effect, TET may be a good alternative therapeutic for the treatment of

  14. Pneumatic tourniquets in extremity surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    Pneumatic tourniquets maintain a relatively bloodless field during extremity surgery, minimize blood loss, aid identification of vital structures, and expedite the procedure. However, they may induce an ischemia-reperfusion injury with potentially harmful local and systemic consequences. Modern pneumatic tourniquets are designed with mechanisms to regulate and maintain pressure. Routine maintenance helps ensure that these systems are working properly. The complications of tourniquet use include postoperative swelling, delay of recovery of muscle power, compression neurapraxia, wound hematoma with the potential for infection, vascular injury, tissue necrosis, and compartment syndrome. Systemic complications can also occur. The incidence of complications can be minimized by use of wider tourniquets, careful preoperative patient evaluation, and adherence to accepted principles of tourniquet use.

  15. Hair removal in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several removal methods currently available. Shaving and depilation with chemicals products are temporary methods, that need frequent repetition, because hair removal is next to the cutaneous surface. The epilating methods in which there is full hair extraction include: epilation with wax, thread, tweezers, epilating machines, laser, intense pulsed light, and electrolysis. Conclusions: The age of beginning hair removal and the method choice must be individualized and take into consideration the skin and hair type, location, dermatological and endocrine problems, removal frequency, cost and personal preferences.

  16. The pathophysiology of the arterial tourniquet: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-08

    May 8, 2003 ... Antioxidant mechanisms provide protection. e.g. intact red cells scavenge ... from the movement of a fully inflated tourniquet over bare skin. HAEMATOMAS/ ... layed by the application of EMLA cream to the tourniquet site.

  17. The Valsalva manoeuvre versus tourniquet for venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Gianluca; Chelazzi, Cosimo; Giua, Rosa; Lavacchini, Laura; Tofani, Lorenzo; Zagli, Giovanni; Barbani, Francesco; De Gaudio, A Raffaele; Romagnoli, Stefano; Pinelli, Fulvio

    2018-03-01

    During ultrasound-guided cannulation, venous filling is required for venipuncture. Tourniquet with an elastic tube at the axilla is the most common method to induce venous stasis for cannulation of the deep veins of the arm. Although effective, this method might be associated with short- and long-term complications. Valsalva manoeuvre has been used to produce venous filling in other extrathoracic veins. The aim of this observational study is to demonstrate the effect of Valsalva manoeuvre in respect of the elastic tourniquet on venous distention during echography-guided cannulation of the deep veins of the arm. Sixty-nine patients scheduled for cannulation of basilic or brachial vein were prospectively observed. Vein diameters were recorded at rest and after 10 s of Valsalva or tourniquet placement. The mean difference between basilic vein diameters during tourniquet and Valsalva manoeuvre was 0.006 mm (95% confidence interval = -inf, 0.09) with a standard deviation of 0.5 mm (95% confidence interval = 0.5, 0.7; p > 0.01). The mean difference between brachial vein diameters during tourniquet and Valsalva manoeuvre was 0.04 mm (95% confidence interval = -0.23, 0.15) with a standard deviation of 0.8 mm (95% confidence interval = 0.7, 0.9; p > 0.01). This increase in cross-sectional basilic and brachial vein diameters was not different to that obtained with the elastic tube tourniquet.

  18. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination of phlebotomy tourniquets and faucets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywickrama, T; Amarasinghe, K; Wijerathne, S; Dharmaratne, C; Fernando, D; Senaratna, B C; Gunasekera, H A K M

    2018-03-31

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is transmitted through direct contact or fomites. The most important means of nosocomial spread is by hospital personnel. However, fomites are being increasingly recognized as sources of nosocomial infection. Our aim was to describe the MRSA contamination rate of phlebotomy tourniquets and faucets in a tertiary care hospital and to compare the contamination of plastic tourniquets with that of fabric tourniquets. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the general wards of a tertiary care hospital in the Colombo District. Two hundred tourniquets were collected and 100 faucets were swabbed and cultured on CHROMagar™ MRSA medium (CHROMagar Microbiology). Contamination rates of 50 plastic tourniquets and 50 fabric tourniquets were compared. MRSA grew in 26% of tourniquets. Majority were plastic tubes. MRSA contamination of tourniquets did not significantly differ by ward (p>0.4). MRSA was found on 26% of faucets. Contamination rate was highest in the common wards for dermatology, dental, rheumatology, and neurology (55.6%), followed by gynaecology (45.2%), cardiology (33.3%), surgery (18.8%), psychiatry (11.1%), and medicine (5.6%). There was a significant difference in rates of contamination of faucets in the different wards (pcontamination rates of tourniquets and faucets were high. Single-use plastic tourniquets were much less contaminated with MRSA than reused tourniquets.

  19. Probabilistic thread algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    We add probabilistic features to basic thread algebra and its extensions with thread-service interaction and strategic interleaving. Here, threads represent the behaviours produced by instruction sequences under execution and services represent the behaviours exhibited by the components of execution

  20. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrown hair Overview An ingrown hair occurs when a shaved or tweezed hair grows back into the skin. It can cause inflammation, pain and tiny bumps in the area where the hair was removed. Ingrown hair is a common condition ...

  1. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  2. Intra-operative pneumatic tourniquet - perceptions of use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-four per cent of respondents personally checked the calibration of the pneumatic tourniquet, although 76% of respondents believe that the apparatus needs to be checked at least once per month. More respondents who did not check the tourniquet apparatus than respondents who did check it believe that applied ...

  3. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Removal KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Removal What's in ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  4. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  5. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  6. Acute pulmonary edema following inflation of arterial tourniquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, M C B; Pai, R B; Rao, R P

    2014-10-01

    Arterial tourniquets are used as one of the methods for reducing blood loss and for allowing blood free surgical field. A 20-year-old, 45 kg healthy female with a sphere shaped pendunculated hemangioma in the popliteal fossa of her left lower limb was applied with arterial tourniquet after exsanguination. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia. Soon after exsanguination and tourniquet inflation, the patient developed pulmonary edema which subsided after deflating the tourniquet. The clinical evolution, treatment and pathophysiology of this complication are described. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Mobile Thread Task Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  8. The effect of pneumatic tourniquets on skeletal muscle physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, S; Klenerman, L; Biswas, M; Rhodes, A

    1981-01-01

    The effect of 3- and 5-hour pneumatic tourniquets on skeletal muscle physiology was investigated. Maximum isometric tension development, contraction and half relaxation times were measured in the muscles lying immediately under and distal to the tourniquet. On release of the tourniquet no consistent difference between control and experimental muscles was observed with respect to contraction and half relaxation times; however, there was a marked reduction in maximum isometric tension development. On the sixth day after release of a 5-hour tourniquet, isometric tension was reduced to 2--20 per cent of the control value in the distal muscle and to 40--60 per cent of the control value in the compressed muscle. Six days after a 3-hour tourniquet the compressed muscle tension was reduced to approximately 80 per cent of the control value whilst in the distal muscle, tension development varied from normal to 64 per cent of the control value. Thus it is shown that the effect on muscle contraction after a 3-hour tourniquet is not immediately reversed by the restoration of the blood supply. A reduction in muscle strength follows which may take a week or more to recover.

  9. Tourniquet-induced systemic inflammatory response in extremity surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Tourniquet-induced reperfusion injury in animals produces significant systemic inflammatory effects. This study investigated whether a biologic response occurs in a clinically relevant model of tourniquet-induced reperfusion injury. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were prospectively randomized into controls (no tourniquet) and subjects (tourniquet-controlled). The effects of tourniquet-induced reperfusion on monocyte activation state, neutrophil activation state, and transendothelial migration (TEM) were studied. Changes in the cytokines implicated in reperfusion injury, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-10 were also determined. RESULTS: After 15 minutes of reperfusion, neutrophil and monocyte activation were significantly increased. Pretreatment of neutrophils with pooled subject (ischemia-primed) plasma significantly increased TEM. In contrast, TEM was not significantly altered by ischemia-primed plasma pretreatment of the endothelial monolayer. Significant elevation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1beta were observed in subjects compared with controls after 15 minutes of reperfusion. There was no significant difference in serum IL-10 levels between the groups at all the time points studied. CONCLUSION: These results indicate a transient neutrophil and monocyte activation after tourniquet-ischemia that translates into enhanced neutrophil transendothelial migration with potential for tissue injury.

  10. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is why some people with eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia lose their hair: The body isn't getting enough protein, vitamins, and minerals to support hair growth. Some teens who are vegetarians also lose their hair if ...

  11. Effectiveness of Pulse Oximetry Versus Doppler for Tourniquet Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Piper L; Buising, Charisse M; Grulke, Lisa; Troester, Alexander; Bianchina, Nicholas; White, Shannon; Freymark, Rosemarie; Hassan, Ali; Hopkins, James W; Renner, Catherine Hackett; Sahr, Sheryl M

    Pulse oximeters are common and include arterial pulse detection as part of their methodology. The authors investigated the possible usefulness of pulse oximeters for monitoring extremity tourniquet arterial occlusion. Tactical Ratcheting Medical Tourniquets were tightened to the least Doppler-determined occluding pressure at mid-thigh or mid-arm locations on one limb at a time on all four limbs of 15 volunteers. A randomized block design was used to determine the placement locations of three pulse oximeter sensors on the relevant digits. The times and pressures of pulsatile signal absences and returns were recorded for 200 seconds, with the tourniquet being tightened only when the Doppler ultrasound and all three pulse oximeters had pulsatile signals present (pulsatile waveform traces for the pulse oximeters). From the first Doppler signal absence to tourniquet release, toe-located pulse oximeters missed Doppler signal presence 41% to 50% of the times (discrete 1-second intervals) and missed 39% to 49% of the pressure points (discrete 1mmHg intervals); fingerlocated pulse oximeters had miss rates of 11% to 15% of the times and 13% to 19% of the pressure points. On toes, the pulse oximeter ranges of sensitivity and specificity for Doppler pulse detection were 71% to 90% and 44% to 51%, and on fingers, the respective ranges were 65% to 77% and 78% to 83%. Use of a pulse oximeter to monitor limb tourniquet effectiveness will result in some instances of an undetected weak arterial pulse being present. If a pulse oximeter waveform is obtained from a location distal to a tourniquet, the tourniquet should be tightened. If a pulsatile waveform is not detected, vigilance should be maintained. 2017.

  12. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  13. Ingen evidens for rutinemæssig anvendelse af tourniquet til ortopædkirurgi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjskjær, Jesper; Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The tourniquet is often used during orthopaedic surgery in order to optimize the view of the surgical field. The recommended guidelines for the use of tourniquet are not well known even though complications following tourniquet use are well documented. We have made a short review of the literature...

  14. Effect of pneumatic tourniquet on muscle oxygen tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavirta, S; Höckerstedt, K; Niinikoski, J

    1978-10-01

    Recent investigations suggest that circulation in a limb can be reduced with a tourniquet to less than 1 per cent of the control limb, or even completely occluded. The development of tissue oxygen tonometry with implanted silastic tubes has provided new possibilities for assessing muscle tissue oxygen tension. In the present work, this method was employed to register the effect of tourniquet blackade on the lower limb muscle PO2 in rabbits. The duration of the tourniquet blockade was 60, 120 and 180 minutes. The baseline muscle PO2 in the tibialis anterior muscle was 22.6 +/- 0.6 mmHg. During the tourniquet blockade the oxygen tension dropped to minimal values between 9.2 +/- 0.5 and 10.7 +/- 0.6 mmHg in these experimental groups, but the tissue microclimate never reached fully anoxic conditions. The rapid response of muscle PO2 to oxygen breathing after release of the blockade suggests that limb microcirculation tolerates tourniquet occlusion well.

  15. Effect of early release of tourniquet in total knee arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, K.; Raza, H.; Umer, M.; Hafiz, K.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether tourniquet release intraoperatively is better than postoperative release in reducing overall blood loss, duration of surgery, duration of tourniquet, length of hospital stay, wound related complications and transfusion requirement. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2004 to June 2007. Methodology: One hundred and thirty patient files were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups. Group-A consisted of 65 patients with early deflation of tourniquet and group-B comprised of 65 patients with the release of tourniquet after applying compressive dressing. Total blood loss (determined by Gross method) and other study variables were noted as per objective and computed. Results: There were 22 males and 108 females with comparable BMI. All had undergone posterior stabilized cemented total knee replacement. Calculated blood loss was 1.208 L and 1.108 L in group-A and B respectively (p = 0.27). Significant increase in duration of surgery was noted in group-A patients. Four patients in group-B showed complication related to wound with 3 being minor and 1 requiring additional operation room visit. Mean length of hospital stay was 9 days. Transfusion frequency was higher in group-B despite comparable postoperative haemoglobin values. Conclusion: Intraoperative tourniquet release does not reduce overall blood loss with no effect in conserving blood after total knee replacement, however, this group had relatively shorter hospital stay. (author)

  16. Dedicated memory structure holding data for detecting available worker thread(s) and informing available worker thread(s) of task(s) to execute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, George L.; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; O' Brien, John K. P.

    2016-12-13

    The present disclosure relates generally to a dedicated memory structure (that is, hardware device) holding data for detecting available worker thread(s) and informing available worker thread(s) of task(s) to execute.

  17. Evaluation of Models of Pneumatic Tourniquet in Simulated Out-of-Hospital Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, John F; Aden, James K; Dubick, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Pneumatic field tourniquets have been recommended for Military medics to stop bleeding from limb wounds, but no comparison of commercially available pneumatic models of tourniquet has been reported. The purpose of this study is to provide laboratory data on the differential performance of models of pneumatic tourniquets to inform decision-making of potential field assessment by military users. Models included the Emergency and Military Tourniquet (EMT), Tactical Pneumatic Tourniquet 2-inch (TPT2), and Tactical Pneumatic Tourniquet 3-inch (TPT3). One user tested the three tourniquet models 30 times each on a manikin to collect data on effectiveness (yes-no bleeding control), pulse cessation, time to stop bleeding, total time of application, after time (after bleeding was stopped), pressure applied, blood loss volume, composite outcome (whether all individual outcomes were good or not), and pump count of the bulb used to inflate the tourniquet. Neither tourniquet effectiveness nor pulse cessation (ρ = 1; likelihood ratio, 0 for both) differed among tourniquet models: all three models had 100% (30 of 30 tests) for both outcomes. The EMT had the best or tied for best performance in time to stop bleeding, total time, after time, pressure blood loss, composite outcome, and pump count. Each of the three models of pneumatic field tourniquet was 100% effective in stopping simulated bleeding. Among the three models, the EMT showed the best or tied for best performance in time to stop bleeding, blood loss, and composite outcomes. All models are suitable for future field assessment among military users. 2016.

  18. Use of a Tourniquet by LIFE STAR Air Medical Crew: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lenworth M; Burns, Karyl J; Priest, Heather Standish; Muskett, William

    2015-10-01

    For many years tourniquets were perceived as dangerous due to the belief that they led to loss of limb because of ischemia. Their use in civilian and military environments was discouraged. Emergency medical responders were not taught about tourniquets and commercial tourniquets were not available. However, research by the United States military during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan has demonstrated that tourniquets are safe life-saving devices. As a consequence, they have been widely deployed in combat situations and there are now calls for the use of tourniquets in the civilian prehospital setting. This article presents a report of the successful application of a tourniquet by the LIFE STAR crew to control bleeding that local emergency medical services (EMS) personnel could not control with direct pressure. Tourniquets should be readily available in public places and carried by all EMS.

  19. Tourniquet-induced rhabdomyolysis after total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, S. H.; Graham, G.

    1994-01-01

    A case is described of a patient who developed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after the use of an intraoperative tourniquet for elective orthopaedic surgery. A review of the literature revealed four similar cases in the last 20 years. The clinical features and management of such patients are discussed. PMID:7702328

  20. Intra-operative pneumatic tourniquet - perceptions of use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    applied pressure alone or excessive applied pressure caused by use of faulty equipment. It needs to be emphasised to these surgeons that regular checking of the pneumatic tourniquet apparatus is necessary in order. MRC/UCT Bioenergetics of Exercise Research Unit, Department of. Physiology. University of Cape Town.

  1. Anvendelse af præhospital tourniquet ved livstruende ekstremitetstraumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsaa Lang, Christian; Lauridsen, Trine; Boel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Tourniquets have been used for centuries. They have been called lifesavers and "an invention of the evil one". 90.9% of deaths on the battlefields result from haemorrhage. Lessons learned du­ring the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have developed the treat­ment given to hypovolaemic patients...

  2. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  3. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  4. Hair cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dr...

  5. Hair Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cani , Marie-Paule; Bertails , Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Processing interactions is one of the main challenges in hair animation. Indeed, in addition to the collisions with the body, an extremely large number of contacts with high friction rates are permanently taking place between individual hair strands. Simulating the latter is essential: without hair self-interactions, strands would cross each other during motion or come to rest at the same location, yielding unrealistic behavior and a visible lack of hair volume. This c...

  6. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  7. Safety and efficacy of a new tourniquet system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Junko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In upper limb surgery, the pneumatic tourniquet is an essential tool to provide a clean, bloodless surgical field, improving visualization of anatomical structures and preventing iatrogenic failure. Optimal inflation pressure to accomplish these objects without injuring normal tissue and inducing complications is not yet established. Use of the minimum tourniquet pressure necessary to produce a bloodless surgical field is preferable in order to prevent injury to normal tissue. Various methods have been implemented in an effort to lower effective cuff pressure. The purpose of this study is to report clinical experience with a new tourniquet system in which pressure is synchronized with systolic blood pressure (SBP using a vital information monitor. Methods We routinely used the tourniquet system in 120 consecutive upper limb surgeries performed under general anaesthesia in our operating room instead of our clinic. Cuff pressure was automatically regulated to additional 100 mmHg based on the SBP and was renewed every 2.5 minutes intervals. Results An excellent bloodless field was obtained in 119 cases, with the exception of one case of a 44-year-old woman who underwent internal screw fixation of metacarpal fracture. No complications, such as compartment syndrome, deep vein disorder, skin disorder, paresis, or nerve damage, occurred during or after surgery. Conclusions This new tourniquet system, synchronized with SBP, can be varied to correspond with sharp rises or drops in SBP to supply adequate pressure. The system reduces labor needed to deflate and re-inflate to achieve different pressures. It also seemed to contribute to the safety in upper limb surgery, in spite of rare unexpected oozing mid-surgery, by reducing tissue pressure.

  8. Effects of reperfusion intervals on skeletal muscle injury beneath and distal to a pneumatic tourniquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedowitz, R A; Gershuni, D H; Fridén, J; Garfin, S R; Rydevik, B L; Hargens, A R

    1992-03-01

    To date there have been no experimental studies specifically directed at effects of reperfusion intervals on skeletal muscle injury beneath the tourniquet. 99mTechnetium pyrophosphate (Tc 99) incorporation and correlative histology were used to assess injury 2 days after tourniquet application in muscles beneath (thigh) and distal (leg) to the cuff. Tourniquets were applied to rabbit hindlimbs for a total of either 2 or 4 hours. In the 4-hour series, tourniquet compression (either 125 mm Hg or 350 mm Hg cuff inflation pressure) was either continuous or interrupted by 10-minute reperfusion intervals after 2 hours or after every hour of cuff inflation. In the 2-hour series, tourniquet compression (350 mm Hg) was either continuous or interrupted by 10-minute reperfusion intervals after 2 hours or after every hour of cuff inflation. In the 2-hour series, tourniquet compression (350 mm Hg) was either continuous or interrupted by a 10-minute reperfusion interval after 1 hour. Pyrophosphate incorporation (Tc 99 uptake) was significantly greater in the thigh region than in the leg region in all of the 4-hour tourniquet groups. Tc 99 uptake was significantly reduced by reperfusion after each hour of cuff inflation. With 350 mm Hg tourniquet pressure, a reperfusion interval after 2 hours of cuff inflation tended to exacerbate tourniquet compression injury. Reperfusion intervals did not significantly affect Tc 99 uptake in the leg region of these groups. With a 2-hour tourniquet time, Tc 99 uptake in the thigh was significantly decreased by reperfusion after 1 hour of cuff inflation. Previous clinical recommendations, based on serum creatine phosphokinase abnormalities after experimental tourniquet ischemia, probably reflected tourniquet compression injury. Hourly reperfusion limits skeletal muscle injury during extended periods of tourniquet use.

  9. Identification of symbiotically defective mutants of Lotus japonicus affected in infection thread growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Fabien; Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Miwa, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    During the symbiotic interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the host cell plasma membrane and associated plant cell wall invaginate to form a tunnel-like infection thread, a structure in which bacteria divide to reach the plant root cortex. We isolated four Lotus japonicus mutants that make...... infection pockets in root hairs but form very few infection threads after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. The few infection threads that did initiate in the mutants usually did not progress further than the root hair cell. These infection-thread deficient (itd) mutants were unaffected for early...... symbiotic responses such as calcium spiking, root hair deformation, and curling, as well as for the induction of cortical cell division and the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Complementation tests and genetic mapping indicate that itd2 is allelic to Ljsym7, whereas the itd1, itd3, and itd4 mutations...

  10. Muscle injury induced beneath and distal to a pneumatic tourniquet: A quantitative animal study of effects of tourniquet pressure and duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedowitz, R.A.; Gershuni, D.H.; Schmidt, A.H.; Friden, J.; Rydevik, B.L.; Hargens, A.R. (Division of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of California, San Diego (United States))

    1991-07-01

    Previous recommendations regarding the safe period of tourniquet hemostasis were based largely on studies of ischemia distal to the tourniquet. This study quantitatively analyzed skeletal muscle injury induced beneath and distal to a pneumatic tourniquet applied to the hindlimbs of rabbits for 1, 2, or 4 hours with a cuff inflation pressure of 125, 200, or 350 mm Hg. Technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate incorporation after systemic injection (Tc 99 uptake) and correlative histology were used to evaluate tissue damage 2 days after tourniquet application. Compared with the contralateral control limbs, compression and ischemia induced statistically significant increases in Tc 99 uptake in the thigh and leg regions of all groups. Pyrophosphate incorporation was significantly greater in the thigh region than in the leg region after 2 hours of compression in the 200 and 350 mm Hg pressure groups and following 4 hours of compression in all pressure groups. Focal and regional fiber necrosis and degeneration were observed in thigh muscles after 2 hours of tourniquet compression. Two hours of continuous tourniquet application at clinically relevant cuff inflation pressures induced significant skeletal muscle necrosis beneath the tourniquet. Use of the lowest possible inflation pressure for a limited duration should minimize the degree of tissue injury caused by tourniquet application.

  11. Muscle injury induced beneath and distal to a pneumatic tourniquet: a quantitative animal study of effects of tourniquet pressure and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedowitz, R A; Gershuni, D H; Schmidt, A H; Fridén, J; Rydevik, B L; Hargens, A R

    1991-07-01

    Previous recommendations regarding the "safe" period of tourniquet hemostasis were based largely on studies of ischemia distal to the tourniquet. This study quantitatively analyzed skeletal muscle injury induced beneath and distal to a pneumatic tourniquet applied to the hindlimbs of rabbits for 1, 2, or 4 hours with a cuff inflation pressure of 125, 200, or 350 mm Hg. Technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate incorporation after systemic injection (Tc 99 uptake) and correlative histology were used to evaluate tissue damage 2 days after tourniquet application. Compared with the contralateral control limbs, compression and ischemia induced statistically significant increases in Tc 99 uptake in the thigh and leg regions of all groups. Pyrophosphate incorporation was significantly greater in the thigh region than in the leg region after 2 hours of compression in the 200 and 350 mm Hg pressure groups and following 4 hours of compression in all pressure groups. Focal and regional fiber necrosis and degeneration were observed in thigh muscles after 2 hours of tourniquet compression. Two hours of continuous tourniquet application at clinically relevant cuff inflation pressures induced significant skeletal muscle necrosis beneath the tourniquet. Use of the lowest possible inflation pressure for a limited duration should minimize the degree of tissue injury caused by tourniquet application.

  12. Muscle injury induced beneath and distal to a pneumatic tourniquet: A quantitative animal study of effects of tourniquet pressure and duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedowitz, R.A.; Gershuni, D.H.; Schmidt, A.H.; Friden, J.; Rydevik, B.L.; Hargens, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Previous recommendations regarding the safe period of tourniquet hemostasis were based largely on studies of ischemia distal to the tourniquet. This study quantitatively analyzed skeletal muscle injury induced beneath and distal to a pneumatic tourniquet applied to the hindlimbs of rabbits for 1, 2, or 4 hours with a cuff inflation pressure of 125, 200, or 350 mm Hg. Technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate incorporation after systemic injection (Tc 99 uptake) and correlative histology were used to evaluate tissue damage 2 days after tourniquet application. Compared with the contralateral control limbs, compression and ischemia induced statistically significant increases in Tc 99 uptake in the thigh and leg regions of all groups. Pyrophosphate incorporation was significantly greater in the thigh region than in the leg region after 2 hours of compression in the 200 and 350 mm Hg pressure groups and following 4 hours of compression in all pressure groups. Focal and regional fiber necrosis and degeneration were observed in thigh muscles after 2 hours of tourniquet compression. Two hours of continuous tourniquet application at clinically relevant cuff inflation pressures induced significant skeletal muscle necrosis beneath the tourniquet. Use of the lowest possible inflation pressure for a limited duration should minimize the degree of tissue injury caused by tourniquet application

  13. A maneuver for improved positioning of a tourniquet in the obese patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krackow, K A

    1982-08-01

    Proximal positioning of an arterial tourniquet will be greatly facilitated by having an assistant firmly draw the skin and subcutaneous tissue distally prior to positioning the cast padding and tourniquet. This simple maneuver is clearly not part of current practice or training, despite the simplicity and effectiveness. Excessive tourniquet tightening should be avoided prior to fixing the Velcro fasteners, a practice which is commonly employed and is not only ineffective in maintaining proximal tourniquet positioning, but also deleterious in that it creates a "venous tourniquet" effect. Loosening of the restraining adhesive tapes and unnecessary traction of adhesive tape on sensitive skin can be avoided by bringing the extremity to its resting position before fastening the tape proximal to the tourniquet.

  14. Tourniquet pressures: strap width and tensioning system widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Piper L; Coughlin, Ohmar; Rometti, Mary; Birkholz, Sarah; Gildemaster, Yvonne; Grulke, Lisa; Sahr, Sheryl; Buising, Charisse M

    2014-01-01

    Pressure distribution over tourniquet width is a determinant of pressure needed for arterial occlusion. Different width tensioning systems could result in arterial occlusion pressure differences among nonelastic strap designs of equal width. Ratcheting Medical Tourniquets (RMTs; m2 inc., http://www.ratcheting buckles.com) with a 1.9 cm-wide (Tactical RMT) or 2.3 cm-wide (Mass Casualty RMT) ladder were directly compared (16 recipients, 16 thighs and 16 upper arms for each tourniquetx2). Then, RMTs were retrospectively compared with the windlass Combat Application Tourniquet (C-A-T ["CAT"], http://combattourniquet.com) with a 2.5 cm-wide internal tensioning strap. Pressure was measured with an air-filled No. 1 neonatal blood pressure cuff under each 3.8 cm-wide tourniquet. RMT circumferential pressure distribution was not uniform. Tactical RMT pressures were not higher, and there were no differences between the RMTs in the effectiveness, ease of use ("97% easy"), or discomfort. However, a difference did occur regarding tooth skipping of the pawl during ratchet advancement: it occurred in 1 of 64 Tactical RMT applications versus 27 of 64 Mass Casualty RMT applications. CAT and RMT occlusion pressures were frequently over 300 mmHg. RMT arm occlusion pressures (175-397 mmHg), however, were lower than RMT thigh occlusion pressures (197-562 mmHg). RMT effectiveness was better with 99% reached occlusion and 1% lost occlusion over 1 minute versus the CAT with 95% reached occlusion and 28% lost occlusion over 1 minute. RMT muscle tension changes (up to 232 mmHg) and pressure losses over 1 minute (24±11 mmHg arm under strap to 40±12 mmHg thigh under ladder) suggest more occlusion losses may have occurred if tourniquet duration was extended. The narrower tensioning system Tactical RMT has better performance characteristics than the Mass Casualty RMT. The 3.8 cm-wide RMTs have some pressure and effectiveness similarities and differences compared with the CAT. Clinically

  15. Use of Tourniquets and their Effects on Limb Function in the Modern Combat Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    pressure by tightening a tourniquet, the pressure can soon damage nerves (>500 mm Hg) while remaining ineffective. Many tourniquet manufacturers are unaware...testing, and clinical use.2,57 TOURNIQUET USE, TISSUE ISCHEMIA, AND LIMB FUNCTION Skin , bone, tendon, fat, fascia, joints, and vessels tolerate ischemia...injury in a combat support hospital: results of a case control study. J Trauma 2008;64(Suppl 2):S99–106 [discussion: S106–7]. 21. Bellamy RF . The

  16. Bolt Thread Stress Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2012-01-01

    of threads and therefore indirectly the bolt fatigue life. The root shape is circular, and from shape optimization for minimum stress concentration it is well known that the circular shape is seldom optimal. An axisymmetric Finite Element (FE) formulation is used to analyze the bolted connection, and a study...... is performed to establish the need for contact modeling with regard to finding the correct stress concentration factor. Optimization is performed with a simple parameterization with two design variables. Stress reduction of up to 9% is found in the optimization process, and some similarities are found...... in the optimized designs leading to the proposal of a new standard. The reductions in the stress are achieved by rather simple changes made to the cutting tool....

  17. The effect of pneumatic tourniquets on the ultrastructure of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, S; Klenerman, L

    1979-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out on rhesus monkeys to determine the effect of the application of a pneumatic tourniquet on the ultrastructure of the muscles of the lower limb. Tourniquets were applied for periods lasting between one and five hours. The changes in the muscle lying immediately under the cuff of the tourniquet were more marked than those observed in muscle distal to the cuff. Three hours appears to be close to the limit of the time that a muscle can resist the sustained compression of a tourniquet.

  18. [Development of an automatic pneumatic tourniquet system that determines pressures in synchrony with systolic blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyun; Li, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Zhengbo; Guo, Junyan; Wang, Weidong

    2012-11-01

    The correlation coefficients between arterial occlusion pressure and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, limb circumference, body mass etc were obtained through healthy volunteer experiments, in which tourniquet were applied on upper/lower extremities. The prediction equations were derived from the data of experiments by multiple regression analysis. Based on the microprocessor C8051F340, a new pneumatic tourniquet system that can determine tourniquet pressure in synchrony with systolic blood pressure was developed and verified the function and stability of designed system. Results showed that the pneumatic tourniquet which automatically adjusts occlusion pressure in accordance with systolic blood pressure could stop the flow of blood to get a bloodless field.

  19. Tourniquet application during anesthesia: “What we need to know?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourniquets are routinely and safely used in limb surgeries throughout the world. Tourniquet application alters normal physiology. Healthy patients tolerate these physiological changes well, but the physiological changes may not be well-tolerated by patients with poor cardiac function. This review discusses the physiological changes associated with tourniquet use, safe practice and provides the latest updates regarding tourniquet use. A systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar was done. The search results were limited to the randomized controlled trials and systemic reviews. The papers are summarized in this review.

  20. Effect of the timing of tourniquet release on postoperative hematoma formation: an experimental animal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himel, H.N.; Ahmad, M.; Parmett, S.R.; Strauss, H.W.; May, J.W. Jr.

    1989-04-01

    There is a controversy over when to release a pneumatic tourniquet after completing a hand surgical procedure. To study this controversy, we performed a standardized operation with tourniquet inflow occlusion on both lower legs of a series of rabbits. Total tourniquet time and the procedure performed, including intraoperative Bovie electrocautery of actual and potential bleeding points identified with 2.5 X loupe magnification, were identical on the two sides, except for the method of tourniquet release. On one leg, the tourniquet was released and all new bleeding points were controlled prior to wound closure. On the other leg, the tourniquet was released after the wound had been closed and dressed. Animals were injected with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells and scanned to measure hematoma formation. Qualitatively, we observed more label in the leg whose tourniquet was released after wound closure in 17 of the 20 animals (p less than 0.005). Quantitatively, we also measured more mean label in the leg whose tourniquet was released after the wound was closed (p less than 0.001). Tourniquet release after wound closure was associated with greater hematoma formation.

  1. Effect of the timing of tourniquet release on postoperative hematoma formation: an experimental animal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himel, H.N.; Ahmad, M.; Parmett, S.R.; Strauss, H.W.; May, J.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    There is a controversy over when to release a pneumatic tourniquet after completing a hand surgical procedure. To study this controversy, we performed a standardized operation with tourniquet inflow occlusion on both lower legs of a series of rabbits. Total tourniquet time and the procedure performed, including intraoperative Bovie electrocautery of actual and potential bleeding points identified with 2.5 X loupe magnification, were identical on the two sides, except for the method of tourniquet release. On one leg, the tourniquet was released and all new bleeding points were controlled prior to wound closure. On the other leg, the tourniquet was released after the wound had been closed and dressed. Animals were injected with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells and scanned to measure hematoma formation. Qualitatively, we observed more label in the leg whose tourniquet was released after wound closure in 17 of the 20 animals (p less than 0.005). Quantitatively, we also measured more mean label in the leg whose tourniquet was released after the wound was closed (p less than 0.001). Tourniquet release after wound closure was associated with greater hematoma formation

  2. Hair casts

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta S Parmar; Kirti S Parmar; Bela J Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  3. Pulmonary gas exchange impairment following tourniquet deflation: a prospective, single-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lina; Wang, Liangrong; Bai, Yu; Zheng, Liupu; Zhao, Xiyue; Xiong, Xiangqing; Jin, Lida; Ji, Wei; Wang, Wantie

    2010-06-09

    The tourniquet has been considered as a recognized cause of limb ischemia/reperfusion injury in orthopedic surgery resulting in a transient neutrophil, monocyte activation, and enhanced neutrophil transendothelial migration with potential remote tissue injury. This study investigated the effect of unilateral tourniquet application within a safe time limit on pulmonary function and the roles of lipid peroxidation and systemic inflammatory response. Thirty patients undergoing unilateral lower extremity surgery with or without tourniquet were equally divided into a control group with no tourniquet (Group C) and a tourniquet (Group T). Arterial partial pressure of oxygen (P(a)O(2)), arterial-alveolar oxygen tension ratio (a/A ratio), alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (A-aDO(2)) and respiratory index, plasma malondialdehyde, serum interleukin (IL) -6 and IL-8 levels were measured immediately before and 1 hour after tourniquet inflation/operation beginning, 0.5, 2, 6, and 24 hours after tourniquet deflation/operation ending. The results represented no significant changes in Group C with regard to either blood gas variables or levels of circulating mediators, while blood gas variable changes of greater A-aDO(2) and respiratory index and lower PaO2 and a/A ratio were shown at 6 hours following tourniquet deflation. The levels of malondialdehyde, IL-6, and IL-8 were increased over baseline values from 2 to 24 hours following tourniquet deflation in Group T. We concluded that tourniquet application within a safe time limit may cause pulmonary gas exchange impairment several hours after tourniquet deflation, where lipid peroxidation and systemic inflammatory response may be involved. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Minor Morbidity with Emergency Tourniquet Use to Stop Bleeding in Severe Limb Trauma: Research, History, and Reconciling Advocates and Abolitionists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    the proximity of susceptible arm and leg nerves to the skin , and the body regions with high nerve palsy risk with emergency tourniquets evidenced in...tourniquet palsy, and prehospital tourniquet use was associated with all our tourniquet palsies, over- tightening by prehospital appliers may be a...Transplant Foundation. REFERENCES I. Bellamy RF : The causes of death in conventional land warfare: implica- tions for combat casualty care research. Mil Med

  5. Skeletal muscle injury induced by a pneumatic tourniquet: an enzyme- and immunohistochemical study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedowitz, R A; Fridén, J; Thornell, L E

    1992-03-01

    The pathophysiology of skeletal muscle injury induced by compression beneath pneumatic tourniquets is poorly understood. Tourniquet hemostasis was induced in rabbit hindlimbs for 2 hr with a cuff inflation pressure of either 125 mm Hg (n = 5) or 350 mm Hg (n = 5). Skeletal muscle biopsies, taken 2 days later from tissue beneath and distal to the tourniquet, were frozen and analyzed using enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques. In the 350 mm Hg tourniquet group, four of 10 thigh muscle samples demonstrated significant regional necrosis (mean 37.3% of the total cross-sectional area). Regional necrosis was not observed in thigh muscles of the 125 mm Hg tourniquet group or in any of the ischemic leg muscles. A topographic pattern of necrosis consistent with the arterial distribution of skeletal muscle suggested pathogenic events during the reperfusion period, such as granulocyte-mediated superoxide radical formation. Extremely large and rounded fibers (histochemically identified as Type IIB fibers) were observed in compressed thigh muscles, indicating differential fiber sensitivity to tourniquet compression and ischemia. The present study demonstrated significant skeletal muscle necrosis after a 2 hr tourniquet applied at a clinically relevant cuff inflation pressure. Recent studies of systemic changes associated with limb "ischemia" should be reassessed in consideration of the confounding effects of tissue compression induced beneath pneumatic tourniquets.

  6. Survey of trauma registry data on tourniquet use in pediatric war casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, John F; Cooper, Arthur; Aden, James K; Dubick, Michael A; Baer, David G; Wade, Charles E; Blackbourne, Lorne H

    2012-12-01

    Previously, we reported on the use of emergency tourniquets to stop bleeding in war casualties, but virtually all the data were from adults. Because no pediatric-specific cohort of casualties receiving emergency tourniquets existed, we aimed to fill knowledge gaps on the care and outcomes of this group by surveying data from a trauma registry to refine device designs and clinical training. A retrospective review of data from a trauma registry yielded an observational cohort of 88 pediatric casualties at US military hospitals in theater on whom tourniquets were used from May 17, 2003, to December 25, 2009. Of the 88 casualties in the study group, 72 were male and 16 were female patients. Ages averaged 11 years (median, 11 years; range, 4-17 years). There were 7 dead and 81 survivor outcomes for a trauma survival rate of 93%. Survivor and dead casualties were similar in all independent variables measured except hospital stay duration (median, 5 days and 1 day, respectively). Six casualties (7%) had neither extremity nor external injury in that they had no lesion indicating tourniquet use. The survival rate of the present study's casualties is similar to that of 3 recent large nonpediatric-specific studies. Although current emergency tourniquets were ostensibly designed for modern adult soldiers, tourniquet makers, perhaps unknowingly, produced tourniquets that fit children. The rate of unindicated tourniquets, 7%, implied that potential users need better diagnostic training. Level 4; case series, therapeutic study.

  7. Genetic algorithms for protein threading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadgari, J; Amir, A; Unger, R

    1998-01-01

    Despite many years of efforts, a direct prediction of protein structure from sequence is still not possible. As a result, in the last few years researchers have started to address the "inverse folding problem": Identifying and aligning a sequence to the fold with which it is most compatible, a process known as "threading". In two meetings in which protein folding predictions were objectively evaluated, it became clear that threading as a concept promises a real breakthrough, but that much improvement is still needed in the technique itself. Threading is a NP-hard problem, and thus no general polynomial solution can be expected. Still a practical approach with demonstrated ability to find optimal solutions in many cases, and acceptable solutions in other cases, is needed. We applied the technique of Genetic Algorithms in order to significantly improve the ability of threading algorithms to find the optimal alignment of a sequence to a structure, i.e. the alignment with the minimum free energy. A major progress reported here is the design of a representation of the threading alignment as a string of fixed length. With this representation validation of alignments and genetic operators are effectively implemented. Appropriate data structure and parameters have been selected. It is shown that Genetic Algorithm threading is effective and is able to find the optimal alignment in a few test cases. Furthermore, the described algorithm is shown to perform well even without pre-definition of core elements. Existing threading methods are dependent on such constraints to make their calculations feasible. But the concept of core elements is inherently arbitrary and should be avoided if possible. While a rigorous proof is hard to submit yet an, we present indications that indeed Genetic Algorithm threading is capable of finding consistently good solutions of full alignments in search spaces of size up to 10(70).

  8. Tourniquet use during ankle surgery leads to increased postoperative opioid use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Heidi; Christensen, Kristian P; Møller, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Ankle surgery is often done using a tourniquet. Ischemia/reperfusion injury caused by the tourniquet may increase postoperative pain. The study objective was to investigate the amount of opioids given to patients after ankle surgery with and without tourniquet. DESIGN: We did...... a cohort study based on data from patient's records between January 2008 and December 2011. SETTING: Information is gathered from operating room, postanesthetic care unit, and surgical ward in a university hospital. PATIENTS: We identified patients undergoing reconstructive ankle fracture surgery from...... outcome. MAIN RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-eight patients underwent surgery with tourniquet. There was a correlation between tourniquet time and postoperative opioid use (P value = .001) after controlling for confounders. The slope of the correlation was 0.04 mg/min (95% confidence interval, 0...

  9. Optimization of bolt thread stress concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    Designs of threaded fasteners are controlled by different standards, and the number of different thread definitions is large. The most commonly used thread is probably the metric ISO thread, and this design is therefore used in the present paper. Thread root design controls the stress concentration...... are found in the optimized designs leading to the proposal of a new standard. The reductions in the stress are achieved by rather simple changes made to the cutting tool....

  10. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants Before (left) and after (right) - top ...

  11. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  12. Battlefield Tourniquets: Lessons Learned in Moving Current Care Toward Best Care in an Army Medical Department at War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, John F; Dubick, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Bleeding prevention and control by tourniquet use by out-of-hospital caregivers is a major breakthrough in military medicine of current wars. The present review documents developments in tourniquet practices since 2001 among the US military services for aid in improving doctrine, policy, and especially care in wars to come. Tourniquets are an adjunct for resuscitation in self-care and buddy aid and today are issued to all military servicepersons who deploy into a combat zone. In the US Army, virtually every Soldier is trained in first aid tourniquet use; since 2009 they are instructed early and often to use them early and often. Despite substantial knowledge gains among the services in tourniquet use and resulting improvements in casualty survival, current evidence shows persistent difficulties in achieving best care with tourniquet use for individual trauma patients. Nevertheless, contemporary tourniquet use incorporates key lessons learned over the last 14 years of war that include: (1) tourniquet use reliably stops bleeding from limb wounds and prevents mortality in prehospital settings; and (2) brief tourniquet use appears to be safe. These 2 lessons have become so evident that civilian emergency medical systems have begun using them, albeit unevenly. Collection and interpretation of data of casualties with tourniquet use have showed that such intervention has lifesaving benefit through 2 mechanisms: control of both ongoing hemorrhage and shock severity. The next generation of interventions in bleeding control involves developing the skill sets, education, and standards of tourniquet users which may improve hemorrhage control in wars to come.

  13. Tourniquet Deflation Prior to 20 Minutes in Upper Extremity Intravenous Regional Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurich, Richard W; Langan, Justin W; Teasdall, Robert J; Tanner, Stephanie L; Sanders, John L

    2018-03-01

    Bier blocks, or intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA), are a method of anesthesia for upper extremity surgeries. This study reports our experience with tourniquet deflation prior to 20 minutes with upper extremity IVRA. This study was designed as a retrospective cohort analysis. Records, including intraoperative and immediate postoperative anesthesia notes, of 430 patients who underwent IVRA with an upper extremity Bier block and a corresponding tourniquet time of less than 20 minutes were reviewed. Patient demographics, procedure(s) performed, American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, volume of lidocaine used in Bier block, tourniquet time, and any complications were recorded. This cohort consisted of 127 males and 303 females. The 3 most common procedures performed were carpal tunnel release (315), trigger finger release (47), and excision of masses (34). The average tourniquet time for this cohort was 16 minutes (range, 9-19 minutes), and the average volume of lidocaine (0.5% plain) injected was 44 mL (range, 30-70 mL). A tourniquet time of 17 minutes or less was observed in 339 patients, and 170 patients had tourniquet times of 15 minutes or less. Five complications were recorded: intraoperative vomiting, mild postoperative nausea/vomiting, severe postoperative nausea and vomiting, and transient postoperative hypotension that responded to a fluid bolus. No major complications were observed in our cohort of upper extremity IVRA and tourniquet times of less than 20 minutes. Several variables play a role in the safety of upper extremity IVRA.

  14. Preliminary Measures of Instructor Learning in Teaching Junctional Tourniquet Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, John F; Aden, James K; Shackelford, Stacy; Dubick, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of instructor learning on student performance in use of junctional tourniquets. From a convenience sample of data available after another study, we used a manikin for assessment of control of bleeding from a right groin gunshot wound. Blood loss was measured by the instructor while training users. The data set represented a group of 30 persons taught one at a time. The first measure was a plot of mean blood loss volumes for the sequential users. The second measure was a plot of the cumulative sum (CUSUM) of mean blood loss (BL) volumes for users. Mean blood loss trended down as the instructor gained experience with each newly instructed user. User performance continually improved as the instructor gained more experience with teaching. No plateau effect was observed within the 30 users. The CUSUM plot illustrated a turning point or cusp at the seventh user. The prior portion of the plot (users 1-7) had the greatest improvement; performance did not improve as much thereafter. The improvement after the seventh user was the only change detected in the instructor's trend of performance. The instructor's teaching experience appeared to directly affect user performance; in a model of junctional hemorrhage, the volume of blood loss from the manikin during junctional tourniquet placement was a useful metric of instructor learning. The CUSUM technique detected a small but meaningful change in trend where the instructor learning curve was greatest while working with the first seven users. 2016.

  15. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  16. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss Overview Hereditary hair loss: Millions of men ... of hair loss can often be successfully treated. Hair loss: Overview Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE- ...

  17. Law enforcement-applied tourniquets: a case series of life-saving interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, David W; Robertson, Joshua; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Although the epidemiology of civilian trauma is distinct from that encountered in combat, in both settings, extremity hemorrhage remains a major preventable cause of potential mortality. The current paper describes the largest case series in the literature in which police officers arriving prior to emergency medical services applied commercially available field tourniquets to civilian victims of violent trauma. Although all 3 patients with vascular injury arrived at the receiving emergency department in extremis, they were successfully resuscitated and survived to discharge without major morbidity. While this outcome is likely multifactorial and highlights the exceptional care delivered by the modern trauma system, tourniquet application appears to have kept critically injured patients alive long enough to reach definitive trauma care. No patient had a tourniquet-related complication. This case series suggests that law enforcement officers can effectively identify indications for tourniquets and rapidly apply such life-saving interventions.

  18. Thread Structure: Rewriting the Hollywood Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Evan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a new nonlinear model that has crept into Hollywood's cinematic repertoire in which multiple story threads comprise the story. Examines how this thread structure differs from ensemble stories. Examines differences between traditionally linear films and films with thread structure regarding character roles and viewer orientation, shifts…

  19. Tragedy into Drama: An American History of Tourniquet Use in the Current War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Tourniquet doctrine refined, expanded in Emergency War Surgery manual 2004 Tourniquets proposed in theater, wait for data is a recipe for inaction; delay...Holcomb adopted a strategy of companies developing field tour- niquets and the Army testing promising candidates, and Walters had a chili cook off–like...the Food and Drug Administration for device consultation (510k pan - elist). In 2007, he received some funds for work for the National Institutes of

  20. Just-in-Time to Save Lives: A Pilot Study of Layperson Tourniquet Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, Craig; Branting, Andrew; Chen, Elizabeth; Mack, Erin; Olsen, Cara

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to determine whether just-in-time (JiT) instructions increase successful tourniquet application by laypersons. This was a randomized pilot study conducted in August 2014. The study occurred at the Uniformed Services University campus in Bethesda, Maryland. A total of 194 volunteers without prior military service or medical training completed the study. The participant stood in front of a waist-down mannequin that had an exposed leg. An observer read a scenario card aloud that described a mass casualty event. The observer then asked the participant to apply a Combat Application Tourniquet (C-A-T) to the mannequin. Test participants received a 4 × 6-inch card, with JiT instructions, in addition to their C-A-T; controls received no instructions. Participants were randomized in a 3:1 ratio of instructions to no instructions. The study's primary outcome was the proportion of successfully applied tourniquets by participants receiving JiT instructions compared to participants not receiving instructions. Secondary outcomes included the time for successful tourniquet placement, reasons for failed tourniquet application, and participants' self-reported willingness and comfort using tourniquets in real-life settings. Just-in-time instructions more than doubled successful tourniquet placement. Participants supplied with JiT instructions placed a tourniquet successfully 44.14% of the time, compared to 20.41% of the time for controls without instructions (risk ratio = 2.16; 95% confidence interval = 1.21 to 3.87; p = 0.003). Just-in-time instructions increase laypeople's successful application of C-A-T. This pilot study provides evidence that JiT instructions may assist the lay public in providing effective point-of-injury hemorrhage control. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. The efficacy of tourniquet assisted total knee arthroplasty on patient-reported and performance-based physical function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohmann-Jensen, Rasmus; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Emmeluth, Claus

    2014-01-01

    surgery. The non-tourniquet assisted TKA group will have surgery performed without application of a tourniquet. The primary aim is to compare tourniquet assisted to non-tourniquet assisted TKA on patient-reported physical function (KOOS-ADL). The secondary aim is to compare post-surgery pain, function...... in sports and recreation, quality of life, and performance-based physical function. The explorative outcomes include; use of pain medication, single-fiber muscle damage, and changes in mechanical muscle function. The primary endpoint will be at 3-months following surgical treatment, and the time...... randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of tourniquet assisted TKA on patient-reported physical function supported by a range of performance-based secondary outcome measures. As such it will provide high quality evidence that may help determine whether tourniquet should be used in future TKA...

  2. Absence of a Tourniquet Does Not Affect Fixation of Cemented TKA: A Randomized RSA Study of 70 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Ashir; Laursen, Anders C; Jakobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Sten; Nielsen, Poul Torben; Laursen, Mogens B

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to determine whether not using a tourniquet in cemented TKA would affect migration of the tibial component measured by radiosterometric analysis (RSA). Seventy patients were randomized into a tourniquet group and a non-tourniquet group and using model-based RSA, the migration of the tibial component was analyzed. Primary and secondary outcome measures were maximum total point motion (MTPM) and translations and rotations. Follow-up period was 2 years. The tibial component was well fixated in both groups and no significant difference in migration between the two groups was detected (P=0.632). Mean MTPM (SD) was 0.47 mm (0.16) in the tourniquet group and 0.45 mm (0.21) in the non-tourniquet group. Absence of tourniquet indicates that stable fixation of the tibial component can be achieved in cemented TKA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tourniquet-induced cardiovascular responses in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery under general anesthesia: Effect of preoperative oral amantadine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abd Elmawgood

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Preoperative oral amantadine reduced tourniquet induced hypertension and postoperative analgesic requirements in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery under general anesthesia.

  4. Hair-on-hair static friction coefficient can be determined by tying a knot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicolas R

    2017-11-01

    Characterizing the tribological properties of the hair-hair interface is important to quantify the manageability of hair and to assess the performance of hair care products. Audoly et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164301, 2007) derived an equation relating the self-friction coefficient of an elastic fiber to the dimensions of a simple, relaxed overhand knot made from this fiber. I experimentally tested and validated their equation using nylon thread and an independent measurement of its self-friction coefficient. I show that this methodology can be applied to provide high-throughput data on the static self-friction coefficient of single hair fibers in various conditions and to quantitatively assess how hair care treatments (conditioner, relaxant) alter frictional properties. I find that treatment of hair with 1M sodium hydroxide leads to a quick, irreversible self-friction coefficient increase; the resulting fine frictional fibers can be used to form very small knots for microsurgical vessel and organ ligature in medicine or embryology. The relaxed overhand knot method can more generally be used to measure the self-friction coefficients of a wide range of elastic fibers from the nano- (e.g. proteins, nanotubes) to the macro-scale (e.g. textile fiber, fiberglass). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictive diagnostic value of the tourniquet test for the diagnosis of dengue infection in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Moore, Catrin E; Chansamouth, Vilada; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Sisouphone, Syho; Vongphachanh, Pankham; Thaojaikong, Thaksinaporn; Thongpaseuth, Soulignasack; Phongmany, Simmaly; Keolouangkhot, Valy; Strobel, Michel; Newton, Paul N

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the accuracy of the admission tourniquet test in the diagnosis of dengue infection among Lao adults. Methods Prospective assessment of the predictive diagnostic value of the tourniquet test for the diagnosis of dengue infection, as defined by IgM, IgG and NS1 ELISAs (Panbio Ltd, Australia), among Lao adult inpatients with clinically suspected dengue infection. Results Of 234 patients with clinically suspected dengue infection on admission, 73% were serologically confirmed to have dengue, while 64 patients with negative dengue serology were diagnosed as having scrub typhus (39%), murine typhus (11%), undetermined typhus (12%), Japanese encephalitis virus (5%), undetermined flavivirus (5%) and typhoid fever (3%); 25% had no identifiable aetiology. The tourniquet test was positive in 29.1% (95% CI = 23.2–34.9%) of all patients and in 34.1% (95% CI = 27.0–41.2%) of dengue-seropositive patients, in 32.7% (95% CI = 23.5–41.8) of those with dengue fever and in 36.4% (95% CI = 24.7–48.0) of those with dengue haemorrhagic fever. Interobserver agreement for the tourniquet test was 90.2% (95% CI = 86.4–94.0) (Kappa = 0.76). Using ELISAs as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity of the tourniquet test was 33.5–34%; its specificity was 84–91%. The positive and negative predictive values were 85–90% and 32.5–34%, respectively. Conclusions The admission tourniquet test has low sensitivity and adds relatively little value to the diagnosis of dengue among Lao adult inpatients with suspected dengue. Although a positive tourniquet test suggests dengue and that treatment of alternative diagnoses may not be needed, a negative test result does not exclude dengue. PMID:20958892

  6. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

  7. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  8. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  9. Vascular calcifications on the preoperative radiograph: harbinger of tourniquet failure in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woelfle-Roos, Julia Verena; Dautel, Laura; Bieger, Ralf; Reichel, Heiko [University of Ulm, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ulm (Germany); Mayer, Benjamin [University of Ulm, Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometrics, Ulm (Germany); Woelfle, Klaus-Dieter [Klinikum Augsburg, Vascular Surgery Division, Surgical Center, Augsburg (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    Vascular calcifications on the preoperative radiograph of patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) often give rise to concern, as their clinical relevance remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these vascular calcifications - especially medial artery calcifications (MACs), which increase arterial stiffness - were associated with tourniquet failure and thus with increased intraoperative blood loss. A total of 765 patients who underwent primary TKA with a tourniquet (cuff pressure 350 mmHg) between 2009 and 2011 were screened for vascular calcifications on the preoperative radiograph. Vascular calcifications were classified into intimal and medial artery calcifications. Intraoperative blood loss of patients with and without MAC was compared, and a mixed linear regression model was used to adjust for the presence of several confounding factors (e.g., obesity, operating time). None of the 50 (6.5%) patients with MAC showed signs of tourniquet failure. Intraoperative blood loss of patients with MAC was not significantly elevated compared to the overall study group (p = 0.592) even when corrected for the presence of several confounding factors. We found no evidence that vascular calcifications seen on the preoperative radiograph might be associated with tourniquet failure. However, surgeons should be aware of this possibility as tourniquet failure might become more common considering the ongoing trend toward minimizing cuff pressures. (orig.)

  10. Tourniquet application and epinephrine injection to penile skin: is it safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, M; Caglayan, F; Kisa, U; Bozdogan, O; Saray, A; Caglayan, O

    2002-09-01

    Although a tourniquet is frequently used in penile surgery there is still no consensus on safe application time. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and histological changes in skin flaps after penile tourniquet application and epinephrine injection. A total of 36 male white New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into six groups each containing six animals. A Mathieu-like flap was raised in all of the groups and a tourniquet was applied and the penis was subjected to ischemia for 10, 20 and 40 min in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The flaps were then allowed to reperfuse for 5 min. Biopsies for MDA measurement were harvested in these groups. Subcutaneous 1/200,000 epinephrine was injected into penile skin in group 4 and 5 rabbits and biopsies for MDA measurement were harvested 10 and 40 min after injection. The control group was anesthetized without tourniquet usage or epinephrine injection. Specimens taken from the harvested flaps of all groups were submitted for histological evaluation. The mean MDA levels in all experimental groups were higher than in the control group and the difference was statistically significant. Edema, congestion and extravasation were observed in groups 1, 2 and 3. Minimal congestion and edema were observed in group 4 and severe edema and extravasation in group 5. Tourniquet usage for a duration of less than 10 min is clearly safer than prolonged usage. Epinephrine injection to penile skin may show a deleterious effect on wound healing.

  11. Haemodynamic and end tidal CO2 changes state after inflation and deflation of pneumatic tourniquet on extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, S M; Islam, M M; Chowdhury, K K; Rickta, D; Ireen, S T; Choudhury, M R; Alam, M

    2010-10-01

    The use of a tourniquet for obtaining a bloodless field is an essential and accepted tool for extremity surgery. A prospective study was done on 30 adult patients undergoing elective limb surgery requiring tourniquet application for haemodynamic and End tidal CO2 (EtCO2) changes. After the induction of general anaesthesia a tourniquet was applied on the limb. There was gradual increase in heart rate & EtCO2 through out the whole period of tourniquet inflation. There was also significant increase of mean arterial pressure during the inflation period. At the end of surgery tourniquet was deflated. Tourniquet time was 76.83+/-16.94 minutes. After deflation of the tourniquet, heart rate & EtCO2 value increased & the values were maximum at 5 minutes. These values came down to the base line at 15 minutes. There was significant decrease of mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 5 minute; it also came to the base at 15 minute. These changes are usually benign but can be significant in patients with co-existing cardiovascular & intracranial diseases. In conclusion, we recommend the haemodynamic and End tidal CO2 monitoring as well as rapid fluid infusion along with hyperventilation for 15-30 minutes after deflation of tourniquet.

  12. Real-time inextensible surgical thread simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lang; Liu, Qian

    2018-03-27

    This paper discusses a real-time simulation method of inextensible surgical thread based on the Cosserat rod theory using position-based dynamics (PBD). The method realizes stable twining and knotting of surgical thread while including inextensibility, bending, twisting and coupling effects. The Cosserat rod theory is used to model the nonlinear elastic behavior of surgical thread. The surgical thread model is solved with PBD to achieve a real-time, extremely stable simulation. Due to the one-dimensional linear structure of surgical thread, the direct solution of the distance constraint based on tridiagonal matrix algorithm is used to enhance stretching resistance in every constraint projection iteration. In addition, continuous collision detection and collision response guarantee a large time step and high performance. Furthermore, friction is integrated into the constraint projection process to stabilize the twining of multiple threads and complex contact situations. Through comparisons with existing methods, the surgical thread maintains constant length under large deformation after applying the direct distance constraint in our method. The twining and knotting of multiple threads correspond to stable solutions to contact and friction forces. A surgical suture scene is also modeled to demonstrate the practicality and simplicity of our method. Our method achieves stable and fast simulation of inextensible surgical thread. Benefiting from the unified particle framework, the rigid body, elastic rod, and soft body can be simultaneously simulated. The method is appropriate for applications in virtual surgery that require multiple dynamic bodies.

  13. Clonidine versus ketamine to prevent tourniquet pain during intravenous regional anesthesia with lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgias, N K; Maidatsi, P G; Kyriakidis, A M; Karakoulas, K A; Alvanos, D N; Giala, M M

    2001-01-01

    Both clonidine and ketamine have been found to prolong the action of local anesthetics through a peripheral mechanism. Our study compares the efficacy of a low dose of clonidine or ketamine separately added to intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) with lidocaine to prevent tourniquet pain. We conducted a prospective randomized double-blinded study in 45 patients undergoing hand or forearm surgery, with anticipated duration exceeding 1 hour under IVRA. Proximal cuff inflation of a double tourniquet was followed by administration of 40 mL of lidocaine 0.5% and either saline, 1 microg/kg clonidine, or 0.1 mg/kg ketamine. When anesthesia was established, the inflation of the proximal and distal cuff was interchanged. Thereafter, tourniquet pain was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS) every 10 minutes. Intraoperatively, boluses of 25 microg fentanyl were provided for tourniquet pain treatment when required, and total fentanyl consumption was recorded. Patients receiving plain lidocaine persistently reported the highest pain scores among groups (P <.001) 20 minutes after distal cuff inflation. Differences between the groups with additional treatment were noted 50 minutes after distal cuff inflation and until the end of the observation, with significantly lower VAS ratings (P <.001 to P <.01) in ketamine-treated patients. Total fentanyl consumption was significantly decreased by ketamine (70.00 +/- 25.35 microg) or clonidine (136.67 +/- 39.94 microg) compared with the plain lidocaine group (215.33 +/- 52.33 microg) (P <.001 between all groups). The addition of clonidine 1 microg/kg or ketamine 0.1 mg/kg to lidocaine for IVRA delays the onset of unbearable tourniquet pain and decreases analgesic consumption for tourniquet pain relief, although ketamine has a more potent effect.

  14. Hierarchical resilience with lightweight threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, Kyle Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes methodology for providing robustness and resilience for a highly threaded distributed- and shared-memory environment based on well-defined inputs and outputs to lightweight tasks. These inputs and outputs form a failure 'barrier', allowing tasks to be restarted or duplicated as necessary. These barriers must be expanded based on task behavior, such as communication between tasks, but do not prohibit any given behavior. One of the trends in high-performance computing codes seems to be a trend toward self-contained functions that mimic functional programming. Software designers are trending toward a model of software design where their core functions are specified in side-effect free or low-side-effect ways, wherein the inputs and outputs of the functions are well-defined. This provides the ability to copy the inputs to wherever they need to be - whether that's the other side of the PCI bus or the other side of the network - do work on that input using local memory, and then copy the outputs back (as needed). This design pattern is popular among new distributed threading environment designs. Such designs include the Barcelona STARS system, distributed OpenMP systems, the Habanero-C and Habanero-Java systems from Vivek Sarkar at Rice University, the HPX/ParalleX model from LSU, as well as our own Scalable Parallel Runtime effort (SPR) and the Trilinos stateless kernels. This design pattern is also shared by CUDA and several OpenMP extensions for GPU-type accelerators (e.g. the PGI OpenMP extensions).

  15. Visual thread quality for precision miniature mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1981-04-01

    Threaded features have eight visual appearance factors which can affect their function in precision miniature mechanisms. The Bendix practice in deburring, finishing, and accepting these conditions on miniature threads is described as is their impact in assemblies of precision miniature electromechanical assemblies.

  16. Thread-Skip: An Undefined Common Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Peter; Allan, William DE

    When a screw-retained implant prosthesis is removed, a click is heard and a slight axial shift is felt, indicating the screw has been fully removed from the retaining thread. This common observation has never been described in the literature. This article describes the click, and it is proposed it be termed thread-skip.

  17. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  18. The effect of electroacupuncture and tramadol on experimental tourniquet pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Frauke; Choi, Kyung-Eun; Gabriel, Tim; Lüdtke, Rainer; Rampp, Thomas; Michalsen, Andreas; Dobos, Gustav

    2012-03-01

    The hypoalgesic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) was directly compared with the analgesic effect of pharmacological interventions using the submaximum effort tourniquet technique (SETT). 125 healthy subjects (mean age 24.44±4.46 years; 62.4% female, 37.6% male) performed SETT at baseline and under one of five experimental conditions (n=25 per group): EA (2 Hz with burst pulses in alternating one-phase-square wave pulses; burst length 180 μs, burst frequency 80 Hz, stimulation time/pulse width 3 s), tramadol (50 mg), ibuprofen (400 mg), placebo pill or non-treatment control. EA was performed at LI4 and LI10 contralaterally with stimulation beginning 20 min before SETT and lasting throughout SETT. The pharmacological interventions were given in a double-blind design 1 h before the SETT assessment. Subjects showed a hypoalgesic effect of the opiate and of the EA for subjective pain rating (EA p=0.0051; tramadol p=0.0299), and pain tolerance index (time/rating) (EA p=0.043; tramadol p=0.047) analysed using analysis of covariance. More subjects reached the strict time limit of 30 min (analysed by logistic regression and adjusted OR as a post-hoc analysis) under EA compared with most other experimental conditions. Only EA and tramadol were not significantly different (95% Wald confidence limits: non-treatment control vs EA 0.011 to 0.542; placebo pill vs EA 0.009 to 0.438; ibuprofen vs EA 0.021 to 0.766; tramadol vs EA 0.065 to 1.436). In a laboratory setting, an EA procedure was as effective as a single dose of an orally administered opiate in reducing experimentally induced ischaemic pain.

  19. Comparison of ketorolac and low-dose ketamine in preventing tourniquet-induced increase in arterial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Zaidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Application of tourniquet during orthopaedic procedures causes pain and increase in blood pressure despite adequate anaesthesia and analgesia. In this study, we compared ketorolac with ketamine in patients undergoing elective lower limb surgery with tourniquet in order to discover if ketorolac was equally effective or better than ketamine in preventing tourniquet-induced hypertension. Methods: Approval was granted by the Institutional Ethics Review Committee and informed consent was obtained from all participants. A randomised double-blinded controlled trial with 38 patients each in the ketamine and ketorolac groups undergoing elective knee surgery for anterior cruciate ligament repair or reconstruction was conducted. Induction and maintenance of anaesthesia were standardised in all patients, and the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane was maintained at 1.2 throughout the study period. One group received ketamine in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg and the other group received 30 mg ketorolac 10 min before tourniquet inflation. Blood pressure was recorded before induction of anaesthesia (baseline and at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min after tourniquet inflation. Results: The demographic and anaesthetic characteristics were similar in the two groups. At 0 and 10 min, tourniquet-induced rise in blood pressure was not observed in both groups. From 20 min onward, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in ketorolac group compared to ketamine group. Conclusion: We conclude that ketamine is superior to ketorolac in preventing tourniquet-induced increases in blood pressure.

  20. Unwrapping a First Aid Tourniquet From Its Plastic Wrapper With and Without Gloves Worn: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, John F; Aden, James K; Lambert, Connor D; Moore, Virgil K; Dubick, Michael A

    The purpose of this study was to gather data about unwrapping a packaged limb tourniquet from its plastic wrapper while wearing different types of gloves. Because already unwrapped tourniquets require no time to unwrap, unwrapping data may provide insights into the issue of having tourniquets unwrapped when stowed in a first aid kit of a Serviceperson at war. In a laboratory setting, 36 tests of nine glove groups were performed in which four people, gloved and ungloved, unwrapped tourniquets. Other tourniquets were environmentally exposed for 3 months. All the users successfully unwrapped each tourniquet. Mean times to unwrap by glove group were not significantly different (p = .0961). When mean values of eight experimental groups were compared with that of one control group (i.e., bare hands), results showed no significant difference (p > .07). Mean time was least for bare hands (12 seconds) and most for cold gloves layered under mittens (22 seconds). Among the 36 pairwise comparisons of difference between glove group means, after adjustment for multiple comparisons, no comparison was noted to be statistically significant (p > .052, all 36 pairs). Glove thickness ranged from 0 mm for bare hands to 2.5 mm for cold gloves layered under mittens. By glove group, the thickness-time association was moderate, as tested by linear regression (R2 = 0.6096). The tourniquets exposed to the environment had evidence of rapid photodegradation due to direct exposure to sunlight. Such exposure also destroyed the wrappers. In a preliminary study, different gloves performed similarly when wearers unwrapped a tourniquet from its wrapper. The tourniquet wrappers gave no visible protection from sunlight, and environmental exposure destroyed the wrappers. 2017.

  1. Rupture of the long tendon of the biceps brachi muscle. An unusual case related to use of the pneumatic tourniquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logel, R J

    1976-01-01

    Tourniquet paralysis, arterial spasm, aneurysm formation, and the post-ischemic hand syndrome are all complications of penumatic tourniquet use in surgery of the extremities. This is a case report of another complication of tourniquet use, rupture of the long tendon of the biceps brachii muscle. Some underlying pathologic or degenerative condition usually exists before rupture can occur. Both rheumatoid arthritis and local corticosteroid injections into the long tendon of the biceps probably accounted for weakening the tensile strength of the tendon and subsequent rupture in the case described.

  2. The Advanced Thread-Locking Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Wolfgang

    2005-12-01

    Locking of threaded members is accomplished by a wide variety of engineering solutions. Generally, in terms of separate locking devices or by built-in locking features such as friction generating means.In regard of space flight vehicles, threaded joints are subject to severe vibration loads during launch, maneuvering, and reentry. This requires fastening systems which are capable to join structural members and attach accessories or equipment in a secure manner. However, manned spacecraft and especially payload components will be subject to installation activity during orbital or interstellar flight maintenance, repair, or mission modification. This, in turn, requires fast separation and engaging of the concerned fasteners, yet providing performance characteristics for high reliable and safe joints.The further described Advanced Thread Locking Mechanism (ATLM) has been developed to combine the merits of both, safe joining technique and a fast installation process. The ATLM uses a freewheel which is securely installed in one part of the threaded member and releasable coupled with the engaged counterpart. While screwing the threaded members together, once coupled, the freewheel will allow free mating of the threaded members including torquing to the desired value. The moment, the pair of threaded fasteners is forced to unscrew (by intended or unintended occurrence of torque in the undoing direction) the freewheel does lock instantly. Disengaging the coupling between the members of the threaded joint takes a separate release action.Owing to the nature of the ATLM, there are a number of design variants ready for implementation.Threaded fasteners in ATLM design are highly recommended for mechanical joints subject to fastening and unfastening during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) in course of space flight operations. This is justified through:1. Threaded members mate free running, thus, torque values preset at the wrenching tool are not influenced by varying prevailing

  3. The helical tomotherapy thread effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissick, M.W.; Fenwick, J.; James, J.A.; Jeraj, R.; Kapatoes, J.M.; Keller, H.; Mackie, T.R.; Olivera, G.; Soisson, E.T.

    2005-01-01

    Inherent to helical tomotherapy is a dose variation pattern that manifests as a 'ripple' (peak-to-trough relative to the average). This ripple is the result of helical beam junctioning, completely unique to helical tomotherapy. Pitch is defined as in helical CT, the couch travel distance for a complete gantry rotation relative to the axial beam width at the axis of rotation. Without scattering or beam divergence, an analytical posing of the problem as a simple integral predicts minima near a pitch of 1/n where n is an integer. A convolution-superposition dose calculator (TomoTherapy, Inc.) included all the physics needed to explore the ripple magnitude versus pitch and beam width. The results of the dose calculator and some benchmark measurements demonstrate that the ripple has sharp minima near p=0.86(1/n). The 0.86 factor is empirical and caused by a beam junctioning of the off-axis dose profiles which differ from the axial profiles as well as a long scatter tail of the profiles at depth. For very strong intensity modulation, the 0.86 factor may vary. The authors propose choosing particular minima pitches or using a second delivery that starts 180 deg off-phase from the first to reduce these ripples: 'Double threading'. For current typical pitches and beam widths, however, this effect is small and not clinically important for most situations. Certain extremely large field or high pitch cases, however, may benefit from mitigation of this effect

  4. Taking Care of Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Hair KidsHealth / For Teens / Taking Care of Your Hair ... role in how healthy it looks. Caring for Hair How you take care of your hair depends ...

  5. Optically variable threads and polarization effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmar, Friedrich; Burchard, Theodor; Heim, Manfred

    2006-02-01

    Based on common criteria for efficient security elements for banknotes the set-up of a state-of-the-art holographic security thread is described - as first representative of window embedded OVD. We continue with new colour-shifting OVD-threads - based on physical vapour deposition thin-film and liquid crystal technology. These three then form the family of optically variable threads following the same set of requirements for efficiency, durability, service to all authentication levels and economics. In addition to this set of OVD threads we introduce how liquid crystal based phase retarding layer can be used to install new authentication channels for the public use up-to machine authentication. Also we show the perspective how those development can be used to install similar sets of OVD families of foil elements on banknotes.

  6. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  7. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  8. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  9. Loading and Contact Stress Analysis on the Thread Teeth in Tubing and Casing Premium Threaded Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loading and contact stress distribution on the thread teeth in tubing and casing premium threaded connections are of great importance for design optimization, pretightening force control, and thread failure prevention. This paper proposes an analytical method based on the elastic mechanics. This is quite different from other papers, which mainly rely on finite element analysis. The differential equation of load distribution on the thread teeth was established according to equal pitch of the engaged thread after deformation and solved by finite difference method. Furthermore, the relation between load acting on each engaged thread and mean contact stress on its load flank is set up based on the geometric description of thread surface. By comparison, this new analytical method with the finite element analysis for a modified API 177.8 mm premium threaded connection is approved. Comparison of the contact stress on the last engaged thread between analytical model and FEM shows that the accuracy of analytical model will decline with the increase of pretightening force after the material enters into plastic deformation. However, the analytical method can meet the needs of engineering to some extent because its relative error is about 6.2%~18.1% for the in-service level of pretightening force.

  10. Cribellate thread production in spiders: Complex processing of nano-fibres into a functional capture thread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Anna-Christin; Kappel, Peter; Adamova, Hana; Baumgartner, Werner; Scholz, Ingo

    2015-11-01

    Spider silk production has been studied intensively in the last years. However, capture threads of cribellate spiders employ an until now often unnoticed alternative of thread production. This thread in general is highly interesting, as it not only involves a controlled arrangement of three types of threads with one being nano-scale fibres (cribellate fibres), but also a special comb-like structure on the metatarsus of the fourth leg (calamistrum) for its production. We found the cribellate fibres organized as a mat, enclosing two parallel larger fibres (axial fibres) and forming the typical puffy structure of cribellate threads. Mat and axial fibres are punctiform connected to each other between two puffs, presumably by the action of the median spinnerets. However, this connection alone does not lead to the typical puffy shape of a cribellate thread. Removing the calamistrum, we found a functional capture thread still being produced, but the puffy shape of the thread was lost. Therefore, the calamistrum is not necessary for the extraction or combination of fibres, but for further processing of the nano-scale cribellate fibres. Using data from Uloborus plumipes we were able to develop a model of the cribellate thread production, probably universally valid for cribellate spiders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Viking Age Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Arwill-Nordbladh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of hair in the Viking Age. The article draws on medieval Icelandic and Scandinavian texts for interpretation. Further information is taken from pictoral representations of viking hair styles and decoration, hairdressing artefacts, figurines and actual remains of hair.

  12. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in this ... head are in the resting phase. What Causes Hair Loss? Men, especially older men, are the ones who ...

  13. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin, Hair, and Nails KidsHealth / For Parents / Skin, Hair, and ... piel, el cabello y las uñas About Skin, Hair and Nails Skin is our largest organ. If ...

  14. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  15. [Effect of Transcutaneous Acupoint Electrical Stimulation on Hemodynamic Fluctuation Caused by Loosing Tourniquet in Elderly Patients Undergoing Knee Joint Replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Han-Sheng; Feng, Yi

    2017-12-25

    To observe the effect of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TAES) on hemodynamic fluctuation caused by loosing tourniquet in the elderly patients undergoing knee joint replacement. A total of 60 ASA (America Society Anesthesiologist) I or II elderly patients for elective knee joint replacement surgery were randomly divided into control group (30 cases) and TAES group (30 cases). Patients of both groups were treated by intravenous anesthesia, and monitored with bispectral index (BIS, between 45-60) for anesthesia depth, stroke volume variation (SVV) for fluid management, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac index (CI) for hemodynamic fluctuation evaluation, and with analgesia nociception index (ANI, between 50-70) for remifentanil dosage adjustment. TAES (2 Hz/100 Hz, 8-20 mA) was applied to bilateral Xinshu (BL 15), Feishu (BL 13), Neiguan (PC 6) and Hegu (LI 4) acupoints for 30 min first (followed by anesthesia induction and operation), and given continuously until 15 min after tourniquet loosing. Patients of the control group were only given with electrodes attachment without electrical stimulation. The levels of MAP, CI, and arterial blood pH, PaCO 2 , PaO 2 , base excess (BE) and lactic acid (Lac) 1 min before, and 5 and 15 min after tourniquet loosing, and the dosages of remifentanil and ephedrine after tourniquet loosing were recorded. The changed levels of MAP, CI and blood Lac at 5 min after tourniquet loosing (relevant to the baseline levels), and blood Lac content at 15 min after tourniquet loosing (relevant to 5 min after tourniquet loosing) were significantly lower in the TAES group than in the control group ( P 0.05). TAES has a positive effect on hemodynamics fluctuation caused by loosing tourniquet in the aged patients undergoing knee joint replacement.

  16. The effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Inkyung; Kim, Dong Yeon; Kim, Youn Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflation and deflation of a pneumatic tourniquet used in total knee replacement surgery induces various changes in patient's hemodynamic and metabolic status, which may result in serious complications, especially in aged patients. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a monitoring device designed to estimate the regional cerebral oxygen saturation. We evaluated the effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing tot...

  17. Influence of the pneumatic tourniquet on patella tracking in total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized study in 100 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Toftgaard Jensen, T

    2005-01-01

    One hundred consecutive patients with osteoarthritis of the knee joint and scheduled for primary total knee arthroplasty performed in a bloodless field were prospectively randomized to have the tourniquet inflated on either straight leg or maximally flexed knee. There was no difference in the num...... deflation led to better patella tracking and saved 5 (31%) of 16 releases with no difference between groups. We recommend tourniquet deflation and reevaluation of patella tracking before performing lateral release in patellar maltracking....

  18. Relation between preoperative autonomic function and blood pressure change after tourniquet deflation during total knee replacement arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, In Young; Kim, Dae-Young; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Shin, Soo Jin; Cho, Young Woo; Park, Soon Eun

    2012-02-01

    Tourniquets are used to provide a bloodless surgical field for extremities. Hypotension due to vasodilation and bleeding after tourniquet deflation is a common event. Hemodynamic stability is modulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Heart rate variability (HRV) is a sensitive method for detecting individuals who may be at risk of hemodynamic instability during general anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate ANS function to predict hypotension after tourniquet deflation. Eighty-six patients who underwent total knee replacement arthroplasty (TKRA) were studied. HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were analyzed. We assigned two groups depending on the lowest systolic blood pressure (SBP) or mean BP (MBP) after tourniquet release (Group H; SBP 80 mmHg and MBP > 60 mmHg). Fifteen patients developed severe hypotension and ten patients were treated with ephedrine. Of the parameters of HRV, SBPV, and BRS, only BRS(SEQ) was significant being low in Group H. BRS and high-frequency SBPV were correlated with the degree of MBP change after tourniquet deflation. Preoperative low BRS is associated with hypotension after tourniquet deflation, suggesting the importance of baroreflex regulation for intraoperative hemodynamic stability.

  19. The influence of tourniquet use and operative time on the incidence of deep vein thrombosis in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Almeida, Adriano Marques de; Fávaro, Edmar; Sguizzato, Guilherme Turola

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the association between tourniquet and total operative time during total knee arthroplasty and the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis. Seventy-eight consecutive patients from our institution underwent cemented total knee arthroplasty for degenerative knee disorders. The pneumatic tourniquet time and total operative time were recorded in minutes. Four categories were established for total tourniquet time: 120 minutes. Three categories were defined for operative time: 150 minutes. Between 7 and 12 days after surgery, the patients underwent ascending venography to evaluate the presence of distal or proximal deep vein thrombosis. We evaluated the association between the tourniquet time and total operative time and the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty. In total, 33 cases (42.3%) were positive for deep vein thrombosis; 13 (16.7%) cases involved the proximal type. We found no statistically significant difference in tourniquet time or operative time between patients with or without deep vein thrombosis. We did observe a higher frequency of proximal deep vein thrombosis in patients who underwent surgery lasting longer than 120 minutes. The mean total operative time was also higher in patients with proximal deep vein thrombosis. The tourniquet time did not significantly differ in these patients. We concluded that surgery lasting longer than 120 minutes increases the risk of proximal deep vein thrombosis.

  20. Dexamethasone Protects Against Tourniquet-Induced Acute Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Mouse Hindlimb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Corrick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extremity injuries with hemorrhage have been a significant cause of death in civilian medicine and on the battlefield. The use of a tourniquet as an intervention is necessary for treatment to an injured limb; however, the tourniquet and subsequent release results in serious acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in the skeletal muscle and neuromuscular junction (NMJ. Much evidence demonstrates that inflammation is an important factor to cause acute IR injury. To find effective therapeutic interventions for tourniquet-induced acute IR injuries, our current study investigated effect of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, on tourniquet-induced acute IR injury in mouse hindlimb. In C57/BL6 mice, a tourniquet was placed on unilateral hindlimb (left hindlimb at the hip joint for 3 h, and then released for 24 h to induce IR. Three hours of tourniquet and 24 h of release (24-h IR caused gastrocnemius muscle injuries including rupture of the muscle sarcolemma and necrosis (42.8 ± 2.3% for infarct size of the gastrocnemius muscle. In the NMJ, motor nerve terminals disappeared, and endplate potentials were undetectable in 24-h IR mice. There was no gastrocnemius muscle contraction in 24-h IR mice. Western blot data showed that inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-1β were increased in the gastrocnemius muscle after 24-h IR. Treatment with dexamethasone at the beginning of reperfusion (1 mg/kg, i.p. significantly inhibited expression of TNFα and IL-1β, reduced rupture of the muscle sarcolemma and infarct size (24.8 ± 2.0%, and improved direct muscle stimulation-induced gastrocnemius muscle contraction in 24-h IR mice. However, this anti-inflammatory drug did not improve NMJ morphology and function, and sciatic nerve-stimulated skeletal muscle contraction in 24-h IR mice. The data suggest that one-time treatment with dexamethasone at the beginning of reperfusion only reduced structural and functional impairments of the skeletal muscle but not the

  1. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  2. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  3. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  4. Hair loss in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Romero, J A; Grimalt, R

    2014-02-01

    Hair diseases represent a significant portion of cases seen by pediatric dermatologists although hair has always been a secondary aspect in pediatricians and dermatologists training, on the erroneous basis that there is not much information extractable from it. Dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders with simple diagnostic techniques. The hair is easily accessible to examination but, paradoxically, this approach is often disregarded by non-dermatologist. This paper has been written on the purpose of trying to serve in the diagnostic process of daily practice, and trying to help, for example, to distinguish between certain acquired and some genetically determined hair diseases. We will focus on all the data that can be obtained from our patients' hair and try to help on using the messages given by hair for each patient. Quite often it is extremely hard to distinguish between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. We will specially focus in the most common physiological changes that may mislead to an incorrect diagnosis. Specific treatment for those hair diseases that do have one, and basic general approach to improve the cosmetic appearance of hair, will be also be discussed for those hair disturbances that do not have a specific treatment.

  5. Varicose vein surgery using a pneumatic tourniquet: reduced blood loss and improved cosmesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, J. F.; Royle, G. T.; Farrands, P. A.; Najmaldin, A.; Clifford, P. C.; Webster, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    A prospective controlled randomised study has been performed of 100 consecutive patients undergoing varicose vein surgery. One group underwent saphenofemoral flush ligation and multiple lower leg avulsions with the leg exsanguinated with a Rhys-Davies cuff, and ischaemia maintained with a pneumatic tourniquet. The other group underwent identical surgery but with a 30 degree head down tilt only. Blood loss was significantly less (13.5 +/- 12 ml vs 133 +/- 78 ml; P less than 0.01) and postopera...

  6. Missing IUD Despite Threads at the Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Atkinson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the intrauterine device (IUD is by far the most popular form of long term reversible contraception in the world. Side effects from the IUD are minimal and complications are rare. Uterine perforation and migration of the IUD outside the uterine cavity are the most serious complications. Physician visualization and/or the patient feeling retrieval threads at the cervical os are confirmation that the IUD has not been expelled or migrated. We present a case of a perforated, intraperitoneal IUD with threads noted at the cervical os. Office removal was not possible using gentle traction on the threads. Multiple imaging and endoscopic modalities were used to try and locate the IUD including pelvic ultrasound, diagnostic hysteroscopy, cystoscopy, and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The studies gave conflicting results on location of the IUD. Ultimately, the missing IUD was removed via laparoscopy.

  7. Environmentally acceptable thread compounds: Requirements defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, W.D.; Hendriks, R.V.; Jacobs, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    New environmental regulations on thread compounds are now being enforced in several areas with strong maritime tradition and a sensitive environment. These areas include Indonesia, Alaska and portions of Norway. The industry generally recognizes the environmental concerns but, with wider enforcement of regulations imminent, has not been able to define clearly the requirements for environmental compliance. This paper, written in collaboration with The Netherlands State Supervision of Mines, is based on the National Policy on Thread Compounds of The Netherlands. This national policy is representative of policies being followed by other North Sea governments. Similar policies might well be adopted by other governments worldwide. These policies will affect the operator, drilling contractor, and supplier. This paper provides a specific and detailed definition of thread compound requirements by addressing four relevant categories. The categories of interest are regulatory approval, environmental, health, and performance

  8. Hair cosmetics and camouflage technics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahide Eriş Eken

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is composed of a mixture of trace elements in small quantities, proteins, lipids and water. Proteins consist of helical polypeptide amino acid molecules. In the hair cells; polypeptide chains of keratin protein would be organized in filaments. In recent years, hair cosmetics showed a significant change and development. The content of shampoos which is used to cleanse the hair has enhanced significantly. Hair conditioner, hair styling products, pomades, brilliantine, and gloss sprays, hair protective products, camouflage products are most commonly used hair cosmetics. Hair shaping procedures are frequently applied.

  9. Comparative analysis of pain in patients who underwent total knee replacement regarding the tourniquet pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos George de Souza Leão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To evaluate through the visual analog scale (VAS the pain in patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR with different pressures of the pneumatic tourniquet. METHODS: An observational, randomized, descriptive study on an analytical basis, with 60 patients who underwent TKR, divided into two groups, which were matched: a group where TKR was performed with tourniquet pressures of 350 mmHg (standard and the other with systolic blood pressure plus 100 mmHg (P + 100. These patients had their pain assessed by VAS at 48 h, and at the 5th and 15th days after procedure. Secondarily, the following were also measured: range of motion (ROM, complications, and blood drainage volume in each group; the data were subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS: After data analysis, there was no statistical difference regarding the incidence of complications (p = 0.612, ROM (p = 0.202, bleeding after 24 and 48 h (p = 0.432 and p = 0.254 or in relation to VAS. No correlation was observed between time of ischemia compared to VAS and bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the pneumatic tourniquet pressure at 350 mmHg or systolic blood pressure plus 100 mmHg did not influence the pain, blood loss, ROM, and complications. Therefore the pressures at these levels are safe and do not change the surgery outcomes; the time of ischemia must be closely observed to avoid major complications.

  10. Inferior Pedicle Reduction Mammoplasty with or without Tourniquet: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Canser Yilmaz; Sultanoglu, Yılmaz; Kocak, Omer Faruk; Ersoz, Muhammet Eren

    2017-10-01

    To compare the perioperative findings of inferior pedicle reduction mammoplasty (IPRM) performed with or without a tourniquet. This study was carried out in the plastic and reconstructive surgery department at a tertiary care center on a total of 42 consecutive women scheduled for IPRM. Patients in Group I (n = 21) underwent surgery using a tourniquet, whereas patients in Group II (n = 21) were operated on without a tourniquet. Levels of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), Hct/Hb ratio, and platelet counts were noted preoperatively and on postoperative 24th and 48th h. Numbers of surgical pads and gauze sponges completely used and dripping with blood were recorded. Duration of operation, the amount of breast tissue excised on both sides, and fluid collected in hemovac drains on 48th h after operation were documented. In Group I, the operative time was significantly shorter (p usage is practical and safe, and it may also improve the cost-effectiveness of the procedure. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  11. To compare methods used in our operating room for alleviating tourniquet pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M. A.; Siddiqui, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of different methods used to alleviate tourniquet pain in operating rooms as well as assess their effect on post-operative pain. Methods: The study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi from June to August 2010. All patients who came for elective orthopaedic surgery in whom a tourniquet application was planned were included in the study. Information was collected through a pre-designed data form. Qualitative data was expressed as mean standard deviation, while qualitative data was presented as frequency and percentage. Results: In the 106 patients studied, opioids were administered in 90 (85%) cases, paracetamol in 73 (69%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in 11 (10.4%) cases. Efficacy was determined by means of the effect on the blood pressure and heart rate of the patient before and after the drug administration. Intravenous paracetamol was found to be the most effective in reducing both blood pressure and heart rate (p<0.001). The effect on post-operative pain was insignificant. Conclusions: Intravenous paracetamol is a cost-effective and safe analgesic, especially when combined with a multi-modal regimen, and has potential effect on the alleviation of tourniquet pain. (author)

  12. Administration of FTY720 during Tourniquet-Induced Limb Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Attenuates Systemic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Foster

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI of the extremities leads to local and systemic inflammatory changes which can hinder limb function and can be life threatening. This study examined whether the administration of the T-cell sequestration agent, FTY720, following hind limb tourniquet-induced skeletal muscle IRI in a rat model would attenuate systemic inflammation and multiple end organ injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 1 hr of ischemia via application of a rubber band tourniquet. Animals were randomized to receive an intravenous bolus of either vehicle control or FTY720 15 min after band placement. Rats (n=10/time point were euthanized at 6, 24, and 72 hr post-IRI. Peripheral blood as well as lung, liver, kidney, and ischemic muscle tissue was analyzed and compared between groups. FTY720 treatment markedly decreased the number of peripheral blood T cells (p<0.05 resulting in a decreased systemic inflammatory response and lower serum creatinine levels and had a modest but significant effect in decreasing the transcription of injury-associated target genes in multiple end organs. These findings suggest that early intervention with FTY720 may benefit the treatment of IRI of the limb. Further preclinical studies are necessary to characterize the short-term and long-term beneficial effects of FTY720 following tourniquet-induced IRI.

  13. Differential effects of hyperventilation on cerebral blood flow velocity after tourniquet deflation during sevoflurane, isoflurane, or propofol anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinohara, Hiroshi; Kadoi, Yuji; Ide, Masanobu; Kuroda, Masataka; Saito, Shigeru; Mizutani, Akio

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of increase in middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity after tourniquet deflation when modulating hyperventilation during orthopedic surgery under sevoflurane, isoflurane, or propofol anesthesia. Twenty-four patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery were randomly divided into sevoflurane, isoflurane, and propofol groups. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, isoflurane, or propofol administration with 33% oxygen and 67% nitrous oxide at anesthetic drug concentrations adequate to maintain bispectral values between 45 and 50. A 2.0-MHz transcranial Doppler probe was attached to the patient's head at the temporal window, and mean blood flow velocity in the MCA (V (mca)) was continuously measured. The extremity was exsanguinated with an Esmarch bandage, and the pneumatic tourniquet was inflated to a pressure of 450 mmHg. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, V (mca) and arterial blood gases were measured every minute for 10 min after release of the tourniquet in all three groups. Immediately after tourniquet release, the patients' respiratory rates were increased to tightly maintain end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO(2)) at 35 mmHg. No change in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO(2)) was observed pre- and posttourniquet deflation in any of the three groups. Increase in V (mca) in the isoflurane group was greater than that in the other two groups after tourniquet deflation. In addition, during the study period, no difference in V (mca) after tourniquet deflation was observed between the propofol and sevoflurane groups. Hyperventilation could prevent an increase in V (mca) in the propofol and sevoflurane groups after tourniquet deflation. However, hyperventilation could not prevent an increase in V (mca) in the isoflurane group.

  14. Randomized trial of tourniquet vs blood pressure cuff for target vein dilation in ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Drew; Jeanmonod, Rebecca; Jeanmonod, Donald

    2014-07-01

    Ten percent of the time, peripheral intravenous access (PIV) is not obtained in 2 attempts in the emergency department. Typically, a tourniquet is used to dilate the target vein; but recent research showed that a blood pressure (BP) cuff improves dilation, which may translate to increased PIV success. We sought to determine if there is improved success in obtaining ultrasound-guided PIV using a BP cuff vs a tourniquet in "difficult stick" patients. This is a prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial. Adult patients requiring PIV with at least 2 prior failed attempts were enrolled. Patients were assigned to tourniquet or BP cuff for target vein dilation randomly. Nurses prepared the patient for PIV attempt by either placing a BP cuff inflated to 150 mm Hg or placing a tourniquet on the chosen extremity. The extremity was draped to blind the physician to assignment. Physicians then attempted ultrasound-guided PIV. Failures were defined as IVs requiring greater than 3 ultrasound-guided attempts or 30 minutes, or patient intolerance. If failure occurred, the physician was unblinded; and the patient could be crossed over and reattempted. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled. The success rate for the tourniquet group (n = 17) and BP cuff group (n = 21) was 82.4% and 47.6%, respectively (P = .04). There were no differences between groups for vessel depth, diameter, or procedure time. Six in the BP cuff group were crossed over and had successful PIV obtained with tourniquet. Tourniquet is superior to BP cuff for target vein dilation in ultrasound-guided PIV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Drugs and hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mansi; Harrison, Shannon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a common complaint, both in men and women, and use of prescription medications is widespread. When there is a temporal association between the onset of hair loss and commencement of a medication, the medication is commonly thought to have caused the hair loss. However, hair loss and in particular telogen effluvium may occur in response to a number of triggers including fever, hemorrhage, severe illness, stress, and childbirth, and a thorough exclusion of these potential confounders is necessary before the hair loss can be blamed on the medication. Certain medications are known to cause hair loss by a variety of mechanisms including anagen arrest, telogen effluvium, or accentuation of androgenetic alopecia by androgens. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bilateral passive leg raising attenuates and delays tourniquet deflation-induced hypotension and tachycardia under spinal anaesthesia: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Go-Shine; Wang, Chih-Chien; Hu, Mei-Hua; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Chan, Wei-Hung; Hsieh, Xhang-Xian; Lin, Leou-Chyr

    2014-01-01

    The pneumatic tourniquet is frequently used in total knee arthroplasty. Tourniquet deflation may result in hypotension and tachycardia caused by the rapid shift of blood volume back to the ischaemic limb and a decrease in cardiac preload. Passive leg raising (PLR) represents a 'self-volume challenge' that can result in an increase in preload. Such a PLR-induced increase in preload was hypothesised to attenuate the decrease in preload resulting from tourniquet deflation. To evaluate the effect of PLR on hypotension and tachycardia following tourniquet deflation. A randomised controlled trial. Single medical centre. Seventy patients who underwent unilateral total knee arthroplasty were randomised into two groups: tourniquet deflation with PLR (n = 35) or without PLR (control group, n = 35). Patients in both groups were administered a single dose of plain bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia. The pneumatic tourniquet was inflated on the thigh and the surgery was performed. The study composed of four steps: for the PLR group, step 1 - inflation of the tourniquet while the patient was supine; step 2 - the patient's legs were raised to a 45° angle; step 3 - the tourniquet was deflated while the patient's legs were still raised; and step 4 - the legs were returned to the supine position. In the control group, the same perioperative procedure was used, but PLR was not conducted. The patients' blood pressure and heart rate were measured before, during and after tourniquet deflation. After tourniquet deflation, the magnitude of the changes in blood pressure and heart rate was less in the PLR group than that in the control group. In addition, the blood pressure nadir also occurred later in the PLR group than in the controls. Bilateral PLR is a simple, reversible manoeuvre that mimics rapid fluid loading. Bilateral PLR attenuates the severity of, and delays the time to, hypotension and tachycardia following deflation of a lower limb tourniquet. ClinicalTrials.gov number

  17. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  18. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  19. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Thinning hair and hair loss: Could it be female pattern hair loss? Female pattern hair loss: Without treatment, female ... can I tell if I have female pattern hair loss? It’s best to make an appointment to ...

  20. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  1. A communicating Thread -CT- case study: JIWY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, D.S.; Hilderink, G.H.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Pascoe, P.W.J.; Loader, R.; Sunderman, V.

    2002-01-01

    This JIWY demonstrator is constructed in the context of the development of a design framework and software tools to efficiently support mechatronic engineers in developing sophisticated control computer code out of a set control laws. We use the CSP-based Communicating Threads -CT- library as the

  2. The effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Inkyung; Kim, Dong Yeon; Kim, Youn Jin

    2012-11-01

    Inflation and deflation of a pneumatic tourniquet used in total knee replacement surgery induces various changes in patient's hemodynamic and metabolic status, which may result in serious complications, especially in aged patients. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a monitoring device designed to estimate the regional cerebral oxygen saturation. We evaluated the effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery, using NIRS. Twenty-eight American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II patients, over the age of sixty-five years undergoing total knee replacement surgery, were included. Under general anesthesia, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) were recorded before induction of anesthesia and every 2 min after tourniquet deflation for 20 min. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed 5 min before, in addition to 0, and 10 min after tourniquet deflation. The decrease of rSO(2) was not significant during 20-min deflation period. MAP, CO and SV showed significant decrease during 2 to 12, 4 to 6 and 2 to 6-min period after tourniquet deflation, respectively (P deflation caused significant changes in hemodynamic and metabolic status, but not in regional cerebral oxygen saturation. It is recommended to monitor neurologic status, as well as hemodynamic and metabolic status to avoid serious complications, especially in aged patients.

  3. Use of Advanced Bleeding Control Mechanisms in Athletic Training: A Shift in the Thought Process of Prehospital Care. Part 1: Tourniquets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert; Payne, Ellen K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide athletic training educators (ATE) with evidence regarding the use of tourniquets in the prehospital setting as well as to be a resource on how to teach the management of external hemorrhage using tourniquets.

  4. CPC: programming with a massive number of lightweight threads

    OpenAIRE

    Kerneis, Gabriel; Chroboczek, Juliusz

    2011-01-01

    To appear in PLACES'11.; International audience; Threads are a convenient and modular abstraction for writing concurrent programs, but often fairly expensive. The standard alternative to threads, event-loop programming, allows much lighter units of concurrency, but leads to code that is difficult to write and even harder to understand. Continuation Passing C (CPC) is a translator that converts a program written in threaded style into a program written with events and native system threads, at...

  5. Hair Loss Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective. METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth. RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments. DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694..

  6. Delineation of calf deep veins using 2D-TOF MR venography without contrast media. Efficacy of tourniquet and leg-warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayoshi, Kensuke; Okada, Munemasa; Monzen, Yoshio; Kimura, Shojiro; Hamanaka, Yoshiharu; Ochi, Makoto; Hayashi, Kuniaki.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the imaging quality of 2D-TOF MR venography of the lower part of the leg and the efficacy of a tourniquet around the knee and leg-warming. In 8 healthy volunteers, MR venography was carried out under the following four conditions: usual MR venography, MR venography with tourniquet around the knee, MR venography after leg-warming and MR venography with tourniquet after leg-warming. Our results suggested that MR venography with tourniquet after leg-warming is best suited for imaging the veins of the leg. We also compared the diagnostic image quality of MR venography and conventional contrast venography in 7 patients with varices. The results showed no significant differences between the two methods. We conclude that MR venography with tourniquet after leg-warming is a technique that provides reliable information about the veins of the leg. (author)

  7. Threaded Cognition: An Integrated Theory of Concurrent Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Dario D.; Taatgen, Niels A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose the idea of threaded cognition, an integrated theory of concurrent multitasking--that is, performing 2 or more tasks at once. Threaded cognition posits that streams of thought can be represented as threads of processing coordinated by a serial procedural resource and executed across other available resources (e.g., perceptual…

  8. Threaded cognition : An integrated theory of concurrent multitasking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvucci, Dario D.; Taatgen, Niels A.

    The authors propose the idea of threaded cognition, an integrated theory of concurrent multitasking-that is, performing 2 or more tasks at once. Threaded cognition posits that streams of thought can be represented as threads of processing coordinated by a serial procedural resource and executed

  9. The effect of thread pattern upon implant osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhussein, Heba; Pagni, Giorgio; Rebaudi, Alberto; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2010-02-01

    Implant design features such as macro- and micro-design may influence overall implant success. Limited information is currently available. Therefore, it is the purpose of this paper to examine these factors such as thread pitch, thread geometry, helix angle, thread depth and width as well as implant crestal module may affect implant stability. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE to identify studies, from simulated laboratory models, animal, to human, related to this topic using the keywords of implant thread, implant macrodesign, thread pitch, thread geometry, helix angle, thread depth, thread width and implant crestal module. The results showed how thread geometry affects the distribution of stress forces around the implant. A decreased thread pitch may positively influence implant stability. Excess helix angles in spite of a faster insertion may jeopardize the ability of implants to sustain axial load. Deeper threads seem to have an important effect on the stabilization in poorer bone quality situations. The addition of threads or microthreads up to the crestal module of an implant might provide a potential positive contribution on bone-to to-implant contact as well as on the preservation of marginal bone; nonetheless this remains to be determined. Appraising the current literature on this subject and combining existing data to verify the presence of any association between the selected characteristics may be critical in the achievement of overall implant success.

  10. Optical hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, R J; Anderson, R R

    1999-06-01

    Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.

  11. Two years' outcome of thread lifting with absorbable barbed PDO threads: Innovative score for objective and subjective assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasser Helmy

    2018-02-01

    Thread-lifting rejuvenation procedures have evolved again, with the development of absorbable threads. Although they have gained popularity among plastic surgeons and dermatologists, very few articles have been written in literature about absorbable threads. This study aims to evaluate two years' outcome of thread lifting using absorbable barbed threads for facial rejuvenation. Prospective comparative stud both objectively and subjectively and follow-up assessment for 24 months. Thread lifting for face rejuvenation has significant long-lasting effects that include skin lifting from 3-10 mm and high degree of patients' satisfaction with less incidence rate of complications, about 4.8%. Augmented results are obtained when thread lifting is combined with other lifting and rejuvenation modalities. Significant facial rejuvenation is achieved by thread lifting and highly augmented results are observed when they are combined with Botox, fillers, and/or platelet rich plasma (PRP) rejuvenations.

  12. Fatal pulmonary embolism subsequent to the use of Esmarch bandage and tourniquet: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Desai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fatal pulmonary embolism (PE following exsanguinations of lower limb in orthopedic surgery. A 30-year-old man was posted for fixation of a tibial plateau fracture on the seventh day after injury. Subarchnoid block was performed. Esmarch bandage was used for exsanguination of the limb and tourniquet was inflated. Within three minutes after tourniquet inflation, the patient became unconscious hypotensive, and collapsed. Resuscitation was instituted and spontaneous circulation restored. Right ventricular strain pattern on transthoracic echocardiography, increased levels of D-dimer, and Doppler examination of the lowerlimb confirmed deep venous thrombosis of right femoral vessels and PE. In spite of thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase and heparin, the patient died on the ninth day after the event. Cases of PE secondary to the use of Esmarch bandage and tourniquet are reviewed here to identify the risk groups and management of PE.

  13. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  14. Determination of the Tapping Part Diameter of the Thread Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dreval'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a tendency to increase the proportion of thread milling operations, among other ways of tapping, which is associated with increasing number of CNC machines, flexibility and versatility of the process.Developments presently existing in the RF and used in the thread mills deal, mainly, with the thread milling cutter designs, to process internal and external thread with straight flutes made from high-speed steel.The paper presents a technique to calculate and select the initial design parameters, i.e. the external diameter of the tapping part of thread milling cutter, which is chosen as a basic computational design. The analysis of directories of tool companies containing foreign de-signs of solid thread end-milling cutters has shown that most of them rep-resent the thread cutter designs made of solid carbide. There are solid and interlocking side milling cutters, which use a tapping part both as a single-disk and as a multi-disk one; chip flutes are made to be both as direct and as screw; solid designs of cutters are made from carbide with a diameter of up to 20 ... 25 mm; thread cutters can be left- and right-hand cutting; Designs of the combined thread mills are proposed; internal channels are used for coolant supply.It is shown that the purpose of the external diameter of the tapping part of the thread mill should take into account the effect of the thread mill diameter on the milling process performance, precision of thread profile received, taper thread, tool strength, and the volume of flutes.The analysis has shown that when choosing the external diameter of the thread mill it worth taking its maximum diameter to improve the char-acteristics of the process under the restrictions imposed on the accuracy of the formed thread.

  15. The effect of tourniquet use on fixation quality in cemented total knee arthroplasty a prospective randomized clinical controlled RSA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molt, Mats; Harsten, Andreas; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören

    2014-03-01

    A concern that arises with any change in technique is whether it affects the long-term implant stability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the early migration, measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA), and the functional outcome of the Triathlon™ cemented knee prosthesis, operated on with or without a tourniquet. During the last decades RSA has emerged as a way to assess prosthetic fixation and long time prognosis. The method has been used extensively in both hip and knee arthroplasty. This was a single centre prospective study including 60 patients randomized into two groups operated on either with or without tourniquet. RSA investigation was done within 2-3 days postoperatively after full weight bearing, and then at 3 months, 1 year and 2 years postoperatively. There were no differences between the groups regarding the translation along or rotation around the three coordinal axes, or in maximum total point motion (MTPM). At 2 years the mean MTPM (SD) was 0.71 mm (0.64) for the tourniquet-group and 0.53 mm (0.21) for the non-tourniquet-group. The tibial tray of the Triathlon™ cemented knee prosthesis showed similar early stability whether operated on with or without tourniquet. Level I. Article focus: A safety study for total knee replacement operated on with or without perioperative tourniquet regarding the prosthetic fixation. Strengths and limitations: Strength of this study is that it is a randomized prospective trial using an objective measuring tool. The sample size of 25-30 patients is reportedly sufficient for the screening of implants using RSA (1-3). Clinical trials NCT01604382, Ethics Committee approval D-nr: 144/20085. © 2013.

  16. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...... status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1–2 cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair...... washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. Results: No statistically significant difference (p = 0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean...

  17. Use of barbed threads in facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Rakesh

    2008-10-01

    Use of barbed threads, available with uni- and bi-directional cogs or barbs, is a semi-invasive method of lifting sagging skin of the face. Areas treated with this method include the eyebrows, the cheeks, the jowls and the neck. Ease of use and a shorter down-time have made their use popular. Specific indications, operative procedures, risks and complications are described and some clinical results of the author shown.

  18. Use of barbed threads in facial rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalra Rakesh

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of barbed threads, available with uni- and bi-directional cogs or barbs, is a semi-invasive method of lifting sagging skin of the face. Areas treated with this method include the eyebrows, the cheeks, the jowls and the neck. Ease of use and a shorter down-time have made their use popular. Specific indications, operative procedures, risks and complications are described and some clinical results of the author shown.

  19. Influence of the ischaemic tourniquet in antibiotic prophylaxis in total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, Laura; Valls, Joan; Ros, Joaquim; Jover, Alfredo; Pérez-Villar, Ferran; Fernández-Martínez, José Juan

    2015-01-01

    There is level iv evidence that the preoperative administration of antibiotics helps in the prevention of prosthetic infection. There is controversy on whether the ischemia applied during surgery may affect the minimum inhibitory concentration of the antibiotic in the peri-prosthetic tissues. The aim of this study is to review this phenomenon through the determination of antibiotic concentration in the synovial tissue. A prospective observational clinical study was conducted on 32 patients undergoing total knee replacement. Cefonicid 2g was administered as prophylaxis, with a tourniquet used for all patients. The antibiotic concentration was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography in samples of synovial tissue collected at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. The mean concentration of antibiotic was 23.16 μg/g (95% CI 19.19 to 27.13) in the samples at the beginning of the intervention and 15.45 μg/g (95% CI 13.20 to 17.69) in the final samples, being higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration of cefonicid, set at 8 μg/g. These results were statistically significant for both concentrations (P<.00001). The antibiotic concentration throughout the standard total knee prosthesis surgery performed with tourniquet gradually decreases throughout the intervention. The concentration determined at the end of the intervention was higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration required for the antibiotic studied. In conclusion, the use of a tourniquet does not increase the risk of infection. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. High efficiency carbon nanotube thread antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram Bengio, E.; Senic, Damir; Taylor, Lauren W.; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Chen, Peiyu; Holloway, Christopher L.; Babakhani, Aydin; Long, Christian J.; Novotny, David R.; Booth, James C.; Orloff, Nathan D.; Pasquali, Matteo

    2017-10-01

    Although previous research has explored the underlying theory of high-frequency behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and CNT bundles for antennas, there is a gap in the literature for direct experimental measurements of radiation efficiency. These measurements are crucial for any practical application of CNT materials in wireless communication. In this letter, we report a measurement technique to accurately characterize the radiation efficiency of λ/4 monopole antennas made from the CNT thread. We measure the highest absolute values of radiation efficiency for CNT antennas of any type, matching that of copper wire. To capture the weight savings, we propose a specific radiation efficiency metric and show that these CNT antennas exceed copper's performance by over an order of magnitude at 1 GHz and 2.4 GHz. We also report direct experimental observation that, contrary to metals, the radiation efficiency of the CNT thread improves significantly at higher frequencies. These results pave the way for practical applications of CNT thread antennas, particularly in the aerospace and wearable electronics industries where weight saving is a priority.

  1. The satisfaction survey of users and patients on the developed disposable tourniquet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The 18⁓20G needle is used to computer tomography (CT) contrast examination. Therefore, a patient has to apply a self-administering hemostasis (conventional method: CM) and often experience bleeding in the course. Thus, we developed the new disposable transparent tourniquet (TT) for reducing. This study was to compare the usefulness between the proposed transparent tourniquet and the existing hemostatic methods. A Satisfaction survey was conducted by 50 patients and 25 nurses. The survey contained the satisfaction of the convenience, safety, sanitation, and wearing sensation of transparent tourniquet. We employed face-to-face interview on 5 points likert scales. And Chi-square, paired T-test were used for the statistics verification. As for the patients, the satisfaction levels were measured for each category with the gender, age. Patients evaluation, overall satisfaction high average sore used TT and there were statistical significance by paired T-test(p<0.05). The following is the average satisfaction level for each category: 4.4±0.53 in; 4.28±0.57 in safety; 4.52±0.54 in sanitation; 4.16±0.54 in wearing sensation. So the overall satisfaction level is measured at 4.34±0.51. As for the nurses, CT work experience and the current satisfaction with tourniquet were counted as variables. The satisfaction level for each category is: 3.8±0.7 in; 3.6±0.68 in safety; 3.4±0.5 in sanitation; 3.9±0.49 in hemostasis. The overall satisfaction level is 3.8±0.3. Patients' satisfaction levels were very high with little difference among variables. Nurses' satisfaction levels were different with the TT depending on their work experience but their overall satisfaction was high. This TT will be a starting point to minimizing patient's inconvenience and more studies are necessary to enhance their satisfaction

  2. The satisfaction survey of users and patients on the developed disposable tourniquet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The 18⁓20G needle is used to computer tomography (CT) contrast examination. Therefore, a patient has to apply a self-administering hemostasis (conventional method: CM) and often experience bleeding in the course. Thus, we developed the new disposable transparent tourniquet (TT) for reducing. This study was to compare the usefulness between the proposed transparent tourniquet and the existing hemostatic methods. A Satisfaction survey was conducted by 50 patients and 25 nurses. The survey contained the satisfaction of the convenience, safety, sanitation, and wearing sensation of transparent tourniquet. We employed face-to-face interview on 5 points likert scales. And Chi-square, paired T-test were used for the statistics verification. As for the patients, the satisfaction levels were measured for each category with the gender, age. Patients evaluation, overall satisfaction high average sore used TT and there were statistical significance by paired T-test(p<0.05). The following is the average satisfaction level for each category: 4.4±0.53 in; 4.28±0.57 in safety; 4.52±0.54 in sanitation; 4.16±0.54 in wearing sensation. So the overall satisfaction level is measured at 4.34±0.51. As for the nurses, CT work experience and the current satisfaction with tourniquet were counted as variables. The satisfaction level for each category is: 3.8±0.7 in; 3.6±0.68 in safety; 3.4±0.5 in sanitation; 3.9±0.49 in hemostasis. The overall satisfaction level is 3.8±0.3. Patients' satisfaction levels were very high with little difference among variables. Nurses' satisfaction levels were different with the TT depending on their work experience but their overall satisfaction was high. This TT will be a starting point to minimizing patient's inconvenience and more studies are necessary to enhance their satisfaction.

  3. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2017-03-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Oxidative stress may be involved in distant organ failure in tourniquet shock model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikata, Rie; Kato, Naho; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

    2014-03-01

    Crush syndrome is characterized by prolonged shock resulting from extensive muscle damage and multiple organ failure. However, the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure has not yet been completely elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the molecular biological and histopathological aspects of distant organ injury in crush syndrome by using tourniquet shock model mice. DNA microarray analysis of the soleus muscle showed an increase in the mRNA levels of Cox-2, Hsp70, c-fos, and IL-6, at 3h after ischemia/reperfusion injury at the lower extremity. In vivo staining with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) showed edema and degeneration in the soleus muscle, but no change in the distant organs. Immunohistological staining of the HSP70 protein revealed nuclear translocation in the soleus muscle, kidney, liver, and lung. The c-fos mRNA levels were elevated in the soleus muscle, kidney, and liver, displaying nuclear translocation of c-FOS protein. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis suggested the involvement of apoptosis in ischemia/reperfusion injury in the soleus muscle. Apoptotic cells were not found in greater quantities in the kidney. Oxidative stress, as determined using a free radical elective evaluator (d-ROM test), markedly increased after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, examination of immunohistological changes and determination of oxidative stress are proposed to be useful in evaluating the extent of tourniquet shock, even before changes are observed by HE staining. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tourniquets and exsanguinators: a potential source of infection in the orthopedic operating theater?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Stephen A

    2009-04-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fomites are increasingly being recognised as a source of hospital-acquired infection. We have therefore assessed tourniquets and exsanguinators for the presence of bacterial pathogens in 1 elective and 2 trauma orthopedic hospitals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Swabs were taken prior to and after decontaminating these devices with 1 of 3 different cleaning modalities. These were then assessed for colony counts and organisms identified. RESULTS: Bacteria commonly implicated in surgical site infections such as coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus spp. were prevalent. We also found a resistant strain of Acinetobacter and Candida. Exsanguinators were the most heavily contaminated devices, and colony counts in the trauma hospitals were up to 400% higher than in the elective hospital. Alcohol- and non-alcohol-based sterile wipes were both highly effective in decontaminating the devices. INTERPRETATION: Infectious organisms reside on the tourniquets and exsanguinators presently used in the orthopedic theater. These fomites may possibly be a source of surgical site infection. We have demonstrated a simple and effective means of decontaminating these devices between cases.

  6. Intra-operative warming with a forced-air warmer in preventing hypothermia after tourniquet deflation in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-S; Jeon, Y-S; Lee, J-A; Park, W-K; Koh, H-S; Joo, J-D; In, J-H; Seo, K-W

    2009-01-01

    This randomized, single-blind study aimed to explore the effects of intra-operative warming with a forced-air warmer in the prevention of hypothermia after tourniquet deflation in elderly patients undergoing unilateral total knee replacement arthroplasty under general anaesthesia. Patients were randomized to receive either intra-operative warming using a forced-air warmer with an upper body blanket (warming group; n = 12) or no intra-operative warming (nonwarming group; n = 12). Oesophageal temperature was measured as core body temperature. At 30 min following tourniquet inflation, the core body temperature started to increase in the warming group whereas it continued to drop in the non-warming group. This difference was statistically significant. The final core body temperature after tourniquet deflation was significantly higher in the warming group (mean +/- SD 36.1 +/- 0.2 degrees C) than in the non-warming group (35.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C). Intra-operative forced-air warming increased the core body temperature before tourniquet deflation and prevented subsequent hypothermia in elderly patients under general anaesthesia.

  7. APPLICATION PROSPECTS OF THREADED JOINT OF ARMATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Radkevych

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the main technological operations of buildings construction on the basis of monolithic frame systems is the production of mesh reinforcement. The current interest is the new ways specification of advanced bonding armature techniques without reliability weakness and design of the building in whole, as well as the finding of use prospects of screw-threaded joint of armature as the most technological and economic method of re-bars joints. Methodology. Advantages and disadvantages analysis of existing rebar compound technologies was implemented by couplings of different types and constructions. The most promising vertical constructions for the vertical bars joints in frameworks were determined. Findings. Researches of existing technologies of rebar joints by the couplings of different construction were carried out. The installation method of mesh reinforcement of vertical structural elements with the use of the special catching devices was developed. It allows considerably accelerating installation of mesh reinforcement. Originality. Regularity of labor intensiveness change of mesh reinforcement installation of columns at armature joint in vertical position by threaded couplings with the help of catching devices using special construction was determined. This allows substantially reducing the labor expenditures during installation of these elements. Dependency of labor intensiveness and cost of lap welding armature joints, by tub-seam welding and by thread coupling depending on its diameter was designated. Regularity of labor intensiveness changes of installation at armature joints by different methods taking into account preparatory works was defined. Practical value. The analysis of mechanical armature joints techniques was conducted. It will allow selecting methods of armature joints to increase the speed of construction works more economical and effective.

  8. Pearling Instabilities of a Viscoelastic Thread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblais, A.; Velikov, K. P.; Bonn, D.

    2018-05-01

    Pearling instabilities of slender viscoelastic threads have received much attention, but remain incompletely understood. We study the instabilities in polymer solutions subject to uniaxial elongational flow. Two distinctly different instabilites are observed: beads on a string and blistering. The beads-on-a-string structure arises from a capillary instability whereas the blistering instability has a different origin: it is due to a coupling between stress and polymer concentration. By varying the temperature to change the solution properties we elucidate the interplay between flow and phase separation.

  9. Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Alessandrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.

  10. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  11. Protein Structure Prediction by Protein Threading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Liu, Zhijie; Cai, Liming; Xu, Dong

    The seminal work of Bowie, Lüthy, and Eisenberg (Bowie et al., 1991) on "the inverse protein folding problem" laid the foundation of protein structure prediction by protein threading. By using simple measures for fitness of different amino acid types to local structural environments defined in terms of solvent accessibility and protein secondary structure, the authors derived a simple and yet profoundly novel approach to assessing if a protein sequence fits well with a given protein structural fold. Their follow-up work (Elofsson et al., 1996; Fischer and Eisenberg, 1996; Fischer et al., 1996a,b) and the work by Jones, Taylor, and Thornton (Jones et al., 1992) on protein fold recognition led to the development of a new brand of powerful tools for protein structure prediction, which we now term "protein threading." These computational tools have played a key role in extending the utility of all the experimentally solved structures by X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), providing structural models and functional predictions for many of the proteins encoded in the hundreds of genomes that have been sequenced up to now.

  12. AN MHD AVALANCHE IN A MULTI-THREADED CORONAL LOOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, A. W.; Cargill, P. J.; Tam, K. V. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Browning, P. K., E-mail: awh@st-andrews.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-20

    For the first time, we demonstrate how an MHD avalanche might occur in a multithreaded coronal loop. Considering 23 non-potential magnetic threads within a loop, we use 3D MHD simulations to show that only one thread needs to be unstable in order to start an avalanche even when the others are below marginal stability. This has significant implications for coronal heating in that it provides for energy dissipation with a trigger mechanism. The instability of the unstable thread follows the evolution determined in many earlier investigations. However, once one stable thread is disrupted, it coalesces with a neighboring thread and this process disrupts other nearby threads. Coalescence with these disrupted threads then occurs leading to the disruption of yet more threads as the avalanche develops. Magnetic energy is released in discrete bursts as the surrounding stable threads are disrupted. The volume integrated heating, as a function of time, shows short spikes suggesting that the temporal form of the heating is more like that of nanoflares than of constant heating.

  13. Hair analysis using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongkou.

    1983-10-01

    A simple new technique for examining single hair strands to obtain linear mass densities, longitudinal profiles and transverse distribution of each trace element is described. It is primarily based upon the PIXE technique, in combination with proton back- scattering. The three main components of this technique are: 1) An accurate way of using an interpolation method to evaluate the magnitude of the correction factor accounting for the proton energy loss and X-ray absorption in the bulk of the hair is formulated; 2) A simple method to qualitatively determine the transverse distribution of each trace element in a hair is in- troduced and proved to be effective; 3) Proton back-scattering is proved to be capable of providing an ideal linear measure of the geometric hair diameter, one of the most important parameters in quantifying the results of PIXE measurements in mass concentrations. Using the technique, a PIXE system designed and constructed for routine longitudinal scanning of single hair strands is also described. (Author)

  14. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and formed a cosmetically acceptable forelock.

  15. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pulling Biting, chewing or eating pulled-out hair Playing with pulled-out hair or rubbing it across ... of trichotillomania: Family history. Genetics may play a role in the development of trichotillomania, and the disorder ...

  16. Hair follicle proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    that are present in the epithelial and stromal compartments of hair follicles. However, the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan may be important in follicle morphogenesis, both with respect to the epithelium and dermal papilla cells. Syndecan may possess both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains, interacts...... basement membranes, including those surrounding the epithelial compartment of hair follicles. Additionally, and quite unlike the dermis, the dermal papilla is enriched in basement-membrane components, especially a chondroitin 6-sulfate-containing proteoglycan, BM-CSPG. The function of this proteoglycan...... is not known, but developmental studies indicate that it may have a role in stabilizing basement membranes. In the hair cycle, BM-CSPG decreases through catagen and is virtually absent from the telogen papilla. One or more heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including perlecan, are also present in papilla...

  17. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  18. Protective effect of conditioning agents on Afro-ethnic hair chemically treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tania Cristina de Sá; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

    2008-06-01

    Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, products are formulated as emulsions with high pH value (9.0-12.0), which, after applied on hair, cause considerable damage, making it dry and fragile. This research work evaluated the protective effect of lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone, cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer, jojoba oil, and aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol, as conditioning agents, on Afro-ethnic hair locks treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsions by protein loss, combability, and traction to rupture. Standard Afro-ethnic hair locks were prepared following a protocol for straightening emulsion application. Considering the assays performed, the addition of conditioning agents to the straightening emulsion with ammonium thioglycolate benefited the hair fiber, thus diminishing protein loss, protecting the hair thread, and improving resistance to breakage. Jojoba oil and lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone were the conditioning agents that presented the best results. Straightening emulsions with ammonium thioglycolate containing aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol and cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer were the ones that provided higher breakage resistance of the thread.

  19. Tåtourniquetsyndrom hos barn på tre måneder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rikke Nygaard; Rytter, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Toe tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition in which a hair or thread becomes tightly wrapped around an appendage, which causes ischaemic strangulation. We present a three month-old infant with strangulation of one toe to direct attention to this condition. Prompt recognition and complete removal...

  20. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out, but people with naturally lighter hair are just as likely to go gray. From the time a person notices a few gray hairs, it may take more than 10 years for all of that person's hair to turn ... really believe that this happens. Just in case, try not to freak out your ...

  1. Tourniquets do not increase the total blood loss or re-amputation risk in transtibial amputations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied, Christian; Tengberg, Peter T; Holm, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the total blood loss (TBL) and the safety with respect to the re-amputation rate after transtibial amputation (TTA) conducted with and without a tourniquet. METHODS: The study was a single-centre retrospective cohort study of patients with a primary TTA admitted between January...... 2013 and April 2015. All patients with a primary TTA were assessed for inclusion if the amputation was performed because of arteriosclerosis or diabetic complications. All patients underwent a standardized TTA procedure that was performed approximately 10 cm below the knee joint and performed...... portion, which equals 55 g/L of haemoglobin. The TBL during the first four postoperative days was calculated based on the haemoglobin level and the estimated blood volume. The re-amputation rate was evaluated within 30 d. RESULTS: Seventy-four out of 86 consecutive patients who underwent TTA within...

  2. Meditope-Fab interaction: threading the hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzymek, Krzysztof P; Ma, Yuelong; Avery, Kendra N; Horne, David A; Williams, John C

    2017-12-01

    Meditope, a cyclic 12-residue peptide, binds to a unique binding side between the light and heavy chains of the cetuximab Fab. In an effort to improve the affinity of the interaction, it was sought to extend the side chain of Arg8 in the meditope, a residue that is accessible from the other side of the meditope binding site, in order to increase the number of interactions. These modifications included an n-butyl and n-octyl extension as well as hydroxyl, amine and carboxyl substitutions. The atomic structures of the complexes and the binding kinetics for each modified meditope indicated that each extension threaded through the Fab `hole' and that the carboxyethylarginine substitution makes a favorable interaction with the Fab, increasing the half-life of the complex by threefold compared with the unmodified meditope. Taken together, these studies provide a basis for the design of additional modifications to enhance the overall affinity of this unique interaction.

  3. Analysis of Modeling Parameters on Threaded Screws.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, Miquela S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brake, Matthew Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vangoethem, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Assembled mechanical systems often contain a large number of bolted connections. These bolted connections (joints) are integral aspects of the load path for structural dynamics, and, consequently, are paramount for calculating a structure's stiffness and energy dissipation prop- erties. However, analysts have not found the optimal method to model appropriately these bolted joints. The complexity of the screw geometry cause issues when generating a mesh of the model. This paper will explore different approaches to model a screw-substrate connec- tion. Model parameters such as mesh continuity, node alignment, wedge angles, and thread to body element size ratios are examined. The results of this study will give analysts a better understanding of the influences of these parameters and will aide in finding the optimal method to model bolted connections.

  4. Integrating soft sensor systems using conductive thread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lijun; Jeronimo, Karina; Wei, Tianqi; Nemitz, Markus P.; Lyu, Geng; Stokes, Adam A.

    2018-05-01

    We are part of a growing community of researchers who are developing a new class of soft machines. By using mechanically soft materials (MPa modulus) we can design systems which overcome the bulk-mechanical mismatches between soft biological systems and hard engineered components. To develop fully integrated soft machines—which include power, communications, and control sub-systems—the research community requires methods for interconnecting between soft and hard electronics. Sensors based upon eutectic gallium alloys in microfluidic channels can be used to measure normal and strain forces, but integrating these sensors into systems of heterogeneous Young’s modulus is difficult due the complexity of finding a material which is electrically conductive, mechanically flexible, and stable over prolonged periods of time. Many existing gallium-based liquid alloy sensors are not mechanically or electrically robust, and have poor stability over time. We present the design and fabrication of a high-resolution pressure-sensor soft system that can transduce normal force into a digital output. In this soft system, which is built on a monolithic silicone substrate, a galinstan-based microfluidic pressure sensor is integrated with a flexible printed circuit board. We used conductive thread as the interconnect and found that this method alleviates problems arising due to the mechanical mismatch between conventional metal wires and soft or liquid materials. Conductive thread is low-cost, it is readily wetted by the liquid metal, it produces little bending moment into the microfluidic channel, and it can be connected directly onto the copper bond-pads of the flexible printed circuit board. We built a bridge-system to provide stable readings from the galinstan pressure sensor. This system gives linear measurement results between 500-3500 Pa of applied pressure. We anticipate that integrated systems of this type will find utility in soft-robotic systems as used for wearable

  5. A multi-threading approach to secure VERIFYPIN

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frieslaar, Ibraheem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available along side a pin-acceptance program in a multi-threaded environment. These threads are inserted randomly on each execution of the program to create confusion for the attacker. Moreover, the research proposes a more improved version of the pin...

  6. Dynamic thread assignment in web server performance optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weij, W.; Bhulai, S.; van der Mei, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Popular web sites are expected to handle huge number of requests concurrently within a reasonable time frame. The performance of these web sites is largely dependent on effective thread management of their web servers. Although the implementation of static and dynamic thread policies is common

  7. Hair Cortisol in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu

    2017-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors...

  8. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  9. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  10. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  11. Tourniquet application after local forearm warming to improve venodilation for peripheral intravenous cannulation in young and middle-aged adults: A single-blind prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Yuki; Tomita, Kohei; Tsujimoto, Tomomi; Inoue, Tomoko

    2017-07-01

    Local forearm warming before tourniquet application is often used to promote venodilation for peripheral intravenous cannulation; however, few studies have compared the effect of tourniquet application with and without local warming on vein size. To evaluate the effectiveness of tourniquet application after local forearm warming with that of tourniquet application alone in young and middle-aged adults. A single-blind, prospective, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. A national university in Japan. Seventy-two volunteers aged 20-64 years. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: tourniquet application for 30s after forearm application of a heat pack warmed to 40°C±2°C for 15min (active warming group; n=36) or tourniquet application for 30s after applying a non-warmed heat pack for 15min (passive warming group; n=36). The primary outcomes were vein cross-sectional area on the forearm, measured after the intervention by blinded research assistants using ultrasound. Secondary outcomes were shortest diameter, and longest diameter of vein on the forearm, forearm skin temperature, body temperature, pulse, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. All outcomes were assessed at the same site before and immediately after the intervention, once per participant. Vein cross-sectional area, shortest vein diameter, and longest vein diameter were significantly increased in the active warming group compared with the passive warming group (p application after local warming was superior to tourniquet application alone in increasing vein cross-sectional, shortest diameter, and longest diameter (between-group differences of 2.2mm 2 , 0.5mm, and 0.5mm, respectively), and in raising skin temperature (between-group difference: 5.2°C). However, there were no significant differences in body temperature, pulse, or systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the groups. There were no adverse events associated with either intervention. Tourniquet

  12. Hemodynamic changes in rat leg muscles during tourniquet-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury observed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J G; Lee, J; Tromberg, B J; Brenner, M; Roe, J; Walters, T J

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that non-invasive continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) can determine the severity or reversibility of muscle damage due to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and the results will be highly correlated with those from physical examination and histological analysis. To test this hypothesis, we performed CWNIRS measurements on two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼400 g) that underwent 2 h (n = 6) or 3 h (n = 7) of pneumatic tourniquet application (TKA). Tissue oxyhemoglobin [HbO 2 ] and deoxyhemoglobin [Hb] concentration changes were monitored during the 2 h or 3 h of 250 mmHg TKA and for an additional 2 h post-TKA. Rats were euthanized 24 h post-TKA and examined for injury, edema and viability of muscles. Contralateral muscles served as controls for each animal. In both groups, [HbO 2 ] dropped immediately, then gradually decreased further after TKA and then recovered once the tourniquet was released. However, releasing after 2 h of TKA caused [HbO 2 ] to overshoot above the baseline during reperfusion while the 3 h group continued to have lower [HbO 2 ] than baseline. We found a significant correlation between the elapsed time from tourniquet release to the first recovery peak of [HbO 2 ] and the muscle weight ratio between tourniquet and contralateral limb muscles (R = 0.86). Hemodynamic patterns from non-invasive CWNIRS demonstrated significant differences between 2 h and 3 h I/R. The results demonstrate that CWNIRS may be useful as a non-invasive prognostic tool for conditions involving vascular compromise such as extremity compartment syndrome

  13. Differential increases in blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery after tourniquet deflation during sevoflurane, isoflurane or propofol anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoi, Y; Kawauchi, C H; Ide, M; Saito, S; Mizutani, A

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the comparative effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane or propofol on cerebral blood flow velocity after tourniquet deflation during orthopaedic surgery. Thirty patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery were randomly divided into sevoflurane, isoflurane and propofol groups. Anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, isoflurane or propofol infusion in 33% oxygen and 67% nitrous oxide, in whatever concentrations were necessary to keep bispectral index values between 45 and 50. Ventilatory rate or tidal volume was adjusted to target PaCO2 of 35 mmHg. A 2.0 MHz transcranial Doppler probe was attached to the patient's head at the temporal window and mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery was continuously measured. The extremity was exsanguinated with an Esmarch bandage and the pneumatic tourniquet was inflated to a pressure of 450 mmHg. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, velocity in the middle cerebral artery and arterial blood gas analysis were measured every minute for 10 minutes after release of the tourniquet in all three groups. Velocity in the middle cerebral artery in the three groups increased for five minutes after tourniquet deflation. Because of the different cerebrovascular effects of the three agents, the degree of increase in flow velocity in the isoflurane group was greater than in the other two groups, the change in flow velocity in the propofol group being the lowest (at three minutes after deflation 40 +/- 7%, 32 +/- 6% and 28 +/- 10% in the isoflurane, sevoflurane and propofol groups respectively, P < 0.05).

  14. Tourniquet-induced ischaemia-reperfusion injury: the comparison of antioxidative effects of small-dose propofol and ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaca Omer

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effects of propofol and ketamine as small dose sedation during spinal anaesthesia on tourniquet-induced ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: 30 patients were randomly assigned into two groups of 15 patients. In the propofol group, sedation was performed with propofol 0.2 mg·kg-1 followed by infusion at a rate of 2 mg·kg-1·h-1. In the ketamine group, a continuous infusion of ketamine 0.5 mg·kg-1·h-1 was used until the end of surgery. Intravenous administration of midazolam was not used in any patients. Ramsay sedation scale was used for assessing the sedation level. Venous blood samples were obtained before propofol and ketamine infusion (T1, at 30 minutes (min of tourniquet ischaemia (T2, and 5 min after tourniquet deflation (T3 for malondialdehyde (MDA measurements. Results: No differences were noted between the groups in haemodynamic (p > 0.05 and demographic data (p > 0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of T1, T2 and T3 periods (p > 0.05. There was a statistically increase observed in MDA values respectively both in Group P and Group K between the reperfusion period (1.95 ± 0.59, 2.31 ± 0.48 and pre-ischaemia (1.41 ± 0.38, 1.54 ± 0.45, and ischaemia (1.76 ± 0.70, 1.71 ± 0.38 (µmoL-1 periods (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Small-dose propofol and ketamine has similar potential to reduce the oxidative stress caused by tourniquet-induced ischaemia-reperfusion injury in patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery under spinal anaesthesia.

  15. A comparison between tourniquet application and epinephrine injection for hemostasis during hypospadias surgery: The effect on bleeding and postoperative outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, F; Fakoor, A; Haghdani, S

    2016-06-01

    To compare tourniquet application and epinephrine injection for hemostasis during hypospadias surgery in terms of bleeding and complications. Between April 2013 and September 2014, patients who were admitted for hypospadias repair were divided by random allocation into either a diluted epinephrine injection (DE) group or tourniquet application (T) group for hemostasis during the procedure. In the T group, a rubber band was applied at the base of the penis after skin dissection, and in the DE group, epinephrine 1/100,000 was injected along the incision lines. The patients' ages, urethral defect lengths, pre-operative, intraoperative and postoperative variables were compared between the two groups. A total of 70 patients (35 in each group) were enrolled into the study. The mean ages and preoperative variables were not significantly different. Average blood loss was 23.51 ± 15.36 cc in the tourniquet group and 15.99 ± 10.00 cc in the epinephrine group, and was significantly higher in tourniquet group (P = 0.022); however, the mean operative time was not significantly different. Postoperative complications, described as Clavian classification, were reported in eight patients (23%) in the T group and 10 patients (30%) in the DE group, which was not significantly different. Epinephrine injections minimize operative bleeding without significant harmful effects on postoperative outcomes; therefore, it could be considered to be a safe and effective method for preparation of a bloodless field during hypospadias surgery. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Recombinant Human MG53 Protein on Tourniquet-induced Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rat Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    blind to the treatment , and the prevalence of damaged fibers was quantitated from 10 10x images from each muscle . Approximately 800 fibers were counted...therapeutic cell membrane repair in treatment of muscular dystrophy . Sci Transl Med. 2012; 4(139):139ra185. 11. Weisleder N, Lin P, Zhao X, Orange M, Zhu H...The effect of recombinant human MG53 protein on tourniquet- induced ischemia reperfusion injury in rat muscle Benjamin T. Corona, Ph.D.1, Koyal Garg

  17. Carbon Nanotube Thread Electrochemical Cell: Detection of Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Daoli; Siebold, David; Alvarez, Noe T; Shanov, Vesselin N; Heineman, William R

    2017-09-19

    In this work, all three electrodes in an electrochemical cell were fabricated based on carbon nanotube (CNT) thread. CNT thread partially insulated with a thin polystyrene coating to define the microelectrode area was used as the working electrode; bare CNT thread was used as the auxiliary electrode; and a micro quasi-reference electrode was fabricated by electroplating CNT thread with Ag and then anodizing it in chloride solution to form a layer of AgCl. The Ag|AgCl coated CNT thread electrode provided a stable potential comparable to the conventional liquid-junction type Ag|AgCl reference electrode. The CNT thread auxiliary electrode provided a stable current, which is comparable to a Pt wire auxiliary electrode. This all-CNT thread three electrode cell has been evaluated as a microsensor for the simultaneous determination of trace levels of heavy metal ions by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Hg 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Pb 2+ were used as a representative system for this study. The calculated detection limits (based on the 3σ method) with a 120 s deposition time are 1.05, 0.53, and 0.57 nM for Hg 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Pb 2+ , respectively. These electrodes significantly reduce the dimensions of the conventional three electrode electrochemical cell to the microscale.

  18. A Moiré Pattern-Based Thread Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Gary

    2017-10-01

    Thread count is a term used in the textile industry as a measure of how closely woven a fabric is. It is usually defined as the sum of the number of warp threads per inch (or cm) and the number of weft threads per inch. (It is sometimes confusingly described as the number of threads per square inch.) In recent years it has also become a subject of considerable interest and some controversy among consumers. Many consumers consider thread count to be a key measure of the quality or fineness of a fabric, especially bed sheets, and they seek out fabrics that advertise high counts. Manufacturers in turn have responded to this interest by offering fabrics with ever higher claimed thread counts (sold at ever higher prices), sometime achieving the higher counts by distorting the definition of the term with some "creative math." In 2005 the Federal Trade Commission noted the growing use of thread count in advertising at the retail level and warned of the potential for consumers to be misled by distortions of the definition.

  19. Outcomes of polydioxanone knotless thread lifting for facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong Hye; Jang, Hee Won; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Won Seok; Ryu, Hwa Jung

    2015-06-01

    Thread lifting is a minimally invasive technique for facial rejuvenation. Various devices for thread lifting using polydioxanone (PDO) are popular in aesthetic clinics in Korea, but there have been a few studies regarding its use. To describe PDO thread and techniques adopted to counteract the descent and laxity of the face. A retrospective chart review was conducted over a 24-month period. A total of 31 thread lifting procedures were performed. On each side, 5 bidirectional cog threads were used in the procedure for the flabby skin of the nasolabial folds. And, the procedure was performed on the marionette line using 2 twin threads. In most patients (87%), the results obtained were considered satisfactory. Consensus ratings by 2 physicians found that objective outcomes were divided among "excellent," "good," "fair," and "poor." Texture wise, the outcome ratings were 13 as excellent and 9 as good. Lifting wise, ratings were 11 as excellent and 6 as good. The incidence of complications was low and not serious. Facial rejuvenation using PDO thread is a safe and effective procedure associated with only minor complications when performed on patients with modest face sagging, fine wrinkles, and marked facial pores.

  20. Radiometric determination of uniformity of putting paraffin on textile threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridel', Z.; Kherrmann, Eh.; Shefer, I.; Tseiner, A.

    1979-01-01

    To improve processing of the natural and synthetic fiber threads on stocking-frames, they are treated by paraffin. Paraffin is applied in the amounts nearly equal to 0.1 -1.0 g for 10 4 m of the thread's length. To determine amount of paraffin on thread and to determine uniformity if its application, a radiometric method has been developed. As a radioactive label, didocilephosphate of rare earths was used. This compound has good solubility in hydrocarbons and does not change physical properties of paraffin in the investigated field of its application as well as its concentration. It is possible to add to paraffin this radioactive label or a non-active label with subsequent its activation. Amount of paraffin, applied on a thread is determined by means of measurement of activity of thread samples of different length. Information about uniformity of paraffin application on thread have been obtained by means of autoradiography. It has been found that paraffin in mainly applied on the thread's bulges [ru

  1. Ischaemic preconditioning attenuates haemodynamic response and lipid peroxidation in lower-extremity surgery with unilateral pneumatic tourniquet application: a clinical pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Mukaddes; Olguner, Cimen; Koca, Uğur; Sişman, Ali Riza; Muratli, Kivanç; Karci, Ayşe; Mavioğlu, Omür; Kilercik, Hakan

    2008-04-01

    The harmful effects of ischaemia-reperfusion on skeletal muscle during extremity surgery can be diminished by using medications or ischaemic preconditioning Twenty patients undergoing lower-limb surgery with use of a tourniquet for at least 1 hour were included in the study and randomised into two groups: a control group with only tourniquet application (T group; n=10); and an ischaemic preconditioning plus tourniquet group (IP-T group; n=10). Blood samples were obtained from the femoral vein of the relevant extremity before tourniquet application (baseline), immediately after tourniquet deflation (TD), at 10 minutes after the tourniquet deflation (TD(10min)) in the T group and additionally after ischaemic preconditioning in the IP-T group. Venous blood pH, partial oxygen pressure (P(vO2)), partial carbon dioxide pressure (P(vCO2)), lactate, potassium, sodium and glucose levels were analysed using a blood gas analyser. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, an index of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, was measured. Heart rate, noninvasive mean arterial pressure (MAP) and spontaneous breathing rate (SBR) were recorded at baseline, at TD, and TD(1min), TD(5min) and TD(10min). MAP decreased and SBR increased significantly at TD, TD(1min) and TD(5min) compared with baseline, and venous blood TBARS level significantly increased at TD and TD(10min) compared with baseline in the T group (all Plactate levels, which was significant compared with baseline (P<0.05) Ischaemic preconditioning attenuates haemodynamic response and lipid peroxidation during lower-extremity surgery with unilateral tourniquet application.

  2. Microscopy of the hair and trichogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Dicle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair microscopy is a fast and simple method for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair in daily practice. For the microscopy of the hair, samples are collected by either clipping or plucking. The trichogram technique which the hair sample is collected by a standardized plucking method is used for the diagnosis of hair shedding and of alopecia via hair root pattern. In this review, the examination techniques and details are discussed and the most common indications for the hair microscopy including hair abnormalities as a part of genodermatosis and, infections and infestations affecting the hair are highlighted.

  3. Exploiting Thread Parallelism for Ocean Modeling on Cray XC Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarje, Abhinav [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobsen, Douglas W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Samuel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The incorporation of increasing core counts in modern processors used to build state-of-the-art supercomputers is driving application development towards exploitation of thread parallelism, in addition to distributed memory parallelism, with the goal of delivering efficient high-performance codes. In this work we describe the exploitation of threading and our experiences with it with respect to a real-world ocean modeling application code, MPAS-Ocean. We present detailed performance analysis and comparisons of various approaches and configurations for threading on the Cray XC series supercomputers.

  4. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Jones, Robert J.; Graziosi, David; Ferl, Jinny; Sweeny, Mitch; Scarborough, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement was to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. During initial assembly, cracking sounds were heard followed by the lifting of one of the blind inserts out of its hole when the screws were torqued. A failure investigation was initiated to understand the mechanism of the failure. Ultimately, it was determined that the pre-tension caused by torqueing the fasteners is a much larger force than induced from the pressure loads of the suit which was not considered in the insert design. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes the failure investigation that was performed to identify the root cause of the suit failure and details how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  5. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  6. Female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  7. P-Refinement and P-Threads (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Steven; Karniadakis, George E

    2002-01-01

    ...]) in d dimensions, which is higher than lower-order methods. In this paper, we demonstrate that by employing multi-threading within MPI processes we manage to counter- balance the cost increase associated with P-refinement...

  8. Threaded cognition: an integrated theory of concurrent multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Dario D; Taatgen, Niels A

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose the idea of threaded cognition, an integrated theory of concurrent multitasking--that is, performing 2 or more tasks at once. Threaded cognition posits that streams of thought can be represented as threads of processing coordinated by a serial procedural resource and executed across other available resources (e.g., perceptual and motor resources). The theory specifies a parsimonious mechanism that allows for concurrent execution, resource acquisition, and resolution of resource conflicts, without the need for specialized executive processes. By instantiating this mechanism as a computational model, threaded cognition provides explicit predictions of how multitasking behavior can result in interference, or lack thereof, for a given set of tasks. The authors illustrate the theory in model simulations of several representative domains ranging from simple laboratory tasks such as dual-choice tasks to complex real-world domains such as driving and driver distraction. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Systemic causes of hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richard L; Garibyan, Lilit; Kimball, Alexandra B; Drake, Lynn A

    2016-09-01

    Hair loss is both a common chief complaint by patients and a clinical challenge for physicians, especially general practitioners, yet few dermatological problems yield as much patient satisfaction when resolved as hair loss. The diagnosis is often attributed to androgen-related hair loss, while other causes, some of which are life-threatening but treatable, are overlooked. We searched for relevant literature on hair loss and supported these findings with our clinical experience to identify seven major systemic etiologies of hair loss, ranging from infectious agents to consumption of unsafe supplements. Many causes are only described in the literature through case studies, though some original articles and meta-analyses are available. Careful history taking, proper examination techniques, and judicious use of laboratory tests are essential to reach at the correct diagnosis in a cost-effective manner when performing patient work-up. Such methodical evaluation of hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction. Key messages Hair loss is a common chief complaint and a difficult challenge for both general practitioners and dermatology consultants. We identified seven major categories of systemic hair loss etiology and present a framework for their clinical evaluation. A methodical approach to hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction.

  10. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth (anagen, apoptosis-driven regression (catagen, and relative quiescence (telogen. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on genetically engineered mouse models with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In this review, the basic concepts of hair follicle, a mini-complex organ, biology will be presented and its importance in clinical applications will be summarized.

  11. Time course of changes in cerebral blood flow velocity after tourniquet deflation in patients with diabetes mellitus or previous stroke under sevoflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinohara, Hiroshi; Kadoi, Yuji; Takahashi, Kenichiro; Saito, Shigeru; Kawauchi, Chikara; Mizutani, Akio

    2011-06-01

    We observed an increase in mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (V(mca)) after tourniquet deflation during orthopedic surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with diabetes mellitus or previous stroke. Eight controls, seven insulin-treated diabetic patients, and eight previous stroke patients were studied. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, V(mca), arterial blood gases, and plasma lactate levels were measured every minute for 10 min after tourniquet release in all patients. V(mca) was measured using a transcranial Doppler probe. V(mca) in all three groups increased after tourniquet deflation, the increase lasting for 4 or 5 min. However, the degree of increase in V(mca) in the diabetic patients was smaller than that in the other two groups after tourniquet deflation (at 2 min after tourniquet deflation: control 58.5 ± 3.3, previous stroke 58.4 ± 4.6, diabetes 51.7 ± 2.3; P < 0.05 compared with the other two groups). In conclusion, the degree of increase in V (mca) in diabetic patients is smaller than that in controls and patients with previous stroke.

  12. A Hybrid Approach for Thread Recommendation in MOOC Forums

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad. A. Kardan; Amir Narimani; Foozhan Ataiefard

    2017-01-01

    Recommender Systems have been developed to provide contents and services compatible to users based on their behaviors and interests. Due to information overload in online discussion forums and users diverse interests, recommending relative topics and threads is considered to be helpful for improving the ease of forum usage. In order to lead learners to find relevant information in educational forums, recommendations are even more needed. We present a hybrid thread recommender system for MOOC ...

  13. Threaded-fastener experience in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    This report identifies 44 incidents of threaded-fastener degradation and failure in nuclear power plants from October 1964 to March 1982. It provides an overview of some of the threaded-fastener problems that have occurred since 1964. Safety implications of these incidents are discussed, and short-term regulatory actions and ongoing long-term regulatory actions are described. Information included in this report represents the current NRC staff understanding of each issue

  14. Nuclear reactor incorporating locking device for threaded bolt connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaushild, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A nuclear reactor having a pressure vessel and a first element is described comprising a core barrel situated within the pressure vessel. The core barrel has a baffle former secured in and to the core barrel by bolted connections, and a second element comprising baffle plates secured to the inner surface of the baffle former by bolted connections, with a locking device to prevent loosening of bolted connections between the baffle former and at least one of the elements. The baffle former and at least one element are held together by a headed, threaded bolt engaged in a bore coaxially extending in the baffle former and at least one element and threadedly engaged in a threaded section in at least the baffle former. The threaded section has first threaded of a first direction, with the head of the bolt engaged with a shoulder about the bore in at least one element to hold the baffle formed and at least one element together, the head of the bolt having a first diameter and a cavity, having an unsymmetrical wall thereabout, in the end surface thereof. It comprises a recess in at least one element coaxial with the bore forming a wall thereabout and extending inwardly from the outer surface of at least one element, the recess having a second diameter greater than the first diameter, with at least one element having second threads in the wall of a direction opposite the direction of the first threads of the threaded bore; a locking nut having a base with a downwardly depending cylindrical wall thereabout

  15. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

  16. Multi-threaded software framework development for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00226135; Baines, John; Bold, Tomasz; Calafiura, Paolo; Dotti, Andrea; Farrell, Steven; Leggett, Charles; Malon, David; Ritsch, Elmar; Snyder, Scott; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Wynne, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS's current software framework, Gaudi/Athena, has been very successful for the experiment in LHC Runs 1 and 2. However, its single threaded design has been recognised for some time to be increasingly problematic as CPUs have increased core counts and decreased available memory per core. Even the multi-process version of Athena, AthenaMP, will not scale to the range of architectures we expect to use beyond Run2. ATLAS examined the requirements on an updated multi-threaded framework and laid out plans for a new framework, including better support for high level trigger (HLT) use cases, in 2014. In this paper we report on our progress in developing the new multi-threaded task parallel extension of Athena, AthenaMT. Implementing AthenaMT has required many significant code changes. Progress has been made in updating key concepts of the framework, to allow the incorporation of different levels of thread safety in algorithmic code (from un-migrated thread-unsafe code, to thread safe copyable code to reentrant co...

  17. Multi-threaded Software Framework Development for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme; The ATLAS collaboration; Baines, John; Calafiura, Paolo; Dotti, Andrea; Farrell, Steven; Leggett, Charles; Malon, David; Ritsch, Elmar; Snyder, Scott; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Wynne, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS's current software framework, Gaudi/Athena, has been very successful for the experiment in LHC Runs 1 and 2. However, its single threaded design has been recognised for some time to be increasingly problematic as CPUs have increased core counts and decreased available memory per core. Even the multi-process version of Athena, AthenaMP, will not scale to the range of architectures we expect to use beyond Run2. ATLAS examined the requirements on an updated multi-threaded framework and layed out plans for a new framework, including better support for high level trigger (HLT) use cases, in 2014. In this paper we report on our progress in developing the new multi-threaded task parallel extension of Athena, AthenaMT. Implementing AthenaMT has required many significant code changes. Progress has been made in updating key concepts of the framework, to allow the incorporation of different levels of thread safety in algorithmic code (from un-migrated thread-unsafe code, to thread safe copyable code to reentrant c...

  18. Fabrication and Characterisation of Flexible Coaxial Thin Thread Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulian Qiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Flexible coaxial thin thread supercapacitors were fabricated semi-automatically using a dip coating method. A typical coaxial thin thread supercapacitor of a length of 70 cm demonstrated a specific length capacitance of 0.3 mF cm-1 (11.2 mF cm-2 and 2.18 F cm-3 at 5 mV s-1, the device exhibited good electrochemical performance with a high volume energy density of 0.22 mWh cm-3 at a power density of 22 mW cm-3. Thread supercapacitors were assembled in series and parallel combinations, the accepted models for series and parallel circuit combinations were obeyed for two coaxial thread supercapacitors. The thread shows high flexibility and uniformity of specific length capacitance, one integrated with a commercial solar cell could be charged and power a LED. The process is simple, robust and easy to scale up to make unlimited length thread supercapacitors for numerous miniaturized and flexible electronic applications.

  19. Redoable Tie-Over Dressing Using Multiple Loop Silk Threads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jong Jo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available After skin grafting, to prevent hematoma or seroma collection at the graft site, a tie-over dressing has been commonly used. However, although the conventional tie-over dressing by suture is a useful method for securing a graft site, refixation is difficult when repeated tie-over dressing is needed. Therefore, we recommend a redoable tie-over dressing technique with multiple loops threads and connecting silk threads. After the raw surface of each of our cases was covered with a skin graft, multiple loop silk thread attached with nylon at the skin graft margin. We applied the ointment gauze and wet cotton/fluffy gauze over the skin graft, then fixed the dressing by connecting cross-counter multiple loop thread with connecting silk threads. When we opened the tie-over dressing by cutting the connecting silk threads, we repeated the tie-over dressing with the same method. The skin graft was taken successfully without hematoma or seroma collection or any other complications. In conclusion, we report a novel tie-over dressing enabling simple fixation of the dressing to maintain proper tension for wounds that require repetitive fixation. Further, with this reliable method, the skin grafts were well taken.

  20. Redoable Tie-Over Dressing Using Multiple Loop Silk Threads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jong Jo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available After skin grafting, to prevent hematoma or seroma collection at the graft site, a tie-over dressing has been commonly used. However, although the conventional tie-over dressing by suture is a useful method for securing a graft site, refixation is difficult when repeated tieover dressing is needed. Therefore, we recommend a redoable tie-over dressing technique with multiple loops threads and connecting silk threads. After the raw surface of each of our cases was covered with a skin graft, multiple loop silk thread attached with nylon at the skin graft margin. We applied the ointment gauze and wet cotton/fluffy gauze over the skin graft, then fixed the dressing by connecting cross-counter multiple loop thread with connecting silk threads. When we opened the tie-over dressing by cutting the connecting silk threads, we repeated the tie-over dressing with the same method. The skin graft was taken successfully without hematoma or seroma collection or any other complications. In conclusion, we report a novel tie-over dressing enabling simple fixation of the dressing to maintain proper tension for wounds that require repetitive fixation. Further, with this reliable method, the skin grafts were well taken.

  1. Does penile tourniquet application alter bacterial adhesion to rat urethral cells: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boybeyi-Turer, Ozlem; Kacmaz, Birgul; Arat, Esra; Atasoy, Pınar; Kisa, Ucler; Gunal, Yasemin Dere; Aslan, Mustafa Kemal; Soyer, Tutku

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effects of penile tourniquet (PT) application on bacterial adhesion to urothelium. Fifty-six rats were allocated into control group (CG), sham group (SG), PT group (PTG). No intervention was applied in CG. A 5mm-length urethral repair was performed in SG and PTG. In PTG, a 10-min duration of PT was applied during the procedure and the tissue oxygenation monitor was used to adjust the same degree of ischemia in all subjects. Samples were examined for wound healing parameters and tissue levels of inflammatory markers, eNOS, e-selectin, and ICAM-1antibodies. The adhesion of Escherichia coli to urothelium was investigated with in vitro adhesion assay. Inflammation was higher and wound healing was worse in SG than CG and in PTG in comparison to CG and SG (pcaused endothelial corruption and prevented cell proliferation in cell culture. The PT application does not improve wound healing and increases bacterial adhesion molecules in penile tissue. The in vitro assays showed that PT causes severe endothelial damage and inhibits endothelial cell proliferation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  3. Thread selection according to predefined power characteristics during context switching on compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    None, None

    2013-06-04

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for thread selection during context switching on a plurality of compute nodes that includes: executing, by a compute node, an application using a plurality of threads of execution, including executing one or more of the threads of execution; selecting, by the compute node from a plurality of available threads of execution for the application, a next thread of execution in dependence upon power characteristics for each of the available threads; determining, by the compute node, whether criteria for a thread context switch are satisfied; and performing, by the compute node, the thread context switch if the criteria for a thread context switch are satisfied, including executing the next thread of execution.

  4. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation.

  5. A toddler with hair fascination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Patricia; Needlman, Robert D; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    Joseph is a 24-months old boy referred by his pediatrician because of an "obsession" with pulling and eating hair. When Joseph was 14 months old, he enjoyed touching and twirling his mother's long hair. She observed that it seemed to provide comfort to him. At 18 months, he initiated pulling out and eating his own hair, twirling his mother's hair around his thumb and then sucking on it. Currently, he searches the carpet or a hard floor and looks for hair to eat. The identical behavior is observed at daycare. Joseph's teacher commented, "He pulled hair from a girl who has the longest hair of all the children. We try to distract him from this habit, but he is not distracted for long." Less frequently, Joseph has also eaten sand, chalk, and crayons at daycare. Joseph's mother describes him as a "happy and outgoing" child who interacts with his peers and has a best friend at the daycare. There have not been recent changes or stressful events in his life. Joseph separates from his mother with ease and he sleeps comfortably through the night in his own bed. There have been no episodes of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or constipation. Strands of hair are occasionally seen in the stool. Prenatal and perinatal history was unremarkable. Joseph was breast-fed for 11 months, described as an "easy" baby, achieved motor, social, and language developmental milestones at the usual time, and has been in excellent health. He lives with his mother and maternal grandparents; the biological father has never been involved in his care. At 20 months, Joseph's pediatrician suggested cutting his hair. After several haircuts, Joseph stopped pulling his own hair. However, he continued to search the floor for hair. Hemoglobin and a blood lead level were normal. Joseph appeared pleasant and friendly with normal growth parameters and facial features. He was sitting comfortably on his mother's lap, sucking on his thumb. Social interactions with his mother were appropriate and reciprocal. He

  6. Photodynamic therapy for hair removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted hair is one of the most common medical problems affecting women of reproductive age inducing a lot of psychological stress and threatening their femininity and self-esteem. Old methods of removing unwanted hair include shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis, all of which have temporary results. However laser-assisted hair removal is the most efficient method of long-term hair removal currently available. It is desirable to develop a reduced cost photodynamic therapy (PDT system whose properties should include high efficiency and low side-effects. Method: Mice skin tissues were used in this study and divided into six groups such as controls, free methylene blue (MB incubation, liposome methylene blue (MB incubation, laser without methylene blue (MB, free methylene blue (MB for 3 and 4 hrs and laser, liposome methylene blue (MB for 3 hrs and laser. Methylene blue (MBwas applied to wax epilated areas. The areas were irradiated with CW He-Ne laser system that emits orange-red light with wavelength 632.8 nm and 10 mW at energy density of 5 J/ cm2 for 10 minutes. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was collected by Cary spectrophotometer. Results: Methylene blue (MB is selectively absorbed by actively growing hair follicles due to its cationic property. Methylene blue (MBuntreated sections showed that hair follicle and sebaceous gland are intact and there is no change due to the laser exposure. Free methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed that He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles, leaving an intact epidermis. Treated section with free methylene blue (MB for 4 hrs showed degeneration and necrosis in hair follicle, leaving an intact epidermis. Liposomal methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles with intradermal leucocytic infiltration. Conclusions: Low power CW He:Ne laser and methylene blue (MB offered a successful PDT system

  7. Argobots: A Lightweight Low-Level Threading and Tasking Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Sangmin; Amer, Abdelhalim; Balaji, Pavan; Bordage, Cyril; Bosilca, George; Brooks, Alex; Carns, Philip; Castello, Adrian; Genet, Damien; Herault, Thomas; Iwasaki, Shintaro; Jindal, Prateek; Kale, Laxmikant V.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Lifflander, Jonathan; Lu, Huiwei; Meneses, Esteban; Snir, Marc; Sun, Yanhua; Taura, Kenjiro; Beckman, Pete

    2018-03-01

    In the past few decades, a number of user-level threading and tasking models have been proposed in the literature to address the shortcomings of OS-level threads, primarily with respect to cost and flexibility. Current state-of-the-art user-level threading and tasking models, however, either are too specific to applications or architectures or are not as powerful or flexible. In this paper, we present Argobots, a lightweight, low-level threading and tasking framework that is designed as a portable and performant substrate for high-level programming models or runtime systems. Argobots offers a carefully designed execution model that balances generality of functionality with providing a rich set of controls to allow specialization by end users or high-level programming models. We describe the design, implementation, and performance characterization of Argobots and present integrations with three high-level models: OpenMP, MPI, and colocated I/O services. Evaluations show that (1) Argobots, while providing richer capabilities, is competitive with existing simpler generic threading runtimes; (2) our OpenMP runtime offers more efficient interoperability capabilities than production OpenMP runtimes do; (3) when MPI interoperates with Argobots instead of Pthreads, it enjoys reduced synchronization costs and better latency-hiding capabilities; and (4) I/O services with Argobots reduce interference with colocated applications while achieving performance competitive with that of a Pthreads approach.

  8. Argobots: A Lightweight Low-Level Threading and Tasking Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sangmin; Amer, Abdelhalim; Balaji, Pavan; Bordage, Cyril; Bosilca, George

    2017-01-01

    In the past few decades, a number of user-level threading and tasking models have been proposed in the literature to address the shortcomings of OS-level threads, primarily with respect to cost and flexibility. Current state-of-the-art user-level threading and tasking models, however, are either too specific to applications or architectures or are not as powerful or flexible. In this article, we present Argobots, a lightweight, low-level threading and tasking framework that is designed as a portable and performant substrate for high-level programming models or runtime systems. Argobots offers a carefully designed execution model that balances generality of functionality with providing a rich set of controls to allow specialization by the user or high-level programming model. Here, we describe the design, implementation, and optimization of Argobots and present integrations with three example high-level models: OpenMP, MPI, and co-located I/O service. Evaluations show that (1) Argobots outperforms existing generic threading runtimes; (2) our OpenMP runtime offers more efficient interoperability capabilities than production OpenMP runtimes do; (3) when MPI interoperates with Argobots instead of Pthreads, it enjoys reduced synchronization costs and better latency hiding capabilities; and (4) I/O service with Argobots reduces interference with co-located applications, achieving performance competitive with that of the Pthreads version.

  9. A Review of Lightweight Thread Approaches for High Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello, Adrian; Pena, Antonio J.; Seo, Sangmin; Mayo, Rafael; Balaji, Pavan; Quintana-Orti, Enrique S.

    2016-09-12

    High-level, directive-based solutions are becoming the programming models (PMs) of the multi/many-core architectures. Several solutions relying on operating system (OS) threads perfectly work with a moderate number of cores. However, exascale systems will spawn hundreds of thousands of threads in order to exploit their massive parallel architectures and thus conventional OS threads are too heavy for that purpose. Several lightweight thread (LWT) libraries have recently appeared offering lighter mechanisms to tackle massive concurrency. In order to examine the suitability of LWTs in high-level runtimes, we develop a set of microbenchmarks consisting of commonlyfound patterns in current parallel codes. Moreover, we study the semantics offered by some LWT libraries in order to expose the similarities between different LWT application programming interfaces. This study reveals that a reduced set of LWT functions can be sufficient to cover the common parallel code patterns and that those LWT libraries perform better than OS threads-based solutions in cases where task and nested parallelism are becoming more popular with new architectures.

  10. X-ray measurement of residual stress on bolt threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Nakahara, Kanefumi; Yoshimoto, Isamu.

    1989-01-01

    This study deals with X-ray measurement of residual stress at the local area around the thread root of a bolt. Residual stress in the 0.5 mm x 5 mm area was measured using a method of stepped scanning and parabolic approximation. The conditions of measurement had been determined and evaluated through the preliminary measurement of compressive stress acting on the cylindrical surface. Furthermore, the fatigue strength estimated by applying the residual stress data to the previously presented hypothesis was compared with the experimental results. The main conclusions obtained were as follows: (1) The residual stress in a relatively small area on the cylindrical surface with large curvature can be measured by X-ray using a method of stepped scanning and parabolic approximation; (2) The compressive residual stress measured at the thread root was larger for the bolt manufactured by thread rolling after heat treatment than for one manufactured by thread rolling before heat treatment; (3) The distribution of residual stress along the axial direction from the thread root to the portion under crest did not represent remarkable change in its value; (4) The residual stress of a bolt was somewhat decreased by fatigue loading on the condition of low mean stress; (5) The fatigue strength estimated using residual stress data showed the tendency of experimental results well. (author)

  11. Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Print this issue Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss En español Send us your comments Hair loss is often associated with men and aging, but ... or their treatments, and many other things cause hair loss. The most common type of hair loss is ...

  12. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  13. Creating and improving multi-threaded Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xin; Apostolakis, John; Jarp, Sverre; Nowak, Andrzej; Asai, Makoto; Brandt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We document the methods used to create the multi-threaded prototype Geant4MT from a sequential version of Geant4. We cover the Source-to-Source transformations applied, and discuss the process of verifying the correctness of the Geant4MT toolkit and applications based on it. Tools to ensure that the results of a transformed multi-threaded application are exactly equal to the original sequential version are under development. Stand-alone or simple applications can be adapted within 1-2 working days. Geant4MT is shown to scale linearly on an 80-core computer. In the special case of a single worker thread on one core, 30% overhead has been observed. We explain the reasons for this and the improvements introduced to reduce this overhead.

  14. Development of Thread-compatible Open Source Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Lukas; Mars, Nidhal; Schappacher, Manuel; Sikora, Axel

    2017-07-01

    The Thread protocol is a recent development based on 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4), but with extensions regarding a more media independent approach, which - additionally - also promises true interoperability. To evaluate and analyse the operation of a Thread network a given open source 6LoWPAN stack for embedded devices (emb::6) has been extended in order to comply with the Thread specification. The implementation covers Mesh Link Establishment (MLE) and network layer functionality as well as 6LoWPAN mesh under routing mechanism based on MAC short addresses. The development has been verified on a virtualization platform and allows dynamical establishment of network topologies based on Thread’s partitioning algorithm.

  15. Stimulation of hair cells with ultraviolet light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh, Julien B.; Fabella, Brian A.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Hair bundles are specialized organelles that transduce mechanical inputs into electrical outputs. To activate hair cells, physiologists have resorted to mechanical methods of hair-bundle stimulation. Here we describe a new method of hair-bundle stimulation, irradiation with ultraviolet light. A hair bundle illuminated by ultraviolet light rapidly moves towards its tall edge, a motion typically associated with excitatory stimulation. The motion disappears upon tip-link rupture and is associated with the opening of mechanotransduction channels. Hair bundles can be induced to move sinusoidally with oscillatory modulation of the stimulation power. We discuss the implications of ultraviolet stimulation as a novel hair-bundle stimulus.

  16. Development of Fire Resistant/Heat Resistant Sewing Thread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    BAA, specifically, Special Focus  Area:  Textile   Technologies . Service Thread’s proposal is hereby accepted in its entirety by the  government unless...report documents work carried out by Service Thread to show that domestic technology exists which would reduce base fiber costs, versus current...otherwise revised by this contract and is incorporated by reference.  The  technological  area under investigation is FR/HR sewing threads using core

  17. Sensitivity of different types of fibres in rabbit skeletal muscle to pneumatic compression by tourniquet and to ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridén, J; Pedowitz, R A; Thornell, L E

    1994-06-01

    Morphometric properties (distribution of types of fibre and fibre areas) in the non-necrotic regions of four different rabbit muscles (superficial portions of semimembranosus, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and soleus muscles) were measured 48 hours after a tourniquet had been applied around the thigh for two hours at either 125 or 350 mmHg. There was an considerable increase of the relative numbers of both large and small fibres as well as changes in the proportions of the types of fibre. The most dramatic percentage change in type of fibre was in the semimembranosus when compressed at 350 mmHg, which showed an increase of the relative frequency of fibres with type 2AB staining characteristics from 10.2% to 18.0% (p < 0.001). Extreme changes in fibre area were found exclusively in semimembranosus and biceps femoris. Most fibres of abnormal size were of type 2, type 2B fibre areas being the most affected. This study shows that morphometry is a valuable tool in the assessment of the more subtle indications of injury. Compression and ischaemia together have a more dramatic effect on muscle morphology and morphometric properties in the non-necrotic regions than ischaemia alone. These data also show that muscles are differentially sensitive to compression and ischaemia. This information may be useful into the understanding of more complex functional deficits observed after the use of tourniquet.

  18. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.fda.gov/aboutfda/centersoffices/officeoffoods/cfsan/default.htm . Selected References Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis. ...

  19. Horse Shampoo for Human Hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Anca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lately, a new idea has caught the attention of young people of both genders, being debated in consultation rooms, during classes, and especially on social media: is using horse shampoo for human hair wrong or not?

  20. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  1. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  2. The formation of filamentary structures from molten silicates: Peleʼs hair, angel hair, and blown clinker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2012-08-01

    We conduct an analysis of the concomitant, competing phenomena at play in the formation of long filamentary structures from a stream of hot, very viscous and cohesive liquid as it is blown by a fast, cool air stream. The situation is relevant to a broad class of problems, namely volcanic glass threads or fibers formed when small particles of molten material are thrown into the air and spun out by the wind into long hair-like strands (called Pele's hair), to the process of prilling, the manufacture of glass fibers, and the formation of coke in furnaces and combustion chambers. The air stream blowing on the molten material both breaks up the liquid into fragments stabilized by capillarity, and cools the liquid down to solidification. There are, in this problem, four characteristic times. First, a deformation time of the liquid masses, setting the rate at which drops elongate into ligaments. Then, two timescales set the time of capillary breakup of these ligaments, one prevailing on the other depending on the relative weight of inertia on viscous slowing (that point is illustrated by an original experiment). Finally, a solidification time of the ligaments. Thin solid strands will only form when solidification occurs before capillary breakup. We have discovered that this condition is likely to apply when the liquid is strongly viscous, as for clinker in the cement industry, considered here as a generic example. We formulate recommendations to remove (or enhance) the formation of these objects.

  3. Effective verification of confidentiality for multi-threaded programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, Minh Tri; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Huisman, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how confidentiality properties of multi-threaded programs can be verified efficiently by a combination of newly developed and existing model checking algorithms. In particular, we study the verification of scheduler-specific observational determinism (SSOD), a property that

  4. A Multi-threaded Version of Field II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    A multi-threaded version of Field II has been developed, which automatically can use the multi-core capabil- ities of modern CPUs. The memory allocation routines were rewritten to minimize the number of dynamic allocations and to make pre-allocations possible for each thread. This ensures...... that the simulation job can be automatically partitioned and the interdependence between threads minimized. The new code has been compared to Field II version 3.22, October 27, 2013 (latest free-ware version). A 64 element 5 MHz focused array transducer was simulated. One million point scatterers randomly distributed...... in a plane of 20 x 50 mm (width x depth) with random Gaussian amplitudes were simulated using the command calc scat . Dual Intel Xeon CPU E5-2630 2.60 GHz CPUs were used under Ubuntu Linux 10.02 and Matlab version 2013b. Each CPU holds 6 cores with hyper-threading, corresponding to a total of 24 hyper...

  5. Weaving colourful threads: A tapestry of spirituality and mysticism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-29

    Sep 29, 2015 ... contributing to a discussion of these issues, it is hoped that the threads of spirituality and ... has been described as an 'applause-word'2 and is widely used in medicine, business, education, ..... of morality in teaching spirituality: 'If we as educators […] ..... William James ([1902] 1982), is worth quoting here:.

  6. A Multi-Threaded Cryptographic Pseudorandom Number Generator Test Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    bitcoin thieves, Google releases patch. (2013, Aug. 16). SiliconANGLE. [Online]. Available: http://siliconangle.com/blog/2013/ 08/16/android-crypto-prng...flaw-aided- bitcoin -thieves-google-releases-patch/ [5] M. Gondree. (2014, Sep. 28). NPS POSIX thread pool library. [Online]. Available: https

  7. The Automated Threaded Fastening Based on On-line Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Ivan Giannoccaro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of the thread fastenings have been known and used for decades with the purpose of joining one component to another. Threaded fastenings are popular because they permit easy disassembly for maintenance, repair, relocation and recycling. Screw insertions are typically carried out manually. It is a difficult problem to automat. As a result there is very little published research on automating threaded fastenings, and most research on automated assembly focus on the peg-in-hole assembly problem. This paper investigates the problem of automated monitoring of the screw insertion process. The monitoring problem deals with predicting integrity of a threaded insertion, based on the torque vs. insertion depth curve generated during the insertions. The authors have developed an analytical model to predict the torque signature signals during self-tapping screw insertions. However, the model requires parameters on the screw dimensions and plate material properties are difficult to measure. This paper presents a study on on-line identification during screw fastenings. An identification methodology for two unknown parameter estimation during a self-tapping screw insertion process is presented. It is shown that friction and screw properties required by the model can be reliably estimated on-line. Experimental results are presented to validate the identification procedure.

  8. Structural Analysis of Taper-Threaded Rebar Couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Seok Jae; Kwon, Hyuk Mo; Seo, Sang Hwan

    2014-01-01

    A number of rebar couplers were developed by the leading companies. The information about the products is available from the company website. However, the theory on the taper-threaded coupler is not available. In this paper, the mechanics of the taper-thread was developed to understand the effect of the tightening torque. Structural analysis of our own newly developed rebar coupler was done to improve the strength of the coupler. The taper-threaded rebar coupler was analyzed. The tightening of the rebar into the coupler developed a circumferential stress in the coupler. The circumferential stress depends on the coefficient of friction as well as the tightening torque. The circumferential stress is less than the allowable stress 20 kgf/mm 2 of the material for the coefficient of friction greater than 0.1. The tightening of the rebar into the coupler and the subsequent tensioning was simulated using CATIA. Linear elastic analysis considering contact was done. The tightening of the taper-threaded rebar developed a uniform stress distribution in both standard coupler and position coupler. On the other hand, the tightening of the nut in the axial direction developed a non-uniform stress distribution. Similarly the tensioning also developed a non-uniform stress distribution

  9. The effect of lidocaine on in vitro neutrophil and endothelial adhesion molecule expression induced by plasma obtained during tourniquet-induced ischaemia and reperfusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lan, W

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Changes in neutrophil and endothelial adhesion molecule expression occur during perioperative ischaemia and reperfusion (I\\/R) injury. We investigated the effects of lidocaine on neutrophil-independent changes in neutrophil and endothelial adhesion molecule expression associated with tourniquet-induced I\\/R. METHODS: Plasma was obtained from venous blood samples (tourniquet arm) taken before (baseline), during, 15 min, 2 and 24 h following tourniquet release in seven patients undergoing elective upper limb surgery with tourniquet application. Isolated neutrophils from healthy volunteers (n = 7) were pretreated in the presence or absence of lidocaine (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg mL(-1) for 1 h, and then incubated with I\\/R plasma for 2 h. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated in the presence or absence of lidocaine (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg mL(-1)) for 1 h, and then incubated with the plasma for 4 h. Adhesion molecule expression was estimated using flow cytometry. Data were analysed using ANOVA and post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls tests. RESULTS: I\\/R plasma (withdrawn 15 min following tourniquet release) increased isolated neutrophil CD11b (P = 0.03), CD18 (P = 0.01) and endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (P = 0.008) expression compared to baseline. CD11b, CD18 and ICAM-1 expression on lidocaine (0.005 mg mL(-1)) treated neutrophils was similar to control. CD11b (P < 0.001), CD18 (P = 0.03) and ICAM-1 (P = 0.002) expression on lidocaine (0.05 mg mL(-1)) treated neutrophils and HUVECs was less than that on controls. CONCLUSION: Increased in vitro neutrophil and endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression on exposure to plasma obtained during the early reperfusion phase is diminished by lidocaine at greater than clinically relevant plasma concentrations.

  10. A study of the blood flow restriction pressure of a tourniquet system to facilitate development of a system that can prevent musculoskeletal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroyuki; Iwase, Hideaki; Kanda, Akio; Morohashi, Itaru; Kaneko, Kazuo; Maeda, Mutsuhiro; Kakinuma, Yuki; Takei, Yusuke; Amemiya, Shota; Mitsui, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    After an emergency or disaster, subsequent trauma can cause severe bleeding and this can often prove fatal, so promptly stopping that bleeding is crucial to preventing avoidable trauma deaths. A tourniquet is often used to restrict blood flow to an extremity. In operation and hospital, the tourniquet systems currently in use are pneumatically actuated by an air compressor, so they must have a steady power supply. These devices have several drawbacks: they vibrate and are noisy since they are pneumatically actuated and they are far from portable since they are large and heavy. Presumably, the drawbacks of pneumatic tourniquets could be overcome by developing a small, lightweight, vibration-free, quiet, and battery-powered tourniquet system. The current study built a small, vibration-free electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pump and then used that pump to restrict blood flow to the leg of rats in an experiment. This study explored the optimal conditions for effective restriction of blood flow by assessing biochemical and musculoskeletal complications following the restriction of blood flow, and this study also examined whether or not an EHD pump could be used to actuate a tourniquet system. A tourniquet cuff (width 12 mm × length 150 mm, material: polyolefin) was placed on the thigh of Wistar rats and pressure was applied for 2 hours by a device that uses EHD phenomena to generate pressure (an EHD pump). Animals were divided into four groups based on how much compressive pressure was applied with a tourniquet: 40 kPa (300 mm Hg, n = 13), 30 kPa (225 mm Hg, n = 12), 20 kPa (150 mm Hg, n = 15), or 0 kPa (controls, n = 25). Tissue oxygen saturation (regional oxygen saturation, denoted here as rSO 2 ) was measured to assess the restriction of blood flow. To assess behavior once blood flow resumed, animal activity was monitored for third day and the amount of movement was counted with digital counters. Body weight was measured before and after the behavioral experiment, and

  11. Automatic hair detection in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian, Pauline; Dehais, Christophe; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for segmenting the hair region in uncontrolled, real life conditions images. Our method is based on a simple statistical hair shape model representing the upper hair part. We detect this region by minimizing an energy which uses active shape and active contour....... The upper hair region then allows us to learn the hair appearance parameters (color and texture) for the image considered. Finally, those parameters drive a pixel-wise segmentation technique that yields the desired (complete) hair region. We demonstrate the applicability of our method on several real images....

  12. The mathematical model of thread unrolling from a bobbin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Tenenbaum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I. Introduction The subject of research in this work is a process of thread unrolling from a bobbin. The mathematical model of this process considering motion of thread peace on a bobbin and unrolled peace is proposed. The dimension of system of differential equations for this model is constant during deploying.The relevance to simulate this process for design of Heliogyro-like solar sails (Heliogyro [1], BMSTU-Sail [2] is proved. The paper briefly characterizes a blade for such solar sail as a simulation object. It proves the possibility for using a flexible thread model for a long blade because of very small blade thickness (less than 10 μm [3] relative to blade width and the phenomena of Koriolis forces [4] that lead to buckling failure of blade flatness.The major features of the proposed model are:-- simulated as a motion of the thread piece both being on a bobbin and its unrolled peace;-- splitting a thread length into nodes does not depend on the demand to ensure a sufficient number of nodes on a single thread turn on the coil;-- because of avoiding a problem of contact between the thread and bobbin a stable integration of motion equations is provided by the conventional Runge-Kutta method of fourth order with a constant step [5];-- in the course of solution the number of freedom degrees (number of motion equation is constant, thereby simplifying a calculation algorithm.The closest mathematical model is proposed in [6].The scientific novelty of this research is the approach to solving the problem of unrolling thread from a bobbin using a constant number of motion equations while preserving real kinematics coiling process.II. Problem formulationIn this section the problem of unrolling thread with length L from a bobbin of radius r is posed while any kind of forces are acting on the unrolled peace of thread. Moreover, the law of bobbin rotation φ(t assumed to be known with the proviso that the model can be modified if φ(t is the result of

  13. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  14. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  15. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who has experience with performing laser hair removal. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the only hair removal method that permanently ... using slow strokes. Rinse your skin with warm water after you are done shaving and then pat ...

  16. Hair Transplantation in Migraine Headache Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safvet Ors, MD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions:. This report details 6 patients who experienced abatement of migraine headache symptoms following hair transplantation. The positive effects of hair transplantation on migraine headache and potential mechanisms of action are also discussed.

  17. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  18. Pollution Damage and Protection of Asian Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke was used to simulate a polluted environment and an experiment was performed to reveal how virgin and bleached hair are damaged by a polluted environment. The dry/wet combability, surface contact angle, tryptophan content, and cuticle morphology of the smoke exposed hair were evaluated, and compared to unexposed virgin hair. The results showed that pollution exposure can cause significant chemical damage to hair. In particular, virgin hair exposure to pollution can cause damage to the hair cuticles (higher wet/dry combing, protein degradation, and a more hydrophilic hair surface. The experiment also demonstrated that the styling polymer, polyimide-1 (isobutylene/dimethyl amino propyl maleimide/ethoxylated maleimide/maleic acid copolymer, can provide effective protection against such hair damage.

  19. Elution behaviors of elements from the hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Junko; Fukushima, Ichiro; Imahori, Akira

    1981-01-01

    The elution of the neutron activated elements out of hair soaked in some organic solvents and EDTA solution was studied. Soakage of the hair sample, which was washed with water and acetone in advance as IAEA's proposal, in ether and acetone for 30 minutes each resulted in no elution of Hg, Zn, Co and Se. Elution of Zn and Co from the powdered hair sample soaked in 0.1 M EDTA solution was rapid, while Zn did not elute out from the cut hair (2 -- 3 mm length) on the same condition. Hg, Se and Au were not eluted out by 0.1 M EDTA solution in the both case of cut hair and of powdered hair. Br was removed by 0.1 M EDTA solution from the cut hair and from the powdered hair with equal ease. (author)

  20. Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Marcel; van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; de Boer, J.H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy

  1. Hair transplantation in alopecia androgenetica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurinderjit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients suffering from male pattern baldness were given 3 to 4 sittings of hair transplantation at an interval of about 4 to 6 weeks each. They included 46 patients of type III baldness, 23 patients of type III (vertex baldness, and 31 patients of type IV baldness. It needed 3 sittings in type III as well as type III (vertex patients, whereas type IV patients needed 4 sittings for cosmetically acceptable results. Sixty percent patients of type III (including type III vertex showed excellent results; whereas 24 percent patients showed good response. Thirty-four percent patients of type IV got excellent cosmetic appearance; whereas, good results could be obtained in 17 percent patients. The reasons for poor results in certain patients were poor density of hair at donor sites and poor growth of hair in some of the transplanted plugs.

  2. Management of hair loss diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Ohyama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of hair loss diseases is sometimes difficult because of insufficient efficacy and limited options. However, recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology and development of new remedies have improved the treatment of refractory hair loss conditions. In this article, an update on the management of hair loss diseases is provided, especially focusing on recently reported therapeutic approaches for alopecia areata (AA. An accurate diagnosis is indispensable to optimize treatment. Dry dermoscopy represents new diagnostic techniques, which could enable the differentiation of barely indistinguishable alopecias, e.g. AA and trichotillomania. An organized scalp biopsy adopting both vertical and transverse sectioning approaches also provides a deep insight into the pathophysiology of ongoing alopecias. Among various treatments for AA, intraregional corticosteroid and contact immunotherapy have been recognized as first-line therapies. However, some AA cases are refractory to both treatments. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of pulse corticosteroid therapy or the combination of oral psoralen ultraviolet A therapy and systemic corticosteroids for severe AA. Previous clinical observations have suggested the potential role of antihistamines as supportive medications for AA. Experimental evaluation using AA model mice further supports their effectiveness in AA treatment. Finasteride opens up new possibilities for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. For androgenetic alopecia patients refractory to finasteride, the combination of finasteride with topical minoxidil or the administration of dutasteride, another 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, may provide better outcomes. Scarring alopecia is the most difficult form of hair loss disorder to treat. The bulge stem cell area is destroyed by unnecessary immune reactions with resultant permanent loss of hair follicle structures in scarring alopecia. Currently, treatment options for

  3. Ethnic hair care products may increase false positives in hair drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, David A; Smith, Frederick P; Shepherd, Arica R

    2015-12-01

    The question of why different races appear more susceptible to hair contamination by external drugs remains controversial. This research studied susceptibility of head hair to external cocaine and methamphetamine when hair products have been applied. Three different chemical classes of ethnic hair products were applied to Caucasian, Asian, and African hair. Some products increased the methamphetamine and cocaine concentrations in all hair types. A unique finding of this research is that certain ethnic hair products can replace moisture as a diffusion medium, thereby increasing the susceptibility to contamination over 100-fold compared to petroleum-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multi-thread Parallel Speech Recognition for Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOJKA Martin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the server based solution of the multi-thread large vocabulary automatic speech recognition engine is described along with the Android OS and HTML5 practical application examples. The basic idea was to bring speech recognition available for full variety of applications for computers and especially for mobile devices. The speech recognition engine should be independent of commercial products and services (where the dictionary could not be modified. Using of third-party services could be also a security and privacy problem in specific applications, when the unsecured audio data could not be sent to uncontrolled environments (voice data transferred to servers around the globe. Using our experience with speech recognition applications, we have been able to construct a multi-thread speech recognition serverbased solution designed for simple applications interface (API to speech recognition engine modified to specific needs of particular application.

  5. Adaptive control in multi-threaded iterated integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doncker, Elise de; Yuasa, Fukuko

    2013-01-01

    In recent years we have developed a technique for the direct computation of Feynman loop-integrals, which are notorious for the occurrence of integrand singularities. Especially for handling singularities in the interior of the domain, we approximate the iterated integral using an adaptive algorithm in the coordinate directions. We present a novel multi-core parallelization scheme for adaptive multivariate integration, by assigning threads to the rule evaluations in the outer dimensions of the iterated integral. The method ensures a large parallel granularity as each function evaluation by itself comprises an integral over the lower dimensions, while the application of the threads is governed by the adaptive control in the outer level. We give computational results for a test set of 3- to 6-dimensional integrals, where several problems exhibit a loop integral behavior.

  6. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. The hair of the Prophet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This paper explore the politics of (in)visibility in Islam by discussing the affective presence and agency of relics - in this case a single hair of the Prophet Muhammad. The relic is obviously not the Prophet, but it is also not-not the Prophet, as the hair is filled with the baraka (blessings......) of the Prophet and thereby seems to confirm Sir James Frazer’s thesis of ‘sympathetic magic’ where part and wholes are forever connected. Based on a study of the Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Saifi tariqa, this paper set out to ‘follow the hair’ in different settings in Denmark, Norway and Pakistan in order to discuss...

  8. Method of measuring misalignment of welded threaded connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasatkin, V I

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for measuring misalignment of welded connections by special attachment, superposed indicator. Requirements are analyzed for welding the threaded sleeves established by specifications. It is shown that measurement of the slack only in one section on the selected base is insufficient for monitoring the geometry of the connected pipe parts. It is suggested that in order to evaluate the misalignment the concept of total slack be used and formulas are derived to define it.

  9. A PREDICTABLE MULTI-THREADED MAIN-MEMORY STORAGE MANAGER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the design and implementation of a predictable multi-threaded main-memo- ry storage manager (CS20), and emphasizes the database service mediator(DSM), an operation prediction model using exponential averaging. The memory manager, indexing, as well as lock manager in CS20 are also presented briefly. CS20 has been embedded in a mobile telecommunication service system. Practice showed, DSM effectively controls system load and hence improves the real-time characteristics of data accessing.

  10. Diseases that turn African hair silky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2012-11-01

    African hair in its natural state poses tenacious grooming challenges; consequently a large portion of the African cosmetic industry is focused on means to relax the tight curls of African hair to make the hair more manageable. In malnourished and hypoproteinemic states, African hair straightens in an uncomplimentary manner. Recently, we observed that in certain diseases African hair changes to a desirable silky wavy texture. To identify the diseases that turn African hair silky and their parameters we examined 5612 dermatology patients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. We then studied the clinical and basic laboratory parameters of those patients whose diseases were accompanied by the silky hair change. Silky hair change similar to the hair of the African neonatal child was observed in five diseases, namely AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary tuberculosis with cachexia, and Behçet's disease. Our study identified retrogression of African hair to the neonatal structure in five diseases. Anemia of chronic illness, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mild hypocalcemia were significant laboratory parameters. This is an important observation, which should excite and advance research into the nature and structure of African hair. The causes of structural hair changes should include these five diseases. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Compliant threads maximize spider silk connection strength and toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Avery; Pugno, Nicola M.; Cranford, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of years of evolution have adapted spider webs to achieve a range of functionalities, including the well-known capture of prey, with efficient use of material. One feature that has escaped extensive investigation is the silk-on-silk connection joints within spider webs, particularly from a structural mechanics perspective. We report a joint theoretical and computational analysis of an idealized silk-on-silk fibre junction. By modifying the theory of multiple peeling, we quantitatively compare the performance of the system while systematically increasing the rigidity of the anchor thread, by both scaling the stress–strain response and the introduction of an applied pre-strain. The results of our study indicate that compliance is a virtue—the more extensible the anchorage, the tougher and stronger the connection becomes. In consideration of the theoretical model, in comparison with rigid substrates, a compliant anchorage enormously increases the effective adhesion strength (work required to detach), independent of the adhered thread itself, attributed to a nonlinear alignment between thread and anchor (contact peeling angle). The results can direct novel engineering design principles to achieve possible load transfer from compliant fibre-to-fibre anchorages, be they silk-on-silk or another, as-yet undeveloped, system. PMID:25008083

  12. Ion beam analysis of golden threads from Romanian medieval textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balta, Z.I.; Csedreki, L.; Furu, E.; Cretu, I.; Huszánk, R.; Lupu, M.; Török, Z.; Kertész, Z.; Szikszai, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, metal threads from Romanian religious embroideries and precious velvet brocades dated from 15th to 18th century were analyzed by using IBA methods (PIXE and RBS) which, in comparison to the traditional analytical techniques (XRF, EDS), allowed the detection of their structures and accurate identification of the trace elements (detection limits of few tens of ppm). PIXE results confirmed that both types of the metal threads studied – wires and strips – have layered structures being made of fine silver, refined by cupellation, and gilded most probably with pure gold, and not of Au–Ag alloy, or gilded Ag–Cu alloy or Au–Ag–Cu alloy, as resulted from the previously performed SEM-EDS analysis. Trace elements of historical interest like lead, mercury and bismuth have been also possible to be detected by PIXE. The resulting elemental maps allowed us to identify the areas from which the metal thread structure and quantitative composition could be accurately determined. RBS measurements revealed that the gilding layer is separated from the silver bulk by an interface layer resulting through atomic diffusion of silver into the gold, which lead to the conclusion that the methods used for gilding were probably either the diffusion bonding or the fire gilding. The gilding layers thicknesses were estimated by PIXE with the GUPIX software and also determined from RBS measurements

  13. Ion beam analysis of golden threads from Romanian medieval textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balta, Z.I., E-mail: balta_z_i@yahoo.com [National History Museum of Romania, Calea Victoriei 12, Sector 3, Bucharest (Romania); Csedreki, L.; Furu, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Cretu, I. [National Art Museum of Romania, Calea Victoriei 49-53, Sector 1, Bucharest (Romania); Huszánk, R. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Lupu, M. [National Art Museum of Romania, Calea Victoriei 49-53, Sector 1, Bucharest (Romania); Török, Z.; Kertész, Z.; Szikszai, Z. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary)

    2015-04-01

    In this study, metal threads from Romanian religious embroideries and precious velvet brocades dated from 15th to 18th century were analyzed by using IBA methods (PIXE and RBS) which, in comparison to the traditional analytical techniques (XRF, EDS), allowed the detection of their structures and accurate identification of the trace elements (detection limits of few tens of ppm). PIXE results confirmed that both types of the metal threads studied – wires and strips – have layered structures being made of fine silver, refined by cupellation, and gilded most probably with pure gold, and not of Au–Ag alloy, or gilded Ag–Cu alloy or Au–Ag–Cu alloy, as resulted from the previously performed SEM-EDS analysis. Trace elements of historical interest like lead, mercury and bismuth have been also possible to be detected by PIXE. The resulting elemental maps allowed us to identify the areas from which the metal thread structure and quantitative composition could be accurately determined. RBS measurements revealed that the gilding layer is separated from the silver bulk by an interface layer resulting through atomic diffusion of silver into the gold, which lead to the conclusion that the methods used for gilding were probably either the diffusion bonding or the fire gilding. The gilding layers thicknesses were estimated by PIXE with the GUPIX software and also determined from RBS measurements.

  14. Rapid and reliable protein structure determination via chemical shift threading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsa, Noor E; Berjanskii, Mark V; Arndt, David; Wishart, David S

    2018-01-01

    Protein structure determination using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can be both time-consuming and labor intensive. Here we demonstrate how chemical shift threading can permit rapid, robust, and accurate protein structure determination using only chemical shift data. Threading is a relatively old bioinformatics technique that uses a combination of sequence information and predicted (or experimentally acquired) low-resolution structural data to generate high-resolution 3D protein structures. The key motivations behind using NMR chemical shifts for protein threading lie in the fact that they are easy to measure, they are available prior to 3D structure determination, and they contain vital structural information. The method we have developed uses not only sequence and chemical shift similarity but also chemical shift-derived secondary structure, shift-derived super-secondary structure, and shift-derived accessible surface area to generate a high quality protein structure regardless of the sequence similarity (or lack thereof) to a known structure already in the PDB. The method (called E-Thrifty) was found to be very fast (often chemical shift refinement, these results suggest that protein structure determination, using only NMR chemical shifts, is becoming increasingly practical and reliable. E-Thrifty is available as a web server at http://ethrifty.ca .

  15. Simulation of LHC events on a millions threads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, J. T.; Uram, T. D.; LeCompte, T. J.; Papka, M. E.; Benjamin, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Demand for Grid resources is expected to double during LHC Run II as compared to Run I; the capacity of the Grid, however, will not double. The HEP community must consider how to bridge this computing gap by targeting larger compute resources and using the available compute resources as efficiently as possible. Argonne's Mira, the fifth fastest supercomputer in the world, can run roughly five times the number of parallel processes that the ATLAS experiment typically uses on the Grid. We ported Alpgen, a serial x86 code, to run as a parallel application under MPI on the Blue Gene/Q architecture. By analysis of the Alpgen code, we reduced the memory footprint to allow running 64 threads per node, utilizing the four hardware threads available per core on the PowerPC A2 processor. Event generation and unweighting, typically run as independent serial phases, are coupled together in a single job in this scenario, reducing intermediate writes to the filesystem. By these optimizations, we have successfully run LHC proton-proton physics event generation at the scale of a million threads, filling two-thirds of Mira.

  16. Security threads: effective security devices in the past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Gary R.

    2002-04-01

    Security threads were first used to secure banknotes in the mid 1800's. The key to their anti-counterfeiting success was the fact that by being embedded in the paper, they became an integral part of the banknote substrate. Today, all major currencies still utilize this effective security feature. Technological developments have allowed security threads to evolve from a feature authenticated by only visual means to devices that incorporate both visual and machine detectable components. When viewed from the perspective of a thread being a carrier of various security technologies and the fact that they can be incorporated into the core substrate of banknotes, documents, labels, packaging and some high valued articles, it is clear that security threads will remain as effective security devices well into the future. This paper discusses a brief historical background of security threads, current visual and machine authentication technologies incorporated into threads today and a look to the future of threads as effective security devices.

  17. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  18. Biomimetic aquatic hair sensors design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi, N.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2008-01-01

    “Touch in distance��? is a term that has been used to describe function of lateral line of the fish as well as other aquatic animals that use mechanoreceptor hairs to discern spatial information about their immediate environment. In this work we address the requirements for fabrication technology of

  19. Parietal scalp is another affected area in female pattern hair loss: an analysis of hair density and hair diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojhirunsakool S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinee Rojhirunsakool, Poonkiat Suchonwanit Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common hair disease. However, studies of the quantitative measurement of FPHL are still limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of hair density and hair diameter in normal women and FPHL patients, and further correlate the quantitative measurement with the clinical presentation of FPHL.Patients and methods: An evaluation of 471 FPHL patients and 236 normal women was carried out according to the Ludwig classification, and analysis was performed by using a computerized handheld USB camera with computer-assisted software. Various areas of the scalp, including frontal, parietal, midscalp, and occipital, were analyzed for hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair.Results: The hair density in normal women was the highest and the lowest in the midscalp and parietal areas, respectively. The FPHL group revealed the lowest hair density in the parietal area. Significant differences in hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair between the normal and FPHL groups were observed, especially in the midscalp and parietal areas.Conclusion: The parietal area is another important affected area in FPHL in addition to the midscalp area. This finding provides novel important information of FPHL and will be useful for hair transplant surgeons choosing the optimal donor sites for hair transplantation in women. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, alopecia, phototrichogram, miniaturization

  20. A precise automatic system for the hair assessment in hair-care diagnosis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, H

    2015-11-01

    One emerging subject in medical image processing is to quantitatively assess the health and the properties of cranial hairs, including density, diameter, length, level of oiliness, and others. This information helps hair specialists with making a more accurate diagnosis and the therapy required. We develop a practical hair counting algorithm. This analytic system calculates the number of hairs on a scalp using a digital microscope camera, providing accurate information for both the hair specialist and the patient. Our proposed hair counting algorithm is substantially more accurate than the Hough-based one, and is robust to curls, oily scalp, noise-corruption, and overlapping hairs, under various levels of illumination. Rather than manually counting the hairs on a person's scalp, the proposed system determines the density, diameter, length, and level of oiliness of the hairs. We propose an automated system for counting the amount of hairs in the microscopy images. To reduce the effect of bright spots, we develop a robust morphological algorithm for color to smooth out the color and preserve the fidelity of the hair. Then, we utilize a modified Hough transform algorithm to detect the different hair lengths and to reduce any false detection due to noise. Our proposed system enables us to look at curved hairs as multiple pieces of straight lines. To avoid missing hairs when the thinning process is applied, we use edge information to discover any hidden or overlapping hairs. Finally, we employ a mutually associative regression method to label a group of line segments into a meaningful 'hair'. We demonstrated a novel approach for accurately computing the number of hairs, and successfully solved the three main obstacles in automated hair counting, including (i) oily and moist hairs, (ii) wavy and curly hairs, and (iii) under-estimation of the number of hairs occurs when hairs cross and occlude each other. The framework of this paper can be seen as the first step toward

  1. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Rosen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair.

  2. Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

    2011-12-01

    Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to

  3. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Q Dinh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Quan Q Dinh, Rodney SinclairDepartment of Dermatology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful.Keywords: female pattern hair loss, androgenetic alopecia

  5. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium, alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  6. Incorporation of trace elements into hair structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limic, N.; Valkovic, V.

    1985-01-01

    Examining blood and urine provides an immense insight into human diseases. It is natural to hope that the hair studies will be added routinely to the examinations. Human head hair is a recording filament which can reflect metabolic changes of many elements over a long period of time. The idea of hair analysis is very inviting, because hair is easily samples, shipped and analyzed. In this paper the authors propose a method for the determination of some diffusion parameters from experimental data on the distribution of trace element concentrations in hair and then a method for the determination of the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb. The authors' model of hair structure with respect to diffusion is based on the supposition of cross-sectional homogeneity as well as the longitudinal homogeneity of hair. This supposition implies nonisotropic diffusion in hair which is described by two diffusion constants. Diffusion constants can be determined by experiment on wetting hair in solvents or by measurements of natural contamination of hair in air. The first type of experiments can be arranged in various ways to separate radial diffusion from the longitudinal one and, consequently, to determine two diffusion constants from various sets of experiments. The authors' aim is to consider only radial diffusion in hair and to determine the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb

  7. Classifications of Patterned Hair Loss: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mysore, Venkataram

    2016-01-01

    Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles.

  8. An evaluation of combat application tourniquets on training military personnel: changes in application times and success rates in three successive phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Aytekin; Kaya, E; Guvenc, I; Kaymak, S; Cetinkaya, R A; Lapsekili, E O; Ozer, M T; Guler, A; Yildiz, R; Petrone, P; Harlak, A; Kilic, S

    2015-12-01

    Haemorrhage from the injured extremity is a significant cause of preventable death in military settings. This study evaluated the effect of training on the efficacy of the combat application tourniquet (CAT) and to define standards for military personnel. Participants from a training tank battalion were randomised. Data collected included age, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, hand dominance, femoral artery diameter and skin thickness. The study involved tourniquet application times (AT) and application success rates in basic, after-training and eyes-closed phases. Doppler ultrasound was used to identify the presence or absence of popliteal, radial and ulnar artery pulses. A total of 102 trainees participated. In the after-training phase, the left and right upper extremity ATs were 35 ± 13.1 s, and 34.8 ± 13.5 s and the right and left lower extremity ATs were 20.6 ± 6.0 s and 20.5 ± 5.5 s, respectively. The overall tourniquet success rates in three successive study phases were 69.6%, 82.4% and 91.2%, respectively. A negative significant relationship was found between extremity circumference and tourniquet success. The results show that the efficacy of CAT application increases with training. Further studies are required to investigate the reasons underlying application failures. This single group prospective randomised study involves level of evidence 4. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Functional Deficits and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Gene Expression Following Tourniquet-Induced Injury of Skeletal Muscle in Young and Old Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-31

    phenomenon. aging; insulin-like growth factor-I; ischemia-reperfusion; muscle re- generation; sarcopenia OVER 20,000 operating room tourniquet (TK...occurring in elderly patients, the postsurgical I/R injury ensu- ing TK application is a notable concern to the elderly popula- tion. With this demographic... elderly population can lead to loss of independence, as the individual loses the ability to perform necessary daily routines. This affliction is a

  10. The use of human hair as biodosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe Çam, S.; Polat, M.; Seyhan, N.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5–50 Gy) and high doses (75–750 Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021–2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (ΔH pp : 0.522–0.744 mT). In all samples, the linear dose–response curves at low doses saturated after ∼300 Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44 h in black hair, 41 h in blonde and brown hairs, 35 h in dyed black hair and in 17 h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. - Highlights: • Applied electron spin resonance spectroscopy to human hair used in biodosimetry. • Showed the limitations of hair samples using as a biological dosimeter. • Provided more systematic information on radiation-induced radicals in hair. • Found at least 3 different contributions in the RIS. That is the major finding of this work

  11. A Study on Scalp Hair Health and Hair Care Practices among Malaysian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Satheesha; Ann, Chua Yuet; Azhar, Azeldeen Bin; Ling, Emily Chan Su; Yen, Wong Hui; Aithal, P Ashwini

    2017-01-01

    Scalp care is essential because it determines the health and condition of the hair and prevents the diseases of scalp and hair. The objectives of our study were to correlate race and hair types, to determine the awareness of hair care among Malaysian medical students, and to distinguish the factors that affect the health of hair and scalp. It was a cross-sectional study wherein validated questionnaires were given to 240 medical undergraduate students who belonged to three ethnic races of Malaysia, i.e., Chinese, Malay, and Malaysian Indians after their informed consent. The results were then analyzed using percentage statistics. Chinese students had comparatively healthier scalp without dandruff. Most Chinese and Indians had silky type of hair while Malay had dry, rough hair. Chinese and Indians colored their hair and used various styling methods; while among the Malays, this percentage was very less. Regarding hair care practices, males used only shampoo and females used shampoo and conditioner for hair wash. Students also faced dietary and examination-related stress. Results indicate that there exist morphological differences in hair among the studied population. Since most students color their hair and employ various hairstyling methods, they should be educated regarding best hair care practices to improve their scalp hair condition and health.

  12. Hair follicle stem cell proliferation, Akt and Wnt signaling activation in TPA-induced hair regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Zhou, Ling; Bai, Xiufeng; Lai, Xiangdong; Yu, Yu; Yang, Tian; Lian, Xiaohua

    2017-06-01

    Regeneration of hair follicles relies on activation of hair follicle stem cells during telogen to anagen transition process in hair cycle. This process is rigorously controlled by intrinsic and environmental factors. 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a tumor promoter, accelerates reentry of hair follicles into anagen phase. However, it is unclear that how TPA promotes the hair regeneration. In the present study, we topically applied TPA onto the dorsal skin of 2-month-old C57BL/6 female mice to examine the activity of hair follicle stem cells and alteration of signaling pathways during hair regeneration. We found that refractory telogen hair follicles entered anagen prematurely after TPA treatment, with the enhanced proliferation of CD34-positive hair follicle stem cells. Meanwhile, we observed Akt signaling was activated in epidermis, hair infundibulum, bulge and hair bulb, and Wnt signaling was also activated after hair follicle stem cells proliferation. Importantly, after overexpression of DKK1, a specific Wnt signaling inhibitor, the accelerated reentry of hair follicles into anagen induced by TPA was abolished. Our data indicated that TPA-induced hair follicle regeneration is associated with activation of Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  13. Improved Fatigue Performance of Threaded Drillstring Connections by Cold Rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, Steinar

    2002-01-01

    The research work presented in this thesis is concerned with analytical, numerical and experimental studies of the effect of cold rolling on the fatigue behaviour of threaded drillstring connections. A comprehensive literature study is made of the various effects on the fatigue behaviour of residual stresses introduced by mechanical deformation of notched components. Some of the effects studied are cyclic hardening behaviour after prestraining, cyclic creep, fatigue initiation in prestrained materials, short cracks and crack growth models including crack closure. Residual stresses were introduced in the surface of a smooth pipe by a rolling device to simulate a cold rolling process and verify the calculated residual stresses by measurements. Strain hardening and contact algorithm of the two bodies were incorporated in the FE analyses. Two significant errors were found in the commercial software package for residual stress evaluation, Restran v. 3.3.2a also called SINT, when using the Schajer method. The Schajer algorithm is the only hole-drilling algorithm without theoretical shortcomings, and is recommended when measuring large residual stress gradients in the depth direction. Using the Schajer method solved by in-house Matlab-routines good agreement between measured residual stress gradients and residual stress gradients from FE analyses was found. Full scale fatigue tests were performed on pipes cut from used drillstrings with notches of similar geometry as threads used in drillstring connections. The simulated threads consisted of four full depth helix notches with runouts at the surface. The pipe threads were cold rolled and fatigue tested in a full-scale four-point rotating bending fatigue testing rig. The test results showed that cold rolling had an effect on the crack initiation period. A major part of the fatigue life was with cracks observed at the notch root, but due to the increased fatigue crack propagation resistance the final fracture initiated at

  14. Biophysics of Human Hair Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the biophysics of hair. It deals with the structure of hair, its mechanical properties, the nanomechanical characterization, tensile deformation, tribological characterization, the thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair surface. Another important topic of the book is the health of hair, human hair and skin, hair care, cleaning and conditioning treatments and damaging processes. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

  15. Thread angle dependency on flame spread shape over kenaf/polyester combined fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azahari Razali, Mohd; Sapit, Azwan; Nizam Mohammed, Akmal; Nor Anuar Mohamad, Md; Nordin, Normayati; Sadikin, Azmahani; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Khalid, Amir

    2017-09-01

    Understanding flame spread behavior is crucial to Fire Safety Engineering. It is noted that the natural fiber exhibits different flame spread behavior than the one of the synthetic fiber. This different may influences the flame spread behavior over combined fabric. There is a research has been done to examined the flame spread behavior over kenaf/polyester fabric. It is seen that the flame spread shape is dependent on the thread angle dependency. However, the explanation of this phenomenon is not described in detail in that research. In this study, explanation about this phenomenon is given in detail. Results show that the flame spread shape is dependent on the position of synthetic thread. For thread angle, θ = 0°, the polyester thread is breaking when the flame approach to the thread and the kenaf thread tends to move to the breaking direction. This behavior produces flame to be ‘V’ shape. However, for thread angle, θ = 90°, the polyester thread melts while the kenaf thread decomposed and burned. At this angle, the distance between kenaf threads remains constant as flame approaches.

  16. Kinematics of Planetary Roller Screw Mechanism considering Helical Directions of Screw and Roller Threads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangjun Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the differential principle of thread transmission, an analytical model considering helical directions between screw and roller threads in planetary roller screw mechanism (PRSM is presented in this work. The model is critical for the design of PRSM with a smaller lead and a bigger pitch to realize a higher transmission accuracy. The kinematic principle of planetary transmission is employed to analyze the PRSM with different screw thread and roller thread directions. In order to investigate the differences with different screw thread and roller thread directions, the numerical model is developed by using the software Adams to validate the analytical solutions calculated by the presented model. The results indicate, when the helical direction of screw thread is identical with the direction of roller thread, that the lead of PRSM is unaffected regardless of whether sliding between screw and rollers occurs or not. Only when the direction of screw thread is reverse to the direction of roller thread, the design of PRSM with a smaller lead can be realized under a bigger pitch. The presented models and numerical simulation method can be used to research the transmission accuracy of PRSM.

  17. Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural Threading Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Haibo [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In this work, they try to understand the protein folding problem using pair-wise hydrophobic interaction as the dominant interaction for the protein folding process. They found a strong correlation between amino acid sequences and the corresponding native structure of the protein. Some applications of this correlation were discussed in this dissertation include the domain partition and a new structural threading method as well as the performance of this method in the CASP5 competition. In the first part, they give a brief introduction to the protein folding problem. Some essential knowledge and progress from other research groups was discussed. This part includes discussions of interactions among amino acids residues, lattice HP model, and the design ability principle. In the second part, they try to establish the correlation between amino acid sequence and the corresponding native structure of the protein. This correlation was observed in the eigenvector study of protein contact matrix. They believe the correlation is universal, thus it can be used in automatic partition of protein structures into folding domains. In the third part, they discuss a threading method based on the correlation between amino acid sequences and ominant eigenvector of the structure contact-matrix. A mathematically straightforward iteration scheme provides a self-consistent optimum global sequence-structure alignment. The computational efficiency of this method makes it possible to search whole protein structure databases for structural homology without relying on sequence similarity. The sensitivity and specificity of this method is discussed, along with a case of blind test prediction. In the appendix, they list the overall performance of this threading method in CASP5 blind test in comparison with other existing approaches.

  18. Protein structure recognition: From eigenvector analysis to structural threading method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Haibo

    In this work, we try to understand the protein folding problem using pair-wise hydrophobic interaction as the dominant interaction for the protein folding process. We found a strong correlation between amino acid sequence and the corresponding native structure of the protein. Some applications of this correlation were discussed in this dissertation include the domain partition and a new structural threading method as well as the performance of this method in the CASP5 competition. In the first part, we give a brief introduction to the protein folding problem. Some essential knowledge and progress from other research groups was discussed. This part include discussions of interactions among amino acids residues, lattice HP model, and the designablity principle. In the second part, we try to establish the correlation between amino acid sequence and the corresponding native structure of the protein. This correlation was observed in our eigenvector study of protein contact matrix. We believe the correlation is universal, thus it can be used in automatic partition of protein structures into folding domains. In the third part, we discuss a threading method based on the correlation between amino acid sequence and ominant eigenvector of the structure contact-matrix. A mathematically straightforward iteration scheme provides a self-consistent optimum global sequence-structure alignment. The computational efficiency of this method makes it possible to search whole protein structure databases for structural homology without relying on sequence similarity. The sensitivity and specificity of this method is discussed, along with a case of blind test prediction. In the appendix, we list the overall performance of this threading method in CASP5 blind test in comparison with other existing approaches.

  19. Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural Threading Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haibo Cao

    2003-01-01

    In this work, they try to understand the protein folding problem using pair-wise hydrophobic interaction as the dominant interaction for the protein folding process. They found a strong correlation between amino acid sequences and the corresponding native structure of the protein. Some applications of this correlation were discussed in this dissertation include the domain partition and a new structural threading method as well as the performance of this method in the CASP5 competition. In the first part, they give a brief introduction to the protein folding problem. Some essential knowledge and progress from other research groups was discussed. This part includes discussions of interactions among amino acids residues, lattice HP model, and the design ability principle. In the second part, they try to establish the correlation between amino acid sequence and the corresponding native structure of the protein. This correlation was observed in the eigenvector study of protein contact matrix. They believe the correlation is universal, thus it can be used in automatic partition of protein structures into folding domains. In the third part, they discuss a threading method based on the correlation between amino acid sequences and ominant eigenvector of the structure contact-matrix. A mathematically straightforward iteration scheme provides a self-consistent optimum global sequence-structure alignment. The computational efficiency of this method makes it possible to search whole protein structure databases for structural homology without relying on sequence similarity. The sensitivity and specificity of this method is discussed, along with a case of blind test prediction. In the appendix, they list the overall performance of this threading method in CASP5 blind test in comparison with other existing approaches

  20. Atmospheric pressure H20 plasma treatment of polyester cord threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simor, M.; Krump, H.; Hudec, I.; Rahel, J.; Brablec, A.; Cernak, M.

    2004-01-01

    Polyester cord threads, which are used as a reinforcing materials of rubber blend, have been treated in atmospheric-pressure H 2 0 plasma in order to enhance their adhesion to rubber. The atmospheric-pressure H 2 0 plasma was generated in an underwater diaphragm discharge. The plasma treatment resulted in approximately 100% improvement in the adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy investigation indicates that not only introduced surface polar groups but also increased surface area of the fibres due to a fibre surface roughening are responsible for the improved adhesive strength (Authors)

  1. Interferon alfa and ribavirin induced hair changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, S.; Taj, A.; Muhamud, T.H.; Iqbal, Z.; Yaqub, F.

    2007-01-01

    Combination therapy of Interferon alfa and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C has well documented cutaneous adverse effects. Most interesting of these has been reported on hair physiology. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and pattern of adverse effects involving hair in patients receiving combination of interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. The study was conducted in Department of Dermatology, Division of Medicine Shaikh Zayed Hospital. Thirty Eight patients who completed treatment with interferon alfa (3 MIU subcutaneously thrice weekly) and 1200 mg ribavirin daily for 24 weeks were enrolled in this single-center study. The patient's response and examination finding particularly regarding involvement of hair was noted on a Proforma. Thirty Two out of thirty eight (84%) patients noted adverse effects involving hair. The most frequent was diffuse hair loss and occurred in 27 patients (71%). Hypertrichosis of eyelashes (trichomegaly) and eyebrows (synophyrs) was observed in 18 (47%) and 16 (42%) patients respectively. Graying of hair was noted in 4 patients (11%), while discoloration of moustache hair was seen in 2 patients (5%). Epilation at the site of subcutaneous injection was noted in 10 patients (26%). Alopecia areata was reported in 2 patients (5%). It is concluded that adverse effects involving hair are frequent and varied (hair loss to excess hair growth) during combination therapy with Interferon alfa-2a and Ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. (author)

  2. Possible biological dosimeters in skin and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The hair follicle, when producing hair, contains rapidly proliferating cells, some of which are very sensitive to radiation. These can be detected by studying the incidence of dead or dying (apoptotic) cells which reach peak yields 12 h after irradiation. The yield of apoptotic cells in the follicle has been studied after various doses. The response is dose-dependent and sensitive down to levels of a few cGy. Any reduction in cell production resulting from mitotic delay or cell death might be expressed as a reduction in the width of the hair. This has been studied and the abnormality referred to as dysplasia of the hair. The fraction of dysplastic hairs is strongly dose dependent over the range 2-10 Gy. More detailed studies using higher magnification and numerous measurements of hair width should make this end-point an even more sensitive assay for radiation exposure. Preliminary measurements on the average width at a critical point along the length of the hair illustrate that doses between 1.0 and 1.5 Gy can be detected. The width of the hair is dose dependent. The length of the affected region of the hair is also probably dose dependent. Estimates for the full reduction in volume of hair should increase the sensitivity further. (orig./MG)

  3. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spilde

    Full Text Available Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios, which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  4. Immunocosmeceuticals: An emerging trend in repairing human hair damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthika Selvan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is one of the most important portions for beauty care and in recent years grooming and cosmetic treatment of hair has drastically risen. Substantially, it may deteriorate and weaken the hair by modification of keratin protein. This makes the hair dry, brittle and split vend occurs due to loss of hair strength and the damage further increases with cosmetic treatments. The various poor ingredients are being used for repairing which have extremely poor compatibility with hair. Now the hair care products can be introduced with an active ingredient comprising a yolk derived anti-hair antibody immunoglobin obtained from egg of chickens immunized with damaged hair as antigen. This immuno-cosmeceuticals can repair the hair damage and imparts flexibility and smoothness to the hair. These effects are not lost by the ordinary shampooing. This article focuses on the characteristic of human hair, its damaging processes and the effects of immuno-cosmeceuticals for repairing the hair damage.

  5. Method for reinforcing threads in multilayer composite tubes and cylindrical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanoski, G.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Multilayer techniques such as: tape wrapping, braiding, and filament winding represent versatile and economical routes for fabricating composite tubes and cylindrical structures. However, multilayer architectures lack the radial reinforcement required to retain threads when the desired means of connection or closure is a threaded joint. This issue was addressed in the development of a filament wound, carbon-carbon composite impact shell for the NASA radioisotope thermoelectric generator. The problem of poor thread shear strength was solved by incorporating a number of radial elements of triangular geometry around the circumference of the thread for the full length of thread engagement. The radial elements significantly increased the shear strength of the threaded joint by transmitting the applied force to the balance of composite structure. This approach is also applicable to ceramic composites

  6. New Treatments for Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vañó-Galván, S; Camacho, F

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy. b) For alopecia areata, Janus kinase inhibitors are reviewed. c) For frontal fibrosing alopecia, we discuss the use of antiandrogens and, for some patients, pioglitazone. d) Finally, we mention new robotic devices for hair transplant procedures and techniques for optimal follicular unit extraction. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Hair transplantation: Standard guidelines of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan Narendra

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Hair transplantation is a surgical method of hair restoration. Physician qualification : The physician performing hair transplantation should have completed post graduation training in dermatology; he should have adequate background training in dermatosurgery at a centre that provides education training in cutaneous surgery. In addition, he should obtain specific hair transplantation training or experience at the surgical table(hands on under the supervision of an appropriately trained and experienced hair transplant surgeon. In addition to the surgical technique, training should include instruction in local anesthesia and emergency resuscitation and care. Facility : Hair transplantation can be performed safely in an outpatient day case dermatosurgical facility. The day case theatre should be equipped with facilities for monitoring and handling emergencies. A plan for handling emergencies should be in place and all nursing staff should be familiar with the emergency plan. It is preferable, but not mandatory to have a standby anesthetist. Indication for hair transplantation is pattern hair loss in males and also in females. In female pattern hair loss, investigations to rule out any underlying cause for hair loss such as anemia and thyroid deficiency should be carried out. Hair transplantation can also be performed in selected cases of scarring alopecia, eyebrows and eye lashes, by experienced surgeons. Preoperative counseling and informed consent :Detailed consent form listing details about the procedure and possible complications should be signed by the patient. The consent form should specifically state the limitations of the procedure and if more procedures are needed for proper results, it should be clearly mentioned. Patient should be provided with adequate opportunity to seek information through brochures, computer presentations, and personal discussions. Need for concomitant medical therapy should be emphasized. Patients should understand

  8. Matting of Hair Due to Halo-egg Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Mani

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of hair matting in an 18 year old female is reported. The hair got densely entangled immediately after washing the hair with ′Halo Egg′ shampoo. The hair was disentangled completely after prolonged dipping of the hair in arachis oil frr 5 days.

  9. Influence of Thread Root Radius on Maximum Local Stresses at Large Diameter Bolts under Axial Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojocaru Vasile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the thread root area of the threaded bolts submitted to axial loading occur local stresses, higher that nominal stresses calculated for the bolts. These local stresses can generate failure and can reduce the fatigue life of the parts. The paper is focused on the study of the influence of the thread root radius on the maximum local stresses. A large diameter trapezoidal bolt was subjected to a static analysis (axial loading using finite element simulation.

  10. Three-dimensional optimization and sensitivity analysis of dental implant thread parameters using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramizadeh, Maryam; Katoozian, Hamidreza; Amid, Reza; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to optimize the thread depth and pitch of a recently designed dental implant to provide uniform stress distribution by means of a response surface optimization method available in finite element (FE) software. The sensitivity of simulation to different mechanical parameters was also evaluated. A three-dimensional model of a tapered dental implant with micro-threads in the upper area and V-shaped threads in the rest of the body was modeled and analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA). An axial load of 100 N was applied to the top of the implants. The model was optimized for thread depth and pitch to determine the optimal stress distribution. In this analysis, micro-threads had 0.25 to 0.3 mm depth and 0.27 to 0.33 mm pitch, and V-shaped threads had 0.405 to 0.495 mm depth and 0.66 to 0.8 mm pitch. The optimized depth and pitch were 0.307 and 0.286 mm for micro-threads and 0.405 and 0.808 mm for V-shaped threads, respectively. In this design, the most effective parameters on stress distribution were the depth and pitch of the micro-threads based on sensitivity analysis results. Based on the results of this study, the optimal implant design has micro-threads with 0.307 and 0.286 mm depth and pitch, respectively, in the upper area and V-shaped threads with 0.405 and 0.808 mm depth and pitch in the rest of the body. These results indicate that micro-thread parameters have a greater effect on stress and strain values.

  11. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED FILAMENT THREAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Oscillations and propagating waves are commonly seen in high-resolution observations of filament threads, i.e., the fine-structures of solar filaments/prominences. Since the temperature of prominences is typically of the order of 10 4 K, the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. In this paper, we study the effect of neutrals on the wave propagation in a filament thread modeled as a partially ionized homogeneous magnetic flux tube embedded in an homogeneous and fully ionized coronal plasma. Ohmic and ambipolar magnetic diffusion are considered in the basic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. We numerically compute the eigenfrequencies of kink, slow, and Alfven linear MHD modes and obtain analytical approximations in some cases. We find that the existence of propagating modes is constrained by the presence of critical values of the longitudinal wavenumber. In particular, the lower and upper frequency cutoffs of kink and Alfven waves owe their existence to magnetic diffusion parallel and perpendicular to magnetic field lines, respectively. The slow mode only has a lower frequency cutoff, which is caused by perpendicular magnetic diffusion and is significantly affected by the ionization degree. In addition, ion-neutral collision is the most efficient damping mechanism for short wavelengths, while ohmic diffusion dominates in the long-wavelength regime.

  12. Diagnostics of the wheel thread of railway rolling stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Buryak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. At present, the devastating impact of faulty wheels on rails on the move is a major problem of railway transport. This factor is one of the most important, which causes the shift from traditional manual methods of verification and external examination to the automated diagnostic system of rolling stock in operation. Methodology. To achieve this goal the main types of wheel damages and the way they appear are analyzed. The methods for defects and abnormalities of the wheel thread determining as well as their advantages and disadvantages were presented. Nowadays these methods are under usage in both the international practice and in the one of the CIS countries. Findings. The faulty wheel sound on the move was researched and analyzed. The necessity of using the automated system, enabling one to reduce significantly the human factor is substantiated. Originality. The method to determine the wheel thread damage on the basis of a sound diagnostic is proposed. Practical value. Automatic tracking system of the wheels condition allows performing their more qualitative diagnostics, detecting a fault at the early stage and forecasting the rate of its extension. Besides detecting the location of the faulty wheel in the rolling stock, it is also possible to trace the dynamics of the fault extension and to give the recommendations on how to eliminate it.

  13. Multi-threaded ATLAS simulation on Intel Knights Landing processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Steven; Calafiura, Paolo; Leggett, Charles; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Dotti, Andrea; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The Knights Landing (KNL) release of the Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) Xeon Phi line of processors is a potential game changer for HEP computing. With 72 cores and deep vector registers, the KNL cards promise significant performance benefits for highly-parallel, compute-heavy applications. Cori, the newest supercomputer at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), was delivered to its users in two phases with the first phase online at the end of 2015 and the second phase now online at the end of 2016. Cori Phase 2 is based on the KNL architecture and contains over 9000 compute nodes with 96GB DDR4 memory. ATLAS simulation with the multithreaded Athena Framework (AthenaMT) is a good potential use-case for the KNL architecture and supercomputers like Cori. ATLAS simulation jobs have a high ratio of CPU computation to disk I/O and have been shown to scale well in multi-threading and across many nodes. In this paper we will give an overview of the ATLAS simulation application with details on its multi-threaded design. Then, we will present a performance analysis of the application on KNL devices and compare it to a traditional x86 platform to demonstrate the capabilities of the architecture and evaluate the benefits of utilizing KNL platforms like Cori for ATLAS production.

  14. Molecular threading and tunable molecular recognition on DNA origami nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Na; Czajkowsky, Daniel M; Zhang, Jinjin; Qu, Jianxun; Ye, Ming; Zeng, Dongdong; Zhou, Xingfei; Hu, Jun; Shao, Zhifeng; Li, Bin; Fan, Chunhai

    2013-08-21

    The DNA origami technology holds great promise for the assembly of nanoscopic technological devices and studies of biochemical reactions at the single-molecule level. For these, it is essential to establish well controlled attachment of functional materials to predefined sites on the DNA origami nanostructures for reliable measurements and versatile applications. However, the two-sided nature of the origami scaffold has shown limitations in this regard. We hypothesized that holes of the commonly used two-dimensional DNA origami designs are large enough for the passage of single-stranded (ss)-DNA. Sufficiently long ssDNA initially located on one side of the origami should thus be able to "thread" to the other side through the holes in the origami sheet. By using an origami sheet attached with patterned biotinylated ssDNA spacers and monitoring streptavidin binding with atomic force microscopic (AFM) imaging, we provide unambiguous evidence that the biotin ligands positioned on one side have indeed threaded through to the other side. Our finding reveals a previously overlooked critical design feature that should provide new interpretations to previous experiments and new opportunities for the construction of origami structures with new functional capabilities.

  15. Automatic Thread-Level Parallelization in the Chombo AMR Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Matthias; Keen, Noel; Ligocki, Terry; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John; Van Straalen, Brian; Williams, Samuel

    2011-05-26

    The increasing on-chip parallelism has some substantial implications for HPC applications. Currently, hybrid programming models (typically MPI+OpenMP) are employed for mapping software to the hardware in order to leverage the hardware?s architectural features. In this paper, we present an approach that automatically introduces thread level parallelism into Chombo, a parallel adaptive mesh refinement framework for finite difference type PDE solvers. In Chombo, core algorithms are specified in the ChomboFortran, a macro language extension to F77 that is part of the Chombo framework. This domain-specific language forms an already used target language for an automatic migration of the large number of existing algorithms into a hybrid MPI+OpenMP implementation. It also provides access to the auto-tuning methodology that enables tuning certain aspects of an algorithm to hardware characteristics. Performance measurements are presented for a few of the most relevant kernels with respect to a specific application benchmark using this technique as well as benchmark results for the entire application. The kernel benchmarks show that, using auto-tuning, up to a factor of 11 in performance was gained with 4 threads with respect to the serial reference implementation.

  16. Practical Formal Verification of MPI and Thread Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Kirby, Robert M.

    Large-scale simulation codes in science and engineering are written using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Shared memory threads are widely used directly, or to implement higher level programming abstractions. Traditional debugging methods for MPI or thread programs are incapable of providing useful formal guarantees about coverage. They get bogged down in the sheer number of interleavings (schedules), often missing shallow bugs. In this tutorial we will introduce two practical formal verification tools: ISP (for MPI C programs) and Inspect (for Pthread C programs). Unlike other formal verification tools, ISP and Inspect run directly on user source codes (much like a debugger). They pursue only the relevant set of process interleavings, using our own customized Dynamic Partial Order Reduction algorithms. For a given test harness, DPOR allows these tools to guarantee the absence of deadlocks, instrumented MPI object leaks and communication races (using ISP), and shared memory races (using Inspect). ISP and Inspect have been used to verify large pieces of code: in excess of 10,000 lines of MPI/C for ISP in under 5 seconds, and about 5,000 lines of Pthread/C code in a few hours (and much faster with the use of a cluster or by exploiting special cases such as symmetry) for Inspect. We will also demonstrate the Microsoft Visual Studio and Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform integrations of ISP (these will be available on the LiveCD).

  17. Diagnosis of Hair Loss: Clinical features of common causes of hair loss

    OpenAIRE

    Coupe, Robert L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Common causes of hair loss include androgenic hair loss, alopecia areata, trichotillomania, tinea capitis, telogen effluvium, and traction alopecia. The author discusses their distinguishing clinical features and those of less common alopecias.

  18. LSD in pubic hair in a fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulier, Jean-michel; Maublanc, Julie; Lamballais, Florence; Bargel, Sophie; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2012-05-10

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogen, active at very low dosage and its determination in body fluids in a forensic context may present some difficulties, even more so in hair. A dedicated liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) assay in hair was used to document the case of a 24-year-old man found dead after a party. Briefly, after a decontamination step, a 50mg sample of the victim's pubic hair was cut into small pieces (LSD. A LSD concentration of 0.66pg/mg of pubic hair was observed. However, this result remains difficult to interpret owing to the concomitant LSD presence in the victim's post mortem blood and urine, the lack of previously reported LSD concentrations in hair, and the absence of data about LSD incorporation and stability in pubic hair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [New discoveries in forensic medicine. Hair analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaempe, B

    1999-03-29

    A review of forensic chemical drug testing in hair is given. Applications for analysis of hair are described. The special problems linked to the determination of drugs in hair such as contamination, differences in sex and ethnic groups and cosmetic pretreatment of the hair are outlined. It is concluded that greater knowledge of hair analysis is needed before the results can be used for toxicological evaluation at the same level as blood. On the other hand, a chemical hair analysis might expose a (mis)use of drugs and follow it step by step up to half a year back in time. In this way, it may supplement a systematic toxicological analysis (STA) for 'a general unknown' for use by police and forensic pathologists.

  20. Hormonal therapy in female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Brough

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss in women and one of the most common problems seen by dermatologists. This hair loss is a nonscarring alopecia in which loss occurs on the vertex scalp, generally sparing the frontal hairline. Hair loss can have significant psychosocial effects on patients, and treatment can be long and difficult. The influence of hormones on the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss is not entirely known. The purpose of this paper is to review physiology and potential hormonal mechanisms for the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss. We also discuss the current hormonal and hormone-modifying therapies that are available to providers as they partner with patients to treat this frustrating issue.

  1. Fat versus Thin Threading Approach on GPUs: Application to Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Klingbeil, Guido; Erban, Radek; Giles, Mike; Maini, Philip K.

    2012-01-01

    We explore two different threading approaches on a graphics processing unit (GPU) exploiting two different characteristics of the current GPU architecture. The fat thread approach tries to minimize data access time by relying on shared memory and registers potentially sacrificing parallelism. The thin thread approach maximizes parallelism and tries to hide access latencies. We apply these two approaches to the parallel stochastic simulation of chemical reaction systems using the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) by Gillespie [14]. In these cases, the proposed thin thread approach shows comparable performance while eliminating the limitation of the reaction system's size. © 2006 IEEE.

  2. Do dual-thread orthodontic mini-implants improve bone/tissue mechanical retention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang-Sung; Chang, Yau-Zen; Yu, Jian-Hong; Lin, Chun-Li

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to understand whether the pitch relationship between micro and macro thread designs with a parametrical relationship in a dual-thread mini-implant can improve primary stability. Three types of mini-implants consisting of single-thread (ST) (0.75 mm pitch in whole length), dual-thread A (DTA) with double-start 0.375 mm pitch, and dual-thread B (DTB) with single-start 0.2 mm pitch in upper 2-mm micro thread region for performing insertion and pull-out testing. Histomorphometric analysis was performed in these specimens in evaluating peri-implant bone defects using a non-contact vision measuring system. The maximum inserted torque (Tmax) in type DTA was found to be the smallest significantly, but corresponding values found no significant difference between ST and DTB. The largest pull-out strength (Fmax) in the DTA mini-implant was found significantly greater than that for the ST mini-implant regardless of implant insertion orientation. Mini-implant engaged the cortical bone well as observed in ST and DTA types. Dual-thread mini-implant with correct micro thread pitch (parametrical relationship with macro thread pitch) in the cortical bone region can improve primary stability and enhanced mechanical retention.

  3. Fat versus Thin Threading Approach on GPUs: Application to Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Klingbeil, Guido

    2012-02-01

    We explore two different threading approaches on a graphics processing unit (GPU) exploiting two different characteristics of the current GPU architecture. The fat thread approach tries to minimize data access time by relying on shared memory and registers potentially sacrificing parallelism. The thin thread approach maximizes parallelism and tries to hide access latencies. We apply these two approaches to the parallel stochastic simulation of chemical reaction systems using the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) by Gillespie [14]. In these cases, the proposed thin thread approach shows comparable performance while eliminating the limitation of the reaction system\\'s size. © 2006 IEEE.

  4. Loosening and damage mechanism of thread-joined structures in nuclear power equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hui

    1999-01-01

    The author proposes a loosening mechanism of thread-joined structures under vibrate environments in the nuclear power equipment and structures, which is on the base of the macro and imperceptible-mechanics analysis. It has answered the problems on the seizing, the adhesive wearing, the generation of cracks, the thread-tooth fracture. So it has a conclusion that the loosening of thread-joined structures is essential trend, in other words, the locking property of thread-pair is failure under vibrate environments

  5. Loose anagen hair syndrome with diffuse woolly hair phenotype: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshdeep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Loose anagen hair syndrome (LAHS is an underestimated cause of noncicatricial alopecia among children, manifesting as thin, sparse or fine hair. We report a case of LAHS clinically presenting as diffuse woolly hair, an association rarely described in the literature. In addition, we review the clinical as well as genetic link between these two enigmatic hair disorders and hypothesize that both may be associated in a yet unknown manner.

  6. Expression and localization of VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during induced hair growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-Jie; Jing, Jing; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zheng, Min

    2018-06-16

    Recently, VEGFR-2 has been detected not only in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells but also in some non-vascular endothelial cells, particularly human hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. In addition, VEGFR-2 has been confirmed to play direct roles in hair follicle keratinocyte regulation beyond simply angiogenesis. To elucidate whether VEGFR-2 activation plays a role in hair follicle cycling regulation, immunofluorescence of VEGFR-2 expression was performed during hair cycling of the dorsum of the mouse induced by hair plucking. We observed that staining for VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during anagen II and IV was much stronger than during anagen VI, catagen and telogen. During anagen II, intense staining for VEGFR-2 was observed on the keratinocyte strands of the hair follicle. Subsequently, we detected intense staining for VEGFR-2 in the ORS, IRS and hair bulb during anagen IV. Moderate staining for VEGFR-2 was detected in the ORS and hair bulb, but staining was most intense in IRS during anagen VI. During catagen, staining for VEGFR-2 in the IRS remained intense, while staining in the ORS and hair bulb was significantly weakened and was negative in the dermal papilla. During telogen, we detected VEGFR-2 in germ cells, cap, and club hair adjoining the epidermis. In conclusion, VEGFR-2 was expressed on the hair follicles of the dorsum of the mouse and varied in expression on the mouse hair follicles during hair cycling, suggesting that VEGFR-2 may exert roles in hair cycle regulation in hair follicles on the dorsum of mice.

  7. [When hair starts to fall out].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzi, Caroline; Quenan, Sandrine

    2018-03-28

    Hair loss causes physical and psychological distress and represents a common motive of consultation both in general practice and dermatology. Causes of hair loss are highly diverse and can lead to a challenging diagnosis, which can delay its management. Knowledge of the main causes and their different mechanisms are thus necessary in order to optimize both the diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main causes of hair loss in order to improve its diagnosis and management.

  8. A curious case of the necklace hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Samipa Samir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monilethrix is a rare autosomal dominant inheritable hair shaft defect with variable penetrance. The diagnosis is confirmed by the characteristic beaded appearance of the hair under light microscopy which occurs due to defective keratinization. We hereby describe a case of monilethrix syndrome with keratotic follicular papules, moniliform hair, and koilonychias in an 8-year-old Indian female child. A rare association of trichorrhexis nodosa was also noted in our case.

  9. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  10. Hair Loss: Common Causes and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T Grant; Slomiany, W Paul; Allison, Robert

    2017-09-15

    Hair loss is often distressing and can have a significant effect on the patient's quality of life. Patients may present to their family physician first with diffuse or patchy hair loss. Scarring alopecia is best evaluated by a dermatologist. Nonscarring alopecias can be readily diagnosed and treated in the family physician's office. Androgenetic alopecia can be diagnosed clinically and treated with minoxidil. Alopecia areata is diagnosed by typical patches of hair loss and is self-limited. Tinea capitis causes patches of alopecia that may be erythematous and scaly and must be treated systemically. Telogen effluvium is a nonscarring, noninflammatory alopecia of relatively sudden onset caused by physiologic or emotional stress. Once the precipitating cause is removed, the hair typically will regrow. Trichotillomania is an impulse-control disorder; treatment is aimed at controlling the underlying psychiatric condition. Trichorrhexis nodosa occurs when hairs break secondary to trauma and is often a result of hair styling or overuse of hair products. Anagen effluvium is the abnormal diffuse loss of hair during the growth phase caused by an event that impairs the mitotic activity of the hair follicle, most commonly chemotherapy. Physician support is especially important for patients in this situation.

  11. Improved biolistic transfection of hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhao

    Full Text Available Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca(2+-ATPase isoform 2 to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells.

  12. Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wołowiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Topical Valproate Solution for Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kakunje

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Valproate is used regularly in the treatment of various seizure disorders, bipolar disorder, migraine prophylaxis and off label in many other conditions. Alopecia or hair loss is cosmetic side effect of oral valproate administration. Hair loss with valproate is diffused, non-scarring and dose related. A large number of drugs may interfere with the hair cycle and produce hair loss. We have only a few drugs like Minoxidil, Finasteride used for hair regeneration and both have its own side effects and limitations. In contrast to oral ingestions of valproate causing hair loss, early experiments with topical Valproic acid cream showed hair regeneration. Valproic acid cream is currently unavailable in the market, alternatively, we do have valproate and divalproex solutions available in various strengths which have a potential to be used topically for hair regeneration. The side effects and cost of topical valproate solution could be much less than the available options in the market. Valproate solution topically has the potential to be used for hair growth.

  14. Functional anatomy of the hair follicle: The Secondary Hair Germ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleyev, Andrey A

    2018-07-01

    The secondary hair germ (SHG)-a transitory structure in the lower portion of the mouse telogen hair follicle (HF)-is directly involved in anagen induction and eventual HF regrowth. Some crucial aspects of SHG functioning and ontogenetic relations with other HF parts, however, remain undefined. According to recent evidence (in contrast to previous bulge-centric views), the SHG is the primary target of anagen-inducing signalling and a source of both the outer root sheath (ORS) and ascending HF layers during the initial (morphogenetic) anagen subphase. The SHG is comprised of two functionally distinct cell populations. Its lower portion (originating from lower HF cells that survived catagen) forms all ascending HF layers, while the upper SHG (formed by bulge-derived cells) builds up the ORS. The predetermination of SHG cells to a specific morphogenetic fate contradicts their attribution to the "stem cell" category and supports SHG designation as a "germinative" or a "founder" cell population. The mechanisms of this predetermination driving transition of the SHG from "refractory" to the "competent" state during the telogen remain unknown. Functionally, the SHG serves as a barrier, protecting the quiescent bulge stem cell niche from the extensive follicular papilla/SHG signalling milieu. The formation of the SHG is a prerequisite for efficient "precommitment" of these cells and provides for easier sensing and a faster response to anagen-inducing signals. In general, the formation of the SHG is an evolutionary adaptation, which allowed the ancestors of modern Muridae to acquire a specific, highly synchronized pattern of hair cycling. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. "Castor Oil" - The Culprit of Acute Hair Felting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduri, V Ramya; Vedachalam, Ahalya; Kiruthika, S

    2017-01-01

    Acute hair felting is a rare disorder of scalp hair. In this condition, the hair becomes twisted, entangled as a hard stony mass resembling a bird's nest. Sudden hair matting has been reported earlier in the literature after vigorous use of chemical and herbal shampoos. Plica polonica is a patchy area of hair matting occurring in due course of time in neglected hair or underlying psychiatric illness. This case is interesting as the whole scalp hair matted immediately after using coconut oil and castor oil following washing. Growing long hair and taking oil bath are cultural and religious customs in South India. The high viscosity of castor oil and long hair had contributed to sudden felting of hair. This disorder of hair is irreversible and the hair should be cut off. Acute nature of this disorder will result in a serious psychological impact on the patient and the family.

  17. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  18. Hair curvature: a natural dialectic and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissimov, Joseph N; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran

    2014-08-01

    Although hair forms (straight, curly, wavy, etc.) are present in apparently infinite variations, each fibre can be reduced to a finite sequence of tandem segments of just three types: straight, bent/curly, or twisted. Hair forms can thus be regarded as resulting from genetic pathways that induce, reverse or modulate these basic curvature modes. However, physical interconversions between twists and curls demonstrate that strict one-to-one correspondences between them and their genetic causes do not exist. Current hair-curvature theories do not distinguish between bending and twisting mechanisms. We here introduce a multiple papillary centres (MPC) model which is particularly suitable to explain twisting. The model combines previously known features of hair cross-sectional morphology with partially/completely separated dermal papillae within single follicles, and requires such papillae to induce differential growth rates of hair cortical material in their immediate neighbourhoods. The MPC model can further help to explain other, poorly understood, aspects of hair growth and morphology. Separate bending and twisting mechanisms would be preferentially affected at the major or minor ellipsoidal sides of fibres, respectively, and together they exhaust the possibilities for influencing hair-form phenotypes. As such they suggest dialectic for hair-curvature development. We define a natural-dialectic (ND) which could take advantage of speculative aspects of dialectic, but would verify its input data and results by experimental methods. We use this as a top-down approach to first define routes by which hair bending or twisting may be brought about and then review evidence in support of such routes. In particular we consider the wingless (Wnt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as paradigm pathways for molecular hair bending and twisting mechanisms, respectively. In addition to the Wnt canonical pathway, the Wnt/Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways

  19. Hair: what is new in diagnosis and management? Female pattern hair loss update: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanaskova Mesinkovska, Natasha; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women. FPHL is characterized histologically with increased numbers of miniaturized, velluslike hair follicles. The goal of treatment of FPHL is to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate hair regrowth. The treatments for FPHL can be divided into androgen-dependent and androgen-independent. There is an important adjuvant role for nutritional supplements, light therapy, and hair transplants. All treatments work best when initiated early. Combinations of treatments tend to be more efficacious. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hair Shaft Abnormality in Children: a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rahmatpour Rokni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hair is an ectodermal structure, and its formation is regulated by master genes important in embryology. Hair shaft consists of three major regions: the medulla, cortex and cuticle. Hair shaft abnormality will divide structural hair abnormalities into two broad categories - those associated with increased hair fragility and those not associated with increased hair fragility. We conducted a review study to assess hair shaft abnormality in children. Materials and Methods We conducted a review of all papers published on hair shaft abnormalities. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar on papers publish from 1990 to 2016. The search terms were: hair shaft abnormality, Hair loss, Hair fragility. All abstracts and full text English-language articles were studied. Results While common developmental and structural features are shared in hair follicles and hair shafts. Anomalies of the hair shaft are separated into those with and those without increased hair fragility. Conclusion Although hair has no vital function, it may serve as an indicator for human health. Clinical and morphological hair abnormalities can be clues to specific complex disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities can be inherited or acquired, can reflect a local problem or a systemic disease.

  1. Artificial muscles from fishing line and sewing thread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Carter S; Lima, Márcio D; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Foroughi, Javad; Madden, John D W; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Fang, Shaoli; Jung de Andrade, Mônica; Göktepe, Fatma; Göktepe, Özer; Mirvakili, Seyed M; Naficy, Sina; Lepró, Xavier; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Kim, Seon Jeong; Xu, Xiuru; Swedlove, Benjamin J; Wallace, Gordon G; Baughman, Ray H

    2014-02-21

    The high cost of powerful, large-stroke, high-stress artificial muscles has combined with performance limitations such as low cycle life, hysteresis, and low efficiency to restrict applications. We demonstrated that inexpensive high-strength polymer fibers used for fishing line and sewing thread can be easily transformed by twist insertion to provide fast, scalable, nonhysteretic, long-life tensile and torsional muscles. Extreme twisting produces coiled muscles that can contract by 49%, lift loads over 100 times heavier than can human muscle of the same length and weight, and generate 5.3 kilowatts of mechanical work per kilogram of muscle weight, similar to that produced by a jet engine. Woven textiles that change porosity in response to temperature and actuating window shutters that could help conserve energy were also demonstrated. Large-stroke tensile actuation was theoretically and experimentally shown to result from torsional actuation.

  2. Surface Analysis of the Laser Cleaned Metal Threads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhan, M.; Hartog, F.; McPhail, D.

    The laser cleaning of the tarnished silver threads was carried out using Nd:YAG laser radiation at IR (1064 nm) and visible wavelengths (532 nm). The preliminary tests were made on the piece of silk with the silver embroidery with the clean and tarnished areas. FIBS and SIMS analysis were used for analysing the condition of the surface before and after laser irradiation. It was found that irradiation below 0.4 J/cm-2 and higher than 1.0 J/cm-2 fluences aggravates the process of tarnishing and leads to the yellowing effect. The results of preliminary tests were used for finding the optimum cleaning regime for the laser cleaning of the real museum artefact: "Women Riding Jacket" dated to the beginning of 18th century.

  3. LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation. [Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, A. J. (Principal Investigator); Brucks, J. T.; Butler, J. A.; Faller, K. H.; Holley, H. J.; Leming, T. D.; Savastano, K. J.; Vanselous, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The relationship between the distribution of menhaden and selected oceanographic parameters (water color, turbidity, and possibly chlorophyll concentrations) was established. Similar relationships for thread herring were not established nor were relationships relating to the abundance of either species. Use of aircraft and LANDSAT remote sensing instruments to measure or infer a set of basic oceanographic parameters was evaluated. Parameters which could be accurately inferred included surface water temperature, salinity, and color. Water turbidity (Secchi disk) was evaluated as marginally inferrable from the LANDSAT MSS data and chlorophyll-a concentrations as less than marginal. These evaluations considered the parameters only as experienced in the two test areas using available sensors and statistical techniques.

  4. The Pleating of History: Weaving the Threads of Nationhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ball

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As any etymologist knows, the word ‘text’ is derived from the past participle of the Latin verb texere, to weave. Text is therefore something that is ‘woven’. It’s a persuasive metaphor, to imagine writing in terms of the warp and weft of ideas and words, of narrative threads woven together to become a piece of fabric. The idea of history as fabric brings together a whole different set of tropes, not just of weaving, but of the very materiality of fabric. Does the fabric have a nap, or a pattern? Is it cut with the grain, or on the bias? What of its folds, its seams? All these qualities of fabric have application in the interpretation of history, and some of these images are already familiar in historical discourse.

  5. SURGICAL RECTIFICATION OF THREAD-ASSOCIATED GLOSSOPTOSIS IN PEAFOWLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Athar, A. Shakoor, G. Muhammad, M.N. Asi, and M. Saqib

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated and/or caged peafowls (Pavo cristatus and other fancy birds suffer from a variety of disease conditions due to unnatural habitat and suboptimal managemental practices. The present article scribes glossoptosis (downward displacement of tongue in four juvenile peafowls caused by kite-flying read wrapped around the base of tongue and terminating somewhere in the lower gastrointestinal tract. The condition was characterized by difficulty in swallowing, chronic inappetance, gasping and a fading body condition. Severing of the proximal part of thread through crop and then unwinding it from the base .the tongue affected an instant relief. As far as could be ascertained, the condition under reference has not been reported heretofore in birds especially in peafowls.

  6. Hair bleaching and skin burning

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  7. Study of a Fine Grained Threaded Framework Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C D

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, HEP experiments exploit the multiple cores in a CPU by having each core process one event. However, future PC designs are expected to use CPUs which double the number of processing cores at the same rate as the cost of memory falls by a factor of two. This effectively means the amount of memory per processing core will remain constant. This is a major challenge for LHC processing frameworks since the LHC is expected to deliver more complex events (e.g. greater pileup events) in the coming years while the LHC experiment's frameworks are already memory constrained. Therefore in the not so distant future we may need to be able to efficiently use multiple cores to process one event. In this presentation we will discuss a design for an HEP processing framework which can allow very fine grained parallelization within one event as well as supporting processing multiple events simultaneously while minimizing the memory footprint of the job. The design is built around the libdispatch framework created by Apple Inc. (a port for Linux is available) whose central concept is the use of task queues. This design also accommodates the reality that not all code will be thread safe and therefore allows one to easily mark modules or sub parts of modules as being thread unsafe. In addition, the design efficiently handles the requirement that events in one run must all be processed before starting to process events from a different run. After explaining the design we will provide measurements from simulating different processing scenarios where the processing times used for the simulation are drawn from processing times measured from actual CMS event processing.

  8. Study of a Fine Grained Threaded Framework Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Traditionally, HEP experiments exploit the multiple cores in a CPU by having each core process one event. However, future PC designs are expected to use CPUs which double the number of processing cores at the same rate as the cost of memory falls by a factor of two. This effectively means the amount of memory per processing core will remain constant. This is a major challenge for LHC processing frameworks since the LHC is expected to deliver more complex events (e.g. greater pileup events) in the coming years while the LHC experiment's frameworks are already memory constrained. Therefore in the not so distant future we may need to be able to efficiently use multiple cores to process one event. In this presentation we will discuss a design for an HEP processing framework which can allow very fine grained parallelization within one event as well as supporting processing multiple events simultaneously while minimizing the memory footprint of the job. The design is built around the libdispatch framework created by Apple Inc. (a port for Linux is available) whose central concept is the use of task queues. This design also accommodates the reality that not all code will be thread safe and therefore allows one to easily mark modules or sub parts of modules as being thread unsafe. In addition, the design efficiently handles the requirement that events in one run must all be processed before starting to process events from a different run. After explaining the design we will provide measurements from simulating different processing scenarios where the processing times used for the simulation are drawn from processing times measured from actual CMS event processing.

  9. The Research of Screw Thread Parameter Measurement Based on Position Sensitive Detector and Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Q B; Ding, Z L; Chen, J C; Ai, L L; Yuan, F

    2006-01-01

    A technique and system of measuring screw thread parameter based on the theory of laser measurement is presented in this paper, which can be carried out the automated measurement of screw thread parameter. An inspection instrument was designed and produced, which included exterior imaging system of optical path, transverse displacement measurement system, axial displacement measurement system, and a module to deal with, control and assess the data in the upper system. The inspection and estimate of the screw thread contour curve were completed by using position sensitive device (PSD) as photoelectric detector to measure the coordinate data of the screw thread contour curve in the transverse section, and using precise raster to measure the axial displacement of the precision worktable under the screw thread test criterion., computer can gives a measured result according to coordinate data of the screw thread obtained by PSD. The relation between measured spot and image is established, and optimum design of the system organization are introduced, including the image length of receiving lens focal length optical system and the choice of PSD , and some main factor affected measuring precision are analyzed. The experimental results show that the measurement uncertainty of screw thread minor diameter can reach 0. 5μm, which can meet most requests for the measurement of screw thread parameter

  10. Permission-based separation logic for multi-threaded Java programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amighi, A.; Haack, Christian; Huisman, Marieke; Hurlin, C.

    This paper presents a program logic for reasoning about multithreaded Java-like programs with concurrency primitives such as dynamic thread creation, thread joining and reentrant object monitors. The logic is based on concurrent separation logic. It is the first detailed adaptation of concurrent

  11. During Threaded Discussions Are Non-Native English Speakers Always at a Disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer Willner, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    When participating in threaded discussions, under what conditions might non¬native speakers of English (NNSE) be at a comparative disadvantage to their classmates who are native speakers of English (NSE)? This study compares the threaded discussion perspectives of closely-matched NNSE and NSE adult students having different levels of threaded…

  12. Use of Nitrocarburizing for Strengthening Threaded Joints of Drill Pipes from Medium-Carbon Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priymak, E. Yu.; Stepanchukova, A. V.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Tereshchenko, N. A.

    2015-05-01

    Nitrocarburizing is tested at the Drill Equipment Plant for reinforcing threaded joints of drill pipes for units with retrievable core receiver (RCR). The effect of the nitrocarburizing on the mechanical properties of steels of different alloying systems is considered. Steels for the production of threaded joints of drill pipes are recommended.

  13. Changing trends in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia is an important and common cause for baldness. Despite recent advances, the drug therapy of this condition remains unsatisfactory. Surgical hair restoration is the only permanent method of treating this condition. Introduction of recent techniques such as follicular unit transplantation have improved the cosmetic results and patient satisfaction. This article discusses the latest trends in hair restoration surgery.

  14. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  15. Fractal analysis of polar bear hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qing-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus are of superior properties such as the excellent thermal protection. Why do polar bears can resist such cold environment? The paper concludes that its fractal porosity plays an important role, and its fractal dimensions are very close to the golden mean, 1.618, revealing the possible optimal structure of polar bear hair.

  16. Sorption of radiocalcium on human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovic, M.; Pilecka, N.

    1987-01-01

    The sorption of 45 Ca on hair from a 45 CaCl 2 solution (2.5x10 -3 mol l -1 ) was studied. The calcium amounts sorbed in 1 min to 5 h range between 0.8 and 7.2% with respect to the originally present calcium in hair. (author) 3 refs

  17. Live cell imaging of Arabidopsis root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Root hairs are tubular extensions from the root surface that expand by tip growth. This highly focused type of cell expansion, combined with position of root hairs on the surface of the root, makes them ideal cells for microscopic observation. This chapter describes the method that is routinely used

  18. Biophysics of Hair Cell Sensory Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, Hendrikus; Horst, Johannes; van Dijk, Pim; van Netten, Sietse

    1993-01-01

    The last decade revealed to auditory researchers that hair cells can not only detect and process mechanical energy, but are also able to produce it. Thanks to the active hair cell, ears can produce otoacoustic emissions. This book gives the newest insights into the biophysics and physiology of

  19. Hair Loss Following The Topiramate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ghafoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Genetics, hormone profiles and other physiologic factors can cause hair loss. Medication induced hair loss is an occasional side effect of many psychopharmaceuticals. It can reduce medication compliance if not discovered and treated. We present a 18 year old female with migraine headache who developed hair loss after 3 months of receiving topiramate treatment. CASE REPORT: 18 year old female had been suffering from headache visited in psychiatric clinic. She agreed to a treatment with topiramate (50mg per day for Migraine headache. 3 months later, the patient complained of significant hair loss. Topiramate tapered to 25 mg/day and stopped. Hair loss stopped after topiramate withdrawal. Two weeks after reintroduction of topiramate, hair loss developed again. The medication was stopped and hair loss stopped again. CONCLUSION: Topiramate can cause hair loss. Although the condition is not life-threatening, a decrease in medication compliance can cause recurrence of the underlying disease. It is necessary to ask the patient at visits about it.

  20. Servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinella, John E.; Davis, Kristan D.; Musselman, Roy G.; Satterfield, David L.

    2015-12-29

    Methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer comprising a plurality of processor threads. Embodiments include an interrupt controller indicating in a plurality of local interrupt status locations that a globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include a thread determining that a local interrupt status location corresponding to the thread indicates that the globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include the thread processing one or more entries in a global interrupt status bit queue based on whether global interrupt status bits associated with the globally broadcast interrupt signal are locked. Each entry in the global interrupt status bit queue corresponds to a queued global interrupt.

  1. Performance improvement of developed program by using multi-thread technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surasak Jabal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presented how to use a multi-thread programming technique to improve the performance of a program written by Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF. The Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI software, named GAME24, was selected to use as a case study. This study composed of two main parts. The first part was about design and modification of the program structure upon the Object Oriented Programing (OOP approach. The second part was about coding the program using the multi-thread technique which the number of threads were based on the calculated Catalan number. The result showed that the multi-thread programming technique increased the performance of the program 44%-88% compared to the single-thread technique. In addition, it has been found that the number of cores in the CPU also increase the performance of multithreaded program proportionally.

  2. Hair as an alternative matrix in bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joana; Faria, Juliana; Carvalho, Félix; Pedro, Madalena; Queirós, Odília; Moreira, Roxana; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Alternative matrices are steadily gaining recognition as biological samples for toxicological analyses. Hair presents many advantages over traditional matrices, such as urine and blood, since it provides retrospective information regarding drug exposure, can distinguish between chronic and acute or recent drug use by segmental analysis, is easy to obtain, and has considerable stability for long periods of time. For this reason, it has been employed in a wide variety of contexts, namely to evaluate workplace drug exposure, drug-facilitated sexual assault, pre-natal drug exposure, anti-doping control, pharmacological monitoring and alcohol abuse. In this article, issues concerning hair structure, collection, storage and analysis are reviewed. The mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair are briefly discussed. Analytical techniques for simultaneous drug quantification in hair are addressed. Finally, representative examples of drug quantification using hair are summarized, emphasizing its potentialities and limitations as an alternative biological matrix for toxicological analyses.

  3. Self-cleaning threaded rod spinneret for high-efficiency needleless electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gaofeng; Jiang, Jiaxin; Wang, Xiang; Li, Wenwang; Zhong, Weizheng; Guo, Shumin

    2018-07-01

    High-efficiency production of nanofibers is the key to the application of electrospinning technology. This work focuses on multi-jet electrospinning, in which a threaded rod electrode is utilized as the needless spinneret to achieve high-efficiency production of nanofibers. A slipper block, which fits into and moves through the threaded rod, is designed to transfer polymer solution evenly to the surface of the rod spinneret. The relative motion between the slipper block and the threaded rod electrode promotes the instable fluctuation of the solution surface, thus the rotation of threaded rod electrode decreases the critical voltage for the initial multi-jet ejection and the diameter of nanofibers. The residual solution on the surface of threaded rod is cleaned up by the moving slipper block, showing a great self-cleaning ability, which ensures the stable multi-jet ejection and increases the productivity of nanofibers. Each thread of the threaded rod electrode serves as an independent spinneret, which enhances the electric field strength and constrains the position of the Taylor cone, resulting in high productivity of uniform nanofibers. The diameter of nanofibers decreases with the increase of threaded rod rotation speed, and the productivity increases with the solution flow rate. The rotation of electrode provides an excess force for the ejection of charged jets, which also contributes to the high-efficiency production of nanofibers. The maximum productivity of nanofibers from the threaded rod spinneret is 5-6 g/h, about 250-300 times as high as that from the single-needle spinneret. The self-cleaning threaded rod spinneret is an effective way to realize continuous multi-jet electrospinning, which promotes industrial applications of uniform nanofibrous membrane.

  4. Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene......-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative...... hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus...

  5. The Effects of using VoiceThread on Students’ Listening Comprehension and Attitudes Toward using VoiceThread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oraib Mango

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the effects of the use of VoiceThread (VT on the listening comprehension and attitudes of college students of Arabic as a foreign language. Thirty-five students in two 10-week classes of beginning Arabic participated in this study. The instruction in both classes was the same except that, for one group, the instruction was supplemented by the use of VT to enhance listening and speaking skills during the 10 weeks. Upon completion of the class, students using VT showed superior listening skills. Moreover, an Attitude and Engagement survey showed that the students enjoyed using VT and viewed it as a valuable tool that enhanced their language learning.

  6. What is the use of elephant hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own.

  7. ADVANCED SCHEDULER FOR COOPERATIVE EXECUTION OF THREADS ON MULTI-CORE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Karasik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three architectures of the cooperative thread scheduler in a multithreaded application that is executed on a multi-core system are considered. Architecture A0 is based on the synchronization and scheduling facilities, which are provided by the operating system. Architecture A1 introduces a new synchronization primitive and a single queue of the blocked threads in the scheduler, which reduces the interaction activity between the threads and operating system, and significantly speed up the processes of blocking and unblocking the threads. Architecture A2 replaces the single queue of blocked threads with dedicated queues, one for each of the synchronizing primitives, extends the number of internal states of the primitive, reduces the inter- dependence of the scheduling threads, and further significantly speeds up the processes of blocking and unblocking the threads. All scheduler architectures are implemented on Windows operating systems and based on the User Mode Scheduling. Important experimental results are obtained for multithreaded applications that implement two blocked parallel algorithms of solving the linear algebraic equation systems by the Gaussian elimination. The algorithms differ in the way of the data distribution among threads and by the thread synchronization models. The number of threads varied from 32 to 7936. Architecture A1 shows the acceleration of up to 8.65% and the architecture A2 shows the acceleration of up to 11.98% compared to A0 architecture for the blocked parallel algorithms computing the triangular form and performing the back substitution. On the back substitution stage of the algorithms, architecture A1 gives the acceleration of up to 125%, and architecture A2 gives the acceleration of up to 413% compared to architecture A0. The experiments clearly show that the proposed architectures, A1 and A2 outperform A0 depending on the number of thread blocking and unblocking operations, which happen during the execution of

  8. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  9. Hair cycle in dogs with different hair types in a tropical region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarato, Evandro S; Conceição, Lissandro Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Hair cycle activity has been extensively studied in humans, sheep and laboratory animals, but there is a lack of information in dogs. Besides varying according to species, breed, sex and general health, hair growth is mainly affected by climatic variations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the follicle activity in three breeds of dogs with different hair types, in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais (latitude 20 degrees 45'S), Brazil. Twenty-one male dogs of boxer, labrador and schnauzer breeds were trichographically analysed monthly over 12 consecutive months. Hair percentage of telogen and anagen hairs at the different stages of the hair cycle in boxers and labradors was not significantly different, but both differed from the schnauzers. A significant correlation between hair follicle cycle and environmental temperature and photoperiod was noted in the boxers and labradors. In these breeds, a larger number of telogen hairs were observed during the hottest months of the year, and an increase in anagen hairs during the coldest months. The mean percentage of telogen hairs was 93, 90 and 55.3% for boxer, labrador and schnauzer, respectively.

  10. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Zebrafish hair cell mechanics and physiology through the lens of noise-induced hair cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Allison B.; Xu, Jie; Uribe, Phillip M.

    2018-05-01

    Hair cells are exquisitely sensitive to auditory stimuli, but also to damage from a variety of sources including noise trauma and ototoxic drugs. Mammals cannot regenerate cochlear hair cells, while non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit robust regenerative capacity. Our research group uses the lateral line system of larval zebrafish to explore the mechanisms underlying hair cell damage, identify protective therapies, and determine molecular drivers of innate regeneration. The lateral line system contains externally located sensory organs called neuromasts, each composed of ˜8-20 hair cells. Lateral line hair cells are homologous to vertebrate inner ear hair cells and share similar susceptibility to ototoxic damage. In the last decade, the lateral line has emerged as a powerful model system for understanding hair cell death mechanisms and for identifying novel protective compounds. Here we demonstrate that the lateral line is a tractable model for noise-induced hair cell death. We have developed a novel noise damage system capable of inducing over 50% loss of lateral line hair cells, with hair cell death occurring in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell death is greatest 72 hours post-exposure. However, early signs of hair cell damage, including changes in membrane integrity and reduced mechanotransduction, are apparent within hours of noise exposure. These features, early signs of damage followed by delayed hair cell death, are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting that noise acts similarly on zebrafish and mammalian hair cells. In our future work we will use our new model system to investigate noise damage events in real time, and to develop protective therapies for future translational research.

  12. An overview of unwanted female hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, U

    2011-12-01

    Unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important but often overlooked issue, with over 40% of women experiencing some degree of UFH. In the female population a wide spectrum of unwanted hair concerns is represented - from biologically normal but undesirable to excessive unwanted hair with an underlying pathology. While women may seek to manage unwanted hair across their bodies, UFH is a particular concern, due to its negative impact on perceived femininity. There may not always be a direct correlation between degree of severity diagnosed objectively by the physician and level of concern and impact upon the patient. This review discusses the spectrum of facial hair experience and outlines the clinical approach to unwanted hair management including UFH. It highlights the importance of a treatment regimen which should respond to the causation factors and needs of the individual. This will lead to a holistic treatment approach including evaluation of the implementation of emotional coping strategies and on-going support, lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions (to address underlying pathologies) and the use of cosmetic hair removal methods as either a stand-alone or adjunct treatment as appropriate to the individual. © 2011 The Author. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Classifications of patterned hair loss: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles.

  15. Evaluating the use of laser radiation in cleaning of copper embroidery threads on archaeological Egyptian textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Kareem, Omar; Harith, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cleaning of copper embroidery threads on archaeological textiles is still a complicated conservation process, as most textile conservators believe that the advantages of using traditional cleaning techniques are less than their disadvantages. In this study, the uses of laser cleaning method and two modified recipes of wet cleaning methods were evaluated for cleaning of the corroded archaeological Egyptian copper embroidery threads on an archaeological Egyptian textile fabric. Some corroded copper thread samples were cleaned using modified recipes of wet cleaning method; other corroded copper thread samples were cleaned with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation of wavelength 532 nm. All tested metal thread samples before and after cleaning were investigated using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis unit. Also the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was used for the elemental analysis of laser-cleaned samples to follow up the laser cleaning procedure. The results show that laser cleaning is the most effective method among all tested methods in the cleaning of corroded copper threads. It can be used safely in removing the corrosion products without any damage to both metal strips and fibrous core. The tested laser cleaning technique has solved the problems caused by other traditional cleaning techniques that are commonly used in the cleaning of metal threads on museum textiles

  16. Evaluating the use of laser radiation in cleaning of copper embroidery threads on archaeological Egyptian textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Kareem, Omar [Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, El-Gamaa Street, El-Giza (Egypt)], E-mail: Omaa67@yahoo.com; Harith, M.A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University (Egypt)], E-mail: mharithm@niles.edu.eg

    2008-07-15

    Cleaning of copper embroidery threads on archaeological textiles is still a complicated conservation process, as most textile conservators believe that the advantages of using traditional cleaning techniques are less than their disadvantages. In this study, the uses of laser cleaning method and two modified recipes of wet cleaning methods were evaluated for cleaning of the corroded archaeological Egyptian copper embroidery threads on an archaeological Egyptian textile fabric. Some corroded copper thread samples were cleaned using modified recipes of wet cleaning method; other corroded copper thread samples were cleaned with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation of wavelength 532 nm. All tested metal thread samples before and after cleaning were investigated using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis unit. Also the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was used for the elemental analysis of laser-cleaned samples to follow up the laser cleaning procedure. The results show that laser cleaning is the most effective method among all tested methods in the cleaning of corroded copper threads. It can be used safely in removing the corrosion products without any damage to both metal strips and fibrous core. The tested laser cleaning technique has solved the problems caused by other traditional cleaning techniques that are commonly used in the cleaning of metal threads on museum textiles.

  17. Evaluating the use of laser radiation in cleaning of copper embroidery threads on archaeological Egyptian textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, Omar; Harith, M. A.

    2008-07-01

    Cleaning of copper embroidery threads on archaeological textiles is still a complicated conservation process, as most textile conservators believe that the advantages of using traditional cleaning techniques are less than their disadvantages. In this study, the uses of laser cleaning method and two modified recipes of wet cleaning methods were evaluated for cleaning of the corroded archaeological Egyptian copper embroidery threads on an archaeological Egyptian textile fabric. Some corroded copper thread samples were cleaned using modified recipes of wet cleaning method; other corroded copper thread samples were cleaned with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation of wavelength 532 nm. All tested metal thread samples before and after cleaning were investigated using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis unit. Also the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was used for the elemental analysis of laser-cleaned samples to follow up the laser cleaning procedure. The results show that laser cleaning is the most effective method among all tested methods in the cleaning of corroded copper threads. It can be used safely in removing the corrosion products without any damage to both metal strips and fibrous core. The tested laser cleaning technique has solved the problems caused by other traditional cleaning techniques that are commonly used in the cleaning of metal threads on museum textiles.

  18. Review of Bolt Preload and Torque for Assembling Threaded Fasteners in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong-Sung; Lee, Jae-Gon; Kang, Yong-Chul; Shin, Ki-Jong

    2007-01-01

    There are numerous threaded fasteners such as bolts, studs, nuts, cap screws and anchor bolts used in nuclear power plants(NPPs). The major applications of threaded fasteners are reactor coolant pressure boundary components, their internals and supports. With the increase of commercial operation period of NPPs, the incidents caused by degradation of threaded fasteners have been occurred. A large number of reported incidents are involved in the pressure boundary and major component supports. The degradation and failure of threaded fasteners is affected by material, preload and torque value at assembly, bolting practice, etc. It is very important to select appropriate bolt preload and decide assembly torque value because torque control using a torque wrench is the most common method in a power plant to assemble a bolted flange connection. Many researches have been studied to define the proper bolt preload and desired torque value with regard to the integrity of bolted connections including pressure boundary joints by EPRI and other plant industry. But in domestic NPPs, considerably few works are done on the bolted joint assembly in spite of increasing events related with threaded faster. Therefore we investigated degradation or failure of the threaded fasteners used in NPPs, also examined the codes, standards and technical trends concerning bolt preload and assembly torque in NPPs. It is the purpose of this study to provide proper technical information for assuring integrity of the threaded fasteners

  19. METHODS OF CONTROLLING THE AVERAGE DIAMETER OF THE THREAD WITH ASYMMETRICAL PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Aliomarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To handle the threaded holes in hard materials made of marine machinery, operating at high temperatures, heavy loads and in aggressive environments, the authors have developed the combined tool core drill -tap with a special cutting scheme, which has an asymmetric thread profile on the tap part. In order to control the average diameter of the thread of tap part of the combined tool was used the method three wires, which allows to make continuous measurement of the average diameter of the thread along the entire profile. Deviation from the average diameter from the sample is registered by inductive sensor and is recorded by the recorder. In the work are developed and presented control schemes of the average diameter of the threads with a symmetrical and asymmetrical profile. On the basis of these schemes are derived formulas for calculating the theoretical option to set the wires in the thread profile in the process of measuring the average diameter. Conducted complex research and the introduction of the combined instrument core drill-tap in the production of products of marine engineering, shipbuilding, ship repair power plants made of hard materials showed a high efficiency of the proposed technology for the processing of high-quality small-diameter threaded holes that meet modern requirements.

  20. Dependence of the length of solar filament threads on the magnetic configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yu-Hao; Chen Peng-Fei; Fang Cheng; Zhang Qing-Min

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution Hα observations indicate that filaments consist of an assembly of thin threads. In quiescent filaments, the threads are generally short, whereas in active region filaments, the threads are generally long. In order to explain these observational features, we performed one-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulations of filament formation along a dipped magnetic flux tube in the framework of the chromospheric evaporation-coronal condensation model. The geometry of a dipped magnetic flux tube is characterized by three parameters, i.e., the depth (D), the half-width (w) and the altitude (h) of the magnetic dip. A survey of the parameters in numerical simulations shows that when allowing the filament thread to grow in 5 days, the maximum length (L th ) of the filament thread increases linearly with w, and decreases linearly with D and h. The dependence is fitted into a linear function L th = 0.84w − 0.88D − 2.78h+17.31(Mm). Such a relation can qualitatively explain why quiescent filaments have shorter threads and active region filaments have longer threads

  1. Nodules on the Hair: A Rare Case of Mixed Piedra

    OpenAIRE

    Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

    2013-01-01

    Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair.

  2. Nodules on the hair: a rare case of mixed piedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

    2013-10-01

    Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair.

  3. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  4. Contact allergy to common ingredients in hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed.......p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed....

  5. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Gao

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed Tβ4 in the epidermis, as well as Tβ4 global knockout mice, to study the role of Tβ4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of Tβ4 on hair growth. To study Tβ4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. To explore the effect of Tβ4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of Tβ4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased Tβ4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, Tβ4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts.

  6. Arsenic in hair by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.

    1993-01-01

    In the fall of 1990, Blanche Kiser Moore was tried in the state of North Carolina for the murder, by arsenic poisoning, of a former boyfriend of hers (RCR), found guilty of first-degree murder by the jury, and sentenced to death. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), with gamma-ray spectrometry, was carried out on sectioned hair samples from six possible poisoning victims of hers, by the authors, and the results presented at the trial by VPG. Details of the sample preparations, the numerical results obtained, and their interpretation are presented. Also presented are difficulties involved involved in such analysis, and discussion of the fast-neutron interferences caused by Se and Br. (author) 6 refs.; 6 figs

  7. THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF ASSEMBLY AND THREADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Skorkin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this article is the issues related to the integrated management of assembling operations of fastening and threading elements at all stages of their implementation. The goal is to develop the generalized structure of the data management system of the process of assembly and threading. The objectives are: to justify the principles of managing the assembly and threading process at each stage of the assembly to improve the efficiency of these operations, to study the power, accuracy and performance characteristics of the connections and to draw the conclusion that suggested the theory of assembly management is efficient. The following results are obtained. The article presents the analytical dependencies of the force indexes of threading in the course of the package and sheet assembly, including the tightening force while joining; the assembly of a multilayered package of dissimilar sheet materials was analyzed. On the basis of the theoretical analysis, the dependences of the power indices of threading during the package and sheet assembly were determined. The assembly of the package of sheet materials was investigated, including a multilayered package of dissimilar materials of a “metal-plastic” type. Conclusions. The process of assembling threaded joints with the use of management principles was used; these principles enable increasing the efficiency of the assembly process, reducing the complexity of the basic operations, and improving the quality of the joints obtained. The use adaptive control of the screwing speed on the main threading transitions is suggested for reducing the torque.  The technology of making threaded joints with given properties is developed, the main ways of increasing the efficiency of assembly and threading processes are determined on the basis of the integrated control system for the assembly process.

  8. Double-Twisted Conductive Smart Threads Comprising a Homogeneously and a Gradient-Coated Thread for Multidimensional Flexible Pressure-Sensing Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2016-03-17

    Fiber-based, flexible pressure-sensing systems have attracted attention recently due to their promising application as electronic skins. Here, a new kind of flexible pressure-sensing device based on a polydimethylsiloxane membrane instrumented with double-twisted smart threads (DTSTs) is reported. DTSTs are made of two conductive threads obtained by coating cotton threads with carbon nanotubes. One thread is coated with a homogeneous thickness of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to detect the intensity of an applied load and the other is coated with a graded thickness of SWCNTs to identify the position of the load along the thread. The mechanism and capacity of DTSTs to accurately sense an applied load are systematically analyzed. Results demonstrate that the fabricated 1D, 2D, and 3D sensing devices can be used to predict both the intensity and the position of an applied load. The sensors feature high sensitivity (between ≈0.1% and 1.56% kPa) and tunable resolution, good cycling resilience (>104 cycles), and a short response time (minimum 2.5 Hz). The presented strategy is a viable alternative for the design of simple, low-cost pressure sensors.

  9. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.; Castro Faria, L.V. de; Paschoa, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of the energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and X-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle. (orig.)

  10. Polar lipid composition of mammalian hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wix, M A; Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

    1987-01-01

    The types and amounts of polar lipids from the hair of monkey (Macacca fascicularis), dog (Canis familiaris), pig (Sus scrofa) and porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) have been determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. The polar lipid content of the hair samples ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 wt%. Lipid compositions included ceramides (57-63% of the polar lipid by weight), glycosphingolipids (7-9%) and cholesteryl sulfate (22-29%). Several minor components (4-7%) remain unidentified. The results suggest that cholesteryl sulfate may be an important determinant of the cohesiveness of hair.

  11. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.; Castro Faria, L.V. de; Paschoa, A.S.

    1979-06-01

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and x-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle.(Author) [pt

  12. Global ecology and the human hair composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, L.I.; Kist, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    As an example of the mapping of human hair composition, the territory of Uzbekistan was chosen. The data and the maps obtained were compared with the environmental situation and medical statistics. World maps were drawn on the basis of various authors' data. The possibility of using human hair for radioactivity studies is discussed on the basis of data obtained in the Chernobyl area. The proposed scheme of human hair analysis may be used for world mapping for chemical elements, radionuclides, pesticides, dioxides, PCBs, etc., either to picture the global situation or as a health status on the level of populations. (author) 27 refs. 8 figs; 1 tab

  13. Mutations in Three Genes Encoding Proteins Involved in Hair Shaft Formation Cause Uncombable Hair Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ü Basmanav, F Buket; Cau, Laura; Tafazzoli, Aylar

    2016-01-01

    Uncombable hair syndrome (UHS), also known as "spun glass hair syndrome," "pili trianguli et canaliculi," or "cheveux incoiffables" is a rare anomaly of the hair shaft that occurs in children and improves with age. UHS is characterized by dry, frizzy, spangly, and often fair hair that is resistant...... in the majority of UHS case subjects. The two enzymes PADI3 and TGM3, responsible for posttranslational protein modifications, and their target structural protein TCHH are all involved in hair shaft formation. Elucidation of the molecular outcomes of the disease-causing mutations by cell culture experiments...... and tridimensional protein models demonstrated clear differences in the structural organization and activity of mutant and wild-type proteins. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed morphological alterations in hair coat of Padi3 knockout mice. All together, these findings elucidate the molecular genetic...

  14. Body to scalp: Evolving trends in body hair transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Saxena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is becoming an increasingly popular method for hair restoration. As FUE leaves behind no linear scars, it is more suitable to harvest from various body areas including beard, chest, and extremities in hirsute individuals. Body hair characteristics such as thickness, length, and hair cycle may not completely match to that of the scalp hair. The techniques of harvesting body hairs are more time consuming, requiring higher degree of skill than regular scalp FUE. Body hair transplantation can be successfully used either alone or in combination with scalp hair in advanced grades of baldness, for improving the cosmetic appearance of hairlines and in scarring alopecia when there is paucity of donor scalp hair. Harvesting of body hairs opens up a new viable donor source for hair restoration surgeons, especially in cases of advanced Norwood grades five and above of androgenetic alopecia.

  15. Use of a Novel Abdominal Aortic and Junctional Tourniquet to Reduce or Eliminate Flow in the Brachial and Popliteal Arteries in Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Matthew; Johnson, Daniel; Gordon, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating injuries of the proximal large arteries are a common cause of death on the battlefield due to rapid exsanguination. Applying an effective tourniquet to stop bleeding at the axillary and proximal femoral arteries (junctional sites) is difficult. Prior studies have shown that the Abdominal Aortic and Junctional Tourniquet (AAJT) effectively reduced blood flow in the common femoral artery with application of the device around the lower abdomen. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of the AAJT to stop blood flow in the proximal femoral artery (PFA), and the axillary artery (AA). This was a prospective observational trial using human volunteers. The AAJT consists of a wedge-shaped bladder and integrated strap. The bladder has an integrated manometer, which is used to measure the pressure in the bladder. For the AA, the AAJT was placed over the axillary junction at the anterior axillary line with the strap placed across the contralateral shoulder. For the PFA, the AAJT bladder was placed over the right groin with the strap positioned across both femoral trochanters. Spectral Doppler measurements were taken of the PFA and AA at baseline and as the bladder was inflated. Collected data included pressure of the AAJT.

  16. Study of Measurement Strategies of Geometric Deviation of the Position of the Threaded Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drbul, Mário; Martikan, Pavol; Sajgalik, Michal; Czan, Andrej; Broncek, Jozef; Babik, Ondrej

    2017-12-01

    Verification of product and quality control is an integral part of current production process. In terms of functional requirements and product interoperability, it is necessary to analyze their dimensional and also geometric specifications. Threaded holes are verified elements too, which are a substantial part of detachable screw connections and have a broad presence in engineering products. This paper deals with on the analysing of measurement strategies of verification geometric deviation of the position of the threaded holes, which are the indirect method of measuring threaded pins when applying different measurement strategies which can affect the result of the verification of the product..

  17. PERBEDAAN UNSAFE ACTIONS ANTAR SHIFT KERJA PADA BAGIAN THREADING UNIT PRODUKSI I PT X DI SURABAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Insanno, Jenius Setio

    2017-01-01

    PT. X is one of the companies that produces iron pipe in Indonesia. Unit of production I PT. X threading part used work shift system. Few months ago there was an accident happened to a night shift workers threading part, and it caused them to be rushed to the hospital and got medical help. The purpose of this research was to analyze the difference between unsafe action on work shifts threading of PT. X. This research was an observational descriptive study that used crossectional approach. The...

  18. Perbedaan Unsafe Actions Antar Shift Kerja pada Bagian Threading Unit Produksi I PT X di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Insanno, Jenius Setio

    2016-01-01

    PT. X is one of the companies that produces iron pipe in Indonesia. Unit of production I PT. X threading part used work shift system. Few months ago there was an accident happened to a night shift workers threading part, and it caused them to be rushed to the hospital and got medical help. The purpose of this research was to analyze the difference between unsafe action on work shifts threading of PT. X. This research was an observational descriptive study that used crossectional approach. The...

  19. Arsenic contamination in food chain: Thread to food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar Azad Kashyap, Chandra; Singh, Swati

    2017-04-01

    The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health welfare of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.

  20. Arsenic contamination in food chain: Thread to global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.

  1. Multi-threaded ATLAS simulation on Intel Knights Landing processors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00014247; The ATLAS collaboration; Calafiura, Paolo; Leggett, Charles; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Dotti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The Knights Landing (KNL) release of the Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) Xeon Phi line of processors is a potential game changer for HEP computing. With 72 cores and deep vector registers, the KNL cards promise significant performance benefits for highly-parallel, compute-heavy applications. Cori, the newest supercomputer at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), was delivered to its users in two phases with the first phase online at the end of 2015 and the second phase now online at the end of 2016. Cori Phase 2 is based on the KNL architecture and contains over 9000 compute nodes with 96GB DDR4 memory. ATLAS simulation with the multithreaded Athena Framework (AthenaMT) is a good potential use-case for the KNL architecture and supercomputers like Cori. ATLAS simulation jobs have a high ratio of CPU computation to disk I/O and have been shown to scale well in multi-threading and across many nodes. In this paper we will give an overview of the ATLAS simulation application with detai...

  2. Multi-threaded ATLAS Simulation on Intel Knights Landing Processors

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, Steven; The ATLAS collaboration; Calafiura, Paolo; Leggett, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The Knights Landing (KNL) release of the Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) Xeon Phi line of processors is a potential game changer for HEP computing. With 72 cores and deep vector registers, the KNL cards promise significant performance benefits for highly-parallel, compute-heavy applications. Cori, the newest supercomputer at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), will be delivered to its users in two phases with the first phase online now and the second phase expected in mid-2016. Cori Phase 2 will be based on the KNL architecture and will contain over 9000 compute nodes with 96GB DDR4 memory. ATLAS simulation with the multithreaded Athena Framework (AthenaMT) is a great use-case for the KNL architecture and supercomputers like Cori. Simulation jobs have a high ratio of CPU computation to disk I/O and have been shown to scale well in multi-threading and across many nodes. In this presentation we will give an overview of the ATLAS simulation application with details on its multi-thr...

  3. Prevailing Torque Locking Feature in Threaded Fasteners Using Anaerobic Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alan; Hess, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests to assess the use of anaerobic adhesive for providing a prevailing torque locking feature in threaded fasteners. Test procedures are developed and tests are performed on three fastener materials, four anaerobic adhesives, and both unseated assembly conditions. Five to ten samples are tested for each combination. Tests for initial use, reuse without additional adhesive, and reuse with additional adhesive are performed for all samples. A 48-hour cure time was used for all initial use and reuse tests. Test data are presented as removal torque versus removal angle with the specification required prevailing torque range added for performance assessment. Percent specification pass rates for the all combinations of fastener material, adhesive, and assembly condition are tabulated and reveal use of anaerobic adhesive as a prevailing torque locking feature is viable. Although not every possible fastener material and anaerobic adhesive combination provides prevailing torque values within specification, any combination can be assessed using the test procedures presented. Reuse without additional anaerobic adhesive generally provides some prevailing torque, and in some cases within specification. Reuse with additional adhesive often provides comparable removal torque data as in initial use.

  4. Highly Stretchable Non-volatile Nylon Thread Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ting-Kuo

    2016-04-01

    Integration of electronic elements into textiles, to afford e-textiles, can provide an ideal platform for the development of lightweight, thin, flexible, and stretchable e-textiles. This approach will enable us to meet the demands of the rapidly growing market of wearable-electronics on arbitrary non-conventional substrates. However the actual integration of the e-textiles that undergo mechanical deformations during both assembly and daily wear or satisfy the requirements of the low-end applications, remains a challenge. Resistive memory elements can also be fabricated onto a nylon thread (NT) for e-textile applications. In this study, a simple dip-and-dry process using graphene-PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate) ink is proposed for the fabrication of a highly stretchable non-volatile NT memory. The NT memory appears to have typical write-once-read-many-times characteristics. The results show that an ON/OFF ratio of approximately 103 is maintained for a retention time of 106 s. Furthermore, a highly stretchable strain and a long-term digital-storage capability of the ON-OFF-ON states are demonstrated in the NT memory. The actual integration of the knitted NT memories into textiles will enable new design possibilities for low-cost and large-area e-textile memory applications.

  5. Matlab enhanced multi-threaded tomography optimization sequence (MEMTOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lum, Edward S.; Pope, Chad L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Monte Carlo simulation of spent nuclear fuel assembly neutron computed tomography. • Optimized parallel calculations conducted from within the MATLAB environment. • Projection difference technique used to identify anomalies in spent nuclear fuel assemblies. - Abstract: One challenge associated with spent nuclear fuel assemblies is the lack of non-destructive analysis techniques to determine if fuel pins have been removed or replaced or if there are significant defects associated with fuel pins deep within a fuel assembly. Neutron computed tomography is a promising technique for addressing these qualitative issues. Monte Carlo simulation of spent nuclear fuel neutron computed tomography allows inexpensive process investigation and optimization. The main purpose of this work is to provide a fully automated advanced simulation framework for the analysis of spent nuclear fuel inspection using neutron computed tomography. The simulation framework, called Matlab Enhanced Multi-Threaded Tomography Optimization Sequence (MEMTOS) not only automates the simulation process, but also generates superior tomography image results. MEMTOS is written in the MATLAB scripting language and addresses file management, parallel Monte Carlo execution, results extraction, and tomography image generation. This paper describes the mathematical basis for neutron computed tomography, the Monte Carlo technique used to simulate neutron computed tomography, and the overall tomography simulation optimization algorithm. Sequence results presented include overall simulation speed enhancement, tomography and image results obtained for Experimental Breeder Reactor II spent fuel assemblies and light water reactor fuel assemblies. Optimization using a projection difference technique are also described.

  6. Mapping monomeric threading to protein-protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerler, Aysam; Govindarajoo, Brandon; Zhang, Yang

    2013-03-25

    The key step of template-based protein-protein structure prediction is the recognition of complexes from experimental structure libraries that have similar quaternary fold. Maintaining two monomer and dimer structure libraries is however laborious, and inappropriate library construction can degrade template recognition coverage. We propose a novel strategy SPRING to identify complexes by mapping monomeric threading alignments to protein-protein interactions based on the original oligomer entries in the PDB, which does not rely on library construction and increases the efficiency and quality of complex template recognitions. SPRING is tested on 1838 nonhomologous protein complexes which can recognize correct quaternary template structures with a TM score >0.5 in 1115 cases after excluding homologous proteins. The average TM score of the first model is 60% and 17% higher than that by HHsearch and COTH, respectively, while the number of targets with an interface RMSD benchmark proteins. Although the relative performance of SPRING and ZDOCK depends on the level of homology filters, a combination of the two methods can result in a significantly higher model quality than ZDOCK at all homology thresholds. These data demonstrate a new efficient approach to quaternary structure recognition that is ready to use for genome-scale modeling of protein-protein interactions due to the high speed and accuracy.

  7. Root hair defective4 encodes a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate phosphatase required for proper root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thole, J.M.; Vermeer, J.E.M.; Zhang, Y.; Gadella, Th.W.J.; Nielsen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Polarized expansion of root hair cells in Arabidopsis thaliana is improperly controlled in root hair-defective rhd4-1 mutant plants, resulting in root hairs that are shorter and randomly form bulges along their length. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in rhd4-1 root hairs, we analyzed

  8. A review of surgical methods (excluding hair transplantation and their role in hair loss management today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S Sattur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today.

  9. Study of inner ear and lateral line hair cell regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Piqué Borràs, Maria Riera

    2013-01-01

    Death of sensory hair cells in the inner ear results in two global health problems that millions of people around the world suffer: hearing loss and balance disorders. Hair cells convert sound vibrations and head movements into electrical signals that are conveyed to the brain, and as a result of aging, exposure to noise, modern drugs or genetic predisposition, hair cells die. In mammals, the great majority of hair cells are produced during embryogenesis, and hair cells that ar...

  10. Artificial Hair: By the Dawn to Automatic Biofibre® Hair Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Roccia

    2017-12-01

    In 1995 the European Union (UE recognised the artificial hair implant as a legitimate medical treatment and outlined the rules related to that procedure. In 1996, biocompatible fibres (Biofibre® produced by Medicap® Italy were approved by the UE Authorities and by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA as medical devices for hair implant. An effective medical protocol was developed during the following years to provide correct guidelines for appropriate treatment, and to reduce possible related complications. Automatic Biofibre® hair implant represents the last achievement in this hair restoration technique with significant advantages for the patients.

  11. In Vitro Methodologies to Evaluate the Effects of Hair Care Products on Hair Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Miranda da Gama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner. Evaluating efficacy of hair care products in vitro involves the use of highly accurate equipment. This review aims to discuss in vitro methodologies used to evaluate the effects of hair care products on hair fiber, which can be assessed by various methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Protein Loss, Electrophoresis, color and brightness, thermal analysis and measuring mechanical resistance to combing and elasticity. The methodology used to test hair fibers must be selected according to the property being evaluated, such as sensory characteristics, determination of brightness, resistance to rupture, elasticity and integrity of hair strain and cortex, among others. If equipment is appropriate and accurate, reproducibility and ease of employment of the analytical methodology will be possible. Normally, the data set must be discussed in order to obtain conclusive answers to the test.

  12. Hair Mesotherapy in Treatment of Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Ozdogan

    2011-01-01

    mesotherapy in any form. Material and Methods: In this study, we evaluate the clinical changes of mesotherapy formulation on 15 men and 8 women patients, which consists of minoxidil, biotin, dexpantenol, herbal complex and procain and which is applied for androgenetic alopecia in our clinic every week. Results: In the analysis done before and after the mesotherapy, when the hair quantity, hair thickness, scalp state and hair loss are compared, the difference between them was statistically meaningful (p<0,05. There was no side effect during and after the application. Conclusion: In the hair mesotherapy, there is lack of mixture and application scheme whose effectiveness has been proved scientifically. We approve this study to be published that it supports the few  issues.

  13. Unravelling hair follicle-adipocyte communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Horsley, Valerie

    2012-11-01

    Here, we explore the established and potential roles for intradermal adipose tissue in communication with hair follicle biology. The hair follicle delves deep into the rich dermal macroenvironment as it grows to maturity where it is surrounded by large lipid-filled adipocytes. Intradermal adipocytes regenerate with faster kinetics than other adipose tissue depots and in parallel with the hair cycle, suggesting an interplay exists between hair follicle cells and adipocytes. While adipocytes have well-established roles in metabolism and energy storage, until recently, they were overlooked as niche cells that provide important growth signals to neighbouring skin cells. We discuss recent data supporting adipocytes as niche cells for the skin and skin pathologies that may be related to alterations in skin adipose tissue defects. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Tarantula Hairs as Corneal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Stagg

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of tarantula hairs found in the cornea and discuss treatment. Case Report: A 16-year-old male presented with a 6-week history of right ocular irritation that began after letting his pet tarantula crawl on his face. Slit-lamp examination of the right eye revealed the presence of approximately 16 dark foreign bodies that had the appearance of small hairs. The foreign bodies were removed from the nasal region of the right cornea using Jewelers forceps, and the patient was prescribed a combination neomycin, polymyxin B, and dexamethasone ointment (Maxitrol®, given 4 times per day. Results: The patient presented for follow-up 2 weeks later, with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion: Effective treatment of keratitis caused by tarantula hairs includes taking a detailed history, conducting a careful slit-lamp examination, removal of any accessible hairs, and initiation of treatment with a topical steroid as determined by the clinical picture.

  15. Management of advanced hair loss patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehner, Michael L

    2013-08-01

    This article covers how to manage patients with extensive hair loss in whom complete, dense coverage is not possible. In addition to discussing planning a transplant pattern for already bald men, I discuss a conservative approach for recognizing and transplanting younger patients who have telltale warning signs that may evolve to extensive hair loss. For both groups, a variant of a frontal forelock-type pattern is usually the best course to follow. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Medical application of laser hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, Alwalled Hussein Ataalmannan

    2015-12-01

    The use of laser in medical treatment has become of paramount importance proportional to what has high therapeutic privileges such as speed and accuracy in penetrating tissues and high quality especially when used in hair removal which is the subject of our study, this laser operates cards may cause some change in the color of the skin when used in a manner that is correct ratio of the thermal impact force in the laser hair removal process, or if it is exposed directly to his eye. This study is a comparison between the physical properties of laser of lasers used in hair removal, according to previous studies to be the basis for the benefit of doctors who use lasers for hair removal. The aim of this study was to study the effect of laser hair removal using the Nd: YAG laser with a wavelength 1064 nm as well as the risks airing from the assessment. The aim of this study was to identify the appropriate laser energy that absorbed in the hair follicle with a dark color and the appropriate thermal effect occurs to vaporize the follicle cell, a 40 J/cm"2 is to be significant without side effects for healthy tissue. In this study doses for a few laser beam is considered when compared to previous studies. Laser danger to the patient during the operation increases with increasing laser energy emitted during treatment. Laser hair removal by the user and energy emitted by wavelength of the laser device also depends on the hair color and roughness as well as skin color. (Author)

  17. Trace elements determination in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, Jose

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Cd and Al, in human hair sampled from 23 young men during 24 months were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additional determination of mercury and volatile elements were made by using accessory MHS-10. Statistical treatment of data is presented for each person and element. The pre-treatment of hair carried out with an organic solvent to remove the superficial pollutants is explained. (The author)

  18. Body esteem in adolescent hair pullers

    OpenAIRE

    ALTENBURGER, ERIN M.; TUNG, ESTHER S.; KEUTHEN, NANCY J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Trichotillomania (TTM) often first presents in adolescence, a developmental period marked by vulnerability in body image. To date, no one has studied the relationship between this disorder and body esteem. Methods: 49 adolescents with DSM-IV TTM or chronic hair pulling (HP) and 23 control adolescents were administered diagnostic assessments and self-report measures of hair pulling and body esteem. Results: HP youth vs. controls reported lower levels of body esteem on all ...

  19. Paraphenylenediamine: Blackening more than just hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Gude

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylenediamine is an important constituent of hair dye toxicity of which one could herald fatal complications such as rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, angioneurotic edema, and respiratory failure. We present a case of hair dye poisoning that presented with respiratory distress due to laryngeal edema and later developed trismus, subclinical tetany, apnea, and conduction abnormality on electrocardiogram. This case report highlights the need for a thorough toxicological review of the components of any ingested substance.

  20. Signal detection by active, noisy hair bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid; Salvi, Joshua D.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Vertebrate ears employ hair bundles to transduce mechanical movements into electrical signals, but their performance is limited by noise. Hair bundles are substantially more sensitive to periodic stimulation when they are mechanically active, however, than when they are passive. We developed a model of active hair-bundle mechanics that predicts the conditions under which a bundle is most sensitive to periodic stimulation. The model relies only on the existence of mechanotransduction channels and an active adaptation mechanism that recloses the channels. For a frequency-detuned stimulus, a noisy hair bundle's phase-locked response and degree of entrainment as well as its detection bandwidth are maximized when the bundle exhibits low-amplitude spontaneous oscillations. The phase-locked response and entrainment of a bundle are predicted to peak as functions of the noise level. We confirmed several of these predictions experimentally by periodically forcing hair bundles held near the onset of self-oscillation. A hair bundle's active process amplifies the stimulus preferentially over the noise, allowing the bundle to detect periodic forces less than 1 pN in amplitude. Moreover, the addition of noise can improve a bundle's ability to detect the stimulus. Although, mechanical activity has not yet been observed in mammalian hair bundles, a related model predicts that active but quiescent bundles can oscillate spontaneously when they are loaded by a sufficiently massive object such as the tectorial membrane. Overall, this work indicates that auditory systems rely on active elements, composed of hair cells and their mechanical environment, that operate on the brink of self-oscillation.

  1. Why Is There a Glass Ceiling for Threading Based Protein Structure Prediction Methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnick, Jeffrey; Zhou, Hongyi

    2017-04-20

    Despite their different implementations, comparison of the best threading approaches to the prediction of evolutionary distant protein structures reveals that they tend to succeed or fail on the same protein targets. This is true despite the fact that the structural template library has good templates for all cases. Thus, a key question is why are certain protein structures threadable while others are not. Comparison with threading results on a set of artificial sequences selected for stability further argues that the failure of threading is due to the nature of the protein structures themselves. Using a new contact map based alignment algorithm, we demonstrate that certain folds are highly degenerate in that they can have very similar coarse grained fractions of native contacts aligned and yet differ significantly from the native structure. For threadable proteins, this is not the case. Thus, contemporary threading approaches appear to have reached a plateau, and new approaches to structure prediction are required.

  2. 78 FR 76815 - Steel Threaded Rod From India: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-533-856] Steel Threaded Rod From..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (``the... CONTACT: Brooke Kennedy, AD/CVD Operations, Office III, Enforcement and Compliance, International Trade...

  3. Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Foronda, Humberto M.; Wu, Feng; Zollner, Christian; Alif, Muhammad Esmed; Saifaddin, Burhan; Almogbel, Abdullah; Iza, Michael; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.

    2017-01-01

    temperature on the AlN crystal quality, defect density, and surface morphology. The crystal quality was characterized using omega rocking curve scans and the threading dislocation density was determined by plan view transmission electron microscopy. The growth

  4. Parallel Void Thread in Long-Reach Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr; Shihada, Basem

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates void filling (idle periods) in long-reach Ethernet passive optical networks. We focus on reducing grant delays and hence reducing the average packet delay. We introduce a novel approach called parallel void thread (PVT), which

  5. UTLEON3 Exploring Fine-Grain Multi-Threading in FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Daněk, Martin; Kohout, Lukáš; Sýkora, Jaroslav; Bartosinski, Roman

    2013-01-01

    This book describes a specification, microarchitecture, VHDL implementation and evaluation of a SPARC v8 CPU with fine-grain multi-threading, called micro-threading. The CPU, named UTLEON3, is an alternative platform for exploring CPU multi-threading that is compatible with the industry-standard GRLIB package. The processor microarchitecture was designed to map in an efficient way the data-flow scheme on a classical von Neumann pipelined processing used in common processors, while retaining full binary compatibility with existing legacy programs.  Describes and documents a working SPARC v8, with fine-grain multithreading and fast context switch; Provides VHDL sources for the described processor; Describes a latency-tolerant framework for coupling hardware accelerators to microthreaded processor pipelines; Includes programming by example in the micro-threaded assembly language.    

  6. A Mathematical Model for Temperature Induced Loosening due to Radial Expansion of Rectangle Thread Bolted Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyuan Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a mathematical model to investigate the radial expansion induced loosening of rectangle thread bolted joints that were subjected to cyclic temperature variation, which could cause slippage between contact pairs of engaged threads and bolt bearing. Firstly, integral equations were derived for the shear stress components caused by expansion difference, as well as the bearing and thread friction torque components, which depended on the temperature variation. Secondly, the relationship of displacement components was developed based on quasi-static hypotheses. Then, treating the rotation of bolt as plastic elongation, the bolt tension's evolution was obtained by using a one-dimensional bolted joint model. Numerical results showed that the temperature variation decreased the bearing and thread friction torque components, which could lead bolted joint to loosen. Finally, the effects of some associated factors on the progress were discussed.

  7. The pluripotency of hair follicle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2006-02-01

    The hair follicle bulge area is an abundant, easily accessible source of actively growing, pluripotent adult stem cells. Nestin, a protein marker for neural stem cells, is also expressed in follicle stem cells as well as their immediate differentiated progeny. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells differentiated into neurons, glial cells, keratinocytes and smooth muscle cells in vitro. Hair-follicle stem cells were implanted into the gap region of a severed sciatic nerve. The hair follicle stem cells greatly enhanced the rate of nerve regeneration and the restoration of nerve function. The follicle stem cells transdifferentiated largely into Schwann cells which are known to support neuron regrowth. Function of the rejoined sciatic nerve was measured by contraction of the gastrocnemius muscle upon electrical stimulation. After severing the tibial nerve and subsequent transplantation of hair-follicle stem cells, the transplanted mice recovered the ability to walk normally. These results suggest that hair-follicle stem cells provide an important accessible, autologous source of adult stem cells for regenerative medicine.

  8. Hair analysis as evidence in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, M R; Fey, P; Sachs, H

    1993-12-01

    Because hair analysis can be used for the determination of drug use months after drug consumption, hair analysis data can often act as important and even decisive evidence in the courtroom. More recently developed GC/MS methods offer excellent sensitivity and can make the distinction between chronic heroin and codeine use, which was not possible earlier with radioimmunoassay techniques. From more than a thousand hair analyses, the morphine/codeine ratios necessary to determine heroin use were set at 5:1 for low morphine concentrations (< 1 ng/mg hair) and 2:1 for concentrations above 1 ng/mg hair. The distinction can be further focused with the additional analysis of the metabolite monoacetylmorphine (MAM). As can be seen from several case examples, hair analysis cannot pinpoint an exact date of opiate use, but it can be used to validate or invalidate a subject's statement concerning his/her drug consumption. Interpretations should always be made cautiously. Ranges, means and medians are also listed for amphetamine, cocaine and cannabis and work is under way to draw similar safety guidelines for these drugs.

  9. Thread sign in biliary intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: a novel specific finding for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Gil-Sun; Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Moon-Gyu; Hong, Seung-Mo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate thread sign of biliary intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (B-IPMN) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thread sign was defined as intraductal linear or curvilinear hypointense striations. Two radiologists independently evaluated the presence and location of thread sign on MR cholangiography (thin-slice, thick-slab and 3D MRC) and axial MR images (T2 TSE, T2 HASTE and DWI) in patients with B-IPMN (n = 38) and in matched control groups with benign (n = 36) or malignant (n = 35) biliary diseases. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of thread sign for diagnosing B-IPMN were evaluated. Thread sign was observed only in patients with B-IPMN on MRC (44.7-52.6 % [17/38-20/38], P < 0.001) and axial MR images (31.6 % [12/38], P < 0.001), except in one patient with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis on MRC (2.8 %, 1/36). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of thread sign for diagnosing B-IPMN on MRC were 0.53, 0.99, 0.83, 0.95 and 0.80, respectively (reader 1) and 0.45, 1.0, 0.81, 1.0 and 0.77, respectively (reader 2). Thread sign was detected mainly at the extrahepatic bile duct (52.6 %, 20/38). B-IPMN can manifest thread sign, a novel specific MR finding, mainly at the extrahepatic bile duct on MRI, especially on MRC. (orig.)

  10. Penile hair coil strangulation of the child

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    complete urethral transection and corporal injury in an uncircum- cised boy inflicted by ligation of thread at ... among adolescents and adults with the concept of helping improve erection in some of them and with ... For the severe cases of penile injury with a glans hanging to the penis by a very slim pedicle, El Bahnasawy ...

  11. Geant4-MT: bringing multi-threading into Geant4 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, S.; Apostolakis, J.; Cosmo, G.; Nowak, A.; Asai, M.; Brandt, D.; Dotti, A.; Coopermann, G.; Dong, X.; Jun, Soon Yung

    2013-01-01

    Geant4-MT is the multi-threaded version of the Geant4 particle transport code. The key goals for the design of Geant4-MT have been a) the need to reduce the memory footprint of the multi-threaded application compared to the use of separate jobs and processes; b) to create an easy migration of the existing applications; and c) to use efficiently many threads or cores, by scaling up to tens and potentially hundreds of workers. The first public release of a Geant4- MT prototype was made in 2011. We report on the revision of Geant4-MT for inclusion in the production-level release scheduled for end of 2013. This has involved significant re-engineering of the prototype in order to incorporate it into the main Geant4 development line, and the porting of Geant4-MT threading code to additional platforms. In order to make the porting of applications as simple as possible, refinements addressed the needs of standalone applications. Further adaptations were created to improve the fit with the frameworks of High Energy Physics experiments. We report on performances measurements on Intel Xeon TM , AMD Opteron TM the first trials of Geant4-MT on the Intel Many Integrated Cores (MIC) architecture, in the form of the Xeon Phi TM co-processor. These indicate near-linear scaling through about 200 threads on 60 cores, when holding fixed the number of events per thread. (authors)

  12. A microfluidic glucose sensor incorporating a novel thread-based electrode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Michelle; Gonzalez-Guerrero, Maria Jose; Uchida, Kathryn; Gomez, Frank A

    2018-05-01

    An electrochemical sensor for the detection of glucose using thread-based electrodes and fabric is described. This device is relatively simple to fabricate and can be used for multiple readings after washing with ethanol. The fabrication of the chip consisted of two steps. First, three thread-based electrodes (reference, working, and counter) were fabricated by painting pieces of nylon thread with either layered silver ink and carbon ink or silver/silver chloride ink. The threads were then woven into a fabric chip with a beeswax barrier molded around the edges in order to prevent leaks from the tested solutions. A thread-based working electrode consisting of one layer of silver underneath two layers of carbon was selected to fabricate the final sensor system. Using the chip, a PBS solution containing glucose oxidase (GOx) (10 mg/mL), potassium ferricyanide (K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]) (10 mg/mL) as mediator, and different concentrations of glucose (0-25 mM), was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV). It was found that the current output from the oxidation of glucose was proportional to the glucose concentrations. This thread-based electrode system is a viable sensor platform for detecting glucose in the physiological range. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. HELICAL MOTIONS OF FINE-STRUCTURE PROMINENCE THREADS OBSERVED BY HINODE AND IRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Takenori J. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Liu, Wei [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Suite 209, Petaluma, CA 94952 (United States); Tsuneta, Saku, E-mail: joten.okamoto@nao.ac.jp [ISAS/JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2016-11-10

    Fine-structure dynamics in solar prominences holds critical clues to understanding their physical nature of significant space-weather implications. We report evidence of rotational motions of horizontal helical threads in two active-region prominences observed by the Hinode and/or Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph satellites at high resolution. In the first event, we found transverse motions of brightening threads at speeds up to 55 km s{sup -1} seen in the plane of the sky. Such motions appeared as sinusoidal space–time trajectories with a typical period of ∼390 s, which is consistent with plane-of-sky projections of rotational motions. Phase delays at different locations suggest the propagation of twists along the threads at phase speeds of 90–270 km s{sup -1}. At least 15 episodes of such motions occurred in two days, none associated with an eruption. For these episodes, the plane-of-sky speed is linearly correlated with the vertical travel distance, suggestive of a constant angular speed. In the second event, we found Doppler velocities of 30–40 km s{sup -1} in opposite directions in the top and bottom portions of the prominence, comparable to the plane-of-sky speed. The moving threads have about twice broader line widths than stationary threads. These observations, when taken together, provide strong evidence for rotations of helical prominence threads, which were likely driven by unwinding twists triggered by magnetic reconnection between twisted prominence magnetic fields and ambient coronal fields.

  14. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Drugs of Abuse in Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Bryn; Cuypers, Eva; Porta, Tiffany; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Heeren, Ron M A

    2017-01-01

    Hair testing is a powerful tool routinely used for the detection of drugs of abuse. The analysis of hair is highly advantageous as it can provide prolonged drug detectability versus that in biological fluids and chronological information about drug intake based on the average growth of hair. However, current methodology requires large amounts of hair samples and involves complex time-consuming sample preparation followed by gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry imaging is increasingly being used for the analysis of single hair samples, as it provides more accurate and visual chronological information in single hair samples.Here, two methods for the preparation of single hair samples for mass spectrometry imaging are presented.The first uses an in-house built cutting apparatus to prepare longitudinal sections, the second is a method for embedding and cryo-sectioning hair samples in order to prepare cross-sections all along the hair sample.

  15. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  16. Effect of a nutritional supplement on hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floc'h, Caroline; Cheniti, Ahsène; Connétable, Sophie; Piccardi, Nathalie; Vincenzi, Colombina; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss is a frequent and distressing condition. To evaluate vs. control, the effects on hair loss of a 6-month supplementation with specific omega 3&6 and antioxidants. One hundred and twenty healthy female subjects participated in this 6-month, randomized, comparative study. The primary endpoint was the change in hair density evaluated on standardized photographs. Secondary endpoints included changes in telogen hair percentage and diameter distribution of anagen hair (>40 µm vs. ≤40 µm) measured by trichogram. Overall changes in hair density and diameter were also measured by trichometer and by subjects' self-assessment. After 6 months of treatment, photograph assessment demonstrated a superior improvement in the supplemented group (P hair percentage was significantly (P hair (>40 µm) increased compared to the control group. The trichometer index increased in the supplemented group, while it decreased in the control group. A large majority of supplemented subjects reported a reduction in hair loss (89.9% of subjects at 6 months), as well as an improvement in hair diameter (86.1%) and hair density (87.3%). A 6-month supplementation with omega 3&6 and antioxidants acts efficiently against hair loss in improving hair density and reducing the telogen percentage and the proportion of miniaturized anagen hair. Objectively measured improvements were confirmed by the subjects' perception of efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. PELE'S HAIR: case studies from Kilauea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, C. B.

    2010-12-01

    Pele’s hair are long, thin strands of basaltic volcanic glass formed when small drops of magma are spun or drawn out by the wind or streams of volcanic gas into long hair-like strands. Named for Pele, the Hawaiian goddess of fire, they are basically found in Hawaiian eruption deposits. Pele’s hair is deep yellow or gold and is commonly found downwind from active vents concentrated in hollows or other low energy ‘traps’. In literature the origin of these thin strands of glass have been linked to fountains from Hawaiian eruptions. Beside the high fountaining, Pele’s hair are actually found in other environments. In this work we investigated in detail the dimensions, surface textures and the nature of Pele’s hair, from four typical environment of formation at Hawaiian volcanoes: high fountaining, weak explosive activity, lava ocean entry and a lava skylight. Samples has been characterized in terms of textural and morphological features, in thin section and under the SEM. Pele’s hair consists of long strands of gold sideromelane, showing variable length, from an half mm to tens of mm, often without surface vesicles and sometimes including Pele’s tears inside or at the end. They are often found incomplete, since they are easily broken on landing or even during transport. Their surfaces are mostly rough, with ‘ploughs’ of different sizes and large cavities. Vesicles are visible in the cross sections of Pele’s hair. There are two mostly size population of bubbles: one elongated and central and parallel to the axis of elongation and the other one smaller, and rounded and dispersed across the cross section of the fibers. Pele’s hair often shows, in thin section, a single inner elongate vesicle in the middle of the fragment linked to bubble coalescence phenomena, along the entire length of the hair. Samples from the four volcanic environments show different features in terms of their shape, surface textures and micro-textures, pointing out that

  18. Perception of Hair Transplant for Androgenetic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bater, Kristin L; Ishii, Masaru; Joseph, Andrew; Su, Peiyi; Nellis, Jason; Ishii, Lisa E

    2016-12-01

    Hair transplant is among the most common cosmetic services sought by men, with more than 11 000 procedures performed in 2014. Despite its growing popularity, the effect of hair transplant on societal perceptions of youth, attractiveness, or facets of workplace and social success is unknown. To determine whether hair transplant improves observer ratings of age, attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability in men treated for androgenetic alopecia and to quantify the effect of hair transplant on each of these domains. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted from November 10 to December 6, 2015, using web-based surveys featuring photographs of men before and after hair transplant. One hundred twenty-two participants recruited through various social media platforms successfully completed the survey. Observers were shown 2 side-by-side images of each man and asked to compare the image on the left with the one on the right. Of 13 pairs of images displayed, 7 men had undergone a hair transplant procedure and 6 had served as controls. Observers evaluated each photograph using various metrics, including age, attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed to understand the effect of hair transplant on observer perceptions. Planned posthypothesis testing was used to identify which variables changed significantly as a result of the transplant. Observer ratings of age (in number of years younger) and attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability (on a scale of 0 to 100; scores higher than 50 indicate a positive change). Of the 122 participants in the survey, 58 were men (47.5%); mean (range) age was 27.1 (18-52) years. The initial multivariate analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant multivariate effect for transplant (Wilks λ = 0.9646; P hair transplant on observers' perceptions of age (mean [SD] number of years younger, 3.6 [2.9] years; P hair transplant. Participants also

  19. VoiceThread as a Peer Review and Dissemination Tool for Undergraduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    VoiceThread has been utilized in an undergraduate research methods course for peer review and final research project dissemination. VoiceThread (http://www.voicethread.com) can be considered a social media tool, as it is a web-based technology with the capacity to enable interactive dialogue. VoiceThread is an application that allows a user to place a media collection online containing images, audio, videos, documents, and/or presentations in an interface that facilitates asynchronous communication. Participants in a VoiceThread can be passive viewers of the online content or engaged commenters via text, audio, video, with slide annotations via a doodle tool. The VoiceThread, which runs across browsers and operating systems, can be public or private for viewing and commenting and can be embedded into any website. Although few university students are aware of the VoiceThread platform (only 10% of the students surveyed by Ng (2012)), the 2009 K-12 edition of The Horizon Report (Johnson et al., 2009) lists VoiceThread as a tool to watch because of the opportunities it provides as a collaborative learning environment. In Fall 2011, eleven students enrolled in an undergraduate research methods course at Penn State Brandywine each conducted their own small-scale research project. Upon conclusion of the projects, students were required to create a poster summarizing their work for peer review. To facilitate the peer review process outside of class, each student-created PowerPoint file was placed in a VoiceThread with private access to only the class members and instructor. Each student was assigned to peer review five different student posters (i.e., VoiceThread images) with the audio and doodle tools to comment on formatting, clarity of content, etc. After the peer reviews were complete, the students were allowed to edit their PowerPoint poster files for a new VoiceThread. In the new VoiceThread, students were required to video record themselves describing their research

  20. Hair loss and hair-pulling in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Corrine K; Coleman, Kristine; Worlein, Julie; Novak, Melinda A

    2013-07-01

    Alopecia is a common problem in rhesus macaque colonies. A possible cause of this condition is hair-pulling; however the true relationship between hair-pulling and alopecia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hair loss and hair-pulling in 1258 rhesus macaques housed in 4 primate colonies across the United States. Alopecia levels ranged from 34.3% to 86.5% (mean, 49.3%) at the primate facilities. At facilities reporting a sex-associated difference, more female macaques were reported to exhibit alopecia than were males. In contrast, more males were reported to hair-pull. Animals reported to hair-pull were significantly more likely to have some amount of alopecia, but rates of hair-pulling were substantially lower than rates of alopecia, ranging from 0.6% to 20.5% (mean, 7.7%) of the populations. These results further demonstrate that hair-pulling plays only a small role in alopecia in rhesus macaques.

  1. Hair and bare skin discrimination for laser-assisted hair removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayir, Sercan; Yetik, Imam Samil

    2017-07-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal devices aim to remove body hair permanently. In most cases, these devices irradiate the whole area of the skin with a homogenous power density. Thus, a significant portion of the skin, where hair is not present, is burnt unnecessarily causing health risks. Therefore, methods that can distinguish hair regions automatically would be very helpful avoiding these unnecessary applications of laser. This study proposes a new system of algorithms to detect hair regions with the help of a digital camera. Unlike previous limited number of studies, our methods are very fast allowing for real-time application. Proposed methods are based on certain features derived from histograms of hair and skin regions. We compare our algorithm with competing methods in terms of localization performance and computation time and show that a much faster real-time accurate localization of hair regions is possible with the proposed method. Our results show that the algorithm we have developed is extremely fast (around 45 milliseconds) allowing for real-time application with high accuracy hair localization ( 96.48 %).

  2. Hair root characteristics of the human scalp hair in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.R. Peereboom-Wynia

    1982-01-01

    textabstractMorphological data on hair follicles have been available for over a hundred years, but only in recent years has a substantial advance been made in our knowledge of types and distribution of hair, its structure, metabolism, biochemistry and clinical patterns, and hormonal influences on

  3. The effects of different anesthesia techniques on free radical production after tourniquet-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury at children's age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue leads to injuries mediated by reactive oxygen species. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different anesthesia techniques on oxidative stress caused by tourniquetinduced ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury during extremity operations at children's age. Methods. The study included 45 patients American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA classification I or II, 8 to 17 years of age, undergoing orthopedic procedures that required bloodless limb surgery. The children were randomized into three groups of 15 patients each: general inhalational anesthesia with sevoflurane (group S, total intravenous anesthesia with propofol (group T and regional anesthesia (group R. Venous blood samples were obtained at four time points: before peripheral nerve block and induction of general anesthesia (baseline, 1 min before tourniquet release (BTR, 5 and 20 min after tourniquet release (ATR. Postischemic reperfusion injury was estimated by measurement of concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA in plasma and erythrocytes as well as catalase (CAT activity. Results. Plasma MDA concentration in the group S was significantly higher at 20 min ATR in comparison with the groups T and R (6.78 ± 0.33 μmolL-1-1 vs 4.07 ± 1.53 and 3.22 ± 0.9. μmolL-1-1, respectively. There was a significant difference in MDA concentration in erytrocythes between the groups S and T after 5 min of reperfusion (5.88 ± 0.88 vs 4.27 ± 1.04 nmol/mlEr, p < 0.05. Although not statistically significant, CAT activity was slightly increased as compared to baseline in both groups S and R. In the group T, CAT activity decreased at all time points when compared with baseline, but the observed decrease was only statistically significant at BTR (34.70 ± 9.27 vs 39.69 ± 12.91 UL-1, p < 0.05. Conclusion. Continuous propofol infusion and regional anesthesia techniques attenuate lipid peroxidation and IR injury connected with tourniquet

  4. Identification of the Process of Dynamic Stretching of Threads in Warp Knitting Technology Part II: Experimental Identification of the Process of Stretching Threads, with Verification of Rheological Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prążyńska Aleksandra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is a continuation of the first part of the publication, concerning the theoretical analysis of sensitivity of rheological models of dynamically stretched thread. This part presents the experimental research on the characteristics of stretching forces as a function of time, in the context of comparing the obtained results with theoretical data.

  5. Hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the literature of the past 30 years there are only some publications concerned with hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women. Therefore, the relevance of hyperprolactinemia was evaluated in 40 women with diffuse alopecia. Hair loss was assessed by clinical appearance and the pluck trichogram. 82.5% of the female patients had diffuse hair loss and 17.5% had androgenetic alopecia. The highest prolactin values measured were 1390 ng/ml and 255 ng/ml. Six patients had values between 150–80.4 ng/ml and 10 between 79.1–51.7 ng/ml. All others had prolactin values below 50 ng/ml. Fifteen untreated patients with elevated prolactin levels could be followed up. Without any prolactin-inhibiting drugs, reductions and normalizations beside moderate fluctuations could be detected. Thyroid-specific diagnostics showed in 95% of the patients a normal thyroid function. 2.5% had a slight hyperthyreoidism and 2.5% had a slight hypothyreoidism. No female patient had clinical signs of androgenization and the determined androgens testosterone, androstendione and dihydroepiandrostendione were in the normal range. According to these results, moderate elevated prolactin levels in association with diffuse or androgenetic hair loss can be neglected as causative for the hair loss, because there is no evidence that they have an influence to the pattern, the extent or the duration of the hair loss. These results are supported by investigations of other authors who described only in high doses of prolactin an inhibiting effect on human hair follicles in vitro. Nevertheless, moderate constantly elevated prolactin levels should induce further diagnostics to exclude a prolactin-producing tumor of the pituitary gland. PMID:22870355

  6. Trace-element content of human scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordus, A.A.; Wysocki, C.M.; Maher, C.C. III; Wieland, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of some of the factors that could affect the measured trace-element content of human scalp hair have been evaluated. Included are frequency of hair washing and swimming, shampoos used, gross differences in diet, and the variation in content along the strands of hair. The data for length-content variation suggest that, for some elements, eccrine sweat may contribute significantly to the measured trace-element content of hair and that such variation must be taken into account in assessing data for historical hair samples, many of which represent clippings of distal segments of hair

  7. Threaded biliary inside stents are a safe and effective therapeutic option in cases of malignant hilar obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Shioya, Makoto; Mochizuki, Yosuke; Ban, Hiromitsu; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Saito, Yasuharu; Andoh, Akira; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2013-02-14

    Although endoscopic biliary stents have been accepted as part of palliative therapy for cases of malignant hilar obstruction, the optimal endoscopic management regime remains controversial. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of placing a threaded stent above the sphincter of Oddi (threaded inside plastic stents, threaded PS) and compared the results with those of other stent types. Patients with malignant hilar obstruction, including those requiring biliary drainage for stent occlusion, were selected. Patients received either one of the following endoscopic indwelling stents: threaded PS, conventional plastic stents (conventional PS), or metallic stents (MS). Duration of stent patency and the incident of complication were compared in these patients. Forty-two patients underwent placement of endoscopic indwelling stents (threaded PS = 12, conventional PS = 17, MS = 13). The median duration of threaded PS patency was significantly longer than that of conventional PS patency (142 vs. 32 days; P = 0.04, logrank test). The median duration of threaded PS and MS patency was not significantly different (142 vs. 150 days, P = 0.83). Stent migration did not occur in any group. Among patients who underwent threaded PS placement as a salvage therapy after MS obstruction due to tumor ingrowth, the median duration of MS patency was significantly shorter than that of threaded PS patency (123 vs. 240 days). Threaded PS are safe and effective in cases of malignant hilar obstruction; moreover, it is a suitable therapeutic option not only for initial drainage but also for salvage therapy.

  8. Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, B T

    2010-01-01

    Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application.

  9. Collaborative learning using VoiceThread in an online graduate course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hui Ching

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative learning enables participants in a learning community to externalize and share knowledge, experiences, and practice. However, collaborative learning in an online environment can be challenging due to the lack of face-to face interaction. This current study examined twenty graduate students’ experiences of using VoiceThread for a collaborative activity in an entirely online course to explore students’ perceptions of using multi-modal communication for collaboration and knowledge sharing. The results of this study revealed that graduate students had very positive experiences toward using VoiceThread for collaborative learning. The participants found VoiceThread easy to learn and use, and reported that audio and video interaction on VoiceThread helped connect them with their peers. More than half of the participants interacted with peers using audio, followed by text and then by video. Half of the students felt they were more connected to peers; however, feeling more connected did not result in more participation as most of the students only participated at the level that met the course requirement. Participants identified benefits and drawbacks of using VoiceThread for collaboration as compared to using text-based discussion forums. The most frequently mentioned benefit of using VoiceThread for collaboration exemplifies its multi-modal affordance that enables learners to communicate emotion, personality, and other non-verbal cues conducive to better understanding and interpretation of meanings. About half of the participants indicated that they preferred VoiceThread to text-based discussion forums for collaborative learning activity. Challenges and implications for future research are also discussed.

  10. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2009-01-01

    Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a major role in the ageing process. Reactive oxygen species are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage cellular structural membranes, lipids, proteins, and DNA. The body possesses endogenous defence mechanisms, such as antioxidative enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidative molecules, protecting it from free radicals by reducing and neutralizing them. With age, the production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defence mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to the progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the ageing phenotype. Ageing of hair manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production or alopecia. There is circumstantial evidence that oxidative stress may be a pivotal mechanism contributing to hair graying and hair loss. New insights into the role and prevention of oxidative stress could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process and age-dependent alopecia.

  11. Frontier in hair loss and trichoscopy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtisam Elghblawi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin surfaces have always been examined using dermoscopy, a familiar tool which is useful to magnify and examine skin especially in cases of pigmented skin lesions. However, to examine the hair and scalp, a practical tool called trichoscopy has surfaced recently and has proven to be handy and functional in diagnosing most hair-related diseases. It is also referred to as dermoscopy of the hair and the scalp. It can aid in assessing active diseases in the scalp and hair, such as yellow dots, dystrophic hairs, cadaverized black dots, white dots, and exclamation mark hairs – all of which denote specific criteria for hair diseases. Trichoscopy is a very newly developed non-invasive technique for hair image analysis. It permits non-invasive visualization of hair shafts at higher intensification (about ×70 and ×100 and enables measurement of hair shaft width without the need for removing hair for diagnostic reasons. Moreover, it helps in vivo visualization of the epidermal portion of hair follicles and perifollicular epidermis (orifices. Consequently, it is valuable as it permits the inspection of structures that are otherwise not seen by the naked eye. Trichoscopy is the new frontier for the diagnosis of hair and scalp disease. Nowadays, a trichoscope is considered a must for dermatologists and it is a hot topic in the treatment of hair diseases. There is pooled evidence that the utilization of trichoscopy in the clinical setting for evaluating hair disorders can improve its diagnostic capability beyond simple clinical scrutiny. Trichoscopy can identify both hair shaft and hair opening abnormalities without the need for hair sampling, as well as distinguish between different scalp and hair diseases. Furthermore, it can give easy and quick evaluation of the hair with a follow-up to determine progress and prognosis of the disease with photos. It can also aid in some genetic hair shaft dystrophies such as trichorrhexis nodosa, trichorrhexis

  12. "I think gorilla-like back effusions of hair are rather a turn-off": 'Excessive hair' and male body hair (removal) discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Gareth; Braun, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Men's hair removal practices are becoming mainstream, seen as a consequence of changing masculine norms and men's relationships to their bodies. This is often presented as a straightforward 'shift' from men's ideal bodies as naturally hairy, to increased hairlessness, and the consequence on men's body concerns as inevitable. This paper analyses qualitative survey data from Aotearoa/New Zealand using critical thematic analysis, and describes three themes. Two themes capture contradictory ideas: that men's body hair is natural, and that men's body hair is unpleasant. A third theme introduces the concept of 'excess' hair, which allowed sense-making of this contradiction, mandating men's grooming of 'excessive' hair. However its vagueness as a concept may provoke anxiety for men resulting in hair removal. This paper adds to a body of research demonstrating a cultural transition: the ways changing masculinities, increased commodification of male bodies, and shifting gender roles impact on men's hair removal practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tranexamic acid reduces intraoperative occult blood loss and tourniquet time in obese knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yutong; Li, Zhirui; Gong, Ke; An, Xiao; Dong, Jiyuan; Tang, Peifu

    2018-01-01

    Obesity can result in increased blood loss, which is correlated with poor prognosis in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Clinical application of tranexamic acid is effective in reducing blood loss in TKA. However, most previous studies focused on the effect of tranexamic acid in the whole population, neglecting patients with specific health conditions, such as obesity. We hypothesized that tranexamic acid would reduce blood loss to a greater extent in obese patients than in those of normal weight. A total of 304 patients with knee osteoarthritis treated with TKA from October 2013 to March 2015 were separated into tranexamic, non-tranexamic, obese, and non-obese groups. The demographic characteristics, surgical indices, and hematological indices were all recorded. We first investigated the ability of intravenous tranexamic acid to reduce intraoperative blood loss in knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing unilateral TKA. Second, we performed subgroup analysis to compare the effects of tranexamic acid between obese and non-obese patients separately. Of the 304 patients, 146 (52.0%) received tranexamic acid and 130 (42.8%) were obese. In the analysis of the whole group, both the actual and occult blood loss volume were lower in the tranexamic acid group (both P tranexamic acid group ( P tranexamic acid was shown to reduce theoretical and actual blood loss in both the obese and non-obese groups ( P Tranexamic acid reduced occult blood loss and tourniquet time in the obese group ( P 0.05). Tranexamic acid can reduce occult blood loss and tourniquet time in obese patients to a greater extent than in patients of normal weight. Therefore, obese knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing TKA can benefit more from tranexamic acid.

  14. Twisting Tourniquet© Technique: introducing Schnogh, a novel device and its effectiveness in treating primary and secondary lymphedema of extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanwimalueang, Narumon; Ekataksin, Wichai; Piyaman, Parkpoom; Pattanapen, Gedsuda; Hanboon, Borimas K

    2015-01-01

    Twisting Tourniquet © or in Thai “Schnogh” is a new invention for compression therapy of lymphedema. Twisting Tourniquet © Technique (TTT) is totally noninvasive for lymphedema management. After the amazing successful evidence in the first series of 28 patients, we have conducted preliminary studies in lymphedema clinics. It was found that the combination of gradually increasing constriction force by Schnogh until desired pressure was reached and maintained for 15 min, followed by a 5-min release, doing repeatedly this compression-decompression for at least 10 sessions a day, can generate acceptable results. The aim of the study was to evaluate the scientific effectiveness and establish a treatment protocol of TTT proposed as a therapeutic approach for clinical management of lymphedema. During 2006–2013, from over 3500 patients, 647 with primary/secondary lymphedema passed inclusion criteria, 307 for upper, and 340 for lower extremity. In the 5-day course of TTT, each day patients underwent 10 sessions of a 15-min compression followed by a 5-min decompression. Vegan diet was encouraged as an adjuvant therapy. Among lymphedema patients whose spectrum of edema severity ranged from mild to gigantic, TTT yielded an average volume reduction rate (VR) at 50.2% and 55.6%, making the average edema reduction volume attained at 463 and 1856 mL for upper and lower limb, respectively. The uniformed practice by Schnogh which supports a continual compression–decompression maneuver over 3.5 h daily for five consecutive days could induce an average VR at above half of the swelling in extremities of 647 patients. Schnogh is therefore effective in clinical management of lymphedema under TTT treatment of fibroblastic interstitium

  15. Can an "Aesthetic" Intervention (Braided Hair Coil) Cause Hair Loss After an Aesthetic Operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionyssopoulos, Alexander; Papaconstantinou, Antony; Stoltidou, Alexandra; Spyropoulou, Georgia-Alexandra

    2014-07-01

    Postoperative pressure alopecia (PPA), defined as hair loss caused by prolonged pressure on the patient's scalp during surgery, is an uncommon condition after aesthetic surgery. Originally, it was described for patients who underwent lengthy cardiovascular and gynecologic operations. The authors present a rare case, in which hair loss occurred after secondary breast augmentation (replacement of breast implants). The PPA appeared in the occipitoparietal region of the patient's scalp approximately 2 weeks after surgery. The operation was completed in less than 3 hours, without any fluctuations in the patient's blood pressure or any unusual blood loss. There were no other precipitating factors such as anemia or coagulopathies. The probable cause of this unexpected result was the patient's braided hair coil, which had not been noted before the operation. The patient habitually, and on the day of her operation, combed her hair into a braided coil, which placed extra pressure on the occipitoparietal region. The hair loss was temporary, and hair regrowth was complete within 2 months. This incident may have been avoided if the braided hair coil had been noted by nursing or other medical staff preoperatively. Repositioning the head every 30 minutes and providing adequate head padding during surgery are advised to protect the patient and prevent such incidents. 5. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  16. Eps8 regulates hair bundle length and functional maturation of mammalian auditory hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Zampini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated with hair bundle development and function and are known to cause deafness in mice and humans when mutated. The growth of the stereociliar actin core is dynamically regulated at the actin filament barbed ends in the stereociliary tip. We show that Eps8, a protein with actin binding, bundling, and barbed-end capping activities in other systems, is a novel component of the hair bundle. Eps8 is localized predominantly at the tip of the stereocilia and is essential for their normal elongation and function. Moreover, we have found that Eps8 knockout mice are profoundly deaf and that IHCs, but not OHCs, fail to mature into fully functional sensory receptors. We propose that Eps8 directly regulates stereocilia growth in hair cells and also plays a crucial role in the physiological maturation of mammalian cochlear IHCs. Together, our results indicate that Eps8 is critical in coordinating the development and functionality of mammalian auditory hair cells.

  17. Eps8 regulates hair bundle length and functional maturation of mammalian auditory hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Rüttiger, Lukas; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Furness, David N; Waldhaus, Jörg; Xiong, Hao; Hackney, Carole M; Holley, Matthew C; Offenhauser, Nina; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Knipper, Marlies; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-04-01

    Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated with hair bundle development and function and are known to cause deafness in mice and humans when mutated. The growth of the stereociliar actin core is dynamically regulated at the actin filament barbed ends in the stereociliary tip. We show that Eps8, a protein with actin binding, bundling, and barbed-end capping activities in other systems, is a novel component of the hair bundle. Eps8 is localized predominantly at the tip of the stereocilia and is essential for their normal elongation and function. Moreover, we have found that Eps8 knockout mice are profoundly deaf and that IHCs, but not OHCs, fail to mature into fully functional sensory receptors. We propose that Eps8 directly regulates stereocilia growth in hair cells and also plays a crucial role in the physiological maturation of mammalian cochlear IHCs. Together, our results indicate that Eps8 is critical in coordinating the development and functionality of mammalian auditory hair cells.

  18. Chemotherapy and Hair Loss: What to Expect during Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemotherapy and hair loss: What to expect during treatment Your doctor can tell you whether your particular chemotherapy treatment is likely to cause hair loss. This allows you to plan ahead for head ...

  19. Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... to it. Former Alabama lead singer Randy Owen sings his new song, "Braid My Hair." Photo courtesy ...

  20. Trichogram To Monitor Therapeutic Benefit In Hair Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Monica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichogram is a method of quantifying hair. We report 3 cases of diffuse hair loss of varying etiology in whom the improvement after therapeutic intervention could be objectively documented using trichogram.

  1. Hair treatment device for providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, Bruce E.; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2016-01-26

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  2. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2013-12-17

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  3. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanusi Umar, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks. Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair.

  4. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Telek, A.; Biro, T.; Debrecen Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Hair follicle (HF) is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on the composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, no data are available concerning the distribution of elements in human hair follicle with various growth and cycling phases. In this study [1] we provided detailed quantitative elemental distribution of organ-cultured hair follicle in anagen and catagen growth phases using ion microscopy in order to reach a better understanding of the function, development, and cyclic activity of the hair follicle. The microprobe analysis was carried out at the scanning ion microprobe facilities at the ATOMKI Debrecen, and at the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia, using combined STIM and PIXE ion beam analytical techniques. Human anagen hair follicles were isolated from skin obtained from females undergoing face-lift surgery. Cultured anagen HFs were treated by either vehicle or by 10 μM capsaicin for 5 days. Elemental distributions and absolute concentrations were determined along 5 capsaicin treated (catagen), and 4 control (anagen) hair follicles. The investigated length varied between 1.5 and 2 mm. Average elemental concentration values of the whole sample and the different morphological parts were also determined. Concentrations for most of the elements were found to be the same in the corresponding parts of the anagen and the catagen hair follicles. However, significant differences were observed in the Ca concentration between the anagen and catagen HFs. With respect to the distribution of Ca, in anagen (control) HFs, the following concentrations were measured (given in μg/g dry weight): dermal papilla, ∼500; matrix of the bulb, 1000-1500; outer/ inner

  5. Study the Possibility for Manufacturing a Conical Pipe Thread by Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Evsyukov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of operating oil wells showed that the weak point of tubing is a connecting thread.Currently, the pipe thread of the specified class is made using the technology of cutting. The process of cutting a thread leads to waste metal chips and cutting fibers. Therefore the idea arose to make a thread by the method of pressure shaping.The aim was to study the possibility for full filling of the threaded matrix profile.The study was conducted by means of mathematical modeling in the software complex DEFORM. The impact of technological and geometrical factors on the process of form change was in detail analyzed. Thus, a work-piece material was specified to be continuous, isotropic, homogeneous, viscous-plastic and a tool material was set as a hard one. The friction was speci-fied according to Prandtl-Siebel law with the friction factor of 0.3. The thread profile has been replaced by the annular grooves of the similar profile. The task was considered to be axisymmetric.Scientific novelty of received results consists in revealed regularities of the plastic de-formation process of the work-piece when forming a profile of the conical thread on the pipe in the process of its expansion with a conical punch.The simulation allowed us to obtain information about the stress-strain state of the work-piece and tool, about the nature of the metal flow during deformation, and about the strength parameters of the process.In particular, it was found that the work-piece metal is displaced along the pipe axis both in punch movement direction and in the opposite one. Thus, a mechanical end burr is formed. The article shows that to remove a mechanical end burr requires insertion of extra limit stop housing. The article also analyses distribution of stresses arising in the matrix at the final moment of deformation. It was proved that the highest stresses occur in the hollows of the threaded part of matrix. Thus, their absolute value does not exceed 470 MPa that

  6. Comparative analysis of textile metal threads from liturgical vestments and folk costumes in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimić, Kristina; Zamboni, Ivana; Fazinić, Stjepko; Mudronja, Domagoj; Sović, Lea; Gouasmia, Sabrina; Soljačić, Ivo

    2018-02-01

    Textile is essential for everyday life in all societies. It is used in clothes for protection and warmth but also to indicate class and position, show wealth and social status. Threads from precious metals have also been used in combination with fibres for decoration in order to create luxury fabrics for secular and religious elites. We performed elemental analysis of 17th to 20th century metal threads from various textile articles of liturgical vestments and festive folk costumes collected in the museums of northern, southern and central Croatian regions. In order to determine elemental concentrations in threads we performed comparative X-ray Spectroscopy measurements using: (i) Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) at the Faculty of Textile Technology, (ii) X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) at the Croatian Conservation Institute and (iii) Particle Induced X-ray Spectroscopy (PIXE) at the Ruđer Bošković Institute Tandem Accelerator Facility using ion micro beam. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) was performed as well on selected samples. SEM-EDX investigations of cross-sections along with the surfaces were also performed. In this work we report and discuss the results obtained by the three X-ray methods and RBS for major (gold, silver, copper) and minor elements on different threads like stripes, wires and "srma" (metal thread wrapped around textile yarn).

  7. Successive Two-sided Loop Jets Caused by Magnetic Reconnection between Two Adjacent Filamentary Threads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Zhanjun; Liu, Yu; Shen, Yuandeng [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650216 (China); Elmhamdi, Abouazza; Kordi, Ayman S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Su, Jiangtao [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Ying D., E-mail: ydshen@ynao.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-08-20

    We present observational analysis of two successive two-sided loop jets observed by the ground-based New Vacuum Solar Telescope and the space-borne Solar Dynamics Observatory . The two successive two-sided loop jets manifested similar evolution processes and both were associated with the interaction of two small-scale adjacent filamentary threads, magnetic emerging, and cancellation processes at the jet’s source region. High temporal and high spatial resolution observations reveal that the two adjacent ends of the two filamentary threads are rooted in opposite magnetic polarities within the source region. The two threads approached each other, and then an obvious brightening patch is observed at the interaction position. Subsequently, a pair of hot plasma ejections are observed heading in opposite directions along the paths of the two filamentary threads at a typical speed for two-sided loop jets of the order 150 km s{sup −1}. Close to the end of the second jet, we report the formation of a bright hot loop structure at the source region, which suggests the formation of new loops during the interaction. Based on the observational results, we propose that the observed two-sided loop jets are caused by magnetic reconnection between the two adjacent filamentary threads, largely different from the previous scenario that a two-sided loop jet is generated by magnetic reconnection between an emerging bipole and the overlying horizontal magnetic fields.

  8. Developing eThread Pipeline Using SAGA-Pilot Abstraction for Large-Scale Structural Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjani Ragothaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While most of computational annotation approaches are sequence-based, threading methods are becoming increasingly attractive because of predicted structural information that could uncover the underlying function. However, threading tools are generally compute-intensive and the number of protein sequences from even small genomes such as prokaryotes is large typically containing many thousands, prohibiting their application as a genome-wide structural systems biology tool. To leverage its utility, we have developed a pipeline for eThread—a meta-threading protein structure modeling tool, that can use computational resources efficiently and effectively. We employ a pilot-based approach that supports seamless data and task-level parallelism and manages large variation in workload and computational requirements. Our scalable pipeline is deployed on Amazon EC2 and can efficiently select resources based upon task requirements. We present runtime analysis to characterize computational complexity of eThread and EC2 infrastructure. Based on results, we suggest a pathway to an optimized solution with respect to metrics such as time-to-solution or cost-to-solution. Our eThread pipeline can scale to support a large number of sequences and is expected to be a viable solution for genome-scale structural bioinformatics and structure-based annotation, particularly, amenable for small genomes such as prokaryotes. The developed pipeline is easily extensible to other types of distributed cyberinfrastructure.

  9. Mechanical Strength Improvements of Carbon Nanotube Threads through Epoxy Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyue Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs have a great mechanical strength that needs to be transferred into macroscopic fiber assemblies. One approach to improve the mechanical strength of the CNT assemblies is by creating covalent bonding among their individual CNT building blocks. Chemical cross-linking of multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs within the fiber has significantly improved the strength of MWCNT thread. Results reported in this work show that the cross-linked thread had a tensile strength six times greater than the strength of its control counterpart, a pristine MWCNT thread (1192 MPa and 194 MPa, respectively. Additionally, electrical conductivity changes were observed, revealing 2123.40 S·cm−1 for cross-linked thread, and 3984.26 S·cm−1 for pristine CNT thread. Characterization suggests that the obtained high tensile strength is due to the cross-linking reaction of amine groups from ethylenediamine plasma-functionalized CNT with the epoxy groups of the cross-linking agent, 4,4-methylenebis(N,N-diglycidylaniline.

  10. Improving mandibular contour: A pilot study for indication of PPLA traction thread use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Stefania; Persechino, Flavia; Rubino, Giuseppe; Pellacani, Giovanni; Farnetani, Francesca; Urtis, Giacomo Giovanni

    2018-02-20

    The request for less-aggressive procedures to improve mandibular contour is increasing. Several kinds of threads have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, PLLA (poly-L-Lactic acid) traction thread procedure has not been previously described. To investigate the role of PLLA traction threads in improving mandibular contour. Twenty women were enrolled in the study. They were differentially classified for skin laxity. Patients were treated in a single session with two PLLA traction threads per side. Specific post-procedure instructions were given to patients, and complications occurred after the procedures were estimated. A Fisher's t-test was performed to identify criteria related to longevity of results. We found longevity of results to be associated with younger age (p = 0.001), absence of severe skin laxity of jawline and neck (p = 0.001), and aesthetic satisfaction (p = 0.024). Edema, swelling, and temporary skin contour irregularities were found in most cases (N = 16; 80%), whereas paresthesia resolving without sequelae in 2-4 weeks was found in two cases (10%). Our results show that selected patients, younger than 51 and showing a mild-moderate degree of skin laxity of jawline and neck angle represent ideal candidates for PLLA traction thread treatment. Further studies will be performed to confirm our results.

  11. A multiple-scaling method of the computation of threaded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Leger, A.

    1989-01-01

    The numerical computation of threaded structures usually leads to very large finite elements problems. It was therefore very difficult to carry out some parametric studies, especially in non-linear cases involving plasticity or unilateral contact conditions. Nevertheless, these parametric studies are essential in many industrial problems, for instance for the evaluation of various repairing processes of the closure studs of PWR. It is well known that such repairing generally involves several modifications of the thread geometry, of the number of active threads, of the flange clamping conditions, and so on. This paper is devoted to the description of a two-scale method, which easily allows parametric studies. The main idea of this method consists of dividing the problem into a global part, and a local part. The local problem is solved by F.E.M. on the precise geometry of the thread of some elementary loadings. The global one is formulated on the gudgeon scale and is reduced to a monodimensional one. The resolution of this global problem leads to the unsignificant computational cost. Then, a post-processing gives the stress field at the thread scale anywhere in the assembly. After recalling some principles of the two-scales approach, the method is described. The validation by comparison with a direct F.E. computation and some further applications are presented

  12. Three-dimensional investigations of the threading regime in a microfluidic flow-focusing channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Krishne; Brouzet, Christophe; Lefranc, Thibault; Soderberg, L. Daniel; Lundell, Fredrik

    2017-11-01

    We study the flow dynamics of the threading regime in a microfluidic flow-focusing channel through 3D numerical simulations and experiments. Making strong filaments from cellulose nano-fibrils (CNF) could potentially steer to new high-performance bio-based composites competing with conventional glass fibre composites. CNF filaments can be obtained through hydrodynamic alignment of dispersed CNF by using the concept of flow-focusing. The aligned structure is locked by diffusion of ions resulting in a dispersion-gel transition. Flow-focusing typically refers to a microfluidic channel system where the core fluid is focused by the two sheath fluids, thereby creating an extensional flow at the intersection. In this study, threading regime corresponds to an extensional flow field generated by the water sheath fluid stretching the dispersed CNF core fluid and leading to formation of long threads. The experimental measurements are performed using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and 3D numerical simulations with OpenFOAM. The prime focus is laid on the 3D characteristics of thread formation such as wetting length of core fluid, shape, aspect ratio of the thread and velocity flow-field in the microfluidic channel.

  13. Hagfish slime threads as a biomimetic model for high performance protein fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fudge, Douglas S; Hillis, Sonja; Levy, Nimrod; Gosline, John M

    2010-01-01

    Textile manufacturing is one of the largest industries in the world, and synthetic fibres represent two-thirds of the global textile market. Synthetic fibres are manufactured from petroleum-based feedstocks, which are becoming increasingly expensive as demand for finite petroleum reserves continues to rise. For the last three decades, spider silks have been held up as a model that could inspire the production of protein fibres exhibiting high performance and ecological sustainability, but unfortunately, artificial spider silks have yet to fulfil this promise. Previous work on the biomechanics of protein fibres from the slime of hagfishes suggests that these fibres might be a superior biomimetic model to spider silks. Based on the fact that the proteins within these 'slime threads' adopt conformations that are similar to those in spider silks when they are stretched, we hypothesized that draw processing of slime threads should yield fibres that are comparable to spider dragline silk in their mechanical performance. Here we show that draw-processed slime threads are indeed exceptionally strong and tough. We also show that post-drawing steps such as annealing, dehydration and covalent cross-linking can dramatically improve the long-term dimensional stability of the threads. The data presented here suggest that hagfish slime threads are a model that should be pursued in the quest to produce fibres that are ecologically sustainable and economically viable.

  14. Exogenous and endogenous lipids of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderch, L; Oliver, M A; Martínez, V; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Martí, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the external and internal lipids of Caucasian hair and their influence in different hair properties such as moisture content, hydrophobic character, and mechanical properties. Lipid extraction and their analysis by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detector were carried out. Lipid rearrangement and water sorption and desorption evaluation of these fibers with and without lipids will also be determined using different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic vapor sorption, mainly to evaluate permeation changes of these hair fibers possibly related to the fluidity of the lipids extracted. Caucasian fibers were found to be well hydrated, and moisture diminution was observed mainly for the external lipid extracted fibers. Unexpectedly, the lipid extraction promoted an increase in the break tenacity of the Caucasian fibers. The hydrophobic character of the fiber surfaces indicates the marked hydrophobicity of all fibers. Delipidization promotes only a slight diminution of their hydrophobic properties. Water uptake and desorption studies indicate an important water regain for Caucasian fibers. The external extracted hair fibers presented a diminution of maximum water regain, which surprisingly increases with the following internal lipid extraction. This can be due to a higher water desorption found only for external extracted fibers. The relationship between fluidity of lipids extracted and hair fiber water diffusion were established. Extraction of internal lipids of Caucasian fibers, which have a higher unsaturated lipid content than external lipids of the same hair fiber, leads to a lower water permeability of the fiber. On the capillar formulations should be considered the importance of lipid fluidity to modify the permeability of the fiber. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ultrasonic Detection of Small Crack in Studs[Bolts] by Time Difference of Thread Signals(TDTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, D. M.; Park, D. Y.; Kim, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    It is difficult to detect such flaws as stress - corrosion cracking or corrosion wastage(loss of bolt diameter) in the threads. In many cases the critical size of a flaw is very small(1-2 mm order). This paper describes how it is possible to discriminate small flaw indications in threads using the time difference or thread signals(TDTS) by a signal-conditioning technique

  16. The treatment of female pattern hair loss and other applications of surgical hair restoration in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffrey S

    2004-05-01

    In the specialty of surgical hair restoration, men comprise more than 90% of the patients treated; however, in the last few years the number of women undergoing the procedure has increased significantly. The reasons for this growth are many and include the increase in public awareness of the efficacy of hair transplantation from such sources as the media,the Internet, advertising and word of mouth. More importantly, advances in technique have significantly improved results, increasing the confidence level in women to undergo the procedure and in hair transplant specialists to offer it.

  17. Anterior lumbar fusion with titanium threaded and mesh interbody cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauzzino, M J; Shaffrey, C I; Nockels, R P; Wiggins, G C; Rock, J; Wagner, J

    1999-12-15

    The authors report their experience with 42 patients in whom anterior lumbar fusion was performed using titanium cages as a versatile adjunct to treat a wide variety of spinal deformity and pathological conditions. These conditions included congenital, degenerative, iatrogenic, infectious, traumatic, and malignant disorders of the thoracolumbar spine. Fusion rates and complications are compared with data previously reported in the literature. Between July 1996 and July 1999 the senior authors (C.I.S., R.P.N., and M.J.R.) treated 42 patients by means of a transabdominal extraperitoneal (13 cases) or an anterolateral extraperitoneal approach (29 cases), 51 vertebral levels were fused using titanium cages packed with autologous bone. All vertebrectomies (27 cases) were reconstructed using a Miami Moss titanium mesh cage and Kaneda instrumentation. Interbody fusion (15 cases) was performed with either the BAK titanium threaded interbody cage (in 13 patients) or a Miami Moss titanium mesh cage (in two patients). The average follow-up period was 14.3 months. Seventeen patients had sustained a thoracolumbar burst fracture, 12 patients presented with degenerative spinal disorders, six with metastatic tumor, four with spinal deformity (one congenital and three iatrogenic), and three patients presented with spinal infections. In five patients anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) was supplemented with posterior segmental fixation at the time of the initial procedure. Of the 51 vertebral levels treated, solid arthrodesis was achieved in 49, a 96% fusion rate. One case of pseudarthrosis occurred in the group treated with BAK cages; the diagnosis was made based on the patient's continued mechanical back pain after undergoing L4-5 ALIF. The patient was treated with supplemental posterior fixation, and successful fusion occurred uneventfully with resolution of her back pain. In the group in which vertebrectomy was performed there was one case of fusion failure in a patient with

  18. Despite the hair failing, nails thrive…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samipa Samir Mukherjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasias are defined as a group of congenital, nonprogressive, developmental syndromes with primary disorders in at least two ectoderm-derived structures namely eccrine glands, hair, nail and teeth. Pure hair and nail affecting ectodemal dysplasias are exceedingly rare in occurance and have been known to be associated with multiple abnormalities, such as keratoderma or ichthyosis, skeletal and hematological abnormalities, cardiac irregularities, mental or psychomotor retardation and cataracts. We herein report a case of hypotrichosis with trichorrhexis nodosa and twenty nail dystrophy- a hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia variant.

  19. Why neutron stars have three hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Leo; Yagi, Kent; Pappas, George; Yunes, Nicolas; Apostolatos, Theocharis

    2015-04-01

    Neutron stars have recently been found to enjoy a certain `baldness' in their multipolar structure which is independent of the equation of state (EoS) of dense nuclear matter. This is reminiscent of the black hole no-hair relations, and in stark contrast to regular stars. Why is this? Is it because realistic EoSs are sufficiently similar, or because GR effects are especially important, or because the nuclear matter is `cold'? We explore the physics behind these and more hypotheses, and give a convincing explanation for the true origin of the three-hair relations.

  20. Analysis of standard substance human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shuyun; Zhang Yongbao

    2005-01-01

    The human hair samples as standard substances were analyzed by the neutron activation analysis (NAA) on the miniature neutron source reactor. 19 elements, i.e. Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Na, S, Se, V and Zn, were measured. The average content, standard deviation, relative standard deviation and the detection limit under the present research conditions were given for each element, and the results showed that the measured values of the samples were in agreement with the recommended values, which indicated that NAA can be used to analyze standard substance human hair with a relatively high accuracy. (authors)

  1. Fabrication of a Microneedle Using Human Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Takei, Tamotsu

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we developed a novel microneedle design to inject medication into the skin and to remove blood from a blood vessel. A drilling machine and chemicals were used to drill a hollow needle bore into the center of a strand of human hair. Our results demonstrate that a pen-shaped microneedle has been fabricated at a length of 1.1 mm, a base diameter of 80 µm, and a tip diameter of 40 µm. The hair microneedle was sufficiently strong to insert into the meat of a chicken leg.

  2. Grey Hair Evlsion Technique For Evaluating the Effect of Drugs For the Treatment of Premature Grey Hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved method for evaluating the effect of treatment for premature grey hairs is described. The method consists of pulling out all the grey hairs in a patient and counting the number removed. Simultaneously, the converted hairs are also snipped at the grey-black junction and counted. After a gap of 3 months, the survey is repeated to count the number of hairs which have regrowing as grey hairs, the hairs which have become grey and also the hairs which have got converted into black during this period. Such surveys are repeated at 3 months intervals over a period of several years to see the progress of greying of hair in an individual and to evaluate the effect of various therapeutic procedures.

  3. Focal Atrichia: A Diagnostic Clue in Female Pattern Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Elise A; Whiting, David A

    2017-10-07

    Focal atrichia is a common clinical finding in female pattern hair loss whose specificity and histologic findings need further clarification. To determine the frequency of focal atrichia in various types of hair loss and its histologic characteristics in female pattern hair loss. Part 1: Review of 250 consecutive female patients seen with hair loss for the presence of focal atrichia and Part 2: paired biopsies of haired areas vs focal atrichia in 18 subjects with female pattern hair loss RESULTS: Focal atrichia was seen in 46/104 (44%) of women with female pattern hair loss, including 67% of late onset vs 15% of early onset, compared to 3/146 (2%) of those with other hair disorders Biopsy findings of focal atrichia in female pattern hair loss showed primarily a more progressive miniaturization process than that of haired areas of the scalp. Some women with female pattern hair loss may have had concomitant chronic telogen effluvium CONCLUSIONS: When present, focal atrichia is a clinical clue to the diagnosis of female pattern hair loss, particularly late onset subtype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Hair Growth Promotant Activity of Petroleum Ether Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract on hair growth in female Wistar rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were used for the hair growth promotion studies. They were divided into three groups(n = 6) and their dorsal skin was completely denuded to completely remove hair. Paraffin oil (control), 2 ...

  5. Matting Of Hair Due To ′Sunsilk′ Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Mohd

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Matting of hair been reported from time to time due to treatment of hair with detergent, shampoos, waving lotions, setting lotions and bleaches. A case of matting of hairs in a young girl due to a change in the brand of shampoo is reported.

  6. A close shave: The taboo on female body hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades body hair has fast become a taboo for women. The empirical data of sociological and medical research reveal that the vast majority of women remove most of their body hair since the beginning of this century. Body hair is typically a marker that polices significant boundaries:

  7. The abundance of some elements in hair from Tanzanian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abundance of some elements in hair from Tanzanian children. NK Mohammed. Abstract. Reference values for elements in human hair of people from different countries have been published in literature. However, the data did not include the hair elemental concentrations of the Tanzanian population. Therefore, this ...

  8. A case report and clinical approach to silver blonde hair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sana Durrani

    2015-09-29

    Sep 29, 2015 ... Abstract Griscelli syndrome type 2 is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the. RAB27A gene. It is characterized by pigmentary dilution of the skin and hair causing silvery gray hair, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and characteristic light microscopy findings in scalp hair.

  9. Supramolecular hair dyes: a new application of cocrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delori, Amit; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the first report of hair dyes of various colors formed by cocrystallization. Unlike the most popular oxidative hair dye (OHD) products, these dyes are NH3 free and do not require H2O2 as a color developer. The importance of these new hair dyes products is further enhanced...

  10. Biomimetic Hair Sensor Arrays: From Inspiration To Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Bruinink, C.M.; Kolster, M.L.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report on the successful implementation of highly sensitive artificial hair-based flow-sensor arrays for sensing low-frequency air flows. Artificial hair sensors are bio-inspired from crickets’ cercal filiform hairs, one of nature’s best in sensing small air flows. The presented

  11. Learning from Crickets: Artificial Hair-Sensor Array Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2010-01-01

    We have successfully developed biomimetic flowsensitive hair-sensor arrays taking inspiration from mechanosensory hairs of crickets. Our current generation of sensors achieves sub mm/s threshold air-flow sensitivity for single hairs operating in a bandwidth of a few hundred Hz and is the result of a

  12. Premature graying of hair: An independent risk marker for coronary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of premature graying of hair was associated with 3.24 times the risk of CAD on multiple logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The presence of premature graying of hair was associated with an increased risk of CAD in young smokers. Premature graying of hair can be used as preliminary evidence by ...

  13. Organic components in hair-ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Disko, Ulrich; Wagner, Gerhard; Mätzler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hair-ice is a rather unknown phenomenon. In contrast to generally known frost needles, originating from atmospheric water and expanding e.g. from plant surfaces in all directions, hair ice grows from the basis of wet, rotten hardwood. The hair-like, flexible, linear structures may reach up to 10 cm in length without any ramifications. Hair-ice appears to be related to the biological activity of a fungus mycelium within the wood. Hair-ice can attract winter-active Collemboles (snow flea, Isotoma nivalis). At the onset of hair-ice melt a very thin fibre becomes apparent, which carries brownish pearl-like water drops. Therefore, it is supposed that organic substances are inherent, which could possibly act as freezing catalyst as well as recrystallization inhibitor. The aim of this work was the chemical characterization of organic substances contained in hair-ice. First analyses of melted hair-ice show a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 235 mg/l in contrast to 11 mg/l total nitrogen. Most of inherent nitrogen (70 %) exists thereby as ammonium. Screened by different (mass spectrometric) methods, no evidence could be found for the initially expected organic substances like proteins, lipids, small volatile substances or carboxylic acids. By coupling of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a triple quadrupol mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) a non-resolved chromatogram from a melted hair-ice sample was received. Averaged spectra from different regions are similar among themselves with a broad peak spreading over the mass range 100-650 Da with favored intense, odd-numbered peaks. Such spectra are similar to dissolved organic matter (DOM), known e.g. from terrestrial and marine waters, soil extracts or aerosols. In the next step, samples were desalted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T

  14. Thread-like supercapacitors based on one-step spun nanocomposite yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinghai; Wang, Kai; Guo, Wei; Fang, Jin; Wei, Zhixiang; She, Xilin

    2014-08-13

    Thread-like electronic devices have attracted great interest because of their potential applications in wearable electronics. To produce high-performance, thread-like supercapacitors, a mixture of stable dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes and conducting polyaniline nanowires are prepared. Then, the mixture is spun into flexible yarns with a polyvinyl alcohol outer sheath by a one-step spinning process. The composite yarns show excellent mechanical properties and high electrical conductivities after sufficient washing to remove surfactants. After applying a further coating layer of gel electrolyte, two flexible yarns are twisted together to form a thread-like supercapacitor. The supercapacitor based on these two yarns (SWCNTs and PAniNWs) possesses a much higher specific capacitance than that based only on pure SWCNTs yarns, making it an ideal energy-storage device for wearable electronics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Rate of Threading a Cellulose Chain into the Binding Tunnel of a Cellulase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Alasepp, Kadri; Andersen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    the tunnel with a cellulose strand and end with the opposite, that is, the dethreading process. Evidence has suggested that threading or dethreading may be rate-limiting for the overall enzyme reaction. To directly elucidate the rates of threading and dethreading, we analyzed experimental data with respect......, at which other steps also influenced the overall dynamics. These results will be helpful in identifying rate-limiting steps for cellulases and, in turn, targets for rational design of faster enzymes.......Industrially important cellulase Cel7A hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose by a complex processive mechanism in which the enzyme slides along the cellulose surface with one strand of the polymeric substrate channeled through its catalytic tunnel. Each processive run must start with threading...

  16. Theoretical prediction of pullout strengths for dental and orthopaedic screws with conical profile and buttress threads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kao-Shang; Hou, Sheng-Mou; Lin, Shang-Chih

    2017-12-01

    The pullout strength of a screw is an indicator of how secure bone fragments are being held in place. Such bone-purchasing ability is sensitive to bone quality, thread design, and the pilot hole, and is often evaluated by experimental and numerical methods. Historically, there are some mathematical formulae to simulate the screw withdrawal from the synthetic bone. There are great variations in screw specifications. However, extensive investigation of the correlation between experimental and analytical results has not been reported in literature. Referring to the literature formulae, this study aims to evaluate the differences in the calculated pullout strengths. The pullout tests of the surgical screws are measured and the sawbone is used as the testing block. The absolute errors and correlation coefficients of the experimental and analytical results are calculated as the comparison baselines of the formulae. The absolute error of the dental, traumatic, and spinal groups are 21.7%, 95.5%, and 37.0%, respectively. For the screws with a conical profile and/or tiny threads, the calculated and measured results are not well correlated. The formulae are not accurate indicators of the pullout strengths of the screws where the design parameters are slightly varied. However, the experimental and numerical results are highly correlated for the cylindrical screws. The pullout strength of a conical screw is higher than that of its counterpart, but all formulae consistently predict the opposite results. In general, the bony purchase of the buttress threads is securer than that of the symmetric thread. An absolute error of up to 51.4% indicates the theoretical results cannot predict the actual value of the pullout strength. Only thread diameter, pitch, and depth are considered in the investigated formulae. The thread profile and shape should be formulated to modify the slippage mechanism at the bone-screw interfaces and simulate the strength change in the squeezed bones

  17. Zebra mussels anchor byssal threads faster and tighter than quagga mussels in flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Suzanne M; McCarthy, Alice J; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2009-07-01

    While the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha has rapidly spread throughout the Great Lakes and inland waterways, it is being displaced by the quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis in shallow water habitats. However, zebra mussels remain dominant in areas with higher water velocity. We hypothesized that the persistence of zebra over quagga mussels in habitats with higher water velocity might result from greater rate and strength of byssal thread attachment. We examined whether zebra mussels relative to quagga mussels have: (1) higher byssal thread synthesis rate, (2) lower dislodgment in flow and (3) greater mechanical force required for detachment from substrate. Specifically, we examined byssal thread synthesis rate and dislodgment of both species in response to water velocities of 0, 50, 100 and 180 cm s(-1). Byssal thread synthesis rate was significantly higher for zebra than for quagga mussels at all velocities. Dislodgment from the substrate increased for both species with increasing velocity but was significantly lower for zebra than for quagga mussels. We also tested the mechanical force to detach mussels after short (32 h) and long (two and three months) periods of attachment on hard substrate. Detachment force was significantly higher for zebra than for quagga mussels only after short-term attachment. Higher byssal thread synthesis rate in zebra mussels was a likely factor that minimized their dislodgment in flow and increased short-term attachment strength. Differences in byssal thread synthesis rate between the two species might partly account for the ability of zebra mussels to maintain dominance over quagga mussels in habitats with high velocities.

  18. The design, calibration, and use of a water microjet for stimulating hair cell sensory hair bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J C; Szymko, Y M

    1989-11-01

    The design, calibration, and use of a noninvasive, noncontact device for stimulating hair cell hair bundles in vitro are described. This device employed a piezoelectric crystal, driven at high frequencies, to generate sinusoidal pressure in a contained fluid volume. The pressure was propagated to the tip of a glass micropipette and the oscillating water jet stimulus produced at the tip was used to stimulate sensory hair bundles. The movements of glass microbeads, caught in the oscillating pressure field of the water jet, provided a means of calibrating this stimulus. The linearity of the jet, its waveform and frequency response, the influence of pipette shape and tip diameter, as well as models to explain the operation of the water jet, are described. The use of this stimulus for measuring hair bundle micromechanics at high frequencies is then demonstrated.

  19. Hair shedding score may affect body temperature more than hair coat color during heat stress in weaned beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hair shedding score and hair coat color on the vaginal temperature (VT) of calves during heat stress. Weaned Bos taurus beef heifers (n = 32; BW = 282 ± 6.4 kg) were assigned to a hair coat color class (BLACK; RED; or LIGHT, where LIGHT = yel...

  20. Preload, Coefficient of Friction, and Thread Friction in an Implant-Abutment-Screw Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentaschek, Stefan; Tomalla, Sven; Schmidtmann, Irene; Lehmann, Karl Martin

    To examine the screw preload, coefficient of friction (COF), and tightening torque needed to overcome the thread friction of an implant-abutment-screw complex. In a customized load frame, 25 new implant-abutment-screw complexes including uncoated titanium alloy screws were torqued and untorqued 10 times each, applying 25 Ncm. Mean preload values decreased significantly from 209.8 N to 129.5 N according to the number of repetitions. The overall COF increased correspondingly. There was no comparable trend for the thread friction component. These results suggest that the application of a used implant-abutment-screw complex may be unfavorable for obtaining optimal screw preload.