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Sample records for hair mercury levels

  1. Hair mercury levels in Amazonian populations: spatial distribution and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Flavia L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is present in the Amazonian aquatic environments from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As a consequence, many riverside populations are exposed to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury, because of their intense fish consumption. Many studies have analysed this exposure from different approaches since the early nineties. This review aims to systematize the information in spatial distribution, comparing hair mercury levels by studied population and Amazonian river basin, looking for exposure trends. Methods The reviewed papers were selected from scientific databases and online libraries. We included studies with a direct measure of hair mercury concentrations in a sample size larger than 10 people, without considering the objectives, approach of the study or mercury speciation. The results are presented in tables and maps by river basin, displaying hair mercury levels and specifying the studied population and health impact, if any. Results The majority of the studies have been carried out in communities from the central Amazonian regions, particularly on the Tapajós River basin. The results seem quite variable; hair mercury means range from 1.1 to 34.2 μg/g. Most studies did not show any significant difference in hair mercury levels by gender or age. Overall, authors emphasized fish consumption frequency as the main risk factor of exposure. The most studied adverse health effect is by far the neurological performance, especially motricity. However, it is not possible to conclude on the relation between hair mercury levels and health impact in the Amazonian situation because of the relatively small number of studies. Conclusions Hair mercury levels in the Amazonian regions seem to be very heterogenic, depending on several factors. There is no obvious spatial trend and there are many areas that have never been studied. Taking into account the low mercury levels currently handled as acceptable, the

  2. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  3. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  4. Hair mercury levels versus freshwater fish consumption in household members of Swedish angling societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, Cecilia; Saellsten, Gerd; Schuetz, Andrejs; Sjoers, Anna; Barregaard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Hair mercury levels were determined in 143 individuals from households of members in angling societies in an area of Sweden with many lakes that have freshwater fish with relatively high mercury levels. Thus, the individuals had a potentially high intake of methyl mercury. The mean mercury concentration of pike and perch was approximately 0.7 μg/g. One-third of the subjects consumed these freshwater fish at least once a week. As could be expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported freshwater fish consumption (P<0.001). The median mercury level in hair was 0.9 μg Hg/g for the whole group, and for those who reported consumption of freshwater fish at least once a week it was 1.8 μg/g. The highest hair mercury level was 18.5 μg/g, in a man who consumed pike and perch several times per week. Men had higher hair Hg than women, also when stratified for fish consumption. This was verified in 32 couples, of which the man and woman consumed the same fish and reported the same consumption. The median hair mercury level in these 32 couples was 1.3 μg/g for men and 0.8 μg/g for women (P=0.002). About half of the subjects had hair mercury exceeding 1 μg/g, corresponding to the reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 μg of mercury per kilogram body weight set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Although the RfD applies to all populations, the most at-risk group at these levels is pregnant women. There were only 2 women (of 12) of fertile age with hair mercury above 1 μg/g. In Sweden pregnant women are advised not to eat perch and pike at all during pregnancy. Since fish is rich in many important nutrients, it is unsatisfactory that fish consumption must be restricted, and thus there is a need to reduce mercury levels in fish

  5. Comparative observations on levels of mercury in scalp hair of humans from different Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzoni, Aristeo

    1992-09-01

    Following the Minamata events, an extraordinary number of studies concerning mercury toxicity and human health have been undertaken. Particular attention has been given to the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, i.e., the body burden at which (evaluated through the mercury analyses in blood or hair) the risk of poisoning begins. The results of a comparative study concerning levels of mercury in the hair of fishermen living in small islands who eat seafood more than four times per week show that in two areas only, and only in a few cases in these areas, the mercury in the hair exceeds the limit at which a possible risk could exist. In fact, the limit of 50 mg/g of total mercury in the hair (indicated as the lower limit above which a possible risk could occur) is surpassed by nine fishermen out of a total of 39 at station 1 and by four fishermen out of a total of 26 at station 3. The average value at station 1 is 36.38 mg/g and that at station 3 is 30.31 mg. Many countries have set legal limits of mercury for seafood, but evidently the system does not offer a true protection for man. Only the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), as repeatedly suggested by WHO, should be considered the best guideline to prevent possibly harmful consequences.

  6. Hair mercury (Hg) levels, fish consumption and semen parameters among men attending a fertility center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Arvizu, Mariel; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Ford, Jennifer B; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2018-03-01

    General population exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), the most common organic mercury compound found in the environment, occurs primarily through the consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. Due to limited studies and lack of consideration of effect modification by fish consumption, it remains uncertain if exposure to mercury affects semen parameters. Thus, we investigated whether hair Hg levels, a biomarker of mercury exposure, were associated with semen parameters among men attending an academic fertility center, and whether this relationship was modified by intake of fish. This analysis included 129 men contributing 243 semen samples who were enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study between 2005 and 2013, and had data of hair Hg, intake of fish and semen parameters available. Hair Hg levels were assessed using a direct mercury analyzer. Intake of fish was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Semen parameters were analyzed following WHO 2010 evaluation criteria. Generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts accounting for within-man correlations across semen samples were used to evaluate the association of hair Hg levels and semen parameters adjusting for age, BMI, smoking status, abstinence time and alcohol intake. Effect modification by total fish intake (≤1.68 vs. >1.68 servings/week) was tested. The median hair Hg levels of the men was 0.72ppm and ranged from 0.03 to 8.01ppm; almost 30% of the men had hair Hg levels >1ppm. Hair Hg levels were positively related with sperm concentration, total sperm count, and progressive motility, after adjusting for potential confounders and became attenuated after further adjustment for fish intake. Specifically, men in the highest quartile of hair mercury levels had 50%, 46% and 31% higher sperm concentration, total sperm count and progressive motility, respectively, compared to men in the lowest quartile. These associations were stronger among men whose fish

  7. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Iwata, Hisato; Monirith, In; Tana, Touch Seang; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 μg/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 μg/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 μg/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 μg/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians

  8. Hair mercury levels in relation to fish consumption among Vietnamese in Hanoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Anh Thi; Do, Hien Thu Thi; Agusa, Tetsuro; Koriyama, Chihaya; Akiba, Suminori; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Yamamoto, Megumi

    2017-01-01

    People are exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) mainly through fish consumption, which is increasing in Vietnam. However, little information is available on estimating the health risk of MeHg exposure through fish consumption in Vietnam. The present study examined the association between mercury (Hg) levels in hair and selenium (Se) levels in toenails of 196 Vietnamese people and their fish consumption, using a dietary questionnaire to obtain information pertinent for assessing health risk owing to MeHg exposure. The geometric mean of Hg levels in the hair of males and females was 617 ng/g and 575 ng/g, respectively. We found that Hg levels in the hair of 98% of the Vietnamese study subjects were lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake for MeHg (1.6 µg Hg/kg body weight; which is equivalent to a hair Hg concentration of approximately 2,300 ng/g, with an uncertainty factor of 6.4). There were significant differences in the age-adjusted geometric mean of Hg levels found in hair from females related to their frequency of freshwater fish consumption. The levels of Hg in hair and Se in toenails increased with an increased frequency of marine fish consumption, and both showed a significant positive correlation in subjects who consumed marine fish ≥ once/week. This is the first cross-sectional study to investigate the association between hair Hg levels and fish consumption in Vietnam. These findings provide valuable information for future assessments of the health risk of MeHg exposure through fish consumption in Vietnam.

  9. Scalp hair and saliva as biomarkers in determination of mercury levels in Iranian women: Amalgam as a determinant of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakour, H., E-mail: fakour.h@gmail.com [Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaili-Sari, A. [Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zayeri, F. [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences and Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between mercury concentrations in saliva and hair in women with amalgam fillings and its relation with age and number of amalgam fillings. Eighty-two hair and saliva samples were collected randomly from Iranian women who have the same fish consumption pattern and free from occupational exposures. The mean {+-} SD age of these women was 29.37 {+-} 8.12 (ranged from 20 to 56). The determination of Hg level in hair samples was carried out by the LECO, AMA 254, Advanced Mercury Analyzer according to ASTM, standard No. D-6722. Mercury concentration in saliva samples was analyzed by PERKIN-ELMER 3030 Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean {+-} SD mercury level in the women was 1.28 {+-} 1.38 {mu}g/g in hair and 4.14 {+-} 4.08 {mu}g/l in saliva; and there were positive correlation among them. A significant correlation was also observed between Hg level of saliva (Spearman's {rho} = 0.93, P < 0.001) and hair (Spearman's {rho} = 0.92, P < 0.001) with number of amalgam fillings. According to the results, we can conclude that amalgam fillings may be an effective source for high Hg concentration in hair and releasing the mercury to the saliva samples.

  10. Scalp hair and saliva as biomarkers in determination of mercury levels in Iranian women: Amalgam as a determinant of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakour, H.; Esmaili-Sari, A.; Zayeri, F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between mercury concentrations in saliva and hair in women with amalgam fillings and its relation with age and number of amalgam fillings. Eighty-two hair and saliva samples were collected randomly from Iranian women who have the same fish consumption pattern and free from occupational exposures. The mean ± SD age of these women was 29.37 ± 8.12 (ranged from 20 to 56). The determination of Hg level in hair samples was carried out by the LECO, AMA 254, Advanced Mercury Analyzer according to ASTM, standard No. D-6722. Mercury concentration in saliva samples was analyzed by PERKIN-ELMER 3030 Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean ± SD mercury level in the women was 1.28 ± 1.38 μg/g in hair and 4.14 ± 4.08 μg/l in saliva; and there were positive correlation among them. A significant correlation was also observed between Hg level of saliva (Spearman's ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) and hair (Spearman's ρ = 0.92, P < 0.001) with number of amalgam fillings. According to the results, we can conclude that amalgam fillings may be an effective source for high Hg concentration in hair and releasing the mercury to the saliva samples.

  11. Changes in Hair Mercury Levels Among Women of Child-Bearing Age Following an Educational Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Michelle; Christensen, Krista Y; Thompson, Brooke; Anderson, Henry

    2017-06-01

    Describe mercury exposures among women of childbearing age before and after an educational intervention. Women age 18 to 45 were recruited to participate in an educational intervention concerning fish consumption. Fish consumption habits and total mercury concentration in hair were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Regression models examined associations between mercury, fish consumption, and demographics. Overall, 234 women completed the study. On average, mercury concentrations increased by 0.01 ppm (parts per million) following the intervention, despite declines in fish consumption; however, women in the 90th percentile for mercury at baseline decreased concentrations significantly while maintaining high rates of fish consumption. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with fish consumption and certain demographic characteristics. The intervention reached individuals most at-risk. Healthcare providers should discuss fish consumption habits with women to encourage consumption of low-risk fish, and identify women needing education and counseling.

  12. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta

    2015-01-01

    of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify...... traditional and cultural values as well as the potential health benefits from fish consumption. European harmonized human biomonitoring programs provide an additional dimension to national HMB programs and can assist national authorities to tailor mitigation and adaptation strategies (dietary advice, risk......The toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) in humans is well established and the main source of exposure is via the consumption of large marine fish and mammals. Of particular concern are the potential neurodevelopmental effects of early life exposure to low-levels of MeHg. Therefore, it is important...

  13. Arsenic and mercury levels in human hairs and nails from gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hair and nail samples obtained from inhabitants of Wassa West District, a major gold mining area in Ghana, were analysed for arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10P11 Pn cmP-2P sP-1P using the Ghana Research ...

  14. Arsenic and mercury levels in human hairs and nails from gold mining areas in Wassa West District of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.; Samlafo, B.V.; Yeboah, P.O.

    2009-01-01

    Hair and nail samples obtained from inhabitants of Wassa District, a major gold mining area in Ghana, were analysed for arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 11 n cm -2 s -1 using the Ghana Research Reactor. Concentration of Hg in the hairs ranged from 1.65 to 20.46 μg/g, which were below World Health Organization (WHO) recommended level of 50.00 μg/g for human hair. Mercury concentration in human nail samples ranged from 0.97 to 31.94 μg/g. Arsenic concentrations in human hairs ranged from 0.07 to 0.95 μg/g, while the levels in nail samples ranged from 0.08 to 3.90 μg/g. Generally, levels of As in the hair were less than WHO recommended value of 1.00 μg/g, however, the levels of As in 5 nail samples (FN 11 , FN 20 , FN 28 , TN 9 and TN 16 ) were above the maximum WHO value of 1.80μg/g. The measurement precision specified by the relative standard deviation was within ± 3 %. The accuracy of determination evaluated by analysing certified standard human reference material GBW 09101 was within ± 4 % of the certified value. The levels of As in hair and nail samples of the experimental group were generally higher as compared to the control subject. Similarly, Hg levels in the hair and nail samples in experimental group were also higher compared to the control subject. However, the levels of the toxic elements determined were all below WHO recommended values. (au)

  15. Hair Mercury Levels in Six Iranian Sub-populations for Estimation of Methylmercury Exposure: A Mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Esmaili-Sari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mercury is widespread and persistent in the environment. One organicform of mercury, Methylmercury (MeHg, can accumulate in the food chain in aquaticecosystems and lead to high concentrations of MeHg in fish, which, when consumed byhumans, can result in an increased risk of adverse effects. Currently, the Joint FAO/WHOExpert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA has established provisional tolerableweekly intakes (PTWIs for total mercury at 5 μg/kg body weight and for methylmercury at1.6 μg/kg body weight. Mercury concentration in blood or hair has been widely used forestimation of methylmercury exposure.Materials and Methods: In this review article, we calculated methylmercury exposurefrom hair mercury levels among six subpopulations (i.e. students, dentists, dental nurses,women with amalgam fillings, pregnant women in Mahshahr, and Women of a port town,Mahshahr, Iran. Some of the experiments had been performed by this group in previousyears.Results: The mean exposure level (μg/kg bw/day in three Iranian groups (dentists,pregnant women, and women in Mahshahr was higher than RfD and PTWIs.Conclusion: As people are exposed to methylmercury mainly through their diet,especially from fish and other marine species, pregnant women should reduce fishconsumption, especially predatory fish, and dentists should use preventive measures (likemasks and gloves.

  16. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirard, Catherine; Koppen, Gudrun; De Cremer, Koen; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Govarts, Eva; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van De Mieroop, Els; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtain European-wide comparison values on these chemicals. The Belgian participant population consisted in 129 school children (6–11 years) and their mothers (≤ 45 years) living in urban or rural areas of Belgium. The geometric mean levels for mercury in hair were 0.383 μg/g and 0.204 μg/g for respectively mothers and children. Cadmium in mother's and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean concentration of respectively 0.21 and 0.04 μg/l. For both biomarkers, levels measured in the mothers and their child were correlated. While the urinary cadmium levels increased with age, no trend was found for hair mercury content, except the fact that mothers hold higher levels than children. The hair mercury content increased significantly with the number of dental amalgam fillings, explaining partially the higher levels in the mothers by their higher presence rate of these amalgams compared to children. Fish or seafood consumption was the other main parameter determining the mercury levels in hair. No relationship was found between smoking status and cadmium or mercury levels, but the studied population included very few smokers. Urinary cadmium levels were higher in both mothers and children living in urban areas, while for mercury this difference was only significant for children. Our small population showed urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels lower than the health based guidelines suggested by the WHO or the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Only 1% had cadmium level slightly higher than the German HBM-I value (1 μg/l for adults), and 9% exceeded the 1 μg mercury/g hair suggested by the US EPA. - Highlights: • Hair mercury and urinary

  17. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirard, Catherine, E-mail: c.pirard@chu.ulg.ac.be [CHU of Liege, Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, CHU (B35), 4000 Liege (Belgium); Koppen, Gudrun, E-mail: gudrun.koppen@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Cremer, Koen, E-mail: Koen.DeCremer@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Van Overmeire, Ilse, E-mail: ilse.vanovermeire@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Govarts, Eva, E-mail: eva.govarts@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Dewolf, Marie-Christine, E-mail: marie_christine.dewolf@hainaut.be [Provincial Institute Hainaut Vigilance Sanitaire — Hainaut Hygiène Publique en (HVS-HPH), Boulevard Sainctelette, 55, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Van De Mieroop, Els, E-mail: Els.VanDeMieroop@pih.provant.be [Provincial Institute for Hygiene (PIH), Boomgaardstraat 22 bus 1, 2600 Antwerpen (Belgium); Aerts, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.aerts@milieu.belgie.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Biot, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.biot@environnement.belgique.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine, E-mail: Ludwine.Casteleyn@med.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Center for Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike, E-mail: marike.kolossa@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schwedler, Gerda, E-mail: Gerda.Schwedler@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-02-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtain European-wide comparison values on these chemicals. The Belgian participant population consisted in 129 school children (6–11 years) and their mothers (≤ 45 years) living in urban or rural areas of Belgium. The geometric mean levels for mercury in hair were 0.383 μg/g and 0.204 μg/g for respectively mothers and children. Cadmium in mother's and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean concentration of respectively 0.21 and 0.04 μg/l. For both biomarkers, levels measured in the mothers and their child were correlated. While the urinary cadmium levels increased with age, no trend was found for hair mercury content, except the fact that mothers hold higher levels than children. The hair mercury content increased significantly with the number of dental amalgam fillings, explaining partially the higher levels in the mothers by their higher presence rate of these amalgams compared to children. Fish or seafood consumption was the other main parameter determining the mercury levels in hair. No relationship was found between smoking status and cadmium or mercury levels, but the studied population included very few smokers. Urinary cadmium levels were higher in both mothers and children living in urban areas, while for mercury this difference was only significant for children. Our small population showed urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels lower than the health based guidelines suggested by the WHO or the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Only 1% had cadmium level slightly higher than the German HBM-I value (1 μg/l for adults), and 9% exceeded the 1 μg mercury/g hair suggested by the US EPA. - Highlights: • Hair mercury and

  18. Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Kurosawa, Tomoko; Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and α 1 -microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91μg/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32μg/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66μg/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84μg/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28μg/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury (μg/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury (μg/g)

  19. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey L. Langeland

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1 examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA’s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI; and (2, to measure the mercury levels of paco (Piaractus brachypomus fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight. We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute

  20. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, Aubrey L; Hardin, Rebecca D; Neitzel, Richard L

    2017-03-14

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA)'s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI); and (2), to measure the mercury levels of paco ( Piaractus brachypomus ) fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight). We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred) in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute to human

  1. Mercury Hair Concentration among Primary School Children in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzah Abdul Samad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main concern regarding mercury exposure is the adverse health effect on the developing nervous system. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine hair mercury levels and their association with socio-demographic characteristics, complaints about mercury poisoning symptoms and the fish consumption pattern among children in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 215 school children aged 11 years old. Hair was collected from the children and the total mercury was analyzed using oxygen combustion–gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Anthropometric data, a fish consumption questionnaire and mercury poisoning symptoms were collected during a personal interview. The mean hair mercury level among primary school children was 0.63 ± 0.59 µg/g with the geometric mean of 0.47 µg/g. A total of 14% of respondents had hair mercury levels above 1 µg/g. A multiple binary logistic regression analysis outlined that fish consumption of at least one meal per week increased the likelihood of having a high mercury level (odds ratio (OR 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.3–10.4. This study confirms the existence of a mercury burden among Malaysian children and the level is high compared to other regional studies. This study provides important baseline data regarding the mercury level among children in Malaysia.

  2. Study on total mercury and methylmercury levels in hair and tissues of typical human populations exposed to mercury in China by NAA and GC(EC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Chifang; Qian Qinfang; Feng Weiyu; Sun Jianguo; Li Xinji; Lu Yilun; Zhang Xioumei; Zhang Shen

    1992-01-01

    Since the first Research Coordination Meeting in Vienna, 10-13 June 1991, China has been putting the research emphasis on two aspects for studying mercury exposure to the population. The first is a methodology for methylmercury analysis. The second is the collection and analysis of representative hair samples. The main activities during this study period are summarized in this paper. 8 tabs

  3. Mercury hair levels and factors that influence exposure for residents of Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of mercury (Hg) vapor were released to the environment during cinnabar refining in the small town of Huancavelica, Peru. The present study characterizes individual exposure to mercury using total and speciated Hg from residential s...

  4. Monitoring environmental pollution of arsenic and mercury through neutron activation analysis of human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.; Munoz, L.; Gras, N.; Krishnan, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    Hair samples from Chilean people have been analyzed using neutron activation analysis as a monitor of environmental pollution of arsenic and mercury. Water is considered to be an important means of transport of heavy metal pollution in this country. The absorption characteristics of hair for arsenic and mercury from aqueous solutions have been studied. Hair concentrates arsenic (about twofold) and mercury (about 100 fold) from water and therefore, is able to detect even low environmental levels of these elements. Arsenic and mercury are found to behave differently in their absorption behaviour along the length of the hair. (author)

  5. Determination of arsenic and mercury level in scalp hair from a selected population in Penang, Malaysia using XRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldroobi, Khalid Saleh Ali; Shukri, A.; Bauk, Sabar; Munem, Eid Mahmoud Abdel; Abuarra, Ali.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    As with many cities all over the world with active industrial developments, the city of Penang in Malaysia has also the potential of being exposed to industrial pollution. Such exposure would certainly have a detrimental impact on the environment and the people. The determination of trace elemental levels in hair which is well known as a method for environmental exposure monitoring, evaluation of heavy metal poisoning, assessment of nutrient levels and disease diagnoses. In this study, it is selected as the method to determine the possible exposure to pollutants in the form of unwanted trace elements. The natural levels of trace elements in hair are hence monitored first as reference values for the assessment of the possible human contamination levels. In this work the concentrations of As and Hg in the human scalp hair of 100 residents of Penang were determined using XRF. The results of this study are compared with the results obtained in other cities where such measurements have also been carried out. - Highlights: • XRF technique of measurement trace elements (As and Hg) in human hair for people in Penang, Malaysia. • The results are measured for samples in black ashed form. • The higher concentrations of As and Hg in the hair of town population suggests the presence of external sources of contamination in Penang environment. • This study will be a reference for future studies to compare the ratios of As and Hg in the human hair for people in Penang

  6. Hair mercury measurement in Egyptian autistic children | El-baz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    difficulties, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, which comprise the three DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of autism. The aim of this work was to measure the concentration of total mercury trace elements in the hair of some Egyptian autistic children and to correlate these levels with severity of the disease. Methods: ...

  7. Comparative analysis of mercury content in human hair and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were analysed in human hairs and cosmetic products sold in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The average total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations in the scalp hair of females using mercury based cosmetic creams and soaps ranged from 7.0 ± 0.4 to 880 ± 12 ppm. Highest T-Hg concentrations ...

  8. Relationship between mercury levels in hair and fish consumption in a population living near a hydroelectric tropical dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José Luis; Ruiz-Guzmán, Javier Alonso; Díez, Sergi

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were assessed in human hair samples (n = 76) and fish muscle (n = 33) collected at Urrá dam, upstream Sinú river, northwestern Colombia. Based on interviews with study participants, weekly intakes of total mercury (WIT-Hg) and methylmercury (WIMeHg) by fish consumption were also estimated. T-Hg concentrations in hair samples ranged from 0.40 to 24.56 μg/g dw. The highest concentrations were recorded in children (CH) (2-15 years old, n = 24) with significant differences (p < 0.05) with respect to women of childbearing age (WCHA) (16-49 years old, n = 29) and the rest of the population (RP) (n = 23), which were not significantly different. The highest T-Hg concentrations in muscle tissue were recorded in the carnivorous fish (0.65-2.25 μg/g wet weight, ww), with significant differences (p < 0.05) compared to non-carnivorous fish (0.16-0.54 μg/g ww). WIT-Hg recorded the highest values in CH (2.18-50.41 μg/kg/week), with significant differences (p < 0.05) with respect to WCHA (2.02-23.54 μg/kg/week) and RP (1.09-24.71 μg/kg/week), which were not significantly different. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between weekly fish consumption and hair T-Hg in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.44, p < 0.05). This association was also observed with the number of days per week with fish consumption in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). These results suggest that Hg exposure in people inhabiting the Urrá dam should be carefully monitored, particularly in vulnerable groups such as CH and WCHA.

  9. Temporal variation of blood and hair mercury levels in pregnancy in relation to fish consumption history in a population living along the St. Lawrence River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissette, Joeelle; Takser, Larissa; St-Amour, Genevieve; Smargiassi, Audrey; Lafond, Julie; Mergler, Donna

    2004-01-01

    Fish consumption from the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River has been decreasing over the last years due to advisories and increased awareness of the presence of several contaminants. Methylmercury (MeHg), a well-established neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure, bioaccumulates to differing degrees in various fish species and can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Most studies on MeHg exposure have focussed on high-level consumers from local fish sources, although mercury (Hg) is also present in fresh, frozen, and canned market fish. Moreover, little information exists on the temporal variation of blood and hair Hg in pregnant women, particularly in populations with low levels of Hg. The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal variation of Hg during pregnancy and to investigate the relation between fish consumption from various sources prior to and during pregnancy and maternal cord blood and mother's hair Hg levels. We recruited 159 pregnant women from Southwest Quebec through two prenatal clinics of the Quebec Public Health System. All women completed two detailed questionnaires concerning their fish consumption (species and frequency) prior to and during pregnancy. The women also provided blood samples for all three trimesters of pregnancy and hair samples after delivery of up to 9 cm in length. Blood and hair Hg levels were analyzed by cold-vapor atomic-absorption and -fluorescence spectrometry methods, respectively. Results showed that maternal blood and hair Hg levels decreased significantly between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, cord blood Hg was significantly higher than maternal blood at birth. Maternal hair was correlated with Hg blood concentration and was highly predictive of the organic fraction in cord blood. A strong dose relation was observed between the frequency of fish consumption before and

  10. Evaluation of mercury levels in hair of children resident in artisanal gold mining area in the city of Chapada de Natividade-Tocantins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Seyna Ueno R., E-mail: seynaueno@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFTO), Palmas,TO (Brazil). Coordenação de Medicina; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Catharino, Marília Gabriela M., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CRPQ/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisa; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Held, Barbara, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Análises Toxicológicas

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the work is to evaluate the mercury exposure of children living in an artisanal gold mining area and in a control area, without mining. A cross-sectional study was conducted with children living in the municipalities of Chapada de Natividade and Porto Nacional, in the State of Tocantins, where hair samples were collected for laboratorial analysis of mercury concentrations, comparing between municipalities, gender, monthly fish consumption, profession of parents and the presence of amalgam in dental restorations. The hair samples were analyzed by the methods of neutron activation analysis and also by means of the DMA (Direct Mercury Analyzer) equipment, in the last case being a partnership with CETESB. There was no evidence of mercury-related diseases in the studied children. The mean concentration of mercury in children in Chapada de Natividade was significantly higher than in Porto Nacional. Children exposed to artisanal gold mining areas have higher concentrations of mercury than children living in non- artisanal gold mining areas. There was no significant relationship between mercury concentrations and gender, monthly fish consumption, parental profession and amalgam presence in dental restorations. The results suggest that the children living in an area exposed to mining experience greater environmental exposure to mercury, regardless of their eating habits or gender. (author)

  11. Evaluation of mercury levels in hair of children resident in artisanal gold mining area in the city of Chapada de Natividade-Tocantins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Seyna Ueno R.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Catharino, Marília Gabriela M.; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Held, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the work is to evaluate the mercury exposure of children living in an artisanal gold mining area and in a control area, without mining. A cross-sectional study was conducted with children living in the municipalities of Chapada de Natividade and Porto Nacional, in the State of Tocantins, where hair samples were collected for laboratorial analysis of mercury concentrations, comparing between municipalities, gender, monthly fish consumption, profession of parents and the presence of amalgam in dental restorations. The hair samples were analyzed by the methods of neutron activation analysis and also by means of the DMA (Direct Mercury Analyzer) equipment, in the last case being a partnership with CETESB. There was no evidence of mercury-related diseases in the studied children. The mean concentration of mercury in children in Chapada de Natividade was significantly higher than in Porto Nacional. Children exposed to artisanal gold mining areas have higher concentrations of mercury than children living in non- artisanal gold mining areas. There was no significant relationship between mercury concentrations and gender, monthly fish consumption, parental profession and amalgam presence in dental restorations. The results suggest that the children living in an area exposed to mining experience greater environmental exposure to mercury, regardless of their eating habits or gender. (author)

  12. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  13. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Gairong; Luo, Jiayi; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  14. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirard, Catherine; Koppen, Gudrun; De Cremer, Koen

    2014-01-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtai...

  15. Hair Mercury Level is Associated with Anemia and Micronutrient Status in Children Living Near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhouse, Caren; Ortiz, Ernesto J; Berky, Axel J; Bullins, Paige; Hare-Grogg, John; Rogers, Laura; Morales, Ana-Maria; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Pan, William K

    2017-12-01

    Anemia has been widely studied in global health contexts because of severe nutritional deficiency, and more recently, inflammatory status, but chemical exposures are rarely considered. Until recently, "anemia" was used synonymously with "iron deficiency anemia (IDA)" in global health settings. However, only 50% of anemia cases worldwide are IDA. Environmental toxicology studies of anemia risk have generally focused on populations in developed countries, albeit with high exposure to environmental toxicants, such as lead or cadmium. In the developing world, toxicant exposures commonly coexist with other risk factors for anemia. In particular, artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) communities are at risk for dietary methylmercury exposure through contaminated fish consumption, and for anemia due to food insecurity and infectious and chronic diseases. Here, we report analysis of total hair mercury content, hemoglobin, and serum micronutrient levels in children association between total mercury and hemoglobin (β = -0.12 g/dL, P = 0.06) that persisted (β = -0.14 g/dL, P = 0.04) after adjusting for age, sex, anthropometrics, and vitamin B 12 in multivariate regression. This study provides preliminary evidence that methylmercury exposure is associated with anemia, which is especially relevant to children living near ASGM.

  16. Mercury levels in defined population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.; Santaroni, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    Hair samples from subjects living in the areas of Bagnara Calabra, Fiumicino and Ravenna, having a fish consumption above the national average, have been analyzed. A new location close to the Lagoon of Grado and Marano, located near the border with Slovenia, has been Selected because of the high natural levels of mercury in this lagoon due to the discharge of the Isonzo river, a tributary of which crosses the mercury rich area of Idria in Slovenia. During the last year, a group of pregnant women were selected in Rome, Bagnara Calabra, Ravenna and the area of the Lagoon of Grado and Marano. Samples of hair, pubic hair and placenta were collected from each of the subjects. A sample of the newborn hair was also collected whenever possible. The preliminary results indicate higher mercury levels in the subjects living in the area around the Lagoon of Grado and Marano. (author)

  17. Determination of total mercury and methylmercury in human head hair by radiochemical methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Saiki, M.; Paletti, G.; Baruzzi, R.G.; Rodrigues, D.A.; Cuten, J.

    1995-01-01

    Total mercury has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the hair of several Indian tribes living in the Xingu Park, located in the Amazonic region of Brazil. Methylmercury and total mercury have been determined in selected samples using cold vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy, at the Nuclear Chemistry Department, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubliana, Slovenia. Mercury levels were found to be much higher in the Indian hair samples as compared to the samples from the control population. The arithmetic and geometric means for total mercury in the Indian hair samples ranged from 10 to 20 ppm, compared to values of about 1 ppm for the means of the control group. The results obtained for methylmercury have shown that the majority of the mercury is present in the hair of the Indians as the organic form. The Indian study populations living in the Xingu Park can thus be considered as being at risk with regards to contamination by mercury. With the aim of applying neutron activation analysis for the determination of methylmercury in hair, experiments were done at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor irradiating cysteine- and also thioacetamide- impregnated filter papers, on which a methylmercury solution was pipetted. The results obtained have shown that all the mercury was lost from the cysteine-impregnated paper and about 90 % of the mercury remained on the paper impregnated with thioacetamide. (author)

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis links autism and toxic metals and highlights the impact of country development status: Higher blood and erythrocyte levels for mercury and lead, and higher hair antimony, cadmium, lead, and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-10-03

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that affects cognitive and higher cognitive functions. Increasing prevalence of ASD and high rates of related comorbidities has caused serious health loss and placed an onerous burden on the supporting families, caregivers, and health care services. Heavy metals are among environmental factors that may contribute to ASD. However, due to inconsistencies across studies, it is still hard to explain the association between ASD and toxic metals. Therefore the objective of this study was to investigate the difference in heavy metal measures between patients with ASD and control subjects. We included observational studies that measured levels of toxic metals (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium) in different specimens (whole blood, plasma, serum, red cells, hair and urine) for patients with ASD and for controls. The main electronic medical database (PubMed and Scopus) were searched from inception through October 2016. 52 studies were eligible to be included in the present systematic review, of which 48 studies were included in the meta-analyses. The hair concentrations of antimony (standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.45) and lead (SMD=0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17 to 1.03) in ASD patients were significantly higher than those of control subjects. ASD patients had higher erythrocyte levels of lead (SMD=1.55, CI: 0.2 to 2.89) and mercury (SMD=1.56, CI: 0.42 to 2.70). There were significantly higher blood lead levels in ASD patients (SMD=0.43, CI: 0.02 to 0.85). Sensitivity analyses showed that ASD patients in developed but not in developing countries have lower hair concentrations of cadmium (SMD=-0.29, CI: -0.46 to -0.12). Also, such analyses indicated that ASD patients in developing but not in developed lands have higher hair concentrations of lead (SMD=1.58, CI: 0.80 to 2.36) and mercury (SMD=0

  19. DETERMINATION OF MERCURY IN HAIR OF CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, A; Bocca, B; Forte, G; Majorani, C; Petrucci, F; Senofonte, O; Alimonti, A

    2018-06-25

    Although high or repeated exposure to different forms of Hg can have serious health consequences, the most important toxicity risk for humans is as methylmercury (MeHg) which exposure is mainly through consumption of fish. Generally, more than the 80% of Hg in hair is as MeHg, which is taken up by hair follicles as MeHg-cysteine complexes. In this context, hair samples were collected from 200 children (7 years) living in a site in the North East (A) and from 299 children (6-11 years) living in a urban area of South Italy (B) to determine the levels of MeHg. Considering the neurotoxicity of MeHg, children were subjected to cognitive and neuropsychological tests. The hair values of Hg in the children population groups were comparable with data reported in other international surveys. On the other hand, combining results of the neurological tests with Hg levels, a possible relationship between Hg and an increase of the errors average reported in some neurological has been noted. Although the Hg levels were not elevated, a possible neurological influence in children, a population more susceptible than adults, might not be excluded. But the influence on neurological performances of the children could be also due to the family environment (socio economic status, educational level, etc.). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Determination of Mercury Daily Intake and Hair-to-Blood Mercury Concentration Ratio in People Resident of the Coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okati, Narjes; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the mercury daily intake and hair-to-blood mercury ratio in fishermen and non-fishermen families in the coast of the Persian Gulf in Iran. The mean mercury concentration in the hair of fishermen and non-fishermen families was 5.76 and 2.27 μg/g, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations of RBCs were obtained for fishermen families and non-fishermen families: 35.96 and 17.18 μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury concentrations in 17% of people were higher than 10 μg/g, the No Observed Adverse Effects Level set by the World Health Organization. 78% of people had a blood mercury value > 5.8 μg/L, the standard level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A significant correlation (r = 0.94, p = 0.000) was seen between log hair and RBCs mercury concentrations. The mean mercury daily intake for fishermen and non-fishermen families was 0.42 and 0.20 µg/kg BW per day, respectively. The mean mercury daily intake of fishermen families was higher than the provisional tolerable daily intake (0.23 µg/kg BW per day) suggested by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. Mercury daily intake significantly correlated with fish consumption (r = 0.50, p = 0.000) and log hair mercury (r = 0.88, p = 0.000). The total mean of hair-to-blood mercury concentration ratio was 306. We conclude that the use of mercury concentrations in the hair and RBCs could have been suitable biomarkers for predicting mercury exposure of people with a high rate of fish consumption.

  1. Quality control of analyses of mercury in hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, B.; Friberg, L.; Bigras, L.; Kirkbride, J.; Kennedy, P.; Kjellstroem, T.

    1988-01-01

    A quality control programme for mercury determinations in hair was developed within a study of 'Mental effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure in New Zealand children'. Hair was obtained from seven females with a mercury concentration of about 0.5-4 μg Hg/g. The hair was cut into 1-5 cm pieces and pulverized by liquid nitrogen grinding using a ring mill. In order to obtain a series of QC samples with varying Hg concentrations, different amounts of powder from all the samples and a reference sample of pulverized hair (11.2 μg Hg/g) were mixed. The mercury concentrations in the original samples and the mixtures were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA). In total four laboratories participated in the interlaboratory comparison. All laboratories used the cold vapor AAS technique and Hg monitor model 1235, LDC for determinations after wet digestion of the samples. (orig./RB)

  2. Hair Mercury Concentrations and Fish Consumption Patterns in Florida Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Schaefer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exposure through the consumption of fish and shellfish represents a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent research has demonstrated higher seafood consumption and subsequent increased risk of methylmercury exposure among subpopulations living in coastal areas. The identification of high concentrations of total mercury in blood and skin among resident Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, a coastal estuary in Florida, alerted us to a potential public health hazard in the contiguous human population. Therefore, we analyzed hair mercury concentrations of residents living along the IRL and ascertained their sources and patterns of seafood consumption. The total mean mercury concentration for 135 residents was 1.53 ± 1.89 µg/g. The concentration of hair mercury among males (2.02 ± 2.38 µg/g was significantly higher than that for females (0.96 ± 0.74 µg/g (p < 0.01. Log transformed hair mercury concentration was significantly associated with the frequency of total seafood consumption (p < 0.01. Individuals who reported consuming seafood once a day or more were 3.71 (95% CI 0.84–16.38 times more likely to have a total hair mercury concentration over 1.0 µg/g, which corresponds approximately to the U.S. EPA reference dose, compared to those who consumed seafood once a week or less. Hair mercury concentration was also significantly higher among individuals who obtained all or most of their seafood from local recreational sources (p < 0.01. The elevated human mercury concentrations mirror the elevated concentrations observed in resident dolphins in the same geographical region. The current study is one of the first to apply the concept of a sentinel animal to a contiguous human population.

  3. Study on total and methyl mercury levels in human scalp hairs of lying-in women and newborns by NAA and other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Chifang; Feng Weiye; Qian Qinfang; Guan Ming; Li Xinji; Lu Yilun; Zhang Xioumei

    1995-01-01

    Since the Second Research Co-ordinating Meeting in Malaysia, 24-28 August 1992, our research group has completed the analysis of total and methylmercury in scalp hair samples of 1179 fishermen living at a typical Hg-polluted region in Northeast China and of 27 lying-in women and their newborns in a Beijing hospital by INAA, GC(EC) and other techniques. The longitudinal Hg patterns of the lying-in women show a gradually decreasing tendency during the pregnancy period. Further, the hair Hg contents of the newborn babies are generally above or close to those of their mothers, confirming the mechanism that the methylmercury, an organic species of Hg with high toxicity, is readily able to penetrate the placental barrier and accumulate in the fetus. Thus, the mercury exposure has occurred at the early stage of pregnancy. (author)

  4. Studies of mercury, arsenic and selenium levels in human hair, nail and blood samples from the Wassa West District of Ghana, using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samlafu, V.B.

    2011-06-01

    This study examines Arsenic, mercury and selenium levels in human hair, nail and blood samples collected from Wassa West District, a mining impacted site in contrast with Akatsi and its environs, a non-mining impacted site using INAA facility at Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1), Kwabenya, Accra. Other elements determined alongside the elements of interest were Na, K, Ca, Al, Mg, Mn, V, Cl, I, Br, Au, La, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ni and Ag. An alternative method was developed for the Preconcentration Neutron Activation Analysis using dithizone/CHCl 3 mixture as the chelating agent for very low levels of mercury and arsenic in human blood. Factors that affect dithizone complexation such as PH, and concentration were investigated. Selenium levels in all the matrices were determined by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (HGAAS) technique. Speciation of Se(IV) and Se(VI) was carried out on selected blood samples using HNO 3 /H 2 O 2 as digestion reagent. The precision of the analytical methods used were evaluated by Schewart control chart for internal quality assessment purposes. The results were within the acceptable limits of Xσ. Four certified reference materials namely GBW 09101, DOME-2, Lichen IAEA-336 and Peach leave SRM 1547 were also used to validate the analytical methods for external quality assessment. The results obtained in this work were in good agreement with the certified values. The levels of total mercury in hair ranged from 1.65 μg/g to 20.46 μg/g. Mercury in nail samples ranged from 0.97μg/g to 31.94 μg/g and blood samples ranged from 0.01μg/mL to 0.70 μg/mL in experimental subjects. Mercury levels in control subjects ranged from 0.24 μg/g to 7.15 μg/g in hair, 0.2 μg/g to 1.83 μg/g of mercury in nail and 0.01 μg/mL to 2.38 μg/mL of mercury in blood. Generally the decreasing order of accumulation of mercury in the three matrices in the experimental subjects were as follows nail > hair > blood, while the control subjects had the

  5. [Mercury in the hair of pregnant and lactating Chilean mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, C G; Rodríguez, A A; Barrios, C A; Jaramillo, V H; Gras, N T; Becerra, J; Núñez, E; Reyes, O C

    1995-11-01

    Mercury-containing industrial waste has been released into the coastal waters of the Eighth Region of Chile for around two decades. This study, carried out from 1991 to 1993, sought to measure mercury concentrations in the hair of pregnant and lactating women from villages near the coast and in the interior of the region in order to examine the relationship between the concentration of mercury and seafood consumption. The survey questionnaire used in 1991 to determine seafood consumption did not ask about the frequency of consumption of fish, shellfish, and algae but only whether the women who were pregnant or breast-feeding consumed a minimum of one fish-based meal per week. The questionnaire used in 1992 and 1993 asked about the daily and weekly consumption of seafood in general (fish, shellfish, and algae). Spectrophotometry was used to determine the total mercury concentration in samples of 100 mg of hair from 153 pregnant and lactating women in 11 fishing villages of the Eighth Region where seafood is regularly consumed. None of the women had occupational exposure to mercury. Total mercury concentration was also determined in hair samples from a control group composed of 26 pregnant and lactating women from Pinto and El Carmen, villages in the interior of the same region where seafood was rarely eaten. The arithmetic mean of the total mercury concentration in hair was 1.81 mg/kg of body weight for the study group (standard deviation [SD] 1.52) and 0.42 mg/kg for the control group (SD 0.15)--a statistically significant difference (P mercury concentration in hair was significantly higher in women who indicated that they ate fish seven or more times per week; in those who said they ate fish, shellfish, or algae five or more times per week; and in those who had lived 20 or more years in their village. No statistically significant differences were found when the results were analyzed by age.

  6. Hair mercury concentrations of children and mothers in Korea: Implication for exposure and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.A.; Jeon, C.K.; Paek, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mercury is a global pollutant that affects neurodevelopment of children. Objective: The objectives were to measure and evaluate mercury concentration of children and mothers, and its association with exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was done using questionnaires and hair mercury were analysed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in the National Institute for Minamata Disease in Japan. Results: A total of 112 children and 111 mothers were included; mean age was 34 months and 32 years, respectively. 17.9 % of children and 34.2 % of mothers had concentrations greater than 1 parts per million (ppm) as reference level. Body weight at birth, feeding methods, maternal age, and maternal education level were significantly different in each group (p < .05). Mean maternal hair mercury level (0.91 ppm) was higher than children (0.74 ppm), and has a positive correlation between them (p < .05). 68.1% of children, 75% of pregnant period, 63.4% of lactating period, and 78.6% of last six months have been consuming fish. With multiple regression analysis, hair mercury levels in children aged less than 6 months had a linear relationship with body weight at birth, gestational weeks, feeding methods (breast- or bottle- feeding) and maternal educational level. While children aged over 6 months significantly differed with gender, frequency of fish servings per week, and frequency of maternal fish consumption in lactation period. And hair mercury levels had inverse linear relationship with maternal monthly income in this age group. Maternal mercury levels had linear relationship with maternal age. Conclusion: Mercury levels in children may be affected by their mothers due to similar dietary patterns. Further long-term large-scale and follow-up studies are needed

  7. Hair mercury concentrations of children and mothers in Korea: Implication for exposure and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.A. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: heaven1@snu.ac.kr; Jeon, C.K.; Paek, D.M. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-25

    Background: Mercury is a global pollutant that affects neurodevelopment of children. Objective: The objectives were to measure and evaluate mercury concentration of children and mothers, and its association with exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was done using questionnaires and hair mercury were analysed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in the National Institute for Minamata Disease in Japan. Results: A total of 112 children and 111 mothers were included; mean age was 34 months and 32 years, respectively. 17.9 % of children and 34.2 % of mothers had concentrations greater than 1 parts per million (ppm) as reference level. Body weight at birth, feeding methods, maternal age, and maternal education level were significantly different in each group (p < .05). Mean maternal hair mercury level (0.91 ppm) was higher than children (0.74 ppm), and has a positive correlation between them (p < .05). 68.1% of children, 75% of pregnant period, 63.4% of lactating period, and 78.6% of last six months have been consuming fish. With multiple regression analysis, hair mercury levels in children aged less than 6 months had a linear relationship with body weight at birth, gestational weeks, feeding methods (breast- or bottle- feeding) and maternal educational level. While children aged over 6 months significantly differed with gender, frequency of fish servings per week, and frequency of maternal fish consumption in lactation period. And hair mercury levels had inverse linear relationship with maternal monthly income in this age group. Maternal mercury levels had linear relationship with maternal age. Conclusion: Mercury levels in children may be affected by their mothers due to similar dietary patterns. Further long-term large-scale and follow-up studies are needed.

  8. Mercury and cortisol in Western Hudson Bay polar bear hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshoft, T; Derocher, A E; Richardson, E; Mislan, P; Lunn, N J; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Janz, D M; St Louis, V L

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive methods of assessing animal health and life history are becoming increasingly popular in wildlife research; hair samples from polar bears (Ursus maritimus), are being used to study an ever broader range of anthropogenic and endocrine compounds. A number of contaminants are known to disrupt endocrine function in polar bears. However, the relationship between mercury and cortisol remains unknown, although mercury is an endocrine disruptor in other species. Here, we examine the relationship between concentrations of cortisol and total mercury (THg) analyzed in guard hair from 378 polar bears (184 females, 194 males) sampled in Western Hudson Bay, 2004-2012. The difference in mean cortisol concentration between female (0.8 ± 0.6 pg/mg) and male (0.7 ± 0.5 pg/mg) polar bears bordered on significance (p = 0.054). However, mean mercury concentration was significantly greater (p = 0.009) in females (4.7 ± 1.4 μg/g) than males (4.3 ± 1.2 μg/g). Hair cortisol in males was significantly influenced by mercury, age, and fatness, as well as interactions between mercury and year, mercury and fatness, and year and fatness (all: p polar bears.

  9. Temporal Trends and Future Predictions of Mercury Concentrations in Northwest Greenland Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Born, E.W.; Riget, Frank Farsø

    2011-01-01

    -2008 concentrations ofHg in Northwest Greenland polar bear hair exceeded the general guideline values of 20-30 μg/g dry weight for terrestrial wildlife, whereas the neurochemical effect level of 5.4 μg Hg/g dry weight proposed for East Greenland polar bears was exceeded in 93.5% of the cases. These results call......Hair samples from 117 Northwest Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were taken during 1892-2008 and analyzed for total mercury (hereafterHg). The sample represented 28 independent years and the aim of the study was to analyze for temporal Hg trends. Mercury concentrations showed yearly...

  10. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  11. Determination of mercury and methylmercury in Vietnamese pregnant woman head hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tac Anh; Ho Manh Dung; Le Tat Mua; Vu Tien Ha

    1992-01-01

    As a participant to the Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on the Assessment of Environmental Exposure to Mercury in Selected Human Populations as Studied by Nuclear and Other Techniques since 1 July 1992, the Vietnamese started to carry out work on project ''Determination of Mercury and Methylmercury in Vietnamese Pregnant Women Head Hair''. This study is aimed at making a concrete survey of hair mercury levels in groups of women as monitored continuously from early pregnancy to post-natal period. The obtained data could be of great usefulness for further investigation on potential health risks in pregnant women and their babies as related to degree of mercury pollution in the environment. 2 figs, 7 tabs

  12. Trends in mercury concentrations in the hair of women of Nome, Alaska - Evidence of seafood consumption or abiotic absorption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasorsa, B.

    1992-06-01

    Eighty samples of hair from women of child-bearing age from Nome, Alaska, and seven control samples from women living in Sequim, Washington, were analyzed for mercury concentration by segmental analysis in an effort to determine whether seasonal fluctuations in mercury concentration in the hair samples can be correlated to seasonal seafood consumption. Full-length hair strands were analyzed in 1.1-cm segments representing 1 month's growth using a strong acid digestion and cold vapor atomic fluorescence analysis. It was assumed that the concentration of mercury in each segment is an indicator of the mercury body burden during the month in which the segment emerged from the scalp. Eighteen of the samples show seasonal variability, with five of the controls and one Nome resident showing winter highs while all Nome residents show summer highs. Twenty-six of the samples show an increase in mercury concentration toward the distal end of the strand regardless of month of growth. The trend of increasing mercury concentrations toward the distal end of the hair strand regardless of month of emergence, and the documented presence of elevated levels of elemental mercury in the Nome area suggest that these elevated levels may actually be due to external contamination of the hair strands by adsorption and not due to ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs such as seafood

  13. Determination of mercury and selenium in hair samples of Brazilian Indian populations living in the Amazonic region by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Paletti, G.; Catharino, M.G.M.; Saiki, M.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Bode, P.; Ammerlaan, A.K.; Byrne, A.R.; Baruzzi, R.; Rodrigues, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Biomonitoring of mercury contamination of Brazilian Indian population groups living in the Xingu Park, a reservation situated in the Amazonic region, has revealed very high levels of mercury in hair samples as compared to controls. Total mercury was determined by INAA in most of the tribes living in the Park and methylmercury was determined by CVAAS in samples with total mercury above 10 mg/kg. Due to the fact that selenium seems to protect animals against the toxic effects of methylmercury, it was considered also of interest to determine its concentrations in the hair samples with very high mercury levels. Selenium was determined by INAA via the short-lived radionuclide 77m Se (T 1/2 = 17.45 s). The correlations between selenium and mercury concentrations in Brazilian controls and in the Indian population groups are discussed. (author)

  14. Public health benefits of hair-mercury analysis and dietary advice in lowering methylmercury exposure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Line E; Jørgensen, Jan S; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate whether a public health intervention using focused dietary advice combined with a hair-mercury analysis can lower neurotoxic methylmercury exposure among pregnant women without decreasing their overall intake of seafood. A total of 146 pregnant women were consecutively recruited from the antenatal clinic at a Danish university hospital at their initial ultrasound scan. Dietary advice was provided on avoiding methylmercury exposure from large predatory fish and a hair sample from each participant was analysed for mercury, with the results being communicated shortly thereafter to the women. A dietary questionnaire was filled in. Follow-up three months later included a dietary questionnaire and a repeat hair-mercury analysis. In the follow-up group, 22% of the women had hair-mercury concentrations above a safe limit of 0.58 µg/g at enrolment, decreasing to 8% three months later. Average hair-mercury concentrations decreased by 21%. However, the total seafood intake remained at the same level after three months. Increased exposure to methylmercury among pregnant women is an important public health concern in Denmark. The observed lowering of hair-mercury concentrations associated with dietary advice corresponds to a substantial public health benefit that probably makes such an intervention highly profitable.

  15. Hair mercury concentrations and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes among women from a fertility clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Shelley; Smith, Kristen; Williams, Paige L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Batsis, Maria; Toth, Thomas L.; Hauser, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Total hair mercury (Hg) was measured among 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and the association with prospectively collected IVF outcomes (229 IVF cycles) was evaluated. Hair Hg levels (median=0.62 ppm, range: 0.03-5.66 ppm) correlated with fish intake (r=0.59), and exceeded the recommended EPA reference of 1ppm in 33% of women. Generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts accounting for within-woman correlations across treatment cycles were used to evaluate the association of hair Hg with IVF outcomes adjusted for age, body mass index, race, smoking status, infertility diagnosis, and protocol type. Hair Hg levels were not related to ovarian stimulation outcomes (peak estradiol levels, total and mature oocyte yields) or to fertilization rate, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy rate or live birth rate. PMID:25601638

  16. Public health benefits of hair-mercury analysis and dietary advice in lowering methylmercury exposure in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Line E; Jørgensen, Jan S; Nielsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    recruited from the antenatal clinic at a Danish university hospital at their initial ultrasound scan. Dietary advice was provided on avoiding methylmercury exposure from large predatory fish and a hair sample from each participant was analysed for mercury, with the results being communicated shortly......AIMS: To evaluate whether a public health intervention using focused dietary advice combined with a hair-mercury analysis can lower neurotoxic methylmercury exposure among pregnant women without decreasing their overall intake of seafood. METHODS: A total of 146 pregnant women were consecutively......% three months later. Average hair-mercury concentrations decreased by 21%. However, the total seafood intake remained at the same level after three months. CONCLUSIONS: Increased exposure to methylmercury among pregnant women is an important public health concern in Denmark. The observed lowering of hair...

  17. Segmental hair mercury evaluation of a single family along the Upper Madeira Basin, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boischio Ana Amélia Peixoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury pollution (MeHg up the aquatic food chains in the Amazonian ecosystems has been a major concern in environmental health. Riverside people (ribeirinhos along the Upper Madeira river are heavy fish eaters. Hair is the best biomarker for MeHg exposure. By assuming a constant hair growth rate, it is possible to evaluate a temporal profile of Hg exposure over the recent defined past. In this paper we present the segmental total hair Hg concentrations from a single family from which some of the 10 persons investigated had high hair Hg concentrations (peak of 339 ppm. We also presented the hair MeHg content from 4 out of the 10 family members investigated. There was a wide variation in total hair Hg concentrations (8 to 339 ppm among these individuals, who were mostly sharing their meals; there was also a wide variation in total Hg concentrations in the same individual over time (136 to 274 ppm. Hg speciation showed a mean and standard deviation in the MeHg content of 62% and 6%, respectively. The wide variation in total hair Hg concentration strongly indicated that it is possible to mitigate critical Hg exposure levels by conducting a fish advisory.

  18. Mercury analysis in hair: Comparability and quality assessment within the transnational COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Jiménez, José Antonio; Koch, Holger Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Rosado, Montserrat; Gómez, Silvia; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Becker, Kerstin; Bloemen, Louis; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Borošová, Daniela; Davidson, Fred; Dumitrascu, Irina; Fischer, Marc E; Grander, Margaretha; Janasik, Beata; Jones, Kate; Kašparová, Lucie; Larssen, Thorjørn; Naray, Miklos; Nielsen, Flemming; Hohenblum, Philipp; Pinto, Rui; Pirard, Catherine; Plateel, Gregory; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Castaño, Argelia

    2015-08-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical procedures has often limited the comparison of data at national and international level. The European-funded projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES developed and tested a harmonized European approach to Human Biomonitoring in response to the European Environment and Health Action Plan. Herein we describe the quality assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0.20-0.71 and 0.80-1.63) per exercise. The results revealed relative standard deviations of 7.87-13.55% and 4.04-11.31% for the low and high mercury concentration ranges, respectively. A total of 16 out of 18 participating laboratories the QAP requirements and were allowed to analyze samples from the DEMOCOPHES pilot study. Web conferences after each ICI/EQUAS revealed this to be a new and effective tool for improving analytical performance and increasing capacity building. The procedure developed and tested in COPHES/DEMOCOPHES would be optimal for application on a global scale as regards implementation of the Minamata Convention on Mercury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Study on the correlation between mercury contents in hair of lying-in women and their new-born babies by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiyue; Qian Qinfang; Chai Zhifang

    1994-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been performed on 27 pairs of scalp hair samples for mothers and their new-born babies living in Haidian District, Beijing. The transfer of mercury in pregnant women and its accumulation in new-born babies were studied. The results showed that a significant positive correlation exists between the mercury contents in maternal and infant hair (γ = + 0.856, P < 0.001), and the infant level exceeded the maternal level by 12%. It was found that the concentration of mercury in maternal hair was gradually decreased during pregnancy

  20. Mercury levels assessment in hair of riverside inhabitants of the Tapajós River, Pará State, Amazon, Brazil: fish consumption as a possible route of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faial, Kleber; Deus, Ricardo; Deus, Simonny; Neves, Ramiro; Jesus, Iracina; Santos, Elisabeth; Alves, Cláudio Nahum; Brasil, Davi

    2015-04-01

    The study present evaluated the levels of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in hair samples of people from Barreiras community, riverside inhabitants of the Tapajós River (Pará, Brazil), an area impacted by clandestine gold mining, as well as we analyzed the levels of Hg and Se (selenium) in nine fish species (carnivores and non-carnivorous) from the Tapajós River, which stand out as the main species consumed by riverside inhabitants, to evaluate a relationship between frequency of fish consumption and Hg concentration, and also to evaluate possible mechanisms of fish protection (or non-protection) to Hg exposure by Se. Furthermore we analyze the water quality to evaluate the environmental trophic state, fact responsible by creating conditions that can potentiate the effects of toxic mercury. Concentrations of Hg and MeHg were analyzed in hair samples of 141 volunteers in different age band. Of those, 84.40% of samples present values above the threshold for biological tolerance, which is 6.00μgg(-1) of total Hg in hair. Total Hg, in men there was a variation of 2.07-24.93μgg(-1), while for women the variation was 4.84-27.02μgg(-1). Consequently, the level of MeHg in men presented a variation of 1.49-19.57μgg(-1), with an average of 11.68μgg(-1), while with women the variation was from 3.73 to 22.35μgg(-1), with an average of 10.38μgg(-1). In fish species, Hg concentrations in carnivorous species had an average of 0.66μgg(-1), higher than that permitted by current legislation, ranging from 0.30 to 0.98μgg(-1), while the non-carnivorous species have values below the recommended by the legislation averaging 0.09μgg(-1), ranging between 0.02 and 0.44μgg(-1). For Se in fish, show that among carnivores, the contents of Se ranged between 0.18 and 0.54μgg(-1) with a mean of 0.34μgg(-1), while for non-carnivores these values were of the order of 0.16-0.56μgg(-1), with an average of 0.32μgg(-1). In surface water quality variables at the sampling points

  1. Monitoring and abatement of environmental mercury pollution using human hair as absorbant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, S.S.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.; Munoz, L.; Gras, N.

    1985-01-01

    Mercury pollution in the industrial environment of Chile was studied using hair as monitor. Data from samples representing people living in non-polluted and also from polluted areas show that hair is an effective and convenient indicator of environmental mercury pollution. A major source of mercury pollution and its transport is contaminated water. The method discussed is an inexpensive and convenient alternative to conventional ion-exchange processes which are generally very expensive, particulary for developing countries. (author)

  2. Mercury contamination in fish and human hair from Hainan Island, South China Sea: Implication for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Peng, Jia-Xi; Hong, Yi-Guo; Feng, Xin-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Hair has long been recognized as a good biomarker for human exposure to Hg. The mercury concentrations in 14 species of marine fish and hair samples from 177 coastal residents in Hainan, South China Sea were investigated to assess the status of mercury exposure associated with marine fish consumption. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the fish muscles were 0.094 ± 0.008 and 0.066 ± 0.006 μg/gww, respectively, which were far below the limit considered safe for consumption (0.5 μg/g). The average THg concentrations in hair of adults (1.02 ± 0.92 μg/g) were lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level of 2.2 μg/g. However, 23.7% of children had a hair THg level exceeding the RfD level of 1μg/g, indicating a great risk of Hg exposure to children via fish consumption. The concentration of THg in hair was significantly correlated with fish consumption but not with gender-specific fish intake. With higher fish consumption frequency, the fishermen had significantly elevated hair Hg levels compared to the students and the other general public, who had similar hair THg levels but different fish consumption patterns, indicating the existence of other sources of Hg exposure to the residents of Hainan Island. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mercury levels in defined Italian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.

    1992-01-01

    The consumption of fish and seafood usually is the main source of intake of methylmercury for members of the general population. Therefore subjects having a diet rich in these food items present a high risk of exceeding the tolerable recommended weekly intake of mercury set by FAO and WHO. The average consumption of fish at a national level is rather small in Italy, 12.5 kg per year, consequently the risk of exposure to elevated levels of mercury through the diet for members of the Italian general population is rather negligible. However, fish is one of the main components of the diet of some population groups. These groups are usually found in coastal towns close fishing ports and include subjects working as fishermen, fish dealers, restaurant workers and their families. The purpose of this research programme, carried our with the collaboration of the National Institute of Nutrition is to determine the levels of mercury and methylmercury in hair samples of subjects having a higher than average fish consumption and to evaluate the effects of elevated intakes of mercury. 1 ref., 13 figs

  4. Determination of total mercury and methylmercury in human head hair by radiochemical methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Saiki, M.; Paletti, G.; Pinheiro, R.M.M.; Baruzzi, R.G.; Spindel, R.

    1992-01-01

    Efforts were carried out in order to detect population groups in Brazil that could be at risk with respect to mercury contamination, mainly by ingestion of contaminated fish. Two regions were identified. The first was near Billings Dam which is located in one of the most heavily industrialized parts of the country. It is suspected that the water is polluted by chlor-alkali and other industrial pollutants. People living near this dam frequently consume fish caught around or near the dam. The second region is Xingu Park, located in the Amazonic region where several Indian tribes live and where the gold exploration activities have caused much concern due to the use of mercury in the ore processing. Tons of mercury are thrown in the rivers of the region annually. Both of these groups and a control group were used in this study. It was concluded that the population near Billings Dam had normal levels of mercury. However, the Indians from Xingu Park had very high levels of mercury in their Hair. It was determined that this group deserved further study. 7 refs, 2 tabs

  5. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gillespie, Brenda [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Werner, Robert [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, 325 E. Eisenhower Parkway Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (United States); Franzblau, Alfred [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Basu, Niladri, E-mail: niladri@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 {+-} 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 {+-} 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5 Prime ), or both (SEPP1 3 Prime UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. Black

  6. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 ± 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 ± 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5′), or both (SEPP1 3′UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: ► We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. ► Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. ► GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. ► Accumulation of Hg in hair following exposure from fish was modified by genotype. ► GSTP1, GSS

  7. Significance of fingernail and toenail mercury concentrations as biomarkers for prenatal methylmercury exposure in relation to segmental hair mercury concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Chan, Hing M; Domingo, José L; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Kawakami, Shoichi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the appropriateness of mercury (Hg) concentrations in fingernails and toenails at parturition for detecting prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg). Total Hg concentrations were measured in 54 paired samples of fingernails, toenails, maternal blood, and maternal hair (1cm incremental segments from the scalp toward the tip) collected at 4th weeks of (early) pregnancy, and the same specimens and cord blood collected at parturition. Strong correlations were observed between Hg concentrations in fingernails and toenails at early pregnancy (r=0.923, pMercury concentrations in fingernails and toenails at parturition represented strong correlations with those in cord blood (r=0.803, pMercury in fingernails and toenails at early pregnancy reflected the maternal Hg body burden level approximately 5 months retroactively. At parturition, Hg levels in fingernails and toenails also showed strong correlations with those in cord blood. In addition, Hg levels in fingernails and toenails at parturition reflected more recent MeHg exposure, compared with those at early pregnancy. These results suggest that fingernails and toenails at parturition are useful biomarkers for prenatal MeHg exposure for mothers and fetuses, especially during the third-trimester of gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The study of chemical forms of mercury in human hair and other bio-environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzer, K.; Benes, P.

    1995-01-01

    The results of the continued studies on methods of analysis for forms of mercury in hair, and of the distribution of mercury among inorganic and organic forms in human hair are described. A new method for determining methylmercury has been developed, based on the selective leaching of methylmercury from hair using 2M hydrochioric acid. This method was used, in combination with the determination of mercury by atomic absorption spectrometry, for the analysis of mercury forms in three samples of human hair and two samples of fish homogenate. Good reproducibility of parallel determinations was obtained. The results were compared with literature data for the samples, or with the results of the analysis of the same samples by extraction method described earlier. Good agreement was also found between these methods. Further experiments were concerned with the study of the effect of radiation sterilization on the forms of mercury in hair, of the speciation of 203 Hg formed by irradiation of hair in nuclear reactor and with the labelling of a large batch of human hair with methylmercury. (author)

  9. Hair methylmercury levels of mummies of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egeland, G.M.; Ponce, Rafael; Bloom, Nicolas S.; Knecht, Rick; Loring, Stephen; Middaugh, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Ancient human hair specimens can shed light on the extent of pre-historic exposures to methylmercury and provide valuable comparison data with current-day exposures, particularly for Indigenous Peoples who continue to rely upon local traditional food resources. Human hair from ancient Aleutian Island Native remains were tested for total and methylmercury (Hg, MeHg) and were radiocarbon dated. The remains were approximately 500 years old (1450 A.D.). For four adults, the mean and median total hair mercury concentration was 5.8 ppm (SD=0.9). In contrast, MeHg concentrations were lower with a mean of 1.2 ppm (SD=1.8) and a median of 0.54 ppm (0.12-3.86). For the five infants, the mean and median MeHg level was 1.2 ppm (SD=1.8) and 0.20 ppm (0.007-4.61), respectively. Segmental analyses showed variations in MeHg concentrations in 1-cm segments, consistent with fluctuations in naturally occurring exposure to mercury through dietary sources. The levels are comparable to or lower than those found in fish and marine mammal-eating populations today who rely far less on subsistence food than pre-historic humans. The findings are, therefore, compatible with increased anthropogenic release of trace metals during the past several centuries

  10. Reference intervals of cadmium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, hair, and nails among residents in Mansoura city, Nile Delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortada, Waelin I.; Sobh, Mohamed A.; El-Defrawy, Mohamed M.; Farahat, Sami E.

    2002-01-01

    A random sample of 68 males and 25 females who reside in Mansoura city, Egypt, was examined for concentrations of cadmium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, hair, and nails. The effect of gender and smoking on such levels was studied. The influence of dental amalgam on the levels of mercury in these biological samples were also examined. The results obtained show that only blood lead, which increased among males, was affected by gender. Blood levels of cadmium and lead as well as hair lead appeared to increase with smoking habit. Mercury levels in blood and urine were related to the presence of dental amalgam fillings. International comparisons between our results and the corresponding levels in other localities in the world showed that there ere environmentally related variations in terms of cadmium levels in hair, lead levels in blood, urine, hair, and nails, and mercury levels in blood, air, and nails. In conclusion, reference intervals of cadmium, lead, and mercury in the biological samples are environmentally related parameters. Some factors, such as gender, smoking habit, and the presence of dental amalgam fillings, may affect such levels and therefore should be considered

  11. Mercury Levels in Pregnant Women, Children, and Seafood from Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Tutino, Rebecca; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Cantonwine, David E.; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Somers, Emily C.; Rodriguez, Lauren; Schnaas, Lourdes; Solano, Maritsa; Mercado, Adriana; Peterson, Karen; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a global contaminant of concern though little is known about exposures in México. Objectives To characterize mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and commonly consumed seafood samples. Methods Use resources of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohorts to measure total mercury levels in archived samples from 348 pregnant women (blood from three trimesters and cord blood), 825 offspring (blood, hair, urine) and their mothers (hair), and 91 seafood and canned tuna samples from Mexico City. Results Maternal blood mercury levels correlated across three trimesters and averaged 3.4μg/L. Cord blood mercury averaged 4.7μg/L and correlated with maternal blood from trimester 3 (but not trimesters 1 and 2). In children, blood, hair and urine mercury levels correlated and averaged 1.8μg/L, 0.6μg/g, and 0.9μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury was 0.5μg/g in mothers and correlated with child's hair. Mean consumption of canned tuna, fresh fish, canned sardine, and shellfish was 3.1, 2.2, 0.5, and 1.0 times per month respectively in pregnant women. Mean mercury content in 7 of 23 seafood species and 5 of 9 canned tuna brands purchased exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance value of 0.3 μg/g. Conclusions Mercury exposures in pregnant women and children from Mexico City, via biomarker studies, are generally 3-5 times greater than values reported in population surveys from the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere. In particular, mercury levels in 29-39% of the maternal participants exceeded the biomonitoring guideline associated with the U.S. EPA reference dose for mercury. PMID:25262076

  12. Temporal trends and future predictions of mercury concentrations in Northwest Greenland polar bear (Ursus maritimus) hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, R; Born, E W; Rigét, F; Aubail, A; Sonne, C; Drimmie, R; Basu, N

    2011-02-15

    Hair samples from 117 Northwest Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were taken during 1892-2008 and analyzed for total mercury (hereafter Hg). The sample represented 28 independent years and the aim of the study was to analyze for temporal Hg trends. Mercury concentrations showed yearly significant increases of 1.6-1.7% (p polar bear Hg exposure is 95.6-96.2% anthropogenic in its origin. Assuming a continued anthropogenic increase, this model estimated concentrations in 2050 and 2100 will be 40- and 92-fold the baseline concentration, respectively, which is equivalent to a 97.5 and 98.9% man-made contribution. None of the 2001-2008 concentrations of Hg in Northwest Greenland polar bear hair exceeded the general guideline values of 20-30 μg/g dry weight for terrestrial wildlife, whereas the neurochemical effect level of 5.4 μg Hg/g dry weight proposed for East Greenland polar bears was exceeded in 93.5% of the cases. These results call for detailed effect studies in main target organs such as brain, liver, kidney, and sexual organs in the Northwest Greenland polar bears.

  13. Application of neutron activation analysis for mercury species determination in scalp hair samples from Malaysia, Libya and Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.B.; Alakili, I.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the levels of total mercury and methylmercury in hair samples obtained from 400 Malaysian (Kuala Lumpur), Libyan (Benghazi) and Jordanian (Amman) donors. Results show that the level of total mercury in hair samples of the Malaysian group (3.38 mg x kg -1 ) was significantly higher than those of Libyan (0.81 mg x kg -1 ) and Jordanian groups (0.69 mg x kg -1 ). Likewise, a significant difference was found between the level of methylmercury of the Malaysian group (1.13 mg x kg -1 ) and those of the Libyan (0.04 mg x kg -1 ) and Jordanian groups (0.13 mg x kg -1 ). This difference could be attributed to the variation in life habits especially fish diet and to the local environment of each population. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between the level of total mercury and methylmercury in hair samples of the Libyan and Jordanian residents. (author)

  14. Blood and hair mercury concentrations among Cree First Nations of Eeyou Istchee (Quebec, Canada): time trends, prenatal exposure and links to local fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Susannah; Robinson, Elizabeth; Johnson-Down, Louise; Andermann, Anne; Ayotte, Pierre; Lucas, Michel; Nieboer, Evert

    2018-12-01

    To describe exposure to methylmercury among Cree, focusing on women of childbearing age, we used data from 2 studies. Multiple regression was employed to examine associations between blood and hair mercury concentrations and consumption of locally harvested fish. Approximately 9.9% of non-pregnant women aged 15-44 y and 3.9% of pregnant women required follow-up according to Health Canada's blood mercury guidance value of 40 nmol/L. 8% of hair mercury observations in the non-pregnant women and 2.5% among pregnant women exceeded the equivalent threshold of 10 nmol/g. The geometric mean blood mercury concentration was 12.7 nmol/L in 1,429 persons aged 8 and over, and 17.7 nmol/L in adults aged 18 and older. The proportion of hair mercury concentrations greater than 12.5 nmol/g decreased in all age-sex groups when comparing the 2002-2009 data to published values for 1993-1994. Among women of childbearing age, local fish consumption was associated with increased blood and hair mercury concentrations. While over 90% of women of childbearing age in this population have acceptable levels of mercury, ongoing intake of mercury suggests that their consumption of fish with known high mercury content be minimised. Reducing consumption of fish known to be high in mercury content needs to be balanced with promoting ongoing connection to Cree culture and land-based activities that are also important determinants of health.

  15. Mercury Levels in Women and Children from Interior Villages in Suriname, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Ouboter

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sources of mercury, historical gold mining, and contemporary artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM activities have led to mercury contamination in Suriname. Our primary objective was to evaluate mercury levels in hair of women and children from interior villages in Suriname where mercury levels in fish are elevated. We also estimated blood levels of mercury using an established mathematical conversion to facilitate comparison with other biomonitoring programs in the United States. Estimated levels of mercury in the blood of participants from Suriname were significantly higher than those in women from a heavy marine fish-consuming population in southeast Louisiana and estimates of the US national average. This includes women from Surinamese villages well upstream of ASGM activities. Since residents in these areas rely heavily on local fish, this is likely the source of their exposure to mercury. The levels in hair are similar to those seen in women from longitudinal studies finding neurological impairments in children exposed pre- and postnatally. Additional biomonitoring and neurodevelopmental assessments are warranted in these areas, as well as other areas of the Suriname. Mercury levels in hair (Suriname and blood (southeast LA USA were determined using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS.

  16. Mercury Levels in Women and Children from Interior Villages in Suriname, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouboter, Paul E; Landburg, Gwendolyn; Satnarain, Gaitrie U; Starke, Sheryl Y; Nanden, Indra; Simon-Friedt, Bridget; Hawkins, William B; Taylor, Robert; Lichtveld, Maureen Y; Harville, Emily; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K

    2018-05-17

    Natural sources of mercury, historical gold mining, and contemporary artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) activities have led to mercury contamination in Suriname. Our primary objective was to evaluate mercury levels in hair of women and children from interior villages in Suriname where mercury levels in fish are elevated. We also estimated blood levels of mercury using an established mathematical conversion to facilitate comparison with other biomonitoring programs in the United States. Estimated levels of mercury in the blood of participants from Suriname were significantly higher than those in women from a heavy marine fish-consuming population in southeast Louisiana and estimates of the US national average. This includes women from Surinamese villages well upstream of ASGM activities. Since residents in these areas rely heavily on local fish, this is likely the source of their exposure to mercury. The levels in hair are similar to those seen in women from longitudinal studies finding neurological impairments in children exposed pre- and postnatally. Additional biomonitoring and neurodevelopmental assessments are warranted in these areas, as well as other areas of the Suriname. Mercury levels in hair (Suriname) and blood (southeast LA USA) were determined using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS).

  17. Application of hair-mercury analysis to determine the impact of a seafood advisory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weihe, P.; Grandjean, Philippe; Joergensen, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Following an official recommendation in the Faroe Islands that women should abstain from eating mercury-contaminated pilot whale meat, a survey was carried out to obtain information on dietary habits and hair samples for mercury analysis. A letter was sent to all 1180 women aged 26-30 years who resided within the Faroes, and the women were contacted again 1 year later. A total of 415 women responded to the first letter; the second letter resulted in 145 repeat hair samples and 125 new responses. Questionnaire results showed that Faroese women, on average, consumed whale meat for dinner only once every second month, but the frequency and meal size depended on the availability of whale in the community. The geometric mean hair-mercury concentration at the first survey was higher in districts with available whale than in those without (3.03 vs. 1.88 μg/g; P=0.001). The mercury concentration also depended on the frequency of whale meat dinners and on the consumption of dried whale meat. The 36 women who did not eat whale meat at all had a geometric mean hair-mercury concentration of 1.28 μg/g. At the time of the second survey, the geometric mean had decreased to 1.77 μg/g (P<0.001), although whale was now available in all districts. In comparison with previously published data on hair-mercury concentrations in pregnant Faroese women, these results document substantially lower exposures as well as a further decrease temporally associated with the issue of a stricter dietary advisory

  18. Mercury and methylmercury in hair of selected groups of Czech population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wranová, K.; Čejchanová, M.; Spěváčková, V.; Korunová, Vlasta; Vobecký, Miloslav; Spěváček, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2009), s. 36-40 ISSN 1210-7778 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8955 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : inorganic mercury * methylmercury * hair Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  19. Determination of mercury by RNAA in sectioned hair samples of Tycho Brahe. He was not murdered by mercury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Kameník, Jan; Havránek, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 2013 (2013), s. 78-80 ISSN 0003-018X. [2013 American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting. Washington D.C., 10.11.2013-14.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Tycho Brahe * RNAA * mercury in hair Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. [Pollution characteristics of antimony, arsenic and mercury in human hair at Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bi-Jun; Wu, Feng-Chang; Deng, Qiu-Jing; Mo, Chang-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zeng, Li; Fu, Zhi-You; Li, Wen

    2009-03-15

    The concentration levels of antimony, arsenic and mercury in human hair collected from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City were determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry after having been digested by nitric acid and perchloric acid. The contents of Sb, As and Hg are 15.9, 4.21, 1.79 microg/g in the samples from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and 0.532, 0.280, 0.338 microg/g in the samples from Guiyang City respectively. The contents of Sb, As and Hg in human hair of Xikuangshan antimony area are much higher than those of Guiyang City. The independent-samples t-test shows that there are no marked differences in the contents of Sb and As between male and female hair samples from both Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City (p > 0.05), while Hg contents in male hair are apparently higher than those in female hair from Guiyang City (p mining area may significantly affect human health than in the un-mining areas.

  1. Assessment of Hair Aluminum, Lead, and Mercury in a Sample of Autistic Egyptian Children: Environmental Risk Factors of Heavy Metals in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Farida El Baz; Zaky, Eman Ahmed; El-Sayed, Adel Bassuoni; Elhossieny, Reham Mohammed; Zahra, Sally Soliman; Salah Eldin, Waleed; Youssef, Walaa Yousef; Khaled, Rania Abdelmgeed; Youssef, Azza Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The etiological factors involved in the etiology of autism remain elusive and controversial, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. The aim of this study was to assess the levels and possible environmental risk factors and sources of exposure to mercury, lead, and aluminum in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared to their matched controls. One hundred ASD children were studied in comparison to 100 controls. All participants were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of mercury, lead, and aluminum through hair analysis which reflects past exposure. The mean Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead, and aluminum levels were positively correlated with maternal fish consumptions, living nearby gasoline stations, and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively. Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in the hair of autistic children are higher than controls. Environmental exposure to these toxic heavy metals, at key times in development, may play a causal role in autism.

  2. Mercury levels in defined Italian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.

    1991-01-01

    Our group conducts its research activity in the Department AMB-BIO (Biological and Sanitary Effect of Toxic Agents) of ENEA (National Committee for Research and Development of Nuclear and Alternative Energy) at the research centre of Casaccia. The food chain is the main pathway leading to humans for most of the trace elements. The research, therefore, has been directed mainly towards the study of the variability of the trace element content in the Italian diet. This programme aims at assessing the adequacy of the essential trace elements ingestion, and to verify that the ingestion of toxic trace elements is below the recommended values. Part of this research was conducted in the frame of the IAEA CRP on ''Human daily Intakes of Nutritionally Important Trace Elements as Measured by Nuclear and Other Techniques''. Studies carried out by the National Institute of Nutrition and FAO have shown that there are some population groups having a fish consumption significantly higher than the average value for the Italian population. These groups are usually found in coastal towns were fishing is one of the main occupation and generally includes fishermen, fish dealers, restaurant workers and their families. A pilot study was conducted in one of these towns, Bagnara Calabra in the South of Italy, where the average fish consumption is 27.1 kg per year, which is more than twice the national average. The results have shown that the mercury concentration in the diet is significantly higher than in other Italian locations, the mercury levels in blood and hair sample in these subjects are also significantly higher than the values reported for subjects of the general Italian population. 6 refs

  3. comparative analysis of mercury content in human hair and cosmetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin lightening creams and soaps containing mercury manufactured in Europe is a multibillion-dollar industry, which is used for lightening skin, making the black skin light coloured. The products have colourful names, which associate royalty, romance and even religion with a white or pale skin, but many contain harmful ...

  4. Mercury stable isotope fractionation in a tropical ecosystem including human hair: New insights for an isotope balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffont, Laure; Sonke, Jeroen; Maurice, Laurence; Behra, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    . Both anomalies ∆201Hg vs. ∆199Hg are linearly correlated with a slope of +1.12‰ for native hair and a mass dependant fractionation (MDF) of ~+2‰ has been evidenced between native communities hair and fish species constituting their diet. For the same fish species, MIF anomalies differ with floodplain lakes and drainage basins suggesting that the methylmercury (MMHg) analysed in fish caught in floodplain lake reflects the photodemethylation process while in the Beni R. mainstream the negative anomalies confirm that this photochemical reactions are limited. Within the aquatic food chain of an hydrosystem, it appears that MIF anomalies can trace the fish ecology and the aquatic photochemical processes, while mass dependent fractionation can trace the trophic level as a result of excretion and metabolic processes involving mercury in the body.

  5. Mercury in Hair Is Inversely Related to Disease Associated Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Crowe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, and environmental factors are proposed to exacerbate existing symptoms. One such environmental factor is mercury. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to mercury (Hg and disease activity and disease associated damage in Total Hg concentrations in hair and urine were measured in 52 SLE patients. Dental amalgams were quantified. Disease activity was assessed using three indexes including the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Index (BILAG. Disease associated damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology SLICC/ACR Damage Index. Pearson’s correlation identified a significant negative correlation between hair Hg and BILAG (r = −0.323, p = 0.029 and SLICC/ACR (r = −0.377, p = 0.038. Multiple regression analysis identified hair Hg as a significant predictor of disease associated damage as determined by SLICC/ACR (β = −0.366, 95% confidence interval (CI: −1.769, −0.155 p = 0.019. Urinary Hg was not related to disease activity or damage. Fish consumption is the primary route of MeHg exposure in humans and the inverse association of hair Hg with disease activity observed here might be explained by the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids also found in fish.

  6. Determination of total mercury and methylmercury in the head hair of pregnant Vietnamese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tac Anh; Ho Manh Dung; Pham Hoang Ha; Nguyen Thuy Sy; Le Tat Mua

    1995-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), including both the non-destructive (Instrumental NAA) and destructive (Radiochemical NAA) forms, is used as the principal technique to determine total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in samples of human head hair. Head hair samples taken from pregnant women has been the focus for sample collection in this project. In addition, a special population group (Buddhist monks) and a normal population (control) group have also been selected for study. The defined population groups are residing in distinct regions which represent highland, coastal and industrial areas in Vietnam. Preliminary results from the determination of T-Hg and MeHg in hair samples from the defined groups indicate that the consumption of fish and seafood products is the main source of intake of MeHg; this agrees with the results from other investigators. The mean T-Hg in human hair samples from Ho Chi Minh City (an industrial region) was statistically higher than the corresponding mean values from samples taken in Dalat and Nha Trang cities, which suggest that industrial activities may be discharging an appreciable amount of mercury into the environment around Ho Chi Minh City. (author)

  7. Mercury and selenium concentrations in hair samples of women in fertile age from Amazon riverside communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, M.C.N.; Mueller, R.C.S.; Sarkis, J.E.; Vieira, J.L.F.; Oikawa, T.; Gomes, M.S.V.; Guimaraes, G.A.; Nascimento, J.L.M. do; Silveira, L.C.L.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate mercury and selenium concentrations in hair samples of reproductive age women from riverside communities of the Tapajos River basin. We studied 19 pregnant and 21 non-pregnant women, 13 to 45 years old, living in the region for at least 2 years, and having a diet rich in fish. The analysis of Se and total Hg were performed in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil) by using a Varian AA220-FS atomic absorption spectrometer with a flow injection system. There were no differences between the two groups - pregnant and non-pregnant - concerning age (23.80 ± 6.92 and 26.60 ± 9.60 years old, respectively) and residential time (20.21 ± 8.30 and 22.20 ± 10.90 years, respectively). The geometric means and ranges for total Hg concentration were similar (p > 0.05): 8.25 μg/g (1.51-19.43) in pregnant and 9.39 μg/g (5.25-21.00) in non-pregnant women, respectively. Total Hg concentrations were also similar in different gestational stages. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.05, Student t test) in relation to Se concentration: 0.61 μg/g (0.40-2.33) in pregnant and 2.46 μg/g (0.92-5.74) in non-pregnant women, respectively. We concluded that Hg exposure levels in reproductive age women were only slightly higher than a provisional tolerable weekly intake of MeHg would provide, that Hg concentration in maternal hair samples was independent of gestational age, and that low Se concentration in pregnant women indicates high mineral consumption by fetal organism to satisfy their metabolic requirements raised during pregnancy, including as a protective mechanism for Hg cytotoxic effects

  8. Mercury in marine fish, mammals, seabirds, and human hair in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Falkowska, Lucyna

    Mercury (Hg), aside from having high toxicity, is characterized by its ability to biomagnify in the marine trophic chain. This is an important problem especially in estuaries, or in the coastal zone, particularly near the mouths of large rivers. This study was conducted in the years 2001-2011, in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea near to the mouth of the River Vistula, which is the second biggest river discharging into the Baltic. Mercury concentration was measured in the tissues and organs of cod, flounder, herring, seals (living in the wild and in captivity), great black-backed gulls, and African penguins from Gdańsk Zoo, and also in human hair. Penguins and seals at the seal sanctuary in Hel were fed only herring. In marine birds and mammals and in the pelagic herring, the highest Hg concentration was observed in the kidney and in the liver, while in cod and flounder (located on a higher trophic level) the muscles were the most contaminated with mercury. In gray seals living in the seal sanctuary, Hg concentration in all analyzed tissues and organs except the kidneys was lower in comparison with seals living in the wild. The comparatively small share of fish in the diet of local Polish people and their preference towards the consumption of herring contributed to low concentration of Hg in their hair. The protective mechanisms related to detoxification and elimination of mercury were shown to be more effective in the seals than in the penguins, despite the former consuming around 10 times more food per day.

  9. Mercúrio total em cabelos: uma contribuição para se avaliar o nível de exposição em Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brasil Total mercury in hair: a contribution to the evaluation of mercury exposure levels in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Nogueira

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Ocorrem na Bacia do Rio Bento Gomes (MT, às margens do Pantanal Mato-grossense, cerca de sessenta garimpos de ouro, onde o mercúrio é utilizado de forma intensiva nos processos de produção, através da formação de amálgamas que facilitam a aglutinação de partículas finas. A queima do amálgama nem sempre é feita em sistemas fechados de recuperação, havendo, portanto, perda de vapor para a atmosfera. Este estudo traz resultados de análises de mercúrio total nos cabelos de quatro grupos de voluntários que vivem em Poconé (MT, e faz uma caracterização geral do ambiente no que se refere à presença do metal na água e no sedimento do Rio Bento Gomes. Um equipamento de detecção por fluorescência foi usado para a determinação das concentrações, e os resultados indicam que os valores são mais baixos do que os de outras populações de áreas de garimpo no Brasil. Indicam também que a via ocupacional parece ser a mais eficiente rota potencial de contaminação da população por mercúrio.There are some 60 gold-mining sites in the Bento Gomes River basin (Mato Grosso, at the border of the Mato Grosso Pantanal (Swamp, where mercury is used to agglutinate fine gold particles through amalgamation. During burning of the amalgam to release the gold, mercury vapor is lost to the atmosphere, since closed systems for mercury recovery are not always used. This study shows the results of total mercury analysis in hair from four volunteer groups living in Poconé, Mato Grosso, and presents a general environmental description pertaining to the presence of mercury in water and sediments from the Bento Gomes River. Atomic fluorescence was used for measuring mercury concentrations. The results were lower than for other populations from gold-mining areas in Brazil.

  10. Hair-to-blood ratio and biological half-life of mercury: experimental study of methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Murata, Katsuyuki; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Nakai, Kunihiko; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    The hair-to-blood ratio and biological half-life of methylmercury in a one-compartment model seem to differ between past and recent studies. To reevaluate them, 27 healthy volunteers were exposed to methylmercury at the provisional tolerable weekly intake (3.4 µg/kg body weight/week) for adults through fish consumption for 14 weeks, followed by a 15-week washout period after the cessation of exposure. Blood was collected every 1 or 2 weeks, and hair was cut every 4 weeks. Total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were analyzed in blood and hair. The T-Hg levels of blood and hair changed with time (p < 0.001). The mean concentrations increased from 6.7 ng/g at week 0 to 26.9 ng/g at week 14 in blood, and from 2.3 to 8.8 µg/g in hair. The mean hair-to-blood ratio after the adjustment for the time lag from blood to hair was 344 ± 54 (S.D.) for the entire period. The half-lives of T-Hg were calculated from raw data to be 94 ± 23 days for blood and 102 ± 31 days for hair, but the half-lives recalculated after subtracting the background levels from the raw data were 57 ± 18 and 64 ± 22 days, respectively. In conclusion, the hair-to-blood ratio of methylmercury, based on past studies, appears to be underestimated in light of recent studies. The crude half-life may be preferred rather than the recalculated one because of the practicability and uncertainties of the background level, though the latter half-life may approximate the conventional one.

  11. Mercury determination in dentist's hair and nails by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzilli, B.; Munita, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The mercury in scalp hair and fingernails of a group of dentists who usually handle with this toxic element in their profession is determined. The results were obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The experimental procedure was based on the evaluation of the 197 Hg photopeak area, whose half life is 65h. After at a neutron fluxo of 5x10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 , the activity of the samples were measured by using a solid state Ge (Li) detector coupled to a 4.096 channel pulse height analyser. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss.

  13. Toxicokinetics of mercury in blood compartments and hair of fish-fed sled dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieske Camilla L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding mercury (Hg distribution in blood and the importance of hair as an excretory pathway is critical for evaluating risk from long term dietary Hg exposure. The major objective of this study was to characterize changes in total Hg concentrations in specific blood compartments and hair over time due to long term piscivory. Methods Eight sled dogs (Canis lupus familiaris were fed either a fish and kibble diet (n = 4, or a fish-free control diet (n = 4 for 12 weeks. Concentrations of Hg were monitored throughout the exposure period, and for 10 weeks post exposure, until Hg concentrations in all blood compartments of one of the exposed dogs dropped below detection limit. Additionally, foreleg hair was sampled during acclimation and weeks 0 and 12. Results Hg was detected primarily in whole blood and packed cells, although it was sporadically detected at low concentrations in plasma and serum in two of the fish fed dogs. Dogs ingested an estimated average of 13.4 ± 0.58 μg Hg per kg body weight per day. Hg was detectable in whole blood and packed cells within a week of exposure. Detected concentrations continued to rise until plateauing at approximately 3-6 weeks of exposure at a mean of 9.2 ± 1.97 ng/g (ppb in whole blood. Hg concentration decreased post exposure following 1st order elimination. The mean half-life (t1/2 in whole blood for Hg was 7 weeks. Mean Hg in hair for the fish-fed dogs at week 12 was 540 ± 111 ppb and was significantly greater (about 7-fold than the Hg hair concentration for the control dogs. The hair to blood ratio for Hg in fish-fed dogs was 59.0 ± 7.6:1. Conclusions This study found the sled dog model to be an effective method for investigating and characterizing blood Hg distribution (whole blood, serum, plasma, packed cells and toxicokinetics associated with a piscivorous diet, especially for Hg-exposed fur bearing mammals (such as polar bears. Although hair excretion and hair to blood

  14. Determination of mercury in sectioned hair samples of Tycho Brahe by RNAA and μ-PIXE methods, and assay of Apertura piriformis bones by INAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, Jan; Kamenik, Jan; Havranek, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Theories exist saying that the world-renowned Renaissance astronomer Tycho Brahe died of mercury intoxication. Brahe's grave was reopened in 2010 and new samples of his hair, beard-hair, and bones were taken and analysed. Evidence obtained by us suggests that Brahe was not administered lethal doses of mercury and that neither acute nor chronic mercury poisoning was the cause of his death. The INAA results of A piriformis suggest that his nasal prosthesis was most likely made of brass

  15. Determination of mercury in hair: Comparison between gold amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanico, Francesco; Forte, Giovanni; Majorani, Costanza; Senofonte, Oreste; Petrucci, Francesco; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    Mercury is a heavy metal that causes serious health problems in exposed subjects. The most toxic form, i.e., methylmercury (MeHg), is mostly excreted through human hair. Numerous analytical methods are available for total Hg analysis in human hair, including cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA-AAS). The aim of the study was to compare the TDA-AAS with the ICP-MS in the Hg quantification in human hair. After the washing procedure to minimize the external contamination, from each hair sample two aliquots were taken; the first was used for direct analysis of Hg by TDA-AAS and the second was digested for Hg determination by the ICP-MS. Results indicated that the two data sets were fully comparable (median; TDA-AAS, 475ngg -1 ; ICP-MS, 437ngg -1 ) and were not statistically different (Mann-Whitney test; p=0.44). The two techniques presented results with a good coefficient of correlation (r=0.94) despite different operative ranges and method limits. Both techniques satisfied internal performance requirements and the parameters for method validation resulting sensitive, precise and reliable. Finally, the use of the TDA-AAS can be considered instead of the ICP-MS in hair analysis in order to reduce sample manipulation with minor risk of contamination, less time consuming due to the absence of the digestion step and cheaper analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. PCBs levels and indicator congeners in children's and adolescents' hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Baocui; Liu, Xinhui; Hou, Jing; Liang, Gang; Gong, Wenwen; Xu, Diandou; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Thirty polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in the hair samples collected from children (4–12) and adolescents (13–18) of Changchun city, Northeastern China. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the adolescents' hair samples were 161.0 ng g −1 and 61.7 ng g −1 , which were relatively higher than 43.7 ng g −1 and 14.6 ng g −1 in the children's ones. Considering gender difference, the mean concentrations in the girls' hair samples were approximately two times higher than those in the boys' ones for most PCB congeners. The pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue. It was found that the levels of total PCBs and dl-PCBs were highly correlated with PCB 118 level in the children's hair samples, and with PCB 114 level in the adolescents' ones. The result demonstrated that the two PCB congeners could be applied as the indicators to evaluate the concentrations of total PCBs and dl-PCBs in children's and adolescents' hair, respectively. -- Highlights: • PCBs levels for most congeners were higher in the adolescents' hair samples. • The mean PCBs were approximately 2 times higher for girls except few congeners. • Pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue in the both hair samples. • PCB 118 and PCB 114 were the indicators for total PCBs and total dl-PCBs. -- The PCBs levels can be predicted conveniently by the congener-specific analysis

  17. Intake of mercury through fish consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.B.; Kiprawi, A.Z.; Ismail, R.B.; Hassan, R.B.; Wood, A.K.; Rahman, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fish has been known as a source of non-occupational mercury exposure to fish consuming population groups, and this is shown by the high hair mercury levels. In this study, hair samples collected from fishermen and their families, and commercial marine fishes were analyzed for mercury and methylmercury by neutron activation and gas chromatography. The results showed a correlation between hair mercury levels and fish consumption patterns. The levels of mercury found in this study were similar to those reported by other workers for fish consuming population groups worldwide. (author)

  18. Correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations in Indian hair from Rondĵnia State, Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mônica Campos; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo Souza; Müller, Regina Céli Sarkis; Brabo, Edilson Silva; Santos, Elizabete Oliveira

    2002-03-15

    Total mercury and selenium concentrations were determined in hair samples collected from Wari (Pacaás Novos) Indians living in Doutor Tanajura village, Gujará-Mirim city, Rondĵnia State. The mercury concentrations in some samples are much higher than the values determined in samples from individuals not exposed to mercury contamination, occupationally or environmentally. The selenium concentrations are in the normal range. A correlation was observed between the mercury and selenium concentration and the values of the molar ratio approach 1 at low Hg concentrations. This fact is related to the equimolar complex formed by [(Hg-Se)n]m-Seleprotein P, which can decrease the bioavailable mercury in the organism.

  19. Mercury Levels in US Children and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Data are presented from the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES on the distribution of blood mercury levels and association with fish consumption in a representative sample of young children and women of reproductive age.

  20. Mercury baseline levels in Flemish soils (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tack, Filip M.G.; Vanhaesebroeck, Thomas; Verloo, Marc G.; Van Rompaey, Kurt; Ranst, Eric van

    2005-01-01

    It is important to establish contaminant levels that are normally present in soils to provide baseline data for pollution studies. Mercury is a toxic element of concern. This study was aimed at assessing baseline mercury levels in soils in Flanders. In a previous study, mercury contents in soils in Oost-Vlaanderen were found to be significantly above levels reported elsewhere. For the current study, observations were extended over two more provinces, West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen. Ranges of soil Hg contents were distinctly higher in the province Oost-Vlaanderen (interquartile range from 0.09 to 0.43 mg/kg) than in the other provinces (interquartile ranges from 0.7 to 0.13 and 0.7 to 0.15 mg/kg for West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen, respectively). The standard threshold method was applied to separate soils containing baseline levels of Hg from the data. Baseline concentrations for Hg were characterised by a median of 0.10 mg Hg/kg dry soil, an interquartile range from 0.07 to 0.14 mg/kg and a 90% percentile value of 0.30 mg/kg. The influence of soil properties such as clay and organic carbon contents, and pH on baseline Hg concentrations was not important. Maps of the spatial distribution of Hg levels showed that the province Oost-Vlaanderen exhibited zones with systematically higher Hg soil contents. This may be related to the former presence of many small-scale industries employing mercury in that region. - Increased mercury levels may reflect human activity

  1. Hair mercury (signature of fish consumption) and cardiovascular risk in Munduruku and Kayabi Indians of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; de Souza, Jurandir R; Rodrigues, Patricia; Ferrari, Iris; Barbosa, Antonio C

    2005-02-01

    Fish is an important natural resource in the diet of inhabitants of the Amazon rain forest and a marker of its consumption (hair Hg) was used to compare selected cardiovascular risk parameters between tribes of Eastern Amazonia. Three Munduruku (Terra Preta, Kaburua, Cururu) villages and one Kayabi village at the banks of head rivers (Tapajos, Tropas, Kabitutu, Cururu, Curuzinho, Teles Pires) of the Tapajos Basin were studied in relation to fish Hg concentrations, mercury in hair (fish consumption) and erythrocytes, body mass index (height/weight, kg/cm2), and blood pressure. The mean fish Hg concentrations were higher in predatory (578.6 ng/g) than in nonpredatory species (52.8 ng/g). Overall only 26% of fish Hg concentrations were above 500 ng/g, and only 11% were above 1000 ng/g. There was no systematic trend in fish Hg concentrations from rivers with a history of gold-mining activities. The biomarker of fish consumption (hair Hg) was significantly associated with erythrocyte-Hg (r=0.5181; P=0.0001) and was significantly higher in Kayabi (12.7 microg/g) than in the Munduruku (3.4 microg/g). Biomarker-assessed fish consumption rate was higher in the Kayabi (110 g/day) than in the Munduruku villages (30 g/day). Although no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) were observed between tribes, there was a trend of lower increase in blood pressure with age among the higher fish consumers (Kayabi). Summary clinical evaluation did not detect neurologic complaints compatible with Hg intoxication (paraparesis, numbness, tremor, balancing failure), but endemic tropical diseases such as clinical history of malaria showed a high prevalence (55.4%). Fish is an abundant natural resource, important in the Indian diet, that has been historically consumed without perceived problems and can easily be traced through hair Hg. The exposure to freshwater fish monomethyl mercury is less of an issue than endemic infectious diseases such as malaria and lack of basic medical

  2. Occupational exposure to mercury. What is a safe level?

    OpenAIRE

    Moienafshari, R.; Bar-Oz, B.; Koren, G.

    1999-01-01

    QUESTION: One of my pregnant patients, a dental hygienist, uses mercury in her workplace, but appears to have no symptoms of mercury toxicity. She has heard that mercury might affect her fetus. What should I recommend to her? What is a safe level of mercury in the air for pregnant women? ANSWER: Testing for levels of mercury in whole blood and, preferably, urine is useful for confirming exposure. Currently, mercury vapour concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 are considered unsafe. Also, wom...

  3. The Determination of Manganese, Zinc and Mercury in Hair by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busamongkol, Arporn [Chemistry Division, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1999-07-01

    The concentration of Manganese, Zinc and Mercury in hair of 30 Bangkok's residents and 62 workers in dry cell battery plant are determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. After washing and grinding, the sample is separated into two portions, one to determine Mn, the other to determine Zn and Hg. The accuracy is evaluated by comparison with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method. The accuracy of this method are 0.46 and 0.74% for Mn and Zn, respectively. The precision are indicated by the relative standard deviation of 7.51, 4.32 and 6.49% for Mn, Zn and Hg, respectively. The average concentration of Mn, Zn and Hg in the first group are 1.87, 175.96 and 5.39 {mu}g/g, in the second group are 14.43, 236.38 and 13.55 {mu}g/g, respectively.

  4. Mercury in soil, vegetable and human hair in a typical mining area in China: Implication for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qin; Zhu, Xuemei; Hao, Yaqiong; Yang, Ziliang; Wang, Qi; Fu, Haihui; Yu, Hongjin

    2018-06-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in soil, vegetables, and human hair were measured in a mercury mining area in central China. T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in soil ranged from 1.53 to 1054.97mg/kg and 0.88 to 46.52μg/kg, respectively. T-Hg concentrations was correlated with total organic carbon (TOC) content (R 2 =0.50, p<0.01) and pH values (R 2 =0.21, p<0.05). A significant linear relationship was observed between MeHg concentrations and the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (R 2 =0.39, p<0.05) in soil. Soil incubation experiments amended with specific microbial stimulants and inhibitors showed that Hg methylation was derived from SRB activity. T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in vegetables were 24.79-781.02μg/kg and 0.01-0.18μg/kg, respectively; levels in the edible parts were significantly higher than in the roots (T-Hg: p<0.05; MeHg: p<0.01). Hg species concentrations in rhizosphere soil were positively correlated to those in vegetables (p<0.01), indicating that soil was an important source of Hg in vegetables. Risk assessment indicated that the consumption of vegetables could result in higher probable daily intake (PDI) of T-Hg than the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) for both adults and children. In contrast, the PDI of MeHg was lower than the reference dose. T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in hair samples ranged from 1.57 to 12.61mg/kg and 0.04 to 0.94mg/kg, respectively, and MeHg concentration in hair positively related to PDI of MeHg via vegetable consumption (R 2 =0.39, p<0.05), suggesting that vegetable may pose health risk to local residents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Evaluating hair as a predictor of blood mercury: the influence of ontogenetic phase and life history in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah H.; McHuron, Elizabeth A.; Kennedy, Stephanie N.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Castellini, J. Margaret; O'Hara, Todd M.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomonitoring of pinnipeds increasingly utilizes nonlethally collected tissues such as hair and blood. The relationship between total Hg concentrations ([THg]) in these tissues is not well understood for marine mammals, but it can be important for interpretation of tissue concentrations with respect to ecotoxicology and biomonitoring. We examined [THg] in blood and hair in multiple age classes of four pinniped species. For each species, we used paired blood and hair samples to quantify the ability of [THg] in hair to predict [THg] in blood at the time of sampling and examined the influence of varying ontogenetic phases and life history of the sampled animals. Overall, we found that the relationship between [THg] in hair and blood was affected by factors including age class, weaning status, growth, and the time difference between hair growth and sample collection. Hair [THg] was moderately to strongly predictive of current blood [THg] for adult female Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), adult female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and adult harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), whereas hair [THg] was poorly predictive or not predictive (different times of year) of blood [THg] for adult northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Within species, except for very young pups, hair [THg] was a weaker predictor of blood [THg] for prereproductive animals than for adults likely due to growth, variability in foraging behavior, and transitions between ontogenetic phases. Our results indicate that the relationship between hair [THg] and blood [THg] in pinnipeds is variable and that ontogenetic phase and life history should be considered when interpreting [THg] in these tissues.

  6. Influence of socio-demographic and diet determinants on the levels of mercury in preschool children from a Mediterranean island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garí, Mercè; Grimalt, Joan O.; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Mercury levels measured in 302 hair samples of 4 year-old children from Menorca (western Mediterranean Sea) are reported. Their concentrations, arithmetic mean 1.4 μg/g, ranging between 0.040 μg/g and 10 μg/g, were higher than in other children inland populations but lower than in previously studied island cohorts, e.g. Faroe, Madeira and Seychelles. 20% of the samples were above the WHO recommended values. Higher concentrations in females than males were observed. Frequent consumption of fish and other seafood were significantly related to the observed mercury concentrations. Oily fish was the main source of this pollutant but shellfish and squid consumption were also associated with high mercury concentrations. Maternal smoking, occupational status or previous siblings were also found to significantly influence the levels of this pollutant. McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities used to assess children's motor and cognitive abilities did not show association with mercury concentrations at 4 years of age. Highlights: •20% of children exceed the WHO guideline level of 2 μg/g of mercury in hair. •Higher mercury concentrations in female than male children are observed. •Oily fish is the main source of mercury within frequent-fish consumer children. •Higher parity is associated with lower mercury concentrations in children. •No associations between children's cognitive abilities and mercury levels are found. -- Oily fish and shellfish consumption, parity, maternal smoking and occupational status are the main determinants of mercury in four year-old children from Menorca Island (Mediterranean Sea)

  7. Hair Mercury Negatively Correlates with Calcium Pump Activity in Human Term Newborns and Their Mothers at Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Huel, Guy; Sahuquillo, Josiane; Debotte, Ginette; Oury, Jean-François; Takser, Larissa

    2007-01-01

    Background Calcium homeostasis is a known target of several environmental toxicants including lead and mercury. Objective Our goal was to determine the relationship between Hg exposure and erythrocyte Ca pump activity in women at delivery and in their newborns. Methods We determined total Hg as well as Pb concentrations in 81 hair and blood samples obtained at delivery. Basal and calmodulin-stimulated Ca pump activity was measured in red blood cells from cord blood and maternal erythrocyte pl...

  8. Mercury correlations among blood, muscle, and hair of northern elephant seals during the breeding and molting fasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomonitoring and toxicological risk assessments for marine mammals commonly sample different tissues, making comparisons to toxicity benchmarks and among species and regions difficult. Few studies have examined how life history events, such as fasting, influence the relationship between total Hg (THg) concentrations in different tissues. We evaluated the relationships between THg concentrations in blood, muscle, and hair of female and male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at the start and end of the breeding and molting fasts. The relationships between tissues varied among tissue pairs and differed by sampling period and sex. Blood and muscle were generally related at all time periods; however, hair, an inert tissue, did not strongly represent the metabolically active tissues (blood and muscle) at all times of year. The strongest relationships between THg concentrations in hair and those in blood or muscle were observed during periods of active hair growth (end of the molting period) or during time periods when internal body conditions were similar to those when the hair was grown (end of the breeding fast). Our results indicate that THg concentrations in blood or muscle can be translated to the other tissue type using the equations we developed, but that THg concentrations in hair were generally a poor index of internal THg concentrations except during the end of fasting periods.

  9. Cytogenetic damage related to low levels of methyl mercury contamination in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÚCIA I. M. AMORIM

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The mercury rejected in the water system, from mining operations and lixiviation of soils after deforestation, is considered to be the main contributors to the contamination of the ecosystem in the Amazon Basin. The objectives of the present study were to examine cytogenetic functions in peripheral lymphocytes within a population living on the banks of the Tapajós River with respect to methylmercury (MeHg contamination, using hair mercury as a biological indicator of exposure. Our investigation shows a clear relation between methylmercury contamination and cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes at levels well below 50 micrograms/gram, the level at which initial clinical signs and symptoms of mercury poisoning occur. The first apparent biological effect with increasing MeHg hair level was the impairment of lymphocyte proliferation measured as mitotic index (MI. The relation between mercury concentration in hair and MI suggests that this parameter, an indicator of changes in lymphocytes and their ability to respond to culture conditions, may be an early marker of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in humans and should be taken into account in the preliminary evaluation of the risks to populations exposed in vivo. This is the first report showing clear cytotoxic effects of long-term exposure to MeHg. Although the results strongly suggest that, under the conditions examined here, MeHg is both a spindle poison and a clastogen, the biological significance of these observations are as yet unknown. A long-term follow-up of these subjects should be undertaken.

  10. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S

    2011-01-15

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3-19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled in 1994-2006. The hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. The samples were categorized according to contamination: eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p=0.81) or sampling year (p=0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p=0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred

    2014-01-01

    of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. METHODS: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES...... guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. RESULTS: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children's samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair) and children (0.149 µg /g hair) did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were...

  12. Study of high levels indoor air mercury contamination from mercury amalgam use in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, M.A.; Abbasi, M.S.; Mehmood, F.; Jahangir, S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimated that 362 tonnes of dental mercury are consumed annually worldwide. Dental mercury amalgams also called silver fillings and amalgam fillings are widely done. These fillings gave off mercury vapours. Estimated average absorbed concentrations of mercury vapours from dental fillings vary from 3,000 to 17,000 ng Hg. Mercury (Hg) also known as quick silver is an essential constituent of dental amalgam. It is a toxic substance of global concern. A persistent pollutant, mercury is not limited to its source but it travels, on time thousands of kilometers away from the source. Scientific evidence, including, UNEP Global Mercury report, establishes mercury as an extremely toxic substance, which is a major threat to wildlife, ecosystem and human health, at a global scale. Children are more at risk from mercury poisoning which affects their neurological development and brain. Mercury poisoning diminishes memory, attention, thinking and sight. In the past, a number of studies at dental sites in many countries have been carried out and reported which have been reviewed and briefly described. This paper describes and discusses the recent investigations, regarding mercury vapours level in air, carried out at 18 dental sites in Pakistan and other countries. It is evident from the data of 42 dental sites in 17 countries, including, selected dental sites in five main cities of Pakistan, described and discussed in this paper that at most dental sites in many countries including Pakistan, the indoor mercury vapours levels exceed far above the permissible limit, recommended for safe physical and mental health. At these sites, public, in general, and the medical, paramedical staff and vulnerable population, in particular, are at most serious risk to health resulting from exposure to toxic and hazardous mercury. (author)

  13. Hair Mercury Concentrations in Western Hudson Bay Polar Bear Family Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshoft, Thea; Derocher, Andrew E; Richardson, Evan; Lunn, Nicholas J; St Louis, Vincent L

    2016-05-17

    Methylmercury is one of the more toxic forms of mercury (Hg), the biomagnification of which is prevalent in the Arctic where apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can carry high loads. The maternal transfer of contaminants to offspring is a concern, as offspring may be particularly sensitive to the effects of environmental pollutants during early development. However, few studies of polar bears report on Hg in dependent young. We examined hair total Hg (THg) concentrations in 24 polar bear family groups in western Hudson Bay: mother, cub-of-the-year (COY), yearling, and 2 year old. THg concentrations increased with bear age, with COYs having lower concentrations than other offspring groups (p ≤ 0.008). Using AICc-based regression models, we found maternal THg to be positively related to body condition and litter size, while overall offspring THg was positively related to maternal body condition in addition to being dependent on the sex and age of the offspring. COY THg concentrations were positively related to maternal THg while also depending on the sex of the offspring. Considering our results, future studies in polar bear ecotoxicology are encouraged to include offspring of different ages and sexes.

  14. Feather growth influences blood mercury level of young songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Anne M; Cristol, Daniel A

    2009-02-01

    Dynamics of mercury in feathers and blood of free-living songbirds is poorly understood. Nestling eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) living along the mercury-contaminated South River (Virginia, USA) had blood mercury levels an order of magnitude lower than their parents (nestling: 0.09 +/- 0.06 mg/kg [mean +/- standard deviation], n = 156; adult: 1.21 +/- 0.57 mg/kg, n = 86). To test whether this low blood mercury was the result of mercury sequestration in rapidly growing feathers, we repeatedly sampled free-living juveniles throughout the period of feather growth and molt. Mean blood mercury concentrations increased to 0.52 +/- 0.36 mg/kg (n = 44) after the completion of feather growth. Some individuals had reached adult blood mercury levels within three months of leaving the nest, but levels dropped to 0.20 +/- 0.09 mg/kg (n = 11) once the autumn molt had begun. Most studies of mercury contamination in juvenile birds have focused on recently hatched young with thousands of rapidly growing feathers. However, the highest risk period for mercury intoxication in young birds may be during the vulnerable period after fledging, when feathers no longer serve as a buffer against dietary mercury. We found that nestling blood mercury levels were not indicative of the extent of contamination because a large portion of the ingested mercury ended up in feathers. The present study demonstrates unequivocally that in songbirds blood mercury level is influenced strongly by the growth and molt of feathers.

  15. Mercury in the nation's streams - Levels, trends, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Dennis A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Chasar, Lia C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in fish to levels of concern for human health and the health of fish-eating wildlife. Mercury contamination of fish is the primary reason for issuing fish consumption advisories, which exist in every State in the Nation. Much of the mercury originates from combustion of coal and can travel long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. This can result in mercury-contaminated fish in areas with no obvious source of mercury pollution.Three key factors determine the level of mercury contamination in fish - the amount of inorganic mercury available to an ecosystem, the conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury, and the bioaccumulation of methylmercury through the food web. Inorganic mercury originates from both natural sources (such as volcanoes, geologic deposits of mercury, geothermal springs, and volatilization from the ocean) and anthropogenic sources (such as coal combustion, mining, and use of mercury in products and industrial processes). Humans have doubled the amount of inorganic mercury in the global atmosphere since pre-industrial times, with substantially greater increases occurring at locations closer to major urban areas.In aquatic ecosystems, some inorganic mercury is converted to methylmercury, the form that ultimately accumulates in fish. The rate of mercury methylation, thus the amount of methylmercury produced, varies greatly in time and space, and depends on numerous environmental factors, including temperature and the amounts of oxygen, organic matter, and sulfate that are present.Methylmercury enters aquatic food webs when it is taken up from water by algae and other microorganisms. Methylmercury concentrations increase with successively higher trophic levels in the food web—a process known as bioaccumulation. In general, fish at the top of the food web consume other fish and tend to accumulate the highest methylmercury concentrations.This report summarizes selected stream studies

  16. The impact of demographic factors, behaviors and environmental exposure to mercury content in the hair of the population living in the region of Lodz (central Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek-Jacel, Marta; Albińska, Jadwiga; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Szynkowska, Małgorzata Iwona

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to access the influence of different factors such as sex, age, fish consumption, hair dyeing or smoking habit on the content of mercury in human hair samples. The research was carried on 444 samples (102 males and 342 females) collected from the population of people living in the region of Lodz (central Poland). The content of mercury in human hair samples was determined using the Mercury Analyzer MA 3000 (Nippon Instruments, Japan). The obtained results were elaborated using Statistica ver. 10.0 software. The mean value of mercury in investigated human hair samples was found to be 0.174±0.137mg/kg. We observed the statistically significant correlations (p<0.05) between the content of Hg in hair of the studied population and factors such as gender, age, and fish consumption. However, no statistically significant differences were found in relation to cosmetic treatment such as hair dyeing or smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlations of hair level with salivary level in cortisol and cortisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Chen, Zheng; Chen, Shenghuo; Yu, Tian; Wang, Juxia; Wang, Weiwen; Deng, Huihua

    2018-01-15

    Contrary findings exist on the consistency between hair cortisol and salivary cortisol in assessing the basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The mismatches in temporal characteristic and the indices of hair and salivary cortisol might be potential reasons for the inconsistency. The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency between hair and salivary levels in cortisol and cortisone by directly examining the correlation between hair level and salivary level with different temporal characteristics (acute, short-term and long-term levels) and reflecting different HPA functions (basal level and reactivity level) in the well-matched time span. A longitudinal design within a five-week period was conducted in a sample of 44 healthy female college students (mean age: 18.8yrs.; age range: 18-22yrs) of Han nationality with the exclusion criteria, such as use of oral contraceptives or glucocorticoids and bleached hairs, etc. Four saliva samples (awakening, awakening+30min, awakening+4h and awakening+9h) were collected from an identical participant on three separate days with an interval of one week and 1-cm hair segment nearest to the scalp was collected two weeks later after completing saliva collection. Cortisol and cortisone in saliva and hair were simultaneously measured with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. There were significantly moderate correlations in cortisol and cortisone between hair level and three-day average of single-day salivary level, but low to moderate correlations between hair level and single-point and single-day salivary level. Hair cortisol and cortisone were unrelated to single-day level and three-day average of diurnal slope and cortisol awakening response of salivary cortisol and cortisone, respectively. The considerable consistency between hair level and long-term salivary level in cortisol and cortisone implies that cortisol and cortisone in hair are valid biomarkers of

  18. Coat and hair color: hair cortisol and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of heat stress on animal health are being increasingly recognized. This study aimed to determine hair cortisol (HC) and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions with different coat and hair-cut color. Forty-five multiparous lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 130 ± 47, body weight = 753 ± 85 kg) were divided to two main groups of over 80% black coat color (BC) and over 85% white coat color (WC) visually observed based on registry certificates and subdividing to black hair sample (BH) and white hair samples (WH) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Hair samples were taken from the forehead of the individuals. Higher HC levels were observed in BC than WC cows (P  0.05). Serotonin levels showed no difference between BC and WC (P > 0.05). Interaction between coat color and hair color was not significant (P > 0.05). The cortisol levels in hair are not affected by pigmentation. However, pigmentation within the coat alters cortisol levels. In conclusion, white coat color retains less cortisol than the black coat. Therefore, white coats are preferable for dairy cows under heat stress conditions. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. An Investigation of Modifying Effects of Metallothionein Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms on the Association between Mercury Exposure and Biomarker Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Basu, Niladri

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that several genes that mediate mercury metabolism are polymorphic in humans. Objective: We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in metallothionein (MT) genes may underlie interindividual differences in mercury biomarker levels. We studied the potential modifying effects of MT SNPs on mercury exposure–biomarker relationships. Methods: We measured total mercury in urine and hair samples of 515 dental professionals. We also surveyed occupational and personal exposures to dental amalgam and dietary fish consumption, from which daily methylmercury (MeHg) intake was estimated. Log-transformed urine and hair levels were modeled in multivariable linear regression separately against respective exposure surrogates, and the effect modification of 13 MT SNPs on exposure was investigated. Results: The mean mercury levels in urine (1.06 μg/L) and hair (0.51 μg/g) were not significantly different from the U.S. general population (0.95 μg/L and 0.47 μg/g, respectively). The mean estimated daily MeHg intake was 0.084 μg/kg/day (range, 0–0.98 μg/kg/day), with 25% of study population intakes exceeding the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose of 0.1 μg/kg/day. Multivariate regression analysis showed that subjects with the MT1M (rs2270837) AA genotype (n = 10) or the MT2A (rs10636) CC genotype (n = 42) had lower urinary mercury levels than did those with the MT1M or MT2A GG genotype (n = 329 and 251, respectively) after controlling for exposure and potential confounders. After controlling for MeHg intake, subjects with MT1A (rs8052394) GA and GG genotypes (n = 24) or the MT1M (rs9936741) TT genotype (n = 459) had lower hair mercury levels than did subjects with MT1A AA (n = 113) or MT1M TC and CC genotypes (n = 15), respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that some MT genetic polymorphisms may influence mercury biomarker concentrations at levels of exposure relevant to the general

  20. Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury

  1. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares ) and fresh little tunny ( Euthynnus alletteratus ) in Libya. ... Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety.

  2. Hair Zinc Level Analysis and Correlative Micronutrients in Children Presenting with Malnutrition and Poor Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Tae Hwan; Lee, Jin; Kim, Yong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Zinc deficiency can induce serious clinical problems in the gastrointestinal (GI) system and immune system and can affect growth and development. It is more severe in younger patients. Chronic zinc deficiency is reflected more precisely in hair than in serum. We studied hair zinc levels and other hair and serum micronutrients in chronic malnourished children to identify which micronutrients are affected or correlated with the other ones. Methods Hair mineral analyses were performed in...

  3. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and mercury concentration in the scalp hair of residents from Taiji, a whaling town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed δ 13 C, δ 15 N and Hg in hair from Japanese whale meat-eaters and non-eaters. ► The δ 15 N and δ 13 C values in whale meat-eaters were higher than those in non-eaters. ► The Hg concentration in whale meat-eaters was higher than that in non-eaters. ► A positive correlation was seen between δ 15 N and Hg in whale meat-eaters. ► Consumption of whale meat may increase δ 15 N, δ 13 C and Hg in the scalp hair. -- Abstract: We analyzed stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) as well as mercury (Hg) concentration in the scalp hair of Japanese who consumed whale meat and those who did not, and investigated the relationships among the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values and Hg concentration. The average δ 15 N and δ 13 C values of whale meat-eaters (10.11‰ and −18.5‰) were significantly higher than those of non-eaters (9.28‰ and −18.9‰), respectively. The average Hg concentration of whale meat-eaters (20.6 μg/g) was significantly higher than that of non-eaters (2.20 μg/g). Significant positive correlations were found between the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values and between the δ 15 N value and Hg concentration in the hair of whale meat-eaters, while the correlation between the δ 15 N value and Hg concentration was not statistically significant in the non-eaters. The consumption of whale meat may increase Hg concentration as well as δ 15 N and δ 13 C values in scalp hair

  4. Trace-level mercury removal from surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Bostick, D.T.

    1998-01-01

    Many sorbents have been developed for the removal of mercury and heavy metals from waters; however, most of the data published thus far do not address the removal of mercury to the target levels represented in this project. The application to which these sorbents are targeted for use is the removal of mercury from microgram-per-liter levels to low nanogram-per-liter levels. Sorbents with thiouronium, thiol, amine, sulfur, and proprietary functional groups were selected for these studies. Mercury was successfully removed from surface water via adsorption onto Ionac SR-4 and Mersorb resins to levels below the target goal of 12 ng/L in batch studies. A thiol-based resin performed the best, indicating that over 200,000 volumes of water could be treated with one volume of resin. The cost of the resin is approximately $0.24 per 1,000 gal of water

  5. The determination of methylmercury, total mercury and total selenium in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Reference Method describes the determination of methylmercury in human hair by gas liquid chromatography. It is designed for biological monitoring of selected individuals and population groups with a possible intake of methylmercury exceeding the recommended Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) through contaminated seafood, as part of a project on the evaluation of methylmercury in Mediterranean populations and related health hazards. The method, however, is also applicable to other regions. The method involves direct determination of methylmercury by gas liquid chromatography. The sample is disintegrated in a solution of sodium hydroxide, methylmercury is extracted from an aliquot of the solution into toluene and, after purification, a small volume is injected into a chromatographic column, filled with polyethyleneglycol succinate on Diatomite AW. Methylmercury in the gaseous mixture is detected with an electron capture detector and its amount determined by comparing the peak height with those of appropriate standards. The next Reference Method describes the determination of selenium in human hair (and other indicative tissues) by gas liquid chromatography and is designed for biological monitoring of selected individuals and population groups in the Mediterranean region with a possible intake of methylmercury exceeding the recommended Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) through contaminated seafood. The data are intended to establish a possible correlation between methylmercury intake and levels of selenium in the subjects monitored. Selenium in the solvent phase is determined by gas liquid chromatography using an electron capture detector. The above method has been selected because selenium is determined in conjunction with methylmercury, both of which require competence in gas chromatographic techniques. Reliable result for total selenium, however, will also be obtained by the following techniques: a) Atomic absorption spectrophotometry; b

  6. Mercury levels of marine fish commonly consumed in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal Mohd; Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita Wan; Jaafar, Hamdan; Ishak, Ismail; Azmi, Wan Nurul Farah Wan; Veloo, Yuvaneswary; Hairi, Mohd Hairulhisam

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of total mercury in the edible portion of 46 species of marine fish (n = 297) collected from selected major fish landing ports and wholesale markets throughout Peninsular Malaysia. Samples were collected in June to December 2009. Prior to analysis, the fish samples were processed which consisted of drying at 65 °C until a constant weight was attained; then, it was grounded and digested by a microwave digestion system. The analytical determination was carried out by using a mercury analysis system. Total mercury concentration among fish species was examined. The results showed that mercury concentrations were found significantly higher (p mercury concentrations were also higher in carnivorous fish especially in the species with more predatory feeding habits. Besides, the family group of Latidae (0.537 ± 0.267 mg/kg in dried weight), Dasyatidae (0.492 ± 0.740 mg/kg in dried weight), and Lutjanidae (0.465 ± 0.566 mg/kg in dried weight) showed significantly (p mercury levels compared to other groups. Fish collected from Port Klang (0.563 ± 0.509 mg/kg in dry weight), Kuala Besar (0.521 ± 0.415 mg/kg in dry weight), and Pandan (0.380 ± 0.481 mg/kg in dry weight) were significantly higher (p = 0.014) in mercury concentrations when compared to fish from other sampling locations. Total mercury levels were significantly higher (p 20 cm) and were positively related with fish size (length and weight) in all fish samples. Despite the results, the level of mercury in marine fish did not exceed the permitted levels of Malaysian and JECFA guideline values at 0.5 mg/kg methylmercury in fish.

  7. Reactive gaseous mercury is generated from chloralkali factories resulting in extreme concentrations of mercury in hair of workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational exposure of chloralkali workers to highly concentrated mercury (Hg) vapour has been linked to an increased risk of renal dysfunction and behavioural changes. It is generally believed that these workers are exposed to elemental Hg, which is used in abundance during th...

  8. Mercury and water level fluctuations in lakes of northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P; Christensen, Victoria G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; LeDuc, Jaime F.; Kissane, Claire; Knights, Brent C.

    2017-01-01

    Large lake ecosystems support a variety of ecosystem services in surrounding communities, including recreational and commercial fishing. However, many northern temperate fisheries are contaminated by mercury. Annual variation in mercury accumulation in fish has previously been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, opening the possibility of regulating water levels in a manner that minimizes or reduces mercury contamination in fisheries. Here, we compiled a long-term dataset (1997-2015) of mercury content in young-of-year Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) from six lakes on the border between the U.S. and Canada and examined whether mercury content appeared to be related to several metrics of WL fluctuation (e.g., spring WL rise, annual maximum WL, and year-to-year change in maximum WL). Using simple correlation analysis, several WL metrics appear to be strongly correlated to Yellow Perch mercury content, although the strength of these correlations varies by lake. We also used many WL metrics, water quality measurements, temperature and annual deposition data to build predictive models using partial least squared regression (PLSR) analysis for each lake. These PLSR models showed some variation among lakes, but also supported strong associations between WL fluctuations and annual variation in Yellow Perch mercury content. The study lakes underwent a modest change in WL management in 2000, when winter WL minimums were increased by about 1 m in five of the six study lakes. Using the PLSR models, we estimated how this change in WL management would have affected Yellow Perch mercury content. For four of the study lakes, the change in WL management that occurred in 2000 likely reduced Yellow Perch mercury content, relative to the previous WL management regime.

  9. Metalloproteomics Approach to Analyze Mercury in Breast Milk and Hair Samples of Lactating Women in Communities of the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbino, M R; Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Braga, C P; Oliveira, G; Padilha, I F; Silva, T M; Zara, L F; Silva, N J; Padilha, P M

    2018-02-01

    Mercury is a potentially toxic element that is present in the environment of the Brazilian Amazon and is responsible for adverse health effects in humans. This study sought to assess possible protein biomarkers of mercury exposure in breast milk samples from lactating women in the Madeira and Negro Rivers in the Brazilian Amazon. The mercury content of hair samples of lactating women was determined, and the proteome of breast milk samples was obtained using two-dimensional electrophoresis after protein precipitation with acetone. Mercury measurements of protein spots obtained via protein fractionation were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), and it was observed that mercury is linked to proteins with molecular masses in the range of 14-26 kDa. The total mercury concentration was also determined by GFAAS in unprocessed milk, lyophilized milk, and protein pellets, with the purpose of determining the mercury mass balance in relation to the concentration of this element in milk and pellets. Approximately 85 to 97% of mercury present in the lyophilized milk from samples of lactating women of the Madeira River is bound in the protein fraction. From lactating women of the Negro River, approximately 49% of the total mercury is bound in the protein fraction, and a difference of 51% is bound in the lipid fraction.

  10. Association between Blood Mercury Level and Visceral Adiposity in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Suk Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFew studies have examined the association between mercury exposure and obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between blood mercury concentrations and indices of obesity in adults.MethodsA total of 200 healthy subjects, aged 30 to 64 years, who had no history of cardiovascular or malignant disease, were examined. Anthropometric and various biochemical profiles were measured. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA.ResultsAll subjects were divided into three groups according to blood mercury concentrations. Compared with the subjects in the lowest tertile of mercury, those in the highest tertile were more likely to be male; were current alcohol drinkers and smokers; had a higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and VAT; had higher levels of blood pressure, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance; and consumed more fish. The blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with anthropometric parameters, showing relationships with BMI, WC, and VAT. After adjusting for multiple risk factors, the odds ratios (ORs for high mercury concentration was significantly higher in the highest VAT tertile than in the lowest VAT tertile (OR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 6.62; P<0.05.ConclusionThe blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with VAT in healthy adults. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  11. Neutron activation analysis of neonate and maternal hair sampled in areas with different levels of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.; Skrivanek, O.; Umlaufova, M.; Hovorka, V.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed on human head hair of newborns and mothers sampled in two areas with different levels of environmental exposure. The group of neonates from the exposed area (polluted by thermal power plants burning brown coal and by chemical industry) exhibited higher levels of several trace elements in hair, e.g. Se, Zn, Hg and Sb in comparison with the control group. Moreover, the mean concentrations of Se, Hg, Zn and Br in neonate hair were found to be higher than in mothers' hair. Although the study revealed statistically significant differences in the composition of neonate hair samples in areas with different levels of environmental exposure, the differences are relatively small. Only a thorough long-term study both with environmental and medical observations can prove a direct connection of the elevated levels of some trace elements in neonate hair with the higher incidence of mental diseaes of children living in the exposed area. (author)

  12. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of hair for mercury determination in case of possible professional contamination. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinskaya, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    The results of neutron-activation determination of Hg in hair of the staff working with laboratory Hg-equipment are presented. The accuracy of the analysis has been tested including the possible Hg losses from phenol-formaldehyde resigns base standards in Al foils and from hair samples in polyethylene ampoules during their irradiation in water-filled nuclear reactor channel. The mean content of Hg in hair has been found to be 1.42+-0.42 (n=22) for the staff, and 1.05+-0.21 (n=10) μg for the controls. A staff group with a higher Hg content in hair (7.3+-3.0, n=10) has been singled out

  13. Mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone levels in juvenile birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T; Herzog, Mark P

    2012-06-05

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis.

  14. Serum drug level-related sodium valproate-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnappa, Suresh K; Belhekar, Mahesh N

    2013-01-01

    Sodium valproate is a well-established treatment in epilepsy and mood disorders. Its utility is compromised by its adverse effects such as tremor, weight gain, hair loss, and liver dysfunction. Hair loss may occur when drug is used in higher dose. Drug-induced hair loss is diffused and non-scarring, which is reversible upon withdrawal. But there are no case reports showing relation between serum levels of valproate and occurrence of hair loss. So we took interest in reporting this case report.

  15. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  16. Levels of Mercury in Persian Gulf Frozen Fish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Ziarati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe discharge of sewage and industrial effluents into the Persian Gulf leads to the deposition of various types of heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, in the muscles of fish. Total mercury and methylmercury contents were determined in the edible parts (muscle tissue, fillet of two different most popular frozen fish species from the Persian Gulf to ascertain whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission or not. During the period from October 2015 to June 2016, a total of 150 frozen fish packaged samples were randomly collected from the recognized supermarkets in Tehran province, Iran. The mercury (Hg concentration of samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer using a mercuric hydride system (MHS 10 and also by direct mercury analyzer (DMA. High concentration of total Hg was found in a Carcharhinus dussumie brand (0.91 ± 0.12 μg/g while the lowest level was detected in Pomadasys furcatus (0.29 ± 0.02 μg/g. In current study the mean concentrations of Mercury in all studied frozen fish samples were 0.79 ± 0.11 µg/g that means Hg levels were above 0.5 μg/g, which is the maximum standard level recommended by Joint FAO/WHO/Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA. In 13% of Pomadasys and in 47.2 % of Carcharhinus fish samples total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission. All samples had also mean Hg concentrations that exceeded EPA's established safety level of 0.3 μg/g.

  17. Mercury content in Chilean fish and estimated intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Sandra; Fortt, Antonia

    2007-09-01

    The intake of fish products is a major public health concern due to possible methyl mercury exposure, which is especially toxic to the human nervous system. This pilot study (n = 46) was designed to determine mercury concentrations in fish products for national consumption (Chilean jack mackerel, hake, Chilean mussel, tuna) and for export (salmon, Patagonian toothfish, swordfish, southern hake), and to estimate the exposure of the general population. The fish products were collected from markets in Talcahuano, Puerto Montt and Santiago. Samples were analyzed at the National Environmental Center by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mercury levels in swordfish and one canned tuna sample exceeded levels prescribed by national and international standards. The remaining two export products (Patagonian toothfish, also known as Chilean sea bass, and salmon) complied with international limits, which are more demanding than Chilean regulations. Theoretical estimates of mercury intake varied from 0.08 to 3.8 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for high fish consumers, exceeding the provisional tolerable intake for tuna, Chilean seabass, Chilean jack mackerel and swordfish. This group appears to be at the greatest risk from mercury contamination among the Chilean population.

  18. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Maria José da; Paim, Ana Paula S.; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg −1 level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg −1 by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg −1 , respectively

  19. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria José da, E-mail: maryquimica@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química – Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rue Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n. Dois irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Paim, Ana Paula S. [Departamento de Química Fundamental – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Pimentel, Maria Fernanda [Departamento de Engenharia Química – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building, University of Valencia, 50th Dr. Moliner Street, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg{sup −1} level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg{sup −1} by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg{sup −1}, respectively.

  20. Mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that exists in several physical and chemical forms. Inorganic mercury refers to compounds formed after the combining of mercury with elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen. After combining with carbon by covalent linkage, the compounds formed are called

  1. Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobal, Alfred Bogomir; Prezelj, Marija; Horvat, Milena; Krsnik, Mladen; Gibicar, Darija; Osredkar, Josko

    2008-01-01

    Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg o ) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg o -not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p o could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress

  2. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Ah Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM I value (5 μg/L among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001. The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.79–5.95 and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79 times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  3. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  4. A Comparative Study of Vitamin D Levels in Persons with Hair Loss and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Eshghi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Alopecia or hair loss is defined as the loss of hair on the head or body. Despite the benign prognosis of hair loss, it has a clear impact on the quality of life of the patients who are involved. There are many reasons to explain the pathophysiology of hair loss. Among many nutritional factors, vitamin D deficiency may play a role in hair loss too. Active vitamin D or 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D has an effect on the expression of some genes in normal differentiation of epidermal cells and hair follicles. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of vitamin D in patients with hair loss compared with healthy controls. Materials & Methods: From 2014 to 2015, 70 patients were enrolled in this case-control study. Including 40 women and 30 men, the mean age was 31.2 ± 0.82 years in the case group, 33.8 ± 0.92 years in the control group. Groups were matched by sex, age and season of review. In the both groups, there were 20 women (57.1% and 15 men (42.5%. After the clinical diagno-sis of hair loss by the physician, patient's blood samples were sent for testing vitamin D levels by kits of a laboratory center. Results: Patients, compared with controls, had lower levels of vitamin D and there was signifi-cant relationship between hair loss and low levels of vitamin D (16.188±6.91 vs 20.37±7.47, and P=0.04. Female patients had lower levels of vitamin D, compared with controls and there was significant relationship between hair loss and low levels of vitamin D (14.14±5.8 vs 18.74±7.08 and P=0.03. The group of male patients had lower levels of vitamin D, but in comparison with the control group, no significant relationship was found. Conclusion: This study showed that, there is a relationship between vitamin D levels and hair loss in women. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (1:71-75

  5. Association Between Human Hair Loss and the Expression Levels of Nucleolin, Nucleophosmin, and UBTF Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Sener; Eroz, Recep; Dogan, Hasan; Erdem, Haktan Bagis; Sahin, Ibrahim; Kara, Murat; Engin, Ragip Ismail; Turkez, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Nucleolar organizer regions, also known as argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions, are associated with ribosomal genes. The main function of the nucleolus is the rapid production of ribosomal subunits, a process that must be highly regulated to provide the appropriate levels for cellular proliferation and cell growth. There are no studies in the literature addressing the expression and function of nucleolar component proteins, including nucleophosmin, nucleolin and the upstream binding transcription factor (UBTF), in human follicular hair cells. Nineteen healthy males who had normal and sufficient hair follicles on the back of the head, but exhibited hair loss on the frontal/vertex portions of the head and 14 healthy males without hair loss were included in the current study. Gene expression levels were measured by relative quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. In the individuals suffering from alopecia, the total expression levels of nucleolin, nucleophosmin, and UBTF were lower in normal sites than in hair loss sites. Strong expression level correlations were detected between: nucleophosmin and nucleolin; nucleophosmin and UBTF, and nucleolin and UBTF for both groups. There was an association between human hair loss and the expression levels of nucleolin, nucleophosmin, and UBTF genes.

  6. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) for treatment of hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K; Clark, Jason; Wikonkal, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    Alopecia is a common disorder affecting more than half of the population worldwide. Androgenetic alopecia, the most common type, affects 50% of males over the age of 40 and 75% of females over 65. Only two drugs have been approved so far (minoxidil and finasteride) and hair transplant is the other treatment alternative. This review surveys the evidence for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to the scalp as a treatment for hair loss and discusses possible mechanisms of actions. Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar were carried out using keywords alopecia, hair loss, LLLT, photobiomodulation. Studies have shown that LLLT stimulated hair growth in mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced alopecia and also in alopecia areata. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that LLLT stimulated hair growth in both men and women. Among various mechanisms, the main mechanism is hypothesized to be stimulation of epidermal stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and shifting the follicles into anagen phase. LLLT for hair growth in both men and women appears to be both safe and effective. The optimum wavelength, coherence and dosimetric parameters remain to be determined. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparison of Indoor Mercury Vapor in Common Areas of Residential Buildings with Outdoor Levels in a Community Where Mercury Is Used for Cultural Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garetano, Gary; Gochfeld, Michael; Stern, Alan H.

    2006-01-01

    Elemental mercury has been imbued with magical properties for millennia, and various cultures use elemental mercury in a variety of superstitious and cultural practices, raising health concerns for users and residents in buildings where it is used. As a first step in assessing this phenomenon, we compared mercury vapor concentration in common areas of residential buildings versus outdoor air, in two New Jersey cities where mercury is available and is used in cultural practices. We measured mercury using a portable atomic absorption spectrometer capable of quantitative measurement from 2 ng/m3 mercury vapor. We evaluated the interior hallways in 34 multifamily buildings and the vestibule in an additional 33 buildings. Outdoor mercury vapor averaged 5 ng/m3; indoor mercury was significantly higher (mean 25 ng/m3; p < 0.001); 21% of buildings had mean mercury vapor concentration in hallways that exceeded the 95th percentile of outdoor mercury vapor concentration (17 ng/m3), whereas 35% of buildings had a maximum mercury vapor concentration that exceeded the 95th percentile of outdoor mercury concentration. The highest indoor average mercury vapor concentration was 299 ng/m3, and the maximum point concentration was 2,022 ng/m3. In some instances, we were able to locate the source, but we could not specifically attribute the elevated levels of mercury vapor to cultural use or other specific mercury releases. However, these findings provide sufficient evidence of indoor mercury source(s) to warrant further investigation. PMID:16393659

  8. Long-term cortisol levels measured in scalp hair of obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Visser, Jenny A; Manenschijn, Laura; Koper, Jan W; Klessens-Godfroy, Francoise J M; van den Akker, Erica L T; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2014-09-01

    In obese subjects a relatively high cortisol output in urine has been observed compared to nonobese individuals. However, cortisol levels in blood, saliva, and urine in association with obesity have been inconsistent across studies, possibly due to the high variability of systemic cortisol levels. Cortisol levels measured in scalp hair provide a marker for long-term cortisol exposure, and have been associated with cardiovascular disease in an elderly population and to disease course in Cushing's disease. We aimed to compare hair cortisol levels between obese patients and nonobese controls. Hair cortisol levels of 47 obese patients (median BMI 38.8, range 31.1-65.8), 41 overweight, and 87 normal-weight subjects using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were measured. Obese patients had higher hair cortisol levels than overweight and normal weight subjects (respectively 30.8 vs 8.5 and 8.4 pg/mg hair, P cortisol levels was found between normal weight and overweight subjects. Our results suggest a higher long-term cortisol exposure in obese patients, which may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. Future research will determine whether long-term cortisol levels provide a novel treatment target in the management of cardiovascular disease risk in obesity. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  9. Assessment of the content of mercury, methylmercury and other elements of interest in fish, hair and diets of pre-school children of the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2006-01-01

    Studies show that some regions of the Amazon region suffer mercury (Hg) impacts as a direct result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Jau National Park (PNJ) is the only National Park in Brazil that protects an entire black water basin (Jau River), flood land and tropical reserve. These conditions favor Hg methylation in the aquatic biota. This in turn, exposes living on the river populations to Hg contamination as well as the adjacent regions. Preliminary studies of pre-school children diets from PNJ communities have shown that these diets have a worrisome high Hg content. The present study assessed total Hg content, micro nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and macro nutrients (proteins, lipids, ash, energy, carbohydrate) in pre-school diets in the PNJ and surrounding communities. Furthermore, total and Me Hg levels were also determined in hair samples of these children as well as those living in several neighborhoods of the city of Manaus. Included in this determination were the fish most consumed by these populations. From these results it was possible to evaluate the nutritional content of the diets and the exposure of the children to Hg and Se Hg. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry was used to quantify total and Me Hg. Micro nutrient determination was performed using neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) and Macro nutrient through AOAC methodologies (USA). All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference materials analyses with certified values for the determined elements. Furthermore, the uncertainty sources for Hg and Me Hg determination were assessed and the expanded uncertainties were calculated. Total Hg levels in diets and total and Me Hg levels for hair samples, were well above those values found in different localities of the Amazon region. This also holds true for those surrounding areas of the JNP. For many children Hg intake values passed the 5 mug Hg/body weigh/week (PTWI

  10. Strong relationship between oral dose and tenofovir hair levels in a randomized trial: hair as a potential adherence measure for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Y Liu

    Full Text Available Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP trials using tenofovir-based regimens have demonstrated that high levels of adherence are required to evaluate efficacy; the incorporation of objective biomarkers of adherence in trial design has been essential to interpretation, given the inaccuracy of self-report. Antiretroviral measurements in scalp hair have been useful as a marker of long-term exposure in the HIV treatment setting, and hair samples are relatively easy and inexpensive to collect, transport, and store for analysis. To evaluate the relationship between dose and tenofovir concentrations in hair, we examined the dose proportionality of tenofovir in hair in healthy, HIV-uninfected adults.A phase I, crossover pharmacokinetic study was performed in 24 HIV-negative adults receiving directly-observed oral tenofovir tablets administered 2, 4, and 7 doses/week for 6 weeks, with a ≥3-week break between periods. Small samples of hair were collected after each six-week period and analyzed for tenofovir concentrations. Geometric-mean-ratios compared levels between each pair of dosing conditions. Intensive plasma pharmacokinetic studies were performed during the daily-dosing period to calculate areas-under-the-time-concentration curves (AUCs.Over 90% of doses were observed per protocol. Median tenofovir concentrations in hair increased monotonically with dose. A log-linear relationship was seen between dose and hair levels, with an estimated 76% (95% CI 60-93% increase in hair level per 2-fold dose increase. Tenofovir plasma AUCs modestly predicted drug concentrations in hair.This study found a strong linear relationship between frequency of dosing and tenofovir levels in scalp hair. The analysis of quantitative drug levels in hair has the potential to improve adherence measurement in the PrEP field and may be helpful in determining exposure thresholds for protection and explaining failures in PrEP trials. Hair measures for adherence monitoring may also

  11. Spatial and temporal variations of mercury levels in Okefenokee invertebrates: Southeast Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Bagie M.; Batzer, Darold

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of mercury in wetland ecosystems has raised concerns about impacts on wetland food webs. This study measured concentrations of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia, focusing on levels in amphipods, odonates, and crayfish. We collected and analyzed total mercury levels in these invertebrates from 32 sampling stations across commonly occurring sub-habitats. Sampling was conducted in December, May, and August over a two-year period. The highest levels of mercury were detected in amphipods, with total mercury levels often in excess of 20 ppm. Bioaccumulation pathways of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee are probably complex; despite being larger and higher in the food chain, levels in odonates and crayfish were much lower than in amphipods. Mercury levels in invertebrates varied temporally with the highest levels detected in May. There was a lack of spatial variation in mercury levels which is consistent with aerial deposition of mercury. - This study measured mercury levels in invertebrates and found the highest levels in amphipods

  12. The concentration of heavy metals: zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    An intercomparative analysis of the concentration of heavy metals:zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people using the techniques of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPAS) has been undertaken. The percent relative standard deviation for each sample analysed using either of the techniques show good sensitivity and correlation between the techniques. The DPAS was found to be slightly sensitive than the AAs instrument used. The recalculated body burden rations of Cd to Zn, Pb to Fe reveal no unusual health impairement symptoms and suggest a relatively clean environment in Kenya.(author)

  13. Detection of Mercury in Human Organs and Hair in a Case of a Homicidal Poisoning of a Woman Autopsied 6 Years After Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    In the described case of the death of a 53-year-old woman, no toxicological examination was performed directly after death (only an anatomopathological autopsy), although symptoms of serious gastrointestinal disturbances had been present (the woman had been hospitalized twice in the course of several months). It was assumed that the cause of death was myocardial infarction. Five years later, some new circumstances came to light which suggested that somebody could have administered some poison (metals, cyanides) to the woman. Toxicological analysis of postmortem samples from the corpse, exhumed 6 years after death by order of the public prosecutor's office, revealed high tissue mercury contents in biological material (cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry): small intestine, 1516 ng/g; large intestine, 487 ng/g; liver, 1201 ng/g; heart muscle, 1023 ng/g; and scalp hair, 227 ng/g. In samples of soil from places near the coffin, negligible traces of mercury were found (0.5-1.5 ng/g); contamination by mercury from the environment was ruled out. The presented case is a rare example of recognition of mercury poisoning on the basis of the results of analysis of biological material from an exhumed cadaver.

  14. Mercury exposure in Munduruku Indians from the community of Sai Cinza, state of Para, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Santos, Elisabeth C. de; Maura de Jesus, Iracina; Camara, Volney e M.; Brabo, Edilson; Brito Loureiro, Edvaldo C.; Mascarenhas, Artur; Weirich, Judith; Ragio Luiz, Ronir; Cleary, David

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate mercury exposure and health status among Munduruku Indians from the community of Sai inza, State of Para, Brazil. The population studied included 330 Indians, who submitted to a questionnaire, clinical exams, and collection of hair, blood, urine, and feces. Mercury was measured in hair and fish. Although no person was found to have overt mercury intoxication, the mean levels of mercury in hair were elevated (14.45 μg/g for children from 7 to 12 years ld, 15.70 μg/g for women between 14 and 44 years old, and 14.1 μg/g or the remaining population). Mercury levels in fish were below levels recommended by the World Health Organization, but rates of fish consumption ere high. These results place this indigenous population as a group under risk of mercury toxicity from the gold production

  15. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that mercuric chloride and methylmercury are possible human carcinogens. top How does mercury affect children? Very young ... billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum ...

  16. Impact of exposure to low levels of mercury on the health of dental workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Freitas Jesus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the impact of exposure to mercury on the health of workers comparing dentists and dental assistants exposed to mercury by handling amalgam in a public dental clinic with a reference group which, in private offices, did not make use of the metal in their professional routine. Data collection included mercury levels in urine and air samples determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, questionnaires and direct observation. The difference between urine and air samples in both groups was statistically significant while mercury levels in air and urine showed positive associations. Mercury concentration in urine correlated with gender, practice time, and age of workers. Half of those exposed had complaints compatible with mercury contamination. Among the exposed, the most common complaints were cognitive and neurocognitive symptoms. Correlations between symptoms and exposure time and also number of amalgam fillings placed per week were positive. Amalgam handling resulted in environmental and biological contamination by mercury.

  17. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in pregnant women, nursing women and preschool children resident in fishing villages in the eighth region of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.G.; Rodriguez, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The main aim of this project is to perform a descriptive study about the levels of total mercury (Hg-T) and of methylmercury (Me-Hg) in scalp hair specimens of a selected human population of high risk in the Eighth Region of Chile, the group studied included pregnant women (PW), nursing women (NW) and preschool children residing in fishing villages distributed within the coastal zone of this region, the diets of the test group included fish and shellfish as main food components. The degree of Hg contamination of this population was compared to a control population (''core programme''). The methylmercury-to-total mercury ratio (Me-Hg/Hg-T) levels in scalp hair enabled interpretation of the results with respect to the degree of contamination by Hg, and the dietary habits of the sample donors of each fishing village under study. Furthermore, Se levels in scalp hair of the populations with relatively high Hg content were to be investigated for possible correlation with Me-Hg levels (''supplementary programme''). 5 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  18. Mercury levels of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) are associated with capture location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklisch, Sascha C T; Bonito, Lindsay T; Sandin, Stuart; Hamdoun, Amro

    2017-10-01

    Mercury is a toxic compound to which humans are exposed by consumption of fish. Current fish consumption advisories focus on minimizing the risk posed by the species that are most likely to have high levels of mercury. Less accounted for is the variation within species, and the potential role of the geographic origin of a fish in determining its mercury level. Here we surveyed the mercury levels in 117 yellowfin tuna caught from 12 different locations worldwide. Our results indicated significant variation in yellowfin tuna methylmercury load, with levels that ranged from 0.03 to 0.82 μg/g wet weight across individual fish. Mean mercury levels were only weakly associated with fish size (R 2  mercury load, and argue for better traceability of fish to improve the accuracy of exposure risk predictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of mercury in head hair samples collected from inhabitants of Kuala Juru fishing village, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.; Majid, A.A.; Hamzah, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Fishing is one of the most important industries in Malaysia, providing the people with employment and supplying them with protein from the fish. Fish comprises about 80% of the protein intake of the population. In recent years industrialization and urbanization have encroached into many coastal fishing villages, which in many cases cause water pollution. As a result, the livelihood of small inshore fisherman have been threatened or destroyed. At the same time coastal fishes are contaminated by pollutants from industrial wastes especially the toxic heavy metals. The studies showed that the average mercury levels in commercial marine fishes marketed in Malaysia range from 0.08 - 0.046 mg/kg wet weight. It is apparent that fish is a possible source of mercury exposure to the general population in Malaysia. Per capita fish consumption in Malaysia is 100 g/d/person, and there are efforts by the Malaysian Government to increase fish consumption to 300 g/day/person. 7 refs, 1 tab

  20. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: Comparison to salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Ross, Randal G.; Natvig, Crystal L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair corti...

  1. Childhood abuse is associated with increased hair cortisol levels among urban pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is known to be altered following events such as childhood abuse. However, despite potential adverse consequences for the offspring of women who have experienced abuse, very little is known about altered HPA axis activity during pregnancy. During pregnancy, 180 women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds reported on their exposure to emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 11, and general post-traumatic stress symptoms (ie, not limited to childhood years or abuse experiences). Around delivery, they provided hair samples for the assessment of cortisol levels during pregnancy. Hair cortisol was assessed for each pregnancy trimester. The effect of childhood abuse on hair cortisol was assessed using mixed-effects analyses of covariance models allowing for within-subject correlated observations, and were first performed in the entire sample and subsequently stratified by race/ethnicity. Controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, hair cortisol levels varied by history of child abuse, F(2,166)=3.66, p=0.028. Childhood physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with greater hair cortisol levels, t(166)=2.65, p=0.009, compared with no history of abuse. Because childhood rates of abuse and hair cortisol levels varied by race/ethnicity, analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. The associations between history of abuse and cortisol levels were only significant among black women, F(2,23)=5.37, p=0.012. Childhood abuse, especially physical and/or sexual abuse, is associated with differences in cortisol production during pregnancy, particularly among black women. Future research should investigate how these differences impact physical and mental health outcomes among offspring of affected women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. The levels of bioelements in the saliva and hair of young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Troegubova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The salivary and hair levels of bioelements, such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, chromium, and selenium, were investigated in 130 children and adolescents, including 35 swimmers, 47 hockey players, 20 fencers, and 28 schoolchildren who did not additionally go in for sports. Atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were applied. The aim of our study was to investigate the characteristics of macro- and microelemental composition of the saliva and hair of young athletes. The investigation established that that all young athletes showed the high levels of potassium and selenium in their hair, those of selenium and chromium in the saliva, and a significantly low concentration of potassium in the saliva (p<0,05, reflecting the intensity of mineral exchange during physical exercises. Individual characteristics were found in the content of chemical elements in the test biological substrates in relation to the kind of sports: the salivary levels of calcium and magnesium were reduced and the hair level of iron was increased in fencers (p<0,05; and the field-hockey players had higher zinc values (p<0,05. Comparison of the hair and salivary concentrations of bioelements established that there was a statistically significant relationship for potassium (R=-0,72; p<0,001 and selenium (R=0,44; p=0,004. Non-invasive screening studies of salivary and hair minerals are recommended for the early diagnosis of an imbalance in macro- and microelements in young athletes. There is evidence that young athletes should be identified as a group of patients at risk for an imbalance of macro- and microelements.

  3. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bocharova

    Full Text Available Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources. This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1 canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus population and 2 relative total mercury (THg level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland' for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs. Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  4. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharova, Natalia; Treu, Gabriele; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Krone, Oliver; Stefanski, Volker; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Unnsteinsdóttir, Ester Rut; Hersteinsson, Páll; Schares, Gereon; Doronina, Lilia; Goltsman, Mikhail; Greenwood, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources). This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1) canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) population and 2) relative total mercury (THg) level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland') for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs). Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  5. Mercury accumulation in native mammals of the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbie, P.M.; Jenkins, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    Mercury levels in tissues of mammals collected in Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina were compared using hair mercury concentration as an index of total mercury content. Bobcats (Lynx rufus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) from the Lower Coastal Plain of Georgia had higher mercury levels than specimens from the Upper Coastal Plain or Piedmont. The highest individual mercury levels in raccoons and bobcats occurred in specimens from the Georgia Lower Coastal Plain flatwoods. Skeletal muscle and liver of individual raccoons and bobcats taken in the coastal flatwoods exceeded the 0.5 ppm limit for mercury in human foodstuffs. No pattern of mercury accumulation was detected in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Hair analysis revealed elevated mercury levels in mammals from a region exposed to mercury pollution. Mercury levels in wildlife exhibit a pattern similar to that of certain fallout radioisotopes such as /sub 137/Cs. These observations indicate that significant biomagnification of mercury may occur in native mammals in certain southeastern habitats. 28 references, 6 tables.

  6. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noël, Marie, E-mail: marie.noel@stantec.com [Stantec Consulting Ltd. 2042 Mills Road, Unit 11, Sidney BC V8L 4X2 (Canada); Christensen, Jennie R., E-mail: jennie.christensen@stantec.com [Stantec Consulting Ltd. 2042 Mills Road, Unit 11, Sidney BC V8L 4X2 (Canada); Spence, Jody, E-mail: jodys@uvic.ca [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Bob Wright Centre A405, University of Victoria, PO BOX 3065 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3V6 (Canada); Robbins, Charles T., E-mail: ctrobbins@wsu.edu [School of the Environment and School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4236 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size = 30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r{sup 2} = 0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. - Highlights: • LA-ICP-MS provides temporal trace metal exposure information for wild grizzly bears. • Cu and Zn temporal exposures provide

  7. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noël, Marie; Christensen, Jennie R.; Spence, Jody; Robbins, Charles T.

    2015-01-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size = 30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r 2 = 0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. - Highlights: • LA-ICP-MS provides temporal trace metal exposure information for wild grizzly bears. • Cu and Zn temporal exposures provide

  8. Organ-level quorum sensing directs regeneration in hair stem cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Lei; Plikus, Maksim V.; Jiang, Ting Xin; Murray, Philip J.; Ramos, Raul; Guerrero-Juarez, Christian F.; Hughes, Michael W; Lee, Oscar K.; Shi, Songtao; Widelitz, Randall B.; Lander, Arthur D.; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Coordinated organ behavior is crucial for an effective response to environmental stimuli. By studying regeneration of hair follicles in response to patterned hair removal, we demonstrate that organ-level quorum sensing allows coordinated responses to skin injury. Removing hair at different densities leads to a regeneration of up to 5 times more neighboring, unplucked resting hairs, indicating activation of a collective decision-making process. Through data modeling, the range of the quorum signal was estimated to be on the order of 1 mm, greater than expected for a diffusible molecular cue. Molecular and genetic analysis uncovered a two-step mechanism, where release of CCL2 from injured hairs leads to recruitment of TNF-α secreting macrophages, which accumulate and signal to both plucked and unplucked follicles. By coupling immune response with regeneration, this mechanism allows skin to respond predictively to distress, disregarding mild injury, while meeting stronger injury with full-scale cooperative activation of stem cells. PMID:25860610

  9. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, T J

    2014-01-01

    This gazetteer and atlas on Mercury lists, defines and illustrates every named (as opposed to merely catalogued) object and term as related to Mercury within a single reference work. It contains a glossary of terminology used, an index of all the headwords in the gazetteer, an atlas comprising maps and images with coordinate grids and labels identifying features listed in the gazetteer, and appendix material on the IAU nomenclature system and the transcription systems used for non-roman alphabets. This book is useful for the general reader, writers and editors dealing with astronomical themes, and those astronomers concerned with any aspect of astronomical nomenclature.

  10. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  11. Low level laser therapy and hair regrowth: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mina; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Schachner, Lawrence A; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2016-02-01

    Despite the current treatment options for different types of alopecia, there is a need for more effective management options. Recently, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was evaluated for stimulating hair growth. Here, we reviewed the current evidence on the LLLT effects with an evidence-based approach, focusing more on randomized controlled studies by critically evaluating them. In order to investigate whether in individuals presenting with hair loss (male pattern hair loss (MPHL), female pattern hair loss (FPHL), alopecia areata (AA), and chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA)) LLLT is effective for hair regrowth, several databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Database were searched using the following keywords: Alopecia, Hair loss, Hair growth, Low level laser therapy, Low level light therapy, Low energy laser irradiation, and Photobiomodulation. From the searches, 21 relevant studies were summarized in this review including 2 in vitro, 7 animal, and 12 clinical studies. Among clinical studies, only five were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which evaluated LLLT effect on male and female pattern hair loss. The RCTs were critically appraised using the created checklist according to the Critical Appraisal for Therapy Articles Worksheet created by the Center of Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford. The results demonstrated that all the performed RCTs have moderate to high quality of evidence. However, only one out of five studies performed intention-to-treat analysis, and only another study reported the method of randomization and subsequent concealment of allocation clearly; all other studies did not include this very important information in their reports. None of these studies reported the treatment effect of factors such as number needed to treat. Based on this review on all the available evidence about effect of LLLT in alopecia, we found that the FDA-cleared LLLT devices are both safe and effective in patients with MPHL and FPHL

  12. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies

  13. Biomarkers of mercury exposure at a mercury recycling facility in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, H.J.; Kozlov, K.; Buckley, J.P.; Centeno, J.; Jurgenson, V.; Kolker, A.; Conko, K.; Landa, E.; Panov, B.; Panov, Y.; Xu, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of occupational mercury exposure among workers at a mercury recycling operation in Gorlovka, Ukraine. The 29 study participants were divided into three occupational categories for analysis: (1) those who worked in the mercury recycling operation (Group A, n = 8), (2) those who worked at the facility but not in the yard where the recycling was done (Group B, n = 14), and (3) those who did not work at the facility (Group C, n = 7). Urine, blood, hair, and nail samples were collected from the participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in the former mercury mine/smelter located on the site of the recycling facility. Each factor was tested in a univariate regression with total mercury in urine, blood, hair, and nails. Median biomarker concentrations were 4.04 ??g/g-Cr (urine), 2.58 ??g/L (blood), 3.95 ??g/g (hair), and 1.16 ??g/g (nails). Occupational category was significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with both blood and urinary mercury concentrations but not with hair or nail mercury. Four individuals had urinary mercury concentrations in a range previously found to be associated with subtle neurological and subjective symptoms (e.g., fatigue, loss of appetite, irritability), and one worker had a urinary mercury concentration in a range associated with a high probability of neurological effects and proteinuria. Comparison of results by occupational category found that workers directly involved with the recycling operation had the highest blood and urinary mercury levels. Those who worked at the facility but were not directly involved with the recycling operation had higher levels than those who did not work at the facility. Copyright ?? 2008 JOEH, LLC.

  14. Mercury levels in eggs, embryos, and neonates of Trachemys callirostris (Testudines, Emydidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendon Valencia, Beatriz; Zapata, Lina M; Bock, Brian C; Paez, Vivian P; Palacio, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    We quantified total mercury concentrations in eggshells, egg yolks, and embryos from 16 nests of the Colombian slider (Trachemys callirostris). Nests were collected in different stages of development, but estimated time of incubation in natural substrates was not correlated with mercury levels in the eggs, suggesting that mercury was not absorbed from the substrate, but more likely passed on to the embryos during folliculogenesis by the reproductive females who had bioaccumulated the mercury from environmental sources. Mean mercury concentrations were higher in embryos than in eggshells or egg yolks, indicating that embryos also bioaccumulate mercury present in other egg tissues. Intra-clutch variation in egg yolk mercury concentrations was relatively high. Egg yolk mercury concentrations were not associated with any of the fitness proxies we quantified for the nests (hatching success rates, initial neonate sizes and first-month juvenile growth rates). After five months of captive rearing in a mercury-free laboratory environment, 86 % of the juveniles had eliminated the mercury from their tissues.

  15. The temporal and geographical mercury patterns in polar bears and birds of prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Olsen, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    Mercury compounds are bio-accumulated. As a consequence the highest levels of mercury are measured in top predators like seals, toothed whales, polar bears, and also humans. The main mercury source for humans is the diet but the processes that links emission with effects through the transport chain...... and seals. The coupling between transport pathways of carbon and mercury is weak at lower trophic levels. A substantial decrease of Hg concentrations in teeth and hair of polar bears since 1960 was found. Hg concentrations in hair of polar bears sampled in East Greenland during 1999-2001 was 8.3 times...... a new parameterisation of the removal of atmospheric mercury for Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) and to validate the model. As a first estimate about 200 tons/year is deposited to the surface north of polar circle. In undisturbed sediment cores the mercury concentration and the mercury...

  16. Increased cortisol levels in hair of recent Ecstasy/MDMA users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, A C; Sands, H R; Jones, L; Clow, A; Evans, P; Downey, L A; Stalder, T

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has revealed an acute 8-fold increase in salivary cortisol following self-administrated Ecstasy/MDMA in dance clubbers. It is currently not known to what extent repeated usage impacts upon activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis over a more prolonged period of time. This study investigated the integrated cortisol levels in 3-month hair samples from recent Ecstasy/MDMA users and non-user controls. One hundred and one unpaid participants (53 males, 48 females; mean age 21.75 years) completed the University of East London recreational drug use questionnaire, modified to cover the past 3-months of usage. They comprised 32 light recent Ecstasy/MDMA users (1-4 times in last 3 months), 23 recent heavy MDMA users (+5 times in last 3 months), and 54 non-user controls. Volunteers provided 3 cm hair samples for cortisol analysis. Hair cortisol levels were observed to be significantly higher in recent heavy MDMA users (mean = 55.0 ± 80.1 pg/mg), compared to recent light MDMA users (19.4 ± 16.0 pg/mg; p=0.015), and to non-users (13.8 ± 6.1 pg/mg; pEcstasy/MDMA was associated with almost 4-fold raised hair cortisol levels, in comparison with non-user controls. The present results are consistent with the bio-energetic stress model for Ecstasy/MDMA, which predicts that repeated stimulant drug use may increase cortisol production acutely, and result in greater deposits of the hormone in hair. These data may also help explain the neurocognitive, psychiatric, and other psychobiological problems of some abstinent users. Future study design and directions for research concerning the psychoneuroendocrinological impact of MDMA are also discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

  17. Mercury reduction and removal during high-level radioactive waste processing and vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibling, R.E.; Fowler, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A reference process for immobilizing the high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass has been developed at the Savannah River Plant. This waste contains a substantial amount of mercury from separations processing. Because mercury will not remain in borosilicate glass at the processing temperature, mercury must be removed before vitrification or must be handled in the off-gas system. A process has been developed to remove mercury by reduction with formic acid prior to vitrification. Additional benefits of formic acid treatment include improved sludge handling and glass melter redox control

  18. The relationship between 63 days of 24-h urinary free cortisol and hair cortisol levels in 10 healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ockenburg, S. L.; Schenk, H. M.; van der Veen, A.; van Rossum, E. F. C.; Kema, I. P.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.

    Background: Interest in measuring cortisol in scalp hair is increasing because of its assumed ability to provide a historical timeline of previous systemic levels of cortisol. Yet, it remains uncertain how well hair cortisol represents the total systemic secretion of cortisol over time. Methods: Ten

  19. Evaluation of urine mercury level of dentists in Tehran and its influencial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabaei M.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Dentists are exposed to mercury from dental amalgam in their routine occupational practice. Excess exposure to mercury is harmful and the measurement of mercury content of urine is a reliable and valid assessment of the level of mercury exposure from dental amalgam. The aim of this study was the measurement of urine mercury in dentists of Tehran and assessment of some possible related factors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed randomly on 211 dentists in all regions in Tehran city (center, north, south, west, and east between 1381 and 1383. Dentists were asked to give a sample of urine in the day of visit and to complete a questionnaire consisting of variables such as age, working history, handling of amalgam, environmental parameters and general health situation. Urine samples were analyzed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Walis, Kendall and Mann Whitney tests, with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The mean of urine mercury content in Tehran dentists was 3.1 (± 3.95 which was lower than the international TLV (Threshold Limit Value. There was a significant relation between urine mercury level and working hours per day (P=0.006. This relation was observed with working hours per week too (P=0.006. In general dentists, there was a positive relation between urine mercury and age (0.008 as well as the practicing years (P=0.034. A significant relation was found between urine mercury and the number of amalgam repairs and replacements in restorative specialists (p=0.039. There was a significant relation between the number of amalgam fillings in the mouth and urine mercury in general practitioners (p=0.027. The type of amalgam (predosed capsules or bulk powder had a significant effect on the urine mercury content (P=0.001. There was no significant relation between urine mercury and other variables of the study such as the squeezing of

  20. Serum and Hair Mineral Levels in Children with Failure to Thrive According to the Type of Feeding Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Yang, Hye Ran

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated serum and hair mineral and trace element levels as well as levels of other nutritional factors affecting growth and appetite in young children with non-organic failure to thrive (NOFTT) based on the presence or types of feeding difficulty (FD). Between August 2012 and July 2015, 136 children less than 6 years of age with NOFTT were included. FD was diagnosed based on Wolfson criteria and divided into subtypes according to Chatoor's classification. Clinical data were reviewed, and serum and hair mineral levels were measured. Of all assessed serum and hair minerals, only hair sulfur contents differed significantly between subjects with and without infantile anorexia (39,392 ± 2211 vs. 40,332 ± 2551 μg/g, P = 0.034). There were no differences in serum and hair mineral levels between children with and without sensory food aversion. Hair copper contents were significantly lower in children with FD of reciprocity (12.3 ± 6.0 vs. 22.4 ± 25.1 μg/g, P = 0.049). While hair zinc contents were also lower, the difference was not statistically significant (49.2 ± 26.8 vs. 70.6 ± 41.0 μg/g, P = 0.055). Only hair manganese contents were significantly lower in children with posttraumatic FD (0.12 ± 0.04 vs. 0.26 ± 0.73 μg/g, P = 0.037). In conclusion, there were no differences in most serum and hair mineral levels in children with NOFTT, except for relatively lower hair levels of sulfur, copper and possibly zinc, and manganese in infantile anorexia, reciprocity, and posttraumatic types of FD, respectively.

  1. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Pierre J; El-Khoury, Bilal; Burger, Joanne; Aouad, Samer; Younis, Mira; Aoun, Amal; El-Nakat, John Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet. However, very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption. This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption. Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh, frozen, processed, and canned fish. All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight. The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 microg/g in fresh samples, 0.0059 to 0.0665 microg/g in frozen samples, and 0.0305 to 0.1190 microg/g in canned samples. The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure. Moreover, the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia), Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus), Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops), and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury. On the other hand, processed fish such as fish fillet, fish burger, small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury. Lebanese population should therefore, be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  2. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Eligia; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S.

    2004-01-01

    of the 70 respondents showing no traces of mercury, while nine had levels beyond the 5 ppm limit set by the Human Biomonitor II [Bundesgesundheitsblatt 39 (1996) 221]. Further studies using PIXE analysis of hair is recommended on the same communities with a wider area base to show that PIXE analysis on hair samples as an alternative procedure which is faster without sacrificing reliability

  3. Mercury and selenium levels, and selenium:mercury molar ratios of brain, muscle and other tissues in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn; Gochfeld, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A number of contaminants affect fish health, including mercury and selenium, and the selenium: mercury molar ratio. Recently the protective effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity have been publicized, particularly for consumption of saltwater fish. Yet the relative ameliorating effects of selenium on toxicity within fish have not been examined, nor has the molar ratio in different tissues, (i.e. brain). We examined mercury and selenium levels in brain, kidney, liver, red and white muscle, and skin and scales in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from New Jersey to determine whether there were toxic levels of either metal, and we computed the selenium: mercury molar ratios by tissues. Total mercury averaged 0.32 ± 0.02 ppm wet weight in edible muscle and 0.09 ± 0.01 ppm in brain. Selenium concentration averaged 0.37 ± 0.03 in muscle and 0.36 ± 0.03 ppm in brain. There were significant differences in levels of mercury, selenium, and selenium: mercury molar ratios, among tissues. Mercury and selenium levels were correlated in kidney and skin/scales. Mercury levels were highest in kidney, intermediate in muscle and liver, and lowest in brain and skin/scales; selenium levels were also highest in kidney, intermediate in liver, and were an order of magnitude lower in the white muscle and brain. Mercury levels in muscle, kidney and skin/scales were positively correlated with fish size (length). Selenium levels in muscle, kidney and liver were positively correlated with fish length, but in brain; selenium levels were negatively correlated with fish length. The selenium: mercury molar ratio was negatively correlated with fish length for white muscle, liver, kidney, and brain, particularly for fish over 50 cm in length, suggesting that older fish experience less protective advantages of selenium against mercury toxicity than smaller fish, and that consumers of bluefish similarly receive less advantage from eating larger fish. PMID:23202378

  4. High levels of maternally transferred mercury disrupt magnetic responses of snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landler, Lukas; Painter, Michael S; Coe, Brittney Hopkins; Youmans, Paul W; Hopkins, William A; Phillips, John B

    2017-09-01

    The Earth's magnetic field is involved in spatial behaviours ranging from long-distance migration to non-goal directed behaviours, such as spontaneous magnetic alignment (SMA). Mercury is a harmful pollutant most often generated from anthropogenic sources that can bio-accumulate in animal tissue over a lifetime. We compared SMA of hatchling snapping turtles from mothers captured at reference (i.e., low mercury) and mercury contaminated sites. Reference turtles showed radio frequency-dependent SMA along the north-south axis, consistent with previous studies of SMA, while turtles with high levels of maternally inherited mercury failed to show consistent magnetic alignment. In contrast, there was no difference between reference and mercury exposed turtles on standard performance measures. The magnetic field plays an important role in animal orientation behaviour and may also help to integrate spatial information from a variety of sensory modalities. As a consequence, mercury may compromise the performance of turtles in a wide variety of spatial tasks. Future research is needed to determine the threshold for mercury effects on snapping turtles, whether mercury exposure compromises spatial behaviour of adult turtles, and whether mercury has a direct effect on the magnetoreception mechanism(s) that mediate SMA or a more general effect on the nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mercury Levels in Locally Manufactured Mexican Skin-Lightening Creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz O. Leal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is considered one of the most toxic elements for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, whitening creams containing mercury are being manufactured and purchased, despite their obvious health risks. Due to the mass distribution of these products, this can be considered a global public health issue. In Mexico, these products are widely available in pharmacies, beauty aid and health stores. They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS. A total of 16 skin-lightening creams from the local market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging. In 10 of the samples, no mercury was detected. The mercury content in six of the samples varied between 878 and 36,000 ppm, despite the fact that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has determined that the limit for mercury in creams should be less than 1 ppm. Skin creams containing mercury are still available and commonly used in Mexico and many developing countries, and their contents are poorly controlled.

  6. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this work is to develop a reasonable and cost-effective approach to meet the emerging mercury standards, especially for high volume outfalls with concentrations below the drinking water standard

  7. Mercury Levels in an Urban Pregnant Population in Durham County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Edwards, Sharon; Maxson, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal mercury exposure, most commonly resulting from maternal fish consumption, have been detected at very low exposure levels. The omega-3 fatty acids found in fish, however, have been shown to support fetal brain and vision development. Using data from a prospective, cohort study of pregnant women from an inland area in the US South, we sought to understand the fish consumption habits and associated mercury levels across subpopulations. Over 30% of women had at least 1 μg/L of mercury in their blood, and about 2% had blood mercury levels above the level of concern during pregnancy (≥3.5 μg/L). Mercury levels were higher among Asian/Pacific Islander, older, higher educated, and married women. Fish consumption from any source was reported by 2/3 of the women in our study, with older women more likely to consume fish. Despite eating more fish meals per week, lower income, lower educated women had lower blood mercury levels than higher income, higher educated women. This suggests the different demographic groups consume different types of fish. Encouraging increased fish consumption while minimizing mercury exposure requires careful crafting of a complex health message. PMID:21556174

  8. Hair cortisol levels, psychological stress and psychopathological symptoms as predictors of postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros-Gonzalez, Rafael A; Romero-Gonzalez, Borja; Strivens-Vilchez, Helen; Gonzalez-Perez, Raquel; Martinez-Augustin, Olga; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression affects a huge number of women and has detrimental consequences. Knowing the factors associated with postpartum depression during pregnancy can help its prevention. Although there is evidence surrounding behavioral or psychological predictors of postpartum depression, there is a lack of evidence of biological forecasters. The aim of this study was to analyze the sociodemographic, obstetric, and psychological variables along with hair cortisol levels during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy that could predict postpartum depression symptoms. A sample of 44 pregnant women was assessed during 3 trimesters of pregnancy and the postpartum period using psychological questionnaires and hair cortisol levels. Participants were divided into 2 groups: a group with postpartum depression symptoms and a group with no postpartum depression symptoms. Results showed significant positive differences between groups in the first trimester regarding the Somatization subscale of the SCL-90-R (p Depression, Anxiety, and GSI subscales (p postpartum depression symptoms. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that psychopathological symptoms, pregnancy-specific stress, and hair cortisol levels can predict postpartum depression symptoms at different time-points during pregnancy. These findings can be applied in future studies and improve maternal care in clinical settings.

  9. Increased Mercury Levels in Patients with Celiac Disease following a Gluten-Free Regimen

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    Luca Elli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Although mercury is involved in several immunological diseases, nothing is known about its implication in celiac disease. Our aim was to evaluate blood and urinary levels of mercury in celiac patients. Methods. We prospectively enrolled 30 celiac patients (20 treated with normal duodenal mucosa and 10 untreated with duodenal atrophy and 20 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Blood and urinary mercury concentrations were measured by means of flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enrolled patients underwent dental chart for amalgam fillings and completed a food-frequency questionnaire to evaluate diet and fish intake. Results. Mercury blood/urinary levels were 2.4±2.3/1.0±1.4, 10.2±6.7/2.2±3.0 and 3.7±2.7/1.3±1.2 in untreated CD, treated CD, and healthy controls, respectively. Resulting mercury levels were significantly higher in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. No differences were found regarding fish intake and number of amalgam fillings. No demographic or clinical data were significantly associated with mercury levels in biologic samples. Conclusion. Data demonstrate a fourfold increase of mercury blood levels in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in celiac mechanism.

  10. Elevated mercury concentrations in humans of Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Ashe

    Full Text Available The enormous increase in practically unregulated mining in Madre de Dios Peru is leading to massive release of liquid elemental mercury to the environment. Rapidly increasing global prices for gold are causing a massive upsurge in artisanal mining in the Peruvian Amazon, considered to be one of the most biodiverse places on the planet. This study identifies the current levels of mercury in the human population, through identifying levels of total mercury in human hair in mining zones of Madre de Dios Department and in the nearby city of Puerto Maldonado. A regression analysis reveals that fish consumption, gender, and location of residence were significant indicators of mercury levels; while duration of residence and age had no significant relationship to mercury levels. Increased fish consumption levels were the strongest indicators of increased total mercury levels across the entire population. The levels of total mercury in hair was significantly (α = 0.05 higher in mining zones, than Puerto Maldonado. In both areas men had significantly higher levels than women, likely due to a difference in metabolism or varying levels of direct involvement in gold mining- a male predominated industry. This is the first study to show the health threat that mercury poses to this region, however further research needs to be done to gain a more refined understanding of the predominant routes of exposure in this population.

  11. Elevated mercury concentrations in humans of Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Katy

    2012-01-01

    The enormous increase in practically unregulated mining in Madre de Dios Peru is leading to massive release of liquid elemental mercury to the environment. Rapidly increasing global prices for gold are causing a massive upsurge in artisanal mining in the Peruvian Amazon, considered to be one of the most biodiverse places on the planet. This study identifies the current levels of mercury in the human population, through identifying levels of total mercury in human hair in mining zones of Madre de Dios Department and in the nearby city of Puerto Maldonado. A regression analysis reveals that fish consumption, gender, and location of residence were significant indicators of mercury levels; while duration of residence and age had no significant relationship to mercury levels. Increased fish consumption levels were the strongest indicators of increased total mercury levels across the entire population. The levels of total mercury in hair was significantly (α = 0.05) higher in mining zones, than Puerto Maldonado. In both areas men had significantly higher levels than women, likely due to a difference in metabolism or varying levels of direct involvement in gold mining- a male predominated industry. This is the first study to show the health threat that mercury poses to this region, however further research needs to be done to gain a more refined understanding of the predominant routes of exposure in this population.

  12. Methylmercury and elemental mercury differentially associate with blood pressure among dental professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury-associated effects on the cardiovascular system have been documented though discrepancies exist, and most studied populations experience elevated methylmercury exposures. No paper has investigated the impact of low-level elemental (inorganic) mercury exposure on cardiovascular risk in humans. The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the association between mercury exposure (methylmercury and elemental mercury) and blood pressure measures in a cohort of dental professionals that experience background exposures to both mercury forms. Dental professionals were recruited during the 2010 Michigan Dental Association Annual Convention. Mercury levels in hair and urine samples were analyzed as biomarkers of methylmercury and elemental mercury exposure, respectively. Blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) was measured using an automated device. Distribution of mercury in hair (mean, range: 0.45, 0.02–5.18 μg/g) and urine (0.94, 0.03–5.54 μg/L) correspond well with the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Linear regression models revealed significant associations between diastolic blood pressure (adjusted for blood pressure medication use) and hair mercury (n = 262, p = 0.02). Urine mercury results opposed hair mercury in many ways. Notably, elemental mercury exposure was associated with a significant systolic blood pressure decrease (n = 262, p = 0.04) that was driven by the male population. Associations between blood pressure and two forms of mercury were found at exposure levels relevant to the general population, and associations varied according to type of mercury exposure and gender. PMID:22494934

  13. Ecological and physiological parameters of mercury and cesium-137 accumulation in the raccoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Raccoons from 4 regions in the southeastern Coastal Plain were evaluated for mercury content. Mercury content of hair when used as an indicator of total body mercury content was significantly different among 3 of the 4 areas: Okefenokee Swamp, Eglin Air Force Base, and Sapelo Island on the Georgia Coast. Raccoons from Echols County Georgia were not significantly different from those of the Okefenokee. Mercury in the liver and kidney was significantly different between Okefenokee and Sapelo. There was a strong correlation between the age of the raccoon and the mercury in hair, with older animals having higher concentrations. This relationship was also valid for most other tissues. There was evidence that mercury content in some tissues was correlated with the season and the body condition of the raccoon. Mercury was not transferred through the placenta to the fetal raccoons. There was a strong relationship of mercury content to raccoon behavioral characteristics. Raccoon body weight was slightly different between the areas studied. Cesium-137 values in raccoons were significantly different between the Okefenokee and Sapelo Island. Cesium-137 content was correlated with raccoon age, body weight, and mercury content. Generally non-detectable levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCB were found in Okefenokee raccoons. Mercury concentrations in crayfish were generally low but probably of importance in the raccoon food chain. The biological half life of mercury in brain, gonad, pancreas, spleen, heart, and lung was approximately 52 days. The half-life of mercury in muscle was 35 days. Mercury content of hair, liver, and kidney decreased at very slow rates, with biological half lives of 229, 108, and 138 days. This was probably due to the role of these tissues in clearance of mercury from the body, and to the molting pattern of raccoon hair

  14. Hair-zinc levels determination in Algerian psoriatics using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, A.; Hamidatou Alghem, L.; Beladel, B.; Mokhtari, O.E.K.; Bendaas, A.; Benamar, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. Zinc has a positive impact on psoriasis. The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. 58 psoriatics and 31 normal controls of both genders were selected. Hair zinc levels were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique (INAA). Student's t-test and One-Way ANOVA were applied. The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively. They are not significantly different (p>0.05). Zn concentration for males and females controls and patients were 171±27 μg/g, 151±37 μg/g and 145±59 μg/g, 178±58 μg/g respectively. However, for females we have observed a significant difference (p<0.05). - Highlights: ► Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. ► About 2–5% of global population in the world suffers from psoriasis. ► The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. ► The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively.

  15. NAA, GC(EC) and SRXRF study of Hg species in head hair of mothers and their newborn infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, W.Y.; Qian, Q.F.; Zhang, P.Q.; Chai, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-seven pairs of head hair from mothers and their new-born infants were collected at the time of delivery in a hospital in Beijing. The total mercury content in the hair samples was determined by INAA. The correlation between mercury content in hair of mothers and their new-born infants has been investigated. In addition, the change of Hg content in pregnant women's hair during their pregnancy was also studied by INAA and SRXRF. The results indicate a significant positive correlation between the mercury content in maternal and infant head hairs (r = +0.862, p< 0.001). The average content of Hg in infant and maternal hairs was 0.66 ± 0.31 μg/g and 0.59 ± 0.25 μg/g, respectively. The infant level exceeded the maternal by 12%. The Hg content in maternal head hair gradually reduced during pregnancy. Further, the methylmercury (Me-Hg) content in 3 maternal hair samples was analyzed by GC(EC). The Me-Hg was in accordance with the total mercury content. Thus a conclusion can be drawn that damage to the infant from Hg occurred in the early stages of pregnancy. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  17. Mercury levels in the Smooth Hammerhead Shark Sphyrna zygaena (Carcharhiniformes: Sphyrnidae from Northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gonzalez-Pestana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The smooth hammerhead shark Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the elasmobranch species most used for human consumption in Peru. However, the level of mercury in hammerhead muscle tissue is unknown. This study assessed the level of mercury found in the muscle of hammerhead sharks and its relation with human health. Moreover, we evaluated the relationship between shark body size and mercury levels. We analyzed 27 muscle samples of neonates and juveniles captured in northern Peru. Mercury concentrations varied between 0.13 and 0.86 mg kg-1 wet weight. Moreover, we found a negative and significant relationship between shark body size and mercury levels. This study represents the first evaluation of mercury levels of sharks in Peru. Although the values found do not exceed levels recommended by the World Health Organization (< 1 mg kg-1, we recommend expanding this study to include other size classes of sharks as well as other marine resources used for human consumption.

  18. Mercury and Lead Levels in Common Soaps from Local Markets in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Alizadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The potential toxicity of human exposure was investigated to heavy metals from diverse sources but few or none was on Iranian soaps. Hence, we aimed to determine the presence of lead and mercury in selected soaps commonly used in Mashhad, northeastern Iran. Methods: Different common brands of cosmetic, hygiene and contraband soaps were purchased from retail market of Mashhad in 2016. Levels of these metals were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy technique. Results: All samples had the mercury and lead levels but did not exceed the maximum acceptable level (1 µg/g for mercury and 20 µg/g for lead recommended by FDA. The mean levels of mercury were 0.02, 0.08 and 0.23 µg/g, respectively in cosmetic, hygiene and contraband soaps. These levels for lead were 0.10, 0.19 and 0.13 µg/g. The highest mercury and lead levels were detected in Halazoon contraband and P hygiene brands, respectively. Conclusion: The content of mercury and lead in common soaps is currently not a concern in this city. However, as human body may be exposed to several toxic metals from different care products simultaneously, cumulative toxic effects of these metals must be considered important.

  19. Biomarkers of mercury exposure at a mercury recycling facility in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Herman Jones; Kozlov, Kostj; Buckley, Jessie Poulin; Centeno, Jose; Jurgenson, Vera; Kolker, Allan; Conko, Kathryn; Landa, Edward; Panov, Boris; Panov, Yuri; Xu, Hanna

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of occupational mercury exposure among workers at a mercury recycling operation in Gorlovka, Ukraine. The 29 study participants were divided into three occupational categories for analysis: (1) those who worked in the mercury recycling operation (Group A, n = 8), (2) those who worked at the facility but not in the yard where the recycling was done (Group B, n = 14), and (3) those who did not work at the facility (Group C, n = 7). Urine, blood, hair, and nail samples were collected from the participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in the former mercury mine/smelter located on the site of the recycling facility. Each factor was tested in a univariate regression with total mercury in urine, blood, hair, and nails. Median biomarker concentrations were 4.04 microg/g-Cr (urine), 2.58 microg/L (blood), 3.95 microg/g (hair), and 1.16 microg/g (nails). Occupational category was significantly correlated (p recycling operation had the highest blood and urinary mercury levels. Those who worked at the facility but were not directly involved with the recycling operation had higher levels than those who did not work at the facility.

  20. Impact of wildfire on levels of mercury in forested watershed systems - Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Cannon, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury to remote lakes in mid-continental and eastern North America has increased approximately threefold since the mid-1800s (Swain and others, 1992; Fitzgerald and others, 1998; Engstrom and others, 2007). As a result, concerns for human and wildlife health related to mercury contamination have become widespread. Despite an apparent recent decline in atmospheric deposition of mercury in many areas of the Upper Midwest (Engstrom and Swain, 1997; Engstrom and others, 2007), lakes in which fish contain levels of mercury deemed unacceptable for human consumption and possibly unacceptable for fish-consuming wildlife are being detected with increasing frequency. In northern Minnesota, Voyageurs National Park (VNP) (fig. 1) protects a series of southern boreal lakes and wetlands situated on bedrock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. Mercury contamination has become a significant resource issue within VNP as high concentrations of mercury in loons, bald eagle eaglets, grebes, northern pike, and other species of wildlife and fish have been found. The two most mercury-contaminated lakes in Minnesota, measured as methylmercury in northern pike (Esox lucius), are in VNP. Recent multidisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research demonstrated that the bulk of the mercury in lake waters, soils, and fish in VNP results from atmospheric deposition (Wiener and others, 2006). The study by Wiener and others (2006) showed that the spatial distribution of mercury in watershed soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) within the Park was highly variable. The majority of factors correlated for this earlier study suggested that mercury concentrations in lake waters and age-1 yellow perch reflected the influence of ecosystem processes that affected within-lake microbial production and abundance of methylmercury (Wiener and others, 2006), while the distribution of mercury in watershed soils seemed to be partially dependent on forest

  1. A comparison of mercury levels in feathers and eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in the North American Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K D; Ewins, P J; Clark, K E

    1997-11-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs and chick feathers were collected for mercury analysis from nests at four Great Lakes study areas in Ontario (three "naturally formed" lakes in southern Ontario and one reservoir in northern Ontario) and two New Jersey study areas in 1991-1994. Adult osprey feathers were sampled from three Great Lakes study areas in 1991. Feathers sampled from chicks (approximately 28-35 days old) appear to be better indicators of local contaminant conditions since spatial patterns of mercury in known prey, yellow perch (Perca flavescens), also collected in these areas, were more similar to chick feathers than to eggs. Mercury levels were less variable in chick feathers than in eggs. Estimates of biomagnification factors using prey of known size at these areas were also less variable in feathers than in eggs. At naturally formed lakes, no significant correlation in mercury levels between eggs and chick feathers from the same nest was apparent, suggesting that the source of mercury contamination was not the same in these two tissues: mercury levels in eggs reflect mercury acquired on the breeding grounds, wintering grounds, and migratory route; mercury levels in chick feathers reflect local dietary conditions on the breeding grounds. Mercury levels in both osprey eggs and chick feathers were higher at the Ogoki Reservoir than at naturally formed lakes. Adult osprey feathers had higher mercury concentrations than chick feathers. Mercury levels in osprey eggs, chick feathers, and adult feathers did not approach levels associated with toxic reproductive effects.

  2. Evaluation of Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper Levels in Blood, Hair and Teeth of Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel -Latif, A.; EL- Bedewi, A.F.; Gad, A.; Mortada, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    There is a general agreement that children are a population that suffered increased risk of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposure with adverse health effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental exposure to Pb and Cd in children living in Cairo since birth and their effects on other essential elements such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The relationships between these indicators for exposure and children characteristics such as sex, weight, height, blood pressure and smoking habits of parents were also estimated. Forty children (23 males and 17 females) aged 5-7 years had been included in this study. Levels of elements in the samples were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The levels of Pb in blood (Pb-B), hair (Pb-H) and teeth (Pb-T) were 18.17 ± 5.35 fig/dl, 6.29 ± 2.07 fig/g and 8.07± 1.98 fig/g, respectively. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls as regards Pb-H (P<0.001)and Pb-T(P<0.05). The Cd levels were 0.603 ±0.08 μg/dl in blood (Cd-B), 0.933 ± 0.18 fig/g in hair (Cd-H) and 4.825± 0.57 μg/g in teeth (Cd-T). Boys showed higher significant increases in Cd-B than girls (P < 0.001). Concerning Zn, the levels were 57.43± 6.86 μg/dl,148.18± 11.76μg/g and 100.32± 20.28 μg/dl in blood (Zn-B), hair (Zn-H) and teeth(Zn-T),correspondingly Girls displayed significant higher levels of Zn-H than boys (P < 0.05). Regarding Cu in blood (Cu-B), in hair (Cu-H) and in teeth (Cu-T), they were 113.42± 9.89 μg/dl, 17.9±4.18 μg/g and 10.6± 3.04 μg/g, respectively. Girls showed significant higher levels of Cu-H than boys (P < 0.05). The passive smoking children exhibited significant increased levels of Pb, Cd and Cu in blood, hair and teeth when compared to the non-exposed children. On the other hand, passive smoking leads to decrease in Zn concentrations in the three studied samples. The proper mechanism of Zn affection was explained by interactions with Cd, Pb and Cu. Correlation between Pb and Cd with

  3. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrown hair Overview An ingrown hair occurs when a shaved or tweezed hair grows back into the skin. It can cause inflammation, pain and tiny bumps in the area where the hair was removed. Ingrown hair is a common condition ...

  4. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  5. A preliminary study on health effects in villagers exposed to mercury in a small-scale artisanal gold mining area in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Schierl, Rudolf; Nowak, Dennis; Siebert, Uwe; William, Jossep Frederick; Owi, Fradico Teorgi; Ir, Yuyun Ismawati

    2016-08-01

    Cisitu is a small-scale gold mining village in Indonesia. Mercury (Hg) is used to extract gold from ore, heavily polluting air, soil, fish and rice paddy fields with Hg. Rice in Cisitu is burdened with mercury. The main staple food of the inhabitants of Cisitu is this polluted rice. Villagers were concerned that the severe diseases they observed in the community might be related to their mining activities, including high mercury exposure. Case report of the medical examinations and the mercury levels in urine and hair of 18 people with neurological symptoms. Typical signs and symptoms of chronic mercury intoxication were found (excessive salivation, sleep disturbances, tremor, ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, pathological coordination tests, gray to bluish discoloration of the oral cavity and proteinuria). Mercury levels in urine were increased in eight patients (>7µg Hg/L urine). All 18 people had increased hair levels (>1µg Hg/g hair). 15 patients exhibited several, and sometimes numerous, symptoms in addition to having moderately to highly elevated levels of mercury in their specimens. These patients were classified as intoxicated. The situation in Cisitu is special, with rice paddy fields being irrigated with mercury-contaminated water and villagers consuming only local food, especially mercury-contaminated rice. Severe neurological symptoms and increased levels of mercury in urine and hair support are possibly caused by exposure to inorganic mercury in air, and the consumption of mercury-contaminated fish and rice. The mercury exposure needs to be reduced and treatment provided. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that mercury-contaminated rice from small-scale gold mining areas might cause mercury intoxication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. LEVEL AND EXTENT OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN OREGON LOTIC FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the U.S. EPA's EMAP Oregon Pilot project, we conducted a probability survey of 154 Oregon streams and rivers to assess the spatial extent of mercury (Hg) contamination in fish tissue across the state. Samples consisted of whole fish analyses of both small (< 120 mm) a...

  7. The Effect of One Session Low Level Laser Therapy of Extracted Follicular Units on the Outcome of Hair Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaie, Seyed Mehdi; Berenji Ardestani, Hoda; Azizjalali, Mir Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Photobiostimulation with low level laser (LLL) has been used in medicine for a long time and its effects have been shown in many diseases. Some studies have evaluated the effect of LLL on androgenic alopecia. One of the most important limitations of the use of LLL in the treatment of alopecia is the requirement for multiple sessions, which is hardly accepted by patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the irradiation of extracted follicular hair units by LLL on the outcome of hair transplantation. We enrolled 10 patients with androgenic alopecia and after screening tests for infections and other diseases, we extracted hair follicular units. The hair units were divided in two groups. One group was irradiated by LLL 20 minutes before transplantation (660 nm, 80 Hz, 100 mW) and the other one was used as control. The containing plates were labeled as A and B and sent to the operation room. The surgeon was unaware of the therapy assigned to the plates and transplanted them randomly on the right or left side of the head. One hundred follicular units on each sides of the scalp were transplanted symmetrically. The follicles on both sides were evaluated at 3 and 6 months of transplantation for hair growth rate by another physician, blinded to the treatment assigned to each side. Ten patient with androgenic alopecia and mean (SD) age of 31.5 (6.6) years (range 25-45 years) completed the study. All patients had 100% hair growth at 3 and 6 months follow-up except one who had hair growth of 20% at three months of transplantation, which changed to 100% at sixth months. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding hair growth (P > 0.8). One session of LLL irradiation has no significant effect on the outcome of transplanted hair follicles. Studies with larger sample size are needed to draw a definite conclusion.

  8. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mørck, Thit A. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nielsen, Flemming [Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Nielsen, Jeanette K.S.; Jensen, Janne F.; Hansen, Pernille W.; Hansen, Anne K.; Christoffersen, Lea N. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Siersma, Volkert D. [The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Ida H.; Hohlmann, Linette K. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Skaanild, Mette T. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Denmark); Frederiksen, Hanne [Department of Growth and Reproduction, University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Biot, Pierre [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine [University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda [Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany); Castaño, Argelia [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum (Germany); Esteban, Marta [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-08-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the

  9. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  10. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Pacyna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013 and future (2035 air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions, including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year−1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %, followed by biomass burning (9 %. A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has

  11. Total mercury levels in commercial fish species from Italian fishery and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lena, Gabriella; Casini, Irene; Caproni, Roberto; Fusari, Andrea; Orban, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Total mercury levels were measured in 42 commercial fish species caught off the Central Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts of Italy and in 6 aquaculture species. The study on wild fish covered species differing in living habitat and trophic level. The study on farmed fish covered marine and freshwater species from intensive and extensive aquaculture and their feed. Mercury levels were analysed by thermal decomposition-amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total mercury concentrations in the muscle of wild fish showed a high variability among species (0.025-2.20 mg kg -1 wet weight). The lowest levels were detected in low trophic-level demersal and pelagic-neritic fish and in young individuals of high trophic-level species. Levels exceeding the European Commission limits were found in large-size specimens of high trophic-level pelagic and demersal species. Fish from intensive farming showed low levels of total mercury (0.008-0.251 mg kg -1 ). Fish from extensive rearing showed variable contamination levels, depending on the area of provenience. An estimation of the human intake of mercury associated to the consumption of the studied fish and its comparison with the tolerable weekly intake is provided.

  12. Use of implantable pellets to administer low levels of methyl mercury to fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, B.S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Gross, T.S.

    1999-07-01

    Implantable pellets of methyl mercury chloride were tested in Nile Tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) to appraise the effectiveness of the method for chronic studies of mercury. Two dosing regimes of 15 and 1.5 grams/CH{sub 3}HgCl pellet (test 1) and 1 and 0.1 grams/pellet (tests 2--3) of methyl mercury chloride were used in three tests. Additional pellets containing only matrix were used as controls. The pellets were inserted into the peritoneal cavity along with a microchip for identification. Three methods of incision closure: sutures and two types of surgical glue, were tested. Pellets used in test one released the dose too fast, resulting in premature death of the fish. Results from tests 2 and 3 show blood mercury concentrations over time and tissue levels at necropsy consistent with dose suggestion that this is a viable method of dosing fish.

  13. Fabrication and properties of dual-level hierarchical structures mimicking gecko foot hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Shiyuan; Lv, Hao

    2013-02-01

    In nature, geckos have extraordinary adhesive capabilities. The multi-scale hierarchical structure of the gecko foot hairs, especially the high-aspect-ratio structure of its micro-scale seta and nano-scale spatulae is the critical factor of the gecko's ability to adopt and stick to any different surface with powerful adhesion force. In this paper, we present a simple and effective approach to fabricate dual-level hierarchical structures mimicking gecko foot hairs. Polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) hierarchical arrays were fabricated by demolding from a double stack mold that was composed of an SU-8 mold by thick film photolithography and a silicon mold by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching. Top pillars of the fabricated structures have 3 micom diameter and 18 microm in height, while base pillars have 25 microm diameter and 40 microm in height. The water droplet contact angle tests indicate that the hierarchical structures increase the hydrophobic property significantly compared with the single-level arrays and the unstructured polymers, exhibiting superhydrophobicity (154.2 degrees) like the Tokay gecko's (160.9 degrees). The shear force tests show that the top pillars make attachment through side contact with a value of about 0.25 N/cm2, and moreover, the hierarchical structures are demonstrated to be more suitable for contacting with rough surfaces.

  14. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yang

    Full Text Available Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p0.05 when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity.

  15. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in pregnant women, nursing women and preschool children - residents of fisheries in the eighth region of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.G.; Rodriguez, A.A.; Barrios, C.A.; Gras, N.T.; Becerra, J.; Nunez, E.; Reyes, O.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the 1991-1993 period, efforts were concentrated on establishing and validating the analytical methodology for determining total mercury (Hg-T) and methylmercury (MeHg) in human hair, and to identify any high risk populations in the study group. Two surveys were conducted during this period, which involved the collection of scalp hair samples that were prepared and analyzed for Hg-T, and also for MeHg in selected samples. The mean hair Hg-T concentration determined in the study group (1.81 ± 1.52 mg/kg, as dry weight) was significantly higher than the level obtained in the control group (0.42 ± 0.15 mg/kg). These results were characterized according to geographical location of the FVs, frequency of fish and seafood consumption and residence period in the same FV. Multiple comparison tests confirmed significant differences between the arithmetic means obtained in each FV and the control group. Five of the FVs with higher Hg-T concentrations in PW and NW were selected for further and more in-depth studies. A new survey, which is now in progress, is also described, which targets these five FVs and the associated control group. (author)

  16. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Hansen, Pernille W; Hansen, Anne K; Christoffersen, Lea N; Siersma, Volkert D; Larsen, Ida H; Hohlmann, Linette K; Skaanild, Mette T; Frederiksen, Hanne; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair; Bloemen, Louis; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Lopez, Ana; Cañas, Ana; Aerts, Dominique; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2015-08-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. KONSUMSI IKAN LAUT KADAR MERCURY DALAM RAMBUT DAN KESEHATAN NELAYAN DI PANTAI KENJERAN SURABAYA (Sea Fish Consumption, Degree of Mercury Content in Hair, and Fisherman Health at Surabaya Kenjeran Beach, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmaji Sudarmaji

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pantai Kenjeran di Surabaya mempunyai banyak fungsi baik sebagai tempat rekreasi, perikanan serta tempat pembuangan limbah dari kota Surabaya. Studi sebelumnya telah menjelaskan bahwa pantai Kenjeran telah tercemar khususnya Hg. Polutan ini telah diindikasikan terdapat dalam ikan yang dikonsumsi masyarakat sekitar. Penelitian ini mengkaji dampak mengkonsumsi ikan dari Kenjeran kaitannya dengan kesehatan masyarakat yang menkonsumsi ikan. Peneliltian ini rnengambil sample 70 orang yang mengkonsumsi ikan dan 45 orang sebagai kontrol grup. Dalarn penelitian ini rambut responden diambil dan dikaji dengan Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. Penelitian ini menghasilkan bahwa responden yang mengkonsumsi ikan sebanyak rata-rata 99,11 gram/hari mempunyai kadar Hg dalam rambutnya sebesar 0.511 ppb. Penelitian ini mengindikasikan gejala-gejala penyakit yang terjadi pada mereka yang rnengkonsumsi ikan antara lain ginjal, pusing-pusing, tumor, pendarahan gusi, dan gangguan penglihatan. Penelitian ini rnenyimpulkan adanya korelasi yang signifikan antara responden yang mengkonsumsi ikan yang tercemar dengan kadar Hg dalam rambutnya.   ABSTRACT Surabaya Kenjeran Beach, as a part of Eastern coastal area at East Java, functions as a sea recreation place and fishing. The condition of Surabaya Kenderan Beach is polluted by Hg as observed by previous researchers. They suggested that water, sediment, and fish from Kenjeran beach were already contaminated by Hg at dangerous level. Fisherman communities is one of the group which have a risk of getting affected by methyl Hg, because they usually consume fish from sea. This research is to study the relationship between consumption of sea fish and degree of Hg in fisherman’s hair, to measure the average degree of Hg in their hair and then to compare it with limit value. It is also studying the health disorder that likely appears as a result of Hg poisoning. This research took place at Kenjeran district

  18. Relationship between the level of essential metal elements in human hair and coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor-Tsung Hsieh; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Ying-Chen Chang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on epidemics have demonstrated the relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD) and mineral substances, such as selenium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, and vanadium, in human bodies. In this study, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) were applied to evaluate the levels of selenium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, and iron in healthy individuals and CHD patients. Hair samples were collected from 42 healthy participants and 28 diagnosed CHD patients. Calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc levels in healthy individuals are significantly higher than the levels found in the patients (p < 0.01). Calcium/selenium ratio is also significantly higher in healthy individuals (p < 0.05). Based on the possible synergies and/or antagonisms of elements and their absorption and metabolism, magnesium/calcium, zinc/copper, and sodium/potassium ratios showed positive relevance (p < 0.01). (author)

  19. NAA, GC(EC) and SRXRF study of Hg species in head hair of mothers and their newborn infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiyue; Qian Qinfang; Zhang Peiqun; Chai Zhifang

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-seven pairs of head from mothers and their new-born infants were collected at the time of delivery in a hospital in Beijing. The total mercury content in the hair samples was determined by INAA. The correlation between mercury content in hair of mothers and their new-born infants has been investigated. In addition, the change of Hg content in pregnant women's hair during their pregnancy was also studied by INAA and SRXRF. The results indicate a significant positive correlation between the mercury content in maternal and infant head hairs (r = +0.862, p < 0.001). The average content of Hg in infant and maternal hairs was (0.66 +- 0.31) μg/g and (0.59 +- 0.25) μg/g, respectively. The infant level exceeded the maternal by 12%. The Hg content in maternal head hair gradually reduced during pregnancy. Further, the methylmercury (Me-Hg) content in 3 maternal hair samples was analyzed by GC(EC). The Me-Hg was in accordance with the total mercury content. Thus a conclusion can be drawn that damage to the infant from Hg occurred in the early stages of pregnancy

  20. Relative element levels in the paired samples of scalp hair and fingernails of patients from New Delhi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, A. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067 (India)]. E-mail: sukumarindia@rediffmail.com; Subramanian, R. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067 (India)

    2007-01-01

    Specific elements are bioconcentrated in human hair and nails, which have unique advantages of application in population monitoring studies thereby, recognized as biological tools for disease diagnosis and prevention. However, investigations are meager for relative element profile in hair and nails of same subjects. In this study, hair and nails were analyzed to find effects of age, sex, smoking habit, diet, urban and rural exposure gradients, occupation, and health on element levels. Scalp hair and fingernails were sampled along with a questionnaire from urban and rural subjects of New Delhi; patients of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes were identified clinically. Cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc concentrations were determined by AAS in both the samples; CRM (human hair powder) analysis showed acceptable precision and accuracy in element measurement. In comparison to controls, Cr-H and Zn-H levels were lower respectively in female hypertensive and total hypertensive subjects, whereas, Zn-N and Cu-N were lower respectively in total CHD and diabetic subjects, and hypertensive and CHD urban subjects. Cd concentrations were higher in both the samples of tobacco smoking rural subjects than that of non-smokers. Farmers had lower Pb-H than rural businessmen did. Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were different due to rural and urban gradient but not to the influence of age, sex, and diet. Pb value was alone correlated between the paired samples. Thus, higher Cd levels in the smokers and lower Cr, Cu and Zn levels in the patients were observed.

  1. Relative element levels in the paired samples of scalp hair and fingernails of patients from New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukumar, A.; Subramanian, R.

    2007-01-01

    Specific elements are bioconcentrated in human hair and nails, which have unique advantages of application in population monitoring studies thereby, recognized as biological tools for disease diagnosis and prevention. However, investigations are meager for relative element profile in hair and nails of same subjects. In this study, hair and nails were analyzed to find effects of age, sex, smoking habit, diet, urban and rural exposure gradients, occupation, and health on element levels. Scalp hair and fingernails were sampled along with a questionnaire from urban and rural subjects of New Delhi; patients of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes were identified clinically. Cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc concentrations were determined by AAS in both the samples; CRM (human hair powder) analysis showed acceptable precision and accuracy in element measurement. In comparison to controls, Cr-H and Zn-H levels were lower respectively in female hypertensive and total hypertensive subjects, whereas, Zn-N and Cu-N were lower respectively in total CHD and diabetic subjects, and hypertensive and CHD urban subjects. Cd concentrations were higher in both the samples of tobacco smoking rural subjects than that of non-smokers. Farmers had lower Pb-H than rural businessmen did. Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were different due to rural and urban gradient but not to the influence of age, sex, and diet. Pb value was alone correlated between the paired samples. Thus, higher Cd levels in the smokers and lower Cr, Cu and Zn levels in the patients were observed

  2. Blood Mercury Level and Its Determinants among Dental Practitioners in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vahedi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to mercury can occur in occupational and environmental settings.During clinical work with dental amalgam, the dental personnel are exposed to both metallic mercury and mercury vapor. The aim of the present study was to investigate bloodmercury level (BML and its determinants among dentists practicing in Hamadan city,Iran.Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done on all dental practitioners of Hamadan (n=43. Dentists were asked to complete a questionnaire, and then 5 ml bloodsamples were obtained from them. After preparation, mercury concentration of each sample was measured by cold vapor atomic absorption device. Pearson correlation test and regression models served for statistical analysis.Results: The mean blood concentration of mercury was 6.3 μg/l (SD=1.31 range 4.15-8.93. BML was positively associated with age, years in practice, working hours per day,number of amalgam restorations per day, number of amalgam removal per week, sea foodconsumption, working years in present office, using amalgam powder, using diamond bur for amalgam removal, dry sterilization of amalgam contaminated instruments, and deficient air ventilation.Conclusion: BML of dentists in Hamadan was higher than standards. Working hours and number of amalgam restorations per day were significantly correlated with blood mercury.

  3. Relationship between the level of zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium in hair of people with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon F.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has long been believed that some metals possess many adverse health effects. Recently, certain elements have been identified as essential trace elements that play an important role in the genesis and progression of several diseases. Some toxic metals have also been shown to be elevated in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients. The status of trace elements in diabetes patients is also influenced by their diet, drugs administered and, to a large extent, by environmental factors. Pollutants due to the presence of toxic metals in environment not only enter the body by breading, water, and foodstuff accumulates in hair, but they could be adsorbed directly on the hair from environment. The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium in hair samples of diabetic women from Tehran (Iran. The study population consisted of 100 women between 30 to 70 years of age from Tehran. The hair samples were washed with 1% (w/v (DDTC, 0.1M HCL and deionized water. Afterwards, the hair sample dried in oven at 70° C for 5 hours and then digested the next day. Dry ashing digestion procedure was carried out. The concentration of elements was measured by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The statistical analysis confirmed that mean concentrations of lead and nickel did not differ significantly from the control group. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cr and Zn were significantly decreased in scalp hair samples of diabetic patients as compared to control subjects. Hair Cd level was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients. Values of Pearson correlation coefficient showed positive correlation between these elements.

  4. Stable isotope and trace element studies of black bear hair, Big Bend ecosystem, Texas and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Hellgren, Eric C.; Stricker, Craig A.; Gemery-Hill, Pamela A.; Onorato, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Hair from black bears (Ursus americanus), collected from four areas in the Big Bend ecosystem, has been analyzed for stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur to determine major food sources and for trace metals to infer possible effects of environmental contaminants. Results indicate that black bears are largely vegetarian, feeding on desert plants, nuts, and berries. Mercury concentrations in bear hair are below safe level standards (

  5. The determination of levels of mercury, cadmium and lead in water samples from Naivasha area, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muigai, P.G.; Kamau, G.N.; Kinyua, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of mercury, cadmium and lead in water samples from different environments (Lake Naivasha, River Malewa boreholes and Olkaria geothermal wells) in Naivasha region and their possible origins are reported. The levels of mercury and lead in the water samples were above the maximum permissible limits of 0.005 mg/1 and 0.1 mg/1 respectively, as stipulated by the WHO. On the other hand, 83.3% of the samples had cadmium levels above the maximum permissible limit of 0.01mg/1 in drinking water by WHO. The mercury and lead levels were also higher than those previously obtained from different regions of Kenya, while those for cadmium were within the corresponding range. Possible sources of elevated values were the geology of the surrounding area, sewage treatment works, use of phosphate rock fertilizers and lead fuels.(author)

  6. Assessment of Heavy Metals on Occupationally Exposed Workers from Hair Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of human hair as a tool in assessing changes and abnormalities in human bodies has been increasing for last decades since it may reflect the health status or environmental condition of habitation or working place of individuals as well as population groups. Compared to other body tissue or fluids, hair provides an ease of elemental analysis especially in reflecting the long-term exposure. This research was conducted to determine the elemental content especially heavy metals, since they are bioaccumulated in human body organs and impact human health, in hair of workshop workers and traffic services officers as exposed groups and its comparison with control group and references data for assessing of occupational exposure. Thirty-five automotive workshop workers and 32 traffic services officers’ hair specimens were collected in Bandung, while hair specimens of the control group were collected from 43 healthy individuals. The elemental concentrations in hair specimen were analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA for mercury and chromium, and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS for lead and arsenic.  The accuracy of the method was evaluated using GBW 07601 human hair certified reference material (CRM and it was found to give good results in accordance with the certificate values. It was found that chromium, lead, and arsenic hair concentration in exposed groups (0.88, 10.7, and 0.051 mg/kg, respectively were higher than in control group (0.27, 4.52, and 0.045 mg/kg, respectively, while mercury hair concentration of traffic services officers were higher than control group but mercury hair concentration of automotive workshop workers were lower than in control group (1.41 mg/kg. The t-test statistical results shown that mercury concentrations in one exposed group did not differ significantly from the control, but other exposed groups showed otherwise. The level of mercury in hair is strongly attributed not only to environmental

  7. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Removal KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Removal What's in ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  8. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  9. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  10. Anthropogenic contributions to mercury levels in present-day Arctic animals-A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Rune, E-mail: rdi@dmu.dk [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Aarhus University, Roskilde (Denmark); Outridge, Peter M. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Hobson, Keith A. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2009-12-01

    Background: Because of concern about the recently increasing levels of biological Hg in some areas of the Arctic, we examined the literature concerning the long-term changes of Hg in humans and selected Arctic marine mammals and birds of prey since pre-industrial times (i.e. before 1800 A.D.), to determine the anthropogenic contribution to present-day Hg concentrations and the historical timing of any changes. Methods: Mercury data from published articles were extracted on historical and pre-industrial concentrations as percentages of the recent maximum, as well as the man-made contribution was calculated and depicted in a uniform manner to provide an overview of the development over time. Results and discussion: Trends of [Hg] in hard tissues such as teeth, hair and feathers consistently showed that there had been an order-of-magnitude increase of [Hg] in Arctic marine foodweb-based animals that began in the mid- to late-19th Century and accelerated in the 20th Century. The median man-made contribution to present-day Hg concentrations was 92.4% ranging from 74.2 to 94.4%. Confidence in our data was increased by accompanying data in some studies on stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N), which allowed us to normalize where necessary for changes in animal trophic position and feeding location over time, and by careful attention to the possibility of sample chemical diagenesis (Hg contamination or loss) which can alter the Hg content of ancient hard tissues. Conclusions: Wildlife hard tissue matrices provide consistent information with respect to the steep onset of Hg exposure of Arctic wildlife beginning in the latter half of the 19th Century. Today the man-made contribution was found to be above 92%. Stable isotope analyses provide important information to normalize for possible changes in diet over time, and are highly relevant to include when interpreting temporal trends, baseline concentrations as well as man-made anthropogenic contribution of Hg.

  11. Aggressive behavior and hair cortisol levels in captive Dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas) as animal-based welfare indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Marina; Temple, Déborah; Abáigar, Teresa; Cuadrado, Mariano; Delclaux, Maria; Enseñat, Conrad; Almagro, Vanessa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Quevedo, Miguel Ángel; Carbajal, Annaïs; Tallo-Parra, Oriol; Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Amat, Marta; Lopez-Bejar, Manel; Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; Manteca, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    Ensuring welfare in captive wild animal populations is important not only for ethical and legal reasons, but also to maintain healthy individuals and populations. An increased level of social behaviors such as aggression can reduce welfare by causing physical damage and chronic stress to animals. Recently, cortisol in hair has been advanced as a non-invasive indicator to quantify long-lasting stress in many species. The sensitivity of social behavior and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated in several groups of dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas). Four different groups of gazelles from three different zoos were observed and the expression of intra-specific affiliative and negative social behaviors was assessed across the different groups. Hair samples were taken from sub-groups of animals and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Significant differences between groups of dorcas gazelles were found in frequency of negative social behavior and hair cortisol concentration. Despite the low sample size, these two parameters had a positive Spearman correlation coefficient (r s  = +0.80, P = 0.20). These results suggest that hair cortisol levels are sensitive to differences in the social structure of dorcas gazelles. Zoo Biol. 35:467-473, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy on hair regrowth in dogs with noninflammatory alopecia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Lara; Cavina, Damiano; Radicchi, Giada; Miragliotta, Vincenzo; Abramo, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    Canine noninflammatory alopecia (CNA) is a heterogeneous group of skin diseases with different underlying pathogenesis. The therapeutic approach is challenging, and new options for treatment are desirable. To test the clinical efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on hair regrowth in CNA. Seven dogs of different ages, breeds and genders with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of noninflammatory alopecia. Each dog was treated twice weekly for a maximum of 2 months with a therapeutic laser producing the following three different wavelengths emerging simultaneously from 21 foci: 13 × 16 mW, 470 nm; 4 × 50 mW, 685 nm; and 4 × 200 mW, 830 nm. The fluence given was 3 J/cm(2) , frequency 5 Hz, amplitude of the irradiated area was 25 cm(2) and application time was 1.34 min. A predetermined alopecic area was left untreated and served as a control area. From one dog, post-treatment biopsies of treated and untreated sites were obtained for histological evaluation of hair density and the percentage of haired and nonhaired follicles. At the end of the study, coat regrowth was greatly improved in six of seven animals and improved in one of seven. By morphometry, the area occupied by hair follicles was 18% in the treated sample and 11% in the untreated one (11%); haired follicles were (per area) 93% in the treated sample and only 9% in the control sample. Our clinical and histological data document promising effects of LLLT on hair regrowth in CNA. Further studies investigating the biological mechanism underlying the effect of LLLT on hair follicle cycling are warranted. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Low-level laser treatment accelerated hair regrowth in a rat model of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Villasante, Alexandra C; Mauro, Lucia M; Nouri, Keyvan; Schachner, Lawrence A; Perez, Carmen I; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2013-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effects of antineoplastic chemotherapy for which there is no effective interventional approach. A low-level laser (LLL) device, the HairMax LaserComb®, has been cleared by the FDA to treat androgenetic alopecia. Its effects may be extended to other settings; we have demonstrated that LaserComb treatment induced hair regrowth in a mouse model for alopecia areata. In the current study, we tested whether LLL treatment could promote hair regrowth in a rat model for CIA. Chemotherapy agents cyclophosphamide, etoposide, or a combination of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin were administered in young rats to induce alopecia, with or without LLL treatment. As expected, 7-10 days later, all the rats developed full body alopecia. However, rats receiving laser treatment regrew hair 5 days earlier than rats receiving chemotherapy alone or sham laser treatment (with the laser turned off). The accelerated hair regrowth in laser-treated rats was confirmed by histology. In addition, LLL treatment did not provide local protection to subcutaneously injected Shay chloroleukemic cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that LLL treatment significantly accelerated hair regrowth after CIA without compromising the efficacy of chemotherapy in our rat model. Our results suggest that LLL should be explored for the treatment of CIA in clinical trials because LLL devices for home use (such as the HairMax LaserComb®) provide a user-friendly and noninvasive approach that could be translated to increased patient compliance and improved efficacy.

  14. Pituitary gland levels of mercury, selenium, iron, and zinc in an Alzheimer`s disease study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornett, C.R.; Markesbery, W.R.; Wekstein, D.R.; Ehmann, W.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Mercury, iron, selenium, and zinc imbalances have been observed in comparisons between Alzheimer`s disease (AD) and control subject brains. Analyses of the pituitary gland have demonstrated that this organ retains relatively high concentrations of trace elements, including mercury, iron, and zinc. Our previous work has shown that the pituitary glands of AD and control subjects are typically higher in these trace elements than brain samples from the same subject. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to compare the pituitary trace element levels of AD and control subjects. This study also describes the intrasubject relationships of brain trace element levels to those in the pituitary gland of AD and control subjects.

  15. Assessment of levels of mercury in human breast milk in Obuasi Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asamoah-Antwi, Dinah

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the levels of mercury in breast milk and its potential health risk to the breastfed infants in Obuasi Municipality. Forty eight (48) individual breast milk samples were collected from mothers in selected health facilities in Obuasi town and it’s environ. Total mercury concentrations were determined in the breast milk samples using advanced mercury analyser (AMA254 Altec s.r.o, in the Czech Republic). Methylmercury levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography linked to inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) with isotope dilution. The mean concentrations of Total Hg and Methyl Hg in the breast milk were 0.4043 and 0.1829 μg/L respectively. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations ranged from 0.080 to 2.320 μg/L and 0.008 to 0.734 μg/L respectively. The estimated intake obtained in this study was lower than the reference dose established by the US EPA (0.3μg/kg/day). However the hazard quotients evaluated showed that the one month old infants had hazard quotient above the 0.2, therefore indicating that there is a potential risk for such infants and need to be managed. It was also found that (65.3%) of the mothers had no knowledge of the exposure route to mercury and it toxicity to humans. (au)

  16. A novel Atoh1 "self-terminating" mouse model reveals the necessity of proper Atoh1 level and duration for hair cell differentiation and viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Pan

    Full Text Available Atonal homolog1 (Atoh1 is a bHLH transcription factor essential for inner ear hair cell differentiation. Targeted expression of Atoh1 at various stages in development can result in hair cell differentiation in the ear. However, the level and duration of Atoh1 expression required for proper hair cell differentiation and maintenance remain unknown. We generated an Atoh1 conditional knockout (CKO mouse line using Tg(Atoh1-cre, in which the cre expression is driven by an Atoh1 enhancer element that is regulated by Atoh1 protein to "self-terminate" its expression. The mutant mice show transient, limited expression of Atoh1 in all hair cells in the ear. In the organ of Corti, reduction and delayed deletion of Atoh1 result in progressive loss of almost all the inner hair cells and the majority of the outer hair cells within three weeks after birth. The remaining cells express hair cell marker Myo7a and attract nerve fibers, but do not differentiate normal stereocilia bundles. Some Myo7a-positive cells persist in the cochlea into adult stages in the position of outer hair cells, flanked by a single row of pillar cells and two to three rows of disorganized Deiters cells. Gene expression analyses of Atoh1, Barhl1 and Pou4f3, genes required for survival and maturation of hair cells, reveal earlier and higher expression levels in the inner compared to the outer hair cells. Our data show that Atoh1 is crucial for hair cell mechanotransduction development, viability, and maintenance and also suggest that Atoh1 expression level and duration may play a role in inner vs. outer hair cell development. These genetically engineered Atoh1 CKO mice provide a novel model for establishing critical conditions needed to regenerate viable and functional hair cells with Atoh1 therapy.

  17. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea, Lorrie D., E-mail: lorrie.rea@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Castellini, J. Margaret, E-mail: maggie.c@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Correa, Lucero, E-mail: lucero.correa@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Fadely, Brian S., E-mail: brian.fadely@noaa.gov [National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M., E-mail: tmohara@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey.

  18. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, Lorrie D.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Correa, Lucero; Fadely, Brian S.; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey

  19. Effect of low-level laser treatment on cochlea hair-cell recovery after ototoxic hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chung-Ku; He, Peijie; Jung, Jae Yun; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Lee, Min Young; Suh, Myung-Whan

    2013-12-01

    The primary cause of hearing loss includes damage to cochlear hair cells. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has become a popular treatment for damaged nervous systems. Based on the idea that cochlea hair cells and neural cells are from same developmental origin, the effect of LLLT on hearing loss in animal models is evaluated. Hearing loss animal models were established, and the animals were irradiated by 830-nm diode laser once a day for 10 days. Power density of the laser treatment was 900 mW/cm2, and the fluence was 162 to 194 J. The tympanic membrane was evaluated after LLLT. Thresholds of auditory brainstem responses were evaluated before treatment, after gentamicin, and after 10 days of LLLT. Quantitative scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations were done by counting remaining hair cells. Tympanic membranes were intact at the end of the experiment. No adverse tissue reaction was found. On SEM images, LLLT significantly increased the number of hair cells in middle and basal turns. Hearing was significantly improved by laser irradiation. After LLLT treatment, both the hearing threshold and hair-cell count significantly improved.

  20. DETERMINATION of the TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS in HAIR of SMOKERS and NON-SMOKERS by ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Varhan Oral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For at least 50 years, determination of the trace element levels in human hair has been used to assess environmental and vocational exposure to toxic elements . As compared to other biological matrices (e.g. blood, urine, human hair is stable and therefore useful as a matrice. In this study, analyses of toxic and essential trace elements, such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Fe, were done in hair samples which we collected from male smokers (10 people and non-smokers (10 people who live in Diyarbakır, Turkey and concentrations in hair samples were compared. Hair samples were washed by a standard procedure proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Then the samples were dried for 16 h at 110°C in an oven. Solubilization procedure was carried out by nitric acid hydrogen peroxide mixture (3:1 in closed vessels in a microwave oven. Trace element analyses were carried out by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS  technique. In our study, while concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe elements were found to be considerably higher in smokers than non-smokers, similar results were observed in Cu concentrations. The precision and accuracy of the method was evaluated by applying spike method to samples. Analytical recovery results were found between 91.2% and 104.6%.

  1. Mercury levels in cord blood and meconium of healthy newborns and venous blood of their mothers: Clinical, prospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unuvar, Emin [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: Eunuvar@superonline.com; Ahmadov, Hasan [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul (Turkey); Kiziler, Ali Riza [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul (Turkey); Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Biophysics, Istanbul (Turkey); Aydemir, Birsen [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul (Turkey); Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Biophysics, Istanbul (Turkey); Toprak, Sadik [Gazi Osman Pasa University, Department of Forensic Pathology, Tokat (Turkey); Ulker, Volkan [Bakirkoy Government Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Ark, Cemal [Bakirkoy Government Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-03-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the chronic mercury intoxication in pregnant women and newborns living in Istanbul, Turkey. Methods: The research was carried out as a prospective with 143 pregnant women and their newborns. Venous blood from the mother, cord blood from the neonate, and meconium were collected for mercury analysis. Frequency of fish and vegetable-eating and the number of teeth filled were investigated. Analyses were made in cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, {mu}g/L). Results: Mercury levels were 0.38 {+-} 0.5 {mu}g/L (0-2.34) in venous blood of pregnant women, 0.50 {+-} 0.64 {mu}g/L (0-2.36) in umbilical cord blood and 9.45 {+-} 13.8 {mu}g/g (0-66.5) in meconium. Maternal blood mercury level was lower than the known toxic limit for humans (EPA, 5 {mu}g/L). Mercury levels of the maternal venous blood were significantly correlated with umbilical cord blood. The primary risk factors affecting mercury levels were eating fishmeals more than twice a week and having filled teeth more than five. The fact that the mother had a regular vegetable diet everyday reduced the mercury levels. Increased levels of mercury in the mother and umbilical cord blood could lead to retarded newborns' weight and height. Conclusion: Pregnant women living in Istanbul may be not under the risk of chronic mercury intoxication. Fish consumption more than twice per week and tooth-filling of mother more than five may increase mercury level. On the contrary, regular diet rich in vegetable decreases the mercury level.

  2. Mercury levels in cord blood and meconium of healthy newborns and venous blood of their mothers: Clinical, prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unuvar, Emin; Ahmadov, Hasan; Kiziler, Ali Riza; Aydemir, Birsen; Toprak, Sadik; Ulker, Volkan; Ark, Cemal

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the chronic mercury intoxication in pregnant women and newborns living in Istanbul, Turkey. Methods: The research was carried out as a prospective with 143 pregnant women and their newborns. Venous blood from the mother, cord blood from the neonate, and meconium were collected for mercury analysis. Frequency of fish and vegetable-eating and the number of teeth filled were investigated. Analyses were made in cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, μg/L). Results: Mercury levels were 0.38 ± 0.5 μg/L (0-2.34) in venous blood of pregnant women, 0.50 ± 0.64 μg/L (0-2.36) in umbilical cord blood and 9.45 ± 13.8 μg/g (0-66.5) in meconium. Maternal blood mercury level was lower than the known toxic limit for humans (EPA, 5 μg/L). Mercury levels of the maternal venous blood were significantly correlated with umbilical cord blood. The primary risk factors affecting mercury levels were eating fishmeals more than twice a week and having filled teeth more than five. The fact that the mother had a regular vegetable diet everyday reduced the mercury levels. Increased levels of mercury in the mother and umbilical cord blood could lead to retarded newborns' weight and height. Conclusion: Pregnant women living in Istanbul may be not under the risk of chronic mercury intoxication. Fish consumption more than twice per week and tooth-filling of mother more than five may increase mercury level. On the contrary, regular diet rich in vegetable decreases the mercury level

  3. High Maternal Blood Mercury Level Is Associated with Low Verbal IQ in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Shin, Jiyoung; Hong, Yun Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung Nyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Soo Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship of IQ in children with maternal blood mercury concentration during late pregnancy. The present study is a component of the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 553 children whose mothers underwent testing for blood mercury during late pregnancy. The children were given the Korean language version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R) at 60 months of age. Multivariate linear regression analysis, with adjustment for covariates, was used to assess the relationship between verbal, performance, and total IQ in children and blood mercury concentration of mothers during late pregnancy. The results of multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that a doubling of blood mercury was associated with the decrease in verbal and total IQ by 2.482 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.749-4.214) and 2.402 (95% CI, 0.526-4.279), respectively, after adjustment. This inverse association remained after further adjustment for blood lead concentration. Fish intake is an effect modifier of child IQ. In conclusion, high maternal blood mercury level is associated with low verbal IQ in children. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  4. Blood mercury levels among Ontario anglers and sport-fish eaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.C.; Kearney, Jill; Sanin, L.H.; Leblanc, Alain; Weber, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted two surveys of Ontario (Canada) fishers: a stratified sample of licensed anglers in two Lake Ontario communities (anglers, n=232) and a shore and community-based sample in five Great Lakes' Areas of Concern (AOC eaters, n=86). Among the 176 anglers consuming their catch, the median number of sport-fish meals/year was 34.2 meals and 10.9, respectively, in two communities, with a mean blood total mercury level among these sport-fish consumers of 2.8 μg/L. The vast majority of fish eaten by AOC eaters was from Ontario waters (74%). For AOC eaters, two broad country-of-origin groups were assembled: Euro-Canadians (EC) and Asian-Canadians (AC). EC consumed a median of 174 total fish meals/year and had a geometric mean total mercury level of 2.0 μg/L. Corresponding AC figures were 325 total fish meals/year and 7.9 μg/L. Overall, mercury levels among AOC eaters were higher than in many other Great Lakes populations but lower than in populations frequently consuming seafood. In multivariate models, mercury levels were significantly associated with levels of fish consumption among both anglers and EC AOC eaters. Given the nutritional and social benefits of fish consumption, prudent species and location choices should continue

  5. Mercury in the Umbilical Cord: Implications for Risk Assessment for Minamata Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    Umbilical cord tissue was obtained from 50 births in the Faroe Islands, where high mercury intake is due to ingestion of pilot whale meat. The mercury concentration correlated significantly with the frequency of maternal whale meat dinners during pregnancy and with mercury concentrations in umbil...... mercury concentration of 4.95 nmol/g dry weight in Minamata would correspond to 668 nmol/l cord blood and 114 nmol/g maternal hair. These levels agree well with other evidence of susceptibility of the fetus to increased exposure to methylmercury....... in umbilical cord blood and in maternal hair. The results were compared with published values for mercury in umbilical cord tissue from 12 infants diagnosed with congenital methylmercury poisoning in Minamata, Japan. From the regression coefficients obtained in the Faroese samples, the median umbilical cord...

  6. Levels of total mercury in predatory fish sold in Canada in 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Dabeka, R.W.; McKenzie, A.D.; Forsyth, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    Total mercury was analysed in 188 samples of predatory fish purchased at the retail level in Canada in 2005. The average concentrations (ng g−1, range) were: sea bass 329 (38–1367), red snapper 148 (36–431), orange roughy 543 (279–974), fresh water trout 55 (20–430), grouper 360 (8–1060), black cod 284 (71–651), Arctic char 37 (28–54), king fish 440 (42–923), tilefish 601 (79–1164) and marlin 854 (125–2346). The Canadian standard for maximum total mercury allowed in the edible portions of fis...

  7. Determination of the effective radiative lifetimes of the 6 3P1 atomic mercury level in low-pressure mercury discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van de Weijer, P.; Cremers, R.M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments are described in which low-pressure mercury, mercury-argon and mercury-krypton discharges were irradiated with a dye laser pulse at 365.5 nm, thus exciting mercury atoms from the metastable 6 3 P 2 level to the 6 3 D 2 level. The 6 3 D 2 level decays radiatively to the 6 P levels. By recording the time dependence of the overpopulation in the 6 3 P 1 and the 6 1 P 1 level at the fluorescence signals at 254 nm and 185 nm, respectively, the effective radiative lifetime of these levels were determined. The effective radiative lifetime of the 6 3 P 1 level was measured in the k 0 R regime 0.1-500. The 6 1 P 1 lifetime was determined for the following discharge conditions: tube diameter 10-36 mm, mercury density 7.10 18 -2.10 21 m -3 , and noble gas pressure 0, 130, 400 Pa

  8. Impact of the Sainte-Marguerite 3 hydroelectric reservoir on the mercury exposure of local fish consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schetagne, R.; Plante, M.; Castonguay, D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fish mercury levels in a freshwater impoundment flooded as part of the Sainte-Marguerite-3 hydroelectric generating station. The study compared mercury levels obtained before the area was flooded in 1997 with mercury exposure surveys obtained in 2006. Mercury levels in the fish have increased by factors ranging from 4 to 8. Total mercury concentrations have reached 0.78 μg per g in 400-mm lake whitefish and 1.85 μg per g in 700-mm northern pike. Non-native fishers consumed significantly more local fish on a monthly basis after the area was flooded. Native Innu fishers consumed less fish. Average hair mercury concentrations for non-native fish consumers remained unchanged, which mercury levels in native fish consumers decreased significantly.

  9. Mercury levels and potential risk from subsistence foods from the Aleutians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Burke, Sean; Stamm, Tim; Snigaroff, Ronald; Snigaroff, Dan; Patrick, Robert; Weston, Jim

    2007-10-01

    Considerable attention has been devoted to contaminants (mainly PCBs and mercury) in subsistence foods (particularly fish) from various parts of the world. However, relatively little attention has been devoted to examining mercury levels in a full range of subsistence foods from a particular region. While managers and scientists compute risk based on site-specific data on contaminant levels and consumption rates, a first step in making risk decisions by subsistence peoples is knowledge about the relative levels of mercury in the foods they eat. This study examined levels of mercury in subsistence foods (edible components) from several islands in the western Aleutians of Alaska, including algae (4 species), invertebrates (9 species), fish (15 species) and birds (5 species). Samples were gathered by both subsistence hunters/fishers and by scientists using the same equipment. Another objective was to determine if there were differences in mercury levels in subsistence foods gathered from different Aleutian islands. We tested the null hypotheses that there were no interspecific and interisland differences in mercury levels. Because of variation in distribution and the nature of subsistence hunting and fishing, not all organisms were collected from each of the islands. There were significant and important differences in mercury levels among species, but the locational differences were rather small. There was an order of magnitude difference between algae/some invertebrates and fish/birds. Even within fish, there were significant differences. The highest mean mercury levels were in flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon, 0.277 ppm), yellow irish lord (Hemilepidotus jardani, 0.281 ppm), great sculpin (Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus, 0.366 ppm), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens, 0.329 ppm) and its eggs (0.364 ppm), and pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba, 0.494 ppm). Mercury levels increased with increasing weight of the organisms for limpets (Tectura scutum

  10. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: Trend from birth to age four

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); Rebagliato, Marisa [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Medicine Department, Jaume I University, Av. Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071 Castelló de la Plana (Spain); Cases, Amparo [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Amurrio, Ascensión [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); María Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); and others

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008–2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. - Highlights: • The geometric mean of hair Hg concentrations was 1.10 µg/g. • 19% of children had Hg concentrations above the RfD proposed by

  11. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: Trend from birth to age four

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Murcia, Mario; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Rebagliato, Marisa; Cases, Amparo; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Amurrio, Ascensión; María Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008–2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. - Highlights: • The geometric mean of hair Hg concentrations was 1.10 µg/g. • 19% of children had Hg concentrations above the RfD proposed by

  12. Baseline mercury and zinc concentrations in terrestrial and coastal organisms of Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Isaac; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira; Schaefer, Carlos; Maria Sella, Silvia; Silva, Carlos A.; Gomes, Vicente; Passos, Maria Jose de A.C.R.; Phan Van Ngan

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the first quantitative information on mercury in soil, coastal sediment, and in characteristic organisms of terrestrial and shallow coastal marine ecosystems from Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica). As expected for a remote area, mercury content is low in abiotic components of the ecosystem, and probably similar to natural levels. Mercury also occurs in very low concentrations in the vegetation, invertebrates and fish. These low mercury levels may be due to sulphide formation in reducing sediments of this environment. Higher concentrations of mercury occurred in bird feathers and mammal hair, indicating biomagnification. This was not found for Zinc. These results may be useful as a reference background to detect future inputs of trace elements in this remote area of the earth. Terrestrial vegetation and bird feathers are suggested as target regional biomonitors. - Low levels of mercury and zinc occurred in soil and plant samples from Antarctica, but high levels occurred in birds and mammals

  13. SEMINAL PLASMA LEVELS OF LEAD AND MERCURY IN INFERTILE MALES IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emokpae MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Studies on environmental exposure to toxic metals and their effects on male reproductive function are scare in our setting. This study evaluates the levels of lead and mercury in seminal plasma of infertile males who are non-occupationally exposed in Benin City, Nigeria and to determine the relationship between seminal quality and these toxic metals. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects participated in this study which includes 60 infertile males on routine visit to the infertility clinics in Benin City and 20 fertile males as controls. The concentration of lead in seminal plasma was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer while the concentration of mercury was measured using inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry. Semen analyses were performed using standard techniques as recommended by World Health Organization. Results: Mean seminal plasma lead and mercury levels were significantly higher (p<0.001 in infertile males compared with controls. Mercury and lead correlated negatively (p<0.001 with sperm count, progressive motility, total motility and morphology but not with semen volume. There was no significant correlation between toxic metals and sperm indices in fertile males (controls. Conclusion: The levels of the studied toxic metals were higher in seminal plasma of infertile males and appear to have adverse effect on seminal indices in non -occupationally exposed males.

  14. Preparation of standard hair material and development of analytical methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangadharan, S.; Walvekar, A.P.; Ali, M.M.; Thantry, S.S.; Verma, R.; Devi, R.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of the use of human scalp hair as a first level indicator of exposure to inorganic pollutants has been established by us earlier. Efforts towards the preparation of a hair reference material are described. The analytical approaches for the determination of total mercury by cold vapour AAS and INAA and of methylmercury by extraction combined with gas chromatography coupled to an ECD are summarized with results on some of the samples analyzed, including the stability of values over a period of time of storage. (author)

  15. Determination of fumonisin B1 levels in body fluids and hair from piglets fed fumonisin B1-contaminated diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Pollyana C M C; Jager, Alessandra V; Tonin, Fernando G; Petta, Tânia; Di Gregório, Mayra C; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Pinton, Philippe; Oswald, Isabelle P; Rottinghaus, George E; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2017-10-01

    The levels of fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) residues in plasma, urine, feces and hair from 24 piglets fed FB 1 -contaminated diets containing 3.1, 6.1 or 9.0 μg FB 1 .g -1 for 28 days were determined using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The levels of FB 1 in plasma, urine, feces and pooled hair (n = 3) samples varied from 0.15 to 1.08 μg.L -1 , 16.09-75.01 μg.L -1 , 1.87-13.89 μg.g -1 and 2.08-8.09 ng.g -1 , respectively. Significant correlations (r = 0.808-0.885; P 14 days). The possibility to evaluate hair as a biomarker of fumonisin exposure was established, although further studies are needed to provide physiologically based toxicokinetics of residual FB 1 in the pig hair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel [Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Caldas, Eloisa Dutra, E-mail: eloisa@unb.br [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  17. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2016-01-01

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  18. The use of low-level light therapy in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Daigle, Deanne

    2014-04-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) or female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common form of hair loss in men and women. Despite its common occurrence, our understanding of the etiology of AGA and FPHL remains incomplete. As such, traditional therapies demonstrate modest efficacies and new therapies continue to be sought. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is a relatively new technique used to promote hair growth in both men and women with AGA and FPHL. Currently, there exist several LLLT devices marketed for the treatment of alopecia, which claim to stimulate hair growth; yet marketing these devices only requires that safety, not efficacy, be established. A handful of studies have since investigated the efficacy of LLLT for alopecia with mixed results. These studies suffered from power, confounding and analysis issues which resulted in a high risk of bias in LLLT studies. Due to the paucity of well-conducted randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of LLLT devices remains unclear. Randomized controlled trials of LLLT conducted and reported according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement would greatly increase the credibility of the evidence and clarify the ambiguity of the effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of AGA and FPHL.

  19. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is why some people with eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia lose their hair: The body isn't getting enough protein, vitamins, and minerals to support hair growth. Some teens who are vegetarians also lose their hair if ...

  20. Wild Boar Tissue Levels of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury in Seven Regions of Continental Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Šimić, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry in the kidney and muscle of free-living wild boar (n = 169) from hunting grounds in seven counties of continental Croatia. Mean levels of metals (mg/kg) in muscle and kidney of boars ranged as follows: Cd: 0.005–0.016 and 0.866–4.58, Pb: 0.033–0.15 and 0.036–0.441, Hg: 0.004–0.012 and 0.04–0.152. In all seven regions, concentrations exceeded the permitted values (muscle and kidney mg/kg: cadmium 0.05/1; lead 0.1/0.5; mercury 0.03/0.1) in 13.6% and 71.6% of samples (muscle and kidney, respectively) for cadmium; 13.6% and 8.9% for lead; 19.5% and 2.4% for mercury. There were significant differences among the regions. Vukovar-Srijem and Virovitica-Podravina Counties were highly contaminated with cadmium, Sisak-Moslavina and Virovitica-Podravina Counties with lead and Brod-Posavina County had highest mercury concentrations. These results suggest a detailed investigation of physiological and environmental factors contributing to accumulation of metals in boars. PMID:20405101

  1. Differential correlations between maternal hair levels of tobacco and alcohol with fetal growth restriction clinical subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Sally; Malmqvist, Ebba; Almeida, Laura; Gratacos, Eduard; Gomez Roig, Maria Dolores

    2018-08-01

    Maternal exposure to tobacco and alcohol is a known cause, among others, for fetal growth restriction (FGR). Clinically, FGR can be subclassified into two forms: intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small for gestational age (SGA), based on the severity of the growth retardation, and abnormal uterine artery Doppler or cerebro-placental ratio. This study aimed at investigating any differential correlation between maternal exposures to these toxins with the two clinical forms of FGR. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted in Barcelona, Spain. Sixty-four FGR subjects, who were further subclassified into IUGR (n = 36) and SGA (n = 28), and 89 subjects matched appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA), were included. The levels of nicotine (NIC) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG), biomarkers of tobacco and alcohol exposure, respectively, were assessed in the maternal hair in the third trimester. Our analysis showed 65% of the pregnant women consumed alcohol, 25% smoked, and 19% did both. The odds ratios (ORs) of IUGR were 21 times versus 14 times for being SGA with maternal heavy smoking, while with alcohol consumption the ORs for IUGR were 22 times versus 37 times for the SGA group. The differential correlations between these toxins with the two subtypes of FGR suggest different mechanisms influencing fetal weight. Our alarming data of alcohol consumption during pregnancy should be considered for further confirmation among Spanish women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Methyl Mercury Exposure at Niigata, Japan: Results of Neurological Examinations of 103 Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimio Maruyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Large-scale poisonings caused by methyl mercury (MeHg have occurred in Japan (Minamata in the 1950s and Niigata in the 1960s and Iraq (in the 1970s. The current WHO neurological risk standard for adult exposure (hair level: 50 μg/g was based partly on evidence from Niigata which did not consider any cases who were diagnosed later and/or exposed to low level of MeHg (hair mercury level less than 50 μg/g. Methods. Early in the Niigata epidemic in June 1965 there were two extensive surveys. From these two surveys, we examined 103 adults with hair mercury measurement who consulted two medical institutions. We compared the prevalence and the distribution of neurological signs related to MeHg poisoning between exposure categories. Result. We found 48 subjects with neurological signs related to MeHg poisoning who had hair mercury concentration less than 50 μg/g. Among the neurological signs, sensory disturbance of the bilateral distal extremities was observed more frequently, followed by disequilibrium, hearing impairment, and ataxia, in groups with hair MeHg concentration both below 50 μg/g and over 50 μg/g. Conclusion. The present study suggests the possibility that exposure to MeHg at levels below the current WHO limits could cause neurologic signs, in particular, sensory disturbance.

  3. Are liver and renal lesions in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus associated with high mercury levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Born Erik W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Arctic, polar bears (Ursus maritimus bio-accumulate mercury as they prey on polluted ringed seals (Phoca hispida and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus. Studies have shown that polar bears from East Greenland are among the most mercury polluted species in the Arctic. It is unknown whether these levels are toxic to liver and kidney tissue. Methods We investigated the histopathological impact from anthropogenic long-range transported mercury on East Greenland polar bear liver (n = 59 and kidney (n = 57 tissues. Results Liver mercury levels ranged from 1.1–35.6 μg/g wet weight and renal levels ranged from 1–50 μg/g wet weight, of which 2 liver values and 9 kidney values were above known toxic threshold level of 30 μg/g wet weight in terrestrial mammals. Evaluated from age-correcting ANCOVA analyses, liver mercury levels were significantly higher in individuals with visible Ito cells (p Conclusion Based on these relationships and the nature of the chronic inflammation we conclude that the lesions were likely a result of recurrent infections and ageing but that long-term exposure to mercury could not be excluded as a co-factor. The information is important as it is likely that tropospheric mercury depletion events will continue to increase the concentrations of this toxic heavy metal in the Sub Arctic and Arctic marine food webs.

  4. Investigation on the level and movement of Mercury contaminants around storage areas and food processing factories in Hassahesa town, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, Nawal Ahmed Mohamed

    1999-11-01

    A total of 62 surface soil samples were taken from various sites in Hassahesa town and analyzed for total mercury level using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Sites were chosen to represent the soil of pesticide store, food processing factories (involved in using contaminated seeds as fuel), near stock of redundant cotton seeds and neighbouring cotton fields. Control soils were sampled from similar soil type south Hassahesa town. The results indicated an elevated mercury level in all samples analyzed far exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soil. The highest level of contamination was found in soil of the pesticide store (51ppm), followed by the tow food factories (24 ppm and 19 ppm). Horizontal movement of mercury contaminants at various rates from foci of area selected was noticed, wind direction and/ or topography apparently had some role in this movement. The level of total mercury in the control soil was exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soils reported from other places. Various aspects of levels of mercury contamination, their movements, transportation and toxicological impacts on various forms of life were discussed.(Author)

  5. Investigation on the level and movement of mercury contaminants around storage areas and food processing factories in Hassahesa town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, Nawal Ahmed Mohamed

    1999-11-01

    A total of 62 surface soil samples were taken from various sites in Hassahesa town and analyzed for total mercury level using x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Sites were chosen to represent the soil of pesticide store, food processing factories (involved in using contaminated seeds as fuel), nera stock of redundant cotton seeds and neighbouring cotton fields. Control soils were sampled from similar soil type south Hassahesa town. The results indicated an elevated mercury level in all samples analyzed far exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soil. The highest level of contamination was found in soil of pesticide store (51 ppm), followed by the two food factories (24 ppm and 19 ppm). Horizontal movement of mercury contaminants at various rates from foci of areas selected was noticed, wind direction and/or topography apparently had some role in this movement. The level of total mercury in the control soil was exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soils reported from other places. Various aspects of levels of mercury contamination, their movements, transportation and toxicological impacts on various forms of life were discussed. (Author)

  6. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  7. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk.

  8. Managing amalgam phase down: An evaluation of mercury vapor levels in a dental center in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolphous Odofin Loto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor in a dental setting is mainly through inhalation exposure during preparation, insertion, polishing, and removal of amalgam fillings including storage of amalgam waste before disposal. This study aims to determine the indoor air levels of elemental mercury vapor in the dental operatories and ancillary sites at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH. Materials and Methods: Samples of the ambient air were taken at seven locations the Dental Center of LASUTH by a trained technician between 9:00 and 11:00 a.m. This was done at a predetermined height (41/2feet above the floor for mercury vapor concentration using Lumex 915 light data logger mercury vapor analyzer manufactured by Ohio Lumex Company Incorporation, USA®. Results: The highest level of 1434 ng/m3 of mercury vapor in the air was found in the restorative clinic while the lowest of 23 ng Hg/m3 was found in the ambient air at the entrance of the dental Center. The Oral Surgery clinic had mercury vapor level of 318 ng/m3 which was slightly higher than Environmental Protection Agency recommended value of 0.3 μg/m3. Conclusion: An unacceptably high level of mercury vapor was detected, especially in the restorative clinic. Every dental clinic should have its ambient air evaluated for mercury vapor level for the purpose of forming a baseline data for monitoring purposes during the period of phase down of amalgam use. Best practices should also be instituted to reduce the level of exposure of patients and dental care workers to mercury vapor.

  9. Health and environmental assessment of mercury exposure in a gold mining community in Western Mindanao, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Maramba, Nelia; Reyes, Jose Paciano; Francisco-Rivera, Ana Trinidad; Akagi, Hirokatsu; Sunio, Rose; Panganiban, Lynn Crisanta

    2006-10-01

    The small-scale gold mining activities using mercury began in the late 1980s in Sibutad, Western Mindanao. It is located very near the Murcielagos Bay with tailing ponds directly discharging into bodies of water. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the health and environmental effects of gold mining activities on the community. Residents were randomly selected and classified into two groups, namely, the directly exposed and indirectly exposed populations using a set inclusion criteria. Complete medical and laboratory examinations were performed. Environmental and biologic samples were collected for total mercury and methylmercury determinations. The results showed that the directly exposed group had significantly higher mean blood total mercury and methylmercury levels in comparison with the indirectly exposed population. Although there were no significant differences between hair total mercury and methylmercury levels, there was a trend for higher levels of these biomarkers among the directly exposed residents as compared with the unexposed group. The absence of statistically significant differences may be attributable to the small sample size. Ambient air quality monitoring for mercury exceeded the allowable levels. However, levels of mercury in drinking water and sediments were within allowable limits. Frequency of gastrointestinal complaints was significantly associated with elevated hair methylmercury levels (p=0.02). Also, there appears to be a trend towards higher blood total mercury levels and frequency of gastrointestinal complaints (p=0.09). An interesting finding in this study was the increasing incidence of elevated diastolic blood pressure with elevated hair total mercury levels (p=0.07). Mercury storage at home is a risk factor.

  10. The Effect of One Session Low Level Laser Therapy of Extracted Follicular Units on the Outcome of Hair Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Tabaie, Seyed Mehdi; Berenji Ardestani, Hoda; Azizjalali, Mir Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Photobiostimulation with low level laser (LLL) has been used in medicine for a long time and its effects have been shown in many diseases. Some studies have evaluated the effect of LLL on androgenic alopecia. One of the most important limitations of the use of LLL in the treatment of alopecia is the requirement for multiple sessions, which is hardly accepted by patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the irradiation of extracted follicular hair units by LLL ...

  11. Survey of total mercury and methylmercury levels in edible fish from the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, M M; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R; Storelli, A; D'Addabbo, R; Palermo, C; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2003-12-01

    Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations were measured in the muscle tissue of different fish species from the Adriatic Sea to ascertain whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission. Large species-dependent variability was observed. The highest total mercury mean concentrations were in benthic (0.20-0.76 microg g(-1) wet wt) and demersal fish (0.22-0.73 microg g(-1) wet wt), while pelagic species showed the lowest levels (0.09-0.23 microg g(-1) wet wt). In 15% of frost fish, in 42% of skate and in 30% of angler fish samples total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission (Hg = 1 microg g(-1) wet wt); for the species for which the maximum level was set to 0.5 microg g(-1) wet wt, concentrations exceeding the prescribed legal limit were observed in 6.4% of bokkem, in 6.6% of pandora, in 20% of megrin, in 12.5% of four-spotted megrim, in 16% of striped mullet, in 5.0% of forkbeard and in 5.3% of picarel samples. In all the different species, mercury was present almost completely in the methylated form, with mean percentages between 70 and 100%. Weekly intake was estimated and compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. A high exposure was associated with the consumption of only skates, frost fish and angler fish, thought the consumption of the other species, such as, megrim, four spotted megrim, red fish striped mullet and forkbeard, resulted in a weekly intake slightly below the established provisional tolerable weekly intake.

  12. Socioeconomic status in children is associated with hair cortisol levels as a biological measure of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegenthart, J; Noppe, G; van Rossum, E F C; Koper, J W; Raat, H; van den Akker, E L T

    2016-03-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) may be associated with a high risk of lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. There is a strong association between parental SES, stress and indicators of child health and adult health outcome. The exact mechanisms underlying this association have not yet been fully clarified. Low SES may be associated with chronic stress, which may lead to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, resulting in a higher circulating level of the stress hormone cortisol. Therefore, chronic stress may mediate the association between low SES and elevated cortisol levels and its adverse outcomes. We investigated whether SES was associated with a chronic measure of cortisol exposure in a child population. Cortisol and cortisone were measured in scalp hair in 270 children and adolescents, aged 4-18 years, enrolled through school visits. Neighborhood level SES was based on a score developed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research using postal codes, and this includes neighborhood measures of income education and unemployment. Maternal and paternal education level were used as indicators of family SES. Neighborhood level socioeconomic status score was significantly associated with hair cortisol (β=-0.103, p=0.007, 95%CI [-0.179, -0.028]) and hair cortisone (β=-0.091, p=0.023, 95%CI [-0.167, -0.015]), adjusted for age and sex. Additionally, hair cortisol was significantly correlated with maternal education level and hair cortisone was significantly correlated with paternal education level. The results of our study suggest that the widely shown association between low family SES and adverse child health outcomes may be mediated by chronic stress, given the chronically higher levels of cortisol in children and adolescents in families with low SES. It is especially notable that the association between SES and cortisol was already found in children of young age as this can have major consequences, such as increased

  13. A comprehensive assessment of mercury exposure in penguin populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere: Using trophic calculations to identify sources of population-level variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasso, Rebecka L.; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J.; Raya Rey, Andrea; Emslie, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mercury concentrations documented for 10 species of penguins (26 breeding populations). • Mercury concentrations ⩽2.00 ppm in feathers from 18/26 penguin populations. • Trophic level calculations revealed source of population-level variation in mercury. • First documentation of geographic mercury ‘hotspots’ for penguin populations. - Abstract: The wide geographic distribution of penguins (Order Sphenisciformes) throughout the Southern Hemisphere provided a unique opportunity to use a single taxonomic group as biomonitors of mercury among geographically distinct marine ecosystems. Mercury concentrations were compared among ten species of penguins representing 26 geographically distinct breeding populations. Mercury concentrations were relatively low (⩽2.00 ppm) in feathers from 18/26 populations considered. Population-level differences in trophic level explained variation in mercury concentrations among Little, King, and Gentoo penguin populations. However, Southern Rockhopper and Magellanic penguins breeding on Staten Island, Tierra del Fuego, had the highest mercury concentrations relative to their conspecifics despite foraging at a lower trophic level. The concurrent use of stable isotope and mercury data allowed us to document penguin populations at the greatest risk of exposure to harmful concentrations of mercury as a result of foraging at a high trophic level or in geographic ‘hot spots’ of mercury availability

  14. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2017-10-01

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  15. Environmental monitoring of the La Grande complex (2003-2004) : evolution of mercury levels in the flesh of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therrien, J.; Schetagne, R.

    2005-11-01

    The results of surveys conducted to assess the duration of temporary mercury levels in piscivorous species in the La Grande Complex were presented. A 2003 survey conducted in the easter sector and a 2004 survey conducted in the western sector of the complex showed that for non-piscivorous fishes of standardized length, a return to mean natural mercury levels will be achieved between 10 and 20 years after impounding. For piscivorous fishes, the evolution pattern of the mean mercury levels suggested that a return to background levels will occur after 20 to 30 years. Mercury levels for northern pike in the Robert-Bourassa Reservoir are expected to return to normal levels after 30 to 35 years. The surveys indicated that mean mercury levels in non-piscivorous fishes were often higher immediately below the La Grande generating stations. Similar observations were made for northern pike and lake trout downstream of the generating stations in the eastern sector of the complex. Mean mercury levels were significantly higher for fishes in the complex than fishes in the natural lakes of the region. Results of the surveys suggested that additional consumption restrictions for piscivorous fishes in the reservoirs are needed. Consumption guidelines for varieties of non-piscivorous and piscivorous fishes from the complex were included

  16. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

  17. Environmental monitoring of the Robertson Reservoir (1990-2005) : evolution of the mercury levels in the flesh of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therrien, J.

    2006-04-01

    This paper provided details of an environmental monitoring analysis of the stomach contents and mercury levels in the flesh of main fish species in the Robertson Reservoir. The report noted that smelt species were dominant in the reservoir and in the adjoining Ivry Lake, while benthos were dominant the brackish waters of Lake Monger. Sticklebacks were found in the stomachs of the examined fish, while the diet of brook trout was comprised mainly of benthos in lakes and reservoirs. Arctic char mainly ate benthos in the reservoir. Landlocked salmon mainly ate fish in the reservoirs and lakes. Smelt was the primary diet of Arctic char until 2003. After 2003, Arctic char fed mainly on sticklebacks. It was observed that average mercury levels of fish of a standardized length increased by a factor of 2.7 to 4.9 after the impoundment of the reservoir. However, average mercury levels stopped increasing for dwarf Arctic char in 2003. Levels of mercury in brook trout have not increased since 1999. A significant decrease in mercury levels of rainbow smelt were observed. Average mercury levels of fish in the brackish waters of Lake Monger were lower than levels observed in most other freshwater lakes in the region. It was concluded that the number of monthly meals recommended by the fish consumption guide produced in 2001 for the Gros Mecatina region are still appropriate for the reservoir

  18. Arsenic, gold and mercury concentration levels in freshwater fish by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndiokwere, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Elemental concentrations of arsenic, gold and mercury have been determined in flesh tissues of freshwater fish species from some Nigerian rivers. The technique of neutron activation followed by radiochemical separation of the isotopes of interest has been applied. The concentrations of 0.04 to 0.87 μg g -1 and 0.4 to 1.33 μg g -1 obtained for gold and mercury, respectively, in the samples are much higher than the values reported in the literature for freshwater fish. The arsenic concentration range of 0.07 to 0.42 μg g -1 is within the reported range. The high concentration levels of these heavy metals can be attributed to local contamination of the rivers. (author)

  19. Levels of lead and cadmium in hair and saliva of school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... one cannot underestimate the potential health risk, resulting in the none absorption of other essential elements like iron and zinc, resulting in learning difficulties and nutritional deficiencies in later years. These results support most findings that heavy metal elements can be found in hair and saliva. However, the source of ...

  20. SRXRF study of trace elements in hippocampus of pup rats after prenatal and postnatal exposure to low-level mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fang; Feng Weiyue; Chai Zhifang; Wang Meng; Shi Junwen; Huang Yuying; He Wei

    2005-01-01

    Since the pollution of mercury in the environment still keeps high, more and more concerns over mercury toxicity are focused on the potential risk associated with relatively low-dose and long-term mercury exposure in the environment. It is well known that fetus and developing children are the susceptive victims of mercury damage. Therefore, high attention is focused on whether the prenatal and postnatal exposure to relatively low level of mercury will be harmful to children development. Some epidemiological studies reported that the methylmercury-related neuropsychological deficits were mainly found in the domains of cognitional parts, such as language, attention, memory, and so forth, Our previous study found out that high level of mercury was accumulated in the pup hippocampus after their prenatal and postnatal exposure to low dose of inorganic mercury. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SRXRF) is characterized of its simultaneous determination of multi-elements, high sensitivity, small sampling amount and microanalysis. SRXRF does not cause the damage of irradiated samples. Thus, it makes possible to measure the distributions of trace elements in a selected area. In this study, in order to study the effects of low-level mercury exposure to pup rat brain, some oxidation-related elements, e.g. Cu, Fe and Mn in pup hippocampus after in utero and weaning exposure to low-level inorganic mercury were determined by SRXRF. The experiment was performed at a synchrotron radiation facility at Institute of High Energy Physics. And the spot size of the beam irradiating on the sample was adjusted to about 100 x 200 μm 2 , Each spot was irradiated for about 100 s. The spectra were analyzed by the AXIL program. Additionally, the activities of some important antioxidant enzymes, such as GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, were also measured together with the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). The results showed that mercury exposure could lead to significant increase of both

  1. Hair removal in hirsute women with normal testosterone levels: a randomized controlled trial of long-pulsed diode laser vs. intense pulsed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, C S; Jensen, Pernille Nymann; Pedersen, A T

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, and androgen disturbances may aggravate the condition. Limited evidence exists regarding efficacy of hair removal in this specific population and no data are available for patients with verified normal testosterone levels.......Hirsutism is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, and androgen disturbances may aggravate the condition. Limited evidence exists regarding efficacy of hair removal in this specific population and no data are available for patients with verified normal testosterone levels....

  2. A Critical Assessment of the Evidence for Low-Level Laser Therapy in the Treatment of Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Foley, Kelly A

    2017-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is currently in use to stimulate hair growth and is quickly gaining in popularity due to the ease of use and absence of side effects. In 2015 alone, the number of LLLT devices with the Food and Drug Administration clearance has doubled. To consolidate evidence and establish which data are still required for the widespread acceptance of LLLT for hair loss therapy. A thorough search of the PubMed database was conducted to obtain studies investigating LLLT for androgenetic alopecia in men and women. Nine trials were identified for comb and helmet/cap devices, five of which were randomized controlled trials. Data comparison across LLLT trials and with traditional hair loss therapy (minoxidil, finasteride) was not straight forward because there was a lack of visual evidence, sample sizes were low, and there were large variations in study duration and efficacy measurements. There are a number of unanswered questions about the optimum treatment regimen, including maintenance treatment and the long-term consequences of LLLT use. Moving forward, protocols should be standardized across trials. Moreover, it is recommended that future trials include visual evidence and trial duration be expanded to 12 months.

  3. Mercury interferes with endogenous antioxidant levels in Yukon River subsistence-fed sled dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, Kriya L; Reynolds, Arleigh J; Duffy, Lawrence K; Gerlach, S Craig

    2011-01-01

    Before adopting modern corn-and-grain-based western processed diets, circumpolar people had a high fat and protein subsistence diet and exhibited a low incidence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some health benefits are attributable to a subsistence diet that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. Pollution, both global and local, is a threat to wild foods, as it introduces contaminants into the food system. Northern indigenous people and their sled dogs are exposed to a variety of contaminants, including mercury, that accumulate in the fish and game that they consume. The sled dogs in Alaskan villages are maintained on the same subsistence foods as their human counterparts, primarily salmon, and therefore they can be used as a food systems model for researching the impact of changes in dietary components. In this study, the antioxidant status and mercury levels were measured for village sled dogs along the Yukon River. A reference kennel, maintained on a nutritionally balanced commercial diet, was also measured for comparison. Total antioxidant status was inversely correlated with the external stressor mercury.

  4. Mercury interferes with endogenous antioxidant levels in Yukon River subsistence-fed sled dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Kriya L.; Reynolds, Arleigh J.; Gerlach, S. Craig; Duffy, Lawrence K.

    2011-10-01

    Before adopting modern corn-and-grain-based western processed diets, circumpolar people had a high fat and protein subsistence diet and exhibited a low incidence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some health benefits are attributable to a subsistence diet that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. Pollution, both global and local, is a threat to wild foods, as it introduces contaminants into the food system. Northern indigenous people and their sled dogs are exposed to a variety of contaminants, including mercury, that accumulate in the fish and game that they consume. The sled dogs in Alaskan villages are maintained on the same subsistence foods as their human counterparts, primarily salmon, and therefore they can be used as a food systems model for researching the impact of changes in dietary components. In this study, the antioxidant status and mercury levels were measured for village sled dogs along the Yukon River. A reference kennel, maintained on a nutritionally balanced commercial diet, was also measured for comparison. Total antioxidant status was inversely correlated with the external stressor mercury.

  5. Manganese and Mercury Levels in Water, Sediments, and Children Living Near Gold-Mining Areas of the Nangaritza River Basin, Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Merizalde, Max V; Menezes-Filho, José A; Cruz-Erazo, Claudia Teresa; Bermeo-Flores, Santos Amable; Sánchez-Castillo, María Obdulia; Hernández-Bonilla, David; Mora, Abrahan

    2016-08-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold-mining activities performed in mountain areas of the Southern Ecuadorian Amazon have incorporated several heavy metals into the aquatic systems, thus increasing the risk of exposure in populations living in adjacent zones. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination levels of mercury (Hg) and manganese (Mn) in several rivers of the Nangaritza River basin and assess the exposure in school-aged children residing near the gold-mining zones. River water and sediment samples were collected from a highly contaminated (HEx) and a moderately contaminated (MEx) zones. Hair Mn (MnH) and urinary Hg (HgU) levels were determined in school-aged children living in both zones. High concentrations of dissolved Mn were found in river waters of the HEx zone (between 2660 and 3990 µg l(-1)); however, Hg levels, in general, were lower than the detection limit (DL; MnH in children of the HEx and MEx zones were 5.5 and 3.4 µg g(-1), respectively, whereas the median values of HgU concentrations in children living in the HEx and MEx zones were 4.4 and 0.62 µg g-creat(-1), respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed between both biomarkers in children from the HEx and MEx zones. In addition, boys presented significantly greater MnH levels in both zones. The greater MnH values were found in children living in alluvial areas, whereas children living in the high mountain areas, where some ore-processing plants are located close to or inside houses and schools, had the greater HgU concentrations. In summary, the data reported in this paper highlights that artisanal and small-scale gold-mining activities can not only produce mercurial contamination, that can also release other heavy metals (such as Mn) that may pose a risk to human health.

  6. Mercury contamination in humans and fishes in the municipality of Ayapel, Córdoba, Colombia, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisy Gracia H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the concentration of total mercury (HgT in hair samples from inhabitants of the municipality of Ayapel (Córdoba and in fishes captured in the Ayapel swamp. Methodology: a total amount of 112 hair samples were taken from the inferior occipital area of settlers of the Ayapel swamp who were over 14 years old, and samples of muscle tissue of seven species of fishes were also chosen. These samples were analyzed by means of spectrometry of atomic absorption through cold steam after acid digestion. Surveys on clinical symptoms related to poisoning by mercury were applied after the acceptance of the informed consent. Results: the total amount of mercury present in hair displayed an average of 2.18 ± 1.77 μg/g with values between 0.11 and 12.76 μg/g. The highest value of Hg-T in fishes was identified in the carnivorous species Sorubin cuspicaudus, with an average concentration of 0.74 ± 0,19 µg/g, and the smaller concentration was found on the iliophagous species Prochilodus magdalenaewith 0.15±0.02 µg/g of fresh weight. Conclusions: the population studied in Ayapel showed mercury levels above those internationally allowed by the usepa. There were also signs and symptoms related to such mercury levels, which can probably be a consequence of the high consumption of fishes contaminated with mercury

  7. Mercury levels, reproduction, and hematology in western grebes from three California Lakes, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbert, R.A.; Anderson, D.W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation Biology

    1998-02-01

    Twenty-three healthy adult western and Clark`s grebes (Aechmorphorus occidentalis and Aechmorphorus clarkii) were collected at three study sites in California, USA, in 1992: Clear Lake, Lake County; Eagle Lake, Lassen County; and Tule Lake, Siskiyou County. Liver, kidney, breast muscle, and brain were analyzed for total mercury (Hg) concentration (ppm wet weight), and blood was analyzed for various blood parameters. Clear Lake birds had greater Hg concentrations in kidney, breast muscle, and brain than birds from the other two lakes whereas liver concentrations were not statistically different. Average concentrations for Clear Lake birds were 2.74 ppm for liver, 2.06 ppm for kidney, 1.06 ppm for breast muscle, and 0.28 ppm for brain. The tissue levels of kidney, breast muscle, and brain at the other two study sites were one half the levels found at Clear Lake. These mean tissue levels were near, but below, those known to cause adverse effects. When data from all sites were merged, kidney, breast muscle, and brain concentrations are positively correlated to each other. Liver concentrations were not correlated to any other value. Brain Hg concentrations were also negatively correlated to blood potassium and blood phosphorus levels. Kidney Hg levels were positively correlated to percent blood heterophils and negatively correlated to percent eosinophils, suggesting that mercury levels might be affecting immune function. These biomarkers could not be related to any obvious ecological effects.

  8. Five Hundred Years of Mercury Exposure and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Guido; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Socola, Francisco; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Appenzeller, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is added to the biosphere by anthropogenic activities raising the question of whether changes in the human chromatin, induced by mercury, in a parental generation could allow adaptation of their descendants to mercury. We review the history of Andean mining since pre-Hispanic times in Huancavelica, Peru. Despite the persistent degradation of the biosphere today, no overt signs of mercury toxicity could be discerned in present day inhabitants. However, mercury is especially toxic to the autonomic nervous system (ANS). We, therefore, tested ANS function and biologic rhythms, under the control of the ANS, in 5 Huancavelicans and examined the metal content in their hair. Mercury levels varied from none to 1.014 ppm, significantly less than accepted standards. This was confirmed by microfocused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis. Biologic rhythms were abnormal and hair growth rate per year, also under ANS control, was reduced (P Peru. This would generally benefit survival in the Anthropocene, the man-made world, we now live in. PMID:22910643

  9. Screening heavy metals levels in hair of sanitation workers by X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Khudzari, Jauharah; Wagiran, Husin; Hossain, I.; Ibrahim, Noorddin

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a study of human hair as a bio-indicator for detection of heavy metals as part of environmental health surveillance programs project to develop a subject of interest in the biomedical and environmental sciences. A total of 34 hair samples were analyzed that consisting of 29 samples from sanitation workers and five samples from students. The hair samples were prepared and treated in accordance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations. The concentrations of heavy metals were analyzed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique by X-50 Mobile X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) at Oceanography Institute, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. The performance of EDXRF analyzer was tested by Standard Reference Material (SRM 2711) Montana Soil which was in good agreement with certified value within 14% deviations except for Hg. While seven heavy metals: Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Sb were detected in both groups, three additional elements, i.e. As, Hg and Pb, were detected only in sanitation workers group. For sanitation workers group, the mean concentration of six elements, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Sb, shows elevated concentration as compared to the control samples concentration. Results from both groups were compared and discussed in relation to their respective heavy metals concentrations. - Highlights: ► We determine heavy metals in hair sample of sanitation workers and control group. ► 7 heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Sb, were detected in both groups. ► Additional elements of As, Hg and Pb were discovered only in sanitation workers. ► Generally, mean concentration of sanitation workers show elevation in comparison. ► We report results in relation to their respective heavy metals concentrations.

  10. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination.

  11. Lead and mercury levels in an environmentally exposed population in the Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Leda Diva Freitas de; Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos; Azevedo, Sayonara Vieira de; Borges, Renato Marçullo; Gomes, Regina Aderne de Almeida; Bergamini, Fernanda Pereira Baptista; Teixeira, Liliane Reis

    2018-03-01

    The objective was to assess the level of exposure to lead and mercury in a population in the Pantanal region in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Blood lead (PbB) (n = 119) and urinary mercury (HgU) (n = 109) in local residents were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of means and correlations between variables used analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression, respectively, with 95% confidence intervals. Mean PbB was 2.82 ± 1.53µg dL-1. The comparison of PbB stratified by collection site (p ≤ 0.01), work activity (p ≤ 0.01), and consumption of locally produced cow's milk (p ≤ 0.05) showed statistically significant differences. There were also positive associations between PbB and collection site (p ≤ 0.01), participants' profession (p ≤ 0.05), local milk (p ≤ 0.01), and source of drinking water (p ≤ 0.01). Mean HgU was 1.41 ± 0.98µg L-1. The levels only showed significant differences for participants' profession (p ≤ 0.01), and positive associations emerged between HgU and work activity (p ≤ 0.01) and body mass index (p ≤ 0.01). The samples showed low lead and mercury levels, similar to those found in other environmentally exposed populations. Despite these low concentrations, current knowledge on the toxicity of these metals shows that health effects can already be felt at levels that were previously considered safe, thus characterizing a health hazard.

  12. Mercury levels in lichens from different host trees around a chlor-alkali plant in New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensen, Marion; Richardson, David H S

    2002-07-03

    Mercury concentrations were determined in the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes along five transects starting from a chlor-alkali plant located at Dalhousie, New Brunswick, a landfill site and a nearby electricity generating station. Lichen samples were collected from white birch (Betula papyrifera) and spruce (Picea sp.) or balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Average lichen background mercury values were 0.088+/-0.005 microg/g from white birch and 0.148+/-0.046 microg/g from spruce trees, with a detection limit of 0.05 microg/g. The chlor-alkali plant and a power plant were identified, respectively, as a major source and a minor source of elevated mercury levels in lichens. At 125 m north-west of the New Brunswick Power plant, 0.28 microg/g Hg were found in Hypogymnia physodes from spruce trees, while at 250 m west (downwind) of the chlor-alkali plant, 3.66 microg/g of mercury were determined. High values, 0.98 microg/g in lichens from spruce trees and 0.79 microg/g in lichen samples from white birch were also measured at 125 m south of the chlor-alkali plant and decreased exponentially with distance. The sphere of influence of the chlor-alkali plant with respect to mercury deposition was estimated to extend 2.4-3.4 km from the plant. The mercury concentrations in Hypogymnia physodes collected from white birch were significantly lower than the concentrations in the same lichen from spruce trees in areas with elevated levels of mercury, but not in areas with low mercury levels. The magnitude of this difference dropped with distance from the source.

  13. Effects of sex on the levels of metals and metalloids in the hair of a group of healthy Spanish adolescents (13 to 16 years old).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, Antonio; Del Carmen Lobo-Bedmar, Maria; González-Muñoz, Maria José

    2017-10-01

    Human biomonitoring can be a reliable tool to protect the health of the citizens of major urban environments. Human hair may be an invaluable specimen to determine chronic exposure to any environmental contaminant in an individual, especially in the young population. However, different factors including a lack of studies that have established reference values for metals and metalloids (trace elements) in human scalp hair make the use of this matrix controversial. A monitoring study was performed to establish possible normal or tentative reference values of Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl and Zn in adolescents' (aged 13-16) hair who have lived since birth in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid region (Spain). Strict inclusion criteria were followed to study the effect of sex on the hair metal content, and the levels of the above contaminants were also studied in park topsoils from Alcalá de Henares. Scalp hair samples were collected from 96 healthy adolescents (28 boys and 68 girls), and reference values were calculated following the recommendations of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn in hair of adolescents from Alcalá de Henares show a sex dependency, being significantly higher in female participants. Sex should be a factor taken into account when developing future reference values and hair metal content. Soil metal contamination was not correlated with the levels found in hair. To conclude, the values of metals and metalloids here analysed and discussed could be considered as tentative reference values for Spanish adolescents aged 13-16 years living in the Madrid region, and may be used to identify the level of exposure of adolescents in this Spanish region to the various metals and metalloids.

  14. Water Consumption as Source of Arsenic, Chromium, and Mercury in Children Living in Rural Yucatan, Mexico: Blood and Urine Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F; Fargher, L F; Oceguera-Vargas, I; Noreña-Barroso, E; Yánez-Estrada, L; Alvarado, J; González, L; Moo-Puc, R; Pérez-Herrera, N; Quesadas-Rojas, M; Pérez-Medina, S

    2017-10-01

    Studies investigating the correlation between metal content in water and metal levels in children are scarce worldwide, but especially in developing nations. Therefore, this study investigates the correlation between arsenic, chromium, and mercury concentrations in drinking and cooking water and in blood and urine samples collected from healthy and supposedly non-exposed children from a rural area in Yucatan, Mexico. Mercury in water shows concentrations above the recommended World Health Organization (WHO) value for drinking and cooking water. Also, 25% of the children show mercury in urine above the WHO recommended value. Multivariate analyses show a significant role for drinking and cooking water as a vector of exposure in children. Also, the factor analysis shows chronic exposure in the case of arsenic, as well as an ongoing detoxification process through urine in the case of mercury. Further studies should be done in order to determine other potential metal exposure pathways among children.

  15. Levels of mercury in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected along a transect through the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, D.G.; Fink, L.E.; Laine, K.A.; Niemczyk, S.L.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Wankel, Scott D.; Kendall, C.

    2002-01-01

    As part of a multi-agency study of alligator health, 28 American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) were captured along a transect through the Florida Everglades in 1999. Liver and tail muscle tissues were sampled and analyzed on a wet weight basis for total mercury (THg) using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All tissues had detectable concentrations of THg that ranged from 0.6 to 17 mg/kg in liver and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg/kg in tail muscle. THg was more concentrated in liver tissue than tail muscle, but levels were highly correlated between tissues. THg concentrations in tissue differed significantly among locations, with animals from Everglades National Park (ENP) having mean concentrations of THg in liver (10.4 mg/kg) and tail muscle (1.2 mg/kg) that were two-fold higher than basin-wide averages (4.9 and 0.64 mg/kg, respectively). The reasons for higher contamination of ENP alligators were unclear and could not be explained by differences in sex, length, weight or animal age. While ??15N values were positively correlated with THg concentrations in tail muscle, spatial patterns in isotopic composition did not explain the elevated THg levels in ENP alligators. Therefore, it appears that ENP alligators were more highly exposed to mercury in their environment than individuals in other areas. Comparisons to a previous survey by Yanochko et al. [Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32 (1997) 323] suggest that mercury levels have declined in some Everglades alligators since 1994. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Health and environmental impact of mercury in the Philippines using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortex-Maramba, Nelia; Trinidad Francisco-Rivera, Ana; Manglicmot, Ailyn; Santos, Flora; Akagi, Hirokatsu

    2001-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining activities using mercury has proliferated in various parts of the country since the early 1980's. In Southern Philippines, it is estimated that a small-scale gold processor utilizes one kilogram of mercury every week or an average of fifty-two kgs./yr. Production is estimated at 30 kilograms of gold per day. It has been estimated that 140 tons of mercury flux have been dumped directly into the river systems from small-scale gold mining operations in one of the gold rush areas in the country. Small-scale mining operations have affected tributaries and water systems in the country that also relies heavily on fishing as a source of livelihood as well as the daily food fare among the low-income sectors in the area. Aside from this, cattle livestock and agricultural production have also been affected by these mining activities because of contamination of the irrigation and water systems. Presently, environmental and health monitoring conducted by several government agencies in the recent past were limited to the determination of total mercury only. Previous studies undertaken focused mainly on the exposure of adults and workers to mercury during mining/processing operations. Environmental quality monitoring showed total mercury sediment levels ranged from 0.55 ug/g dry weight while water samples from river systems exhibited mercury levels from 0.0728-0.0784 ppb. Fish samples collected showed levels ranging from 1.07-438.8 ppb for total mercury and 0.71-377.18 ppb for methyl mercury. Methyl mercury content in fish ranged from 56-99%. Laboratory results showed that total mercury hair samples in schoolchildren ranged from 0.278-20.393 ppm while methyl mercury levels were from 0.191-18.469 ppm. Methyl mercury represented 45.96%-99.81% of the total mercury levels in hair. Total blood mercury levels ranged from 0.757-56.88 ppb while methyl mercury blood levels ranged from 1.36-46.73 ppb. Summary of physical examination results showed that predominant

  17. Determination of ultratrace levels of mercury in three SRMs by combustion RNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.R.; Becker, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) combustion method coupled with a neutron exposure normalization technique was used to determine low μg/kg mercury levels in three National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Two coals (sub-bituminous and bituminous) and a diet material were analyzed. The results obtained provided recommended values of approximately 5 μg/kg for SRM 1548a Typical Diet, 24 μg/kg for SRM 1635 Trace Elements in Coal (sub-bituminous), and 100 μg/kg for SRM 1632b Trace Elements in Coal (bituminous). (author)

  18. Measuring total mercury due to small-scale gold mining activities to determine community vulnerability in Cihonje, Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mega M; Inoue, Takanobu; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yokota, Kuriko

    2016-01-01

    This research is comparative study of gold mining and non-gold mining areas, using four community vulnerability indicators. Vulnerability indicators are exposure degree, contamination rate, chronic, and acute toxicity. Each indicator used different samples, such as wastewater from gold mining process, river water from Tajum river, human hair samples, and health questionnaire. This research used cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry to determine total mercury concentration. The result showed that concentration of total mercury was 2,420 times than the maximum content of mercury permitted in wastewater based on the Indonesian regulation. Moreover, the mercury concentration in river water reached 685 ng/l, exceeding the quality threshold standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). The mercury concentration in hair samples obtained from the people living in the research location was considered to identify the health quality level of the people or as a chronic toxicity indicator. The highest mercury concentration--i.e. 17 ng/mg, was found in the gold mining respondents. Therefore, based on the total mercury concentration in the four indicators, the community in the gold mining area were more vulnerable to mercury than communities in non-gold mining areas. It was concluded that the community in gold mining area was more vulnerable to mercury contamination than the community in non-gold mining area.

  19. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  20. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  1. Hair cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dr...

  2. Hair Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cani , Marie-Paule; Bertails , Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Processing interactions is one of the main challenges in hair animation. Indeed, in addition to the collisions with the body, an extremely large number of contacts with high friction rates are permanently taking place between individual hair strands. Simulating the latter is essential: without hair self-interactions, strands would cross each other during motion or come to rest at the same location, yielding unrealistic behavior and a visible lack of hair volume. This c...

  3. Fish mercury levels in lakes - adjusting for Hg and fish-size covariation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesten, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Fish-size covariation can be circumvented by regression intercepts of Hg vs. fish length as lake-specific Hg levels. - Accurate estimates of lake-specific mercury levels are vital in assessing the environmental impact on the mercury content in fish. The intercepts of lake-specific regressions of Hg concentration in fish vs. fish length provide accurate estimates when there is a prominent Hg and fish-size covariation. Commonly used regression methods, such as analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and various standardization techniques are less suitable, since they do not completely remove the fish-size covariation when regression slopes are not parallel. Partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis reveals that catchment area and water chemistry have the strongest influence on the Hg level in fish in circumneutral lakes. PLS is a multivariate projection method that allows biased linear regression analysis of multicollinear data. The method is applicable to statistical and visual exploration of large data sets, even if there are more variables than observations. Environmental descriptors have no significant impact on the slopes of linear regressions of the Hg concentration in perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) vs. fish length, suggesting that the slopes mainly reflect ontogenetic dietary shifts during the perch life span

  4. 8 Assessment of the Level of Mercury Present in Soaps by the Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Abstract. Sixteen brands of soap were analysed for their total mercury content using cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The aim was to find out if the soaps contained mercury and if so, what quantity. In addition, are the quantities acceptable for health purposes. Mercury was found to be present in some soaps ...

  5. Assessment of the Level of Mercury Present in Soaps by the Use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen brands of soap were analysed for their total mercury content using cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The aim was to find out if the soaps contained mercury and if so, what quantity. In addition, are the quantities acceptable for health purposes. Mercury was found to be present in some soaps which did ...

  6. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, J. M.; Travnikov, O.; De Simone, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, E. G.; Steenhuisen, F.; Pirrone, N.; Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K.

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  7. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of mercury world-wide are presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  8. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... used it for cosmetics (Silberberg, 1995). Mercury- ... Cosmetic preparations containing mercury com- pounds are .... mercury determination by a modified version of an open .... level mercury exposure, which could lead to a.

  9. The use of hair as a biopsy tissue for trace elements in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, S.A.; Chatt, A.

    1994-01-01

    Scalp hair has been recognized as a tissue which incorporates elements into its structure during the growth process, after which it becomes separated from the continual metabolic activity of the body. It has many advantages for being used as an indicator for screening population groups exposed to environmental pollutants. Such usage is not free from criticisms. Sometimes the so-called ''normal ranges'' of trace elements in hair quoted in the literature can be wide. Various factors can influence the trace element content of hair. In this report we have attempted to summarize the available literature on the levels of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, selenium and chromium in human scalp hair. (author). 135 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Mercury Exposure in Ireland: Results of the DEMOCOPHES Human Biomonitoring Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Cullen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monitoring of human exposure to mercury is important due to its adverse health effects. This study aimed to determine the extent of mercury exposure among mothers and their children in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated levels. It formed part of the Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES pilot biomonitoring study. Methods: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. Results: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children’s samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair and children (0.149 µg /g hair did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were significantly higher for those with higher education, and those who consumed more fish. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the benefit of human biomonitoring for assessing and comparing internal exposure levels, both on a population and an individual basis. It enables the potential harmful impact of mercury to be minimised in those highly exposed, and can therefore significantly contribute to population health.

  11. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  12. Ecological factors differentially affect mercury levels in two species of sympatric marine birds of the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipfner, J.M.; Hobson, K.A.; Elliott, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003 and 2004, we measured mercury concentrations and δ 15 N and δ 13 C values in the whole blood of adults of two species of seabirds, Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), during their prelaying, incubation, and provisioning periods. We also collected whole blood from the offspring of both seabirds. Among prey items, δ 15 N values were higher in fish than in crustaceans, while δ 13 C did not vary systematically between prey types. Mercury concentrations in prey showed little relationship with either stable isotope. In the zooplanktivorous Cassin's auklet, year, reproductive stage, and δ 15 N and δ 13 C stable isotope values explained only 14% of the variation in mercury concentrations in adult blood, and none of these variables had a statistically significant effect. In contrast, these same variables explained 41% of the variation in mercury levels in the more piscivorous rhinoceros auklet, and all but δ 15 N values had statistically significant effects. Mercury concentrations in adult rhinoceros auklets were higher in 2003 than in 2004; higher prior to laying than during the incubation or provisioning periods; and increased with δ 13 C values - but in just one of two years. In both species, mercury concentrations were substantially higher in adults than in nestlings. Our results accord with previous studies in showing that mercury concentrations can vary among years, species and age classes, while the marked variation with reproductive stage is noteworthy because it is so rarely considered. Our results may help to explain the disparate conclusions of previous studies: while many factors influence mercury concentrations in marine predators, they apparently do so in a manner that defies easy characterization. We believe that there is a need for more studies that consider a range of physiological, ecological and behavioral factors that might affect mercury burdens in marine predators. - Research

  13. Segmental hair mercury evaluation of a single family along the Upper Madeira Basin, Brazilian Amazon Avaliação de mercúrio em segmentos de cabelo dos indivíduos de uma única família residente na Bacia do Alto Madeira, Amazônia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Peixoto Boischio

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury pollution (MeHg up the aquatic food chains in the Amazonian ecosystems has been a major concern in environmental health. Riverside people (ribeirinhos along the Upper Madeira river are heavy fish eaters. Hair is the best biomarker for MeHg exposure. By assuming a constant hair growth rate, it is possible to evaluate a temporal profile of Hg exposure over the recent defined past. In this paper we present the segmental total hair Hg concentrations from a single family from which some of the 10 persons investigated had high hair Hg concentrations (peak of 339 ppm. We also presented the hair MeHg content from 4 out of the 10 family members investigated. There was a wide variation in total hair Hg concentrations (8 to 339 ppm among these individuals, who were mostly sharing their meals; there was also a wide variation in total Hg concentrations in the same individual over time (136 to 274 ppm. Hg speciation showed a mean and standard deviation in the MeHg content of 62% and 6%, respectively. The wide variation in total hair Hg concentration strongly indicated that it is possible to mitigate critical Hg exposure levels by conducting a fish advisory.A poluição por mercúrio orgânico (MeHg das cadeias alimentares aquáticas nos ecossistemas amazônicos constitui tema de relevância na saúde ambiental. O MeHg pode chegar às populações humanas mediante o consumo de peixe. Os ribeirinhos do Alto Madeira consomem grandes quantidades de peixe. O cabelo é o melhor biomarcador para exposição ao MeHg; é possível também assumir uma taxa constante de crescimento do cabelo, para verificar o comportamento das exposições no passado recente. Neste trabalho apresentamos as concentrações de Hg total (máxima de 339 ppm em segmentos de 3 cm de cabelo de dez pessoas de uma única família. Apresentamos também os percentuais de MeHg nas amostras de cabelo de quatro pessoas, dentre as dez em estudo. Nessa família, foi observada uma grande varia

  14. Factors associated with mercury levels in human placenta and the relationship to neonatal anthropometry in Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Phylicia; Fletcher, Horace; Voutchkov, Mitko

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mercury levels in human placenta and its relationship to neonatal anthropometry for a group of selected pregnant women in Kingston and Manchester in Jamaica and St. Joseph in Trinidad & Tobago. The participants were interviewed on their fish intake. Neonatal anthropometric data were also recorded. The placental mercury concentrations ranged from 0.64±0.5μg/kg to 1.4±0.6μg/kg. The most significant associated factor for prenatal mercury exposure was maternal fish intake. Those pregnant women who regularly ate shark recorded the highest placenta mercury concentrations. Their neonates also had slightly smaller mean head circumference and lower birth weight. The mean placental mercury concentrations in this study were found to be lower than the literature values. Therefore it was difficult to detect any significant changes in neonatal anthropometry. This type of study can contribute to the extent of mercury exposure in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Levels of heavy metals and essential minerals in hair samples of children with autism in Oman: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed A; Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Khaduri, Maha M; Gupta, Ishita; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Said, Mona F; Deth, Richard C

    2013-02-01

    Toxic levels of heavy metals and low levels of essential minerals have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study documents the levels of heavy metals and essential minerals in hair samples of children with ASD in Muscat, the urbanized capital of Oman, Muscat. The study included 27 children with ASD and 27 matched non-ASD controls. Parental interviews were held and dietary intake questionnaires completed in conjunction with the collection of hair samples. Analysis of heavy metals and essential minerals was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Chi-square analysis and non-parametric Fisher's exact tests were used to assess statistical significance. Children with ASD had significantly higher levels of all 11 analyzed heavy metals in their hair samples (P minerals sulfur, sodium, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and iron, but lower levels of calcium and copper in their hair samples. This study corroborates data from previous studies in different parts of the world indicating the presence of elevated levels of heavy metals and selective depletion of essential minerals in the hair of children with ASD.

  16. Levels of 210Po in blood, urine and hair of some Saudi smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arifi, M.N.; Alkarfy, K.M.; Al-Suwayeh, S.A.; Al-Dhuwaili, A.A.; Al-Hassan, M.I.; Aleissa, K.A.; Shabana, E.I.

    2006-01-01

    The activity concentration of 210 Po was investigated in blood, urine and hair samples of some non-smokers, cigarette-smokers (tobacco-smokers) and shisha smokers (jurak- and mehassel-smokers). The results indicated that 210 Po concentration was variable within each group of volunteers and fluctuated within certain range. The activity concentration in the blood of the non-smokers, the cigarette-smokers and the shisha-smokers was found to be ranged from 7-77, 17-86 and 22-92 mBq/l, respectively. These values were ranged from 1.5-10, 3.3-15.9 and 2.2-19.6 mBq/l in the urine samples of the same volunteers, respectively. The 210 Po activity concentration in their hair was found to be ranged from 1.9-4.8, 1.9-6.4 and 2-6.5 Bq/kg, respectively. The obtained results are discussed and some conclusions, based upon the average values, were drawn. (author)

  17. Cadmium, lead and mercury levels in feeding yeast produced in Czechoslovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, J; Turecki, T; Miholová, D; Mader, P; Száková, J; Brabec, M

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-six samples of the feeding yeast known as VITEX were analyzed for Cd, Pb and Hg content during 1987-1989. Cadmium content ranged from 0.30 to 5.12 mg/kg(-1), lead content from 0.21 to 3.01 mg/kg(-1) and mercury content from 0.008 to 0.187 mg/kg(-1). Our findings meet the current government standards (max. allowed Pb = 5.00, Cd = 0.50 and Hg = 0.100 mg/kg(-1)) only for lead, and with five exceptions, for mercury. With two exceptions, all cadmium levels found in the samples exceeded the limit. One raw material - the wood chips - was shown to be the main source of cadmium in the technological process. Relatively high Hg contents were measured in the wood chips (up to 0.155 mg/kg(-1)); the highest Hg level (1.105 mg/kg(-1)) however was found in a sample of KOH.

  18. Mercury (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in contact with) to mercury is by eating fish or shellfish that have high levels of mercury. You can also get sick from: Touching it Breathing it in Drinking contaminated water How can mercury ...

  19. Mercury Exposure in a Riverside Amazon Population, Brazil: A Study of the Ototoxicity of Methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshino, Ana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mercury poisoning causes hearing loss in humans and animals. Acute and long-term exposures produce irreversible peripheral and central auditory system damage, and mercury in its various forms of presentation in the environment is ototoxic. Objective We investigated the otoacoustic emissions responses in a riverside population exposed to environmental mercury by analyzing the inhibitory effect of the medial olivocochlear system (MOCS on transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE. Methods The purpose of the research was to evaluate the entire community independently of variables of sex and age. All of the participants were born and lived in a riverside community. After otolaryngologic evaluation, participants were received tympanometry, evaluation of contralateral acoustic reflexes, pure tone audiometry, and recording of TEOAEs with nonlinear click stimulation. Hair samples were collect to measure mercury levels. Results There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory effect of the MOCS, age, and the level of mercury in the hair. Conclusions The pathophysiological effects of chronic exposure may be subtle and nonspecific and can have a long period of latency; therefore, it will be important to monitor the effects of mercury exposure in the central auditory system of the Amazon population over time. Longitudinal studies should be performed to determine whether the inhibitory effect of the MOCS on otoacoustic emissions can be an evaluation method and diagnostic tool in populations exposed to mercury.

  20. Mercury levels in herring gulls and fish: 42 years of spatio-temporal trends in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blukacz-Richards, E Agnes; Visha, Ariola; Graham, Matthew L; McGoldrick, Daryl L; de Solla, Shane R; Moore, David J; Arhonditsis, George B

    2017-04-01

    Total mercury levels in aquatic birds and fish communities have been monitored across the Canadian Great Lakes by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) for the past 42 years (1974-2015). These data (22 sites) were used to examine spatio-temporal variability of mercury levels in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), walleye (Sander vitreus), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). Trends were quantified with dynamic linear models, which provided time-variant rates of change of mercury concentrations. Lipid content (in both fish and eggs) and length in fish were used as covariates in all models. For the first three decades, mercury levels in gull eggs and fish declined at all stations. In the 2000s, trends for herring gull eggs reversed at two sites in Lake Erie and two sites in Lake Ontario. Similar trend reversals in the 2000s were observed for lake trout in Lake Superior and at a single station in Lake Ontario. Mercury levels in lake trout continued to slowly decline at all of the remaining stations, except for Lake Huron, where the levels remained stable. A post-hoc Bayesian regression analysis suggests strong trophic interactions between herring gulls and rainbow smelt in Lake Superior and Lake Ontario, but also pinpoints the likelihood of a trophic decoupling in Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Continued monitoring of mercury levels in herring gulls and fish is required to consolidate these trophic shifts and further evaluate their broader implications. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of dental amalgam mercury in human body by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khddour, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The levels of mercury in blood and hair samples of different groups of population belong to the same geographical areas have been investigated using neutron activation technique. The level of mercury in the blood samples ranged between 1.021 - 81.64 mg/l, while that in the hair samples ranged between 0.17 - 3.95 mg/l. T-test analysis showed higher levels of Hg in blood and hair of group having amalgam restorations comparing to other groups. This study also showed high correlation between the concentration of mercury in the blood of treated and untreated mothers and their newborn babies, where the correlation factors were 0.66 and 0.49 respectively. Correlation between the levels of Hg and Se in the blood was week. It can undoubtedly be concluded that amalgam restorations will contribute in increasing the level of mercury in blood, but although these levels exceed the maximum permissible limit in some samples, there were no any clinical side effects noticed. these levels also remained below the poisoning level.(Author)

  2. [Distribution of Mercury in Plants at Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Wang, Yong-min; Li, Xian-yuan; Tang, Zhen-ya; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; WANG, Ding-yong

    2015-11-01

    The mercury (Hg) distribution and storage in plants at water-level-fluctuating zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir were investigated by analyzing the total mercury(THg) and methylmercury ( MeHg) levels in different parts of plants collected from three typical sites including Shibaozhai, Zhenxi and Hanfeng Lake in WLFZ. The results indicated that THg and MeHg concentrations in plants ranged from (1.62 ± 0.57) to (49.42 ± 3.93) μg x kg(-1) and from (15.27 ± 7.09) to (1 974.67 ± 946.10) ng x kg(-1), respectively. In addition, THg levels in different plant parts followed the trend: root > leaf > stem, and similar trend for MeHg was observed with the highest level in root. An obvious spatial distribution was also found with the THg and MeHg levels in plants in Hanfeng higher than those in the same plants in the other two sampling sites (Shibaozhai and Zhenxi), and there was a difference of THg and MeHg storage in plants in various attitudes. The corresponding THg and MeHg storages were 145.3, 166.4, 124.3 and 88.2 mg x hm(-2), and 1.9, 2.7, 3.6 and 3.2 mg x hm(-2) in 145-150, 150-160, 160-170 and 170-175 m attitudes. The accumulation ability of dominant plants in WLFZ for THg (bioaccumulation factor, BAF 1).

  3. Sodium and chlorine levels in hair and nails of healthy and cystic fibrosis children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin, M.T.; Jimenez-Reyes, M.; Pen-Aguilar, M.T.; Sanchez-Aguirre, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sodium and chlorine values are reported in μ/g, as determined by neutron activation analysis in washed hair and nails from healthy and cystic fibrosis children. The values thus determined in cystic fibrosis tended to be higher than those in controls, however statistical differences were not significant (p>0.01). Additional experiments were carried out for comparison between washed and unwashed samples of the cystic fibrosis and control group and only the differences between washed and unwashed cystic fibrosis nails were significant (p<0.01) in both sodium and chlorine values. Analysis of a standard reference milk sample, A-11 from IAEA, for the elements mentioned above gave a good agreement with the certified values. (author) 24 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Using native epiphytic ferns to estimate the atmospheric mercury levels in a small-scale gold mining area of West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yuriko; Rahajoe, Joeni S; Hidayati, Nuril; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Mercury pollution is caused by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) operations along the Cikaniki River (West Java, Indonesia). The atmosphere is one of the primary media through which mercury can disperse. In this study, atmospheric mercury levels are estimated using the native epiphytic fern Asplenium nidus complex (A. nidus) as a biomonitor; these estimates shed light on the atmospheric dispersion of mercury released during mining. Samples were collected from 8 sites along the Cikaniki Basin during September-November, 2008 and September-November, 2009. The A. nidus fronds that were attached to tree trunks 1-3m above the ground were collected and measured for total mercury concentration using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) after acid-digestion. The atmospheric mercury was collected using porous gold collectors, and the concentrations were determined using double-amalgam CVAAS. The highest atmospheric mercury concentration, 1.8 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngm(-3), was observed at the mining hot spot, and the lowest concentration of mercury, 5.6 ± 2.0 ngm(-3), was observed at the remote site from the Cikaniki River in 2009. The mercury concentrations in A. nidus were higher at the mining village (5.4 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngg(-1)) than at the remote site (70 ± 30 ngg(-1)). The distribution of mercury in A. nidus was similar to that in the atmosphere; a significant correlation was observed between the mercury concentrations in the air and in A. nidus (r=0.895, P<0.001, n=14). The mercury levels in the atmosphere can be estimated from the mercury concentration in A. nidus using a regression equation: log (Hg(A.nidu)/ngg(-1))=0.740 log (Hg(Air)/ngm (-3)) - 1.324. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on the determination of mercury in human beard shavings by neutron-activation and γ-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, J.G.; Saied, S.O.

    1986-01-01

    The determination of mercury by instrumental neutron-activation analysis has been studied with particular emphasis on hair as the matrix. The well known analytical standards orchard leaves and Bowen's kale have been compared and the value 0.164 +-0.013 p.p.m. found for the level of mercury in Bowen's kale. Hence, the likely accuracy is +- 8% when matrices similar to Bowen's kale are analysed for mercury by the method described. All factors affecting the precision are discussed. Powdered hair and the standards were shown to be easily homogenisable; however, beard shavings were found to be generally inhomogeneous with respect to mercury distribution, especially when the mercury content was much in excess of ca. 2 p.p.m. owing to exposure of subjects to mercury in the professional working environment. The beard shavings of non-occupationally exposed human beings contained 0.1 to 1.5 p.p.m. of mercury. Difficulties with the establishment of a mercury mass standard for use with the method are discussed. (author)

  6. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Lorrie D; Castellini, J Margaret; Correa, Lucero; Fadely, Brian S; O'Hara, Todd M

    2013-06-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mercury emissions inventory for 2014 in Costa Rica using the PNUMA Toolkit to a N2 level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Murillo-Hernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Minamata Convention was signed in October 2013 to protect human health and the environment from releases and anthropogenic emissions of elemental mercury and compounds containing this element.  When Costa Rica ratified this instrument, the country committed to develop and keep updated an inventory of emissions from the relevant sources of mercury. In the present work, the tool proposed by UNEP was used to generate the first mercury inventory at the N2 level of the country, which considers releases of mercury in air, water, soil, product and waste matrices. Taking 2014 as the reference year, the estimated mercury emission for Costa Rica was recorded at 5 052 kg, with an uncertainty interval between 2 675 kg and 10 525 kg; and the most important sectors in terms of the total emission were the extraction of gold with amalgamation (42 %, informal burning of waste (15 % and use of dental amalgams (10 %. The most impacted matrices were air (29 %, water (28 % and soil (21 %, respectively.

  8. Hair casts

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta S Parmar; Kirti S Parmar; Bela J Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  9. Levels of total mercury in marine organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2009-08-01

    The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 +/- 0.24 mg/kg; mean +/- SE), European hake (0.59 +/- 0.14 mg/kg), red mullet (0.48 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), blue whiting (0.38 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 +/- 0.08 mg/kg) and European flying squid (0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/kg). A significant difference (p fish and fishery products can exceed the maximum levels and stress the need of more information for consumers in particular for people that eat large amount of fish.

  10. Trophic calculations reveal the mechanism of population-level variation in mercury concentrations between marine ecosystems: Case studies of two polar seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasso, Rebecka L.; Polito, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Ecosystem-specific baseline and consumer δ 15 N paired for population-specific trophic level. • Source of population-level variation in mercury exposure identified in two seabirds. • High mercury and trophic position suggests trophic driver of population-level variation. • Trophic similarities, differing mercury reveals geographic differences in bioavailability. -- Abstract: The incorporation of quantitative trophic level analysis in ecotoxicological studies provides explanatory power to identify the factors, trophic or environmental, driving population-level variation in mercury exposure at large geographic scales. In the Antarctic marine ecosystem, mercury concentrations and stable isotope values in Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) were compared between the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea. Correcting tissue δ 15 N values for baseline δ 15 N values revealed population-level differences in trophic position which contributes to differences in mercury. Data from Thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) were synthesized from published values from Baffin Bay and Svalbard to demonstrate the utility of baseline δ 15 N values in identifying differences in environmental mercury exposure independent of diet. Here, we demonstrate the importance of calculating population-specific trophic level data to uncover the source of variation in mercury concentrations between geographically distinct populations of marine predators

  11. Environmental monitoring at the La Grande Complex : evolution of fish mercury levels : summary report 1978-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetagne, R. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Direction Barrages et Environnement; Therrien, J.; Lalumiere, R. [Genivar SEC, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2003-12-15

    In Northern Quebec, mercury has accumulated since the last ice age as a result of atmospheric fallout from natural sources such as the weathering of rocks in the earth's crust, forest fires and volcanoes, as well as from anthropogenic sources such as coal combustion and waste incineration. Mercury of atmospheric origin exists mainly in inorganic form, not readily assimilated by living organisms. In aquatic environments, it is converted to methylmercury by the bacteria that break down organic matter containing mercury which is readily assimilated by living organisms, travels through the food chain and accumulates in fish. The presence of mercury in the environment poses a potential concern as a result of the toxicity of methylmercury for humans, and especially Inuit communities through fish consumption. At the La Grande complex, mercury levels in the flesh of fish have been monitored since 1978, in both natural and modified environments. The main goals of the monitoring are to determine the temporal evolution of the increase in fish mercury levels in environments modified by the development of the La Grande hydroelectric complex, inform fish consumers and allow a comparison of the impacts actually measured with the effects predicted in the impact assessment studies. This report summarized results obtained between 1978 and 2000 at the La Grande complex. It included information presented in previous summary reports or articles as well as data from special studies and other hydroelectric projects. Specifically, the report provided a description of the study area and the hydroelectric developments; the rationale for the monitoring and the objectives; the prediction of the development's impacts; the methods used for the study; and, the results obtained in natural and modified environments. The main lessons learned and recommendations were also presented. 153 refs., 20 tabs., 45 figs., 1 appendix.

  12. Environmental monitoring at the La Grande Complex : evolution of fish mercury levels : summary report 1978-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schetagne, R.

    2003-12-01

    In Northern Quebec, mercury has accumulated since the last ice age as a result of atmospheric fallout from natural sources such as the weathering of rocks in the earth's crust, forest fires and volcanoes, as well as from anthropogenic sources such as coal combustion and waste incineration. Mercury of atmospheric origin exists mainly in inorganic form, not readily assimilated by living organisms. In aquatic environments, it is converted to methylmercury by the bacteria that break down organic matter containing mercury which is readily assimilated by living organisms, travels through the food chain and accumulates in fish. The presence of mercury in the environment poses a potential concern as a result of the toxicity of methylmercury for humans, and especially Inuit communities through fish consumption. At the La Grande complex, mercury levels in the flesh of fish have been monitored since 1978, in both natural and modified environments. The main goals of the monitoring are to determine the temporal evolution of the increase in fish mercury levels in environments modified by the development of the La Grande hydroelectric complex, inform fish consumers and allow a comparison of the impacts actually measured with the effects predicted in the impact assessment studies. This report summarized results obtained between 1978 and 2000 at the La Grande complex. It included information presented in previous summary reports or articles as well as data from special studies and other hydroelectric projects. Specifically, the report provided a description of the study area and the hydroelectric developments; the rationale for the monitoring and the objectives; the prediction of the development's impacts; the methods used for the study; and, the results obtained in natural and modified environments. The main lessons learned and recommendations were also presented. 153 refs., 20 tabs., 45 figs., 1 appendix.

  13. High levels of reactive gaseous mercury observed at a high elevation research laboratory in the Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Faïn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical cycling and spatiotemporal distribution of mercury in the troposphere is poorly understood. We measured gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and particulate mercury (HgP along with carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3, aerosols, and meteorological variables at Storm Peak Laboratory at an elevation of 3200 m a.s.l., in Colorado, from 28 April to 1 July 2008. The mean mercury concentrations were 1.6 ng m−3 (GEM, 20 pg m−3 (RGM and 9 pg m−3 (HgP. We observed eight events of strongly enhanced atmospheric RGM levels with maximum concentrations up to 137 pg m−3. RGM enhancement events lasted for long time periods of 2 to 6 days showing both enriched level during daytime and nighttime when other tracers (e.g., aerosols showed different representations of boundary layer air and free tropospheric air. During seven of these events, RGM was inversely correlated to GEM (RGM/GEM regression slope ~−0.1, but did not exhibit correlations with ozone, carbon monoxide, or aerosol concentrations. Relative humidity was the dominant factor affecting RGM levels with high RGM levels always present whenever relative humidity was below 40 to 50%. We conclude that RGM enhancements observed at Storm Peak Laboratory were not induced by pollution events and were related to oxidation of tropospheric GEM. High RGM levels were not limited to upper tropospheric or stratospherically influenced air masses, indicating that entrainment processes and deep vertical mixing of free tropospheric air enriched in RGM may lead to high RGM levels throughout the troposphere and into the boundary layer over the Western United States. Based on backtrajectory analysis and a lack of mass balance between RGM and GEM, atmospheric production of RGM may also have occurred in some distance allowing for scavenging and/or deposition of RGM prior to reaching the laboratory. Our

  14. High levels of reactive gaseous mercury observed at a high elevation research laboratory in the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faïn, X.; Obrist, D.; Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I.; Rahn, T.

    2009-10-01

    The chemical cycling and spatiotemporal distribution of mercury in the troposphere is poorly understood. We measured gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (HgP) along with carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), aerosols, and meteorological variables at Storm Peak Laboratory at an elevation of 3200 m a.s.l., in Colorado, from 28 April to 1 July 2008. The mean mercury concentrations were 1.6 ng m-3 (GEM), 20 pg m-3 (RGM) and 9 pg m-3 (HgP). We observed eight events of strongly enhanced atmospheric RGM levels with maximum concentrations up to 137 pg m-3. RGM enhancement events lasted for long time periods of 2 to 6 days showing both enriched level during daytime and nighttime when other tracers (e.g., aerosols) showed different representations of boundary layer air and free tropospheric air. During seven of these events, RGM was inversely correlated to GEM (RGM/GEM regression slope ~-0.1), but did not exhibit correlations with ozone, carbon monoxide, or aerosol concentrations. Relative humidity was the dominant factor affecting RGM levels with high RGM levels always present whenever relative humidity was below 40 to 50%. We conclude that RGM enhancements observed at Storm Peak Laboratory were not induced by pollution events and were related to oxidation of tropospheric GEM. High RGM levels were not limited to upper tropospheric or stratospherically influenced air masses, indicating that entrainment processes and deep vertical mixing of free tropospheric air enriched in RGM may lead to high RGM levels throughout the troposphere and into the boundary layer over the Western United States. Based on backtrajectory analysis and a lack of mass balance between RGM and GEM, atmospheric production of RGM may also have occurred in some distance allowing for scavenging and/or deposition of RGM prior to reaching the laboratory. Our observations provide evidence that the tropospheric pool of mercury is frequently enriched in divalent

  15. Investigation of Increased Mercury Levels in the Fisheries of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC), Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne-Kelly, D.; Cornish, J.; Hart, A.; Southworth, G.; Simms, L.

    2006-01-01

    The DOE Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is supporting Oak Ridge's remediation efforts by performing this study. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has performed a series of literature reviews and bench-scale testing to further evaluate the mercury problem in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at Oak Ridge. The primary problem is that total mercury (HgT) levels in LEFPC water decrease, while HgT levels in sunfish muscle tissue increase, with distance away from the National Security Complex (NSC), despite extensive source control efforts at the facility. Furthermore, dissolved methylmercury (d-MeHg) levels increase downstream from the NSC, especially during warm weather and/or high flow events. MSE performed four test series that focused on conversion of dissolved and colloidal forms of elemental mercury (Hg deg.A) to methyl mercury (MeHg) by algal-bacterial bio-films (periphyton) present in the stream-bed of LEFPC; MeHg production by these bio-films under anoxic versus oxic conditions was the critical measurement taken. The bench-scale testing for Phase I was completed November 2005. The final reporting and the planning for Phase II testing are in progress. (authors)

  16. Effect of the dietary level of cull pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris on ruminal fermentation, kinetics, and digestibility of hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Castillo Rangel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the effect of three levels of cull pinto beans (CPB; Phaseolus vulgaris on ruminal fermentation, kinetics, and nutrient digestibility in hair lambs. Six cannulated lambs averaging 56.6±3.8 kg were used and were randomly assigned to one of three treatments. Treatments were: 0.0 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (control; 0.25 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (CB25; and 0.40 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (CB40. Dry matter intake, ruminal pH, NH3, and volatile fatty acid (VFA concentration, methane production, Kp (passage rate, MRT (mean retention time, and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber were evaluated. Data were analyzed in a Latin square design, repeated in line, by MIXED procedure of SAS. Estimates used for Kp and MRT were obtained by a non-linear regression model (PROC NLIN. Dry matter intake was reduced by supplementation of CPB. No differences were found in ruminal pH or ruminal NH3. During the trial, differences were found for ruminal VFA concentration (mM, which were greater for the CB25 group. The propionate:acetate ratio was greater for the CB40 treatment. Methane production (mM/m differed among treatments, but it was the greatest for the CB40 group. Passage rate (kg kg−1/h and MRT (h were similar among treatments and the digestibility (kg kg−1 of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber was not different among treatments. The inclusion of 0.25 kg kg−1 of CPB in the diet of hair lambs allows for appropriate nutrient digestion without affecting Kp and MRT and increases the molar proportion of the ability of VFA to maintain acetate:propionate ratio without increasing methane production.

  17. The influence of physical activity on hair toxic and essential trace element content in male and female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Irina P; Skalny, Andrey A; Tinkov, Alexey A; Berezkina, Elena S; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2015-02-01

    The primary aim of the current study is to estimate the effect of different physical activity levels on hair trace element content in male and female students. A total of 113 students (59 women and 54 men) of P. G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University (Yaroslavl, Russia) took part in the current investigation. According to the level of the physical activity, all students were divided into three groups: high, medium, and low physical activity. Essential and toxic metal content (μg/g) in hair samples was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using NexION 300D + NWR213 (Perkin-Elmer, USA). The obtained data show that hair iodine, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and tin levels are not related to physical activity in male and female students. At the same time, increased physical activity is associated with decreased hair copper, vanadium, bismuth, and mercury content in comparison to the low physical activity groups. Students with higher physical activity are also characterized by significantly higher hair cobalt, iron, manganese, selenium, cadmium, lithium, and lead concentrations. Finally, statistical analysis has revealed maximal gender differences in hair trace element content in the high physical activity groups, whereas in the low activity groups, the hair metal concentrations were nearly similar in females and males.

  18. Trace elements determination in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, Jose

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Cd and Al, in human hair sampled from 23 young men during 24 months were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additional determination of mercury and volatile elements were made by using accessory MHS-10. Statistical treatment of data is presented for each person and element. The pre-treatment of hair carried out with an organic solvent to remove the superficial pollutants is explained. (The author)

  19. Hair removal in hirsute women with normal testosterone levels: a randomized controlled trial of long-pulsed diode laser vs. intense pulsed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, C S; Jensen, Pernille Nymann; Pedersen, A T

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, and androgen disturbances may aggravate the condition. Limited evidence exists regarding efficacy of hair removal in this specific population and no data are available for patients with verified normal testosterone levels....

  20. A comprehensive assessment of mercury exposure in penguin populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere: Using trophic calculations to identify sources of population-level variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J; Raya Rey, Andrea; Emslie, Steven D

    2015-08-15

    The wide geographic distribution of penguins (Order Sphenisciformes) throughout the Southern Hemisphere provided a unique opportunity to use a single taxonomic group as biomonitors of mercury among geographically distinct marine ecosystems. Mercury concentrations were compared among ten species of penguins representing 26 geographically distinct breeding populations. Mercury concentrations were relatively low (⩽2.00ppm) in feathers from 18/26 populations considered. Population-level differences in trophic level explained variation in mercury concentrations among Little, King, and Gentoo penguin populations. However, Southern Rockhopper and Magellanic penguins breeding on Staten Island, Tierra del Fuego, had the highest mercury concentrations relative to their conspecifics despite foraging at a lower trophic level. The concurrent use of stable isotope and mercury data allowed us to document penguin populations at the greatest risk of exposure to harmful concentrations of mercury as a result of foraging at a high trophic level or in geographic 'hot spots' of mercury availability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of genetic susceptibility to mercury contamination evaluated through molecular biomarkers in at-risk Amazon Amerindian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Nazare Klautau-Guimarães

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Individual differences in susceptibility to methylmercury (MeHg contamination and its relationship with polymorphisms of the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST. In Brazil, some Amerindian tribes from the Amazon region have an increased level of mercury in their hair. Samples of hair and blood were taken from inhabitants of two villages in the Kayabi and Munduruku Amerindian communities to investigate mercury levels in association with genetic polymorphism of GSTs. Other molecular biological markers were also studied, such as hemoglobin, haptoglobin and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH. Higher levels of mercury contamination were found in the Kayabi villagers, who had a null genotype (GSTM1 0/0, also denominated GSTM1 null frequency of 26%, than in the Munduruku villagers, for which the null genotype frequency was 0%. Individuals with the GSTM1 null phenotype had higher concentrations of mercury in their hair than individuals with GSTM1+/+ phenotypes (F = 21.51, p < 0.0001. No association with other markers studied was observed. This study suggests that GSTM1 may be involved in the biotransformation of mercury in humans.

  2. Lead, cadmium and mercury levels in pregnancy: the need for international consensus on levels of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C M; Golding, J; Emond, A M

    2014-02-01

    For heavy metals that have any degree of transfer though the placenta to the fetus, it is unlikely that there are safe limits for maternal blood levels. The only means of reducing fetal exposure is to minimise maternal exposure. There are few recommendations for levels of concern. With the exception of US recommendations for maternal Pb levels, but there are no international levels of concern or cut-off levels specifically for pregnancy for heavy metals, so that comparisons can generally only be made with national reference values relating to similar physiological statuses or age groups. These include recommendations for Cd levels by Germany (reference value for non-smoking adults aged 18-69 years, 1 µg/l) and for Hg by Germany (reference value for adults age 18-60 years with fish intake concern and recommended cut-off values. We also compare the levels with those found in other groups of pregnant women worldwide to strengthen the database for the development of levels of concern in pregnancy. The need for clarity of terminology in describing levels of concern is discussed. There is a pressing need for international consensus on levels of concern for all age groups and physiological statuses, particularly for pregnancy.

  3. Spatial, Temporal, and Dietary Variables Associated with Elevated Mercury Exposure in Peruvian Riverine Communities Upstream and Downstream of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Wyatt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the relationship between environmental and human mercury exposure, how exposure has changed over time, and risk factors beyond fish consumption are not well understood in ASGM settings. In Peruvian riverine communities (n = 12, where ASGM has increased 4–6 fold over the past decade, we provide a large-scale assessment of the connection between environmental and human mercury exposure by comparing total mercury contents in human hair (2-cm segment, n = 231 to locally caught fish tissue, analyzing temporal exposure in women of child bearing age (WCBA, 15–49 years, n = 46 over one year, and evaluating general mercury exposure risks including fish and non-fish dietary items through household surveys and linear mixed models. Calculations of an individual’s oral reference dose using the total mercury content in locally-sourced fish underestimated the observed mercury exposure for individuals in many communities. This discrepancy was particularly evident in communities upstream of ASGM, where mercury levels in river fish, water, and sediment measurements from a previous study were low, yet hair mercury was chronically elevated. Hair from 86% of individuals and 77% of children exceeded a USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provisional level (1.2 µg/g that could result in child developmental impairment. Chronically elevated mercury exposure was observed in the temporal analysis in WCBA. If the most recent exposure exceeded the USEPA level, there was a 97% probability that the individual exceeded that level 8–10 months of the previous year. Frequent household consumption of some fruits (tomato, banana and grains (quinoa was significantly associated with 29–75% reductions in hair mercury

  4. Spatial, Temporal, and Dietary Variables Associated with Elevated Mercury Exposure in Peruvian Riverine Communities Upstream and Downstream of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Lauren; Ortiz, Ernesto J; Feingold, Beth; Berky, Axel; Diringer, Sarah; Morales, Ana Maria; Jurado, Elvis Rojas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Pan, William

    2017-12-15

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the relationship between environmental and human mercury exposure, how exposure has changed over time, and risk factors beyond fish consumption are not well understood in ASGM settings. In Peruvian riverine communities ( n = 12), where ASGM has increased 4-6 fold over the past decade, we provide a large-scale assessment of the connection between environmental and human mercury exposure by comparing total mercury contents in human hair (2-cm segment, n = 231) to locally caught fish tissue, analyzing temporal exposure in women of child bearing age (WCBA, 15-49 years, n = 46) over one year, and evaluating general mercury exposure risks including fish and non-fish dietary items through household surveys and linear mixed models. Calculations of an individual's oral reference dose using the total mercury content in locally-sourced fish underestimated the observed mercury exposure for individuals in many communities. This discrepancy was particularly evident in communities upstream of ASGM, where mercury levels in river fish, water, and sediment measurements from a previous study were low, yet hair mercury was chronically elevated. Hair from 86% of individuals and 77% of children exceeded a USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) provisional level (1.2 µg/g) that could result in child developmental impairment. Chronically elevated mercury exposure was observed in the temporal analysis in WCBA. If the most recent exposure exceeded the USEPA level, there was a 97% probability that the individual exceeded that level 8-10 months of the previous year. Frequent household consumption of some fruits (tomato, banana) and grains (quinoa) was significantly associated with 29-75% reductions in hair mercury. Collectively, these

  5. Determination of mercury in ppb level by activation analysis and chemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requejo, C.S.

    1983-02-01

    A method for determining mercury in steel samples was developed. Activation analysis using thermal neutrons, followed by radiochemical separations to eliminate 75 Se interferences, were applied. Sixty hours after the end of the irradiation, the samples were processed and distillation of mercury and selenium bromides were carried out. Selenium was separated as an element and mercury sulfide was precipitaded. The chemical separation procedure was tested by using a tracer technique; the recovery yield was 99,2% + - 2,7%. (C.L.B.) [pt

  6. Mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey as a function of species, size, and season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There are few data on risks to biota and humans from mercury levels in saltwater fish. This paper examines mercury and selenium levels in muscle of 19 species of fish caught by recreational fisherfolk off the New Jersey shore, as a function of species of fish, size, and season, and risk of mercury to consumers. Average mercury levels ranged from 0.01 ppm (wet weight) (Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus) to 1.83 ppm (Mako Shark Isurus oxyrinchus). There were four categories of mercury levels: very high (only Mako), high (averaging 0.3–0.5 ppm, 3 species), medium (0.14–0.20 ppm, 10 species), and low (below 0.13 ppm, 5 species). Average selenium levels for the fish species ranged from 0.18 ppm to 0.58 ppm, and had lower variability than mercury (coefficient of variation=38.3 vs 69.1%), consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential element. The correlation between mercury and selenium was significantly positive for five and negative for two species. Mercury levels showed significant positive correlations with fish size for ten species. Size was the best predictor of mercury levels. Selenium showed no consistent relationship to fish length. Over half of the fish species had some individual fish with mercury levels over 0.3 ppm, and a third had fish with levels over 0.5 ppm, levels that pose a human health risk for high end consumers. Conversely several fish species had no individuals above 0.5 ppm, and few above 0.3 ppm, suggesting that people who eat fish frequently, can reduce their risk from mercury by selecting which species (and which size) to consume. Overall, with the exception of shark, Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus), Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis), the species sampled are generally medium to low in mercury concentration. Selenium:mercury molar ratios were generally above 1:1, except for the Mako shark. PMID:21292311

  7. ARSENIC, CADMIUM, CHROMIUM, LEAD, MERCURY, AND SELENIUM LEVELS IN BLOOD OF FOUR SPECIES OF TURTLES FROM THE AMAZON IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Po...

  8. NAA for study of organohalogen levels in placenta, umbilical cord and hair of mothers with disabled newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Chai, Z.F.; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Wang, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) in placenta, umbilical cord and hair of mothers delivering disabled or normal newborns as well as the compositions of EPOCl in three analyzed matrices were determined by a combination of NAA, gas chromatography and chemical separation. The results indicated that both EOX and EPOX decreased in the order: hair > umbilical cord > placenta. Organochlorines were the major fraction of organohalogens. More than 77% of EPOCl were unidentified. High organohalogens exposure may induce adverse health effects, and hair, as a biomonitor for organohalogens assessment, is more recommendable. (author)

  9. Relationship between RBC Mercury Levels and Serum n3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrations among Japanese Men and Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, M.; Ando, T.; Wakamiya, J.; Koriyama, Ch.; Akiba, S.; Kitano, T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate potential health risk and benefits of fish consumption, the association of fish consumption with total mercury levels in red blood cells (RBCs) and serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations was examined. Subjects and Methods. Study subjects were 269 Japanese (98 men and 171 women) living in a remote island of Kagoshima, and their blood was drawn in 1994. Results. Total mercury levels were related to weekly fish consumption among women (P=0.035) but not among men (P=0.643). However, serum EPA levels were not related to fish consumption in both women and men. In contrast, EPA levels in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of the sera were significantly related to fish consumption (P values for men and women were 0.014 and 0.073, resp.). Interestingly, mercury levels were related to serum EPA levels and EPA in the HDL fraction of the sera (P=0.001) among women (P=0.005) but not among men. Sex differences in fish species consumed may be an explanation for the observed sex difference. Conclusion. Those findings suggest that the health benefit of fish consumption can be maximized by the careful selection of fish species consumed

  10. Diffuse alopecia areata is associated with intense inflammatory infiltration and CD8+ T cells in hair loss regions and an increase in serum IgE level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanism leading to an abrupt hair loss in diffuse alopecia areata (AA remains unclear. Aims: To explore the characteristics of diffuse AA and possible factors involved in its pathogenesis. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of 17 diffuse AA patients and 37 patchy AA patients were analyzed retrospectively. Serum IgE level was evaluated in all diffuse and patchy AA patients, as well as 27 healthy subjects without hair loss to serve as normal control. Univariate analysis was performed using Fisher′s exact test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Associations between inflammatory cell infiltration and laboratory values were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation test. Results: The mean age of patients with diffuse AA was 27 years with a mean disease duration of 1.77 months. All of them presented in spring or summer with an acute onset of diffuse hair loss preceded by higher incidence of scalp pruritus. Although no statistically significant difference on the incidence of atopic disease among three groups has been found, serum IgE level in diffuse AA was higher than that in healthy controls, but was comparable to that in patchy AA group. Histopathology of lesional scalp biopsies showed more intense infiltration comprising of mononuclear cells, eosinophils, CD3 + , and CD8 + T cells around hair bulbs in diffuse AA group than in patchy AA group. Moreover, IgE level in diffuse AA patients positively correlated with intensity of infiltration by mononuclear cells, eosinophils, and CD8 + T cells. Conclusions: Hypersensitivity may be involved in pathogenesis of diffuse AA. The acute onset of diffuse AA may be related to intense local inflammatory infiltration of hair loss region and an increase in serum IgE level.

  11. Mercury exposure in a high fish eating Bolivian Amazonian population with intense small-scale gold-mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Flavia Laura; Cournil, Amandine; Gardon, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Methylmercury exposure in Amazonian communities through fish consumption has been widely documented in Brazil. There is still a lack of data in other Amazonian countries, which is why we conducted this study in the Bolivian Amazon basin. Simple random sampling was used from a small village located in the lower Beni River, where there is intense gold mining and high fish consumption. All participants were interviewed and hair samples were taken to measure total mercury concentrations. The hair mercury geometric mean in the general population was 3.02 microg/g (CI: 2.69-3.37; range: 0.42-15.65). Age and gender were not directly associated with mercury levels. Fish consumption showed a positive relation and so did occupation, especially small-scale gold mining. Hair mercury levels were lower than those found in Brazilian studies, but still higher than in non-exposed populations. It is necessary to assess mercury exposure in the Amazonian regions where data is still lacking, using a standardized indicator.

  12. The processing of simulated high-level radioactive waste sludges containing nitrites and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Hutson, N.D.; Ritter, J.A.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction of formic acid with simulated alkaline sludge containing mercury and nitrite was studied in an engineering-scale facility. Quantification of offgas production was performed, with the major offgases being CO 2 and NO x . A small amount of CO was also found. The NO x was scrubbed in the offgas condenser and formed very acidic solutions of nitrous and nitric acids. These acids dissolved mercury that was stripped from the sludge. However, the overall efficiency of mercury stripping was greater than expected, and the final mercury concentration in the sludge was lower than expected. The NO x in the offgas also caused large temperature rises in the offgas system due to the exothermic reaction of NO with O 2 . This temperature rise had a detrimental effect on the performance of the Formic Acid Vent Condenser, such that redesign is being contemplated. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Comparison of the effects of 665 nm low level diode Laser Hat versus and a combination of 665 nm and 808nm low level diode Laser Scanner of hair growth in androgenic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barikbin, Behrooz; Khodamrdi, Zeinab; Kholoosi, Leila; Akhgri, Mohammad Reza; Haj Abbasi, Majid; Hajabbasi, Mojgan; Razzaghi, Zahra; Akbarpour, Samaneh

    2017-05-17

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a combined set of low level diode laser scanner (665 nm and 808nm) on hair growth, and assessment of safety and effectiveness of a new laser scanner on hair growth treatment procedure in androgenic alopecia. 90 patients (18 to 70 years) with androgenic alopecia were randomized into three groups. The first group (n=30) received 655 nm red light using laser hat, the second group (n=30) received 655 nm red laser plus 808 nm infrared laser using a laser scanner of hair growth device (with the patent number: 77733) and the third group (n=30) received no laser as the control group. Patients in laser scanner group had better results and showed a higher increase in terminal hair density compared with laser hat group (mean of 9.61 versus 9.16 per cm 2 ). We found significant decrease in terminal hair density from baseline in control group (mean -1.8 per cm 2 , plaser scanner of the hair growth group compared with laser hat and the control group. The study showed that treatment with new laser devise had a promising result without any observable adverse effects.

  14. Trace metal pollutants in Filipino human head hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Beltran, I.L.; Cruz, C.C. (Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, Diliman, Quezon City)

    Hair samples from residents of different geographical locations in the Philippines were analyzed for lead and cadmium by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry and for mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Baseline values of these elements in hair were obtained for the different regions and for the total population sampled.

  15. Trace metal pollutants in Filipino human head hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Beltran, I.L.; Cruz, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    Hair samples from residents of different geographical locations in the Philippines were analyzed for lead and cadmium by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry and for mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Baseline values of these elements in hair were obtained for the different regions and for the total population sampled. (author)

  16. Does water-level fluctuation affect mercury methylation in wetland soils?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branfireun, B.A.; Mitchell, C.P.J.; Iraci, J.M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Krabbenhoft, D.P. [United States Geological Survey, Middleton, WI (United States); Fowle, D.A. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geology; Neudahl, L. [Minnesota Power, Duluth, MN (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish vary considerably in freshwater lakes and reservoirs. However, the variations are not generally consistent with physical factors such as basin characteristics, wetland cover or lake chemistry. Pronounced differences in Hg concentrations in fish have been noted in the reservoirs of the St. Louis River system near Duluth Minnesota. The differences were observed between headwater reservoir systems with seasonal flooding and drawdown, and a peaking reservoir with approximately daily water level fluctuations during seasonal lower flow periods. It was suggested that these differences could be attributed to water level fluctuations in the reservoir which influenced the actual production of methylmercury (MeHg) in the surrounding wetland soils. In response to this hypothesis, the authors investigated the role of water level fluctuation in the production and mobilization of MeHg in sediments from wetlands that lie adjacent to a headwater reservoir, a peaking reservoir, and a nearby natural flowage lake used as a control. Preliminary field surveys of the wetland soils revealed that although the average MeHg concentrations in the headwater and peaking reservoir wetlands were not considerably different, both were much higher than the natural lake. Each site demonstrated high variability, but maximum MeHg concentrations ranged from 29.2 ng/g for the peaking reservoir to 4.44 ng/g at the natural lake. A laboratory experiment was therefore performed in which sediments from each wetland were subjected to different water level regimes. The purpose was to assess Hg methylation potential. Stable Hg isotopes were used at the beginning and end of the experiment. In order to determine if water level fluctuation can significantly change the methylation potential of wetland soils on its own, the microbial consortia will also be assessed during the laboratory experiment.

  17. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  18. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants Before (left) and after (right) - top ...

  19. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  20. Human Mercury Exposure in Yanomami Indigenous Villages from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Vega

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Amazon, where the majority of Yanomami villages are settled, mercury (Hg exposure due to artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM has been reported since the 1980s. This study assessed mercury exposure in the Yanomami reserve and whether the level of contamination was related to the ASGM geographical location. It was conducted using a cross-sectional study of 19 villages. Direct interviews were performed and hair samples were used as a bioindicator of Hg exposure. The Prevalence-Ratio (PR was estimated as an indicator of association between ASGM geographical locations and human exposure to mercury. Mercury levels (239 hair samples ranged between 0.4 and 22.1 μg·g−1 and presented substantial differences amongst the villages. In the Waikas-Aracaça region, where current ASGM was reported, we observed the highest Hg concentrations (median = 15.5 μg·g−1. Almost all participants presented with hair-Hg levels >6 μg·g−1 (prevalence = 92.3%. In the Paapiu region, we observed the lowest concentrations (median = 3.2 μg·g−1; prevalence = 6.7%. Our findings showed that the Waikas Ye’kuana and Waikas Aracaca villages presented with 4.4 (PR = 4.4; Confidence Interval (CI 95% = 2.2–9.0 and 14.0 (PR = 14.0; CI 95% = 7.9–24.9 times higher prevalence of hair-Hg concentration, respectively, compared with Paapiu. Considering seasonal variation of Hg-exposure, the lowest concentrations were observed during the wet season (June–September and the highest in the dry season (December–April. Our study suggests that there is an association between mercury exposure and ASGM geographical locations.

  1. Human Mercury Exposure in Yanomami Indigenous Villages from the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Claudia M; Orellana, Jesem D Y; Oliveira, Marcos W; Hacon, Sandra S; Basta, Paulo C

    2018-05-23

    In the Brazilian Amazon, where the majority of Yanomami villages are settled, mercury (Hg) exposure due to artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been reported since the 1980s. This study assessed mercury exposure in the Yanomami reserve and whether the level of contamination was related to the ASGM geographical location. It was conducted using a cross-sectional study of 19 villages. Direct interviews were performed and hair samples were used as a bioindicator of Hg exposure. The Prevalence-Ratio (PR) was estimated as an indicator of association between ASGM geographical locations and human exposure to mercury. Mercury levels (239 hair samples) ranged between 0.4 and 22.1 μg·g -1 and presented substantial differences amongst the villages. In the Waikas-Aracaça region, where current ASGM was reported, we observed the highest Hg concentrations (median = 15.5 μg·g -1 ). Almost all participants presented with hair-Hg levels >6 μg·g -1 (prevalence = 92.3%). In the Paapiu region, we observed the lowest concentrations (median = 3.2 μg·g -1 ; prevalence = 6.7%). Our findings showed that the Waikas Ye'kuana and Waikas Aracaca villages presented with 4.4 (PR = 4.4; Confidence Interval (CI) 95% = 2.2⁻9.0) and 14.0 (PR = 14.0; CI 95% = 7.9⁻24.9) times higher prevalence of hair-Hg concentration, respectively, compared with Paapiu. Considering seasonal variation of Hg-exposure, the lowest concentrations were observed during the wet season (June⁻September) and the highest in the dry season (December⁻April). Our study suggests that there is an association between mercury exposure and ASGM geographical locations.

  2. Mercury and methylmercury concentration assessment in children's hair from Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil Avaliação da concentração de mercúrio e metilmercúrio em cabelo de crianças de Manaus, estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Farias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated Hg and MeHg content in hair samples of 201 children 2 to 7 years old, living in six neighborhoods of the city of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. In general, the total Hg and MeHg median ranges in hair were similar (0.91 to 1.71 mg kg-1 except for the São Jose neighborhood, which was lower (0.16 mg kg-1. De spite the fact that the Manaus population consumes fish as part of the normal dietary intake, the Hg hair levels were below the level for an adult population not exposed to mercury (2.0 mg kg-1. These data were compared to demographic, socioeconomic information and eating habits of the families that took part in the study. The results were also compared to other published data from the Amazon region, other regions of Brazil and other countries. Future studies to set Hg and MeHg levels in hair of children in Brazil should take into account and assess the diversity of the country, mainly in terms of eating habits, socio-economic and cultural aspects.O presente estudo avaliou o teor de Hg e MeHg em amostras de cabelo de 201 crianças de 2 aos 7 anos de idade, residentes em seis bairros da cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Em geral, o teor de Hg total e MeHg em cabelo foram semelhantes (medianas de 0,91 a 1,71 mg kg-1, exceto para o bairro São José, que foi menor (0,16 mg kg-1. Apesar da população de Manaus consumir peixe como parte da dieta normal, os níveis de Hg nos cabelos ficaram abaixo do nível para uma população adulta não exposta ao mercúrio (2,0 mg kg-1. Esses dados foram comparados com informações demográficas, socioeconômicas e hábitos alimentares das famílias que participaram do estudo. Os resultados também foram comparados com outros dados publicados da Amazônia, outras regiões do Brasil e outros países. Futuros estudos para definir os níveis de Hg total e MeHg no cabelo das crianças brasileiras deverão considerar e avaliar a diversidade do país, principalmente em termos de h

  3. Application of chronocoulomentry for trace levels uranium determination using catalytic nitrate reduction on mercury electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantagallo, M.I.C.

    1988-01-01

    With the aim of improving the sensitivity of the electro-analytical determination of uranium at trace levels, the uranium catalyzed reduction of nitrate on mercury electrodes was used and the technique of chronocoulometry was compared with other voltammetric techniques. The catalytic process offers high sensitivity in comparison with uranyl reduction in absence of nitrate. The chronocoulometry, virtually unexplored for analytical applications, was found to be specially well suited for determinations based on this kind of electrode process, when using current integration times in the range of several seconds. Under these conditions the interference from diffusion controlled faradaic processes is reduced to a minimum. Several experimental parameters were investigated (eletrolyte composition, potential program, integration time, blank correction, temperature, previous separation) and adequate conditions were selected for the analytical determination of pure and real samples. The proposed method was applied and evaluated with real and, when necessary, an adapted liquid-liquid extraction procedure was used. Reference materials with complex matrices like rocks were first solubilized by hot digestion under pressure. The obtained results are in good agreement with the values obtained with other techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, mass spectrometry-isotope dilution and epithermal netron activation analysis. (author) [pt

  4. Inter- and intraclutch variation in egg mercury levels in marine bird species from the Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akearok, Jason A.; Hebert, Craig E.; Braune, Birgit M.; Mallory, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that has been of increasing concern in the Canadian Arctic. We measured total Hg in eggs of three marine birds (Arctic terns Sterna paradisaea, common eiders Somateria mollissima borealis, long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that breed in the Canadian Arctic, to compare Hg laying order effects from the same clutch and to examine Hg among species. Early-laid eggs of all three species had 24-48% higher Hg concentrations than late laid eggs. Arctic terns had approximately twice the concentration of Hg in their eggs as the two duck species, and Hg in eider eggs from the High Arctic was higher than Hg in eggs from the Low Arctic. Higher Hg in tern eggs was consistent with this species occupying a higher trophic position in marine food webs, as indicated by stable nitrogen isotope (δ 15 N) values. The egg-laying sequence may need to be considered for Hg biomonitoring studies where small samples sizes are planned, and early eggs may be preferable for such studies since early eggs may be more representative of potential maximum levels of Hg in the marine food webs.

  5. Contamination level of mercury in red meat products from cetaceans available from South Korea markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Tetsuya [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)]. E-mail: endotty@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp; Yong-Un, Ma [Korean Federation for Environmental Movement, 251 Nuha-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-806, Republic of Korea (Korea); Baker, C. Scott [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Marine Mammal Program and Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Newport, OR 97365 (United States); Funahashi, Naoko [International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1-6-10-203, Saiwaicho, Higashikurume, Tokyo 203-0052 (Japan); Lavery, Shane [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dalebout, Merel L. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi [School of Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia); Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22-1 Tamagawa-Cho, Minami-Ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Levels of total mercury (T-Hg) were surveyed in red meat (n = 73) and liver (n = 3) from toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises (odontocetes) sold for human consumption in the coastal cities of South Korea. High concentrations of T-Hg were found in the liver products of finless porpoises (18.7 and 156 {mu}g/wet g) and common dolphins (13.2 {mu}g/wet g). The T-Hg concentrations in red meat products were highest in the false killer whale (9.66 {+-} 12.3 {mu}g/wet g, n = 9), bottlenose dolphin (10.6 {+-} 12.6 {mu}g/wet g, n = 3) and killer whale (13.3 {mu}g/wet g, n = 1), and lowest in Cuvier's beaked whale and the harbour porpoise (0.4-0.5 {mu}g/wet g). Thus, most of the products that originated from odontocetes exceeded the safety limit of 0.5 {mu}g/wet g for T-Hg set by the South Korean health authorities for the fishery industry. Pregnant women and other vulnerable sectors of the population living in South Korea should therefore limit their consumption of odontocete products.

  6. Contamination level of mercury in red meat products from cetaceans available from South Korea markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Yong-Un, Ma; Baker, C. Scott; Funahashi, Naoko; Lavery, Shane; Dalebout, Merel L.; Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    Levels of total mercury (T-Hg) were surveyed in red meat (n = 73) and liver (n = 3) from toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises (odontocetes) sold for human consumption in the coastal cities of South Korea. High concentrations of T-Hg were found in the liver products of finless porpoises (18.7 and 156 μg/wet g) and common dolphins (13.2 μg/wet g). The T-Hg concentrations in red meat products were highest in the false killer whale (9.66 ± 12.3 μg/wet g, n = 9), bottlenose dolphin (10.6 ± 12.6 μg/wet g, n = 3) and killer whale (13.3 μg/wet g, n = 1), and lowest in Cuvier's beaked whale and the harbour porpoise (0.4-0.5 μg/wet g). Thus, most of the products that originated from odontocetes exceeded the safety limit of 0.5 μg/wet g for T-Hg set by the South Korean health authorities for the fishery industry. Pregnant women and other vulnerable sectors of the population living in South Korea should therefore limit their consumption of odontocete products

  7. Determination of mercury and selenium in herbal medicines and hair by using a nanometer TiO2-coated quartz tube atomizer and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shun-Xing; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Cai, Shu-Jie; Cai, Tian-Shou

    2011-01-01

    The nanometer TiO 2 particle was coated onto the inner wall of a T-shaped quartz tube atomizer (QTA) and then was used as a new atomizer (NT-QTA) for the determination of Hg and Se by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS). After coating 67.4 mg TiO 2 on a quartz tube, the analytical performance of NT-QTA-HGAAS was compared to conventional QTA-HGAAS and it was improved as follows: (a) the linear range of the calibration curves was expanded from 10.0-80.0 ng mL -1 to 5.0-150.0 ng mL -1 for Hg, and from 10.0-70.0 ng mL -1 to 5.0-100.0 ng mL -1 for Se; (b) the characteristic concentration of was decreased from 2.8 ng mL -1 /1% to 1.1 ng mL -1 /1% for Hg and from 1.2 ng mL -1 /1% to 0.8 ng mL -1 /1% for Se; and (c) the interference from the coexistence of As on the determination of Hg and Se could be eliminated. The achieved technique was applied for the determination of Hg and Se in herbal medicines and hair.

  8. Occurrence and levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust and hair samples from Northern Poland; an assessment of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Sylwia; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2014-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among most ubiquitous compounds to be found in indoor environment and ingestion of household dust is considered an important route of exposure to PBDEs, especially in toddlers and young children. The present work reported concentration levels of PBDE congeners (PBDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183 and -209) in hair and dust samples from selected households from Northern Poland. The concentrations of PBDEs in dust ranged from human hair. PBDE-209 was reported the dominating congener. Two separated exposure scenarios (mean and 95th percentile) were used to provide a comprehensive overview of possible risks arising from ingestion of household dust. The estimated exposure to ∑PBDEs via ingestion of household dust varied from 21 to 92ngd(-1) in toddlers and from 3.7 to 20ngd(-1) in adults. By comparison of correlation between the concentrations of PBDEs in paired hair and dust samples the present work also investigated the possibility of use of hair for reflecting the actual exposure to PBDEs in humans. Finally the possible uncertainties associated with exposure assessment were investigated in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  10. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment using conventional (two-piece) versus metal injection moulding brackets on hair nickel and chromium levels: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaneh Masjedi, Mashallah; Haghighat Jahromi, Nima; Niknam, Ozra; Hormozi, Elham; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2017-02-01

    Although nickel and chromium are known as allergen and cytotoxic orthodontic metals, very few and controversial studies have assessed the effect of orthodontic treatment on their systemic levels especially those reflected by their best biomarker of exposure, hair. Additionally, metal injection moulding (MIM) brackets are not studied, and there is no study on systemic ion changes following their usage. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, scalp hair samples of 24 female and 22 male fixed orthodontic patients [as two groups of conventional (two-piece) versus MIM brackets, n = 23×2] were collected before treatment and 6 months later. Randomization was carried out using a computer-generated random number table. The patients, laboratory expert, and author responsible for analyses were blinded of the bracket allocations. Hair nickel and chromium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effects of treatment, bracket types, gender, and age on hair ions were analysed statistically (α = 0.05, β ≤ 0.02). In both groups combined (n = 46), nickel increased from 0.1600±0.0890 µg/g dry hair mass (pre-treatment) to 0.3199±0.1706 (6th month). Chromium increased from 0.1657±0.0884 to 0.3066±0.1362 µg/g. Both of these increases were significant (paired t-test, P = 0.0000). Bracket types, age, and gender had no significant influence on ion levels (P > 0.05). ANCOVA indicated different patterns of chromium increases in different genders (P = 0.033) and ages (P = 0.056). Sample size determination should have accounted for the grouping as well. Hair nickel and chromium levels might increase about 185-200% after 6 months. They might not be affected by bracket types. Gender and age might not influence the baseline or 6th-month levels of both metals. Gender might however interact with orthodontic treatment, only in the case of chromium. The research is registered offline (thesis) and online (IR.AJUMS.REC.1394.516). The protocol was pre

  11. Assessment of the content of mercury, methylmercury and other elements of interest in fish, hair and diets of pre-school children of the Amazon region; Avaliacao do conteudo de mercurio, metilmercurio e outros elementos de interesse em peixes e em amostras de cabelos e dietas de pre-escolares da regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2006-07-01

    Studies show that some regions of the Amazon region suffer mercury (Hg) impacts as a direct result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Jau National Park (PNJ) is the only National Park in Brazil that protects an entire black water basin (Jau River), flood land and tropical reserve. These conditions favor Hg methylation in the aquatic biota. This in turn, exposes living on the river populations to Hg contamination as well as the adjacent regions. Preliminary studies of pre-school children diets from PNJ communities have shown that these diets have a worrisome high Hg content. The present study assessed total Hg content, micro nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and macro nutrients (proteins, lipids, ash, energy, carbohydrate) in pre-school diets in the PNJ and surrounding communities. Furthermore, total and Me Hg levels were also determined in hair samples of these children as well as those living in several neighborhoods of the city of Manaus. Included in this determination were the fish most consumed by these populations. From these results it was possible to evaluate the nutritional content of the diets and the exposure of the children to Hg and Se Hg. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry was used to quantify total and Me Hg. Micro nutrient determination was performed using neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) and Macro nutrient through AOAC methodologies (USA). All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference materials analyses with certified values for the determined elements. Furthermore, the uncertainty sources for Hg and Me Hg determination were assessed and the expanded uncertainties were calculated. Total Hg levels in diets and total and Me Hg levels for hair samples, were well above those values found in different localities of the Amazon region. This also holds true for those surrounding areas of the JNP. For many children Hg intake values passed the 5 mug Hg/body weigh/week (PTWI

  12. Assessing the levels of mercury in selected mining communities in the East Akim Municipality of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwateng, I.K.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury concentrations in tailings, soil, sediment and water from one active and one non-active (abandoned) mine site each from Agyapoma, Kibi and Tete Asikam were studied together with water from the Birim River. The concentrations were measured using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - a 30 kW tank-in-pool Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR - 1) operating at a thermal flux of 5 x 10 1 1' ns -1 cm -2 . The samples were irradiated and counted without any chemical treatment. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used for full analysis of all the water samples to measure the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and As. Ultra violet visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the concentrations of SO 4 2- , PO 4 3- and NO 3- . Elevated levels of Hg were found in the tailings at all the active sites which ranged from 3.45-5.09 mg/kg. The non-active sites had concentrations ranging from 0.02-0.24 mg/kg. Soil, sediment and water samples analysed for Hg were below detection limit. The difference in Hg concentrations in tailings from one site to another is significant as it ranged from 0.02-5.09 mg/kg. Levels of mercury in drinking water, soil and sediments were below detection limit. The Birim river and dam water showed a wide range of characteristics in terms of physciochemical parameters and elemental concentrations. The temperature ranged from 26.5-56.7 degrees Celsius with a pH range of 5.85-7.18. The electrical conductivity values were in the range 53.8-192.4 μS/cm and TDS values in the range of 23.2-82.2mg/L. the water samples varied largely in total hardness from 21.95-76.8mg/L. Concentrations of Pb and Fe were all above the guidance values of 0.01 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L respectively. The concentration of Pb ranged from 0.067-0.127 mg/L and that of Fe ranged from 0.653-2.1 mg/L. Arsenic concentrations were also above the WHO guidance values of 0.01 mg/L except for samples from the Birim River. The concentration of SO 4 2- ranges from 7.424-57.26 mg/L which

  13. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  14. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss Overview Hereditary hair loss: Millions of men ... of hair loss can often be successfully treated. Hair loss: Overview Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE- ...

  15. Total Blood Mercury Levels and Depression among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tsz Hin H.; Mossey, Jana M.; Lee, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5–27). Results Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36–0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status). However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40) even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50–1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). Conclusions Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding. PMID:24244482

  16. Environmental and human exposure assessment monitoring of communities near an abandoned mercury mine in the Philippines: a toxic legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Nelia P C; Reyes, Jose Paciano; Francisco-Rivera, Ana Trinidad; Panganiban, Lynn Crisanta R; Dioquino, Carissa; Dando, Nerissa; Timbang, Rene; Akagi, Hirokatsu; Castillo, Ma Teresa; Quitoriano, Carmela; Afuang, Maredith; Matsuyama, Akito; Eguchi, Tomomi; Fuchigami, Youko

    2006-10-01

    sites, namely Tagburos and Honda Bay, exceeded the EPA Region 9 Primary Remediation Goal recommended values for total mercury for residential purposes (NV>23 mg/kg). The hand to mouth activity among infants and children is another significant route for mercury exposure. Statistically significant results were obtained for infants when comparing the results after one year of monitoring for methylmercury levels in hair for both exposed and control sub-groups. Likewise, comparing the initial and final hair methylmercury levels among pregnant women/mothers in the exposed group showed statistically significant (p<0.05) results. Comparing the exposed and control sub-groups' mercury hair levels per sub-group showed statistically significant results among the following: (a) initial and final total mercury hair levels among children, (b) initial and final methylmercury hair levels among children, (c) final total mercury hair levels among pregnant women, (d) initial and final total mercury hair levels among mothers, and (e) initial and final methyl hair levels among mothers.

  17. A precise automatic system for the hair assessment in hair-care diagnosis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, H

    2015-11-01

    One emerging subject in medical image processing is to quantitatively assess the health and the properties of cranial hairs, including density, diameter, length, level of oiliness, and others. This information helps hair specialists with making a more accurate diagnosis and the therapy required. We develop a practical hair counting algorithm. This analytic system calculates the number of hairs on a scalp using a digital microscope camera, providing accurate information for both the hair specialist and the patient. Our proposed hair counting algorithm is substantially more accurate than the Hough-based one, and is robust to curls, oily scalp, noise-corruption, and overlapping hairs, under various levels of illumination. Rather than manually counting the hairs on a person's scalp, the proposed system determines the density, diameter, length, and level of oiliness of the hairs. We propose an automated system for counting the amount of hairs in the microscopy images. To reduce the effect of bright spots, we develop a robust morphological algorithm for color to smooth out the color and preserve the fidelity of the hair. Then, we utilize a modified Hough transform algorithm to detect the different hair lengths and to reduce any false detection due to noise. Our proposed system enables us to look at curved hairs as multiple pieces of straight lines. To avoid missing hairs when the thinning process is applied, we use edge information to discover any hidden or overlapping hairs. Finally, we employ a mutually associative regression method to label a group of line segments into a meaningful 'hair'. We demonstrated a novel approach for accurately computing the number of hairs, and successfully solved the three main obstacles in automated hair counting, including (i) oily and moist hairs, (ii) wavy and curly hairs, and (iii) under-estimation of the number of hairs occurs when hairs cross and occlude each other. The framework of this paper can be seen as the first step toward

  18. Health and environmental impact of mercury in the Philippines using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes-Maramba, Nelia; Reyes, J.P.; Panganiban, L.C.P.; Francisco-Rivera, Ana Trinidad; Suplido, M.L.; Akagi, Hirokatsu

    2002-01-01

    mercury only. Previous studies undertaken focused mainly on the exposure of adults and workers to mercury during mining/processing operations. Fifty-three (53) research subjects were selected by stratified random sampling in a mining community in Sibutad, Zamboanga del Norte, Philippines. There were 40 (75.47%) adults aged from 26 to 50 years and 13 children aged 6 months to 11 years. Environmental monitoring results showed that ambient air monitoring of three sampling station exceeded the standards for mercury in ambient air. Water quality monitoring of a drinking water source showed a slightly higher level than that obtained from a nearby river. Mercury levels in marine/aquatic samples ranged from 4.03-62.97 ng/g for total mercury and 3.75-35.98 ng/g in 9 species. These levels were below the recommended USFDA standard of 500 ng/g. The proportion of methylmercury ranged from 22.98%-89.78%. Hair samples in 51 respondents showed total mercury and methylmercury levels which ranged from 0.95-68.68 ng/g and 0.73-5.81 ng/g. The proportion of methylmercury in hair ranged from 2.66-99.98%. 10 had elevated total mercury levels and 23 with elevated methylmercury levels. Blood samples from 50 respondents showed total mercury and methylmercury levels ranged from 2.74-29.47 ug/L and 1. 63-23.11 ug/L. A total of 23 blood samples from the 50 tested showed total mercury values will be followed up for possible detoxification while 10 had elevated methylmercury levels. (author)

  19. Exposures of dental professionals to elemental mercury and methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Chou, Hwai-Nan; Gruninger, Stephen E; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure, a worldwide public health concern, predominantly takes two forms--methylmercury from fish consumption and elemental Hg from dental amalgam restorations. We recruited 630 dental professionals from an American Dental Association meeting to assess Hg body burden and primary sources of exposure in a dually exposed population. Participants described occupational practices and fish consumption patterns via questionnaire. Hg levels in biomarkers of elemental Hg (urine) and methylmercury (hair and blood) were measured with a Direct Mercury Analyzer-80 and were higher than the general US population. Geometric means (95% CI) were 1.28 (1.19-1.37) μg/l in urine, 0.60 (0.54-0.67) μg/g in hair and 3.67 (3.38-3.98) μg/l in blood. In multivariable linear regression, personal amalgams predicted urine Hg levels along with total years in dentistry, amalgams handled, working hours and sex. Fish consumption patterns predicted hair and blood Hg levels, which were higher among Asians compared with Caucasians. Five species contributed the majority of the estimated Hg intake from fish--swordfish, fresh tuna, white canned tuna, whitefish and king mackerel. When studying populations with occupational exposure to Hg, it is important to assess environmental exposures to both elemental Hg and methylmercury as these constitute a large proportion of total exposure.

  20. High levels of reactive gaseous mercury observed at a high elevation research laboratory in the Rocky Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Faïn, X.; Obrist, D.; Hallar, A. G.; Mccubbin, I.; Rahn, T.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical cycling and spatiotemporal distribution of mercury in the troposphere is poorly understood. We measured gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (HgP) along with carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), aerosols, and meteorological variables at Storm Peak Laboratory at an elevation of 3200 m a.s.l., in Colorado, from 28 April to 1 July 2008. The mean mercury concentrations were 1.6 ng m

  1. Biomagnification and bioaccumulation of mercury in two fish species from different trophic levels in the Bahia de Cartagena and the Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, D.; Campos, N.

    1999-01-01

    During the decade of the 70's a chlor-alkali plant dumped between 11 and 15 tons of mercury indiscriminately into the Bahia de Cartagena (BC), elevating the levels of this metal in the biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystem. Although two decades have passed since the plant was closed, the sediments of the bay seem to be an important source of mercury to the marine environment. The present work measured the contents of mercury in the sediment and determined the processes of bioaccumulation and biomagnification in two species of fishes of commercial importance: the parassi mullet (Mugil incilis) and the striped mojarra (Eugerres plumieri), a detritivore and an omnivore, respectively

  2. Disparities in Children’s Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02–9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02–6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09–12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03–11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27–6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76–2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40–1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for

  3. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-01-01

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30 μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7 ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  4. LEVEL AND EXTENT OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN OREGON, USA, LOTIC FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of growing concern with widespread mercury contamination of fish tissue, we sampled 154 streams and rivers throughout Oregon using a probability design. To maximize the sample size we took samples of small and large fish, where possible, from wadeable streams and boatable...

  5. Measurement of cesium and mercury emissions from the vitrification of simulated high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site, it is desired to measure non-radioactive cesium in the offgas system from the glass melter. From a pilot scale melter system, offgas particulate samples were taken on filter paper media and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS method proved to be sufficiently sensitive to measure cesium quantities as low as 0.135 μg, with the sensitivity being limited by the background cesium present in the filter paper. This sensitivity allowed determination of cesium decontamination factors for four of the five major components of the offgas system. In addition, total particulate measurements were also made. Measurements of mercury decontamination factors were made on the same equipment; the results indicate that most of the mercury in the offgas system probably exists as elemental mercury and HgCl 2 , with some HgO and Hg 2 Cl 2 . The decontamination factors determined for cesium, total particulate, and mercury all compared favorably with the design values

  6. The significance of mineral pollutants in hair for the assessment of the body burden and the concentration in the critical organs in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmer, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    If the content of an element in hair of an individual is used for the assessment of health risk of that person it is of special importance to know if the hair analytical data reflect the body burden or the content of the organ or tissues at risk. Ideally the content in hair should rise and fall in parallel to an increase or decrease of the body burden or the content in the critical organs. It was the aim of this project to study the transfer of Hg, methyl-mercury and Zn to hair and to compare it with the levels simultaneously observed in the total body and the relevant organs under controlled experimental conditions in an animal model. In addition, a similar study on As and the analyses of two experiments of a long term study on Cd exposure were also included. 11 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Mercury levels in feathers of eagle-owls Bubo bubo in a captive, a reintroduced and a native wild population in SW Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broo, B.; Odsjoe, T.

    1981-01-01

    Mercury levels in feathers are presented for both captive and wild eagle-owls from the period 1963-1976. Levels are compared between wild birds occupying old territories and released birds in newly occupied territories. The wild population in SW Sweden shows decreasing levels in the inland territories, and at present these levels are similar to the natural background level. The coastal owls have significantly higher levels which show no decrease. Low levels prevail in captive eagle-owls, fed on low-contaminted food. Birds in newly occupied territories (mainly released birds) have similar mercury levels as native birds. After being released captive birds therefore seem to accumulate mercury rather quickly. (author)

  8. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  9. The influence of obesity on blood mercury levels for U.S. non-pregnant adults and children: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Korrick, Susan A; Fayad, Raja

    2015-04-01

    In animal studies obesity is associated with higher blood and tissue mercury concentrations; however human studies are lacking. Although the mechanism underlying this association is uncertain, obesity may alter the metabolism and distribution of methylmercury. We determined whether obesity influenced blood mercury levels, the majority of which was methylmercury, for U.S. non-pregnant adults (≥20 years) and children (2-19 years) after controlling for methylmercury intake through fish and shellfish consumption, and other confounders. We completed secondary data analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2010) for participants who consumed fish/shellfish within 24h of blood collection for mercury analysis. Weighted least squares regression models related blood mercury levels (the dependent variable) to methylmercury exposure (μg) from fish consumed in the previous 24h, body mass index (BMI) (for adults), BMI z-scores (for children), and other confounders. In adjusted models, blood mercury levels were inversely correlated with BMI for adults [β, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.54 (-0.90, -0.18)]. For children, blood mercury levels were inversely correlated with BMI z-scores but the trend was not significant [β (95% CI)=-0.016 (-0.066, 0.035)]. When obese adults or children were compared with those who were overweight/normal weight, blood mercury averaged 22% lower for obese adults (95% CI: -33%, -8.2%), while blood mercury did not differ significantly for obese children [β (95% CI)=-1.7% (-31%, +39%)]. After adjusting for the main, if not exclusive, exogenous source of methylmercury exposure (through fish/shellfish intake) and other confounders, our results support potential changes in the metabolism, distribution or excretion of methylmercury with increasing BMI (for adults). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fish mercury levels appear to be increasing lately: a report from 40 years of monitoring in the province of Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nilima; Tang, Rex W K; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Arhonditsis, George B

    2014-05-20

    Recent mercury levels and trends reported for North America suggest a mixed (positive/negative) outlook for the environmental mercury problem. Using one of the largest consistent monitoring data sets in the world, here we present long-term and recent mercury trends in Walleye, Northern Pike, and Lake Trout from the Province of Ontario, Canada, which contains about one-third of the world's fresh water and covers a wide geographical area (1.5 and 3 times larger than France and Germany, respectively). Overall, the results indicate that the fish mercury levels either declined (0.01-0.07 μg/g decade) or remained stable between the 1970s and 2012. The rates of mercury decline were substantially greater (mostly 0.05-0.31 μg/g decade) during the 1970s/80s possibly in response to reductions in mercury emissions. However, Walleye and Pike levels have generally increased (0.01-0.27 μg/g decade) in recent years (1995-2012), especially for northern Ontario (effect sizes for differences between the two periods ranged from 0.39 to 1.04). Proportions of Walleye and Pike locations showing a flat or increasing trend increased from 26-44% to 59-73% between the 1970s/80s and 1995-2012. Mercury emissions in North America have declined over the last few decades, and as such it is logical to expect recovery in fish mercury levels; however, other factors such as global emissions, climate change, invasive species, and local geochemistry are likely affecting the response time and magnitude.

  11. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria.

  12. Mercury exposure, serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies, and serum cytokine levels in mining populations in Amazonian Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Renee M; Nyland, Jennifer F; Silva, Ines A; Ventura, Ana Maria; de Souza, Jose Maria; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2010-05-01

    Mercury is an immunotoxic substance that has been shown to induce autoimmune disease in rodent models, characterized by lymphoproliferation, overproduction of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgE), and high circulating levels of auto-antibodies directed at antigens located in the nucleus (antinuclear auto-antibodies, or ANA) or the nucleolus (antinucleolar auto-antibodies, or ANoA). We have reported elevated levels of ANA and ANoA in human populations exposed to mercury in artisanal gold mining, though other confounding variables that may also modulate ANA/ANoA levels were not well controlled. The goal of this study is to specifically test whether occupational and environmental conditions (other than mercury exposure) that are associated with artisanal gold mining affect the prevalence of markers of autoimmune dysfunction. We measured ANA, ANoA, and cytokine concentrations in serum and compared results from mercury-exposed artisanal gold miners to those from diamond and emerald miners working under similar conditions and with similar socio-economic status and risks of infectious disease. Mercury-exposed gold miners had higher prevalence of detectable ANA and ANoA and higher titers of ANA and ANoA as compared to diamond and emerald miners with no occupational mercury exposure. Also, mercury-exposed gold miners with detectable ANA or ANoA in serum had significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in serum as compared to the diamond and emerald miners. This study provides further evidence that mercury exposure may lead to autoimmune dysfunction and systemic inflammation in affected populations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of brown bear (Ursus arctos) records for retrospective assessment of mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solgi, Eisa; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Because mercury (Hg) is released into the atmosphere, wildlife living in habitats located far from point sources of metal may still be at risk. Mercury accumulation, previously considered a risk for aquatic ecosystems, is also found in many wildlife terrestrial species. The aim of the present study was to examine total Hg concentrations in the brown bear (Ursus arctos) by measurement of metal in hair from museum collections in Iran. Another objective of this investigation was to characterize the risk of Hg exposure in bears in several parts of Iran. Brown bear (Ursus arctos) hair samples (n = 35) were collected from 14 provinces in Iran for analysis of Hg contamination, performed using an advanced mercury analyzer (model Leco 254 AMA, USA) according to ASTM standard D-6722. Total Hg levels in Iranian bears from all areas ranged from 115.81 to 505.82 μg/kg, with a mean of 193.39 ng/g. Mercury concentrations in brown bear hair from different provinces in Iran were as follows in descending order: Khorasan Razavi > Esfahan > Khozestan > Yazd > Lorestan > Charmahalva Bakhtiari > Bushehr > Mazandaran > Markazi > Tehran > Ardebil > Gilan > East Azerbaijan. The highest content of Hg was found in the south (206.62 ± 31.95 ng/g), whereas the lowest levels were detected in the west (167.71 ± 32.97 ng/g). Overall total Hg content in bear hair was below harmful levels for this species. A decreasing trend was noted in the period 1986-2006, which may be mainly due to reduction of global Hg emissions. Data suggest that food habits and habitat are two important factors that influence Hg accumulation in bears.

  14. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Methyl mercury exposure in Swedish women with high fish consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernberg, Karolin Ask [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Grawe, Kierstin Petersson [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Berglund, Marika [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: Marika.Berglund@imm.ki.se

    2005-04-01

    We studied the exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg) in 127 Swedish women of childbearing age with high consumption of various types of fish, using total mercury (T-Hg) in hair and MeHg in blood as biomarkers. Fish consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), including detailed information about consumption of different fish species, reflecting average intake during 1 year. We also determined inorganic mercury (I-Hg) in blood, and selenium (Se) in serum. The average total fish consumption, as reported in the food frequency questionnaire, was approximately 4 times/week (range 1.6-19 times/week). Fish species potentially high in MeHg, included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 79% of the women. About 10% consumed such species more than once a week, i.e., more than what is recommended. Other fish species potentially high in MeHg, not included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 54% of the women. Eleven percent never consumed fish species potentially high in MeHg. T-Hg in hair (median 0.70 mg/kg; range 0.08-6.6 mg/kg) was associated with MeHg in blood (median 1.7 {mu}g/L; range 0.30-14 {mu}g/L; r {sub s}=0.78; p<0.001). Hair T-Hg, blood MeHg and serum Se (median 70 {mu}g/L; range 46-154 {mu}g/L) increased with increasing total fish consumption (r {sub s}=0.32; p<0.001, r {sub s}=0.37; p<0.001 and r {sub s}=0.35; p=0.002, respectively). I-Hg in blood (median 0.24 {mu}g/L; range 0.01-1.6 {mu}g/L) increased with increasing number of dental amalgam fillings. We found no statistical significant associations between the various mercury species measured and the Se concentration in serum. Hair mercury levels exceeded the levels corresponding to the EPA reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 {mu}g MeHg/kg b.w. per day in 20% of the women. Thus, there seems to be no margin of safety for neurodevelopmental effects in fetus, for women with high fish consumption unless they decrease their intake of certain fish species.

  16. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  17. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made

  18. Digestibility of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets supplemented with four levels of Gliricidia sepium hay in hair sheep lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avilés-Nieto, Jonathan N.; Valle-Cerdán, José L.; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing increasing levels of Gliricidia sepium hay (GS) with different levels of inclusion of Buffel grass (BG) hay on digestibility by hair sheep lambs (2.5 to 3.5 months of age). Eight male lambs were used in a replicated 4 × 4...... were not affected by treatments. The intake of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), and gross energy was higher (P lambs fed with T4 diet than control. NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher (P

  19. Mercury exposure as a function of fish consumption in two Asian communities in coastal Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Newman, Michael C

    2015-04-01

    Fish consumption and associated mercury exposure were explored for two Asian-dominated church communities in coastal Virginia and compared with that of two non-Asian church communities. Seafood-consumption rates for the Chinese (36.9 g/person/day) and Vietnamese (52.7 g/person/day) church communities were greater than the general United States fish-consumption rate (12.8 g/person/day). Correspondingly, hair mercury concentrations for people from the Chinese (0.52 µg/g) and the Vietnamese church (1.46 µg/g) were greater than the overall level for United States women (0.20 µg/g) but lower than the published World Health Organization exposure threshold (14 µg/g). A conventional regression model indicated a positive relationship between seafood consumption rates and hair mercury concentrations suggesting the importance of mercury exposure through seafood consumption. The annual-average daily methylmercury intake rate for the studied communities calculated by Monte Carlo simulations followed the sequence: Vietnamese community > Chinese community > non-Asian communities. Regardless, their daily methylmercury intake rates were all lower than the United States Environmental Protection Agency reference dose of 0.1 µg/kg body weight-day. In conclusion, fish-consumption patterns differed among communities, which resulted in different levels of mercury exposure. The greater seafood and mercury ingestion rates of studied Asian groups compared with non-Asian groups suggest the need for specific seafood consumption advice for ethnic communities in the United States. Otherwise the health benefits from fish consumption could be perceived as trivial compared with the ill-defined risk of mercury exposure.

  20. A toddler with hair fascination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Patricia; Needlman, Robert D; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    Joseph is a 24-months old boy referred by his pediatrician because of an "obsession" with pulling and eating hair. When Joseph was 14 months old, he enjoyed touching and twirling his mother's long hair. She observed that it seemed to provide comfort to him. At 18 months, he initiated pulling out and eating his own hair, twirling his mother's hair around his thumb and then sucking on it. Currently, he searches the carpet or a hard floor and looks for hair to eat. The identical behavior is observed at daycare. Joseph's teacher commented, "He pulled hair from a girl who has the longest hair of all the children. We try to distract him from this habit, but he is not distracted for long." Less frequently, Joseph has also eaten sand, chalk, and crayons at daycare. Joseph's mother describes him as a "happy and outgoing" child who interacts with his peers and has a best friend at the daycare. There have not been recent changes or stressful events in his life. Joseph separates from his mother with ease and he sleeps comfortably through the night in his own bed. There have been no episodes of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or constipation. Strands of hair are occasionally seen in the stool. Prenatal and perinatal history was unremarkable. Joseph was breast-fed for 11 months, described as an "easy" baby, achieved motor, social, and language developmental milestones at the usual time, and has been in excellent health. He lives with his mother and maternal grandparents; the biological father has never been involved in his care. At 20 months, Joseph's pediatrician suggested cutting his hair. After several haircuts, Joseph stopped pulling his own hair. However, he continued to search the floor for hair. Hemoglobin and a blood lead level were normal. Joseph appeared pleasant and friendly with normal growth parameters and facial features. He was sitting comfortably on his mother's lap, sucking on his thumb. Social interactions with his mother were appropriate and reciprocal. He

  1. Assessment of mercury exposure and malaria in a Brazilian Amazon riverine community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crompton, Peter; Ventura, Ana Maria; Souza, Jose Maria de; Santos, Elisabeth; Strickland, G. Thomas; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Small-scale gold mining in the Brazilian Amazon occurs in areas with high rates of malaria transmission. Amazonian populations can be exposed to mercury through direct contact with the mining process and/or through fish consumption. Because of data from experimental studies, we examined the potential for mercury to affect host response to malaria. A cross-sectional survey was done in Jacareacanga, a riverine community in Para state, in a region of intense alluvial gold mining. A sample of 205 persons was selected by cluster sampling from the total population of approximately 2000. A brief medical history and exam were conducted, malaria slides were obtained, and air samples were taken to measure mercury levels. The average hair mercury level was 8.6 μg/g, ranging from 0.3 to 83.2 μg/g. The most important predictors of elevated mercury levels were high fish consumption and low income. Although there was no prevalent malaria, the odds of reporting a past malaria infection was four times higher for those also reporting a history of working with mercury

  2. Determination of the level of DNA modification with cisplatin by catalytic hydrogen evolution at mercury-based electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horáková, Petra; Tesnohlídková, Lucie; Havran, Ludek; Vidláková, Pavlína; Pivonková, Hana; Fojta, Miroslav

    2010-04-01

    Electrochemical methods proved useful as simple and inexpensive tools for the analysis of natural as well as chemically modified nucleic acids. In particular, covalently attached metal-containing groups usually render the DNA well-pronounced electrochemical activity related to redox processes of the metal moieties, which can in some cases be coupled to catalytic hydrogen evolution at mercury or some types of amalgam electrodes. In this paper we used voltammetry at the mercury-based electrodes for the monitoring of DNA modification with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin), a representative of metallodrugs used in the treatment of various types of cancer or being developed for such purpose. In cyclic voltammetry at the mercury electrode, the cisplatin-modified DNA yielded catalytic currents the intensity of which reflected DNA modification extent. In square-wave voltammetry, during anodic polarization after prereduction of the cisplatinated DNA, a well-developed, symmetrical signal (peak P) was obtained. Intensity of the peak P linearly responded to the extent of DNA modification at levels relevant for biochemical studies (rb = 0.01-0.10, where rb is the number of platinum atoms bound per DNA nucleotide). We demonstrate a correlation between the peak P intensity and a loss of sequence-specific DNA binding by tumor suppressor protein p53, as well as blockage of DNA digestion by a restriction endonuclease Msp I (both caused by the DNA cisplatination). Application of the electrochemical technique in studies of DNA reactivity with various anticancer platinum compounds, as well as for an easy determination of the extent of DNA platination in studies of its biochemical effects, is discussed.

  3. ICP OES and CV AAS in determination of mercury in an unusual fatal case of long-term exposure to elemental mercury in a teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa

    2014-04-01

    In this work, a case of deliberate self-poisoning is presented. A 14-year-old girl suddenly died during one of the several hospitalizations. Abdominal computer tomography showed a large number of metallic particles in the large intestine. Analysis of blood and internal organs for mercury and other toxic metals carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) revealed high concentrations of mercury in kidneys and liver (64,200 and 2470ng/g, respectively), less in stomach (90ng/g), and none in blood. Using cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS), high levels of mercury were confirmed in all examined materials, including blood (87ng/g), and additionally in hair. The results of analysis obtained by two techniques revealed that the exposure to mercury was considerable (some time later, it was stated that the mercury originated from thermometers that had been broken over the course of about 1 year, because of Münchausen syndrome). CV AAS is a more sensitive technique, particularly for blood samples (negative results using ICP OES), and tissue samples - with LOQ: 0.63ng/g of Hg (CV AAS) vis-à-vis 70ng/g of Hg (ICP OES). However, ICP OES may be used as a screening technique for autopsy material in acute poisoning by a heavy metal, even one as volatile as mercury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

  5. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  6. Comparative baseline levels of mercury, Hsp 70 and Hsp 60 in subsistence fish from the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, L K; Scofield, E; Rodgers, T; Patton, M; Bowyer, R T

    1999-10-01

    In subsistence fish; northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), whitefish (Coregonus nelsoni), grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and sheefish (Stenodus lencichthys), we determined the Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 levels in 31 samples from adult fish gills. A dot-blot analysis using antibodies to either Hsp 70 or Hsp 60 showed the average Hsp 70 concentration was 9.1 microg/mg protein, while the average Hsp 60 concentration was 147.4 microg/mg protein. Mercury levels in muscle tissue in these fish averaged 0.382 ppm. Using a subset of samples (n = 24), we determined that the major component in the muscle of Alaskan subsistence fish was methyl mercury. No correlation was observed between Hsp 60 or Hsp 70 expression in gill tissue and mercury concentrations in muscle tissue. Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 protein levels in the gills were correlated.

  7. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  8. Fish Consumption and Mercury Exposure among Louisiana Recreational Anglers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lincoln, Rebecca A; Shine, James P; Chesney, Edward J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure assessments among average fish consumers in the U.S. may underestimate exposures among U.S. subpopulations with high intakes of regionally specific fish. Objectives: We examined relationships between fish consumption, estimated mercury (Hg) intake......, and measured Hg exposure among one such potentially highly-exposed group, recreational anglers in Louisiana USA. Methods: We surveyed 534 anglers in 2006 using interviews at boat launches and fishing tournaments combined with an internet-based survey method. Hair samples from 402 of these anglers were...... collected and analyzed for total Hg. Questionnaires provided information on species-specific fish consumption over 3 months prior to the survey. Results: Anglers' median hair-Hg concentration was 0.81 µg/g (n=398; range: 0.02-10.7 µg/g), with 40% of participants above 1 µg/g, the level that approximately...

  9. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes: Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Yamanashi

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC. Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1 and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS, Kyoto University (Study 2. We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals' experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than

  10. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  11. Understanding arsenic metabolism through a comparative study of arsenic levels in the urine, hair and fingernails of healthy volunteers from three unexposed ethnic groups in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brima, Eid I.; Haris, Parvez I.; Jenkins, Richard O.; Polya, Dave A.; Gault, Andrew G.; Harrington, Chris F.

    2006-01-01

    Very little is known about arsenic (As) metabolism in healthy populations that are not exposed to high concentrations of As in their food or water. Here we present a study with healthy volunteers from three different ethnic groups, residing in Leicester, UK, which reveals statistically significant differences in the levels of total As in urine and fingernail samples. Urine (n = 63), hair (n = 36) and fingernail (n = 36) samples from Asians, Somali Black-Africans and Whites were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS). The results clearly show that the total concentrations of As in urine and fingernail samples of a Somali Black-African population (urine 7.2 μg/g creatinine; fingernails 723.1 μg/kg) are significantly (P 0.05) in the level of As in the hair samples from these three groups; Somali Black-Africans (116.0 μg/kg), Asians (117.4 μg/kg) and Whites (141.2 μg/kg). Significantly different levels of total As in fingernail and urine and a higher percentage of urinary DMA in the Somali Black-Africans are suggestive of a different pattern of As metabolism in this ethnic group

  12. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Robb S A; Kenney, Leah A; Bond, Alexander L; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2014-05-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  14. Environmental and occupational exposures to mercury among indigenous people in Dunkwa-On-Offin, a small scale gold mining area in the South-West of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Basu, N; Nriagu, J O

    2010-11-01

    Total mercury concentrations in human hair and urine samples were determined to ascertain the extent of environmental and occupational mercury exposure in Dunkwa-On-Offin, a small scale gold mining area of the central-west region of Ghana. In all ninety-four (94) hair and urine samples comprising of forty (40) small scale miners and fifty-four (54) farmers were collected and analyzed for their total mercury levels using the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The hair total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.63 to 7.19 ug/g with a mean of 2.35 ± 1.58 ug/g for the farmers and 0.57-6.07 ug/g with a mean of 2.14 ± 1.53 ug/g for the small scale gold miners. There was no significant correlation between the total mercury concentration and the average weekly fish diet. The total mercury concentrations in urine of the miners were higher than those of the farmers and ranged from 0.32 to 3.62 ug/L with a mean of 1.23 ± 0.86 ug/L. The urine concentrations of farmers ranged from 0.075 to 2.31 ug/L with a mean of 0.69 ± 0.39 ug/L. Although the results indicate elevated internal dose of mercury the current levels of exposures do not appear to pose a significant health threat to the people.

  15. Dietary human exposure to mercury in two artisanal small-scale gold mining communities of northwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Camacho, Carlos; Salas-Moreno, Manuel; Marrugo-Madrid, Siday; Marrugo-Negrete, José; Díez, Sergi

    2017-10-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest anthropogenic source of mercury pollution worldwide, posing a grave threat to human health. The present study identifies current levels of mercury in the human population from mining areas of the Chocó Department, Colombia, through total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) measurements in human hair. Mercury exposure of the local population was assessed in two towns affected by ASGM and was related to different variables of interest. Concentrations of THg in human hair ranged from 0.06 to 17.54ppm and the mean value for the subjects under study was 2.48ppm. Men had significantly higher levels than women in both towns (3.29ppm vs. 0.77ppm). Fish consumption was related to a marked increase of THg in hair, with mean values close to five times higher in frequent fish consumers (5-7 times/week) than in non-fish consumers (4.80ppm vs. 0.90ppm). A multiple linear regression model was fitted successfully (R=0.671) and reveals that gender, fish consumption and location of residence were significant indicators of Hg levels in hair, while no significant relationship was found for age. Approximately 60% of subjects tested had THg levels that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose of 1.0ppm, while 25% surpassed that of the World Health Organization (2.2ppm). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cloud point extraction and spectrophotometric determination of mercury species at trace levels in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Halil İbrahim; Gürkan, Ramazan; Ulusoy, Songül

    2012-01-15

    A new micelle-mediated separation and preconcentration method was developed for ultra-trace quantities of mercury ions prior to spectrophotometric determination. The method is based on cloud point extraction (CPE) of Hg(II) ions with polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether (Triton X-114) in the presence of chelating agents such as 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) and 4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol (TAR). Hg(II) ions react with both PAN and TAR in a surfactant solution yielding a hydrophobic complex at pH 9.0 and 8.0, respectively. The phase separation was accomplished by centrifugation for 5 min at 3500 rpm. The calibration graphs obtained from Hg(II)-PAN and Hg(II)-TAR complexes were linear in the concentration ranges of 10-1000 μg L(-1) and 50-2500 μg L(-1) with detection limits of 1.65 and 14.5 μg L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.85% and 2.35% in determinations of 25 and 250 μg L(-1) Hg(II), respectively. The interference effect of several ions were studied and seen commonly present ions in water samples had no significantly effect on determination of Hg(II). The developed methods were successfully applied to determine mercury concentrations in environmental water samples. The accuracy and validity of the proposed methods were tested by means of five replicate analyses of the certified standard materials such as QC Metal LL3 (VWR, drinking water) and IAEA W-4 (NIST, simulated fresh water). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler Walker, Jody; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura; McMullen, Ed; Tofflemire, Karen; Mills, Carole; Corriveau, Andre; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Walker, Mike; Donaldson, Shawn G.; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Metis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87μg/L (SD=1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n=134) to 3.51μg/L (SD=8.30) in the Inuit group (n=146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Metis group (1.35μg/L, SD=1.60, n=92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P 8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and Dene/Metis (48%) participants highlights the need for ongoing public health action directed at tobacco prevention, reduction, and cessation for women of reproductive age. Pb and THg were detected in more than 95% of all cord blood samples, with GMs of 21 μg/L and 2.7μg/L, respectively, and Cd was detected in 26% of all cord samples, with a GM of 0.08μg/L. Cord:maternal ratios from paired samples ranged from 0.44 to 4.5 for THg, from 0.5 to 10.3 for MeHg, and 0.1 to 9.0 for Pb. On average, levels of THg, MeHg, and Zn were significantly higher in cord blood than in maternal blood (P<0.0001), whereas maternal Cd, Pb, Se, and Cu levels were significantly higher than those in cord blood (P<0

  18. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Comparison of productive and reproductive performance and hair cortisol levels between Brown Swiss cross-bred and Holstein cows housed in the same barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Natsumi; Kuroki, Reimi; Tanaka, Tomomi

    2017-10-01

    The productive and reproductive characteristics of Brown Swiss (B) cross-bred cows were investigated by comparing with those of Holstein (H) cows housed in the same barn. Additionally, their hair cortisol levels were analyzed to evaluate the extent of stress experienced during dry and lactation periods. B cross-bred cows had lower milk yields and higher milk fat rates than H cows. Reproductive records showed that days from parturition to first artificial insemination (AI) in B cross-bred (n = 16) and H (n = 27) cows were not significantly different, but conception rate at first AI of B cross-bred cows tended to be higher than that of H cows. Percentage of B cross-bred cows that resumed ovarian cyclic activity within 45 days after parturition was higher than that of H cows (6/6 (100%) and 5/11 (45.5%), P cows had higher body condition scores at that time. Hair cortisol level at 60 to 90 days after parturition in H cows increased significantly compared with in the dry period, and it was higher than that of B cows during the same period. These results suggest that B cross-bred cows experience less metabolic stress during early lactation, which may result in earlier resumption of reproductive function. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Assessment of mercury exposure among small-scale gold miners using mercury stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, Laura S.; Blum, Joel D.; Basu, Niladri; Rajaee, Mozhgon; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Petrlik, Jindrich; DiGangi, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in hair and urine are often used as biomarkers of exposure to fish-derived methylmercury (MeHg) and gaseous elemental Hg, respectively. We used Hg stable isotopes to assess the validity of these biomarkers among small-scale gold mining populations in Ghana and Indonesia. Urine from Ghanaian miners displayed similar Δ 199 Hg values to Hg derived from ore deposits (mean urine Δ 199 Hg=0.01‰, n=6). This suggests that urine total Hg concentrations accurately reflect exposure to inorganic Hg among this population. Hair samples from Ghanaian miners displayed low positive Δ 199 Hg values (0.23–0.55‰, n=6) and low percentages of total Hg as MeHg (7.6–29%, n=7). These data suggest that the majority of the Hg in these miners' hair samples is exogenously adsorbed inorganic Hg and not fish-derived MeHg. Hair samples from Indonesian gold miners who eat fish daily displayed a wider range of positive Δ 199 Hg values (0.21–1.32‰, n=5) and percentages of total Hg as MeHg (32–72%, n=4). This suggests that total Hg in the hair samples from Indonesian gold miners is likely a mixture of ingested fish MeHg and exogenously adsorbed inorganic Hg. Based on data from both populations, we suggest that total Hg concentrations in hair samples from small-scale gold miners likely overestimate exposure to MeHg from fish consumption. - Highlights: • Mercury isotopes were measured in hair and urine from small-scale gold miners. • Mercury isotopes indicate that Hg in urine comes from mining activity. • Mercury isotopes suggest Hg in hair is a mixture of fish MeHg and inorganic Hg. • A large percentage of Hg in miner’s hair is released during amalgam burning and adsorbed

  1. Mercury Exposure and Health Problems in Urban Artisanal Gold Mining (UAGM in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasriwiani Habo Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban artisanal gold mining (UAGM in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, has been run by a number of urban gold workers with gold jewelry manufacture as its core activity. The wastes generated from goldsmiths’ activities were further processed by the gold smelters to recover fine gold particles. Smelting gold doré, amalgamation, and burning out the amalgam were the mercury-based gold process usually applied in their work. While working the gold workers are, therefore, potentially exposed to a source of mercury pollution that may cause health problems because of working without proper protection. The aims of this research are to characterize the process of urban artisanal gold mining with the potential mercury exposures during the process, and to assess the health of the gold workers. The results showed that the gold workers had a low educational background, but a relatively high income. The total mercury concentration of gold workers was higher than the control group. They were exposed to intoxicatingly high levels of mercury with the average total mercury concentrations of 6.6 and 10.8 µg/g in the hair of indirect and direct exposed workers, respectively. The health assessment showed that 85% of the gold workers suffered neurological symptoms, such as tremors, and 44%–56% of them experienced restricted fields of vision, slow reflexes, sensory disturbances, unbalanced rigidity, and ataxia. The results also showed that the working years have reasonable correlation with the sum of the positive findings in the 10 neurological symptoms.

  2. Scalp hair as an indicator of environmental pollution in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.; Koshy, T.; Zakaria, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The concentration of trace elements such as As, Br, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Sb, Se and Zn in the hair of the two population groups living in different regions of Malaysia were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The results for all elements analysed, except mercury, do not differ significantly from reported values for other regions of the world. Mercury from the urban sample is about twice the concentration of the rural sample. (author)

  3. [Effects of Citric Acid on Activation and Methylation of Mercury in the Soils of Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone of the Three Gorges.Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cai-qing; Liang, Li; You, Rui; Deng, Han; Wang, Ding-yong

    2015-12-01

    To investigate effects of the main component of vegetation root exudates-citric acid on activation and methylation of mercury in the soil of water-level-fluctuating zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, simulation experiments were conducted by extracting and cultivating soil with different concentrations of citric acid. The results showed that after adding citric acid, the total mercury content in leaching solution before reaching peak were higher than that of the control, and increased with the increase of citric acid concentrations. The maximum amount of mercury complexes increased initially and then reached plateaus with the percentage against the total mercury in soil of 1.03%, 1.67%, 1.99%, 2.47%, 2.68%, 2.73% and 2.73% for different citric acid concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 mmol · L⁻¹). In addition, concentrations of methylmercury ( MeHg) in soil remained stable in the first 3 hours, and then increased accompanying with the increasing rate rising with the concentration of citric acid ( besides the control group) . This result indicated that citric acid probably could promote the transformation process from inorganic mercury to MeHg in soil. which increased with the concentration of citric acid.

  4. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and selenium levels in blood of four species of turtles from the Amazon in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis erythrocephala), big-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Peltocephalus dumerilianus), and matamata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus). Blood samples were taken from the vein in the left hind leg of each turtle. There were significant interspecific differences in the sizes of the turtles from the Rio Negro, and in concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Se; the smallest species (red-headed turtles) had the highest levels of Pb in their blood, while Se levels were highest in big-headed turtles and lowest in red-headed turtles. Hg in blood was highest in matamata, intermediate in big-headed, and lowest in the other two turtles. Even though females were significantly larger than males, there were no significant differences in metal levels as a function of gender, and the only relationship of metals to size was for Cd. Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may be a useful bioindicator. Metal levels were not high enough to pose a health risk to the turtles or to consumers, such as humans.

  5. Changes in brain monoamine levels and monoamine oxidase activity in the catfish, Clarias batrachus, during chronic treatments with mercurials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirubagaran, R.; Joy, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    In mammals, the central nervous system is the primary target for CH 3 Hg poisoning which is clinically known as Minamata disease. Hg is a widely recognized neurotoxin and has been reported to impair brain monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism. Reports on effects of Hg on brain monoamine activity in fishes are scarce. In the present study, therefore, changes in the brain monoamine levels and the degradation enzyme, monoamine oxidase (MAO), are described in the catfish, Clarias batrachus, exposed to sublethal concentrations of mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 -inorganic Hg), methylmercuric chloride (CH 3 HgCl-organic Hg), and a commercial mercurial fungicide formulation, emisan 6 (methoxyethyl Hg-organic Hg) for 45, 90 and 180 d during gonadal recrudescence. These intervals correspond to late preparatory, prespawning and spawning phases, respectively, of the annual reproductive cycle of the catfish

  6. Mercury and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  7. k0-NAA applied to certified reference materials and hair samples. Evaluation of exposure level in a galvanising industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.A. de B.C.; Pereira Maia, E.C.

    2000-01-01

    The k 0 parametric neutron activation analysis has been applied since 1995 in the Radiochemical Sector/CDTN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Several certified reference materials were studied with the aim of analysing biological samples. This work is related to an IAEA co-ordinated research project whose goal is to make a survey of the exposures to metals related to occupational diseases. It has been conducted by CDTN and government departments of health. The hair samples as bioindicators were donated by galvanising factory workers in Belo Horizonte. This city and surrounding area are important industrial centres and that industry is responsible for the majority of patients who look for medical assistance because of metal contamination. The Al, Co, Cu, Cr, La, Mn, Sb and V concentrations determined in the workers' samples suggest endogenous contamination. (author)

  8. Methyl mercury exposure in Swedish women with high fish consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernberg, Karolin Ask; Vahter, Marie; Grawe, Kierstin Petersson; Berglund, Marika

    2005-01-01

    We studied the exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg) in 127 Swedish women of childbearing age with high consumption of various types of fish, using total mercury (T-Hg) in hair and MeHg in blood as biomarkers. Fish consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), including detailed information about consumption of different fish species, reflecting average intake during 1 year. We also determined inorganic mercury (I-Hg) in blood, and selenium (Se) in serum. The average total fish consumption, as reported in the food frequency questionnaire, was approximately 4 times/week (range 1.6-19 times/week). Fish species potentially high in MeHg, included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 79% of the women. About 10% consumed such species more than once a week, i.e., more than what is recommended. Other fish species potentially high in MeHg, not included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 54% of the women. Eleven percent never consumed fish species potentially high in MeHg. T-Hg in hair (median 0.70 mg/kg; range 0.08-6.6 mg/kg) was associated with MeHg in blood (median 1.7 μg/L; range 0.30-14 μg/L; r s =0.78; p s =0.32; p s =0.37; p s =0.35; p=0.002, respectively). I-Hg in blood (median 0.24 μg/L; range 0.01-1.6 μg/L) increased with increasing number of dental amalgam fillings. We found no statistical significant associations between the various mercury species measured and the Se concentration in serum. Hair mercury levels exceeded the levels corresponding to the EPA reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 μg MeHg/kg b.w. per day in 20% of the women. Thus, there seems to be no margin of safety for neurodevelopmental effects in fetus, for women with high fish consumption unless they decrease their intake of certain fish species

  9. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akçay, Nilay, E-mail: nilay.akcay@erdogan.edu.tr [Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Physics, Rize (Turkey); Batan, Nevzat, E-mail: nbatan@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Maçka Vocational School, Trabzon (Turkey); Çinar, Yunus, E-mail: yunus.cinar@erdogan.edu.tr [Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Vocational School of Technical Studies, Rize (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  10. Possible biological dosimeters in skin and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The hair follicle, when producing hair, contains rapidly proliferating cells, some of which are very sensitive to radiation. These can be detected by studying the incidence of dead or dying (apoptotic) cells which reach peak yields 12 h after irradiation. The yield of apoptotic cells in the follicle has been studied after various doses. The response is dose-dependent and sensitive down to levels of a few cGy. Any reduction in cell production resulting from mitotic delay or cell death might be expressed as a reduction in the width of the hair. This has been studied and the abnormality referred to as dysplasia of the hair. The fraction of dysplastic hairs is strongly dose dependent over the range 2-10 Gy. More detailed studies using higher magnification and numerous measurements of hair width should make this end-point an even more sensitive assay for radiation exposure. Preliminary measurements on the average width at a critical point along the length of the hair illustrate that doses between 1.0 and 1.5 Gy can be detected. The width of the hair is dose dependent. The length of the affected region of the hair is also probably dose dependent. Estimates for the full reduction in volume of hair should increase the sensitivity further. (orig./MG)

  11. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  12. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; pmercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  13. Determination of mercury and selenium in biological materials by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Moreira, Edson G.; Cipriano, Roseli; Saiki, Mitiko

    2000-01-01

    Mercury presents a great number of applications, however, many mercury compounds are highly toxic and may cause diseases or even death. Other element of interest is selenium, as some studies have shown that it may reduce the toxic effects of mercury and other toxic elements, due to its ability to bind to these elements. In this work the mercury concentration in the 'Spiked Human Hair' IAEA-085 and 'Unspiked Human Hair' IAEA-086 certified reference materials, in hair samples of children under dental treatment and in hair samples of an Amazon Region population, subject to mercurial contamination was determined. Selenium determination was done using 77m Se and 75 Se radioisotopes. The selenium concentration was determined also in the (IAEA-085, IAEA-086, 'Dogfish Liver' DOLT-1 and 'Dogfish Muscle' DORM-1) certified reference materials, vitamin supplement and nail clipping samples. (author)

  14. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    This report provides a first comprehensive compilation and assessment of available data on mercury in air, precipitation, sediments and fish in the Nordic countries. The main conclusion is that mercury levels in Nordic ecosystems continue to be affected by long-range atmospheric transport. The geographical patterns of mercury concentrations in both sediments and fish are also strongly affected by ecosystem characteristics and in some regions possibly by historical pollution. An evaluation of geographical variations in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicates that the influence from anthropogenic sources from Central European areas is still significant. The annual variability of deposition is large and dependant of precipitation amounts. An evaluation of data from stations around the North Sea has indicated a significant decrease in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicating a continuous decrease of emissions in Europe (Waengberg et al., 2007). For mercury in air (TGM), the geographical pattern is less pronounced indicating the influence of mercury emissions and distribution over a larger geographical area (i.e. hemispherical transport). Comparison of recent (surficial) and historical lake sediments show significantly elevated concentrations of mercury most likely caused by anthropogenic atmospheric deposition over the past century. The highest pollution impact was observed in the coastal areas of southern Norway, in south western Finland and in Sweden from the coastal areas in the southwest across the central parts to the north-east. The general increase in recent versus old sediments was 2-5 fold. Data on mercury in Nordic freshwater fish was assembled and evaluated with respect to geographical variations. The fish data were further compared with temporal and spatial trends in mercury deposition and mercury contamination of lake sediments in order to investigate the coupling between atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury and local mercury

  15. Spatial variation of mercury levels in nesting Bonelli's eagles from Southwest Portugal: effects of diet composition and prey contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Luis; Beja, Pedro; Tavares, Paula C.; Monteiro, Luis R.

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) was determined in adult Bonelli's eagles (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and their avian prey, from samples of feathers collected between 1992 and 2001 at the nesting sites of 21 pairs in Southwest Portugal. Eagle Hg levels showed great variation, reflecting primarily differences in diet composition and food chain biomagnification. Concentrations were positively correlated with the dietary proportion of insectivorous and omnivorous birds (e.g. egrets, corvids and thrushes), with very low levels for pairs feeding mainly on herbivores (e.g. rabbits, pigeons and partridges). Differences in prey contamination among breeding territories added to dietary effects in determining variation of Hg levels in eagles, shaping a spatial pattern that was largely consistent with a source of contamination in a coal-burning power-plant lying upwind of the study area. Despite this presumed contamination, Hg levels seemed to be of little concern to this eagle population, though there might be subtle deleterious effects on the reproductive output of a few pairs. This study emphasizes the need to account for dietary effects when biomonitoring Hg contamination using birds of prey. - The effects of diet composition and prey contamination added up to determine the spatial variation of Hg levels in breeding Bonelli's eagles

  16. Mercury levels in fish, invertebrates and sediment in a recently recorded polluted area (Nissum Broad, western Limfjord, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Ulrik Riisgård, Hans

    1983-01-01

    High concentrations of mercury were measured in sediment and animals collected in the immediate vicinity of a closed-down chemical factory. Sediment contained up to 22 ppm (dry wt) of mercury, deposit-feeding bivalves between 1.4 and 4.4 ppm (wet wt), suspension-feeding bivalves between 0.9 and 1...

  17. Influence of Reservoir Water Level Fluctuations on Sediment Methylmercury Concentrations Downstream of the Historical Black Butte Mercury Mine, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern due to its ability to accumulate as methylmercury (MeHg) in biota. Mercury is methylated by anaerobic microorganisms such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in water and sediment. Throughout North America, reservoirs tend to have e...

  18. Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  19. Analysis of mercury and selenium in biological samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catharino, Marilia Gabriela Miranda

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, hair samples from populations suspected of contamination by mercury, in the localities of Serra do Navio, Vila Nova and Tartarugalzinho, in the State of Amapa, were analyzed. Hair samples of children under odontopediatric treatment were also analyzed for mercury, in order to study the possibility of transfer of mercury from the dental amalgam and also to obtain data of hair mercury in a control population of children. Another step of the work was the development of a method for the determination of selenium, by using the short-lived radioisotope 77 mSe. After the certification of the method it was applied to the analysis of hair, nails and a vitamin supplement. A comparison was made with the results obtain ed by using the long-lived radioisotope of selenium, 75 Se. The results obtained for mercury in the hair samples of populations living in the State of Amapa have shown that the mercury concentrations in these populations are much higher than in the controls. As for the hair samples of children under treatment with mercury amalgam, no significant differences were found in the concentrations of mercury after the treatment. On the other hand, these data were important to obtain data for a control population of children. The results obtained by using the radioisotope 77 mSe showed that the method developed was suitable for the analyzed matrixes and the results were similar to the ones obtained by employing the usual AANI method, with the radioisotope 75 Se. (author)

  20. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, So-Hyang; Myong, Jun-Pyo

    2016-04-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; pdry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. [New discoveries in forensic medicine. Hair analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaempe, B

    1999-03-29

    A review of forensic chemical drug testing in hair is given. Applications for analysis of hair are described. The special problems linked to the determination of drugs in hair such as contamination, differences in sex and ethnic groups and cosmetic pretreatment of the hair are outlined. It is concluded that greater knowledge of hair analysis is needed before the results can be used for toxicological evaluation at the same level as blood. On the other hand, a chemical hair analysis might expose a (mis)use of drugs and follow it step by step up to half a year back in time. In this way, it may supplement a systematic toxicological analysis (STA) for 'a general unknown' for use by police and forensic pathologists.

  2. Mercurial poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, B

    1924-01-01

    Cats which had been kept in a thermometer factory to catch rats were afflicted with mercury poisoning. So were the rats they were supposed to eat. The symptoms of mercury poisoning were the same in both species. The source of mercury for these animals is a fine film of the metal which coats floors, a result of accidental spills during the manufacturing process.

  3. High levels of hair manganese in children living in the vicinity of a ferro-manganese alloy production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Filho, José A; Paes, Ciro R; Pontes, Angela M de C; Moreira, Josino C; Sarcinelli, Paula N; Mergler, Donna

    2009-11-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, but an effective toxic at high concentrations. While there is an extensive literature on occupational exposure, few studies have examined adults and children living near important sources of airborne Mn. The objective of this study was to analyze hair Mn of children living in the vicinity of a ferro-manganese alloy production plant in the Great Salvador region, State of Bahia, Brazil and examine factors that influence this bioindicator of exposure. We examined 109 children in the age range of 1-10 years, living near the plant. Four separate housing areas were identified a priori on the bases of proximity to the emission sources and downwind location. A non-exposed group (n=43) of similar socio-economic status was also evaluated. Mn hair (MnH) concentration was measured by graphite atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Possible confounding hematological parameters were also assessed. Mean MnH concentration was 15.20 microg/g (1.10-95.50 microg/g) for the exposed children and 1.37 microg/g (0.39-5.58 microg/g) for the non-exposed. For the former, MnH concentrations were 7.95+/-1.40 microg/g (farthest from the plant), 11.81+/-1.11 microg/g (mid-region), 34.43+/-8.66 microg/g (closest to the plant) and 34.22+/-9.15 microg/g (directly downwind). Multiple regression analysis on log transformed MnH concentrations for the exposed children derived a model that explained 36.8% of the variability. In order of importance, area of children's residence, gender (girls>boys) and time of mother's residence in the area at the birth of the child, were significantly associated with MnH. Post hoc analyses indicated two groupings for exposure areas, with those living closest to and downwind of the plant displaying higher MnH concentrations compared to the others. The contribution of the time the mother lived in the community prior to the child's birth to the children's current MnH suggests that in utero exposure may play a role. A study of

  4. Urine mercury levels correlate with DNA methylation of imprinting gene H19 in the sperm of reproductive-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxu Lu

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a well-recognized environmental pollutant known by its toxicity of development and neurotoxicity, which results in adverse health outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying the teratogenic effects of Hg are not well understood. Imprinting genes are emerging regulators for fetal development subjecting to environmental pollutants impacts. In this study, we examined the association between preconceptional Hg exposure and the alteration of DNA methylation of imprinting genes H19, Meg3, and Peg3 in human sperm DNA.A total of 616 men, aged from 22 to 59, were recruited from Reproductive Medicine Clinic of Maternal and Child Care Service Center and the Urologic Surgery Clinic of Shanxi Academy of Medical Sciences during April 2015 and March 2016. Demographic information was collected through questionnaires. Urine was collected and urinary Hg concentrations were measured using a fully-automatic double-channel hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometer. Methylation of imprinting genes H19, Meg3 and Peg3 of sperm DNA from 242 participants were examined by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Spearman's rank and multivariate regression analysis were used for correlation analysis between sperm DNA methylation status of imprinting genes and urinary Hg levels.The median concentration of Hg for 616 participants was 9.14μg/l (IQR: 5.56-12.52 μg/l; ranging 0.16-71.35μg/l. A total of 42.7% of the participants are beyond normal level for non-occupational exposure according to the criterion of Hg poisoning (≥10 μg/L. Spearman's rank analysis indicated a negative correlation between urinary Hg concentrations and average DNA methylation levels of imprinted genes H19 (rs = -0.346, p <0.05, but there was no such a correlation for Peg3 and Meg3. Further, we analyzed the correlation between methylation level at individual CpG site of H19 and urinary Hg level. The results showed a negative correlation between urinary Hg concentrations and three out of

  5. Efficacy and safety of a low-level laser device in the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss: a multicenter, randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Joaquin J; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Bergfeld, Wilma; Hordinsky, Maria; Hickman, Janet G; Hamblin, Michael R; Schachner, Lawrence A

    2014-04-01

    Male and female pattern hair loss are common, chronic dermatologic disorders with limited therapeutic options. In recent years, a number of commercial devices using low-level laser therapy have been promoted, but there have been little peer-reviewed data on their efficacy. To determine whether treatment with a low-level laser device, the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, increases terminal hair density in both men and women with pattern hair loss. Randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind clinical trials were conducted at multiple institutional and private practices. A total of 146 male and 188 female subjects with pattern hair loss were screened. A total of 128 male and 141 female subjects were randomized to receive either a lasercomb (one of three models) or a sham device in concealed sealed packets, and were treated on the whole scalp three times a week for 26 weeks. Terminal hair density of the target area was evaluated at baseline and at 16- and 26-week follow-ups, and analyzed to determine whether the hypothesis formulated prior to data collection, that lasercomb treatment would increase terminal hair density, was correct. The site investigators and the subjects remained blinded to the type of device they dispensed/received throughout the study. The evaluator of masked digital photographs was blinded to which trial arm the subject belonged. Seventy-eight, 63, 49, and 79 subjects were randomized in four trials of 9-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 12-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 7-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, and 9- and 12-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, compared with the sham device, respectively. Nineteen female and 25 male subjects were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 122 female and 103 male subjects in the efficacy analysis, the mean terminal hair count at 26 weeks increased from baseline by 20.2, 20.6, 18.4, 20.9, and 25.7 per cm2 in 9-beam lasercomb-treated female subjects, 12-beam

  6. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutte, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.goutte@ephe.sorbonne.fr [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Ponthus, Jean-Pierre [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Massé, Guillaume [Unité Mixte Internationale Takuvik, Pavillon Alexandre-Vachon, Université Laval, QC, Québec (Canada); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-12-15

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ{sup 13}C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  7. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, Aurélie; Cherel, Yves; Churlaud, Carine; Ponthus, Jean-Pierre; Massé, Guillaume; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ"1"3C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.