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Sample records for hair mercury concentrations

  1. Hair mercury concentrations in residents of Sundarban and Calcutta, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Herman; O'Leary, Keri Grace; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Wang, Jing; Liguori, Lisa; Rainis, Holly; Smith, Katy A; Chatterjee, Mousumi

    2016-10-01

    Few studies on hair mercury have been conducted in India despite the fact that India is the world's third largest producer of coal and coal is India's primary energy source. No studies have been conducted in the Indian state of West Bengal which has a coastline with the Bay of Bengal. This study examined the concentration of mercury in hair in two diverse populations in West Bengal, India: Sundarban, a mangrove wetland where fishing is a common occupation, and Calcutta, a megacity and India's oldest functioning port. Individuals from whom scalp hair was collected (N=100) were asked a series of questions on occupation, education, age, smoking and alcohol consumption, and fish consumption. SAS was utilized to generate descriptive statistics including frequency and univariate analyses and to perform regression analyses to determine significant predictors of hair mercury in this population. The mean hair mercury increased across the first three age categories (45). Hair mercury concentration was significantly higher among residents of Sundarban compared to Calcutta (p=0.0005). In multivariable analysis, location (Sundarban vs. Calcutta) and age were significant predictors of hair mercury concentration (p=0.0120 and p=0.0161, respectively). Average hair mercury concentrations in this study were not particularly elevated. Smoking and alcohol consumption were predictors of hair mercury concentration. The hair mercury in Sundarban residents compared to Calcutta residents may be elevated due to greater consumption of fish and type of fish consumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hair mercury concentrations and fish consumption patterns in Florida residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Adam M; Jensen, Emily L; Bossart, Gregory D; Reif, John S

    2014-06-26

    Mercury exposure through the consumption of fish and shellfish represents a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent research has demonstrated higher seafood consumption and subsequent increased risk of methylmercury exposure among subpopulations living in coastal areas. The identification of high concentrations of total mercury in blood and skin among resident Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), a coastal estuary in Florida, alerted us to a potential public health hazard in the contiguous human population. Therefore, we analyzed hair mercury concentrations of residents living along the IRL and ascertained their sources and patterns of seafood consumption. The total mean mercury concentration for 135 residents was 1.53 ± 1.89 µg/g. The concentration of hair mercury among males (2.02 ± 2.38 µg/g) was significantly higher than that for females (0.96 ± 0.74 µg/g) (p < 0.01). Log transformed hair mercury concentration was significantly associated with the frequency of total seafood consumption (p < 0.01). Individuals who reported consuming seafood once a day or more were 3.71 (95% CI 0.84-16.38) times more likely to have a total hair mercury concentration over 1.0 µg/g, which corresponds approximately to the U.S. EPA reference dose, compared to those who consumed seafood once a week or less. Hair mercury concentration was also significantly higher among individuals who obtained all or most of their seafood from local recreational sources (p < 0.01). The elevated human mercury concentrations mirror the elevated concentrations observed in resident dolphins in the same geographical region. The current study is one of the first to apply the concept of a sentinel animal to a contiguous human population.

  3. Hair Mercury Concentrations and Fish Consumption Patterns in Florida Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Schaefer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exposure through the consumption of fish and shellfish represents a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent research has demonstrated higher seafood consumption and subsequent increased risk of methylmercury exposure among subpopulations living in coastal areas. The identification of high concentrations of total mercury in blood and skin among resident Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, a coastal estuary in Florida, alerted us to a potential public health hazard in the contiguous human population. Therefore, we analyzed hair mercury concentrations of residents living along the IRL and ascertained their sources and patterns of seafood consumption. The total mean mercury concentration for 135 residents was 1.53 ± 1.89 µg/g. The concentration of hair mercury among males (2.02 ± 2.38 µg/g was significantly higher than that for females (0.96 ± 0.74 µg/g (p < 0.01. Log transformed hair mercury concentration was significantly associated with the frequency of total seafood consumption (p < 0.01. Individuals who reported consuming seafood once a day or more were 3.71 (95% CI 0.84–16.38 times more likely to have a total hair mercury concentration over 1.0 µg/g, which corresponds approximately to the U.S. EPA reference dose, compared to those who consumed seafood once a week or less. Hair mercury concentration was also significantly higher among individuals who obtained all or most of their seafood from local recreational sources (p < 0.01. The elevated human mercury concentrations mirror the elevated concentrations observed in resident dolphins in the same geographical region. The current study is one of the first to apply the concept of a sentinel animal to a contiguous human population.

  4. Mercury concentration change in human hair after the ingestion of canned tuna fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inasmasu, T.; Ogo, A.; Yanagawa, M.; Keshino, M.; Hirakoba, A.; Takahashi, K.; Ishinish, N.

    1986-10-01

    The concentration of mercury in the hair of man has been conveniently used as an indicator of environmental exposure to mercury. In particular, studies concerning the relationship between the concentration of mercury in the hair and the dietary intake of mercury have revealed that the amount of fish consumed significantly affects the mercury concentration in the scalp hair. However, the quantitative relationship between the mercury concentration in the hair and the dietary intake of mercury has been scarcely proven. This is because mercury concentration in hair sampled reflects the degree of exposure from diet in the past, and because the dietary measurements of mercury generally depend on individuals remembering accurately or having recorded their intake of fish in the past. In an attempt to elucidate this problem. The authors assessed the mercury concentration in the hair of human subjects who ingested a certain amount of canned tuna fish.

  5. The tropical African mercury anomaly: lower than expected mercury concentrations in fish and human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Frank J; Bokhutlo, Thethela; Somoxa, Aaron; Maethamako, Mothusi; Modisaemang, Ontlogetse; Kemosedile, Thebe; Cobb-Adams, Cristina; Mosepele, Ketlhatlogile; Chimbari, Moses

    2011-04-15

    Mercury is a neurotoxin and global pollutant, and wetlands and newly flooded areas are known to be sites of enhanced production of monomethylmercury, the form of mercury that is readily biomagnified in aquatic food chains to potentially toxic levels. The Okavango Delta in Botswana, Southern Africa, is the largest inland delta in the world and a wetland ecosystem that experiences dramatic annual flooding of large tracts of seasonal floodplains. The Delta was, therefore, expected to be home to high mercury levels in fish and to be an area where local subsistence fishing communities would be at substantial risk of mercury toxicity from fish consumption. Total mercury concentrations measured in 27 species of fish from the Okavango Delta averaged (mean±s.d., wet weight) 19±19ng g(-1) in non-piscivorous fish, and 59±53ng g(-1) in piscivorous fish. These mercury concentrations are similar to those reported for fish from lakes in other areas of tropical Africa, demonstrating that not all wetlands are sites of elevated mercury concentrations in biota. Even more intriguing is that concentrations of mercury in fish from across tropical Africa are systematically and substantially lower than those typically reported for fish from freshwater ecosystems elsewhere globally. The reasons for this apparent "African mercury anomaly" are unclear, but this finding poses a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of mercury's biogeochemical cycling in the environment. Mercury concentrations measured in human hair collected in subsistence fishing communities in the Okavango Delta were similarly low (0.21±0.22μg g(-1) dry weight) despite high levels of fish consumption, and reflect the low mercury concentrations in the fish here.

  6. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  7. Mercury concentration in hair samples from Chinese people in coastal cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaojie; CHENG Jinping; Song Yuling; HONDA Shun'ichi; WANG Li; LIU Zheng; SAKAMOTO Mineshi; LIU Yuanyuan

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was made to estimate current normal concentrations of total mercury in the hair of Chinese coastal people. Hairsamples were collected from 659 healthy inhabitants in the areas along the coast and the rivers (such as Shanghai, Ningbo, Dalian,Xiamen, and Zhoushan) of China from Feb. 2005 to June 2006. Total mercury concentrations in the samples were analyzed by the coldvapor atomic adsorption spectrometry method (CVAAS). The results showed the geometric mean concentration of total mercury in thehair of the total population (N=659) was 0.83 μg/g, and the geometric mean of the concentrations of total mercury in the hair of themale (0.94 μg/g, 338 inhabitants with an average age of 35.2, age 2-93) was higher than that of the female (0.72 μg/g, 321 inhabitantswith an average age of 39.1, age 1-90). In both the male and female, the mean concentrations of total mercury in hair increased withage, and then gradually decreased. There was a significant correlation between the total hair mercury and the place of residence (p<0.01), and total hair mercury was the highest in volunteers who lived in Zhoushan. Over half of all sample concentrations were belowthe USEPA-recommended 1 μg/g. In Zhoushan (males, 2.44 μg/g; females, 1.94 [μg/g) and Ningbo (males, 1.06 μg/g; females, 1.02μg/g), it exceeded the recommended level. Very little females (0.3%) of reproductive age showed hair mercury levels close to 10 μg/g.It was thus concluded that fish consumption was a major current route for mercury exposure in China.

  8. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Gairong; Luo, Jiayi; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18-3.98μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12-1.63μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=-0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=-0.278, P=0.001). This study investigated human mercury exposure and suggested elevated hair mercury concentrations in

  9. Hair mercury concentrations of children and mothers in Korea: Implication for exposure and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.A. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: heaven1@snu.ac.kr; Jeon, C.K.; Paek, D.M. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-25

    Background: Mercury is a global pollutant that affects neurodevelopment of children. Objective: The objectives were to measure and evaluate mercury concentration of children and mothers, and its association with exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was done using questionnaires and hair mercury were analysed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in the National Institute for Minamata Disease in Japan. Results: A total of 112 children and 111 mothers were included; mean age was 34 months and 32 years, respectively. 17.9 % of children and 34.2 % of mothers had concentrations greater than 1 parts per million (ppm) as reference level. Body weight at birth, feeding methods, maternal age, and maternal education level were significantly different in each group (p < .05). Mean maternal hair mercury level (0.91 ppm) was higher than children (0.74 ppm), and has a positive correlation between them (p < .05). 68.1% of children, 75% of pregnant period, 63.4% of lactating period, and 78.6% of last six months have been consuming fish. With multiple regression analysis, hair mercury levels in children aged less than 6 months had a linear relationship with body weight at birth, gestational weeks, feeding methods (breast- or bottle- feeding) and maternal educational level. While children aged over 6 months significantly differed with gender, frequency of fish servings per week, and frequency of maternal fish consumption in lactation period. And hair mercury levels had inverse linear relationship with maternal monthly income in this age group. Maternal mercury levels had linear relationship with maternal age. Conclusion: Mercury levels in children may be affected by their mothers due to similar dietary patterns. Further long-term large-scale and follow-up studies are needed.

  10. Association between mercury concentrations in blood and hair in methylmercury-exposed subjects at different ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Poul J

    2004-01-01

    was between five-fold and nine-fold greater than the 5th percentile. The results were examined in structural equation models to estimate the total imprecision of the individual biomarker results and the possibility that the ratio may not be constant. The hair-to-blood ratio was found to increase at lower......Mercury concentrations were measured in paired hair and blood samples from a cohort of about 1000 children examined at birth and at 7 and 14 years of age. The ratio between concentrations in maternal hair (in microg/g) and in cord blood (microg/L) was approximately 200, but samples from...... the children at age 14 years showed a ratio of about 250. These findings are in accordance with previous data from smaller studies. However, an even higher ratio of about 360 was seen at 7 years of age, suggesting that hair strands at this age retain more mercury. The 95th percentile of the hair-to-blood ratio...

  11. Temporal Trends and Future Predictions of Mercury Concentrations in Northwest Greenland Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Born, E.W.; Riget, Frank Farsø

    2011-01-01

    Hair samples from 117 Northwest Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were taken during 1892-2008 and analyzed for total mercury (hereafterHg). The sample represented 28 independent years and the aim of the study was to analyze for temporal Hg trends. Mercury concentrations showed yearly...... significant increases of 1.6-1.7% (p bear......-2008 concentrations ofHg in Northwest Greenland polar bear hair exceeded the general guideline values of 20-30 μg/g dry weight for terrestrial wildlife, whereas the neurochemical effect level of 5.4 μg Hg/g dry weight proposed for East Greenland polar bears was exceeded in 93.5% of the cases. These results call...

  12. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...

  13. Hair and Bone as Predictors of Tissular Mercury Concentration in the Western Alaska Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainowski, BH; Duffy, LK; McIntyre, J; Jones, P

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated if total mercury (THg) concentrations of keratin-based and bone-based tissues can predict THg concentrations in skeletal muscle, renal medulla, renal cortex, and liver. The THg concentration in matched tissues of 65 red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, from western Alaska was determined. Hair THg concentration had a significant positive correlation with liver, renal medulla, renal cortex, and muscle. The THg concentration for males and females is moderately predictive of THg concentration in the renal cortex and liver for these foxes based on R2 values (R2 = 0.61 and 0.63, respectively). Bone is weakly predictive of THg concentration in muscle (R2 = 0.36), but not a reliable tissue to predict THg concentration in liver (R2 = 0.28), renal cortex (R2 = 0.33), or renal medulla (R2 = 0.29). These results confirm the potential use of trapped animals, specifically foxes, as useful Arctic sentinel species to inform researchers about patterns in THg levels over time as industrialization of the Arctic continues. PMID:25777958

  14. comparative analysis of mercury content in human hair and cosmetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were analysed in human hairs and cosmetic .... (SDE = Standard Error; d.l. = detection limit of 0.001 ppm; ** Mean was calculated ... Hotel attendants. 23. 1. 2. 350.0 ± 4.5. 18. 1. 2. 360.0 ± 8.5. Hair saloon.

  15. Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Guanghui

    2009-12-01

    The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 μg/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations in the hair of XCX residents were 3.3 ± 1.4 μg/g and 1.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. Hair Me-Hg concentrations were significantly correlated to T-Hg (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) in the two sites; on average, hair Me-Hg concentration accounted for 40 and 44% of T-Hg for DSX and XCX residents, respectively. Age has no obvious correlation with hair Hg and the hair Hg levels showed a significant gender difference, with higher T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations in the hair from males than females. The rice collected from the two sites showed high levels of T-Hg and Me-Hg concentration. The results indicated a certain Hg exposure for the residents in DSX and XCX in the Wanshan Hg mining area.

  16. Hair mercury levels in Amazonian populations: spatial distribution and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Flavia L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is present in the Amazonian aquatic environments from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As a consequence, many riverside populations are exposed to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury, because of their intense fish consumption. Many studies have analysed this exposure from different approaches since the early nineties. This review aims to systematize the information in spatial distribution, comparing hair mercury levels by studied population and Amazonian river basin, looking for exposure trends. Methods The reviewed papers were selected from scientific databases and online libraries. We included studies with a direct measure of hair mercury concentrations in a sample size larger than 10 people, without considering the objectives, approach of the study or mercury speciation. The results are presented in tables and maps by river basin, displaying hair mercury levels and specifying the studied population and health impact, if any. Results The majority of the studies have been carried out in communities from the central Amazonian regions, particularly on the Tapajós River basin. The results seem quite variable; hair mercury means range from 1.1 to 34.2 μg/g. Most studies did not show any significant difference in hair mercury levels by gender or age. Overall, authors emphasized fish consumption frequency as the main risk factor of exposure. The most studied adverse health effect is by far the neurological performance, especially motricity. However, it is not possible to conclude on the relation between hair mercury levels and health impact in the Amazonian situation because of the relatively small number of studies. Conclusions Hair mercury levels in the Amazonian regions seem to be very heterogenic, depending on several factors. There is no obvious spatial trend and there are many areas that have never been studied. Taking into account the low mercury levels currently handled as acceptable, the

  17. Investigation on hair mercury concentration of people in 8 typical regions of Anhui Province and its influence factors%安徽省典型地区人群头发汞含量及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮志远; 王元; 刘桂建

    2016-01-01

    Mercury and its compounds are harmful to human health due to their strong toxicity and easy volatilization in environment. The exposure of human body to mercury can be estimated with hair mercury concentration. In this study, the total hair mercury level of people in Anhui Province was investigated by determining the mercury concentration of 131 hair samples from people in 8 typical regions with hydride generation flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS. It was found that the average hair mercury concentration (0.480±0.896μg·g-1) of people in Anhui Province was at lower level compared to those in some other regions, which indicated low mercury exposure risk to residents in Anhui Province. Hair mercury concentration of people (0.068± 0.054 μg·g-1 ) in Luan was significantly lower than those in other 7 regions, while there was no significant difference of hair mercury content among other 7 regions. Hair mercury concentration was influenced by the age of people rather than their gender. The mercury content in hair of people with the age of 30—50 was significantly higher than those of people of other ages. In addition, mercury concentration of the dyed hair was apparently lower than that of undyed sample. The dyed hair subsequently cannot be used as an indicator of human of exposure to mercury.%汞及其化合物毒性大,挥发性强,在环境中易于迁移,危害人体健康.人发中汞的含量是反映汞的环境暴露对人体的影响的优良指标.本研究利用氢化物发生-原子吸收分光光度法对安徽省合肥、淮南、安庆等8个典型地区人群的131个头发样品中总汞含量进行测定,并用SPSS软件对数据结果进行了统计分析.结果表明,安徽省人群发汞含量为0.480±0.896μg·g-1,与国内外部分地区相比,处于较低水平,人体受汞暴露的风险较低;六安地区人群发汞含量(0.068±0.054μg·g-1)明显低于其他7个地区;男

  18. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments

    OpenAIRE

    Marcano,Eunice; Labady,Mary; Gomes,Clara; Aguiar,Guillermina; Laine,Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela) were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon ...

  19. Determinants of hair cortisol and hair cortisone concentrations in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Rijke, Yolanda B; van den Akker, Erica L T; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    The analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HairF) is a promising new tool for the assessment of long-term cortisol. With the development of multiple steroid analyses by means of liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the analysis of cortisone in hair (HairE) has also been facilitated. However, the influence of various types of determinants on HairF and HairE is still largely unknown. This study systematically assesses the influence of sociodemographic, health, lifestyle, and hair (treatment) characteristics on HairF and HairE. Data of 760 psychiatrically healthy participants (71.8% female, mean age 45.89 years) of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used. HairF and HairE were measured in the proximal 3 cm of scalp hair, using LC-MS/MS. HairF and HairE strongly correlated. In simple linear regressions, HairF and HairE were higher in older age, in presence of diabetes mellitus, and in men compared to women. More frequent washing of the hair was associated with lower HairF and HairE. Darker hair colours were associated with higher HairF and HairE. An effect of season and of use of oral contraceptives was found for HairF. After full mutual adjustment, only age, presence of diabetes mellitus, hair washing frequency, and season remained significant determinants of HairF. This large-scale study shows that HairF and HairE are upregulated in older age and in the presence of diabetes mellitus. This suggests that these levels are important for somatic health and should be taken into account when using hair corticosteroid analysis in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic implications of mercury exposure in the context of the global mercury treaty: Hair mercury levels and estimated lost economic productivity in selected developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo; DiGangi, Joseph; Evers, David C; Petrlik, Jindrich; Buck, David G; Šamánek, Jan; Beeler, Bjorn; Turnquist, Madeline A; Regan, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    Several developing countries have limited or no information about exposures near anthropogenic mercury sources and no studies have quantified costs of mercury pollution or economic benefits to mercury pollution prevention in these countries. In this study, we present data on mercury concentrations in human hair from subpopulations in developing countries most likely to benefit from the implementation of the Minamata Convention on Mercury. These data are then used to estimate economic costs of mercury exposure in these communities. Hair samples were collected from sites located in 15 countries. We used a linear dose-response relationship that previously identified a 0.18 IQ point decrement per part per million (ppm) increase in hair mercury, and modeled a base case scenario assuming a reference level of 1 ppm, and a second scenario assuming no reference level. We then estimated the corresponding increases in intellectual disability and lost Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY). A total of 236 participants provided hair samples for analysis, with an estimated population at risk of mercury exposure near the 15 sites of 11,302,582. Average mercury levels were in the range of 0.48 ppm-4.60 ppm, and 61% of all participants had hair mercury concentrations greater than 1 ppm, the level that approximately corresponds to the USA EPA reference dose. An additional 1310 cases of intellectual disability attributable to mercury exposure were identified annually (4110 assuming no reference level), resulting in 16,501 lost DALYs (51,809 assuming no reference level). A total of $77.4 million in lost economic productivity was estimated assuming a 1 ppm reference level and $130 million if no reference level was used. We conclude that significant mercury exposures occur in developing and transition country communities near sources named in the Minamata Convention, and our estimates suggest that a large economic burden could be avoided by timely implementation of measures to

  1. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...... status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1–2 cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair...... washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. Results: No statistically significant difference (p = 0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean...

  2. Hair mercury levels in relation to fish consumption in a community of the Moroccan Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamri, Hecham; Idrissi, Larbi; Coquery, Marina; Azemard, Sabine; El Abidi, Abdellah; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Saghi, Mohamed; Cubadda, Francesco

    2007-11-01

    Coastal populations with high seafood consumption in the Mediterranean have a significant exposure to dietary methylmercury, and areas where environmental mercury pollution is an issue due to industrial activities are of special concern. The study was undertaken with the aim of assessing methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in a community of north Morocco and characterizing the relevant health risk. Concentrations of total mercury were determined in human hair, a biomarker of methylmercury exposure, and in locally consumed fish by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Based on consumption frequencies reported by the 108 subjects included in the study the weekly intake of methylmercury was estimated and biomarker data were evaluated in relation to the estimated intake and the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. Multiple regression analysis was employed for the interpretation of hair mercury data in relation to fish consumption frequency, gender and the age of individuals. Mercury concentrations in hair ranged from 0.22 to 9.56 microg g(-1) (geometric mean = 1.79 microg g(-1)) and were closely related to fish intake. Fisherman and their families consumed fish three to five times per week and were the most exposed population subgroup. A high proportion of women of child-bearing age (50%) had relatively high levels of mercury in their hair (3.08-7.88 microg g(-1)).

  3. Mercury concentration in bivalve molluscs

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    Szkoda Józef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 85 mussel samples of eight species were examined. Analysis of mercury in the freeze-dried samples was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry method using direct mercury analyser AMA 254. The analytical procedure for determination of mercury was covered by the quality assurance programme of research and participation in national and international proficiency tests. Concentrations of total mercury in all investigated samples were found to be generally low, in the range of 0.033-0.577 mg/kg of dry weight and of 0.003-0.045 mg/kg of wet weight. The results indicate that obtained levels of mercury in bivalve molluscs are not likely to pose a risk to the health of consumers.

  4. Public health benefits of hair-mercury analysis and dietary advice in lowering methylmercury exposure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Line E; Jørgensen, Jan S; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate whether a public health intervention using focused dietary advice combined with a hair-mercury analysis can lower neurotoxic methylmercury exposure among pregnant women without decreasing their overall intake of seafood. A total of 146 pregnant women were consecutively recruited from the antenatal clinic at a Danish university hospital at their initial ultrasound scan. Dietary advice was provided on avoiding methylmercury exposure from large predatory fish and a hair sample from each participant was analysed for mercury, with the results being communicated shortly thereafter to the women. A dietary questionnaire was filled in. Follow-up three months later included a dietary questionnaire and a repeat hair-mercury analysis. In the follow-up group, 22% of the women had hair-mercury concentrations above a safe limit of 0.58 µg/g at enrolment, decreasing to 8% three months later. Average hair-mercury concentrations decreased by 21%. However, the total seafood intake remained at the same level after three months. Increased exposure to methylmercury among pregnant women is an important public health concern in Denmark. The observed lowering of hair-mercury concentrations associated with dietary advice corresponds to a substantial public health benefit that probably makes such an intervention highly profitable.

  5. Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2010-09-15

    MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption.

  6. Structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xueqing; Du, Rong; Li, Yufeng; Li, Bai; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Gong, Yu; Chen, Zhongjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Mercury is one of the most hazardous pollutants in the environment. In this paper, the structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure was studied. Human hair samples were, respectively, collected from the normal Beijing area and the Hg-contaminated Wanshan area of the Guizhou Province, China. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy was used to detect the element contents. A small angle X-ray scattering technique was used to probe the structural change. Three reflections with 8.8, 6.7, and 4.5 nm spacing were compared between the normal and the Hg-contaminated hair samples. The results confirm that the 4.5 nm reflection is from the ordered fibrillar structure of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in proteoglycan (PG) that composes the matrix around the intermediate filaments. The increase of Ca content makes the regular oriented fibrillar structure of GAG transform to a random oriented one, broadening the angular extent of the reflection with 4.5 nm spacing. However, overdose Hg makes the core proteins where the ordered fibrils of GAG are attached become coiled, which destroys the ordered arrangements of fibrillar GAG in PG, resulting in the disappearance of the reflections with 4.5 nm spacing. The disappearance of the 4.5 nm reflection can be used as a bioindicator of overdose Hg contamination to the human body. A supercoiled-coil model of hair nanoscale structure and a possible mechanism of mercury effect in human hair are proposed in this paper.

  7. Scalp hair and saliva as biomarkers in determination of mercury levels in Iranian women: Amalgam as a determinant of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakour, H., E-mail: fakour.h@gmail.com [Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaili-Sari, A. [Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zayeri, F. [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences and Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between mercury concentrations in saliva and hair in women with amalgam fillings and its relation with age and number of amalgam fillings. Eighty-two hair and saliva samples were collected randomly from Iranian women who have the same fish consumption pattern and free from occupational exposures. The mean {+-} SD age of these women was 29.37 {+-} 8.12 (ranged from 20 to 56). The determination of Hg level in hair samples was carried out by the LECO, AMA 254, Advanced Mercury Analyzer according to ASTM, standard No. D-6722. Mercury concentration in saliva samples was analyzed by PERKIN-ELMER 3030 Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean {+-} SD mercury level in the women was 1.28 {+-} 1.38 {mu}g/g in hair and 4.14 {+-} 4.08 {mu}g/l in saliva; and there were positive correlation among them. A significant correlation was also observed between Hg level of saliva (Spearman's {rho} = 0.93, P < 0.001) and hair (Spearman's {rho} = 0.92, P < 0.001) with number of amalgam fillings. According to the results, we can conclude that amalgam fillings may be an effective source for high Hg concentration in hair and releasing the mercury to the saliva samples.

  8. Segmental hair mercury evaluation of a single family along the Upper Madeira Basin, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boischio Ana Amélia Peixoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury pollution (MeHg up the aquatic food chains in the Amazonian ecosystems has been a major concern in environmental health. Riverside people (ribeirinhos along the Upper Madeira river are heavy fish eaters. Hair is the best biomarker for MeHg exposure. By assuming a constant hair growth rate, it is possible to evaluate a temporal profile of Hg exposure over the recent defined past. In this paper we present the segmental total hair Hg concentrations from a single family from which some of the 10 persons investigated had high hair Hg concentrations (peak of 339 ppm. We also presented the hair MeHg content from 4 out of the 10 family members investigated. There was a wide variation in total hair Hg concentrations (8 to 339 ppm among these individuals, who were mostly sharing their meals; there was also a wide variation in total Hg concentrations in the same individual over time (136 to 274 ppm. Hg speciation showed a mean and standard deviation in the MeHg content of 62% and 6%, respectively. The wide variation in total hair Hg concentration strongly indicated that it is possible to mitigate critical Hg exposure levels by conducting a fish advisory.

  9. Hair Mercury Levels Detection in Fishermen from Sicily (Italy) by ICP-MS Method after Microwave-Assisted Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Macaluso, Andrea; Vella, Antonio; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; Graci, Stefania; Lo Dico, Gianluigi Maria; Galvano, Fabio; Giangrosso, Margherita; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    A number of ninety-six hair samples from Sicilian fishermen were examined for total mercury detection by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The mercury levels obtained were compared with mercury levels of 96 hair samples from a control group, in order to assess potential exposure to heavy metals of Sicilian fishermen due to fish consumption and closeness to industrial activities. Furthermore, the mercury levels obtained from hair samples were sorted by sampling area in order to verify the possible risks linked to the different locations. The overall mean concentration in the hair of the population of fishermen was 6.45 ± 7.03 μg g−1, with a highest value in a fisherman of Sciacca (16.48 μg g−1). Hair mercury concentration in fishermen group was significantly higher than in control group (p 0.05). The results of this study indicate a greater risk of exposure to mercury in Sicilian fishermen, in comparison to the control population, due to the high consumption of fish and the close relationship with sources of exposure (ports, dumps, etc.). PMID:27127456

  10. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES) of the Cabinet of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2005-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 {mu}g/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 {mu}g/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 {mu}g/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 {mu}g/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians.

  11. Mercury Concentration in Environmental Samples of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    SAKAMOTO, Hayao; Ichikawa, Toshihiro; TOMIYASU, Takashi; SATO, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of mercury in environmental samples (sea water, rock, sea sand, sediment, soil, fish and etc.) taken from various coastal sea areas and its ambient area in Malaysia were investigated. Mercury in environmental samples was subjected to the reduction-vaporization using of tin (II) chloride and heating-vaporization method. The mercury vapor was concentrated with a porous gold collector. Afterwards, mercury vapor evolved from the heated collector was determined b...

  12. [Levels of lead, cadmium and mercury in the hair of inhabitants of the Nantes and Grenoble areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, H L; Stoklov, M; Remond, D; Buffet, H; Metayer, C; Vincent, F; Corneteau, H; Faure, J

    1983-11-01

    Lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in the air of 398 inhabitants of the Grenoble area and 341 inhabitants of the Nantes area. The hair was washed with hor solution of EDTA, dissolved in nitric acid and analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentrations are 6,23 micrograms/g for lead, 0,40 microgram/g for cadmium and 1,06 microgram/g for mercury. There is no difference between found data of the two areas for lead and cadmium. Mercury levels are higher in the Nantes area. Lead content is higher in male hair than in female hair, but the difference is not significant. In the Grenoble area, mercury levels are higher in males than in females; the process is reversed in the Nantes area. We have found no relation between metal levels and age of persons, but lead content is high in the hair of people under ten. Artisans and mechanics have lead content higher than the general people, though exposed people to occupational risks is excluded. We have found to relation between metal in the hair and the size of the town. It seems that the use of tobacco is without influence. Mercury content is related to the eating of fish. It is not increased in the population because of dental amalgams.

  13. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  14. Mercury in Hair Is Inversely Related to Disease Associated Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    William Crowe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, and environmental factors are proposed to exacerbate existing symptoms. One such environmental factor is mercury. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to mercury (Hg and disease activity and disease associated damage in Total Hg concentrations in hair and urine were measured in 52 SLE patients. Dental amalgams were quantified. Disease activity was assessed using three indexes including the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Index (BILAG. Disease associated damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology SLICC/ACR Damage Index. Pearson’s correlation identified a significant negative correlation between hair Hg and BILAG (r = −0.323, p = 0.029 and SLICC/ACR (r = −0.377, p = 0.038. Multiple regression analysis identified hair Hg as a significant predictor of disease associated damage as determined by SLICC/ACR (β = −0.366, 95% confidence interval (CI: −1.769, −0.155 p = 0.019. Urinary Hg was not related to disease activity or damage. Fish consumption is the primary route of MeHg exposure in humans and the inverse association of hair Hg with disease activity observed here might be explained by the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids also found in fish.

  15. Mercury in Hair Is Inversely Related to Disease Associated Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, William; Doherty, Leanne; Watson, Gene; Armstrong, David; Ball, Elisabeth; Magee, Pamela; Allsopp, Philip; Bell, Aubrey; Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir

    2015-12-23

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, and environmental factors are proposed to exacerbate existing symptoms. One such environmental factor is mercury. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to mercury (Hg) and disease activity and disease associated damage in Total Hg concentrations in hair and urine were measured in 52 SLE patients. Dental amalgams were quantified. Disease activity was assessed using three indexes including the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Index (BILAG). Disease associated damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology SLICC/ACR Damage Index. Pearson's correlation identified a significant negative correlation between hair Hg and BILAG (r = -0.323, p = 0.029) and SLICC/ACR (r = -0.377, p = 0.038). Multiple regression analysis identified hair Hg as a significant predictor of disease associated damage as determined by SLICC/ACR (β = -0.366, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.769, -0.155 p = 0.019). Urinary Hg was not related to disease activity or damage. Fish consumption is the primary route of MeHg exposure in humans and the inverse association of hair Hg with disease activity observed here might be explained by the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids also found in fish.

  16. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Engaging in intensive aerobic exercise, specifically endurance sports, is associated with HPA axis activation indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Whether the repeated short-term elevations in cortisol levels result in higher long-term cortisol exposure of endurance athletes has been difficult to examine since traditional methods of cortisol assessments (saliva, blood, urine) reflect only relatively short time periods. Hair segment analysis provides a new method to assess cumulative cortisol secretion over prolonged time periods in a retrospective fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate cumulative cortisol secretion over several months reflecting intensive training and competitive races by examining hair cortisol levels of endurance athletes. Hair samples were obtained from 304 amateur endurance athletes (long-distance runners, triathletes, cyclists) and 70 controls. Cortisol concentrations were determined in the first to third 3-cm hair segments most proximal to the scalp. In addition, self-report measures of training volume were obtained. Endurance athletes exhibited higher cortisol levels in all three hair segments compared to controls (pathletes is associated with elevated cortisol exposure over prolonged periods of time. These findings may have important implications with regard to somatic and mental health of athletes which should be investigated in future research.

  17. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments Altos níveis de Mercúrio e Chumbo detectados pela análise de cabelo em dois ambientes venezuelanos

    OpenAIRE

    Eunice Marcano; Mary Labady; Clara Gomes; Guillermina Aguiar; Jorge Laine

    2009-01-01

    Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela) were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon ...

  18. Impacts of Mercury Pollution Controls on Atmospheric Mercury Concentration and Occupational Mercury Exposure in a Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yang, Yan; Xiong, Wuyan

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and Hg-containing products are used in a wide range of settings in hospitals. Hg pollution control measures were carried out in the pediatric ward of a hospital to decrease the possibility of Hg pollution occurring and to decrease occupational Hg exposure. Total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentrations in the pediatric ward and hair and urine Hg concentrations for the pediatric staff were determined before and after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented. A questionnaire survey performed indicated that the pediatric staff had little understanding of Hg pollution and that appropriate disposal techniques were not always used after Hg leakage. TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward and urine Hg (UHg) concentrations for the pediatric staff were 25.7 and 22.2% lower, respectively, after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented than before, which indicated that the control measures were effective. However, TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward remained significantly higher than background concentrations and UHg concentrations for the pediatric staff were remained significantly higher than the concentrations in control group, indicating continued existence of certain Hg pollution.

  19. Toxicokinetics of mercury in blood compartments and hair of fish-fed sled dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieske Camilla L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding mercury (Hg distribution in blood and the importance of hair as an excretory pathway is critical for evaluating risk from long term dietary Hg exposure. The major objective of this study was to characterize changes in total Hg concentrations in specific blood compartments and hair over time due to long term piscivory. Methods Eight sled dogs (Canis lupus familiaris were fed either a fish and kibble diet (n = 4, or a fish-free control diet (n = 4 for 12 weeks. Concentrations of Hg were monitored throughout the exposure period, and for 10 weeks post exposure, until Hg concentrations in all blood compartments of one of the exposed dogs dropped below detection limit. Additionally, foreleg hair was sampled during acclimation and weeks 0 and 12. Results Hg was detected primarily in whole blood and packed cells, although it was sporadically detected at low concentrations in plasma and serum in two of the fish fed dogs. Dogs ingested an estimated average of 13.4 ± 0.58 μg Hg per kg body weight per day. Hg was detectable in whole blood and packed cells within a week of exposure. Detected concentrations continued to rise until plateauing at approximately 3-6 weeks of exposure at a mean of 9.2 ± 1.97 ng/g (ppb in whole blood. Hg concentration decreased post exposure following 1st order elimination. The mean half-life (t1/2 in whole blood for Hg was 7 weeks. Mean Hg in hair for the fish-fed dogs at week 12 was 540 ± 111 ppb and was significantly greater (about 7-fold than the Hg hair concentration for the control dogs. The hair to blood ratio for Hg in fish-fed dogs was 59.0 ± 7.6:1. Conclusions This study found the sled dog model to be an effective method for investigating and characterizing blood Hg distribution (whole blood, serum, plasma, packed cells and toxicokinetics associated with a piscivorous diet, especially for Hg-exposed fur bearing mammals (such as polar bears. Although hair excretion and hair to blood

  20. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirard, Catherine, E-mail: c.pirard@chu.ulg.ac.be [CHU of Liege, Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, CHU (B35), 4000 Liege (Belgium); Koppen, Gudrun, E-mail: gudrun.koppen@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Cremer, Koen, E-mail: Koen.DeCremer@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Van Overmeire, Ilse, E-mail: ilse.vanovermeire@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Govarts, Eva, E-mail: eva.govarts@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Dewolf, Marie-Christine, E-mail: marie_christine.dewolf@hainaut.be [Provincial Institute Hainaut Vigilance Sanitaire — Hainaut Hygiène Publique en (HVS-HPH), Boulevard Sainctelette, 55, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Van De Mieroop, Els, E-mail: Els.VanDeMieroop@pih.provant.be [Provincial Institute for Hygiene (PIH), Boomgaardstraat 22 bus 1, 2600 Antwerpen (Belgium); Aerts, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.aerts@milieu.belgie.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Biot, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.biot@environnement.belgique.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine, E-mail: Ludwine.Casteleyn@med.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Center for Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike, E-mail: marike.kolossa@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schwedler, Gerda, E-mail: Gerda.Schwedler@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-02-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtain European-wide comparison values on these chemicals. The Belgian participant population consisted in 129 school children (6–11 years) and their mothers (≤ 45 years) living in urban or rural areas of Belgium. The geometric mean levels for mercury in hair were 0.383 μg/g and 0.204 μg/g for respectively mothers and children. Cadmium in mother's and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean concentration of respectively 0.21 and 0.04 μg/l. For both biomarkers, levels measured in the mothers and their child were correlated. While the urinary cadmium levels increased with age, no trend was found for hair mercury content, except the fact that mothers hold higher levels than children. The hair mercury content increased significantly with the number of dental amalgam fillings, explaining partially the higher levels in the mothers by their higher presence rate of these amalgams compared to children. Fish or seafood consumption was the other main parameter determining the mercury levels in hair. No relationship was found between smoking status and cadmium or mercury levels, but the studied population included very few smokers. Urinary cadmium levels were higher in both mothers and children living in urban areas, while for mercury this difference was only significant for children. Our small population showed urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels lower than the health based guidelines suggested by the WHO or the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Only 1% had cadmium level slightly higher than the German HBM-I value (1 μg/l for adults), and 9% exceeded the 1 μg mercury/g hair suggested by the US EPA. - Highlights: • Hair mercury and

  1. Hair mercury levels and food consumption in residents from the Pearl River Delta: South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dingding; Kang, Yuan; Cheng, Zhang; Wang, Hongsheng; Huang, Minjuan; Wu, Shengchun; Chen, Kunci; Wong, Ming H

    2013-01-15

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is located in the Southern part of China and is the main region for fish culture in Guangdong Province. In order to assess the potential health risks associated with dietary consumption of mercury, hair samples from 91 urban, town and fishing village residents, 37 species of fish, cereal, vegetables, and meat samples were collected. The average total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in hair were 1.08 ± 0.94 and 0.58 ± 0.59 μg/g, respectively. Daily Hg intake via fish consumption is significantly correlated with THg and MeHg accumulated in human hair (r=0.48, p<0.01; r=0.43, p<0.01). The estimated daily intake of Hg via different food types showed that both fish and cereal consumption were the two main routes of Hg exposure for residents in the sampling areas. Besides food intake, smoking was also an important source for daily THg intake in the smoke group, contributing 11-18% to EDI of THg.

  2. Mercury concentrations in canned and fresh fish and its accumulation in a population of Port Moresby residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J H; Ghani, N

    1983-01-01

    Five varieties of canned fish and hair specimens from 243 subjects in Port Moresby have been analysed for organic and total mercury. The mean concentrations of total mercury in the canned fish were 0.45 mg/kg for tuna, 0.21 mg/kg for salmon, 0.17 mg/kg for mackerel, 0.08 mg/kg for sardines and 0.04 mg/kg for pilchard, based on the weight of the fish. The mean hair concentration was 2.1 mg/kg, the standard deviation 1.8 mg/kg and the range 0.15 to 14.4 mg/kg. The total mercury levels in hair were significantly higher for coastal people than for non-coastals. Although this is probably due to the greater fish intake of the coastal people, no significant correlation was found between fish consumption and hair mercury levels.

  3. Mercury concentrations in canned and fresh fish and its accumulation in a population of Port Moresby residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, J.H.; Ghani, N.

    1983-01-01

    Five varieties of canned fish and hair specimens from 243 subjects in Port Moresby have been analysed for organic and total mercury. The mean concentrations of total mercury in the canned fish were 0.45 mg/kg for tuna, 0.21 mg/kg for salmon, 0.17 mg/kg for mackerel, 0.08 mg/kg for sardines and 0.04 mg/kg for pilchard, based on the weight of the fish. The mean hair concentration was 2.1 mg/kg, the standard deviation 1.8 mg/kg and the range 0.15 to 14.4 mg/kg. The total mercury levels in hair were significantly higher for coastal people than for non-coastals. Although this is probably due to the greater fish intake of the coastal people, no significant correlation was found between fish consumption and hair mercury levels.

  4. TOTAL AND METHYL MERCURY LEVELS IN HUMAN SCALP HAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴之芳; 关铭; 等

    1994-01-01

    The contents of total and methyl mercury in scalp hair samples of 1179 fishermen living at a typical Hg-polluted region in Northeast China and 27 lying-in women and their new born babies in Beijing have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis,gas chromatography(electron coupling)and other techniques.Only 18 of all fishermen have the Hg contents above 5μg/g,which indicates that the Hg pollution there has been substantially alleviated.The longitudinal Hg patterns of the lying-in women show a gradually lowering tendency during pregnant period.Further,the Hg contents of the new-born babies are generally above or close to those of their mothers,confirming the mechanism that the methyl Hg,an organic species of Hg with high toxicity,is readily able to penetrate the placental barrier and accumulated in fetus.Thus,the mercury poison has occurred at the early stage of pregnancy.

  5. Mercury correlations among blood, muscle, and hair of northern elephant seals during the breeding and molting fasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Ackerman, Josh; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomonitoring and toxicological risk assessments for marine mammals commonly sample different tissues, making comparisons to toxicity benchmarks and among species and regions difficult. Few studies have examined how life history events, such as fasting, influence the relationship between total Hg (THg) concentrations in different tissues. We evaluated the relationships between THg concentrations in blood, muscle, and hair of female and male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at the start and end of the breeding and molting fasts. The relationships between tissues varied among tissue pairs and differed by sampling period and sex. Blood and muscle were generally related at all time periods; however, hair, an inert tissue, did not strongly represent the metabolically active tissues (blood and muscle) at all times of year. The strongest relationships between THg concentrations in hair and those in blood or muscle were observed during periods of active hair growth (end of the molting period) or during time periods when internal body conditions were similar to those when the hair was grown (end of the breeding fast). Our results indicate that THg concentrations in blood or muscle can be translated to the other tissue type using the equations we developed, but that THg concentrations in hair were generally a poor index of internal THg concentrations except during the end of fasting periods.

  6. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta; Pärt, Peter; Navarro, Carmen; Gómez, Silvia; Rosado, Montserrat; López, Ana; López, Estrella; Exley, Karen; Schindler, Birgit K; Govarts, Eva; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Koch, Holger; Angerer, Jürgen; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Sepai, Ovnair; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Aerts, Dominique; Joas, Anke; Biot, Pierre; Joas, Reinhard; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A; Diaz, Gema; Pirard, Catherine; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Cerna, Milena; Gutleb, Arno C; Ligocka, Danuta; Reis, Fátima M; Berglund, Marika; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Halzlová, Katarína; Charlier, Corinne; Cullen, Elizabeth; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krsková, Andrea; Jensen, Janne F; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Schwedler, Gerda; Wilhelm, Michael; Rudnai, Peter; Középesy, Szilvia; Davidson, Fred; Fischer, Mark E; Janasik, Beata; Namorado, Sónia; Gurzau, Anca E; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Larsson, Kristin; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Lavranos, Giagkos; Posada, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) in humans is well established and the main source of exposure is via the consumption of large marine fish and mammals. Of particular concern are the potential neurodevelopmental effects of early life exposure to low-levels of MeHg. Therefore, it is important that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury analysis. Parallel, harmonized questionnaires on dietary habits provided information on consumption patterns of fish and marine products. After hierarchical cluster analysis of consumption habits of the mother-child pairs, the DEMOCOPHES cohort can be classified into two branches of approximately similar size: one with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L). All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia the situation is the opposite, with more representatives in L than H. There is a strong correlation (r=0.72) in hair mercury concentration between the mother and child in the same family, which indicates that they have a similar exposure situation. The clustering of mother-child pairs on basis of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify exposure to mercury from seafood products, in particular. The cluster analysis also showed that 95% of mothers who consume once per week fish only, and no other marine products

  7. Mercury in human hair and blood samples from people living in Wanshan mercury mine area, Guizhou, China: an XAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Feng; Chen, Chunying; Li, Bai; Li, Wei; Qu, Liya; Dong, Zeqin; Nomura, Masaharu; Gao, Yuxi; Zhao, Jinxuan; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2008-03-01

    Human hair and blood samples from persons living in the town of Wanshan, a mercury mine area in Guizhou Province of China, were collected and the quantitative speciation and structural information of Hg and S in hair samples and of Hg in erythrocyte and serum samples were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Least-squares fitting of the X-ray absorption near-edge spectra found that inorganic mercury is the major mercury species in hair samples (91.74%), while inorganic and methyl mercury are both about 50% of total mercury in RBC and serum samples, which is in agreement with the data obtained by acidic extraction, fractionation of Hg(2+) and CH(3)Hg(+) and quantification by ICP-MS. Curve-fitting analysis revealed that the Hg-S bond length and coordination number in hair were 0.248+/-0.002 nm and 3.10, respectively, while the S-Hg bond length and coordination number in hair were 0.236+/-0.002 nm and 4.05. The Hg-S bond length and coordination number in RBC were 0.251+/-0.003 nm and 4.09, respectively, while they were 0.228+/-0.002 nm and 4.08 in serum, respectively. The techniques for speciation, structural and binding information described in this study will find the potential application in similar studies of other elements.

  8. Relationships among Mercury Concentration, and Stable Isotope Ratios of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Scalp Hair of Residents from Seven Countries: Effects of Marine Fish and C4 Plants Consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Endo

    Full Text Available We analyzed the Hg concentration, and δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N values in the scalp hair of residents from seven countries; Vietnam, New Zealand, Spain, the USA, South Korea, Brazil and Japan. Relationships among the data in each country and among the seven countries were then examined. The highest Hg concentration as well as the highest or higher δ¹⁵N value in each country was found in the hair of a heavy marine fish-eater, whereas the lowest Hg concentration and δ¹⁵N value were found in the hair of a vegetarian or non (marginal-fish eater. Hg concentrations were positively correlated with the δ¹⁵N values in each country, and increased markedly in samples with δ¹⁵N values exceeding 9.0 ‰, probably due to fish consumption. The highest Hg concentration could be found in sample, with a δ¹³C value between -19 and -18‰, probably reflecting the δ¹³C value of the marine food web.

  9. Grizzly bear hair reveals toxic exposure to mercury through salmon consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Marie; Spence, Jody; Harris, Kate A; Robbins, Charles T; Fortin, Jennifer K; Ross, Peter S; Christensen, Jennie R

    2014-07-01

    Mercury obtained from the diet accumulates in mammalian hair as it grows thus preserving a record of mercury intake over the growth period of a given hair segment. We adapted a microanalysis approach, using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, to characterize temporal changes in mercury exposure and uptake in wild and captive grizzly bears. Captive grizzlies fed diets containing known and varied amounts of mercury provided data to allow prediction of Hg ingestion rates in wild bears. Here, we show, for the first time, that 70% of the coastal grizzly bears sampled had Hg levels exceeding the neurochemical effect level proposed for polar bears. In a context where the international community is taking global actions to reduce Hg emissions through the "Minamata Convention on Mercury", our study provides valuable information on the exposure to mercury of these grizzly bears already under many threats.

  10. A 2,000-year record of mercury and ancient civilizations in seal hairs from King George Island, West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liguang; Yin, Xuebin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhu, Renbin; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Yuhong

    2006-09-01

    The concentrations of total mercury (Hg(T)) and three bio-essential elements (phosphor, potassium, sodium) were analyzed in Antarctic seal hairs from a lake core spanning the past 2,000 years and collected from King George Island (63 degrees 23'S, 57 degrees 00'W), West Antarctica. The Hg(T) concentration shows a significant fluctuation while the levels of the three bio-essential elements remain almost constant. The rise and fall of the Hg(T) concentration in the seal hairs are found to be closely coincided with ancient activities of gold and silver mining using Hg-amalgamation process around the world, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Briefly, Hg(T) levels are high during five episodes of extensive gold and silver mining activities--Rome Empire and China Han Dynasty (approximately 18-300 A.D.), Maya period and China Tang (750-900 A.D.), Incas civilization and Christian Kingdom (1200-1500 A.D.), New world (1650-1800 A.D.), and modern industry period (1840 A.D.-present); they are low during four time periods of reduced gold and silver mining activities--the China Han and Rome fall (since 300 A.D.), Maya fall and Wartime period in China (1050-1250 A.D.), Pizarro coming (ca. 1532 A.D.) and Independence War of South America (1800-1830 A.D.). Two profiles of Hg(T) in other two lake cores, one affected by seal excrements and the other by penguin droppings, from the same region are similar to the one in seal hairs. The Hg concentration profile in the seal hairs is significantly correlated with the one in a peat bog of Southern Chile near King George Island. Since Hg is existent mainly at the form of methyl-mercury in seal hairs, this correlation supports a relationship and link between atmospheric mercury concentration and methyl-mercury production. Comparing with samples from American and European continents, the Antarctic seal hairs provide an archive of total mercury concentration in surface seawater of the South Ocean less affected by regional human activities

  11. Evaluating hair as a predictor of blood mercury: the influence of ontogenetic phase and life history in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah H.; McHuron, Elizabeth A.; Kennedy, Stephanie N.; Ackerman, Josh; Rea, Lorrie D.; Castellini, J. Margaret; O'Hara, Todd M.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomonitoring of pinnipeds increasingly utilizes nonlethally collected tissues such as hair and blood. The relationship between total Hg concentrations ([THg]) in these tissues is not well understood for marine mammals, but it can be important for interpretation of tissue concentrations with respect to ecotoxicology and biomonitoring. We examined [THg] in blood and hair in multiple age classes of four pinniped species. For each species, we used paired blood and hair samples to quantify the ability of [THg] in hair to predict [THg] in blood at the time of sampling and examined the influence of varying ontogenetic phases and life history of the sampled animals. Overall, we found that the relationship between [THg] in hair and blood was affected by factors including age class, weaning status, growth, and the time difference between hair growth and sample collection. Hair [THg] was moderately to strongly predictive of current blood [THg] for adult female Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), adult female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and adult harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), whereas hair [THg] was poorly predictive or not predictive (different times of year) of blood [THg] for adult northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Within species, except for very young pups, hair [THg] was a weaker predictor of blood [THg] for prereproductive animals than for adults likely due to growth, variability in foraging behavior, and transitions between ontogenetic phases. Our results indicate that the relationship between hair [THg] and blood [THg] in pinnipeds is variable and that ontogenetic phase and life history should be considered when interpreting [THg] in these tissues.

  12. Racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Kim, Sungroul; Madsen, Camille; Ma, Jiemin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2012-08-01

    In the United States, race/ethnicity is a strong determinant of tobacco use patterns, biomarkers of tobacco smoke components and metabolites, and likelihood of successful cessation. Although Black smokers tend to smoke fewer cigarettes than White smokers, they have higher cotinine levels and disease risk and lower cessation success. We examined racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among daily tobacco smokers (n = 103) in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants completed a survey, and hair samples were collected and analyzed for nicotine concentration using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. After adjustment, hair nicotine concentrations among Black smokers were more than 5 times higher than among White smokers (95% CI 3.0, 10.5). Smokers reporting hair treatments other than coloring (bleaching, permanent, or straightening) in the past 12 months had 66% lower (95% CI 32%, 83%) hair nicotine concentrations. Smokers reporting smoking their first cigarette within 30 min of waking had twice the hair nicotine concentrations of those whose time to first cigarette was greater than 30 min after waking (95% CI 1.1, 4.2). For every additional cigarette smoked per day up to 20, mean hair nicotine concentration among all smokers increased by 4% (95% CI -1%, 9%). This study demonstrates that Black smokers have substantially higher hair nicotine levels than White smokers, after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day and other exposure sources. Time to first cigarette, cigarettes smoked per day, and use of hair treatments other than coloring were also associated with hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

  13. Hair mercury (signature of fish consumption) and cardiovascular risk in Munduruku and Kayabi Indians of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; de Souza, Jurandir R; Rodrigues, Patricia; Ferrari, Iris; Barbosa, Antonio C

    2005-02-01

    Fish is an important natural resource in the diet of inhabitants of the Amazon rain forest and a marker of its consumption (hair Hg) was used to compare selected cardiovascular risk parameters between tribes of Eastern Amazonia. Three Munduruku (Terra Preta, Kaburua, Cururu) villages and one Kayabi village at the banks of head rivers (Tapajos, Tropas, Kabitutu, Cururu, Curuzinho, Teles Pires) of the Tapajos Basin were studied in relation to fish Hg concentrations, mercury in hair (fish consumption) and erythrocytes, body mass index (height/weight, kg/cm2), and blood pressure. The mean fish Hg concentrations were higher in predatory (578.6 ng/g) than in nonpredatory species (52.8 ng/g). Overall only 26% of fish Hg concentrations were above 500 ng/g, and only 11% were above 1000 ng/g. There was no systematic trend in fish Hg concentrations from rivers with a history of gold-mining activities. The biomarker of fish consumption (hair Hg) was significantly associated with erythrocyte-Hg (r=0.5181; P=0.0001) and was significantly higher in Kayabi (12.7 microg/g) than in the Munduruku (3.4 microg/g). Biomarker-assessed fish consumption rate was higher in the Kayabi (110 g/day) than in the Munduruku villages (30 g/day). Although no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) were observed between tribes, there was a trend of lower increase in blood pressure with age among the higher fish consumers (Kayabi). Summary clinical evaluation did not detect neurologic complaints compatible with Hg intoxication (paraparesis, numbness, tremor, balancing failure), but endemic tropical diseases such as clinical history of malaria showed a high prevalence (55.4%). Fish is an abundant natural resource, important in the Indian diet, that has been historically consumed without perceived problems and can easily be traced through hair Hg. The exposure to freshwater fish monomethyl mercury is less of an issue than endemic infectious diseases such as malaria and lack of basic medical

  14. Mercury in Hair of Muskox on the Seward Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ihl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Muskoxen (Ovibus moschatus are distant relatives of sheep (Caprinae and have roamed the Arctic for a million years, with populations reaching North America between 150,000 and 250,000 years ago. Muskox populations could be negatively influenced by climate change and increased exposure to contaminants. Since the snow depth is a critical factor in their ecology, effects could occur throughout their distribution. Muskox typically feed on plants on hilltops and upper slopes where shrubs are increasing at the expense of graminoid and lichen species. Besides changes in plant species composition, wildfires and flooding, as well as renewed mining developments, can lead to an increased incidence of total Hg (THg bioavailability. Approach: In this survey THg concentrations were measured in the hair of muskox at several sites on Seward Peninsula of Alaska, USA. Results: Muskox exhibited mean THg levels in the hair of 29.3 ng g-1 for the west base of Mineral Mountain, 28.6 ng g-1 for Nature Hill and 23.0 ng g-1 for the camp at Deering. Means for THg levels at Anvil were 35.2 ng g-1 at the top, 31.8 ng g-1 on the southwest slope and 29.9 ng g-1 at the base. Qiviut from two muskox at Anvil and Mineral Mountain possessed lower THg values than when compared to their guard hair (32.9 and 44.8 ng g-1, respectively. Conclusion: These current THg levels are relatively low and helping establish a baseline for Hg exposure in muskoxen.

  15. A Comparative Analysis on Levels of Mercury in Human Scalp Hair of Students from Different Locations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Anim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to assess the levels of accumulation of total mercury (Hg-T in human scalp hair samples from selected students. Thirty seven (37 human scalp hair samples were collected from students of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology whilst on campus and analysed for total mercury (Hg-T concentrations by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The least concentration, 0.007±0.001 μ/g was measured in a sample from a male student. The highest concentration, 5.535±0.133 μg/g was measured in a sample from a female student.5.4% of the population had Hg-T concentrations above the WHO, 1990 limit of 2 μg/g based on fish consumption. 94.6% of the population studied however measured Hg- T concentrations below the WHO limit. In general, the concentrations measured in female students were higher compared to concentrations in male students. The mean concentration of Hg-T in female students was 1.417±0.037 μg/g compared to 0.600±0.001 μg/g for male students. The higher concentrations measured in female students may be attributed to the application of Hg containing cosmetics aside environmental exposures.

  16. Relationship between mercury levels in hair and fish consumption in a population living near a hydroelectric tropical dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José Luis; Ruiz-Guzmán, Javier Alonso; Díez, Sergi

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were assessed in human hair samples (n = 76) and fish muscle (n = 33) collected at Urrá dam, upstream Sinú river, northwestern Colombia. Based on interviews with study participants, weekly intakes of total mercury (WIT-Hg) and methylmercury (WIMeHg) by fish consumption were also estimated. T-Hg concentrations in hair samples ranged from 0.40 to 24.56 μg/g dw. The highest concentrations were recorded in children (CH) (2-15 years old, n = 24) with significant differences (p fish (0.65-2.25 μg/g wet weight, ww), with significant differences (p fish (0.16-0.54 μg/g ww). WIT-Hg recorded the highest values in CH (2.18-50.41 μg/kg/week), with significant differences (p fish consumption and hair T-Hg in CH (r = 0.37, p fish consumption in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). These results suggest that Hg exposure in people inhabiting the Urrá dam should be carefully monitored, particularly in vulnerable groups such as CH and WCHA.

  17. Influence of Body Mass Index on Hair Ethyl Glucuronide Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Neels, Hugo; Maudens, Kristof; De Doncker, Mireille; Cappelle, Delphine; Matthys, Frieda; Dom, Geert; Fransen, Erik; Michielsen, Peter; De Keukeleire, Steven; Covaci, Adrian; Yegles, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations in hair is increasingly used to estimate the consumption of alcohol of the prior months. Linear correlations between the amount of alcohol consumed and the concentration of EtG in hair have been reported, and several variables that may influence this correlation have been investigated: e.g. cosmetic hair treatments, gender influences or hair color. Here, we investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on this correlation. A post hoc analysis on the influence of BMI on the relation between amounts of alcohol consumed and the measured EtG concentrations in hair in 199 participants. Our data show higher EtG concentrations in participants with high BMI (≥25) compared to participants with low BMI (hair EtG concentrations. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair (hEtG) can be used to estimate the consumption of alcohol of the prior months. Body mass index (BMI) influences this relation and BMI should be taken into account when interpreting hEtG concentrations in participants with high BMI (≥25) compared to participants with low BMI (<25). © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. Hair Toxic Metal Concentrations and Autism Spectrum Disorder Severity in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Sykes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found a higher body-burden of toxic metals, particularly mercury (Hg, among subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD in comparison to neurotypical controls. Moreover, Hg body-burden was associated with ASD severity. This cross-sectional study examined the potential correlation between hair toxic metal concentrations and ASD severity in a prospective cohort of participants diagnosed with moderate to severe ASD. The Institutional Review Board at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (Dallas, TX approved the present study. Qualifying study participants (n = 18 were evaluated for ASD severity using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS and quantitatively for arsenic, Hg, cadmium, lead, chromium, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, tin, uranium, and manganese using hair toxic element testing by Doctor’s Data (a CLIA-approved laboratory. CARS scoring and hair toxic element testing were blinded to one another. Increasing hair Hg concentrations significantly correlated with increased ASD severity. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between any other of the hair toxic metals examined and ASD severity. This study helps to provide additional mechanistic support for Hg in the etiology of ASD severity, and is supported by an increasing number of recent critical reviews that provide biological plausibility for the role of Hg exposure in the pathogenesis of ASDs.

  19. Metalloproteomics Approach to Analyze Mercury in Breast Milk and Hair Samples of Lactating Women in Communities of the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbino, M R; Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Braga, C P; Oliveira, G; Padilha, I F; Silva, T M; Zara, L F; Silva, N J; Padilha, P M

    2017-05-25

    Mercury is a potentially toxic element that is present in the environment of the Brazilian Amazon and is responsible for adverse health effects in humans. This study sought to assess possible protein biomarkers of mercury exposure in breast milk samples from lactating women in the Madeira and Negro Rivers in the Brazilian Amazon. The mercury content of hair samples of lactating women was determined, and the proteome of breast milk samples was obtained using two-dimensional electrophoresis after protein precipitation with acetone. Mercury measurements of protein spots obtained via protein fractionation were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), and it was observed that mercury is linked to proteins with molecular masses in the range of 14-26 kDa. The total mercury concentration was also determined by GFAAS in unprocessed milk, lyophilized milk, and protein pellets, with the purpose of determining the mercury mass balance in relation to the concentration of this element in milk and pellets. Approximately 85 to 97% of mercury present in the lyophilized milk from samples of lactating women of the Madeira River is bound in the protein fraction. From lactating women of the Negro River, approximately 49% of the total mercury is bound in the protein fraction, and a difference of 51% is bound in the lipid fraction.

  20. Elevated mercury concentrations in humans of Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Ashe

    Full Text Available The enormous increase in practically unregulated mining in Madre de Dios Peru is leading to massive release of liquid elemental mercury to the environment. Rapidly increasing global prices for gold are causing a massive upsurge in artisanal mining in the Peruvian Amazon, considered to be one of the most biodiverse places on the planet. This study identifies the current levels of mercury in the human population, through identifying levels of total mercury in human hair in mining zones of Madre de Dios Department and in the nearby city of Puerto Maldonado. A regression analysis reveals that fish consumption, gender, and location of residence were significant indicators of mercury levels; while duration of residence and age had no significant relationship to mercury levels. Increased fish consumption levels were the strongest indicators of increased total mercury levels across the entire population. The levels of total mercury in hair was significantly (α = 0.05 higher in mining zones, than Puerto Maldonado. In both areas men had significantly higher levels than women, likely due to a difference in metabolism or varying levels of direct involvement in gold mining- a male predominated industry. This is the first study to show the health threat that mercury poses to this region, however further research needs to be done to gain a more refined understanding of the predominant routes of exposure in this population.

  1. Elevated mercury concentrations in humans of Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Katy

    2012-01-01

    The enormous increase in practically unregulated mining in Madre de Dios Peru is leading to massive release of liquid elemental mercury to the environment. Rapidly increasing global prices for gold are causing a massive upsurge in artisanal mining in the Peruvian Amazon, considered to be one of the most biodiverse places on the planet. This study identifies the current levels of mercury in the human population, through identifying levels of total mercury in human hair in mining zones of Madre de Dios Department and in the nearby city of Puerto Maldonado. A regression analysis reveals that fish consumption, gender, and location of residence were significant indicators of mercury levels; while duration of residence and age had no significant relationship to mercury levels. Increased fish consumption levels were the strongest indicators of increased total mercury levels across the entire population. The levels of total mercury in hair was significantly (α = 0.05) higher in mining zones, than Puerto Maldonado. In both areas men had significantly higher levels than women, likely due to a difference in metabolism or varying levels of direct involvement in gold mining- a male predominated industry. This is the first study to show the health threat that mercury poses to this region, however further research needs to be done to gain a more refined understanding of the predominant routes of exposure in this population.

  2. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta;

    2015-01-01

    that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury analysis...... with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L). All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia...... of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify...

  3. Mercury in marine fish, mammals, seabirds, and human hair in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Falkowska, Lucyna

    Mercury (Hg), aside from having high toxicity, is characterized by its ability to biomagnify in the marine trophic chain. This is an important problem especially in estuaries, or in the coastal zone, particularly near the mouths of large rivers. This study was conducted in the years 2001-2011, in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea near to the mouth of the River Vistula, which is the second biggest river discharging into the Baltic. Mercury concentration was measured in the tissues and organs of cod, flounder, herring, seals (living in the wild and in captivity), great black-backed gulls, and African penguins from Gdańsk Zoo, and also in human hair. Penguins and seals at the seal sanctuary in Hel were fed only herring. In marine birds and mammals and in the pelagic herring, the highest Hg concentration was observed in the kidney and in the liver, while in cod and flounder (located on a higher trophic level) the muscles were the most contaminated with mercury. In gray seals living in the seal sanctuary, Hg concentration in all analyzed tissues and organs except the kidneys was lower in comparison with seals living in the wild. The comparatively small share of fish in the diet of local Polish people and their preference towards the consumption of herring contributed to low concentration of Hg in their hair. The protective mechanisms related to detoxification and elimination of mercury were shown to be more effective in the seals than in the penguins, despite the former consuming around 10 times more food per day.

  4. Correlation between hair selenium concentration and gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Wu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between hair selenium (Se) level and gastric cancer. Methods: Atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer(AFS) was used to detect the Se level in hair. Results: The Se concentration in patients with gastric cancer ranged from 0.25 to 2.33μg/g(0.825±0.51μg/g), and that of health individuals ranged from 4.23 to 9.21μg/g(6.29±1.68μg/g). The results showed that the Se concentration in the patients' hair was significantly lower than that in controls (P<0.01).Conclusion: There is a correlation between hair concentration and gastric cancer.

  5. Cannabinoid Concentrations in Hair from Documented Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Gustafson, Richard A.; Moolchan, Eric T.; Bames, Allan; Bourland, James A.; Sweeney, Stacy A.; Hayes, Eugene F.; Carpenter, Patrick M.; Smith, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-three head hair specimens were collected from 38 males with a history of cannabis use documented by questionnaire, urinalysis and controlled, double blind administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in an institutional review board approved protocol. The subjects completed a questionnaire indicating daily cannabis use (N = 18) or non-daily use, i.e. 1 to 5 cannabis cigarettes per week, (N = 20). Drug use was also documented by a positive cannabinoid urinalysis, a hair specimen was collected from each subject and they were admitted to a closed research unit. Additional hair specimens were collected following smoking of two 2.7% THC cigarettes (N = 13) or multiple oral doses totaling 116 mg THC (N = 2). Cannabinoid concentrations in all hair specimens were determined by ELISA and GCMSMS. Pre- and post dose detection rates did not differ statistically, therefore, all 53 specimens were considered as one group for further comparisons. Nineteen specimens (36%) had no detectable THC or 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) at the GCMSMS limits of quantification (LOQ) of 1.0 and 0.1 pg/mg hair, respectively. Two specimens (3.8%) had measurable THC only, 14 (26%) THCCOOH only, and 18 (34%) both cannabinoids. Detection rates were significantly different (p 0.3, Fisher's exact test). For specimens with detectable cannabinoids, concentrations ranged from 3.4 to > 100 pg THC/mg and 0.10 to 7.3 pg THCCOOH/mg hair. THC and THCCOOH concentrations were positively correlated (r = 0.38, p < 0.01, Pearson's product moment correlation). Using an immunoassay cutoff concentration of 5 pg THC equivalents/mg hair, 83% of specimens that screened positive were confirmed by GCMSMS at a cutoff concentration of 0.1 pg THCCOOH/mg hair. PMID:16963215

  6. Hair-aluminum concentrations and children's classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, C; Marlowe, M

    1986-12-01

    The study investigated the relationship between children's hair-Al concentrations and children's behavioral performance in school. Hair-Al levels of 102 children drawn from a general school population were correlated with teachers' ratings of the children on the Walker Problem Behavior Identification Checklist (WPBIC). Increasing hair-Al values correlated significantly with increased scores on the WPBIC total scale score. A continuing reexamination of Al exposure in the young is needed in order to determine the margin of safety regarding potentially toxic levels of Al.

  7. Impact of hair-care products on FAEE hair concentrations in substance abuse monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareri, Joey; Appenzeller, Brice; Walasek, Paula; Koren, Gideon

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the use of high-ethanol-content (>65%) hair-care products may elevate fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) concentrations in hair. In this case series, nine individuals were identified by FAEE analysis to be chronic alcohol abusers in the context of child-welfare substance abuse monitoring. Based on patient claims of moderate or no alcohol consumption, the presence of ethanol in the patients' hair-care regimens was investigated. Samples were additionally tested for the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG). From a total of nine patients, 12 hair samples were submitted for analysis. Patient histories were obtained as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) listing hair-care product ethanol content. Hair samples were pre-washed to remove external contamination and analyzed for FAEE and EtG by GC-MS. According to the Society of Hair Testing consensus guidelines, FAEE levels exceeding 0.50 ng/mg and/or EtG levels exceeding 30 pg/mg indicate chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Upon initial analysis, the nine samples exhibited positive FAEE findings ranging from 0.496 to 4.984 ng/mg. MSDS review revealed the presence of ethanol from 10% to 95% by volume in at least one hair-care product used by each individual. Results of the EtG analysis ranged from 1.9 to 23.5 pg/mg. These findings indicate that regular use of products with ethanol content as low as 10% can impact FAEE results. EtG analysis should be used to confirm FAEE findings and appears to be unaffected by hair-care products, likely due to alternative mechanisms of incorporation.

  8. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Hylton Keller; Lingtian Xie; David B. Buchwalter; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Theodore R Simons

    2014-01-01

    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope ä 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46...

  9. Umbilical Cord Mercury Concentration as Biomarker of Prenatal Exposure to Methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jørgensen, Poul J.

    2005-01-01

    biomarker, exposure assessment, food contamination, hair analysis, mercury/analysis, methylmercury compounds/analysis, organomercury compounds/blood, pregnancy, prenatal exposure delayed effects, preschool child, seafood, umbilical cord.......biomarker, exposure assessment, food contamination, hair analysis, mercury/analysis, methylmercury compounds/analysis, organomercury compounds/blood, pregnancy, prenatal exposure delayed effects, preschool child, seafood, umbilical cord....

  10. Surveying Mercury Levels in Hair, Blood and Urine of under 7-Year Old Children from a Coastal City in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixia Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The average mercury load in children under 7-years old was determined in a populated but not overly industrial coastal area in China. Methods: 395 blood samples, 1072 urine samples, and 581 hair samples were collected from 1076 children, aged 0 to 6 years, from eight representative communities of Xiamen, China. Mercury levels in the samples were surveyed. Results: The 95% upper limits of mercury in blood, urine, and hair for the children were 2.30, 1.50 and 2100.00 μg/kg, respectively. Levels tended to increase with age. Correlation analyses showed that mercury levels in blood and urine correlated with those in hair (n = 132, r = 0.49, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.20, p = 0.0008; however, blood mercury levels did not correlate with urine levels (n = 284, r = 0.07, p = 0.35. Conclusions: Surveying the average mercury load in children 0 to 6 years, and the 95% upper limit value of mercury in their blood, urine, and hair should help guide risk assessment and health management for children.

  11. Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Byung-Mi; Choi, Anna L; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2014-01-01

    and structural equation model (SEM) analyses were used to ascertain interrelationships between the exposure biomarkers and the possible impact of hemoglobin as well as selenium. Both methods showed a significant dependence of the cord-blood concentration on hemoglobin, also after adjustment for other exposure...... biomarkers. In the SEM, the cord blood measurement was a less imprecise indicator of the latent methylmercury exposure variable than other exposure biomarkers available, and the maternal hair concentration had the largest imprecision. Adjustment of mercury concentrations both in maternal and cord blood...

  12. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rebecca Hylton; Xie, Lingtian; Buchwalter, David B.; Franzreb, Kathleen E.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope δ 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46 ± 0.02 μg g−1 (range 0.01–3.74 μg g−1). Twelve of 32 species had individuals (7 % of all birds sampled) with mercury concentrations higher than 1 μg g−1. Mercury concentrations were 17 % higher in juveniles compared to adults (n = 454). In adults, invertivores has higher mercury levels compared to omnivores. Mercury was highest at low-elevation sites near water, however mercury was detected in all birds, including those in the high elevations (1,000–2,000 m). Relative trophic position, calculated from δ 15N, ranged from 2.13 to 4.87 across all birds. We fitted linear mixed-effects models to the data separately for juveniles and year-round resident adults. In adults, mercury concentrations were 2.4 times higher in invertivores compared to omnivores. Trophic position was the main effect explaining mercury levels in juveniles, with an estimated 0.18 ± 0.08 μg g−1 increase in feather mercury for each one unit rise in trophic position. Our research demonstrates that mercury is biomagnifying in birds within this terrestrial mountainous system, and further research is warranted for animals foraging at higher trophic levels, particularly those associated with aquatic environments downslope from montane areas receiving high mercury deposition.

  13. Method development estimating ambient mercury concentration from monitored mercury wet deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Speciated atmospheric mercury data have recently been monitored at multiple locations in North America; but the spatial coverage is far less than the long-established mercury wet deposition network. The present study describes a first attempt linking ambient concentration with wet deposition using Beta distribution fitting of a ratio estimate. The mean, median, mode, standard deviation, and skewness of the fitted Beta distribution parameters were generated using data collected in 2009 at 11 monitoring stations. Comparing the normalized histogram and the fitted density function, the empirical and fitted Beta distribution of the ratio shows a close fit. The estimated ambient mercury concentration was further partitioned into reactive gaseous mercury and particulate bound mercury using linear regression model developed by Amos et al. (2012. The method presented here can be used to roughly estimate mercury ambient concentration at locations and/or times where such measurement is not available but where wet deposition is monitored.

  14. Increased scalp hair cortisol concentrations in obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Veldhorst (M.); G. Noppe (Gerard); M.H.T.M. Jongejan (Mieke); C.B.M. Kok (Chantine); S. Mekic (Selma); J.W. Koper (Jan); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContext: Pathologically increased cortisol exposure induces obesity, but it is not known whether relatively high cortisol within the physiological range is related to childhood obesity. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare hair cortisol concentrations between obese and normal-w

  15. Determination of mercury in hair: Comparison between gold amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanico, Francesco; Forte, Giovanni; Majorani, Costanza; Senofonte, Oreste; Petrucci, Francesco; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2016-09-29

    Mercury is a heavy metal that causes serious health problems in exposed subjects. The most toxic form, i.e., methylmercury (MeHg), is mostly excreted through human hair. Numerous analytical methods are available for total Hg analysis in human hair, including cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA-AAS). The aim of the study was to compare the TDA-AAS with the ICP-MS in the Hg quantification in human hair. After the washing procedure to minimize the external contamination, from each hair sample two aliquots were taken; the first was used for direct analysis of Hg by TDA-AAS and the second was digested for Hg determination by the ICP-MS. Results indicated that the two data sets were fully comparable (median; TDA-AAS, 475ngg(-1); ICP-MS, 437ngg(-1)) and were not statistically different (Mann-Whitney test; p=0.44). The two techniques presented results with a good coefficient of correlation (r=0.94) despite different operative ranges and method limits. Both techniques satisfied internal performance requirements and the parameters for method validation resulting sensitive, precise and reliable. Finally, the use of the TDA-AAS can be considered instead of the ICP-MS in hair analysis in order to reduce sample manipulation with minor risk of contamination, less time consuming due to the absence of the digestion step and cheaper analyses.

  16. Interpretation of pharmaceutical drug concentrations in young children's head hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterton, Craig; Turner, Kirsten; Klinger, Nadine; Etter, Matthieu; Duez, Mathieu; Cirimele, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Three separate cases of child administration of prescription drugs are described. Following liquid-liquid extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenyl-1-pyrrolidine (EDDP), tramadol, amitriptyline, and nortriptyline in children's hair. The children's age ranged from 14 months to 7 years; in all three cases, the drug in question was detected in more than one section of hair. Methadone was detected in the concentration range of 0.65-0.99 and 0.04-0.4 ng/mg; tramadol was detected in the concentration range of 1.5-2.2 ng/mg; amitriptyline and nortriptyline were detected in the concentration range of 0.18-1.06 and 0.38-2.0 ng/mg, respectively. In each case, the children's parents admitted to or were found guilty of drug administration to the child. These cases demonstrate the added value of hair testing and emphasize the importance of using hair samples to complement conventional analyses.

  17. Season, molt, and body size influence mercury concentrations in grebes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied seasonal and physiological influences on mercury concentrations in western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's grebes (A. occidentalis) across 29 lakes and reservoirs in California, USA. Additionally, at three of these lakes, we conducted a time series study, in which we repeatedly sampled grebe blood mercury concentrations during the spring, summer, and early fall. Grebe blood mercury concentrations were higher among males (0.61 ± 0.12 μg/g ww) than females (0.52 ± 0.10 μg/g ww), higher among Clark's grebes (0.58 ± 0.12 μg/g ww) than western grebes (0.51 ± 0.10 μg/g ww), and exhibited a strong seasonal pattern (decreasing by 60% from spring to fall). Grebe blood THg concentrations exhibited a shallow, inverse U-shaped pattern with body size, and was lowest among the smallest and largest grebes. Further, the relationship between grebe blood mercury concentrations and wing primary feather molt exhibited a shallow U-shaped pattern, where mercury concentrations were highest among birds that had not yet begun molting, decreased approximately 24% between pre-molt and late molt, and increased approximately 19% from late molt to post-molt. Because grebes did not begin molting until mid-summer, lower grebe blood mercury concentrations observed in late summer and early fall were consistent with the onset of primary feather molt. However, because sampling date was a much stronger predictor of grebe mercury concentrations than molt, other seasonally changing environmental factors likely played a larger role than molt in the seasonal variation in grebe mercury concentrations. In the time series study, we found that seasonal trends in grebe mercury concentrations were not consistent among lakes, indicating that lake-specific variation in mercury dynamics influence the overall seasonal decline in grebe blood mercury concentrations. These results highlight the importance of accounting for sampling date, as well as ecological processes that may

  18. Method for treatment of water containing low concentrations of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, D. J.; Kraynik, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    A process employing magnetic filtering techniques has been devised for treating water containing concentrations on the order of 1 microgram/cubic centimeter of atomic or ionic mercury. A laboratory-scale system has been operated and can reduce the mercury content of test solutions by as much as 90 percent.

  19. Marine diet and tobacco exposure affects mercury concentrations in pregnant women (I from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Gaxiola-Robles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seafood provides essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and other nutrients to pregnant women and their fetus(es while a diet rich in finfish can be a major pathway of monomethyl mercury (MeHg+ exposure. We measured total mercury concentration ([THg] in hair samples provided by 75 women in Baja California Sur (BCS to assess its relationship with age, parity, tobacco smoke exposure, and diet based on survey methodologies. Generalized linear models (GLM were used to explain the possible association of the different variables with [THg] in hair. Median [THg] in hair was 1.52 μg g−1, ranging from 0.12 to 24.19 μg g−1 and varied significantly by segment. Approximately 72% (54/75 of those evaluated exceed 1 μg g−1 [THg] and 8% (6/75 exceed 5 μg g−1 [THg] in hair. Although frequency of fish consumption contributed significantly to explaining hair [THg], fish consumption only explained 43% of [THg] in a GLM incorporating tobacco exposure and body mass index. This study establishes possible relationships among multiple potential sources of exposure and other factors related to [THg] in hair of women in the prenatal period. A more detailed examination of other sources of exposure and factors contributing to [THg] is warranted.

  20. Marine diet and tobacco exposure affects mercury concentrations in pregnant women (I) from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bentzen, Rebecca; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Castellini, J. Margaret; Celis, Alfredo; O’Hara, Todd; Celina Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía

    2017-01-01

    Seafood provides essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and other nutrients to pregnant women and their fetus(es) while a diet rich in finfish can be a major pathway of monomethyl mercury (MeHg+) exposure. We measured total mercury concentration ([THg]) in hair samples provided by 75 women in Baja California Sur (BCS) to assess its relationship with age, parity, tobacco smoke exposure, and diet based on survey methodologies. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to explain the possible association of the different variables with [THg] in hair. Median [THg] in hair was 1.52 µgg−1, ranging from 0.12 to 24.19 µgg−1 and varied significantly by segment. Approximately 72% (54/75) of those evaluated exceed 1 µgg−1 [THg] and 8% (6/75) exceed 5 µgg−1 [THg] in hair. Although frequency of fish consumption contributed significantly to explaining hair [THg], fish consumption only explained 43% of [THg] in a GLM incorporating tobacco exposure and body mass index. This study establishes possible relationships among multiple potential sources of exposure and other factors related to [THg] in hair of women in the prenatal period. A more detailed examination of other sources of exposure and factors contributing to [THg] is warranted. PMID:28203532

  1. Mercury contamination in human hair and some marine species from Sfax coasts of Tunisia: levels and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezghani-Chaari, Sawssan; Hamza, A; Hamza-Chaffai, A

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the mercury (Hg) contents of three marine fish and common seafood species (Diplodus annularis, Sarpa salpa and Sepia officinalis) at two sampling sites in the gulf of Gabes, i.e. Sidi Mansour (polluted site) and Kerkennah (control site). These species are frequently consumed by the population living at the Sfax coasts of Tunisia, particularly by the families of fisherman. Additionally, the hair mercury levels of 55 volunteers (28 women, 27 men) were analysed and the daily total mercury intake through the fish and seafood diet was estimated. The key findings were: (1) the mercury contents of the examined fish and seafood species frequently exceeded the regulatory guideline value of 0.5 mg/kg, (2) no site-specific differences in hair mercury contents were found, (3) fish and seafood consumption is probably the major contributor of mercury exposure in this population, (4) the daily mercury intake through frequent consumption of D. annularis exceeds the US EPA reference dose. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the health risks associated with such high mercury exposure levels in order to allow optimal counseling and therapy of the concerned population and to avoid future impairment of human health, particularly children's health.

  2. Determination of mercury in hair by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry at a rotating gold disk electrode after microwave digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Gaston A; Marinho, Epitácio P

    2005-03-01

    A simple and reliable method for the determination of mercury in hair on a rotating gold disk electrode using subtractive anodic stripping voltammetry without removal of oxygen is reported. Voltammetric and microwave parameters were optimized to obtain the best analytical results. Parameters such as supporting electrolyte concentration, influence of chloride in the Hg peak, deposition potential, scan rate, accumulation time, rotation rate, square-wave amplitude, and electrode conditioning were studied. Pressurized microwave-assisted digestion of hair, suitable for the accurate voltammetric determination of Hg, was evaluated using six acid mixtures and several time-power programs. Under the optimized conditions, no interference by copper, cadmium, lead, nickel, manganese, iron, or zinc was found at concentrations corresponding to their occurrence in normal hair. A calibration plot between 6,67 and 46,69 microg/L was linear, with r(2) better than 0.999. The detection limit for a deposition time of 60 s at 254 g was calculated as 1.92 nM (3omega). Validation of the method was demonstrated with the use of a certified reference sample of hair. Eight real samples of hair (four unexposed children and four exposed persons) were also analyzed.

  3. Mercury concentrations in tissues of Florida bald eagles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We designed this study to determine mercury concentrations in eagles using two sources of data. First, we collected blood and feather samples from nestling bald...

  4. Effects of age, colony, and sex on mercury concentrations in California sea lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHuron, Elizibeth A; Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Josh; Melin, Sharon R.; Harris, Jeffrey D.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ 15N) and carbon (δ 13C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g−1 wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g−1 dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg−1 ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg−1 dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ 15N or δ 13C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.

  5. Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Sven; Auwärter, Volker; Pragst, Fritz

    2003-01-28

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest concentration was 0.003% in a hair wax. From experiments with separated hair samples of alcoholics as well as from the evaluation of the FAEE concentrations and the data about hair care of 75 volunteers (alcoholics, social drinkers and teetotalers) follows that usual shampooing, permanent wave, dyeing, bleaching or shading are of minor importance as compared to the drinking amount and other individual features. However, false positive results were found after daily treatment with a hair lotion containing 62.5% ethanol, with a deodorant and with a hair spray. As an explanation, it is assumed that FAEE are formed in the sebum glands also after regular topical application of products with a higher ethanol content.

  6. Elemental concentrations in scalp hair, nutritional status and health-related quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Akinobu; Ishimura, Eiji; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Kakiya, Ryusuke; Tabata, Tsutomu; Mori, Katsuhito; Tahara, Hideki; Shoji, Tetsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Inaba, Masaaki

    2012-04-01

    Elemental concentrations in hair from hemodialysis (HD) patients have not been well investigated. We examined the relationships between the elemental concentrations in scalp hair and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and nutritional status in HD patients. Twenty six elemental concentrations were measured in scalp hair samples from 60 male HD patients using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To evaluate HRQOL, the Short Form 36 item health survey (SF36) was used. As indices of nutritional status, body mass index, serum parameters, and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) were used. Phosphorus correlated positively with serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), GNRI and the physical domains of the SF36. Zinc correlated positively with serum creatinine, BUN and the physical domains of the SF36. Mercury and arsenic correlated positively with BUN. Cadmium correlated negatively with serum albumin, BUN and GNRI. Copper correlated positively with the physical domains of the SF36. Iodine correlated negatively with the physical domains of the SF36. Selenium correlated negatively with the mental domains of the SF36. In conclusion, phosphorus and zinc concentrations in scalp hair can be additional biomarkers of HRQOL and/or nutritional status in HD patients. Cadmium accumulation correlated with malnutrition. Iodine and selenium accumulation may adversely affect HRQOL. Further investigation is necessary to determine precisely how these elements affect these measures.

  7. Detection of mercury in the 411-year-old beard hairs of the astronomer Tycho Brahe by elemental analysis in electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Ludwig; Jaksch, Heiner; Zellmann, Erhard; Klemm, Kerstin I; Andersen, Peter Hvilshøj

    2012-10-01

    Hairs more than 400 years old of the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe were studied by electron microscopy to evaluate the hypothesis that Johannes Kepler murdered his teacher Brahe by mercury intoxication. The beard hairs showed a well-preserved ultrastructure with typical hair scales and melanosomes. The authors detected an accumulation of electron-dense granules of about 10 nm inside the outer hair scales, but not in the hair shaft and roots. At the places of these heavy-metal-containing granules they detected mercury besides other elements by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, Oxford, UK) in a field cathode scanning electron microscope (SEM, Gemini, Zeiss). The mercury-containing granules were found over the whole length of hairs, but only in the outer hair scales. Nevertheless, surface coatings of hairs were free of mercury. This distribution of mercury does not support the murder hypothesis, but could be related to precipitation of mercury dust from the air during long-term alchemistic activities.

  8. Influence of emissions on regional atmospheric mercury concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieser J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a global pollutant that is rapidly transported in the atmosphere. Unlike the majority of air pollutants the background concentrations of mercury play a major role for the atmospheric concentrations on a hemispheric scale. In this study the influence of regional anthropogenic emissions in comparison to the global emissions on mercury concentrations over Europe are investigated. For this purpose an advanced threedimensional model system is used that consists of three components. The emission model SMOKE-EU, the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, and the chemistry transport model (CTM CMAQ. A variety of sensitivity runs is performed in order to determine the influence of different driving factors (i.e. boundary conditions, anthropogenic and natural emissions, emission factors, meteorological fields on the atmoshperic concentrations of different mercury species. This study is part of the European FP7 project GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System. The aim is to identify the most important drivers for atmospheric mercury in order to optimize future regional modelling studies in the course of the GMOS project. Moreover, the model results are used to determine areas of interest for air-plane based in-situ measurements which are also part of GMOS.

  9. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Marie; Christensen, Jennie R; Spence, Jody; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size=30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r(2)=0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method.

  10. Evaluation of Background Mercury Concentrations in the SRS Groundwater System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.

    1999-03-03

    Mercury analyses associated with the A-01 Outfall have highlighted the importance of developing an understanding of mercury in the Savannah River Site groundwater system and associated surface water streams. This activity is critical based upon the fact that the EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for this constituent is 0.012mg/L, a level that is well below conventional detection limits of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L. A first step in this process is obtained by utilizing the existing investment in groundwater mercury concentrations (20,242 records) maintained in the SRS geographical information management system (GIMS) database. Careful use of these data provides a technically defensible initial estimate for total recoverable mercury in background and contaminated SRS wells.

  11. Future trends in environmental mercury concentrations: implications for prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunderland Elsie M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In their new paper, Bellanger and coauthors show substantial economic impacts to the EU from neurocognitive impairment associated with methylmercury (MeHg exposures. The main source of MeHg exposure is seafood consumption, including many marine species harvested from the global oceans. Fish, birds and other wildlife are also susceptible to the impacts of MeHg and already exceed toxicological thresholds in vulnerable regions like the Arctic. Most future emissions scenarios project a growth or stabilization of anthropogenic mercury releases relative to present-day levels. At these emissions levels, inputs of mercury to ecosystems are expected to increase substantially in the future, in part due to growth in the legacy reservoirs of mercury in oceanic and terrestrial ecosystems. Seawater mercury concentration trajectories in areas such as the North Pacific Ocean that supply large quantities of marine fish to the global seafood market are projected to increase by more than 50% by 2050. Fish mercury levels and subsequent human and biological exposures are likely to also increase because production of MeHg in ocean ecosystems is driven by the supply of available inorganic mercury, among other factors. Analyses that only consider changes in primary anthropogenic emissions are likely to underestimate the severity of future deposition and concentration increases associated with growth in mercury reservoirs in the land and ocean. We therefore recommend that future policy analyses consider the fully coupled interactions among short and long-lived reservoirs of mercury in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial ecosystems. Aggressive anthropogenic emission reductions are needed to reduce MeHg exposures and associated health impacts on humans and wildlife and protect the integrity of one of the last wild-food sources globally. In the near-term, public health advice on safe fish consumption choices such as smaller species, younger fish, and harvests

  12. Predictors of hair cortisol concentrations in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Silke; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Stalder, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    People at older ages are at increased risk for developing stress-related diseases associated with chronically elevated cortisol secretion. However, the main factors contributing to such endocrine alterations in this age group are still largely unknown. This cross-sectional study examined patterns of long-term integrated cortisol secretion, as assessed in hair, in a sample of 654 participants in middle and old adulthood (mean age: 65.8 years; range: 47-82 years) from the German cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study in Potsdam. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were determined from the first scalp-near 3 cm hair segment and several sociodemographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, disease-related, and psychological parameters were assessed. In simple linear regressions, HCC were found to increase with participants' age and to be higher in men compared to women. HCC also showed positive associations with waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, smoking, prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus, mental health, daytime sleeping, and being unemployed or retired--as well as a negative association with diastolic blood pressure. After full mutual adjustment, only age and smoking remained independent predictors of HCC. The association between prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus and HCC was attenuated but still persisted independently in women. Similar, a positive relationship between HCC and alcohol consumption was found in women. The current results confirm previous evidence of positive associations of HCC with age, sex, alcohol consumption, and type 2 diabetes mellitus and add new knowledge on factors--such as smoking--that may contribute to elevated cortisol levels in people at older ages.

  13. Increased Hair Cortisol Concentrations and BMI in Patients With Pituitary-Adrenal Disease on Hydrocortisone Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Andela, Cornelie D; Manenschijn, Laura; Pereira, Alberto M; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2015-06-01

    Intrinsic imperfections and lack of reliable biomarkers preclude optimal individual dosing of hydrocortisone replacement in adrenal insufficiency (AI). However, the clinical relevance of optimal dosing is exemplified by frequently occurring side effects of overreplacement and the dangers of underreplacement. Cortisol in scalp hair has been identified as a retrospective biomarker for long-term cortisol exposure. We compared hair cortisol concentrations (CORT(hair)) of patients with primary or secondary AI on replacement therapy with those of patient controls with a pituitary disease without AI (PCs) and of healthy controls (HCs). In this cross-sectional study, hair samples and anthropometric data were collected in 132 AI patients (52 males), 42 PCs (11 males), and 195 HCs (90 males). The proximal 3 cm of hair were used. CORT(hair) were measured using an ELISA. CORT(hair) were higher in AI patients than in HCs and PCs (P < .001), and hydrocortisone dose correlated with CORT(hair) (P = .04). Male AI patients demonstrated higher CORT(hair) than female patients (P < .001). AI patients had higher body mass index (BMI) than HCs (P < .001), and BMI correlated with CORT(hair) in the whole sample (P < .001). Physiological hydrocortisone replacement is associated with increased CORT(hair). The association between CORT(hair) and BMI could suggest a mild overtreatment that may lead to adverse anthropomorphic side effects, especially in males. CORT(hair) measurements may be a promising additional tool to monitor cumulative hydrocortisone replacement in AI.

  14. Relationship between localization of gold mining areas and hair mercury levels in people from Bolivar, north of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Marrugo Negrete, Jose; Negrete-Marrugo, José

    2011-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal that, once in the environment, is bioaccumulated and biomagnified through food chain impacting ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in individuals along Cauca and Magdalena Rivers in Colombia, where most gold mining activities take place. A total of 1,328 hair samples were collected and analyzed for T-Hg using atomic absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 20.14 μg/g. Greatest levels were detected in La Raya (5.27 ± 0.32 μg/g), Achi (2.44 ± 0.22 μg/g), and Montecristo (2.20 ± 0.20 μg/g), places that are located near gold mines. Concentrations decreased with the distance from main mining areas. Only 0.75% of the individuals had T-Hg levels above 10 μg/g. Men had significantly higher T-Hg levels than women, and correlation analysis revealed moderately weak but significant relationships between T-Hg and weight (R = 0.111, P mining, monitoring, and educational programs are necessary to protect health of people living near Colombian rivers.

  15. A gradient of mercury concentrations in Scottish single malt whiskies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Neil L; Yang, Handong; Turner, Simon D

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in 26 Scottish single malt whiskies, and all found to be very low (whisky production. As UK atmospheric emissions of mercury have declined by 90 % since the 1970s, we suggest that whisky being produced today should have even lower Hg concentrations when consumed in 10- to 15-years time. This reduction may be compromised by the remobilisation of contaminants stored in catchment soils being transferred to source waters, but is very unlikely to raise the negligible health risk due to Hg from Scottish single malt whisky consumption.

  16. Association between hair cortisol concentration and perceived stress in female methamphetamine addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Liuna; Xiang, Peng; Yang, Jin; Shen, Hui; Sang, Zhiqin

    2016-12-01

    The present study aims to explore whether hair cortisol concentration is associated with explicit stress or implicit stress in female methamphetamine addicts. Hair samples were collected from 51 female methamphetamine addicts from inpatient addiction treatment programs. Perceived stress was assessed by both explicit and implicit measures through the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Implicit Association Test (IAT), respectively. The positive relationship between hair cortisol concentration with D-scores of the IAT reached statistically significant difference. A marginal correlation between hair cortisol concentration and scores of the PSS was observed. Additionally, linear regression analysis indicated that D-scores of the IAT are strongly predictive of hair cortisol concentration. Hair cortisol concentration is strongly related to implicit stress but only weakly related with explicit stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A detailed study of thermal decomposition, amalgamation/ atomic absorption spectrophotometry methodology for the quantitative analysis of mercury in fish and hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven J M; Scanlan, Larry P; Chaudhuri, Sanwat N

    2006-11-01

    The analytical method for determining the concentration of mercury in fish by thermal decomposition, amalgamation/ atomic absorption spectrophotometry was thoroughly studied. Specific issues addressed were accurate modeling of instrumental response, the use of quartz and nickel boats, carryover effects, software limitations, and troubleshooting. The DMA-80 Direct Mercury Analyzer instrument was calibrated using a total of 22 points, and the resultant curves statistically analyzed. At minimum, second-order polynomials were required to adequately model the data. TORT-2 standard reference material was analyzed in both quartz and nickel boats and found to give equivalent performance in both types of vessels and well within the 95% confidence interval. DOLT-3 standard reference material also yielded values well within the 95% confidence interval, but the DORM-2 standard reference material did not. Carryover effects were found to be minimal with a new catalyst tube but increased with catalyst age. Blanks should be run after the analysis of high mercury content samples; however, when the catalyst has aged, two blanks are required to reduce apparent mercury signals to nominal blank values. Comparable results between thermal decomposition, amalgamation/atomic absorption spectrophotometry and cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry were demonstrated. The feasibility of using this instrument to analyze hair was also explored and found to be suitable. Software problems and limitations have been noted when attempting to implement a high-throughput methodology. Instrumental drift was found to be minimal when operated over long periods. Blank values can provide important diagnostic indicators.

  18. Hair and toenail arsenic concentrations of residents living in areas with high environmental arsenic concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H

    2003-01-01

    Surface soil and groundwater in Australia have been found to contain high concentrations of arsenic. The relative importance of long-term human exposure to these sources has not been established. Several studies have investigated long-term exposure to environmental arsenic concentrations using hair and toenails as the measure of exposure. Few have compared the difference in these measures of environmental sources of exposure. In this study we aimed to investigate risk factors for elevated hai...

  19. Proposal for a revised reference concentration (RfC) for mercury vapour in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beate, Lettmeier; Stephan, Boese-O'Reilly; Gustav, Drasch

    2010-08-01

    Worldwide, approximately 30-50 millions of people are living in small scale gold mining areas and are primarily burdened by mercury vapour. In the frame of our study, 306 mercury (Hg) vapour burdened adults, working and/ or living in two small scale gold mining areas in Zimbabwe and Tanzania and 58 volunteers from near-by unburdened communities were medically investigated. In addition, blood, urine and hair samples from each participant were analyzed for mercury. Altogether, 26 anamnestic and 24 clinical signs and symptoms, which may be caused by Hg vapour, were evaluated. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the influence of the mercury concentration in the bio-monitors on the evaluated anamnestic and clinical signs and symptoms taking into account age, gender, health status, alcohol consumption, use of pesticides and gasoline sniffing. Out of the resulting correlations between concentration and effect, ROC-curves were calculated to determine best estimates of the cut-off-values in the bio monitors. For the parameters ataxia of gait and sadness cut-off-values of 4.7 and 3.6 microg Hg/g crea in urine were calculated. These values were converted to a rounded LOAEL of 3.5 microg Hg vapour/m(3) air. In analogy to the US EPA Report (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1997) and the European Position Paper (Pirrone et al. 2001), uncertainty factors of 30 and 50 were applied, resulting in a proposed reference concentration (RfC) in ambient air of 0.1 microg Hg vapour/m(3) and 0.07 microg Hg vapour/m(3), respectively.

  20. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial Variation in the Mercury Concentration of Muscle Myomeres in Steaks of Farmed Southern Bluefin Tuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Ross

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury concentration in the muscular tissue of farmed southern bluefin tuna, Thunnus maccoyii (SBT is known to vary. Data suggests that mercury concentration is negatively correlated with the lipid concentration of tissues. Those areas that accumulate higher levels of lipid are noted to have a lower mercury concentration than lean tissues. Here we further delineate variation in mercury concentration within SBT muscular tissues by determining the concentration of mercury in the muscle myomeres (those sections within whole muscles of transverse sectional steaks of farmed SBT. Mercury concentration in myomeres is observed to significantly decrease with dorsal and ventral distance from the spine or lateral line of fish. By extension, evidence is provided for the variation of mercury concentration within tissue cuts present in SBT steaks. This paper provides the first documentation of variation in mercury concentration within muscular tissue of fish.

  2. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred

    2014-01-01

    of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. METHODS: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES...... guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. RESULTS: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children's samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair) and children (0.149 µg /g hair) did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were...

  3. Decreased glutathione and elevated hair mercury levels are associated with nutritional deficiency-based autism in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Farsi, Omar; Ali, Amanat; Ouhtit, Allal; Zang, Tianzhu; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Deth, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    Genetic, nutrition, and environmental factors have each been implicated as sources of risk for autism. Oxidative stress, including low plasma levels of the antioxidant glutathione, has been reported by numerous autism studies, which can disrupt methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation of gene expression with neurodevelopmental consequences. We investigated the status of redox and methylation metabolites, as well as the level of protein homocysteinylation and hair mercury levels, in autistic and neurotypical control Omani children, who were previously shown to exhibit significant nutritional deficiencies in serum folate and vitamin B₁₂. The serum level of glutathione in autistic subjects was significantly below control levels, while levels of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were elevated, indicative of oxidative stress and decreased methionine synthase activity. Autistic males had lower glutathione and higher homocysteine levels than females, while homocysteinylation of serum proteins was increased in autistic males but not females. Mercury levels were markedly elevated in the hair of autistic subjects vs. control subjects, consistent with the importance of glutathione for its elimination. Thus, autism in Oman is associated with decreased antioxidant resources and decreased methylation capacity, in conjunction with elevated hair levels of mercury.

  4. A survey of topsoil arsenic and mercury concentrations across France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, B P; Saby, N P A; Arrouays, D

    2017-08-01

    Even at low concentrations, the presence of arsenic and mercury in soils can lead to ecological and health impacts. The recent European-wide LUCAS Topsoil Survey found that the arsenic concentration of a large proportion of French soils exceeded a threshold which indicated that further investigation was required. A much smaller proportion of soils exceeded the corresponding threshold for mercury but the impacts of mining and industrial activities on mercury concentrations are not well understood. We use samples from the French national soil monitoring network (RMQS: Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des Sols) to explore the variation of topsoil arsenic and mercury concentrations across mainland France at a finer spatial resolution than was reported by LUCAS Topsoil. We use geostatistical methods to map the expected concentrations of these elements in the topsoil and the probabilities that the legislative thresholds are exceeded. We find that, with the exception of some areas where the geogenic concentrations and soil adsorption capacities are very low, arsenic concentrations are generally larger than the threshold which indicates that further assessment of the area is required. The lower of two other guideline values indicating risks to ecology or health is exceeded in fewer than 5% of RMQS samples. These exceedances occur in localised hot-spots primarily associated with mining and mineralization. The probabilities of mercury concentrations exceeding the further assessment threshold value are everywhere less than 0.01 and none of the RMQS samples exceed either of the ecological and health risk thresholds. However, there are some regions with elevated concentrations which can be related to volcanic material, natural mineralizations and industrial contamination. These regions are more diffuse than the hot-spots of arsenic reflecting the greater volatility of mercury and therefore the greater ease with which it can be transported and redeposited. The maps provide a

  5. Mercury Concentrations of Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) Vary by Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Madenjian, Charles P.; James T. Francis; Jeffrey J. Braunscheidel; Joseph R. Bohr; Matthew J. Geiger; G. Mark Knottnerus

    2015-01-01

    Patterns in relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes across many species of fish may reveal clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes, and may also be useful in developing fish consumption advisories and efficient designs for programs meant to monitor contaminant levels in fish. We determined skin-off fillet and whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 28 adult female and 26 adult male bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) from...

  6. Concentrations of heavy metals in hair as indicators of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over 80 hair samples were collected from 38% males and 62% females in Krakow, Poland. The hairs sampled for the analysis were washed in the water-acetone-water arrangement (three times. Subsequently the hair samples were wet mineralized in a closed system HNO3:H2O2 (6:1 in a microwave furnace. Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd were assessed by means of ICP-OES method. Obtained results of analysis of heavy metal concentrations in the hair of tested population of Krakow inhabitants evidence environmental hazard (beside professional hazardWe observed that the hair of females showed higher levels of zinc and cadmium. Hair analysis allows for an assessment of the natural environment contamination, which is particularly important for the research on populations inhabiting areas with different degree of pollution.

  7. Lowering extracellular chloride concentration alters outer hair cell shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecola, R P; Bobbin, R P

    1992-08-01

    In general, increasing external K+ concentration, as well as exposure to hypotonic medium, induces a shortening of outer hair cells (OHCs) accompanied by an increase in width and volume. One possible mechanism suggested for these changes is a movement of Cl- and/or water across the cell membrane. We therefore examined the role of Cl- in OHC volume maintenance by testing the effect of decreasing extracellular Cl- concentration on OHC length and shape. In addition, the effect of hypotonic medium was examined. OHCs were isolated from guinea pig cochleae, mechanically dissociated and dispersed, and placed in a modified Hanks balanced salt solution (HBS). Exposing the cells to a Cl(-)-free HBS produced an initial shortening, which was rapidly followed by an increase in length. After about 9 min of exposure to Cl(-)-free HBS, the cells appeared to lose all water and collapsed. Upon return to normal HBS, the OHCs returned to their normal shape. We speculate that the collapse of the OHCs may be due to the loss of intracellular Cl-, which, in turn, resulted in the loss of intracellular K+ and water. The results indicate that Cl- contributes greatly to the maintenance of OHC volume. In addition, we confirmed that isolated OHCs swell in hypotonic medium and maintain their swollen state until returned to normal medium. The mechanism for maintenance of the swollen state is unknown.

  8. Estimating atmospheric mercury concentrations with lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Nicolardi, Valentina; Bargagli, Roberto; Loppi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The uptake kinetics of elemental gaseous Hg (Hg(0)) in three species of epiphytic lichens (Pseudevernia furfuracea, Evernia prunastri, and Xanthoria parietina) were investigated under four different Hg concentrations (10, 15, 30, and 45 μg/m(3)) and three different temperatures (10, 20, and 30 °C) with the aim of evaluating the lichen efficiency for Hg(0) accumulation and their potential use in the estimate of atmospheric concentrations of this metal in the field. The results showed that under our experimental conditions the lichens accumulated Hg according to exposure time and that the metal is not released back to the atmosphere after Hg(0) was removed from the air (clearance). Pseudevernia furfuracea showed the highest Hg accumulation capacity and Evernia prunastri showed the lowest, but in these species the metal uptake kinetics was affected by temperature. Xanthoria parietina showed an intermediate metal accumulation capacity and a Hg accumulation rate independent of temperature (in the range 10-30 °C). The use of first-order kinetics equations for Hg uptake in X. parietina and available field data on Hg bioaccumulation in this species allowed reliable estimates of atmospheric Hg concentrations in the environment.

  9. Influence of nutritional status, age and sex on infant hair zinc concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, M A; Leão, E; Penna, F J

    1989-01-01

    1. Zinc concentration was measured in hair samples from 57 infants (27 boys and 30 girls) aged 7 to 24 months. Twenty-eight infants were considered eutrophic and 29 presented chronic and severe malnutrition. 2. Hair segments less than 3-cm long were cut close to the scalp in the occipital area and washed in deionized water and acetone. Zinc levels were measured by neutron-activation. 3. Hair zinc concentration decreased with age in both eutrophic and malnourished infants from 160 micrograms/g at 7 months to 90 micrograms/g at 24 months. 4. No statistically significant difference in hair zinc concentration was detected between eutrophic and malnourished infants (148 +/- 60 vs 128 +/- 57 micrograms/g hair, mean +/- SD) or between sexes.

  10. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected and non-infected control pigs and assess the effect of an environmental change on the aforementioned parameters. Three hair patches were obtained from 13 T. solium...

  11. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments Altos níveis de Mercúrio e Chumbo detectados pela análise de cabelo em dois ambientes venezuelanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Marcano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon state, whereas automobile activity is responsible for high levels of Lead in hair in Caracas.Concentrações de mercúrio e chumbo obtidas pela análise ICP-OAS de amostras de cabelo humano de comunidades ribeirinhas ao longo do rio Orinoco no estado de Amazonas (Venezuela foram comparadas com outras de Caracas, Venezuela. Levando em consideração as características desses dois ambientes e os valores das concentrações médias de mercúrio e chumbo, foram estabelecidas linhas basais que sugerem que as atividades de minério de ouro próximo ao rio Orinoco são responsáveis pelos altos conteúdos de mercúrio em cabelo no estado de Amazonas. Entretanto, a indústria automotriz é responsável pelo alto conteúdo de chumbo em cabelo em Caracas.

  12. Mercury Inhibits Soil Enzyme Activity in a Lower Concentration than the Guideline Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Three soil types - neutral, alkaline and acidic were experimentally contaminated with nine different concentrations of inorganic mercury (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/kg) to derive effective concentrations of mercury that exert toxicity on soil quality. Bioavailability of mercury in terms of water solubility was lower in acidic soil with higher organic carbon. Dehydrogenase enzyme activity and nitrification rate were chosen as indicators to assess soil quality. Inorganic mercury significantly inhibited (p mercury contents (EC10) were found to be less than the available safe limits for inorganic mercury which demonstrated inadequacy of existing guideline values.

  13. Investigations of mercury concentrations in infant organs; Untersuchungen zur Quecksilberkonzentration in Organen von Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, C.

    2001-07-01

    Study of the mercury concentration of organs (kidneys, liver, brain, spleen, thyroid, pituitary gland, thymus) of 32 dead children, aged 0.1 - 15 years. Comparison with mercury concentration in adults. Emphasis is given on the role of dental amalgam. Study of age dependence of mercury contamination.

  14. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noël, Marie, E-mail: marie.noel@stantec.com [Stantec Consulting Ltd. 2042 Mills Road, Unit 11, Sidney BC V8L 4X2 (Canada); Christensen, Jennie R., E-mail: jennie.christensen@stantec.com [Stantec Consulting Ltd. 2042 Mills Road, Unit 11, Sidney BC V8L 4X2 (Canada); Spence, Jody, E-mail: jodys@uvic.ca [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Bob Wright Centre A405, University of Victoria, PO BOX 3065 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3V6 (Canada); Robbins, Charles T., E-mail: ctrobbins@wsu.edu [School of the Environment and School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4236 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size = 30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r{sup 2} = 0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. - Highlights: • LA-ICP-MS provides temporal trace metal exposure information for wild grizzly bears. • Cu and Zn temporal exposures provide

  15. Systematic review and meta-analysis links autism and toxic metals and highlights the impact of country development status: Higher blood and erythrocyte levels for mercury and lead, and higher hair antimony, cadmium, lead, and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-10-03

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that affects cognitive and higher cognitive functions. Increasing prevalence of ASD and high rates of related comorbidities has caused serious health loss and placed an onerous burden on the supporting families, caregivers, and health care services. Heavy metals are among environmental factors that may contribute to ASD. However, due to inconsistencies across studies, it is still hard to explain the association between ASD and toxic metals. Therefore the objective of this study was to investigate the difference in heavy metal measures between patients with ASD and control subjects. We included observational studies that measured levels of toxic metals (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium) in different specimens (whole blood, plasma, serum, red cells, hair and urine) for patients with ASD and for controls. The main electronic medical database (PubMed and Scopus) were searched from inception through October 2016. 52 studies were eligible to be included in the present systematic review, of which 48 studies were included in the meta-analyses. The hair concentrations of antimony (standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.45) and lead (SMD=0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17 to 1.03) in ASD patients were significantly higher than those of control subjects. ASD patients had higher erythrocyte levels of lead (SMD=1.55, CI: 0.2 to 2.89) and mercury (SMD=1.56, CI: 0.42 to 2.70). There were significantly higher blood lead levels in ASD patients (SMD=0.43, CI: 0.02 to 0.85). Sensitivity analyses showed that ASD patients in developed but not in developing countries have lower hair concentrations of cadmium (SMD=-0.29, CI: -0.46 to -0.12). Also, such analyses indicated that ASD patients in developing but not in developed lands have higher hair concentrations of lead (SMD=1.58, CI: 0.80 to 2.36) and mercury (SMD=0

  16. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, Aubrey L; Hardin, Rebecca D; Neitzel, Richard L

    2017-03-14

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA)'s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI); and (2), to measure the mercury levels of paco (Piaractus brachypomus) fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight). We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred) in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute to human

  17. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, Aubrey L.; Hardin, Rebecca D.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA)’s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI); and (2), to measure the mercury levels of paco (Piaractus brachypomus) fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight). We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred) in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute to human

  18. Maternal transfer of contaminants in birds: Mercury and selenium concentrations in parents and their eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a detailed assessment of the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in three bird species (n = 107 parents and n = 339 eggs), and developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in six tissues of the mother (blood, muscle, liver, kidney, breast feathers, and head feathers). Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in each of the mother's internal tissues (R(2) ≥ 0.95), but generally not with feathers. For each species, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury concentrations in the mother increased. At the same maternal mercury concentration, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species, such that Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) females transferred more methylmercury to their eggs than American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) females. Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with selenium concentrations in the mother's liver (R(2) = 0.87). Furthermore, mercury and selenium concentrations in tern eggs were positively correlated with those in the father (R(2) = 0.84). Incubating male terns had 21% higher mercury concentrations in blood compared to incubating females at the same egg mercury concentration. We provide equations to predict contaminant concentrations in eggs from each of the commonly sampled bird tissues.

  19. Maternal transfer of contaminants in birds: Mercury and selenium concentrations in parents and their eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a detailed assessment of the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in three bird species (n = 107 parents and n = 339 eggs), and developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in six tissues of the mother (blood, muscle, liver, kidney, breast feathers, and head feathers). Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in each of the mother's internal tissues (R2 ≥ 0.95), but generally not with feathers. For each species, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury concentrations in the mother increased. At the same maternal mercury concentration, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species, such that Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) females transferred more methylmercury to their eggs than American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) females. Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with selenium concentrations in the mother's liver (R2 = 0.87). Furthermore, mercury and selenium concentrations in tern eggs were positively correlated with those in the father (R2 = 0.84). Incubating male terns had 21% higher mercury concentrations in blood compared to incubating females at the same egg mercury concentration. We provide equations to predict contaminant concentrations in eggs from each of the commonly sampled bird tissues.

  20. Mercury and methylmercury concentration assessment in children's hair from Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil Avaliação da concentração de mercúrio e metilmercúrio em cabelo de crianças de Manaus, estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Farias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated Hg and MeHg content in hair samples of 201 children 2 to 7 years old, living in six neighborhoods of the city of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. In general, the total Hg and MeHg median ranges in hair were similar (0.91 to 1.71 mg kg-1 except for the São Jose neighborhood, which was lower (0.16 mg kg-1. De spite the fact that the Manaus population consumes fish as part of the normal dietary intake, the Hg hair levels were below the level for an adult population not exposed to mercury (2.0 mg kg-1. These data were compared to demographic, socioeconomic information and eating habits of the families that took part in the study. The results were also compared to other published data from the Amazon region, other regions of Brazil and other countries. Future studies to set Hg and MeHg levels in hair of children in Brazil should take into account and assess the diversity of the country, mainly in terms of eating habits, socio-economic and cultural aspects.O presente estudo avaliou o teor de Hg e MeHg em amostras de cabelo de 201 crianças de 2 aos 7 anos de idade, residentes em seis bairros da cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Em geral, o teor de Hg total e MeHg em cabelo foram semelhantes (medianas de 0,91 a 1,71 mg kg-1, exceto para o bairro São José, que foi menor (0,16 mg kg-1. Apesar da população de Manaus consumir peixe como parte da dieta normal, os níveis de Hg nos cabelos ficaram abaixo do nível para uma população adulta não exposta ao mercúrio (2,0 mg kg-1. Esses dados foram comparados com informações demográficas, socioeconômicas e hábitos alimentares das famílias que participaram do estudo. Os resultados também foram comparados com outros dados publicados da Amazônia, outras regiões do Brasil e outros países. Futuros estudos para definir os níveis de Hg total e MeHg no cabelo das crianças brasileiras deverão considerar e avaliar a diversidade do país, principalmente em termos de h

  1. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected and non-infected control pigs and assess the effect of an environmental change on the aforementioned parameters. Three hair patches were obtained from 13 T. solium...... infected and 15 non-infected controls sows, respectively corresponding to 3 time points (prior to, at and approximately two weeks after arrival at the research facility). Cortisol and DHEA were extracted using methanol and analysed by radio immune assay. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were significantly...... lower (pDHEA...

  2. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and treatments are needed. ELEMENTAL MERCURY Inhaled elemental mercury poisoning may be difficult to treat. The person may ... metals from the body INORGANIC MERCURY For inorganic mercury poisoning, treatment often begins with supportive care. The person ...

  3. Effects of small hydropower plants on mercury concentrations in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebalho, Elaine C; Díez, Sergi; Dos Santos Filho, Manoel; Muniz, Claumir Cesar; Lázaro, Wilkinson; Malm, Olaf; Ignácio, Aurea R A

    2017-08-16

    Although the impacts of large dams on freshwater biota are relatively well known, the effects of small hydropower plants (SHP) are not well investigated. In this work, we studied if mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish rise in two tropical SHP reservoirs, and whether similar effects take place during impoundment. Total Hg concentrations in several fish species were determined at two SHP in the Upper Guaporé River basin floodplain, Brazil. In total, 185 specimens were analysed for Hg content in dorsal muscle and none of them reported levels above the safety limit (500 μg kg(-1)) for fish consumption recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The highest levels of Hg (231 and 447 μg kg(-1)) were found in carnivorous species in both reservoirs. Mercury increased as a function of standard length in most of the fish populations in the reservoirs, and higher Hg concentrations were found in fish at the reservoir compared with fish downstream. The high dissolved oxygen concentrations and high transparency of the water column (i.e. oligotrophic reservoir) together with the absence of thermal stratification may explain low Hg methylation and low MeHg levels found in fish after flooding. Overall, according to limnological characteristics of water, we may hypothesise that reservoir conditions are not favourable to high net Hg methylation.

  4. Temporal variation of blood and hair mercury levels in pregnancy in relation to fish consumption history in a population living along the St. Lawrence River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissette, Joëlle; Takser, Larissa; St-Amour, Genevieve; Smargiassi, Audrey; Lafond, Julie; Mergler, Donna

    2004-07-01

    Fish consumption from the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River has been decreasing over the last years due to advisories and increased awareness of the presence of several contaminants. Methylmercury (MeHg), a well-established neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure, bioaccumulates to differing degrees in various fish species and can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Most studies on MeHg exposure have focussed on high-level consumers from local fish sources, although mercury (Hg) is also present in fresh, frozen, and canned market fish. Moreover, little information exists on the temporal variation of blood and hair Hg in pregnant women, particularly in populations with low levels of Hg. The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal variation of Hg during pregnancy and to investigate the relation between fish consumption from various sources prior to and during pregnancy and maternal cord blood and mother's hair Hg levels. We recruited 159 pregnant women from Southwest Quebec through two prenatal clinics of the Quebec Public Health System. All women completed two detailed questionnaires concerning their fish consumption (species and frequency) prior to and during pregnancy. The women also provided blood samples for all three trimesters of pregnancy and hair samples after delivery of up to 9 cm in length. Blood and hair Hg levels were analyzed by cold-vapor atomic-absorption and -fluorescence spectrometry methods, respectively. Results showed that maternal blood and hair Hg levels decreased significantly between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, cord blood Hg was significantly higher than maternal blood at birth. Maternal hair was correlated with Hg blood concentration and was highly predictive of the organic fraction in cord blood. A strong dose relation was observed between the frequency of fish consumption before and

  5. Review: Drug concentrations in hair and their relevance in drug facilitated crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-11-01

    Segmental hair analysis can provide valuable retrospective information on the history of drug exposure in victims of drug facilitated crimes (DFC). This is now possible with availability of sensitive tandem MS techniques such as GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS allowing drugs to be detected at pg/mg concentrations after a single dose. In this review hair concentrations of 35 psychoactive drugs given in 20 controlled dose studies are reviewed and compared to the 25 different drugs detected in reported case work. The most common drugs were the benzodiazepines and related hypnotics, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine and methamphetamine. Those concentrations reported in DFC were mostly similar or higher than that seen in controlled dose studies. The factors that affecting interpretation of segmental hair results including hair color, growth rates, sample preparation and surface contamination are discussed.

  6. Metabolite to parent drug concentration ratios in hair for the differentiation of tramadol intake from external contamination and passive exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, Milena M; Rust, Kristina Y; Guglielmello, Rosetta; Baumgartner, Markus R; Kraemer, Thomas

    2012-11-30

    Tramadol was found in a man's hair sample during an abstinence test necessary to regain his driving license. The suspect denied having taken tramadol claiming external contamination as the reason for the positive result, as he was working in a tramadol production company. Nevertheless, low concentrations of both major metabolites, N-desmethyltramadol (NDMT) and O-desmethyltramadol (ODMT), were found in hair (180 and 6 pg/mg hair, respectively). To assess this case, tramadol concentrations and metabolite to parent drug concentration ratios were determined in hair samples of 75 patients taking tramadol and of eight employees working in the production and laboratory site of the same company. Additionally, wash water used for decontaminating hair was analyzed for both groups, patients and employees. Analysis of hair sample extracts was performed by LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), information dependent acquisition (IDA) and enhanced product ion scan (EPI). High variations of metabolite to parent drug concentration ratios in hair samples of patients were observed. Differences in NDMT and ODMT to tramadol concentration ratios were found when comparing the cohort of patients to employees. The suspect could be included in the cohort of employees considering the ODMT to tramadol concentration ratio in hair and tramadol concentration ratio in wash water versus hair. Metabolite to parent drug concentration ratios of hair samples may represent a helpful tool for the differentiation of tramadol intake versus external contamination. Ratios of tramadol concentrations in wash water versus the subjects' hair may provide additional information for case assessments.

  7. Fish are central in the diet of Amazonian riparians: should we worry about their mercury concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorea, Jose G

    2003-07-01

    The Amazon rain forest extends over an area of 7.8x10(6)km(2) in nine countries. It harbors a diverse human population distributed in dense cities and isolated communities with extreme levels of infrastructure. Amazonian forest people, either autochthons or frontier riparians (ribeirinhos) living in isolated areas, share the same environment for survival and nutritional status. The peculiarities of the hydrological cycle determine disease patterns, agricultural conditions, and food availability. Feeding strategies depend heavily on cassava products and fish. These two foods carry toxic substances such as linamarin (naturally present in cassava) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg) (bioconcentrated in fish flesh) that cause neurotoxic diseases in other parts of the world but not in Amazonia, where neurotoxic cases of food origin are rare and not related to these staples. While cassava detoxification processes may partly explain its safe consumption, the Hg concentrations in Amazonian fish are within traditionally safe limits for this population and contribute to an important metabolic interaction with cassava. The gold rush of the 1970s and 1980s brought large-scale environmental disruption and physical destruction of ecosystems at impact points, along with a heavy discharge of metallic Hg. The discharged Hg has not yet impacted on MMHg concentrations in fish or in hair of fish consumers. Hair Hg concentration, used as a biomarker of fish consumption, indicates that the Amazonian riparians are acquiring an excellent source of protein carrying important nutrients, the lack of which could aggravate their existing health problems. Therefore, in a scenario of insufficient health services and an unhealthy environment, food habits based on fish consumption are part of a successful survival strategy and recommendations for changes are not yet justifiable.

  8. Prolonged exposure to arsenic in UK private water supplies: toenail, hair and drinking water concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D R S; Watts, M J; Hamilton, E M; Fletcher, T; Leonardi, G S; Close, R M; Exley, K S; Crabbe, H; Polya, D A

    2016-05-18

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in drinking water is an established cause of cancer and other adverse health effects. Arsenic concentrations >10 μg L(-1) were previously measured in 5% of private water supplies (PWS) in Cornwall, UK. The present study investigated prolongued exposure to As by measuring biomarkers in hair and toenail samples from 212 volunteers and repeated measurements of As in drinking water from 127 households served by PWS. Strong positive Pearson correlations (rp = 0.95) indicated stability of water As concentrations over the time period investigated (up to 31 months). Drinking water As concentrations were positively correlated with toenail (rp = 0.53) and hair (rp = 0.38) As concentrations - indicative of prolonged exposure. Analysis of washing procedure solutions provided strong evidence of the effective removal of exogenous As from toenail samples. Significantly higher As concentrations were measured in hair samples from males and smokers and As concentrations in toenails were negatively associated with age. A positive association between seafood consumption and toenail As and a negative association between home-grown vegetable consumption and hair As was observed for volunteers exposed to hair biomarkers. Substantial variation in biomarker As concentrations remained unaccounted for, with soil and dust exposure as possible explanations.

  9. Mercury concentrations of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Francis, James T.; Braunscheidel, Jeffrey J.; Bohr, Joseph R.; Geiger, Matthew J.; Knottnerus, G. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Patterns in relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes across many species of fish may reveal clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes, and may also be useful in developing fish consumption advisories and efficient designs for programs meant to monitor contaminant levels in fish. We determined skin-off fillet and whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 28 adult female and 26 adult male bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) from Squaw Lake, Oakland County, Michigan (MI), USA. Bioenergetics modeling was used to quantify the effect of growth dilution on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. On average, skin-off fillet and whole-fish Hg concentrations were 25.4% higher and 26.6% higher, respectively, in females compared with males. Thus, the relative difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes for skin-off fillets was nearly identical to that for whole fish. However, mean skin-off fillet Hg concentration (363 ng/g) was 2.3 times greater than mean whole-fish Hg concentration (155 ng/g). Males grew substantially faster than females, and bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for females having 14.4% higher Hg concentrations than males. Our findings should be useful in revising fish consumption advisories.

  10. Time-course measurements of drug concentrations in hair and toenails after single administrations of pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko T; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Segawa, Hiroki; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-24

    Hair and nails are often used to prove long-term intake of drugs in forensic drug testing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of drug testing using hair and nails and the feasibility of determining when drugs were ingested by measuring the time-courses of drug concentrations in hair and toenails after single administrations of various drugs. Healthy subjects ingested four pharmaceutical products containing eight active ingredients in single doses. Hair and toenails were collected at predetermined intervals, and drug concentrations in hair and nails were measured for 12 months. The administered drugs and their main metabolites were extracted using micropulverized extraction with a stainless steel bullet and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Acidic compounds such as ibuprofen and its metabolites were not detected in both specimens. Acetaminophen, a weakly acidic compound, was detected in nails more frequently than in hair. The maximum concentration of allyl isopropyl acetylurea, a neutral compound, in nails was significantly higher than in hair. Nails are an effective specimen to detect neutral and weakly acidic compounds. For fexofenadine, a zwitterionic compound, and for most basic compounds, the maximum concentrations in hair segments tended to be higher than those in nails. The hair segments showing the maximum concentrations varied between drugs, samples, and subjects. Drug concentrations in hair segments greatly depended on the selection of the hair. Careful interpretation of analytical results is required to predict the time of drug intake. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Chromium, zinc and magnesium concentrations in the pubic hair of obese and overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechuła, Danuta; Loska, Krzysztof; Ungier, Dagmara; Fischer, Agnieszka

    2012-07-01

    The study addressed chromium, zinc and magnesium concentrations in the pubic hair of obese and overweight women. It was carried out on hair collected from 85 women at the age of 16-80 living in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship (southern Poland). The experimental and control groups consisted of 39 and 46 females, respectively. The pubic hair was prepared under a procedure established by the International Atomic Energy Agency, followed by wet digestion in a microwave oven. The concentration of the metals in the pubic hair and reference material was assayed with the flame (Mg, Zn) and flameless (Cr) atomic absorption spectrometry. The pubic hair of overweight and obese women from the experimental group revealed significantly higher chromium and magnesium concentrations and significantly lower concentrations of zinc than in the control group. An increase in BMI brought about an increase in chromium and magnesium concentrations while zinc concentration decreased with increasing BMI. The disturbances in the mineral balance of overweight and obese women were also demonstrated by significantly different ratios of the elements compared with the control group.

  12. Atmospheric mercury concentration and chemical speciation at a rural site in Beijing, China: implications of mercury emission sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of atmospheric mercury concentration and speciation play a key role in identifying mercury sources and its behavior in the atmosphere. In this study, speciated atmospheric mercury including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and particle-bound mercury (PBM were continuously measured at Miyun, a rural site in Beijing, China, from December 2008 to November 2009. The average GEM, RGM and PBM concentrations were found to be 3.22 ± 1.74, 10.1 ± 18.8 and 98.2 ± 112.7 pg m−3, respectively, about 2–20 times higher than the background concentration of the Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that atmospheric mercury concentrations in northern China were highly affected by anthropogenic emissions. The atmospheric mercury showed obvious seasonal variations, with the highest seasonal average GEM concentration in summer (3.48 ng m−3 and the lowest value in winter (2.66 ng m−3. In autumn and winter a diurnal variation of GEM was observed, with peak levels in the late afternoon till midnight. Most of the high RGM concentration values occurred in the afternoon of all seasons due to the higher oxidation. The PBM concentration was higher in early morning of all seasons because of the the temperature inversion that increases in depth as the night proceeds. The ratio of GEM to CO indicates that residential boilers play an important role in the elevation of GEM in winter. The ratio of RGM to O3 could be an indicator of the contribution of local primary sources. The ratio of PBM to PM2.5 reveals that the air mass from the east and southwest of the site in spring and summer carries more atmospheric mercury. The HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis indicated that the monitoring site is affected by local, regional and interregional sources simultaneously during heavy pollution episodes. The results from the potential source contribution function (PSCF model indicate that the atmospheric transport

  13. Rapid increases in mercury concentrations in the eggs of mallards fed methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2009-01-01

    To determine how quickly breeding birds would have to feed in a mercury-contaminated area before harmful concentrations of mercury, as methylmercury, built up in their eggs, we fed female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) a control diet or diets containing 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 8 μg/g mercury (on what was close to a dry weight basis) as methylmercury chloride for 23 d. After 18 d on their respective mercury diets, the eggs of mallards fed 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 8 μg/g mercury contained 97.8, 86.0, 89.9, 88.9, and 85.9%, respectively, of the peak concentrations reached after 23 d. Depending on the dietary concentration of mercury, no more than approximately a week may be required for harmful concentrations (0.5–0.8 μg/g, wet weight) to be excreted into eggs.

  14. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirard, Catherine; Koppen, Gudrun; De Cremer, Koen

    2014-01-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtai...

  15. Fish consumption (hair mercury) and nutritional status of Amazonian Amer-Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; Barbosa, Antonio C; Ferrari, Iris; De Souza, Jurandir R

    2005-01-01

    Fish are abundant and important dietary items for the Amer-Indians, and total hair-Hg (HHg) concentration is a reliable marker of fish consumption. We studied the impact of fish consumption (HHg) on the nutritional status of Indian children of Eastern Amazonia. Weight-for-height Z score (WHZ) was measured, and HHg was determined in 203 children younger than 10 years of age in three villages. There was significantly higher fish consumption in Kayabi children (16.55 microg Hg/g; SD, 11.44) than in children of the Munduruku villages of Missão-Cururu (4.76 microg Hg/g; SD, 2.09) and Kaburua (2.87 microg Hg/g; SD, 2.13). Anthropometric indices showed WHZ means of -0.27, -0.22, and 0.40, respectively, for Kayabi, Missão-Cururu and Kaburua villages. Despite a different pattern of fish-protein consumption between tribes, there was no significant correlation between WHZ and HHg concentrations (r2 = 0.0079; P < 0.2021). Dietary differences among Amazonian tribes can be traced and used in measuring health outcomes. Higher fish consumption, although important for Kayabis, was compensated by other protein sources by the Kaburua villagers.

  16. Mercury hair levels and factors that influence exposure for residents of Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of mercury (Hg) vapor were released to the environment during cinnabar refining in the small town of Huancavelica, Peru. The present study characterizes individual exposure to mercury using total and speciated Hg from residential s...

  17. Mercury hair levels and factors that influence exposure for residents of Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of mercury (Hg) vapor were released to the environment during cinnabar refining in the small town of Huancavelica, Peru. The present study characterizes individual exposure to mercury using total and speciated Hg from residential s...

  18. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen, to form inorganic mercury compounds or "salts," which are usually white powders or ... Mercury also combines with carbon to make organic mercury compounds. The most common one, methylmercury, is produced mainly ...

  19. Mercury concentrations in lentic fish populations related to ecosystem and watershed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel

    2010-01-01

    Predicting mercury (Hg) concentrations of fishes at large spatial scales is a fundamental environmental challenge with the potential to improve human health. In this study, mercury concentrations were examined for five species across 161 lakes and ecosystem, and watershed parameters were investigated as explanatory variables in statistical models. For all species, Hg...

  20. Diagnostic value of concentration profiles of glucocorticosteroids and endocannabinoids in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumbholz, Aniko; Anielski, Patricia; Reisch, Nicole; Schelling, Gustav; Thieme, Detlef

    2013-10-01

    Endogenous corticosteroids and endocannabinoids are both known to be involved in stress adaption and anti-inflammatory and immuneregulatory effects. The application of hair as retrospective specimen for long-term recording of corticosteroids and its association with stress-induced biochemical alterations was intensively examined. To evaluate the stability and correlation of various parameters of the endocannabinoid and corticosteroid systems, a prospective study was carried out. Hair samples were collected monthly over a pregnancy cycle (sixth week of pregnancy to 9 weeks postpartum). By comparison of hair concentrations in particular segments (ie, grown in the same time span but collected at different times), an examination of analyte stability in hair was achieved. Additionally, the comparison of proximal segments provided on biochemical information that is independent of alteration due to physical instability. The detection limits of a validated procedure using solid-phase extraction cleanup and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry proved to be suitable to identify the endogenous levels of cortisol (limits of detection = 1.6 pg/mg), cortisone (2.1 pg/mg), anandamide (AEA, 0.3 pg/mg), and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (15 pg/mg). Corticosteroid concentrations in corresponding hair segments were found to be reduced with increasing hair age; an average decline of cortisol and cortisone by 50% in 4 months was estimated. Independently, an increase of cortisol and cortisone in proximal segments collected during pregnancy was confirmed, which is assumed to be stress related. Endocannabinoids proved to be by far more stable, as demonstrated by subsequent monthly collection of corresponding segments and there was hardly any washout of AEA detectable. Elevated hair concentrations of AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were detected in the first-second trimester of pregnancy, which corresponds to negative correlations between AEA, cortisol, and cortisone.

  1. Effects of body region and time on hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Rukundo, Joshua; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-11-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are increasingly recognized as an integrated measure of the systemic cortisol secretion. Yet, we still know very little about confounding effects on HCC in animals. The present study therefore used hair from semi-wild and zoo living chimpanzees to investigate (1) intra-individual variability of HCC (body-region effect), and (2) the stability of HCC along the hair shaft (traditionally called the washout effect). Our results indicate that absolute HCC varied substantially between certain body regions, but a factor analysis revealed that these HCC differences were mainly attributable to one common source of variance. Thus, hair from all body regions provides similar biological signals and can be mixed, albeit at the cost of a lower signal-to-noise ratio. With regard to potential underlying mechanisms, we studied skin blood flow, as observed through thermal images from one chimpanzee. We found the general HCC pattern was reflected in differences in surface body temperature observed in this individual in three out of four body regions. In a separate set of samples, we found first evidence to suggest that the systematic cortisol decrease along the hair shaft, as observed in humans, is also present in chimpanzee hair. The effect was more pronounced in semi-wild than in zoo chimpanzees presumably due to more exposure to ambient weather conditions.

  2. Cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations in mink (Mustela vison) from Yukon, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Box 10460, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 7A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: mary.gamberg@northwestel.net; Boila, Gail [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Stern, Gary [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Roach, Patrick [Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Suite 300, 300 Main Street, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 2B5 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Mercury (total and methyl), cadmium and selenium concentrations were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissue from mink trapped from the Yukon Territory from 2001-2002. None of these metals was found at levels of toxicological concern. Total mercury averaged 0.66, 0.92 and 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue respectively, while methyl mercury averaged 0.77, 0.85 and 0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} in the same tissues. Selenium averaged 2.07, 1.40 and 0.39 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue, while cadmium was only measured in kidneys and averaged 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1}. All element concentrations are presented on a wet weight basis. Concentrations of total mercury in all tissues were significantly higher in female than male mink, possibly reflecting proportionally greater food consumption by the smaller females. Total mercury concentrations were inversely related to the proportion of mercury present as methylmercury, and positively related to concentrations of selenium, consistent with increasing demethylation of methylmercury, and the formation of mercuric selenide as total concentrations of mercury increased. This relationship was seen most strongly in mink liver, less so in kidneys and not at all in brains where most of the mercury was maintained in the methyl form. There did not appear to be any geographical areas in which mink had obviously higher concentrations of mercury, and there was frequently a relatively large range of mercury levels found in mink from a given trapline. Mink diet may be a factor in this variation. Local environmental levels of cadmium were not reflected in cadmium concentrations in mink tissues. Mercury, cadmium and selenium do not appear to constitute environmental hazards to mink in the Yukon.

  3. Hair nicotine concentration measurement in cats and its relationship to owner-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V A; McBrearty, A R; Watson, D G; Mellor, D J; Spence, S; Knottenbelt, C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between hair nicotine concentration in cats and owner-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Owner questionnaires documented exposure. Nicotine was extracted from hair by sonification in methanol followed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography with mass spectrometry. Relationships between hair nicotine concentration and owner-reported exposure were examined using hypothesis-testing statistics and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The hair nicotine concentration of reportedly exposed cats was significantly higher than unexposed cats and groups of cats with different levels of exposure had significantly different median hair nicotine concentrations corresponding to exposure. A hair nicotine concentration of 0·1 ng/mg had a specificity of 98% (95% confidence interval: 83 to 100) and a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval: 54 to 84) for detecting environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Outdoors access, coat colour, urban or rural environment and length of time living with the owner were not obviously associated with hair nicotine concentration. Feline hair nicotine concentration appears strongly associated with owner-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Feline hair nicotine concentration could therefore be used as a biomarker for tobacco smoke exposure, allowing future studies to assess whether exposed cats have an increased risk of specific diseases. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. Females exceed males in mercury concentrations of burbot Lota lota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Stapanian, Martin A.; Cott, Peter A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Edwards, William; Ogilvie, Lynn M.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.; DeWild, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Examination of differences in contaminant concentrations between sexes of fish, across several fish species, may reveal clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female adult burbot Lota lota captured in Lake Erie during summer 2011, and of 14 male and 18 female adult burbot captured in Great Slave Lake (Northwest Territories, Canada) during winter 2013. On average, females were 22 % greater in Hg concentration than males. This difference was probably not due to a greater feeding rate by females, because results from previous studies based on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations of these same burbot indicated that males fed at a substantially greater rate than females. Based on our determinations of Hg concentrations in the gonads and somatic tissue of five ripe females and five ripe males, this difference was not attributable to changes in Hg concentration immediately after spawning due to release of gametes. Further, bioenergetics modeling results from previous studies indicated that growth dilution would not explain any portion of this observed difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. We, therefore, conclude that this difference was most likely due to a substantially faster rate of Hg elimination by males compared with females. Male burbot exhibit among the greatest gonadosomatic indices (GSIs) of all male fishes, with their testes accounting for between 10 and 15 % of their body weight when the fish are in ripe condition. Androgens have been linked to enhanced Hg elimination rates in other vertebrates. If androgen production is positively related to GSI, then male burbot would be expected to have among the greatest androgen levels of all fishes. Thus, we hypothesize that male burbot eliminate Hg from their bodies faster than most other male fishes, and this explains the greater Hg concentration in females compared with males.

  5. Assessment of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma Nigrofasciatum Exposed to Sublethal Concentrations of Permethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aquatic ecosystems are frequently subjected to contamination by toxic heavy metals and pesticides, yet very little is known about the influence of pesticides on bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aquatic organisms. Mercury is a toxic metal with no known biological benefit to organisms. Bioavailability of mercury in aquatic environments depends on biological and non-biological parameters including other pollutants. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine the effects of permethrin on bioaccumulation of mercury in zebra cichlid. Methods: Acute toxicity (LC50 of permethrin and mercury chloride was evaluated by estimating mortality in Probit Model in SPSS (version 19.0 IBM. In sub-lethal toxicity, zebra cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum was exposed to various concentrations of permethrin (0.0, 0.40, 0.80, 1.20 and 1.60 µg.L-1 combined with 20 µg.L-1 mercury chloride for 15 days. At the end of the experiment, mercury concentrations were measured using ICP-OES-Perkin elmer (optima 7300-DV. Results: 96 h LC50 values of permethrin and mercury for C. nigrofasciatum were calculated to be 17.55 µg.L-1 and 140.38 µg.L-1, respectively. Our results clearly showed that the bioaccumulation of mercury in the specimens increased with increasing concentrations of permethrin to 1.20 and 1.60 µg.L-1. Conclusion: Increasing the concentration of permethrin had synergistic effects on the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish.

  6. Mercury in marine fish, mammals, seabirds, and human hair in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic

    OpenAIRE

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), aside from having high toxicity, is characterized by its ability to biomagnify in the marine trophic chain. This is an important problem especially in estuaries, or in the coastal zone, particularly near the mouths of large rivers. This study was conducted in the years 2001–2011, in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea near to the mouth of the River Vistula, which is the second biggest river discharging into the Baltic. Mercury concentration was measured in the tissues and organs ...

  7. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  8. A note on elevated total gaseous mercury concentrations downwind from an agriculture field during tilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, Jesse O; Miller, David R

    2007-12-15

    Elevated mercury concentrations were measured at the University of Connecticut's mercury forest flux tower during spring agricultural field operations on an adjacent corn field. Concentrations at the tower were elevated, a peak of 7.03 ng m(-3) over the background concentration of 1.74+/-0.26 ng m(-3), during times when the prevailing wind was from the direction of the corn field and during periods when the soil was disturbed by tilling. Strong deposition to the forest was recorded at the point of measurement when atmospheric mercury concentrations were elevated. The strongest deposition rate was a 1 hour maximum of -4011 ng m(-2) h(-1) following the initial peak in atmospheric concentrations, Analyses of the meteorological conditions and mercury content in agricultural soil, manure and the diesel consumed in the tilling operation indicate that the source of the mercury was from the agricultural tilling operations and it was advected over the tower enriching the atmospheric concentrations above the forest canopy leading to deposition. These results indicate that agriculture operations resulting in a disturbed soil surface may be a source of atmospheric mercury originating from the pool of mercury bound in the soil. This represents a previously undocumented source of mercury emissions resulting from anthropogenic activities.

  9. Comparison of methanol and isopropanol as wash solvents for determination of hair cortisol concentration in grizzly bears and polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshko, Thomas; Kapronczai, Luciene; Cattet, Marc R L; Macbeth, Bryan J; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Obbard, Martyn E; Janz, David M

    2017-01-01

    Methodological differences among laboratories are recognized as significant sources of variation in quantification of hair cortisol concentration (HCC). An important step in processing hair, particularly when collected from wildlife, is the choice of solvent used to remove or "wash" external hair shaft cortisol prior to quantification of HCC. The present study systematically compared methanol and isopropanol as wash solvents for their efficiency at removing external cortisol without extracting internal hair shaft cortisol in samples collected from free-ranging grizzly bears and polar bears. Cortisol concentrations in solvents and hair were determined in each of one to eight washes of hair with each solvent independently. •There were no significant decreases in internal hair shaft cortisol among all eight washes for either solvent, although methanol removed detectable hair surface cortisol after one wash in grizzly bear hair whereas hair surface cortisol was detected in all eight isopropanol washes.•There were no significant differences in polar bear HCC washed one to eight times with either solvent, but grizzly bear HCC was significantly greater in hair washed with isopropanol compared to methanol.•There were significant differences in HCC quantified using different commercial ELISA kits commonly used for HCC determinations.

  10. Mercury Human Exposure in Populations Living Around Lake Tana (Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, G; Abebe, G; Bravo, Andrea G; Ermias, D; Staffan, Ǻ; Bishop, K

    2017-02-01

    A survey carried out in Lake Tana in 2015 found that Hg levels in some fish species exceeded internationally accepted safe levels for fish consumption. The current study assesses human exposure to Hg through fish consumption around the Lake Tana. Of particular interest was that a dietary intake of fishes is currently a health risk for Bihar Dar residents and anglers. Hair samples were collected from three different groups: anglers, college students and teachers, and daily laborers. A questionary includes gender, age, weight, activity. Frequency of fish consumption and origin of the eaten fish were completed by each participant. Mercury concentrations in hair were significantly higher (P value mercury and age associated with mercury concentration in scalp hair. Mercury concentrations in the hair of men were on average twice the value of the women. Also, users of skin lightening soap on a daily basis had 2.5 times greater mercury in scalp hair than non-users. Despite the different sources of mercury exposure mentioned above, the mercury concentrations of the scalp hair of participants of this study were below levels deemed to pose a threat to health.

  11. CADMIUM AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN THE HAIR AFTER OF ADULTS MAGNESIUM SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sałacka

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is a biological zinc antagonist and may interfere with metabolic zinc-regulated or zincdependent processes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between cadmium and zinc concentrations in the hair of adults after oral supplementation with magnesium. Material and methods: The levels of elements in the hair were determined by the inverse voltammetry. The analysis was performed on the hair of 32 people from the study group and 10 from the control group. Supplementation was performed using Slow-Mag B6. Results: Cadmium concentration in the study group before supplementation ranged from indeterminable levels, to 1,92 µg per gram of dry matter. The range of cadmium concentration after supplementation was between the indeterminable level, and 0,45 µg per gram of dry matter. Based on the statistical analysis, we found that cadmium concentration was significantly lower after magnesium supplementation with a significance level of p*0,02. Zinc level before supplementation was between 11,66 and 250,48 µg per gram of dry matter, and after supplementation between 68,31 and 185,24 µg per gram of dry matter. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that supplementation with magnesium contributed to the lowering of cadmium concentration in the hair of the people examined.

  12. The Feasibility of Using Lead in Hair Concentration in Monitoring Environmental Exposure in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibowo, A.A.E.; Brunekreef, B.; Lebret, E.; Pieters, H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of lead in hair as an indicator of lead exposure has been compared to that of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin in blood levels in 1-3 year-old children living within 1 km of a lead smelter. Lead exposure was measured as lead in house dust, outdoor and indoor lead in air concentr

  13. MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN MARGIN SOIL OF THE MADEIRA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Pereira Linhares

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of gold in the Amazon, since 1970, has grown fast from a politic that was resulted in the creation of gold extraction reserves in this region. In the Madeira River the gold exploration is noticeable because of the deposition of mercury in the environment. This metal is toxic and it resists to degradation process, transforming itself chemically, till it gets to its organic form, known as very toxic. Its extensive usage in the gold recover has caused impacts to the environment and consequently to the population, according to studies already done. This study has as its goal to value the pollution by Hg in soils and the variation according to soil fractions. The soils were collected by profiles in 10 areas in the Madeira River. The determination of organic matter was done, according (BRASIL, 1999.To Hg determination it was selected the fraction <200 mesh (<74ım, analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled vapor cold generation (Bastos et. al, 1998. Soils of the kind Latosols and hydromorphic were identified. The Latosols presented from 288 to 641g.Kg-1 of clay and from 266 to 111 g.Kg-1 of thin send, from the horizon A1 (superficial to B2 (sub-superficial. The increase of values of clay makes the function of organic matter in the superficial horizon better (from 20,2 to 19.0 %. The Hg concentration in these horizons varies from 25,5 to 641,4 ıg.Kg-1in the superficial horizon. The hydromorphic, especially, the Fluvic Neosols, present thin area, 396 to 57 g.Kg-1 and clay from 254 to 654 g.Kg-1 from A1 to A2. The horizon A2 presents 467 g.Kg-1 of silt, 13,6 % of OM and 147,31 ıgHg.Kg-1.Among the soils groups of the studied area, it is noticed more Hg concentration with the increase of values of silt and clay, that consequently presents more tenor of OM, and that subsidizes the organic mercury forming.

  14. Mercurio en cabello de diferentes grupos ocupacionales en una zona de minería aurifera en el Norte de Colombia Hair mercury levels in different occupational groups in Southern Bolivar (Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Olivero

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Análisis de mercurio en cabello fue realizado a 219 personas que habitan en la principal zona de minería del oro en Colombia, tomando 27 personas de la ciudad de Cartagena, como muestra Control. Para el análisis de los datos, la muestra estudiada se dividió de acuerdo con la ocupación de las personas, encontrándose concentraciones medias (±DE de 5,23±5,78, 2,83±3,27, 2,40±2,02 y 1,33±0,74 µg/g de mercurio en cabello, para pescadores, mineros, personas dedicadas a otras actividades y grupo control respectivamente. De acuerdo con el análisis de varianza y el test de Newman Keuls, existe diferencia significativa (pHair mercury analysis was carried out on a sample of 219 people living in the main gold mining zone of Colombia, 27 inhabitante of Cartagena City being taken as control sample. For data analysis the sample was divided by occupation and the corresponding the hair mercury concentrations (mean ± SD were found to be 5.23 ± 5.78, 2.83 ± 3.27, 2.4 ± 2.02 and 1.33 ±0.74 µg/g for fishermen, miners, people of various other activities and the control sample, respectively. According to variance analysis and the Newman Keuls test, there were significant differences (p<0.01 between the mercury concentrations for fishermen and those for the other groups. No significant differences were found for hair mercury and sex, non was any correlation with age detected; however, a low positive correlation (R=0.15, p<0.01 with the frequency of the consumption of fish was noted. The main symptons of mercury poinsoning observed in the persons exposed were headache, oral lesions, metalic taste, loss of memory, and irritability.

  15. Elemental Mercury Diffusion Processes and Concentration at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Frederick; Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft made the first detection of element mercury (Hg) vapor in the lunar exosphere after the Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted into the Cabeus crater in the southern polar region of the Moon. The lunar regolith core samples from the Apollo missions determined that Hg had a devolatilized pattern with a concentration gradient increasing with depth, in addition to a layered pattern suggesting multiple episodes of burial and volatile loss. Hg migration on the lunar surface resulted in cold trapping at the poles. We have modeled the rate at which indigenous Hg is lost from the regolith through diffusion out of lunar grains. We secondly modeled the migration of Hg vapor in the exosphere and estimated the rate of cold-trapping at the poles using a Monte Carlo technique. The Hg vapor may be lost from the exosphere via ionization, Jeans escape, or re-impact into the surface causing reabsorption.

  16. Influence of repeated permanent coloring and bleaching on ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair from alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Yegles, Michel; De Doncker, Mireille; Dom, Geert; Cappelle, Delphine; Maudens, Kristof E; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of alcohol, is used as a sensitive marker in hair to detect the retrospective consumption of alcohol. The proximal 0-3 cm hair segment is often used for analysis, providing information on alcohol consumption over the past 3 months. Using more distal segments would allow the detection of alcohol consumption over longer time periods, thereby addressing the chronicity of the consumption. In view of this, permanent coloring and bleaching were shown in vitro to alter EtG concentrations in hair, but no in vivo studies are available to prove or disprove this. To investigate the influence of repeated bleaching and permanent coloring on EtG concentrations in vivo and to assess the stability of EtG concentrations in distal compared to proximal hair segments. Hair samples from alcohol-dependent patients with uncolored/unbleached (N=4), permanent coloration (N=5) and bleached hair (N=5) were analyzed in two to six 3 cm long segments for EtG concentrations, and alcohol consumption and hair cosmetic treatments were assessed. We observed that hair bleaching and permanent coloring reduces EtG concentrations by 82±11% and 65±24%, respectively, with correlations between the number of cosmetic treatments and the decrease in EtG concentrations. EtG remained stable in untreated hair samples up to 18 cm. EtG is a sensitive marker to assess chronic alcohol consumption up to 18 months in alcohol-dependent patients with no cosmetic hair treatments. However, in alcohol-dependent patients who color or bleach their hair, care should be taken when interpreting EtG measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hair trace elements concentration to describe polymetallic mining waste exposure in Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Flavia Laura; Cournil, Amandine; Souza Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo; Bénéfice, Eric; Gardon, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Severe polymetallic contamination is frequently observed in the mining communities of Bolivian Altiplano. We evaluated hair trace elements concentrations at the population level to characterise exposure profile in different contexts of contact with mining and metallurgical pollution. We sampled 242 children aged 7 to 12 years in schools from five Oruro districts located in different contexts of potential contamination. Hair trace elements concentrations were measured using ICP-MS (Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Sb, Sn, Bi, Ag, Ni, Se, Cu, Cr, Mn, Co and Zn). We compared concentration according to school areas and gender. Concentrations were markedly different depending on school areas. Children from schools near industrial areas were far more exposed to non essential elements than children from downtown and suburban schools, as well as the rural school. The most concentrated non-essential element was Pb (geometric means (SD): 1.6 (1.3) µg/g in rural school; 2.0 (2.3) µg/g in suburban school; 2.3 (3.0) µg/g in downtown school; 14.1 (2.7) µg/g in the mine school and 21.2 (3.3) µg/g in the smelter school). Boys showed higher levels for all non-essential elements while girls had higher levels of Zn. Hair trace elements concentrations highlighted the heterogeneity of exposure profiles, identifying the most contaminated districts.

  18. Conifer density within lake catchments predicts fish mercury concentrations in remote subalpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herring, Garth; Johnson, Branden L.; Graw, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Remote high-elevation lakes represent unique environments for evaluating the bioaccumulation of atmospherically deposited mercury through freshwater food webs, as well as for evaluating the relative importance of mercury loading versus landscape influences on mercury bioaccumulation. The increase in mercury deposition to these systems over the past century, coupled with their limited exposure to direct anthropogenic disturbance make them useful indicators for estimating how changes in mercury emissions may propagate to changes in Hg bioaccumulation and ecological risk. We evaluated mercury concentrations in resident fish from 28 high-elevation, sub-alpine lakes in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Fish total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 4 to 438 ng/g wet weight, with a geometric mean concentration (±standard error) of 43 ± 2 ng/g ww. Fish THg concentrations were negatively correlated with relative condition factor, indicating that faster growing fish that are in better condition have lower THg concentrations. Across the 28 study lakes, mean THg concentrations of resident salmonid fishes varied as much as 18-fold among lakes. We used a hierarchal statistical approach to evaluate the relative importance of physiological, limnological, and catchment drivers of fish Hg concentrations. Our top statistical model explained 87% of the variability in fish THg concentrations among lakes with four key landscape and limnological variables: catchment conifer density (basal area of conifers within a lake's catchment), lake surface area, aqueous dissolved sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon. Conifer density within a lake's catchment was the most important variable explaining fish THg concentrations across lakes, with THg concentrations differing by more than 400 percent across the forest density spectrum. These results illustrate the importance of landscape characteristics in controlling mercury bioaccumulation in fish.

  19. Trends in mercury wet deposition and mercury air concentrations across the U.S. and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Penzias, Peter S.; Gay, David A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Parsons, Matthew T.; Gustin, Mae S.; ter Shure, Arnout

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the spatial and temporal trends of mercury (Hg) in wet deposition and air concentrations in the United States (U.S.) and Canada between 1997 and 2013. Data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and Environment Canada monitoring networks, and other sources. Of the 19 sites with data records from 1997–2013, 53% had significant negative trends in Hg concentration in wet deposition, while no sites had significant positive trends, which is in general agreement with earlier studies that considered NADP data up until about 2010. However, for the time period 2007–2013 (71 sites), 17% and 13% of the sites had significant positive and negative trends, respectively, and for the time period 2008–2013 (81 sites) 30% and 6% of the sites had significant positive and negative trends, respectively. Non-significant positive tendencies were also widespread. Regional trend analyses revealed significant positive trends in Hg concentration in the Rocky Mountains, Plains, and Upper Midwest regions for the recent time periods in addition to significant positive trends in Hg deposition for the continent as a whole. Sulfate concentration trends in wet deposition were negative in all regions, suggesting a lower importance of local Hg sources. The trend in gaseous elemental Hg from short-term datasets merged as one continuous record was broadly consistent with trends in Hg concentration in wet deposition, with the early time period (1998–2007) producing a significantly negative trend (− 1.5 ± 0.2% year− 1) and the recent time period (2008–2013) displaying a flat slope (− 0.3 ± 0.1% year− 1, not significant). The observed shift to more positive or less negative trends in Hg wet deposition primarily seen in the Central-Western regions is consistent with the effects of rising Hg emissions from regions outside the U.S. and Canada and the influence of long-range transport in the free troposphere.

  20. Concentration homeostasis and elements in hair and dried serum observed by X-ray fluorescence analysis using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikawa, Jun-ichi; Mouri, Yoshitaka; Shima, Hiroki; Yamada, Kousaku; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    Elemental concentrations in hair and dried serum have been evaluated by X-ray fluorescence analysis using relative concentration independent of specimen thickness. Dried serum samples from 5 male and 5 female subjects given two-week Ca supplementation showed the same concentration for Ca, and for each of the other elements Cl, K, S and P under renal control by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Hair concentrations of these elements have been evaluated for 50 randomly-selected females aged between 30 and 80. It was found that each element has two distinct levels in hair. The content of an element in growing hair must be equal to the inflow of that element into the hair-making cells from serum. Using this principle, the two levels can be attributed to the gating and closing of the ion channels in cell membranes and given as functions of the dried serum standard concentrations. Especially, the difference between [Ca] and [Sr] in hair shows whether Ca channels are gating or closing. The lower level of hair [Ca]_H is normal and is equal to 1/2 of the dried serum [Ca]; only the Ca on serum protein is to be incorporated into the hair in steady-state growth. Store-operated Ca channel gating occurs so as to maintain the normal [Ca]_H. The higher level is seen in cases of calcium deficiency, and implicated in other disease states. Prolonged Ca deficiency causes a higher hair [Ca]_H with Ca channel closing. PTH-operated Ca channel gating induces the Ca^{2+} inflow into the cells to form the hair [Ca]_H upper level and to deteriorate cell functions such as excretion of excess metals by hepatocytes. Hair analysis provides a new diagnostic tool based on cell ion channels.

  1. Impact of marine mercury cycling on coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations in the North- and Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bieser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cycling of mercury between ocean and atmosphere is an important part of the global Hg cycle. Here we study the regional contribution of the air-sea exchange in the North- and Baltic Sea region. We use a newly developed coupled regional chemistry transport modeling (CTM system to determine the flux between atmosphere and ocean based on the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, the ocean-ecosystem model ECOSMO, the atmospheric CTM CMAQ and a newly developed module for mercury partitioning and speciation in the ocean (MECOSMO. The model was evaluated using atmospheric observations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, surface concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, and air-sea flux (ASF calculations based on observations made on seven cruises in the western and central Baltic Sea and three cruises in the North Sea performed between 1991 and 2006. It was shown that the model is in good agreement with observations: DGM (Normalized Mean Bias NMB=-0.27 N=413, ASF (NMB=-0.32, N=413, GEM (NMB=0.07, N=2359. Generally, the model was able to reproduce the seasonal DGM cycle with the best agreement during winter and autumn (NMBWinter=-0.26, NMBSpring=-0.41, NMBSummer=-0.29, NMBAutumn=-0.03. The modelled mercury evasion from the Baltic Sea ranged from 3400 to 4000 kg/a for the simulation period 1994–2007 which is on the lower end of previous estimates. Modelled atmospheric deposition, river inflow and air-sea exchange lead to an annual net Hg accumulation in the Baltic Sea of 500 to 1000 kg/a. For the North Sea the model calculates an annual mercury flux into the atmosphere between 5700 and 6000 kg/a. The mercury flux from the ocean influenced coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations. Running CMAQ coupled with the ocean model lead to better agreement with GEM observations. Directly at the coast GEM concentrations could be increased by up to 10% on annual average and observed peaks could be reproduced much better. At stations 100km downwind

  2. Concentration and exposure assessment of mercury in commercial fish and other seafood marketed in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mughairi, Sabra; Yesudhason, Poulose; Al-Busaidi, Moza; Al-Waili, Aaliah; Al-Rahbi, Waleed A K; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud H

    2013-07-01

    The results of this study present analytical data of the mercury levels in several fish and shellfish species to create awareness among individuals of the risks associated with consuming fish contaminated with mercury. Mercury concentrations varied from a mean of 0.02 mg/kg in Indian mackerel to 0.19 mg/kg in shark in both fresh and frozen fish, from 0.02 mg/kg in sardines to 0.18 mg/kg in skipjack tuna in canned fish, and from 0.02 mg/kg in Indian mackerel to 0.79 mg/kg in shark in dried fish. Shellfish contained a slightly higher amount of mercury than fresh or frozen fish with a mean of 0.09 mg/kg. Trophic position, followed by habitat, was the most important factors for variability in mercury concentrations in fish and shellfish. The maximum safe weekly intake (MSWI) values of mercury were significantly higher for herbivores than for carnivores. The MSWI value for total mercury in the case of consuming most (72%) fish species was more than 5 kg; however, the MSWI value was never more than 5 kg in most (66%) shellfish species. Risks were identified upon consumption of 120 g of dried shark when exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake threshold (1.6 μg/kg) for methylmercury. Therefore, fish-eating populations should reduce the quantity of dried shark to efficiently diminish the exposure to mercury.

  3. A BIOPSY PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING FILET AND PREDICTING WHOLE-FISH MERCURY CONCENTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although mercury contamination of fish is a widespread phenomenon, its regional evaluation is hindered by the reluctance of permitting agencies to grant collection permits, securing adequate freezer space, and processing whole, large fish or filets. We evaluated Hg concentration...

  4. A BIOPSY PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING FILET AND PREDICTING WHOLE-FISH MERCURY CONCENTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although mercury contamination of fish is a widespread phenomenon, its regional evaluation is hindered by the reluctance of permitting agencies to grant collection permits, securing adequate freezer space, and processing whole, large fish or filets. We evaluated Hg concentration...

  5. Concentrations of mercury and other environmental contaminants in fish from Grove Pond, Ayer, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During a remedial investigation of the Fort Devens Superfund Site in Ayer, Massachusetts, highly elevated concentrations of mercury (max. 130 mg/kg) were found in...

  6. Unique pattern of molt leads to low intraindividual variation in feather mercury concentrations in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Drummond, Bridgette E; Borrett, Stuart R; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J; Rey, Andrea Raya

    2013-10-01

    The authors hypothesized that the catastrophic annual molt of penguins (Sphenisciformes) would lead to reduced intraindividual variation of mercury concentrations in body feathers. While mean mercury concentrations varied significantly among 8 penguin species, intraindividual variability did not differ among species and was 3 times lower than values observed in other seabirds. The findings of the present study suggest that a single body feather collected at random per individual can be adequate to estimate mercury exposure at the population level in penguins. © 2013 SETAC.

  7. Hair concentration of essential trace elements in adult non-exposed Russian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Demidov, Vasily A; Lobanova, Yulia N; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Berezkina, Elena S; Gryazeva, Irina V; Skalny, Andrey A; Skalnaya, Oksana A; Zhivaev, Nikolay G; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-11-01

    Appropriate reference values of hair trace element content are required for correct interpretation of biomonitoring data. The primary objective of the current study was to estimate the reference values of selected essential trace elements in hair of adult Russian population. Involved in current investigation were 7256 occupationally non-exposed adults aged from 20 to 60 years and living in the European part of Russia. Occipital hair essential metal and metalloid (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, V, Zn) content was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The reference ranges were calculated in accordance with the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommendations. Women were characterized by 55, 18, 58, and 7% higher values of hair Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn content as compared to the values observed in men. At the same time, hair Cr, Fe, Se, and V concentration in men significantly exceeded the respective female values by 65, 13, 20, and 56%. Consequently, the reference ranges of essential hair trace elements content should be separately calculated for both men and women. The obtained reference ranges for hair Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, V, and Zn in men were 0.11-0.67, 0.007-0.045, 10.4-22.6, 11.1-40.5, 0.24-1.05, 0.089-0.480, 0.014-0.083, and 125.7-262.8 μg/g, respectively. The respective values estimated for women were 0.06-0.40, 0.011-0.085, 12.1-44.5, 8.9-25.6, 0.32-2.05, 0.094-0.504, 0.010-0.056, and 140.0-315.1 μg/g. The reference ranges for hair Co (0.07-0.50), Cr (0.009-0.073), Cu (11.8-29.2), Fe (9.6-31.5), Mn (0.29-1.76), Se (0.093-0.482), V (0.011-0.069), and Zn (134.7-301.9) content (μg/g) in the general cohort were also calculated.

  8. Mercury Concentrations in Fish Jerky Snack Food: Marlin, Ahi, and Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dried meat and fish have served as an important durable nutrition source for humans for centuries. Because omega 3 fatty acids in fish are recognized as having antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties found to be beneficial for good health, many consumers are looking to fish as their main source of protein. Unfortunately, contaminants such as methylmercury can accumulate in some species of fish. The purpose of this research is to test commercially available fish jerky snack foods for mercury contamination. Methods Fifteen bags of marlin jerky, three bags of ahi jerky, and three bags of salmon jerky were purchased from large retail stores in Hawaii and California, and directly from the proprietors' Internet websites. Five individual strips of jerky per bag were analyzed for a total of one hundred and five tests. Results From the seventy-five marlin jerky samples, mercury concentration ranged from 0.052-28.17 μg/g, with an average of 5.53 μg/g, median 4.1 μg/g. Fifty-six (75% marlin samples had mercury concentrations that exceeded the FDA's current mercury action level of 1.0 μg/g, while six samples had greater than 10 μg/g. Fifteen samples of ahi had mercury concentrations ranging from 0.09-0.55 μg/g, while mercury concentrations in fifteen salmon samples ranged from 0.030-0.17 μg/g. Conclusions This study found that mercury concentrations in some fish jerky can often exceed the FDA's allowable mercury limit and could be a significant source of mercury exposure.

  9. Talus Lex: Regulatory Approaches to Reducing Mercury Concentrations in San Francisco Bay Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saba, D. E.; Flegal, D. R.; Ganguli, P. M.; Whyte, D. C.; Mumley, D. E.; Mason, D. P.

    2001-12-01

    The history of mercury in California is recorded in the sediments of San Francisco Bay. The Bay is downstream of 40 percent of the land area of California. Its watershed receives 80 percent of the rainfall in the State, because it rains more in the north. Three billion kilograms of sediments are annually flushed from the Central Valley watershed and deposited in San Francisco Bay. Because mercury preferentially binds to sediments, we calculate mercury loads to the Bay by considering how various sources affect mercury concentrations in Bay sediments. During and after the Gold Rush, over seventy thousand tons of mercury was produced in Coast Range cinnabar mines. Much of this mercury was used as quicksilver to extract gold from placer formations in the Sierra foothills, and later in the production of munitions, electronics, health care and commercial products. Today, we can see the legacy of mining sources, from both remote and local watersheds, superimposed on air deposition, the climate and geography of California, heavily managed water supply and flood control projects, wetland restoration and rehabilitation, urbanization, wastewaster discharge and water reclamation. We already regulate wastewater and urban runoff through issuance of permits and waste discharge requirements. We can regulate mercury inputs from inoperative mines by demonstrating the link between mercury-polluted sediments and violation of existing numeric water quality objectives. We can use the same approach to regulate the disposal of mercury-containing electronic devices. But to reduce mercury levels in fish, we will also have to consider controllable water quality factors that promote mercury methylation in the aquatic ecosystem. Some of these water quality factors are already subject to regulation. For example, we can show that mercury methylation in the northern reach of the Bay increases when dissolved oxygen drops below 6 mg/L; current regulations require dissolved oxygen concentrations of

  10. The concentrations and distribution of mercury in aquatic ecosystem of Baihua Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Haiyu; FENG Xinbin; JIANG Hongmei; QIU Guangle; LI Guanghui; Shang Lihai

    2005-01-01

    Mercury species in water column, sediment and fish from the Hg-contaminated Baihua Reservoir were measured by trap pre-concentration and CVAFS and CVAAS detection methods. The results showed that the highest average total Hg concentration is up to 73.36 ng/L in the water column, 186.7 ng/L in pore water of surface sediment in the Baihua Reservoir. The total mercury concentrations in the sediments range from 0.87 to 33.74 mg/kg. This suggests that sediment re-suspending and Hg input from the upstream organochemical plant are the main mercury sources of water body for this reservoir. In addition, the possible reason why mercury is low in fish is that the low DOC and high pH are infavarable to methylmercury formation or absorption by fish.

  11. LONG-TERM CHANGES IN MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FISH FROM THE MIDDLE SAVANNAH RIVER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M; Bill Littrell, B

    2007-01-02

    Total mercury levels were measured in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), ''sunfishes'' (Lepomis spp)., and ''catfish'' (primarily Ameiurus spp.) from 1971 to 2004 in the middle reaches of the Savannah River, which drains the coastal plain of the southeastern U.S. Mercury levels were highest in 1971 but declined over the next ten years due to the mitigation of point sources of industrial pollution. Mercury levels began to increase in the 1980s as a possible consequence of mercury inputs from tributaries and associated wetlands where mercury concentrations were significantly elevated in water and fish. Mercury levels in Savannah River fish decreased sharply in 2001-2003 coincident with a severe drought in the Savannah River basin, but returned to previous levels in 2004 with the resumption of normal precipitation. Regression models showed that mercury levels in Savannah River fish changed significantly over time and were affected by river discharge. Despite temporal changes, there was little overall difference in Savannah River fish tissue mercury levels between 1971 and 2004.

  12. Determination of arsenic and mercury level in scalp hair from a selected population in Penang, Malaysia using XRF technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldroobi, Khalid Saleh Ali; Shukri, A.; Bauk, Sabar; Munem, Eid Mahmoud Abdel; Abuarra, Ali. M. A.

    2013-10-01

    As with many cities all over the world with active industrial developments, the city of Penang in Malaysia has also the potential of being exposed to industrial pollution. Such exposure would certainly have a detrimental impact on the environment and the people. The determination of trace elemental levels in hair which is well known as a method for environmental exposure monitoring, evaluation of heavy metal poisoning, assessment of nutrient levels and disease diagnoses. In this study, it is selected as the method to determine the possible exposure to pollutants in the form of unwanted trace elements. The natural levels of trace elements in hair are hence monitored first as reference values for the assessment of the possible human contamination levels. In this work the concentrations of As and Hg in the human scalp hair of 100 residents of Penang were determined using XRF. The results of this study are compared with the results obtained in other cities where such measurements have also been carried out.

  13. A critical evaluation of the utility of eggshells for estimating mercury concentrations in avian eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.

    2017-01-01

    Eggshells are a potential tool for non-lethally sampling contaminant concentrations in bird eggs, yet few studies have examined their utility to represent mercury exposure. We assessed mercury concentrations in eggshell components for 23 bird species and determined whether they correlated with total mercury (THg) in egg contents. We designed a multi-experiment analysis to examine how THg is partitioned into eggshell components, specifically hardened eggshells, material adhered to the eggshell, and inner eggshell membranes. THg concentrations in eggshells were much lower than in egg contents, and almost all of the THg within the eggshell was contained within material adhered to eggshells and inner eggshell membranes, and specifically not within calcium-rich hardened eggshells. Despite having very little mercury, THg concentrations in hardened eggshells had the strongest correlation with egg contents among all eggshell components. However, species with the same THg concentrations in eggshells had different THg concentrations in egg contents, indicating that there is no global predictive equation among species for the relationship between eggshell and egg content THg concentrations. Further, for all species, THg concentrations in eggshells decreased with relative embryo age. Although the majority of mercury in eggshells was contained within other eggshell components and not within hardened eggshells, THg in hardened eggshells can be used to estimate THg concentrations in egg contents, if embryo age and species are addressed.

  14. [Inner- and inter-species differences of mercury concentration in common fishes from the Yellow Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ai-Jia; Xu, Zhan-Zhou; Liu, Gui-Ze; Deng, Li-Jie; Fang, Hong-Da; Huang, Liang-Min

    2014-02-01

    Mercury concentration in marine fishes and its influencing factors are the key problems in the study of mercury biomagnification in marine ecosystems. In order to understand the inner- and inter-species differences of mercury concentration in fishes from the Yellow Sea, a total of 164 marine wild fishes covering nine different species were collected from the area from August to October, 2012. Mercury (total mercury) concentration in fish muscle tissue was measured by a direct mercury analyzer. Body length and wet weight of each sample were also determined. Moreover, feeding habit and trophic level of different species were examined. Hg concentrations (dry weight) in the muscle tissues of the 164 individuals ranged from 0.025 micro x g(-1) to 0.526 microg x g(-1), with an average of (0.124 +/- 0.096) microg x g(-1). By an inner-species analysis, log10 Hg concentration was significantly correlated to their body length and wet weight. Predator fishes with trophic level > 2.8 were more readily to be contaminated by Hg than the filter feeder with trophic level fishes from the Yellow Sea, while dietary preference, trophic level and increasing rate of weight are the main factors affecting the inter-species difference from the Yellow Sea.

  15. Postoperative systemic dissemination of injected elemental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Hyung; Park, Seung Won; Moon, Kyung-Yoon

    2011-04-01

    There were only a few reports of mercury on pulmonary artery. However, there is no data on surgery related mercury dissemination. The objective of the present article is to describe one case of postoperative injected mercury dissemination. A 19-year-old man presented severe neck pain including meningeal irritation sign and abdominal pain after injection of mercury for the purpose of suicide. Radiologic study showed injected mercury in the neck involving high cervical epidural space and subcutaneous layer of abdomen. Partial hemilaminectomy and open mercury evacuation of spinal canal was performed. For the removal of abdominal subcutaneous mercury, C-arm guided needle aspiration was done. After surgery, radiologic study showed disseminated mercury in the lung, heart, skull base and low spinal canal. Neck pain and abdominal pain were improved after surgery. During 1 month after surgery, there was no symptom of mercury intoxication except increased mercury concentration of urine, blood and hair. We assumed the bone work during surgery might have caused mercury dissemination. Therefore, we recommend minimal invasive surgical technique for removal of injected mercury. If open exposures are needed, cautious surgical technique to prohibit mercury dissemination is necessary and normal barrier should be protected to prevent the migration of mercury.

  16. Improved estimates of filtered total mercury loadings and total mercury concentrations of solids from potential sources to Sinclair Inlet, Kitsap County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Conn, Kathleen E.; DeWild, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations examined sources and sinks of mercury to Sinclair Inlet based on historic and new data. This included an evaluation of mercury concentrations from various sources and mercury loadings from industrial discharges and groundwater flowing from the Bremerton naval complex to Sinclair Inlet. This report provides new data from four potential sources of mercury to Sinclair Inlet: (1) filtered and particulate total mercury concentrations of creek water during the wet season, (2) filtered and particulate total mercury releases from the Navy steam plant following changes in the water softening process and discharge operations, (3) release of mercury from soils to groundwater in two landfill areas at the Bremerton naval complex, and (4) total mercury concentrations of solids in dry dock sumps that were not affected by bias from sequential sampling. The previous estimate of the loading of filtered total mercury from Sinclair Inlet creeks was based solely on dry season samples. Concentrations of filtered total mercury in creek samples collected during wet weather were significantly higher than dry weather concentrations, which increased the estimated loading of filtered total mercury from creek basins from 27.1 to 78.1 grams per year. Changes in the concentrations and loading of filtered and particulate total mercury in the effluent of the steam plant were investigated after the water softening process was changed from ion-exchange to reverse osmosis and the discharge of stack blow-down wash began to be diverted to the municipal water-treatment plant. These changes reduced the concentrations of filtered and particulate total mercury from the steam plant of the Bremerton naval complex, which resulted in reduced loadings of filtered total mercury from 5.9 to 0.15 grams per year. Previous investigations identified three fill areas on the Bremerton naval complex, of which the western fill area is thought to be the largest source of mercury on the base

  17. Comparison of mercury concentrations measured at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Slemr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of the distribution of mercury concentrations in air of the Southern Hemisphere was until recently based mostly on intermittent measurements made during ship cruises. In the last few years continuous mercury monitoring has commenced at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere providing new and more refined information. In this paper we compare mercury measurements at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere made over a period of at least one year at each location. Averages of monthly medians show similar although small seasonal variations at both Cape Point and Amsterdam Island. A pronounced seasonal variation at Troll Research Station in Antarctica is due to frequent mercury depletion events in the austral spring. Due to large scatter and large standard deviations of monthly average median mercury concentrations at Cape Grim no systematic seasonal variation could be found there. Nevertheless, the annual average mercury concentrations at all sites during the 2007–2013 period varied only between 0.85 and 1.05 ng m−3. Part of this variability is likely due to systematic measurement uncertainties which we propose can be further reduced by improved calibration procedures. We conclude that mercury is much more uniformly distributed throughout the Southern Hemisphere than the distributions suggested by measurements made onboard ships. This finding implies (a that trends observed at one or a few sites in the Southern Hemisphere are likely to be representative for the whole hemisphere, and (b that smaller trends can be detected in shorter time periods. We also report a change of the trend sign at Cape Point from decreasing mercury concentrations in 1996–2004 to increasing concentrations since 2007.

  18. Mercury concentrations at a historically mercury-contaminated site in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Williams, CR

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A mercury (Hg) processing plant previously operating in KwaZulu-Natal Province (South Africa) discharged Hg waste into a nearby river system causing widespread contamination since the 1980s. Although the processing plant ceased operation in the 1990...

  19. Distribution of Mercury Concentrations in Tree Rings and Surface Soils Adjacent to a Phosphate Fertilizer Plant in Southern Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Raae; Ahn, Young Sang

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine mercury concentrations in tree rings and surface soils at distances of 4, 26 and 40 km from a fertilizer plant located in Yeosu City, Korea. Mercury concentrations in all tree rings were low prior to the establishment of the plant in 1977 and became elevated thereafter. The highest average mercury concentration in the tree rings was 11.96 ng g(-1) at the Yeosu site located nearest to the plant, with the lowest average mercury concentration of 4.45 ng g(-1) at the Suncheon site furthest away from the plant. In addition, the highest mercury content in the surface soil was 108.51 ng cm(-3) at the Yeosu site, whereas the lowest mercury content in the surface soil was 31.47 ng cm(-3) at the Suncheon site. The mercury levels decreased gradually with increasing distance from the plant.

  20. Feather mercury concentrations in Southern Ocean seabirds: Variation by species, site and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Peter H; Goutner, Vassilis; Ryan, Peter G; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    We studied mercury contamination in 25 seabird species breeding along a latitudinal gradient across the Southern Ocean, from Gough Island (40°S) through Marion Island (47°S) to Byers Peninsula (63°S). Total mercury concentrations in body feather samples of adults caught at breeding colonies from 2008 to 2011 were determined. Krill (Euphausia spp.) and other zooplankton consumers had low mercury concentrations (gentoo penguin Pygoscelis papua, chinstrap penguin Pseudomonas Antarctica, common diving petrel Pelecanoides urinatrix, broad-billed prion Pachyptila vittata; mean levels 308-753 ng g(-1)), whereas seabirds consuming squid or carrion had high mercury concentrations (ascending order: Kerguelen petrel Aphrodroma brevirostris, southern giant petrel Macronectes giganteus, soft-plumaged petrel Pterodroma mollis, sooty albatross Phoebetria fusca, Atlantic petrel Pterodroma incerta, northern giant petrel Macronectes halli, great-winged petrel Pterodroma macroptera; 10,720-28038 ng g(-1)). The two species with the highest mercury concentrations, northern giant petrels and great-winged petrels, bred at Marion Island. Among species investigated at multiple sites, southern giant petrels had higher mercury levels at Marion than at Gough Island and Byers Peninsula. Mercury levels among Byers Peninsula seabirds were low, in two species even lower than levels measured 10 years before at Bird Island, South Georgia. Replicate measurements after about 25 years at Gough Island showed much higher mercury levels in feathers of sooty albatrosses (by 187%), soft-plumaged petrels (53%) and Atlantic petrels (49%). Concentrations similar to the past were detected in southern giant petrels at Gough and Marion islands, and in northern giant petrels at Marion. There were no clear indications that timing of moult or migratory behavior affected mercury contamination patterns among species. Causes of inter-site or temporal differences in mercury contamination could not be verified

  1. Cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased body mass index and waist circumference in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Suhyun; Park, Soo-Jung; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Beomhee; Kim, Young-Sang; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Blood mercury (methyl-mercury) from environmental exposure may be related to inflammation in our body. We investigated the cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. On the basis of data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012), 11,159 subjects (5543 males and 5616 females) were analyzed cross-sectionally. Partial correlation, linear regression, and analysis of covariance (according to the mercury quartile) tests were performed to evaluate the relationship between blood mercury and BMI or waist circumference. In addition, we determined the cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased BMI and waist circumference in both genders. Mean values of blood mercury concentration were 5.07 ± 0.07 μg/L in males and 3.59 ± 0.04 μg/L in females. After log transformation of blood mercury, significant (p waist circumference. BMI and waist circumference showed a significant and gradual increase as mercury quartile increased in both genders. Blood mercury concentration was weakly but significantly (p waist circumference. Cut-off values of blood mercury concentration correlated with increased BMI and waist circumference were around 3.95 μg/L in males and 3.40 μg/L in females.

  2. Mercury concentrations in gonad, liver, and muscle of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in the lower Columbia River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M A H; Feist, G W; Fitzpatrick, M S; Foster, E P; Schreck, C B; Plumlee, M; Wong, C; Gundersen, D T

    2006-04-01

    This study determined the partitioning of total mercury in liver, gonad, and cheek muscle of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmonatus) in the lower Columbia River. The relationship between tissue mercury concentrations and various physiologic parameters was assessed. White sturgeon were captured in commercial fisheries in the estuary and Bonneville, The Dalles, and John Day Reservoirs. Condition factor (CF), relative weight (Wr), and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were determined for each fish (n = 57). Gonadal tissue was examined histologically to determine sex and stage of maturity. Liver (n = 49), gonad (n = 49), and cheek muscle (n = 57) were analyzed for total mercury using cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. Tissue protein concentrations were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Plasma was analyzed for testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (KT), and 17ss-estradiol (E2) using radioimmunoassay. Mean tissue mercury concentrations were higher in muscle compared with liver and gonad at all sampling locations, except Bonneville Reservoir where mean liver mercury content was the highest tissue concentration observed in the study. Significant negative correlations between plasma androgens (T and KT) and muscle mercury content and plasma E2 and liver mercury content were found. A significant positive linear relationship between white sturgeon age and liver mercury concentrations was evident. Significant negative correlations between CF and relative weight and gonad and liver mercury content were found. In addition, immature male sturgeon with increased gonad mercury content had decreased GSIs. These results suggest that mercury, in the form of methylmercury, may have an effect on the reproductive potential of white sturgeon.

  3. Biomarkers of mercury exposure at a mercury recycling facility in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, H.J.; Kozlov, K.; Buckley, J.P.; Centeno, J.; Jurgenson, V.; Kolker, A.; Conko, K.; Landa, E.; Panov, B.; Panov, Y.; Xu, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of occupational mercury exposure among workers at a mercury recycling operation in Gorlovka, Ukraine. The 29 study participants were divided into three occupational categories for analysis: (1) those who worked in the mercury recycling operation (Group A, n = 8), (2) those who worked at the facility but not in the yard where the recycling was done (Group B, n = 14), and (3) those who did not work at the facility (Group C, n = 7). Urine, blood, hair, and nail samples were collected from the participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in the former mercury mine/smelter located on the site of the recycling facility. Each factor was tested in a univariate regression with total mercury in urine, blood, hair, and nails. Median biomarker concentrations were 4.04 ??g/g-Cr (urine), 2.58 ??g/L (blood), 3.95 ??g/g (hair), and 1.16 ??g/g (nails). Occupational category was significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with both blood and urinary mercury concentrations but not with hair or nail mercury. Four individuals had urinary mercury concentrations in a range previously found to be associated with subtle neurological and subjective symptoms (e.g., fatigue, loss of appetite, irritability), and one worker had a urinary mercury concentration in a range associated with a high probability of neurological effects and proteinuria. Comparison of results by occupational category found that workers directly involved with the recycling operation had the highest blood and urinary mercury levels. Those who worked at the facility but were not directly involved with the recycling operation had higher levels than those who did not work at the facility. Copyright ?? 2008 JOEH, LLC.

  4. Trend of atmospheric mercury concentrations at Cape Point for 1995-2004 and since 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynwill G.; Labuschagne, Casper; Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Slemr, Franz

    2017-02-01

    Long-term measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations at Cape Point, South Africa, reveal a downward trend between September 1995 and December 2005 and an upward one from March 2007 until June 2015, implying a change in trend sign between 2004 and 2007. The trend change is qualitatively consistent with the trend changes in GEM concentrations observed at Mace Head, Ireland, and in mercury wet deposition over North America, suggesting a change in worldwide mercury emissions. Seasonally resolved trends suggest a modulation of the overall trend by regional processes. The trends in absolute terms (downward in 1995-2004 and upward in 2007-2015) are highest in austral spring (SON), coinciding with the peak in emissions from biomass burning in South America and southern Africa. The influence of trends in biomass burning is further supported by a biennial variation in GEM concentration found here and an El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signature in GEM concentrations reported recently.

  5. The attenuation of concentrations model: a new method for assessing mercury mobility in sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Wasserman

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we propose a new approach for the determination of the mobility of mercury in sediments based on spatial distribution of concentrations. We chose the Tainheiros Cove, located in the Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, as the study area, for it has a history of mercury contamination due to a chloro-alkali plant that was active during 12 years. Twenty-six surface sediment samples were collected from the area and mercury concentrations were measured by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A contour map was constructed from the results, indicating that mercury accumulated in a "hot spot" where concentrations reach more than 1 µg g-1. The model is able to estimate mobility of mercury in the sediments based on the distances between iso-concentration contours that determines an attenuation of concentrations factor. Values of attenuation ranged between 0.0729 (East of the hot spot, indicating higher mobility to 0.7727 (North of the hot spot, indicating lower mobility.

  6. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther H D Carlitz

    Full Text Available Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates, compared with a control without human contact or conflict. Concerning methodological issues, season [F(2,129 = 37.4, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.18] and the age of nests [F(2,178 = 20.3, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.11] significantly predicted hair cortisol concentrations (HCC. With regard to effects of anthropogenic impacts, our results neither showed elevation of HCC due to ecotourism, nor due to illegal logging compared to their control groups. We did, however, find significantly increased HCC in the fragment group compared to chimpanzees living in a nearby intact forest [F(1,88 = 5.0, p = 0.03, r2 = 0.20]. In conclusion, our results suggest that hair cortisol analysis is a powerful tool that can help understanding the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on chimpanzee well-being and could be applied to other great ape species.

  7. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations and loads in the Cache Creek watershed, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L; Alpers, Charles N; Slotton, Darell G; Suchanek, Thomas H; Ayers, Shaun M

    2004-07-05

    Concentrations and loads of total mercury and methylmercury were measured in streams draining abandoned mercury mines and in the proximity of geothermal discharge in the Cache Creek watershed of California during a 17-month period from January 2000 through May 2001. Rainfall and runoff were lower than long-term averages during the study period. The greatest loading of mercury and methylmercury from upstream sources to downstream receiving waters, such as San Francisco Bay, generally occurred during or after winter rainfall events. During the study period, loads of mercury and methylmercury from geothermal sources tended to be greater than those from abandoned mining areas, a pattern attributable to the lack of large precipitation events capable of mobilizing significant amounts of either mercury-laden sediment or dissolved mercury and methylmercury from mine waste. Streambed sediments of Cache Creek are a significant source of mercury and methylmercury to downstream receiving bodies of water. Much of the mercury in these sediments is the result of deposition over the last 100-150 years by either storm-water runoff, from abandoned mines, or continuous discharges from geothermal areas. Several geochemical constituents were useful as natural tracers for mining and geothermal areas, including the aqueous concentrations of boron, chloride, lithium and sulfate, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Stable isotopes of water in areas draining geothermal discharges showed a distinct trend toward enrichment of (18)O compared with meteoric waters, whereas much of the runoff from abandoned mines indicated a stable isotopic pattern more consistent with local meteoric water.

  8. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence and associations with air concentrations of lead, mercury, and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Aisha S; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Bakian, Amanda V; Bilder, Deborah A; Harrington, Rebecca A; Pettygrove, Sydney; Kirby, Russell S; Durkin, Maureen S; Han, Inkyu; Moyé, Lemuel A; Pearson, Deborah A; Wingate, Martha Slay; Zahorodny, Walter M

    2016-07-01

    Lead, mercury, and arsenic are neurotoxicants with known effects on neurodevelopment. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder apparent by early childhood. Using data on 4486 children with ASD residing in 2489 census tracts in five sites of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, we used multi-level negative binomial models to investigate if ambient lead, mercury, and arsenic concentrations, as measured by the US Environmental Protection Agency National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (EPA-NATA), were associated with ASD prevalence. In unadjusted analyses, ambient metal concentrations were negatively associated with ASD prevalence. After adjusting for confounding factors, tracts with air concentrations of lead in the highest quartile had significantly higher ASD prevalence than tracts with lead concentrations in the lowest quartile (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.36; 95 '% CI: 1.18, 1.57). In addition, tracts with mercury concentrations above the 75th percentile (>1.7 ng/m(3)) and arsenic concentrations below the 75th percentile (≤0.13 ng/m(3)) had a significantly higher ASD prevalence (adjusted RR = 1.20; 95 % CI: 1.03, 1.40) compared to tracts with arsenic, lead, and mercury concentrations below the 75th percentile. Our results suggest a possible association between ambient lead concentrations and ASD prevalence and demonstrate that exposure to multiple metals may have synergistic effects on ASD prevalence.

  9. Mercury concentrations in Pacific lamprey ( Entosphenus tridentatus ) and sediments in the Columbia River basin: Mercury in Columbia River Pacific lamprey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linley, Timothy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington USA; Krogstad, Eirik [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington USA; Mueller, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington USA; Gill, Gary [Marine Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Sequim Washington USA; Lasorsa, Brenda [Marine Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Sequim Washington USA

    2016-06-21

    We investigated mercury accumulation in Pacific lamprey and sediments in the Columbia River basin. Mercury concentrations in larval lamprey differed significantly among sample locations (P < 0.001) and were correlated with concentrations in sediments (r2 = 0.83), whereas adult concentrations were highly variable (range 0.1–9.5 µg/g) and unrelated to holding time after collection. The results suggest that Pacific lamprey in the Columbia River basin may be exposed to mercury levels that have adverse ecological effects.

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Human Hair and Serum from E-Waste Recycling Workers in Southern China: Concentrations, Chiral Signatures, Correlations, and Source Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Yu, Le-Huan; Chen, She-Jun; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Ke-Hui; Yan, Xiao; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Sukun; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-02-01

    Hair is increasingly used as a biomarker for human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, the internal and external sources of hair POPs remain a controversial issue. This study analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human hair and serum from electronic waste recycling workers. The median concentrations were 894 ng/g and 2868 ng/g lipid in hair and serum, respectively. The PCB concentrations in male and female serum were similar, while concentrations in male hair were significantly lower than in female hair. Significant correlations between the hair and serum PCB levels and congener profiles suggest that air is the predominant PCB source in hair and that hair and blood PCB levels are largely dependent on recent accumulation. The PCB95, 132, and 183 chiral signatures in serum were significantly nonracemic, with mean enantiomer fractions (EFs) of 0.440-0.693. Nevertheless, the hair EFs were essentially racemic (mean EFs = 0.495-0.503). Source apportionment using the Chemical Mass Balance model also indicated primary external PCB sources in human hair from the study area. Air, blood, and indoor dust are responsible for, on average, 64.2%, 27.2%, and 8.79% of the hair PCBs, respectively. This study evidenced that hair is a reliable matrix for monitoring human POP exposure.

  11. Mercury and Methylmercury concentrations and loads in Cache Creek Basin, California, January 2000 through May 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Alpers, Charles N.; Slotton, Darrell G.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Ayers, Shaun M.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations and mass loads of total mercury and methylmercury in streams draining abandoned mercury mines and near geothermal discharge in Cache Creek Basin, California, were measured during a 17-month period from January 2000 through May 2001. Rainfall and runoff averages during the study period were lower than long-term averages. Mass loads of mercury and methylmercury from upstream sources to downstream receiving waters, such as San Francisco Bay, were generally the highest during or after winter rainfall events. During the study period, mass loads of mercury and methylmercury from geothermal sources tended to be greater than those from abandoned mining areas because of a lack of large precipitation events capable of mobilizing significant amounts of either mercury-laden sediment or dissolved mercury and methylmercury from mine waste. Streambed sediments of Cache Creek are a source of mercury and methylmercury to downstream receiving bodies of water such as the Delta of the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers. Much of the mercury in these sediments was deposited over the last 150 years by erosion and stream discharge from abandoned mines or by continuous discharges from geothermal areas. Several geochemical constituents were useful as natural tracers for mining and geothermal areas. These constituents included aqueous concentrations of boron, chloride, lithium, and sulfate, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Stable isotopes of water in areas draining geothermal discharges were enriched with more oxygen-18 relative to oxygen-16 than meteoric waters, whereas the enrichment by stable isotopes of water from much of the runoff from abandoned mines was similar to that of meteoric water. Geochemical signatures from stable isotopes and trace-element concentrations may be useful as tracers of total mercury or methylmercury from specific locations; however, mercury and methylmercury are not conservatively transported. A distinct mixing trend of

  12. Effects of seasons on the concentration of selected trace elements in horse hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga TOPCZEWSKA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted on a group of 20 mares of the Hucul breed kept in free range system. The horses made use of pastures in summer periods while being fed with hay or silage during the winter. Mares that bore offspring regularly, in good conditions and healthy were involved in the analysis. Hair samples of about 500 mg were taken from areas around the neck under the mane of each horse four times a year. The concentration of 6 elements, i.e., B, Ni, Si, Mo, I and Cr were measured in each sample. Much higher concentrations of molybdenum and nickel were found in hair samples collected in spring, but more of boron in autumn while those from winter contained more of chromium, silicon and iodine. The concentration of all the analyzed minerals differed significantly in relation to the season. A significant positive relationship between levels of nickel and molybdenum on the one hand as well as between silicon and chromium on the other was demonstrated. A negative correlation was, however, observed between the levels of iodine and molybdenum as well as between iodine and nickel.

  13. Impact of climate change on mercury concentrations and deposition in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaritis, Athanasios G; Murphy, Benjamin N; Racherla, Pavan N; Adams, Peter J; Pandis, Spyros N

    2014-07-15

    The global-regional climate-air pollution modeling system (GRE-CAPS) was applied over the eastern United States to study the impact of climate change on the concentration and deposition of atmospheric mercury. Summer and winter periods (300 days for each) were simulated, and the present-day model predictions (2000s) were compared to the future ones (2050s) assuming constant emissions. Climate change affects Hg(2+) concentrations in both periods. On average, atmospheric Hg(2+) levels are predicted to increase in the future by 3% in summer and 5% in winter respectively due to enhanced oxidation of Hg(0) under higher temperatures. The predicted concentration change of Hg(2+) was found to vary significantly in space due to regional-scale changes in precipitation, ranging from -30% to 30% during summer and -20% to 40% during winter. Particulate mercury, Hg(p) has a similar spatial response to climate change as Hg(2+), while Hg(0) levels are not predicted to change significantly. In both periods, the response of mercury deposition to climate change varies spatially with an average predicted increase of 6% during summer and 4% during winter. During summer, deposition increases are predicted mostly in the western parts of the domain while mercury deposition is predicted to decrease in the Northeast and also in many areas in the Midwest and Southeast. During winter mercury deposition is predicted to change from -30% to 50% mainly due to the changes in rainfall and the corresponding changes in wet deposition.

  14. Mercury and methylmercury stream concentrations in a Coastal Plain watershed: A multi-scale simulation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightes, Christopher D.; Golden, Heather E.; Journey, Celeste A.; Davis, Gary M.; Conrads, Paul A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Brigham, Mark E.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a ubiquitous global environmental toxicant responsible for most US fish advisories. Processes governing mercury concentrations in rivers and streams are not well understood, particularly at multiple spatial scales. We investigate how insights gained from reach-scale mercury data and model simulations can be applied at broader watershed scales using a spatially and temporally explicit watershed hydrology and biogeochemical cycling model, VELMA. We simulate fate and transport using reach-scale (0.1 km2) study data and evaluate applications to multiple watershed scales. Reach-scale VELMA parameterization was applied to two nested sub-watersheds (28 km2 and 25 km2) and the encompassing watershed (79 km2). Results demonstrate that simulated flow and total mercury concentrations compare reasonably to observations at different scales, but simulated methylmercury concentrations are out-of-phase with observations. These findings suggest that intricacies of methylmercury biogeochemical cycling and transport are under-represented in VELMA and underscore the complexity of simulating mercury fate and transport.

  15. Detection of Mercury in Human Organs and Hair in a Case of a Homicidal Poisoning of a Woman Autopsied 6 Years After Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    In the described case of the death of a 53-year-old woman, no toxicological examination was performed directly after death (only an anatomopathological autopsy), although symptoms of serious gastrointestinal disturbances had been present (the woman had been hospitalized twice in the course of several months). It was assumed that the cause of death was myocardial infarction. Five years later, some new circumstances came to light which suggested that somebody could have administered some poison (metals, cyanides) to the woman. Toxicological analysis of postmortem samples from the corpse, exhumed 6 years after death by order of the public prosecutor's office, revealed high tissue mercury contents in biological material (cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry): small intestine, 1516 ng/g; large intestine, 487 ng/g; liver, 1201 ng/g; heart muscle, 1023 ng/g; and scalp hair, 227 ng/g. In samples of soil from places near the coffin, negligible traces of mercury were found (0.5-1.5 ng/g); contamination by mercury from the environment was ruled out. The presented case is a rare example of recognition of mercury poisoning on the basis of the results of analysis of biological material from an exhumed cadaver.

  16. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: trend from birth to age four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Murcia, Mario; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Rebagliato, Marisa; Cases, Amparo; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Amurrio, Ascensión; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Ballester, Ferran

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008-2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations.

  17. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in children with adrenal insufficiency on hydrocortisone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppe, G; van Rossum, E F C; Vliegenthart, J; Koper, J W; van den Akker, E L T

    2014-12-01

    Glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with adrenal insufficiency needs to be tailored to the individual patient based on body composition and clinical signs and symptoms as no objective method for assessment of treatment adequacy is available. Current treatment regimens are often not satisfactory, which is shown by the adverse metabolic profile and doubled mortality rates in treated adrenal insufficiency patients. Measurement of cortisol concentrations in hair reflect the long-term systemic cortisol exposure and may be of use in refinement of hydrocortisone treatment. We aimed to study whether long-term cortisol (hydrocortisone) levels, as measured in scalp hair, are similar in children with adrenal insufficiency and healthy children. We set up a case control study, measuring anthropometric characteristics and hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in 54 hydrocortisone substituted children with adrenal insufficiency (AI patients) in the age of 4-18 years and 54 healthy children matched for gender and age. Mean HCC were significantly higher in AI patients compared with healthy controls (mean 13·3 vs 8·2 pg/mg, P = 0·02). AI patients also had a higher BMI (P < 0·001) and waist circumference (WC) (P = 0·02). HCC was significantly associated with BMI (P = 0·002) and WC (P = 0·002). HCC explained 13% of the difference in BMI and 29% of the difference in WC between AI patients and controls. Hydrocortisone-treated AI patients have increased HCC and adverse anthropometric characteristics compared with healthy controls. HCC measurement may be of value in identifying overtreatment and thereby improve hydrocortisone replacement therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Relationship between selenium concentration in child hair and the distribution of Kashin-Beck Disease in Tibet,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shunjiang; YANG Linsheng; WANG Wuyi; LI Yonghua; LI Hairong; XIRAO Ruodeng

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this study is to determine the relationship between selenium(Se)concentrations in child hair and the distribution of Kashin-Beck disease(KBD)in Tibet.The hair of children in typical KBD-affected areas and non-disease areas was collected,and its Se concentrations were measured by atomic fluorescent spectrometry.The Se concentrations in child hair were (0.13±0.04)and (0.1 8±0.07)μg/g respectively in KBD areas and non-disease areas respectively,which are significantly difierent.In areas supplemented with Se in Tibet,the Se concentration of hair in KBD-affected areas was higher than that in non-diseased areas,being(0.28±0.03)and(0.18±0.04)μg/g respectively.There is a close relationship between the Se concentrations in hair and KBD distribution.Se supplement increase the Se concentrations in the human body.Appropriate Se supplementation is important to prevent KBD in Tibet.

  19. Mutagenesis of AS52 cells by low concentrations of lead(II) and mercury(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, M E; Williams, M V

    1996-01-01

    Little is known at the molecular level concerning the genotoxic effects following the acute exposure of eukaryotic cells to low concentrations of lead (II) or mercury (II). There have been conflicting reports concerning the mutagenic potential of these heavy metals, and there have not been any studies performed to determine the molecular mechanism(s) by which these metals are mutagenic. The Chinese hamster ovary cell line, AS52, contains a stably integrated single functional copy of the Escherichia coli xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) gene. Mutations in the gpt gene confer resistance to 6-thioguanine (TG). There was little effect on viability, as measured by relative cloning efficiency, of AS52 cells exposed to lead (II) or mercury (II) up to concentrations of 0.5 microM and 0.3 microM, respectively. However, higher concentrations of the metals caused a significant increase in cell death. There was also a dose-dependent increase in the isolation of mutants resistant to TG in treated cells when compared to non-treated controls. Concentrations of the metals as low as 0.1 microM caused a significant increase in the number of mutants resistant to TG when compared to the number of spontaneous mutants obtained in nontreated controls. While the molecular mechanism(s) by which lead and mercury (II) are genotoxic is unknown, the results of this study demonstrate that low concentrations of lead (II) and mercury (II) are mutagenic in eukaryotic cells.

  20. Effect of long-term geomagnetic field deprivation on the concentration of some elements in the hair of laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombarkiewicz, Barbara

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of long-term geomagnetic field (GMF) deprivation on the concentration of selected elements in the hair of laboratory rats. A total of 32 Wistar laboratory rats were divided into four equal groups (males and females) kept under hypomagnetic conditions (GMF vertical component below 20nT) and two control groups (males and females) kept free of field disturbances (GMF vertical component approx. 38000nT). At the beginning and at 7 months of the experiment, hair was taken from the dorsal part of all rats and analysed using atomic emission spectrometry for the concentration of selected magnetic elements (Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn and Cu). Long-term GMF deprivation was found to affect the concentration of Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr, but had no significant effect on the concentration of Co or Ni in the hair of the analysed rats.

  1. Interrelationships between Fish Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Water Quality for South Dakota Natural Lakes and Impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Steven R.; Stetler, Larry; Stone, James J.; McCutcheon, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether water quality parameters commonly associated with primary productivity may be used to predict the susceptibility of a specific water body to exceed proposed fish consumption advisory limitation of 0.3 mg kg−1. South Dakota currently has nine lakes and impoundments that exceed fish tissue mercury advisory limits of 1.0 mg kg−1 total mercury, far exceeding US Environmental Protection Agency and Food and Drug Administration 0.3 mg kg−1 consumption criteria. Previous studies suggest that increased aquatic productivity may mitigate the effects of biological production and subsequent uptake of methyl mercury through bio-dilution; however, it is uncertain whether these trends may exist within highly alkaline and highly productive aquatic conditions common to South Dakota lakes and impoundments. Water quality parameters and fish tissue mercury data for northern pike and walleye were collected and assessed using existing South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and Game Fish and Parks data. The data was initially screened using both parametric linear regression and non-parametric Mann–Whitney rank sum comparisons and further assessed using binary logistic regression and stepwise logistic regression methodology. Three separate phosphorus measurements (total, total dissolved, and Trophic State Index) and pH were determined to significantly correlate with increased mercury concentrations for the northern pike-in-impoundments model. However, phosphorus surprisingly was not a strong predictor for the remaining scenarios modeled. For the northern pike-in-natural lakes models, alkalinity was the most significant water quality parameter predicting increased mercury concentrations. Mercury concentrations for the walleye-in-natural lakes models were further influenced by pH and alkalinity. The water quality and fish tissue mercury interrelationships determined within this study suggest aquatic

  2. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  3. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, T J

    2014-01-01

    This gazetteer and atlas on Mercury lists, defines and illustrates every named (as opposed to merely catalogued) object and term as related to Mercury within a single reference work. It contains a glossary of terminology used, an index of all the headwords in the gazetteer, an atlas comprising maps and images with coordinate grids and labels identifying features listed in the gazetteer, and appendix material on the IAU nomenclature system and the transcription systems used for non-roman alphabets. This book is useful for the general reader, writers and editors dealing with astronomical themes, and those astronomers concerned with any aspect of astronomical nomenclature.

  4. Biomarkers of mercury exposure at a mercury recycling facility in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Herman Jones; Kozlov, Kostj; Buckley, Jessie Poulin; Centeno, Jose; Jurgenson, Vera; Kolker, Allan; Conko, Kathryn; Landa, Edward; Panov, Boris; Panov, Yuri; Xu, Hanna

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of occupational mercury exposure among workers at a mercury recycling operation in Gorlovka, Ukraine. The 29 study participants were divided into three occupational categories for analysis: (1) those who worked in the mercury recycling operation (Group A, n = 8), (2) those who worked at the facility but not in the yard where the recycling was done (Group B, n = 14), and (3) those who did not work at the facility (Group C, n = 7). Urine, blood, hair, and nail samples were collected from the participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in the former mercury mine/smelter located on the site of the recycling facility. Each factor was tested in a univariate regression with total mercury in urine, blood, hair, and nails. Median biomarker concentrations were 4.04 microg/g-Cr (urine), 2.58 microg/L (blood), 3.95 microg/g (hair), and 1.16 microg/g (nails). Occupational category was significantly correlated (p hair or nail mercury. Four individuals had urinary mercury concentrations in a range previously found to be associated with subtle neurological and subjective symptoms (e.g., fatigue, loss of appetite, irritability), and one worker had a urinary mercury concentration in a range associated with a high probability of neurological effects and proteinuria. Comparison of results by occupational category found that workers directly involved with the recycling operation had the highest blood and urinary mercury levels. Those who worked at the facility but were not directly involved with the recycling operation had higher levels than those who did not work at the facility.

  5. Sources and sinks of filtered total mercury and concentrations of total mercury of solids and of filtered methylmercury, Sinclair Inlet, Kitsap County, Washington, 2007-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Noble, Marlene A.; Wagner, Richard J.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Moran, Patrick W.; DeWild, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of filtered total mercury in the marine water of Sinclair Inlet originates from salt water flowing from Puget Sound. About 420 grams of filtered total mercury are added to Sinclair Inlet each year from atmospheric, terrestrial, and sedimentary sources, which has increased filtered total mercury concentrations in Sinclair Inlet (0.33 nanograms per liter) to concentrations greater than those of the Puget Sound (0.2 nanograms per liter). The category with the largest loading of filtered total mercury to Sinclair Inlet included diffusion of porewaters from marine sediment to the water column of Sinclair Inlet and discharge through the largest stormwater drain on the Bremerton naval complex, Bremerton, Washington. However, few data are available to estimate porewater and stormwater releases with any certainty. The release from the stormwater drain does not originate from overland flow of stormwater. Rather total mercury on soils is extracted by the chloride ions in seawater as the stormwater is drained and adjacent soils are flushed with seawater by tidal pumping. Filtered total mercury released by an unknown freshwater mechanism also was observed in the stormwater flowing through this drain. Direct atmospheric deposition on the Sinclair Inlet, freshwater discharge from creek and stormwater basins draining into Sinclair Inlet, and saline discharges from the dry dock sumps of the naval complex are included in the next largest loading category of sources of filtered total mercury. Individual discharges from a municipal wastewater treatment plant and from the industrial steam plant of the naval complex constituted the loading category with the third largest loadings. Stormwater discharge from the shipyard portion of the naval complex and groundwater discharge from the base are included in the loading category with the smallest loading of filtered total mercury. Presently, the origins of the solids depositing to the sediment of Sinclair Inlet are uncertain, and

  6. Mercury concentrations in seabird tissues from Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alexander L., E-mail: abond@mun.ca [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Diamond, Antony W. [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Mercury is a pervasive environmental contaminant, the anthropogenic portion of which is increasing globally, and in northeastern North America in particular. Seabirds frequently are used as indicators of the marine environment, including mercury contamination. We analysed paired samples for total mercury (Hg) concentrations in feathers and blood from adult and chick, albumen, and lipid-free yolk of seven seabirds breeding on Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada - Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea), Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Common Tern (Sterna hirundo), Leach's Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), and Razorbill (Alca torda). We also used stable-isotope ratios of carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C), and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) to evaluate the relationship between carbon source and trophic position and mercury. We found high Hg concentrations across tissue types in Leach's Storm-petrels, and Razorbills, with lower concentrations in other species, the lowest being in Common Eiders. Storm-petrels prey on mesopelagic fish that accumulate mercury, and Razorbills feed on larger, older fish that bioaccumulate heavy metals. Biomagnification of Hg, or the increase in Hg concentration with trophic position as measured by {delta}{sup 15}N, was significant and greater in albumen than other tissues, whereas in other tissues, {delta}{sup 15}N explained little of the overall variation in Hg concentration. Hg concentrations in egg components are higher on Machias Seal Island than other sites globally and in the Gulf of Maine region, but only for some species. Further detailed investigations are required to determine the cause of this trend.

  7. Relationship between self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and total mercury concentrations in pregnant women (II from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bentzen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seafood is a valuable source of nutrients important for fetal development. However, seafood consumption is the main route of exposure to monomethyl mercury (MeHg+ for humans. MeHg+ is highly bioavailable and potentially adversely affects fetal neurodevelopment. MeHg+ exposure from fish consumption varies significantly by age and trophic level of fish consumed as well as the frequency and amount of fish consumed. This study investigates total Hg concentrations ([THg] in hair segments of pregnant Mexican women in relation to (1 self-reported frequency of fish and shellfish consumption, (2 maternal trophic level and marine diet contributions, determined using hair carbon (C and nitrogen (N stable isotopes, and (3 relates [THg] to various hair advisory thresholds. We also examined whether variation in C and N isotope values is explained by self-reported frequency of fish and shellfish consumption. A significant proportion of hair samples had [THg] higher than suggested agency thresholds and, for women within the range of the various advisory thresholds (1–20 μg g−1, the specific statistic used and threshold applied are important considerations for assessing and communicating risk. Individuals enriched in 15N (δ15N values had higher [THg] as did individuals that reported consuming fish and shellfish more frequently, suggesting that variation in [THg] can be explained by both consumer reported diet and diet as determined by C and N stable isotope assessment. However, at higher reported fish consumption levels the trophic level is maintained while [THg] is paradoxically lower. This suggests that THg exposure and assimilation are more complicated in higher fish frequency consumption categories. [THg] is more variable at the higher concentrations, possibly indicating some exposure to non-dietary Hg, heritable variations affecting Hg toxicodynamics, and BMI and tobacco exposure factors as outlined in our companion paper.

  8. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: a lakewide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stong, Todd; Alvarado Osuna, Claudia; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; Díaz Torres, José de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River.

  9. Correspondence between hair cortisol concentrations and 30-day integrated daily salivary and weekly urinary cortisol measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Sarah J; Stalder, Tobias; Marceau, Kristine; Entringer, Sonja; Moog, Nora K; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of cortisol production, regulation and function is of considerable interest and relevance given its ubiquitous role in virtually all aspects of physiology, health and disease risk. The quantification of cortisol concentration in hair has been proposed as a promising approach for the retrospective assessment of integrated, long-term cortisol production. However, human research is still needed to directly test and validate current assumptions about which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are reflected in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Here, we report findings from a validation study in a sample of 17 healthy adults (mean±SD age: 34±8.6 yrs). To determine the extent to which HCC captures cumulative cortisol production, we examined the correspondence of HCC, obtained from the first 1cm scalp-near hair segment, assumed to retrospectively reflect 1-month integrated cortisol secretion, with 30-day average salivary cortisol area-under-the curve (AUC) based on 3 samples collected per day (on awakening, +30min, at bedtime) and the average of 4 weekly 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) assessments. To further address which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are best reflected in the HCC measure, we also examined components of the salivary measures that represent: (1) production in response to the challenge of awakening (using the cortisol awakening response [CAR]), and (2) chronobiological regulation of cortisol production (using diurnal slope). Finally, we evaluated the test-retest stability of each cortisol measure. Results indicate that HCC was most strongly associated with the prior 30-day integrated cortisol production measure (average salivary cortisol AUC) (r=0.61, p=0.01). There were no significant associations between HCC and the 30-day summary measures using CAR or diurnal slope. The relationship between 1-month integrated 24-h UFC and HCC did not reach statistical significance (r=0.30, p=0.28). Lastly, of all cortisol

  10. Species differences in total mercury concentration in gulls from the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumiło-Pilarska, Emilia; Grajewska, Agnieszka; Falkowska, Lucyna; Hajdrych, Julia; Meissner, Włodzimierz; Frączek, Tomasz; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bzoma, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic birds occupy a high position in the trophic pyramid of the Baltic Sea. This means that they accumulate the greatest amount of harmful substances, including mercury, in their bodies. This element penetrates into their systems mainly via the alimentary canal. The amount of mercury absorbed from food depends on how badly the environment is polluted with this metal. The aim of this study was to discover the concentrations of total mercury (HgT) in the contour feathers, muscles, brain, lungs, liver, kidneys, heart and blood of four gull species Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), Common Gull (Larus canus), Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) and organic mercury (Hgorg) in the liver and brain of Herring Gull. The most important characteristic of the results obtained for the studied gulls was the statistically significant differences between the four species, probably resulting from their different diets-confirmed by stable-isotopes analysis (δ(15)N and δ(13)C). A logarithmic dependence was found between HgT in the blood and HgT in the brain of the Herring Gull. The authors suggest that among gulls burdened with the greatest mercury load, it is possible that the brain is protected by higher Hg accumulation in the muscles. The percentage share of Hgorg in the brain and liver of the Herring Gull depended on the concentration of HgT in these tissues and was always higher in the brain. In none of the cases, did the mercury levels assayed in the internal gulls' tissues exceed values associated with adverse health effects.

  11. Relationships between mercury concentration and food selectivity of many kinds of fishes in Minamata Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, K.; Kanaya, G.

    2016-02-01

    Serious injuries occurred in residents who consumed fish and shellfishes in Minamata Bay polluted by high-concentration methyl-mercury in the 1950s. Pollution has fallen to a safe level because of the pollution prevention project (dredging etc.) carried out from 1977 to 1990. From 2010 we have been researching the bioaccumulation of mercury in several fishes in Minamata Bay and surrounding areas. We selected several sampling points that showed different environmental conditions, species composition and food web patterns. For the determination of feeding types of 60 species fishes (600 samples) sampled by gill net, we measured mercury levels of each sample and directly checked food items in gut, and distinguished carnivore, omnivore, herbivore and detritivore. At this time, we introduced a stable isotope analysis for checking the food history and feeding habits of dominant fish. In about 300 individuals of 30 species of dominant fish selected from the 600 samples, we measured the stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios (δ15N, δ13C) of each sample. Checking the food items in gut of fishes, more than 80% of fishes were carnivorous, and showed different selectivity of food items, such as fish, crustacean and so on. From the results of stable isotope ratios, benthic fish tended to show a higher ratio of δ13C. Usually benthic microalgae evidenced a higher ratio of δ13C than planktonic microalgae, and the ratio conservative through the food chain. In general, δ15N increases through the food chain with +3 to +4 ‰ enrichment per trophic step. In these data, carnivorous fishes of benthic and pelagic type showed medium and high ratios of δ15N. From comparing the stable isotope ratio to the mercury concentration of fishes, all of the high-mercury fishes belonged to benthic and carnivorous types. We consider the joint method of food web analysis and stable isotope analysis to be useful for understanding the mechanism of mercury bioaccumulation through the food web

  12. Mercury concentrations in dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus in littoral and neritic habitats along the Southern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condini, Mario V; Hoeinghaus, David J; Roberts, Aaron P; Soulen, Brianne K; Garcia, Alexandre M

    2017-02-15

    Our study incorporated a comprehensive suite of parameters (i.e., body size, age, diet and trophic position) to investigate mercury concentration in dusky groupers Epinephelus marginatus. This study was carried out in rocky bottoms in littoral and neritic habitats along the Southern Brazilian coast. We also determined spatial variation in mercury concentrations in individuals inhabiting both zones, which may provide insights into how dietary differences or potential pollution sources affect bioaccumulation. A total of 244 dusky groupers was analyzed to determine total mercury concentrations. Our study revealed that when considering similar body sizes, individuals inhabiting littoral rocky habitats had higher concentrations of mercury probably due to proximity to pollution sources associated with human activities in the estuary and its drainage basin. Furthermore, large individuals (>650mm and >8years old) showed mercury contamination levels that are potentially harmful for this endangered fish species and above the acceptable limits for human consumption.

  13. Mercury and selenium concentrations in muscle tissue of different species of predatory freshwater fish and correlation between these elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapáč, Imrich; Sokol, Jozef; Žatko, Daniel; Baranová, Mária

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury and selenium were determined in 49 and 42 muscle tissue samples, respectively, of six species of predatory freshwater fish, dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), pike perch (Sander lucioperca), pike (Esox lucius), European catfish (Silurus glanis), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and asp (Aspius aspius). Muscle selenium concentration did not correlate with the corresponding total mercury concentration (R² < 0.198) in all examined predatory fish species. There was an inverse correlation between the ratio Se/Hg content and the total mercury content in the muscle tissues of dace, pike perch, pike, European catfish and asp. The muscle tissue of rainbow trout exhibits a linear correlation between the ratio Se/Hg content and the total mercury content. The total mercury concentration of all examined samples did not exceed the hygienic limit for Hg for predatory fish.

  14. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... hair sets and rinses, hair straighteners, hair colour- ing, and other ... sold under the presumption of being antiseptic, although the ..... lightening creams and dental amalgam fill- ings. ... (1981). Comparison of mercury levels in.

  15. Concentration of mercury and selenium in tissues of five cetacean species from Croatian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilandžić Nina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg and selenium (Se concentrations were measured in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and lung tissues of five cetacean species, three dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus and Grampus griseus and two whale species (Balaenoptera physalus and Ziphius cavirostris, stranded along the Croatian coast during the period 1999-2002. Statistically significant differences in Hg concentrations in muscle, spleen and lung, and Se in liver and lung of the different dolphin species were observed. Mercury levels in liver and spleen and Se levels in liver differed between young and adult T. truncatus species. A significant positive correlation between different tissue types for Hg and Se concentrations was observed. In all tissues tested, the lowest Hg and Se concentrations were found in B. physalus. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with Se in all tissues. The results present one of few studies related to lung and spleen tissues in these mammals, particularly in the Adriatic Sea. Since very little data are available, this research provides new data on concentrations of Hg and Se in five cetacean species from the Adriatic Sea basin.

  16. Biomarkers of mercury exposure in two eastern Ukraine cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, H.; Haver, C.; Kozlov, K.; Centeno, J.A.; Jurgenson, V.; Kolker, A.; Conko, K.M.; Landa, E.R.; Xu, H.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of mercury exposure among residents of Horlivka, a city in eastern Ukraine located in an area with geologic and industrial sources of environmental mercury, and residents of Artemivsk, a nearby comparison city outside the mercury-enriched area. Samples of urine, blood, hair, and nails were collected from study participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in mines. Median biomarker mercury concentrations in Artemivsk were 0.26 ??g/g-Cr (urine), 0.92 ??g/L (blood), 0.42 ??g/g (hair), 0.11 ??g/g (toenails), and 0.09 ??g/g (fingernails); median concentrations in Horlivka were 0.15 ??g/g-Cr (urine), 1.01 ??g/L (blood), 0.14 ??g/g (hair), 0.31 ??g/g (toenails), and 0.31 ??g/g (fingernails). Biomarkers of mercury exposure for study participants from Horlivka and Artemivsk are low in comparison with occupationally exposed workers at a mercury recycling facility in Horlivka and in comparison with exposures known to be associated with clinical effects. Blood and urinary mercury did not suggest a higher mercury exposure among Horlivka residents as compared with Artemivsk; however, three individuals living in the immediate vicinity of the mercury mines had elevated blood and urinary mercury, relative to overall results for either city. For a limited number of residents from Horlivka (N = 7) and Artemivsk (N = 4), environmental samples (vacuum cleaner dust, dust wipes, soil) were collected from their residences. Mercury concentrations in vacuum cleaner dust and soil were good predictors of blood and urinary mercury. Copyright ?? 2011 JOEH, LLC.

  17. Biomarkers of mercury exposure in two eastern Ukraine cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Herman; Haver, Cary; Kozlov, Kostj; Centeno, Jose A; Jurgenson, Vera; Kolker, Allan; Conko, Kathryn M; Landa, Edward R; Xu, Hanna

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of mercury exposure among residents of Horlivka, a city in eastern Ukraine located in an area with geologic and industrial sources of environmental mercury, and residents of Artemivsk, a nearby comparison city outside the mercury-enriched area. Samples of urine, blood, hair, and nails were collected from study participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in mines. Median biomarker mercury concentrations in Artemivsk were 0.26 μg/g-Cr (urine), 0.92 μg/L (blood), 0.42 μg/g (hair), 0.11 μg/g (toenails), and 0.09 μg/g (fingernails); median concentrations in Horlivka were 0.15 μg/g-Cr (urine), 1.01 μg/L (blood), 0.14 μg/g (hair), 0.31 μg/g (toenails), and 0.31 μg/g (fingernails). Biomarkers of mercury exposure for study participants from Horlivka and Artemivsk are low in comparison with occupationally exposed workers at a mercury recycling facility in Horlivka and in comparison with exposures known to be associated with clinical effects. Blood and urinary mercury did not suggest a higher mercury exposure among Horlivka residents as compared with Artemivsk; however, three individuals living in the immediate vicinity of the mercury mines had elevated blood and urinary mercury, relative to overall results for either city. For a limited number of residents from Horlivka (N = 7) and Artemivsk (N = 4), environmental samples (vacuum cleaner dust, dust wipes, soil) were collected from their residences. Mercury concentrations in vacuum cleaner dust and soil were good predictors of blood and urinary mercury.

  18. Atmospheric speciated mercury concentrations on an island between China and Korea: sources and transport pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.-S. Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a global pollutant, mercury (Hg is of particular concern in East Asia where anthropogenic emissions are the largest. In this study, speciated Hg concentrations were measured in the western most island in Korea, located between China and the Korean mainland to identify the importance of local, regional and distant Hg sources. Various tools including correlations with other pollutants, conditional probability function, and back-trajectory based analysis consistently indicated that Korean sources were important for gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM whereas, for total gaseous mercury (TGM and particulate bound mercury (PBM, long-range and regional transport were also important. A trajectory cluster based approach considering both Hg concentration and the fraction of time each cluster was impacting the site was developed to quantify the effect of Korean sources and out-of-Korean source. This analysis suggests that Korean sources contributed approximately 55 % of the GOM and PBM while there were approximately equal contributions from Korean and out-of-Korean sources for the TGM measured at the site. The ratio of GOM / PBM decreased when the site was impacted by long-range transport, suggesting that this ratio may be a useful tool for identifying the relative significance of local sources vs. long-range transport. The secondary formation of PBM through gas-particle partitioning with GOM was found to be important at low temperatures and high relative humidity.

  19. Effect of seasonal variation in seawater dissolved mercury concentrations on mercury accumulation in the muscle of red sea bream (Pagrus major) held in Minamata Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akito; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Kindaichi, Michiaki; Sonoda, Ikuko; Koyama, Jiro

    2013-09-01

    Japanese stingfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) and Bambooleaf wrasse (Pseudolabrus japonicas) are monitored annually for mercury pollution in Minamata Bay, Japan. The average total mercury concentration in the muscle of these two species in Minamata Bay was 0.36 mg kg(-1) wet weight and 0.20 kg(-1) wet weigh, respectively, between 2008 and 2010. This is higher than levels elsewhere in Japan (0.125 mg kg(-1) wet weight and 0.038 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively). The FDA (2001) and EPA (2004) suggested that a proportion of mercury accumulated in fish is derived from seawater. We reared young red sea bream (Pagrus major) over a 2-year period in Minamata Bay and Nagashima (control) to evaluate the uptake of mercury from seawater and dietary sources. Fish were fed a synthesized diet that did not contain mercury. There was no difference in mercury accumulation in the muscle of red sea bream between Minamata Bay and Nagashima. Thus, our results suggest that the majority of mercury accumulated in fish muscle is not from seawater.

  20. Apocynin prevents vascular effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of mercury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danize A Rizzetti

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Mercury increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress and alters vascular reactivity. This metal elicits endothelial dysfunction causing decreased NO bioavailability via increased oxidative stress and contractile prostanoid production. NADPH oxidase is the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the vasculature. Our aim was to investigate whether treatment with apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, prevents the vascular effects caused by chronic intoxication with low concentrations of mercury. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated for 30 days with a intramuscular injections (i.m. of saline; b HgCl(2 (i.m. 1(st dose: 4.6 µg/kg, subsequent doses: 0.07 µg/kg/day; c Apocynin (1.5 mM in drinking water plus saline i.m.; and d Apocynin plus HgCl(2. The mercury treatment resulted in 1 an increased aortic vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and reduced endothelium-dependent responses to acetylcholine; 2 the increased involvement of ROS and vasoconstrictor prostanoids in response to phenylephrine, whereas the endothelial NO modulation of such responses was reduced; and 3 the reduced activity of aortic superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Treatment with apocynin partially prevented the increased phenylephrine responses and reduced the endothelial dysfunction elicited by mercury treatment. In addition, apocynin treatment increased the NO modulation of vasoconstrictor responses and aortic SOD activity and reduced plasma MDA levels without affecting the increased participation of vasoconstrictor prostanoids observed in aortic segments from mercury-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Mercury increases the vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine by reducing NO bioavailability and increasing the involvement of ROS and constrictor prostanoids. Apocynin protects the vessel from the deleterious effects caused by NADPH oxidase, but not from those

  1. Concentrations and distribution of mercury and other heavy metals in surface sediments of the Yatsushiro Sea including Minamata Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Shimada, Hideaki; Yoshimoto, Maki; Narumi, Rika; Akimoto, Kazumi; Yamashita, Takayuki; Matsunaga, Tomoya; Nishimura, Keisuke; Tanaka, Masakazu; Hiraki, Kenju; Shimasaki, Hideyuki; Takikawa, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations and distribution of heavy metals, such as mercury, zinc, copper, lead, and iron in surface sediments from 234 stations of the Yatsushiro Sea including Minamata bay were investigated. High concentrations of mercury were found in sediments from Minamata bay and its vicinity, but the levels decreased gradually with distance from the bay. The concentrations of mercury in sediments decreased gradually from south to north of the Yatsushiro Sea. These imply the lack of movement of mercury from Minamata bay to the northern Yatsushiro Sea. The geographical profiles of zinc and copper were contrary to that found for mercury, indicating the presence of natural and anthropogenic sources of copper and zinc in the northern Yatsushiro Sea.

  2. Selenium and mercury concentrations in brood-stock walleye collected from three sites on Lake Oahe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, R J; Brown, M L

    2001-02-01

    A decline in the walleye Stizostedion vitreum sport fishery in lower Lake Oahe, South Dakota, was documented in the early 1980s and has been attributed to poor natural reproduction and/or recruitment. Contaminants were suspected of causing low natural reproduction/recruitment in lower Lake Oahe as well as low hatchability of eggs produced from broodstock walleyes taken from lower Lake Oahe. Concentrations of dissolved selenium in the Cheyenne River, which enters lower Lake Oahe, have increased considerably over the last 15 years. To determine whether selenium concentrations contributed to the reproduction problems in the lower Lake Oahe walleye population, adult walleye were collected during spawning operations in April 1994, 1995, and 1996 to obtain tissue samples. Muscle, liver, reproductive tissue, and unfertilized eggs were analyzed with a modified fluorometric method for determining selenium concentrations in plants. These tissues were also analyzed for mercury content using cold-vapor atomic absorption. No statistical differences (p selenium or mercury concentrations among sites could be determined that would explain differential walleye egg hatchability. Correlation analysis determined significant inverse associations existed between the gonadal somatic index of male walleye and gonadal tissue selenium concentrations (r = -0.41, p = 0.0012). Both walleye sexes exhibited significant inverse associations between the hepatic somatic index (HSI) and liver selenium concentrations (males r = -0.33, p = 0.0095; and females r = -0.38, p = 0.0034). Positive relationships existed for female walleye selenium concentrations in the liver and the ovaries (r = 0.37, p = 0.003) and the liver and muscle tissue (r = 0.28, p = 0.027). Mercury concentrations in walleye ovaries were positively correlated with HSI (r = 0.30, p = 0.0012), length (r = 0.36, p = 0.0046), relative weight (r = 0.36, p = 0.0054), and muscle concentrations (r = 0.49, p = 0.0001). Mercury concentrations

  3. Cocaine analytes in human hair: evaluation of concentration ratios in different cocaine sources, drug-user populations and surface-contaminated specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropero-Miller, Jeri D; Huestis, Marilyn A; Stout, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Hair specimens were analyzed for cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), cocaethylene (CE) and norcocaine (NCOC) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Drug-free hair was contaminated in vitro with COC from different sources with varied COC analyte concentrations. Results were compared to COC analyte concentrations in drug users' hair following self-reported COC use (Street) and in hair from participants in controlled COC administration studies (Clinical) on a closed clinical research unit. Mean ± standard error analyte concentrations in Street drug users' hair were COC 27,889 ± 7,846 (n = 38); BE 8,132 ± 2,523 (n = 38); CE 901 ± 320 (n = 20); NCOC 345 ± 72 pg/mg (n = 32). Mean percentages to COC concentration were BE 29%, CE 3% and NCOC 1%. Concentrations in hair were lower for Clinical participants. COC contamination with higher CE, BE or NCOC content produced significantly higher concentrations (P = 0.0001) of all analytes. CE/COC and NCOC/COC ratios did not improve differentiation of COC use from COC contamination. COC concentrations in illicit and pharmaceutical COC affect concentrations in contaminated hair. Criteria for distinguishing COC use from contamination under realistic concentrations were not significantly improved by adding CE and NCOC criteria to COC cutoff concentration and BE/COC ratio criteria. Current criteria for COC hair testing in many forensic drug-testing laboratories may not effectively discriminate between COC use and environmental COC exposure.

  4. Concentrations of mercury in tissues of striped dolphins suggest decline of pollution in Mediterranean open waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, A; Aguilar, A; Tornero, V; Drago, M

    2014-07-01

    The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea subject to high mercury (Hg) pollution from both natural and anthropogenic sources. With the objective of discerning temporal changes in marine Hg pollution in the oceanic waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, we analysed liver and kidney from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) collected during 2007-2009 and compared them with previous results from a similar sample from 1990-1993. The effect of body length and sex on tissue Hg concentrations was investigated to ensure an unbiased comparison between the periods. The Hg concentrations did not show significant sex-related differences in any tissue or period but were correlated positively with body length. Using body length as a covariate, Hg concentrations in liver and kidney were higher in 1990-1993 than in 2007-2009. This result suggests that measures to reduce emissions in Western European countries have been effective in reducing mercury pollution in Mediterranean open waters.

  5. Interlaboratory bias in the determination of mercury concentrations in commercially available fish utilizing thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven J M; Scanlan, Larry P; Chaudhuri, Sanwat N; Perry, Deborah D; Taylor, Robert J

    2007-10-01

    Four commercially available fish fillets were freeze-dried, homogenized, and analyzed for mercury by the Texas A&M Trace Element Research Laboratory and the Utah Public Health Laboratory (UPHL) utilizing thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Two-way analysis of variance detected bias in the data between the two laboratories. Some of the bias could be attributed to different calibration curve quantitation and near detection limit quantitation, albeit causal explanations could be confounded with other effects. Knowledge of analytical bias will aid interpretation of interlaboratory data. The swordfish mercury content, as determined by both laboratories, was about 1 ppm, while mercury content found in the Atlantic salmon was about 0.021 ppm. For the Alaskan halibut, the Texas A&M measured a mercury concentration of 0.155 ppm, while the UPHL measured a mercury concentration of 0.181 ppm for the same fish. The Texas A&M determined that the Canadian-raised salmon contained about 0.019 ppm of mercury, while the UPHL determined a mercury content of about 0.025 ppm for the same fish. The mercury found within the fish fillets did not exceed nationwide mercury mean values determined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  6. Nondestructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): III. Hair as an indicator of endogenous organochlorine compound concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Havé, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Verhagen, Ron; De Coen, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine persistent pollutants were investigated in tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Road kills and carcasses from wildlife rescue centers were used to characterize organochlorine compound tissue distribution and tissue profile dissimilarities (hair, liver, kidney, muscle, and adipose tissue). The most important contaminants were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordanes (CHLs), and DDTs, with median concentrations of 75, 5.1, and 1.4 ng/g liver wet weight, respectively. Median levels for the remaining compounds-hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and octachlorostyrene-were less than 0.5 ng/g liver wet weight. Compared to results with other mammalian wildlife, the present results indicate that hedgehogs may accumulate considerable concentrations of organochlorine compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls and HCB preferably accumulated in liver and muscle tissue. Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were highest in muscle tissue and hair, respectively. Octachlorostyrene and CHL levels were predominant in liver. The observed positive relationships between concentrations in hair and internal tissues for PCBs, DDTs, HCB, HCHs, and CHLs (0.49 hedgehog hair as a nondestructive biomonitoring tool regarding pollution with organochlorine compounds and the promising role of the hedgehog as a mammalian indicator species of pollution in terrestrial environments.

  7. 脐血、胎发、胎盘、母发303例汞含量配对测定与分析%Paired determination and analysis of 303 mercury samples of cord blood, fetal hair, placenta and maternal scalp hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕弘道; 郭俊良; 陈梅竹; 苏海兰

    2013-01-01

    目的 配对测定脐血、胎发、胎盘、母发汞含量,分析其相关性以及各种汞暴露高危因素对样本汞含量的影响.方法 对整个孕期生活在本地、无重大疾病史的入院孕妇进行健康影响因素问卷调查,所分娩新生儿(除多胎、出生缺陷外)娩出时收集脐血、胎发,同时采集胎盘组织及产妇头发行汞含量测定.结果 303例脐血、胎发、胎盘、母发汞含量均值分别为1.65 μg/kg、234.58 μg/kg、3.85 μg/kg、497.62 μg/kg,50百分位数分别为1.72 μg/kg、252.24 μg/kg、3.98 μg/kg、508.88 μg/kg.脐血汞和胎发汞、脐血汞和胎盘汞、脐血汞和母发汞、胎发汞和胎盘汞、胎发汞和母发汞、母发汞和胎盘汞均呈正相关(P均<0.05).生活在涉汞工厂附近、较多食用淡水鱼或海鱼、孕期使用增白类化妆品、接触生活燃煤和香烟等高危因素者脐血汞、胎发汞、母发汞分别为(2.24 ±0.20) μg/kg、(315.65 ±35.31) μg/kg、(663.53 ±71.83) μg/kg,未接触者分别为(1.62±0.16) μg/kg、(245.79±28.21) μg/kg、(499.39±47.72)μg/kg,2组间差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.01).结论 除地区性加强工业污染监控和治理外,孕期应增强保健意识,生活中避免接触汞暴露高危因素.脐血汞和胎发汞不仅高度相关,且均与产妇胎盘汞、母发汞显著相关.2种检测均能达到监测宫内汞暴露状况的目的.%Objective To determine mercury contents in pair in cord blood,fetal hair,placenta and maternal scalp hair,and to analyze the correlation among them and the effect of mercury exposure risk factors in the mercury contents of samples.Methods Puerperants in the hospital,who lived in the local area without history of major diseases during the whole pregnancy,were investigated by questionnaire composed to several health factors.Cord blood,fetal hair,placenta and maternal scalp hair of these puerperal and their neonates (polyembryony and birth defects excluded

  8. Indoor air concentrations of mercury species in incineration plants for municipal solid waste (MSW) and hospital waste (HW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Zhan, Ziyu; Du, Fang; Kong, Sifang; Liu, Yushan

    2009-04-01

    Until now, there is limited information about mercury exposures inside solid waste incineration plants although incineration has been considered as one of major solid waste treatments. This study investigated indoor air concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (Hgp) and indoor dust mercury concentrations in a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant and a hospital waste incineration (HWI) plant during December 2003 and July 2004. The final results showed that the employees in incineration plants are not only exposed to GEM, but also to RGM and Hgp. For the HWI plant, only concentration of total mercury (HgT) in operation center in summer was below 1000ngm(-3) due to frequent ventilation, while those of GEM and HgT in hospital waste depot exceeded 3000ngm(-3). For the MSWI plant, only concentration of HgT in workplace in winter exceeded 1000ngm(-3). Therefore, more attention should be paid to mercury exposures in HWI plants than in MSWI plants. Indoor dust containing approximately 3968microgHgTkg(-1) (dry matter) possibly served as the potential source for indoor air mercury pollution, especially in the HWI plant.

  9. Mercury correlates with altered corticosterone but not testosterone or estradiol concentrations in common loons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Melinda D; Evers, David C; Kenow, Kevin P; Meyer, Michael W; Pokras, Mark; Romero, L Michael

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the relation between environmental mercury exposure and corticosterone concentrations in free-living adult common loons (Gavia immer). We determined blood and feather mercury concentrations and compared them to testosterone, estradiol, and stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations. Although neither testosterone nor estradiol correlated with Hg levels, there was a robust positive relation between blood Hg and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations in males, but not in females. The lack of an effect in females may have been due to overall less contamination in females. There were no significant correlations between feather Hg and stress-induced corticosterone in either sex. To help determine whether Hg had a causal effect on corticosterone, we investigated the impact of experimental Hg intake on the corticosterone stress response in captive juvenile loons. Juveniles were subjected to three different feeding regimes: 0, 0.4 and 1.2μg Hg (as MeHgCL)/g wet weight (ww) fish. We then measured baseline and 30min post-solitary confinement stressor corticosterone concentrations. The Hg fed chicks exhibited a decreased ability to mount a stress response. From these data, we conclude that Hg contamination does appear to alter the corticosterone response to stress, but not in a consistent predictable pattern. Regardless of the direction of change, however, exposure to mercury contamination and the resulting impact on the corticosterone stress response in common loons may substantially impact health, fitness and survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mercury correlates with altered corticosterone but not testosterone or estradiol concentrations in common loons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceshini, Melinda D.; Evers, David C.; Kenow, Kevin P.; Meyer, Michael W.; Pokras, Mark; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relation between environmental mercury exposure and corticosterone concentrations in free-living adult common loons (Gavia immer). We determined blood and feather mercury concentrations and compared them to testosterone, estradiol, and stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations. Although neither testosterone nor estradiol correlated with Hg levels, there was a robust positive relation between blood Hg and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations in males, but not in females. The lack of an effect in females may have been due to overall less contamination in females. There were no significant correlations between feather Hg and stress-induced corticosterone in either sex. To help determine whether Hg had a causal effect on corticosterone, we investigated the impact of experimental Hg intake on the corticosterone stress response in captive juvenile loons. Juveniles were subjected to three different feeding regimes: 0, 0.4 and 1.2 μg Hg (as MeHgCL)/g wet weight (ww) fish. We then measured baseline and 30 min post-solitary confinement stressor corticosterone concentrations. The Hg fed chicks exhibited a decreased ability to mount a stress response. From these data, we conclude that Hg contamination does appear to alter the corticosterone response to stress, but not in a consistent predictable pattern. Regardless of the direction of change, however, exposure to mercury contamination and the resulting impact on the corticosterone stress response in common loons may substantially impact health, fitness and survival.

  11. [Concentrations of mercury in ambient air in wastewater irrigated area of Tianjin City and its accumulation in leafy vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-An; Han, Yun-Lei; Zheng, Xiang-Qun

    2014-11-01

    limit of mercury in food. Spinach appeared to accumulate more mercury than the other four vegetables, in which the median and mean mercury content were both higher than 20 μg x kg(-1). The mercury concentrations in rape, lettuce and allium tuberosum were lower than the standard. Moreover, test results indicated that the Hg content in leafy vegetables was mainly the gaseous mercury through leaf adsorption but not the Hg particulates. This study clearly manifested that there should be a great concern on the pollution risk of both air-and soil borne mercury when cultivating leafy vegetables in long-term wastewater-irrigated area.

  12. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): II. Hair and spines as indicators of endogenous metal and As concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Havé, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Mubiana, Valentine Kayawe; Verhagen, Ron; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim

    2006-08-01

    The role of hair and spines of the European hedgehog as non-destructive monitoring tools of metal (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) and As pollution in terrestrial ecosystems was investigated. Our results showed that mean pollution levels of a random sample of hedgehogs in Flanders are low to moderate. Yet, individual hedgehogs may be at risk for metal toxicity. Tissue distribution analyses (hair, spines, liver, kidney, muscle and fat tissue) indicated that metals and As may reach considerable concentrations in external tissues, such as hair and spines. Positive relationships were observed between concentrations in hair and those in liver, kidney and muscle for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, and Pb (0.43 hedgehogs when concentrations in hair or spines are available. The present study demonstrated the possibility of using hair and spines for non-destructive monitoring of metal and As pollution in hedgehogs.

  13. Occupational exposures and determinants of ultrafine particle concentrations during laser hair removal procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily J Eshleman; Mallory LeBlanc; Lisa B Rokoff; Yinyin Xu; Rui Hu; Kachiu Lee; Gary S Chuang; Gary Adamkiewicz; Jaime E Hart

    2017-01-01

    Background Occupational exposures to ultrafine particles in the plume generated during laser hair removal procedures, the most commonly performed light based cosmetic procedure, have not been thoroughly characterized...

  14. Seal Hairs Tell World History of Gold and Silver Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The fluctuation of mercury (Hg) concentration in seal hairs over the past 2,000years in a lake-sediment core on King George Island, West Antarctica, has been found to be closely correlated with ancient activities of gold and silver mining by using Hg-amalgamation process around the world.

  15. A novel concept to derive iodine status of human populations from frequency distribution properties of a hair iodine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Drmić, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N; Momčilović, B

    2014-04-01

    Today, human iodine deficiency is next to iron the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries, respectively. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine that reflects the very recent iodine exposure, whereas some long term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Population (n870) hair iodine (IH) respective median was 0.499μgg(-1) (0.482 and 0.508μgg(-1)) for men and women, respectively, suggesting no sex related difference. We studied the hair iodine uptake by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy and excess. We estimated the overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration is below 0.15μgg(-1). Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.15-2.0μgg(-1) (r(2)=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0μgg(-1) and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Hair appears to be a valuable and robust long term biological indicator tissue for assessing the iodine body status. We propose adequate iodine status to correspond with the hair iodine (IH) uptake saturation of 0.565-0.739μgg(-1) (55-65%).

  16. Sweat-inducing physiological challenges do not result in acute changes in hair cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Gao, Wei; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to provide a stable, integrative marker of long-term systemic cortisol secretion. However, contrary to this assumption, some recent observations have raised the possibility that HCC may be subject to acute influences, potentially related to cortisol incorporation from sweat. Here, we provide a first detailed in vivo investigation of this possibility comprising two independent experimental studies: study I (N=42) used a treadmill challenge to induce sweating together with systemic cortisol reactivity while in study II (N=52) a sauna bathing challenge induced sweating without systemic cortisol changes. In both studies, repeated assessments of HCC, salivary cortisol, cortisol in sweat and individuals' sweating rate (single assessment) were conducted on the experimental day and at a next-day follow-up. Results across the two studies consistently revealed that HCC were not altered by the acute interventions. Further, HCC were found to be unrelated to acute salivary cortisol reactivity, sweat cortisol levels, sweating rate or the time of examination. In line with previous data, cortisol levels in sweat were strongly related to total salivary cortisol output across the examined periods. The present results oppose recent case report data by showing that single sweat-inducing interventions do not result in acute changes in HCC. Our data also tentatively speak against the notion that cortisol in sweat may be a dominant source of HCC. Further, our findings also indicate that HCC are not subject to diurnal variation. This research provides further support for hair cortisol analysis as a marker of integrated long-term systemic cortisol secretion.

  17. Concentration of mercury in muscles of predatory and non-predatory fish from lake Pluszne (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczyńska Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study examined the concentration of total mercury and correlation coefficients between fish size or FCF (condition factor and the content of Hg in muscle tissue of six freshwater fish: bream (Abramis brama L., roach (Rutilus rutilus L., whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L., vendace (Coregonus albula L., perch (Perca fluviatilis L., and pike (Esox lucius L.. Material and Methods: The fish were caught from the Lake Pluszne located in the Olsztyn Lake District (Poland. Mercury was analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry using Milestone DMA-80 (with dual-cell. Results: The content of the element in the muscles of the examined fish was as follows: pike (0.197 mg/kg ≈ perch (0.173 mg/kg > vendace (0.114 mg/kg ≈ roach (0.095 mg/kg and roach ≈ whitefish (0.065 mg/kg, and whitefish ≈ bream (0.042 mg/kg (p ≤ 0.05. In all cases, the content of mercury correlated positively with the body weight and total length of the fish. Only the correlation coefficients between mercury concentration and weight or length of bream were slightly higher (0.979 and 0.977 respectively, p ≤ 0.001. The length and weight relationship of the fish was also determined. Conclusion: The results showed that the levels of mercury were lower than the maximum acceptable limit established by the Commission Regulation (EC No 629/2008 of 2 July 2008. Thus, they are safe from consumer health point of view.

  18. Mercury concentrations in amphipods and fish of the Saint Lawrence River (Canada) are unrelated to concentrations of legacy mercury in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Peter V; Norris, Kristin; Berquist, Michelle; Campbell, Linda M; Ridal, Jeffrey J

    2014-10-01

    Past industrial activity at Cornwall, Ontario, Canada has contaminated Lake Saint Francis, a fluvial lake on the Saint Lawrence River, with mercury (Hg). A spatial survey of Hg concentrations in sediments, amphipods, and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in 2008 inferred current sources of Hg to the lake and spatial variations in risks to human consumers. Patterns of total and methyl Hg concentrations in sediment reflected upstream inputs, declining concentrations downstream, and highest concentrations at north shore sites near industrial sources; concentrations were lowest on the south shore because river currents limit north-south advective exchange. Surprisingly, concentrations of total or methyl Hg in sediments and pore water were unrelated to concentrations in amphipods and yellow perch. Concentrations in biota, and risks to consumers of fish, were highest at north shore sites near tributaries, and not at the most contaminated industrial sites. These results suggest that 'legacy' Hg in surficial sediments is not bioavailable to aquatic biota; tributaries and atmospheric deposition are possible sources of bioavailable Hg; and that sediment remediation would not resolve issues of Hg in fish. Fish consumption advisories for the entire lake based on single samples of fish could over- or under-protect consumers, depending on sampling location. To understand the actual risk to fish consumers for a large and complex lake system with multiple sources of Hg, more intensive sampling is needed to assess the spatial distribution of risk.

  19. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: Trend from birth to age four

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); Rebagliato, Marisa [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Medicine Department, Jaume I University, Av. Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071 Castelló de la Plana (Spain); Cases, Amparo [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Amurrio, Ascensión [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); María Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); and others

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008–2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. - Highlights: • The geometric mean of hair Hg concentrations was 1.10 µg/g. • 19% of children had Hg concentrations above the RfD proposed by

  20. Total Gaseous Mercury Concentration Measurements at Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Parsons

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations are described from total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations measured at the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA Fort McMurray—Patricia McInnes air quality monitoring station—from 21 October 2010 through 31 May 2013, inclusively. Fort McMurray is approximately 380 km north-northeast of Edmonton, Alberta, and approximately 30 km south of major Canadian oil sands developments. The average TGM concentration over the period of this study was 1.45 ± 0.18 ng∙m−3. Principal component analysis suggests that observed TGM concentrations are correlated with meteorological conditions including temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation, and also ozone concentration. There is no significant correlation between ambient concentrations of TGM and anthropogenic pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOX and sulphur dioxide (SO2. Principal component analysis also shows that the highest TGM concentrations observed are a result of forest fire smoke near the monitoring station. Back trajectory analysis highlights the importance of long-range transport, indicating that unseasonably high TGM concentrations are generally associated with air from the southeast and west, while unseasonably low TGM concentrations are a result of arctic air moving over the monitoring station. In general, TGM concentration appears to be driven by diel and seasonal trends superimposed over a combination of long-range transport and regional surface-air flux of gaseous mercury.

  1. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species

    KAUST Repository

    O'Bryhim, Jason R.

    2017-01-31

    Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups. Total Hg concentrations were highest in the eight muscle regions with no significant differences in THg concentrations between the different muscle regions and muscle types (red and white). Results from tissue collected from any muscle region would be representative of all muscle sample locations. Total Hg concentrations were lowest in samples taken from the fin inner core of the first dorsal, pectoral, and caudal (lower lobe) fins. Mercury concentrations for samples taken from the trailing margin of the dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fins (upper and lower lobe) were also not significantly different from each other for both species. Significant relationships were found between THg concentrations in dorsal axial muscle tissue and the fin inner core, liver, kidney, spleen and heart for both species as well as the THg concentrations between the dorsal fin trailing margin and the heart for the silky shark and all other sampled tissue types for the bonnethead shark. Our results suggest that biopsy sampling of dorsal muscle can provide data that can effectively estimate THg concentrations in specific organs without using more invasive, or lethal methods.

  2. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryhim, Jason R; Adams, Douglas H; Spaet, Julia L Y; Mills, Gary; Lance, Stacey L

    2017-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups. Total Hg concentrations were highest in the eight muscle regions with no significant differences in THg concentrations between the different muscle regions and muscle types (red and white). Results from tissue collected from any muscle region would be representative of all muscle sample locations. Total Hg concentrations were lowest in samples taken from the fin inner core of the first dorsal, pectoral, and caudal (lower lobe) fins. Mercury concentrations for samples taken from the trailing margin of the dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fins (upper and lower lobe) were also not significantly different from each other for both species. Significant relationships were found between THg concentrations in dorsal axial muscle tissue and the fin inner core, liver, kidney, spleen and heart for both species as well as the THg concentrations between the dorsal fin trailing margin and the heart for the silky shark and all other sampled tissue types for the bonnethead shark. Our results suggest that biopsy sampling of dorsal muscle can provide data that can effectively estimate THg concentrations in specific organs without using more invasive, or lethal methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Concentrations of lead in blood, hair and saliva of German children living in three different areas of traffic density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, M.; Pesch, A.; Rostek, U. [Institute of Hygiene, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany); Begerow, J.; Ranft, U. [Medical Institute of Environmental Hygiene at the Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schmitz, N.; Idel, H. [Institute of Hygiene, Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2002-10-07

    Lead contents in hair, whole blood and saliva were determined for 245 healthy children (121 male, 124 female, age: 8-10 years) from three residential areas of Duesseldorf (North-Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) with different traffic densities. The geometric mean for the lead content in hair was found to be 0.87 {mu}g/g (range: 0.2-9.9 {mu}g/g) for the entire test group. While the levels of lead in hair in the suburban population were significantly lower than in the two city centre populations, no significant difference concerning the lead content in hair could be detected in the latter. The geometric mean for lead concentration in whole blood amounted to 25.0 {mu}g/l (range: 8.0-154 {mu}g/l). There was no significant difference between the sub-groups. The lead concentrations found in saliva were rather low (range: <1.5-47.0 {mu}g/l). Of the values, 89% were below the detection limit of 1.5 {mu}g/l. Due to reduced levels of lead in fuel, the present study exposes that the amount of lead in the children examined has further decreased compared to preceding surveys. The correlation between the lead content in hair and the road traffic density was not corroborated by the findings with regard to amounts of lead found in blood, indicating that residual lead from fuel does not result in a substantial burden of lead found in the whole body. In contrast to levels of lead found in blood, levels of lead found in hair may be influenced more by environmental conditions. Saliva is not a suitable material for biological monitoring with respect to lead exposure in children.

  4. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): II. Hair and spines as indicators of endogenous metal and As concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Have, Helga [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: helga.dhave@ua.ac.be; Scheirs, Jan [Evolutionary Biology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Mubiana, Valentine Kayawe [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verhagen, Ron [Evolutionary Biology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim de [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2006-08-15

    The role of hair and spines of the European hedgehog as non-destructive monitoring tools of metal (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) and As pollution in terrestrial ecosystems was investigated. Our results showed that mean pollution levels of a random sample of hedgehogs in Flanders are low to moderate. Yet, individual hedgehogs may be at risk for metal toxicity. Tissue distribution analyses (hair, spines, liver, kidney, muscle and fat tissue) indicated that metals and As may reach considerable concentrations in external tissues, such as hair and spines. Positive relationships were observed between concentrations in hair and those in liver, kidney and muscle for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, and Pb (0.43 < r < 0.85). Spine concentrations were positively related to liver, kidney and muscle concentrations for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb (0.37 < r < 0.62). Hair Ag, As, Fe and Zn and spine Ag, Al, As and Fe were related to metal concentrations in one or two of the investigated internal tissues (0.31 < r < 0.45). The regression models presented here may be used to predict metal and As concentrations in internal tissues of hedgehogs when concentrations in hair or spines are available. The present study demonstrated the possibility of using hair and spines for non-destructive monitoring of metal and As pollution in hedgehogs. - Hedgehog hair and spines are promising non-destructive biomonitoring tools of terrestrial metal pollution.

  5. The impact of military activities on the concentration of mercury in soils of military training grounds and marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gębka, Karolina; Bełdowski, Jacek; Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2016-11-01

    Military activities have been conducted on land and at sea. Both during conflicts and in peace time, some regions served as a military training ground which included firing positions and bunkers. Mercury fulminate has been used in ammunition primers and detonators. Certain amount of ammunition was dumped into the Baltic Sea after the Second World War. Because of corroded containers, mercury can be released into the marine environment. The soil and sediment samples were taken from military training grounds, southern Baltic in 2014 and 2015. The concentration of mercury was determined by AMA-254 analyzer. Hg concentration was higher in the places of military activities, as compared to other areas. Ten times increased concentration of Hg was determined in soil sample collected in area of active gun range compared to the reference station. The significant higher concentration of mercury was detected in stations where chemical warfare agents were found.

  6. A SUMMARY OF TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FLORA AND FAUNA NEAR CONTAMINANT SOURCES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes total mercury concentrations for environmental media collected from near-coastal areas including those impacted by contaminant sources common to the Gulf of Mexico. Water, sediment, fish, blue crabs, oysters, clams, mussels, periphyton and seagrasses were ...

  7. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cheng Jinping; Wang Wenhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Wu Minghong [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-02-28

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n = 23 males, n = 4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n = 11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of {Sigma}PBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  8. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu, Minghong; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-02-28

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n=23 males, n=4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n=11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of ∑PBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  9. Determination of mercury and vanadium concentration in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in Musa estuary in Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Ramezani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Javid, Ahmad Zare

    2015-08-15

    The main aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of mercury and vanadium in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in the Musa estuary. A total of 67 fishes were caught from the Musa estuary during five intervals of 15days in the summer of 2013. After biometric measurements were conducted, the concentrations of mercury and vanadium were measured in the muscle tissue of fish using a direct method analyzer (DMA) and a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The mean concentration of mercury and vanadium in the muscle tissue of fish was 3.154±1.981 and 2.921±0.873mg/kg w.w, respectively. The generalized linear model (GLM) analysis showed a significantly positive relationship among mercury concentration, length, and weight (P=0.000). In addition, there was a significantly negative relationship between vanadium concentration and fish length (P=0.000). A reverse association was found between concentrations of mercury and vanadium. Mercury concentration exceeded the allowable standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in J. belangerii (C).

  10. Association between Mercury Concentrations and Blood in Hair in Methylmercury-Exposed Subjects at Different Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Poul J.

    Biological markers; Dose-response relationship; Laboratory quality; Seafood; Structural equation model......Biological markers; Dose-response relationship; Laboratory quality; Seafood; Structural equation model...

  11. Health effects in the Flemish population in relation to low levels of mercury exposure: from organ to transcriptome level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, Kim; De Coster, Sam; De Galan, Sandra; Morrens, Bert; Loots, Ilse; Van de Mieroop, Els; Nelen, Vera; Sioen, Isabelle; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Nawrot, Tim; Colles, Ann; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; van Larebeke, Nicolas; Baeyens, Willy; Gao, Yue

    2014-03-01

    Due to possible health risks, quantification of mercury accumulation in humans was included in the Flemish biomonitoring programmes FLEHS I (2002-2006) and FLEHS II (2007-2011). The general objective of FLEHS I was to assess regional exposure levels in order to link possible differences in these internal exposure levels to different types of local environmental pressure. Therefore, Hg and MMHg (methylmercury) were only measured in pooled blood samples per region and per age class. In FLEHS II, mercury concentrations were measured in hair of each participant. About 200 adolescents and 250 mothers (reference group) and two times 200 adolescents (2 hotspots) were screened. The main objectives of the FLEHS II study were: (1) to determine reference levels of mercury in hair for Flanders; (2) to assess relations between mercury exposure and possible sources like fish consumption; (3) to assess dose-effect relations between mercury exposure and health effect markers. The results showed that mercury concentrations in the Flemish population were rather low compared to other studies. Mercury levels in the Flemish populations were strongly related to the age of the participants and consumption of fish. Significant negative associations were observed between mercury in hair and asthma, having received breast feeding as a newborn, age at menarche in girls, allergy for animals and free testosterone levels. Significant correlations were also observed between mercury in hair and genes JAK2, ARID4A, Hist1HA4L (boys) and HLAdrb5, PIAS2, MANN1B1, GIT and ABCA1 (girls).

  12. Estimating Mercury-Binding Ligand Concentrations in Freshwater Wetland Porewaters Using the “Tin-Reducible-Mercury” Titration Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J. E.; Babiarz, C.; Shafer, M. M.; Armstrong, D. E.

    2009-12-01

    Wetland environments are recognized as active regions of mercury methylation and may represent the primary source of methylmercury to many aquatic systems. Thus understanding the methylation process in these systems is vital to efforts at prediction of methylmercury accumulation at higher trophic levels. Strong mercury-binding ligands in porewaters can limit methylation in wetlands because large ligands and charged Hg-complexes are not bioavailable to methylating bacteria. Following the method developed by Lamborg and colleagues (2003), we used tin(II) chloride, a weak reductant, to reduce and measure labile Hg in porewater samples (i.e. the fraction not bound to strong ligands). We further titrated samples with Hg(II) to determine the Hg concentration at which the naturally occurring ligands were saturated - thus providing a measure of mercury-binding ligand concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive use of this technique on porewater samples. In an effort to differentiate between inorganic- and organic-complexed Hg, we modeled the inorganic speciation of Hg using MINEQL+, an aqueous speciation modeling program. Measurements of total mercury, methylmercury, sulfide, sulfate, chloride, carbonate, pH, dissolved organic carbon, phosphate, bromide, and major ions in sample porewaters were used as inputs to the model. Using the inorganic speciation calculated by the model, and the ligand concentrations measured in our laboratory experiment, we calculated conditional stability constants for mercury-ligand binding in this system. Although modeling predicts that mercury speciation will be dominated by sulfide at the concentrations present in this system, mercury methylation rate measurements show a stronger correlation with dissolved organic carbon concentrations than with sulfide. This correlation suggests that dissolved organic carbon plays an important role in mercury speciation, even in the presence of sulfide. Porewaters were extracted from

  13. Binding of mercury(II) to dissolved organic matter: The role of the mercury-to-DOM concentration ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitzer, M.; Aiken, G.R.; Ryan, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    The binding of Hg(II) to dissolved organic matter (DOM; hydrophobic acids isolated from the Florida Everglades by XAD-8 resin) was measured at a wide range of Hg-to-DOM concentration ratios using an equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange method. Conditional distribution coefficients (KDOM???) determined by this method were strongly affected by the Hg/DOM concentration ratio. At Hg/DOM ratios below approximately 1 ??g of Hg/mg of DOM, we observed very strong interactions (KDOM??? = 1023.2??1.0 L kg-1 at pH = 7.0 and I = 0.1), indicative of mercury-thiol bonds. Hg/DOM ratios above approximately 10 ??g of Hg/mg of DOM, as used in most studies that have determined Hg-DOM binding constants, gave much lower KDOM??? values (1010.7??1.0 L kg-1 at pH = 4.9-5.6 and I = 0.1), consistent with Hg binding mainly to oxygen functional groups. These results suggest that the binding of Hg to DOM under natural conditions (very low Hg/DOM ratios) is controlled by a small fraction of DOM molecules containing a reactive thiol functional group. Therefore, Hg/DOM distribution coefficients used for modeling the biogeochemical behavior of Hg in natural systems need to be determined at low Hg/DOM ratios.

  14. Cork stoppers as an effective sorbent for water treatment: the removal of mercury at environmentally relevant concentrations and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Cláudia B; Oliveira, Joana R; Rocha, Luciana S; Tavares, Daniela S; Silva, Carlos M; Silva, Susana P; Hartog, Niels; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, E

    2014-02-01

    The technical feasibility of using stopper-derived cork as an effective biosorbent towards bivalent mercury at environmentally relevant concentrations and conditions was evaluated in this study. Only 25 mg/L of cork powder was able to achieve 94 % of mercury removal for an initial mercury concentration of 500 μg/L. It was found that under the conditions tested, the efficiency of mercury removal expressed as equilibrium removal percentage does not depend on the amount of cork or its particle size, but is very sensitive to initial metal concentration, with higher removal efficiencies at higher initial concentrations. Ion exchange was identified as one of the mechanisms involved in the sorption of Hg onto cork in the absence of ionic competition. Under ionic competition, stopper-derived cork showed to be extremely effective and selective for mercury in binary mixtures, while in complex matrices like seawater, moderate inhibition of the sorption process was observed, attributed to a change in mercury speciation. The loadings achieved are similar to the majority of literature values found for other biosorbents and for other metals, suggesting that cork stoppers can be recycled as an effective biosorbent for water treatment. However, the most interesting result is that equilibrium data show a very rare behaviour, with the isotherm presenting an almost square convex shape to the concentration axis, with an infinite slope for an Hg concentration in solution around 25 μg/L.

  15. Mercury concentrations in salmonids from western U.S. National Parks and relationships with age and macrophage aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, A.R.; Fournie, J.W.; Landers, D.H.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury accumulation in aquatic foodwebs and its effects on aquatic biota are of growing concern both for the health of the fish and the piscivores that prey upon them. This is of particular concern for western U.S. National Parks because it is known that mountainous and Arctic areas are sinks for some contaminants. The Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project seeks, in part, to ascertain mercury concentrations and evaluate effects of contaminants on biota in 14 lakes from 8 National Parks or Preserves. In this paper we report that mercury has accumulated to concentrations in trout that may negatively impact some piscivorous wildlife, indicating potential terrestrial ecosystem effects. Additionally, we show that mercury concentrations increase with age in 4 species of trout, providing evidence of bioaccumulation. Finally, we demonstrate that mercury is associated with tissue damage in the kidney and spleen, as indicated by increases in macrophage aggregates. This finding suggests that mercury, and possibly other contaminants, are negatively affecting the trout that inhabit these remote and protected ecosystems. Our results indicate that mercury is indeed a concern for the U.S. National Parks, from an organismic and potentially an ecosystem perspective. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  16. Selective exploitation of large pike Esox lucius-Effects on mercury concentrations in fish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Chhatra Mani [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: chhatra.sharma@gmail.com; Borgstrom, Reidar [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: reidar.borgstrom@umb.no; Huitfeldt, Jorgen Sinkaberg [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: jhu@wang.no; Rosseland, Bjorn Olav [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: bjorn.rosseland@umb.no

    2008-07-25

    The present study outlines two main trends of mercury transfer patterns through the fish community: 1) the Hg concentrations increase with increase in the trophic level, with top predators having the highest concentrations, and 2) a fast growth rate may dilute the concentrations of Hg in fish muscle tissue (growth biodilution). In 2004, an extensive reduction in number of large pike (Esox lucius L.), was initiated by selective gillnet fishing in Lake Arungen, Norway, in order to increase the pike recruitment due to an expected reduction in cannibalism. In this connection, total mercury (THg) concentrations in the fish community were studied both before (2003) and after (2005) the removal of large pike. The {delta}{sup 15}N signatures and stomach content analyses indicated that pike and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) occupied the highest trophic position, while roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)) was at the lower level, and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) at the lowest. The piscivores, pike and perch, had the highest concentrations of THg. The biomagnification rate of THg through the food web in the fish community was 0.163 ( per mille{delta}{sup 15}N), with the highest uptake rate (0.232) in perch. A significant decrease in THg concentrations was found in all fish species in 2005 compared to 2003. Removal of the top predators in an Hg contaminated lake might thus be an important management tool for reducing Hg levels in fish, thereby reducing health risk to humans.

  17. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL, 4.4 (2.4 μg/L, 10.9 (9.2 μg/L, and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L, respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01. After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car, the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01. Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations.

  18. Selective exploitation of large pike Esox lucius--effects on mercury concentrations in fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Borgstrøm, Reidar; Huitfeldt, Jørgen Sinkaberg; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav

    2008-07-25

    The present study outlines two main trends of mercury transfer patterns through the fish community: 1) the Hg concentrations increase with increase in the trophic level, with top predators having the highest concentrations, and 2) a fast growth rate may dilute the concentrations of Hg in fish muscle tissue (growth biodilution). In 2004, an extensive reduction in number of large pike (Esox lucius L.), was initiated by selective gillnet fishing in Lake Arungen, Norway, in order to increase the pike recruitment due to an expected reduction in cannibalism. In this connection, total mercury (THg) concentrations in the fish community were studied both before (2003) and after (2005) the removal of large pike. The delta(15)N signatures and stomach content analyses indicated that pike and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) occupied the highest trophic position, while roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)) was at the lower level, and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) at the lowest. The piscivores, pike and perch, had the highest concentrations of THg. The biomagnification rate of THg through the food web in the fish community was 0.163 (per thousand delta(15)N), with the highest uptake rate (0.232) in perch. A significant decrease in THg concentrations was found in all fish species in 2005 compared to 2003. Removal of the top predators in an Hg contaminated lake might thus be an important management tool for reducing Hg levels in fish, thereby reducing health risk to humans.

  19. Atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations and wet and dry deposition of mercury at a high-altitude mountain peak in south China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available China is regarded as the largest contributor of mercury (Hg to the global atmospheric Hg budget. However, concentration levels and depositions of atmospheric Hg in China are poorly known. Continuous measurements of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM were carried out from May 2008 to May 2009 at the summit of Mt. Leigong in south China. Wet and dry deposition fluxes of Hg were also calculated following collection of precipitation, throughfall and litterfall. Atmospheric TGM concentrations averaged 2.80±1.51 ng m−3, which was highly elevated compared to global background values but much lower than semi-rural and industrial/urban areas in China, indicating great emissions of Hg in central, south and southwest China. Seasonal and diurnal variations of TGM were observed, which reflected variations in source intensity, deposition processes and meteorological factors. Wet deposition of Hg was quite low, while its dry deposition of Hg (litterfall + throughfall-direct wet deposition constituted a major portion of total deposition (~88% for total mercury (THg and 84% for methyl mercury (MeHg. This highlights the importance of vegetation to Hg atmospheric cycling. In a remote forest ecosystem of China, dry deposition of TGM, especially gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, was very important for the depletion of atmospheric Hg. Elevated TGM level in ambient air may accelerate the foliar uptake of Hg through air which may partly explain the elevated Hg dry deposition fluxes observed in Mt. Leigong.

  20. Hair cortisol concentration is unaffected by basic military training, but related to sociodemographic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Maria; Sefidan, Sandra; Annen, Hubert; Ehlert, Ulrike; Roos, Lilian; Van Uum, Stan; Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; La Marca, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a promising new biomarker for retrospective measurement of chronic stress. The effect of basic military training (BMT) on chronic stress has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 10-week BMT on HCC, while further exploring the role of known and novel covariates. Young healthy male recruits of the Swiss Army participated twice, 10 weeks apart, in data collection (1st examination: n = 177; 2nd examination: n = 105). On two occasions, we assessed HCC, perceived stress and different candidate variables that may affect HCC (e.g. socioeconomic status, meteorological data). Military training increased perceived stress from the first to the second examination, but did not affect HCC. In line with this, there was no correlation between HCC and perceived stress ratings. This could be interpreted as a missing influence of mainly physical stress (e.g. exercise) on HCC. In contrast, significant correlations were found between HCC and ambient temperature, humidity and education. Future studies should control for meteorological data and educational status when examining HCC.

  1. Metal concentrations in hair of patients with various head and neck cancers as a diagnostic aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Anna; Napierala, Marta; Golasik, Magdalena; Herman, Małgorzata; Walas, Stanisław; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Szyfter, Witold; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Golusinski, Wojciech; Baralkiewicz, Danuta; Florek, Ewa

    2016-02-01

    Head and neck cancers are one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. This paper attempts to evaluate disturbances of homeostasis of the necessary elements (calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese) and changes in the levels of toxic metals (lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium VI) in hair of patients with head and neck cancers, as well as people without a diagnosed neoplastic disease. In order to quantify the necessary elements and toxic metals, a method using ICP-MS and ICP-OES techniques had been developed and validated. The studies have shown that patients with head and neck cancer used to drink alcohol and smoked much more frequently than healthy individuals, both in the past and presently. Statistically significant differences in concentrations of average metal content in the group of patients with head and neck cancers compared to the control group were confirmed. Significant differences in metal content between the group of patients with head and neck cancers and healthy individuals were found which enabled distinguishing between the study groups. To this end, a more advanced statistical tool, i.e. chemometrics, was used. The conducted research analyses and the use of advanced statistical techniques confirm the benefits of using alternative material to distinguish the patients with head and neck cancers from the healthy individuals.

  2. Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Mercury and Selenium Concentrations in Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from the New Jersey Pine Barrens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Zappalorti, Robert; Pittfield, Taryn; DeVito, Emile

    2017-05-01

    Top trophic level predators are at risk from bioaccumulation of heavy metals from their prey. Using nondestructively collected tissues as a method of assessing metal concentrations in snakes is useful for populations that are threatened or declining. This paper reports concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in tissues of Northern pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from the New Jersey Pine Barrens, a relatively pristine, undisturbed habitat. We also determined if skin is an appropriate indicator of internal concentrations and identified the factors (tissue, year of collection, length, sex) that might explain variations in metal concentrations. Because they can grow to 2-m long and live for 25 years, we suggest that these snakes might accumulate heavy metals. Multiple regression models were significant, explaining 16% (lead) to 61% (mercury) of variation by tissue type. For mercury and chromium, size also was significant. The highest concentrations were in liver and kidney for all metals, except chromium and lead. Mercury concentrations in tissues were within the range reported for other snakes and were below effects concentrations in reptiles. The concentrations in skin were correlated with all internal tissues for mercury and for all internal tissues except heart for cadmium. These data show that shed skin can be used as an indicator of metals in pine snakes and that, at present, concentrations of heavy metals in this population are within the range of those found in other snake species from uncontaminated sites.

  3. Seasonal variability of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of Acer platanoides and Tilia platyphyllos in central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of maple (Acer platanoides-Ap) and linden (Tilia platyphyllos-Tp) collected in four periods of the growing season of trees, i.e. in April (IV), June (VI), August (VIII) and November (IX) in 2013, from the area of Poznań city (Poland). The highest average concentration of mercury for 88 samples was determined in soils and it equaled 65.8 ± 41.7 ng g(-1) (range 14.5-238.9 ng g(-1)); lower average concentration was found in Ap samples (n = 66): 55.4 ± 18.1 ng g(-1) (range 26.5-106.9 ng g(-1)); in Tp samples 50.4 ± 15.8 ng g(-1) (range 23.1-88.7 ng g(-1)) and in 22 samples of Tp buds 40.8 ± 22.7 ng g(-1) (range 12.4-98.7 ng g(-1)) and Ap buds 28.2 ± 13.6 ng g(-1) (range 8.0-59.5 ng g(-1)). Based on the obtained results, it was observed that the highest concentration of mercury in soils occurred in the centre of Poznań city (95.5 ± 39.1 ng g(-1)), and it was two times higher than the concentration of mercury in other parts of the city. Similar dependencies were not observed for the leaf samples of Ap and Tp. It was found that mercury concentrations in the soil and leaves of maple and linden were different depending on the period of the growing season (April to November). Mercury content in the examined samples was higher in the first two research periods (April IV, June VI), and then, in the following periods, the accumulation of mercury decreased both in soil and leaf samples of the two tree species. There was no correlation found between mercury concentration in leaves and mercury concentration in soils during the four research periods (April-November). When considering the transfer coefficient, it was observed that the main source of mercury in leaves is the mercury coming from the atmosphere.

  4. Mercury content in marketed cosmetics: analytical survey in Shijiazhuang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is one of the skin-lightening ingredients in cosmetics as mercury ions are thought to inhibit the synthesis of the skin pigment melanin in melanocyte cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mercury levels of cosmetics currently marketed in Shijiazhuang, a northern city in China. We collected 146 random cosmetic samples and analyzed for mercury concentrations or levels by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Among the 146 samples, 134 (91.8%) were positive for mercury, and the concentrations of mercury ranged from not detectable to 592 ng/g. Cosmetic samples for children and babies had the highest detection rate (100%), followed by shampoo and hair conditioner (92.3%) and skin-lightening cream (92.0%). All of them were lower than the acceptable limit (1 μg/g) in China. Cosmetics for skin had the highest mean mercury content (45 ng/g), followed by hair products (42.1 ng/g). The concentrations of mercury detected in samples were lower than the current legal limit in China, indicating it may not pose a risk to consumers.

  5. An analytical protocol for the determination of total mercury concentrations in solid peat samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos-Barraclough, F; Givelet, N; Martinez-Cortizas, A

    2002-01-01

    and Pseudevernia furfuracea) are particularly efficient Hg retainers. The disproportionally high Hg concentrations in these species can cause considerable variation in Hg concentrations within a peat slice. The variation of water content (1.6% throughout 17-cm core, 0.97% in a 10 x 10 cm slice), bulk density (40...... AMA 254, capable of determining mercury concentrations in solid samples. Finally, an analytical protocol for the determination of Hg concentrations in solid peat samples is proposed. This method allows correction for variation in factors such as vegetation type, bulk density, water content and Hg...... concentration in individual peat slices. Several subsamples from each peat slice are air dried, combined and measured for Hg using the AMA254, using a program of 30 s (drying), 125 s (decomposition) and 45 s (waiting). Bulk density and water content measurements are performed on every slice using separate...

  6. The lifetime experience of traumatic events is associated with hair cortisol concentrations in community-based children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Julian G; Badcock, Paul B; Whittle, Sarah L; Byrne, Michelle L; Mundy, Lisa; Patton, George C; Olsson, Craig A; Allen, Nicholas B

    2016-01-01

    Adversity early in life can disrupt the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and increase risk for negative health outcomes. Recent research suggests that cortisol in scalp hair represents a promising measure of HPAA function. However, little is known about the relationship between early exposure to traumatic events and hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in childhood, a critical period of HPAA development. The current study measured HCC in scalp hair samples collected from 70 community-based children (14 males, mean age=9.50) participating in the Imaging Brain Development in the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (iCATS). Data were also collected on lifetime exposure to traumatic events and current depressive symptoms. Lifetime exposure to trauma was associated with elevated HCC; however, HCC was not associated with current depressive symptoms. Consistent with some prior work, males were found to have higher HCC than females, although results should be treated with caution due to the small number of males who took part. Our findings suggest that hair cortisol may represent a biomarker of exposure to trauma in this age group; however, further study is necessary with a particular focus on the characterization of trauma and other forms of adversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurements of atmospheric mercury concentrations in Northwestern and Central Europe - comparison of experimental data and model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinghaus, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany); Kock, H.H. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany); Jennings, S.G. [University Coll., Galway (Ireland); McCartin, P. [University Coll., Galway (Ireland); Orren, M.J. [University Coll., Galway (Ireland)

    1995-12-31

    Field experiments were carried out at various sites in Europe to compare ambient air and precipitation concentrations of atmospheric mercury with model data. In addition, ozone and aerosol black carbon concentrations in air were measured simultaneously as input data for validation of the EMEP-based European long-range transport model. Data sets for mercury in air and precipitation, ozone and aerosol black carbon show that the selcted sites range from background conditions for Northwestern Europe to regionally influenced air masses from heavily industrialized Central Europe. Measured 12 h average mercury concentrations in air range from 2.1 ng m{sup -3} for Mace Head, Ireland to 8.2 ng m{sup -3} for the Halle/Leipzig/Bitterfeld area in former German Democratic Republic. Precipitation concentrations of total mercury from 17 to 460 ng l{sup -1} were measured from 1991 to 1993 for the same sites. Experimental data and model results for total geaseous mercury and mercury in precipitation are in good agreement. (orig.)

  8. A Comparison of Mathematical Models of Fish Mercury Concentration as a Function of Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Rate and Watershed Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Moore, R. B.; Shanley, J. B.; Miller, E. K.; Kamman, N. C.; Nacci, D.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish and aquatic wildlife are complex functions of atmospheric Hg deposition rate, terrestrial and aquatic watershed characteristics that influence Hg methylation and export, and food chain characteristics determining Hg bioaccumulation. Because of the complexity and incomplete understanding of these processes, regional-scale models of fish tissue Hg concentration are necessarily empirical in nature, typically constructed through regression analysis of fish tissue Hg concentration data from many sampling locations on a set of potential explanatory variables. Unless the data sets are unusually long and show clear time trends, the empirical basis for model building must be based solely on spatial correlation. Predictive regional scale models are highly useful for improving understanding of the relevant biogeochemical processes, as well as for practical fish and wildlife management and human health protection. Mechanistically, the logical arrangement of explanatory variables is to multiply each of the individual Hg source terms (e.g. dry, wet, and gaseous deposition rates, and residual watershed Hg) for a given fish sampling location by source-specific terms pertaining to methylation, watershed transport, and biological uptake for that location (e.g. SO4 availability, hill slope, lake size). This mathematical form has the desirable property that predicted tissue concentration will approach zero as all individual source terms approach zero. One complication with this form, however, is that it is inconsistent with the standard linear multiple regression equation in which all terms (including those for sources and physical conditions) are additive. An important practical disadvantage of a model in which the Hg source terms are additive (rather than multiplicative) with their modifying factors is that predicted concentration is not zero when all sources are zero, making it unreliable for predicting the effects of large future reductions in

  9. Mercury concentration in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae and its parasite the crustacean Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora C. Lins

    Full Text Available Fish parasites can accumulate heavy metals reaching higher concentrations than the host and may affect the host's bioaccumulation. The present study compared total mercury concentration in the liver and muscle of Cyphocharax gilbert and in the parasite Riggia paranensis sampled in the middle Itabapoana River, Brazil, also considering the reproductive stages of both fish and parasite. Mean concentrations of mercury in muscle of fish varied from 20.8 ng.g-1 in mature females to 38.1 ng.g-1 in post-spawning females. The mean concentrations in fish liver varied from 60.9 ng/g in post-spawning females to 110.4 ng.g-1 in infested males. The mean concentration of mercury in parasites varied from 26.2 ng.g-1 in specimens carrying early embryo to 39.5 ng.g-1 in specimens with eggs. Positive and significant associations (P<0.05 were found between the total mercury concentrations in parasites and muscle of host (both females and males, and between concentrations in parasites and in the liver of male hosts. These results suggest that R. paranensis can be used to indicate mercury levels in edible parts of C. gilbert.

  10. Mercury Concentration in the Tissue of Terrestrial Arthropods from the Central California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, C.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of this project was to obtain a baseline understanding and investigate the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the tissue of arthropods in coastal California. This region receives significant input of fog which may contain enhanced levels of Hg. Currently there is a lack of data on Hg concentration in the tissue of arthropods (Insecta, Malacostraca, and Arachnida). The sample collection sites were Elkhorn Slough Estuarine Reserve in Moss Landing, and the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) campus. Samples collected between February and March, 2012 had total Hg (HgT) concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 27 - 39 ng/g in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera Stenopelmatidae); 80 - 110 ng/g in the camel cricket (Orthoptera Rhaphidophoridae); 21 - 219 ng/g in the ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae); 100 - 228 ng/g in the pill bug (Isopoda Armadillidiidae); and 285 - 423 ng/g in the wolf spider (Araneae Lycosidae). Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in dry weight were determine to be 4.3 -28.2 ng/g for the ground beetle; 45.5 - 87.8 ng/g for the pill bug, and 252.3 - 293.7 ng/g for the wolf spider. Samples collected in July, 2012 had HgT concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 110 - 168 ng/g in the camel cricket; 337 - 562 ng/g in the ground beetle; 25 - 227 ng/g in the pill bug; and 228 - 501 ng/g in the wolf spider. The preliminary data revealed an 18% increase in the concentration of HgT for wolf spiders, and a 146% increase for ground beetles in the summer when compared to those concentrations measured in the spring. It is hypothesized that coastal fog may be a contributor to this increase of Hg concentration in coastal California arthropods.

  11. Landscape factors and hydrology influence mercury concentrations in wading birds breeding in the Florida Everglades, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T; Gawlik, Dale E; Beerens, James M

    2013-08-01

    The hydrology of wetland ecosystems is a key driver of both mercury (Hg) methylation and waterbird foraging ecology, and hence may play a fundamental role in waterbird exposure and risk to Hg contamination. However, few studies have investigated hydrological factors that influence waterbird Hg exposure. We examined how several landscape-level hydrological variables influenced Hg concentrations in great egret and white ibis adults and chicks in the Florida Everglades. The great egret is a visual "exploiter" species that tolerates lower prey densities and is less sensitive to hydrological conditions than is the white ibis, which is a tactile "searcher" species that pursues higher prey densities in shallow water. Mercury concentrations in adult great egrets were most influenced by the spatial region that they occupied in the Everglades (higher in the southern region); whereas the number of days a site was dry during the previous dry season was the most important factor influencing Hg concentrations in adult ibis (Hg concentrations increased with the number of days dry). In contrast, Hg concentrations in egret chicks were most influenced by calendar date (increasing with date), whereas Hg concentrations in ibis chicks were most influenced by chick age, region, and water recession rate (Hg concentrations decreased with age, were higher in the southern regions, and increased with positive water recession rates). Our results indicate that both recent (preceding two weeks) hydrological conditions, and those of the prior year, influence Hg concentrations in wading birds. Further, these results suggest that Hg exposure in wading birds is driven by complex relationships between wading bird behavior and life stage, landscape hydrologic patterns, and biogeochemical processes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Mercury concentrations in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) correlate with environmental and landscape characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, Madeline A; Driscoll, Charles T; Schulz, Kimberly L; Schlaepfer, Martin A

    2011-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) deposited onto the landscape can be transformed into methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates up the aquatic food chain. Here, we report on Hg concentrations in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) across New York State, USA. The objectives of this study were to: (1) test which landscape, water, and biometric characteristics correlate with total Hg (THg) concentrations in snapping turtles; and (2) determine whether soft tissue THg concentrations correlate with scute (shell) concentrations. Forty-eight turtles were sampled non-lethally from ten lakes and wetlands across New York to observe patterns under a range of ecosystem variables and water chemistry conditions. THg concentrations ranged from 0.041 to 1.50 μg/g and 0.47 to 7.43 μg/g wet weight of muscle tissue and shell, respectively. The vast majority of mercury (~94%) was in the MeHg form. Sixty-one percent of turtle muscle samples exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) consumption advisory limit of 0.3 μg Hg/g for fish. Muscle THg concentrations were significantly correlated with sulfate in water and the maximum elevation of the watershed. Shell THg concentrations were significantly correlated with the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of water, the maximum elevation of the watershed, the percent open water in the watershed, the lake to watershed size, and various forms of atmospheric Hg deposition. Thus, our results demonstrate that THg concentrations in snapping turtles are spatially variable, frequently exceed advisory limits, and are significantly correlated with several landscape and water characteristics.

  13. Strong Correlation Between Concentrations of Tenofovir (TFV) Emtricitabine (FTC) in Hair and TFV Diphosphate and FTC Triphosphate in Dried Blood Spots in the iPrEx Open Label Extension: Implications for Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Adherence Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Monica; Glidden, David V; Liu, Albert; Anderson, Peter L; Horng, Howard; Defechereux, Patricia; Guanira, Juan V; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Grant, Robert M

    2015-11-01

    Self-reported adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has limitations, raising interest in pharmacologic monitoring. Drug concentrations in hair and dried blood spots (DBS) are used to assess long-term-exposure; hair shipment/storage occurs at room temperature. The iPrEx Open Label Extension collected DBS routinely, with opt-in hair collection; concentrations were measured with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In 806 hair-DBS pairs, tenofovir (TFV) hair levels and TFV diphosphate (DP) in DBS were strongly correlated (Spearman coefficient r = 0.734; P hair TFV/DBS emtricitabine (FTC) triphosphate (TP) (r = 0.781; P hair FTC/DBS TFV-DP (r = 0.74; P hair FTC/DBS FTC-TP (r = 0.587; P Hair TFV/FTC concentrations correlate strongly with DBS levels, which are predictive of PrEP outcomes.

  14. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity in generalized anxiety disorder, major depression and their comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Wichmann, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Hilbert, Kevin; Muehlhan, Markus; Lueken, Ulrike; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating cortisol secretion in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have reported heterogeneous findings. Further, current knowledge on the specificity of endocrine changes for GAD and/or comorbid major depression (MD) is limited. Hence, the current study investigated long-term integrated cortisol secretion, as indexed by hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity in relation to GAD, MD and their comorbidity. Carefully characterized groups of 17 GAD patients including 8 with comorbid MD (GAD-MD), 12 MD patients and 21 healthy controls were recruited. Alongside psychometric data, HCC (N = 43) and salivary cortisol stress reactivity in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (N = 45) were determined. Findings revealed that MD patients exhibited lower HCC compared to controls and GAD patients, with no differences between the latter two groups. Interestingly, when the GAD group was separated into two groups based on MD comorbidity, lower HCC in MD patients were found compared to controls and GAD-noMD patients, but did not show differences when compared to GAD-MD patients. No HCC differences were seen between GAD-MD or GAD-noMD patients and healthy controls. No TSST group differences emerged. Our findings suggest MD to be related to long-term attenuation in cortisol secretion. While no group differences emerged between patients with GAD, neither with nor without MD, and controls, the current results provide tentative evidence that MD determines long-term endocrine changes, with pure GAD showing a distinct pattern. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in larger samples of pure and comorbid groups.

  15. DDE, PCBs, cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations in rhinoceros auklets from Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Fitzner, R.E.; Leschner, L.L.; Wilson, U.W.

    1999-01-01

    In July 1981, 5 adult rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) were captured on the ground near nesting areas on each of Protection and Destruction Islands, Washington. The birds were euthanized, and their livers and kidneys removed and analyzed. Levels (I?g / g wet weight) of DDE (0.11 to 0.95), polychlorinated biphenyls (no residue detected [ND] to 1.1), mercury (0.60 to 1.8), and lead (ND to 0.85) in livers and cadmium (9.1 to 21.9) in kidneys were similar in each colony. All concentrations were less than known effect levels.

  16. Photo yellowing of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A C S; Richena, M; Dicelio, L E; Joekes, I

    2007-09-25

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white, dark-brown, blond and red hair. All hair types showed a substantial change in yellowness after irradiation, which is dependent on the hair type and radiation wavelength. Surprisingly, white hair turns less yellow after both full and UVB-filtered radiation exposure. This effect is more pronounced when UVB is filtered from the radiation system. The only radiation that shows a photo-yellowing effect on white hair is infrared. As the yellowness of white hair is commonly related to tryptophan degradation, fluorescence experiments with hair solutions were performed to identify the natural degradation of tryptophan which occurs in hair after light irradiation. Pigmented hairs were also studied, as well as hair treated with a bleaching solution. Although we observe a decrease in tryptophan content of hair after lamp radiation, a direct correlation with hair yellowness was not achieved. Results are discussed in terms of hair type, composition and melanin content.

  17. Comparison of two measurement methods of dissolved gaseous mercury concentrations and estimations of supersaturation grade and mercury fluxes during a research campaign at the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerentorp M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM concentrations and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations were measured during an oceanographic campaign in the Mediterranean Sea. The DGM concentrations were measured using two different methods, a manual- and an automated method. The manual method was used to obtain DGM depth profiles at several stations throughout the campaign. The automated device measured DGM concentrations continuously at a depth of 4 m. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations in air were measured continuously at the bridge deck. The objectives were to achieve DGM depth profiles, compare the manual- and automated DGM measurement methods, to calculate the supersaturation grades of the sea and the evasional fluxes from the sea surface. Depth profiles of the four measured stations show no diurnal variations. The manual- and the automated method show good compliance. Supersaturation grades are high due to high DGM values and low GEM concentrations. Fluxes of Hg from the sea surface are more dependent on the wind speed than on the supersaturation grade according to the flux models used.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Genes Related to Renal Mercury Concentrations in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkaissi, Hammoudi; Ekstrand, Jimmy; Jawad, Aksa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following human mercury (Hg) exposure, the metal accumulates with considerable concentrations in kidney, liver, and brain. Although the toxicokinetics of Hg has been studied extensively, factors responsible for inter-individual variation in humans are largely unknown. Differences...... in accumulation of renal Hg between inbred mouse strains suggest a genetic inter-strain variation regulating retention or/and excretion of Hg. A.SW, DBA/2 and BALB/C mouse strains accumulate higher amounts of Hg than B10.S. OBJECTIVES: To find candidate genes associated with regulation of renal Hg concentrations...... enhanced by the Pprc1 (Nrf1 and Nrf2) were included for gene expression analysis. RESULTS: Renal Hg concentrations differed significantly between A.SW and B10.S mice and between males and females within each strain. QTL analysis showed a peak logarithm of odds ratio score 5.78 on chromosome 19 (p = 0...

  19. Changes in concentrations of selenium and mercury in largemouth bass following elimination of fly ash discharge to a quarry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, G R; Peterson, M J; Turner, R R

    1994-07-01

    Elimination of slurried fly ash discharges to a water-filled quarry was followed by a steady increase in concentrations of mercury in the axial muscle of resident largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Average mercury concentrations in bass (adjusted for covariance with fish weight) increased from 0.02 micrograms/g to 0.17 micrograms/g in three years. Aqueous selenium concentrations in the quarry decreased from 25 micrograms/L to < 2 micrograms/L after elimination of fly ash discharges, but selenium concentrations in bass remained about three times background levels. Previous studies have shown selenium addition to be a viable means of ameliorating mercury contamination in fish in low alkalinity, low pH waters of northern Europe and Canada. These results suggest that selenium may also be effective at blocking the accumulation of methylmercury in harder, more alkaline waters.

  20. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were literature and, among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  1. Mercury concentrations in fish from a Sierra Nevada foothill reservoir located downstream from historic gold-mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K; Martin, Barbara A; May, Thomas W; Alpers, Charles N

    2010-04-01

    This study examined mercury concentrations in whole fish from Camp Far West Reservoir, an 830-ha reservoir in northern California, USA, located downstream from lands mined for gold during and following the Gold Rush of 1848-1864. Total mercury (reported as dry weight concentrations) was highest in spotted bass (mean, 0.93 microg/g; range, 0.16-4.41 microg/g) and lower in bluegill (mean, 0.45 microg/g; range, 0.22-1.96 microg/g) and threadfin shad (0.44 microg/g; range, 0.21-1.34 microg/g). Spatial patterns for mercury in fish indicated high concentrations upstream in the Bear River arm and generally lower concentrations elsewhere, including downstream near the dam. These findings coincided with patterns exhibited by methylmercury in water and sediment, and suggested that mercury-laden inflows from the Bear River were largely responsible for contaminating the reservoir ecosystem. Maximum concentrations of mercury in all three fish species, but especially bass, were high enough to warrant concern about toxic effects in fish and consumers of fish.

  2. Signs and symptoms of mercury-exposed gold miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Bernaudat, Ludovic; Siebert, Uwe; Roider, Gabriele; Nowak, Dennis; Drasch, Gustav

    2017-03-30

    Gold miners use mercury to extract gold from ore adding liquid mercury to the milled gold-containing ore. This results in a mercury-gold compound, called amalgam. Miners smelt this amalgam to obtain gold, vaporizing it and finally inhaling the toxic mercury fumes. The objective was to merge and analyze data from different projects, to identify typical signs and symptoms of chronic inorganic mercury exposure. Miners and community members from various artisanal small-scale gold mining areas had been examined (Philippines, Mongolia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Indonesia). Data of several health assessments were pooled. Urine, blood and hair samples were analyzed for mercury (N = 1252). Questionnaires, standardized medical examinations and neuropsychological tests were used. Participants were grouped into: Controls (N = 209), living in an exposed area (N = 408), working with mercury as panners (N = 181), working with mercury as amalgam burners (N = 454). Chi2 test, linear trend test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation coefficient, Spearman's rho, and analysis of variance tests were used. An algorithm was used to define participants with chronic mercury intoxication. Mean mercury concentrations in all exposed subgroups were elevated and above threshold limits, with amalgam burners showing highest levels. Typical symptoms of chronic metallic mercury intoxication were tremor, ataxia, coordination problems, excessive salivation and metallic taste. Participants from the exposed groups showed poorer results in different neuropsychological tests in comparison to the control group. Fifty-four percent of the high-exposed group (amalgam burners) were diagnosed as being mercury-intoxicated, compared to 0% within the control group (Chi2 p mercury intoxication, with tremor, ataxia and other neurological symptoms together with a raised body burden of mercury was clinically diagnosed in exposed people in artisanal small-scale mining areas. The mercury exposure needs to be

  3. Effect of pH, sulphate concentration and total organic carbon on mercury accumulation in sediments in the Volta Lake at Yeji, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Voegborlo, R B; Adimado, A A; Ephraim, J H; Nriagu, J O

    2012-03-01

    In this study, pH, total organic carbon, sulphate concentration and mercury concentrations of sediment samples from the Volta Lake at Yeji in the northern part of Ghana were determined. The results indicate that pH ranged from 6.32 to 8.21, total organic carbon ranged from 0.17 to 3.02 g/kg and sulphate concentration from 10.00 to 57.51 mg/kg. Total mercury concentrations ranged from 32.61 to 700 ng/g which is below the International Atomic Energy Agency recommended value of 810 ng/g. Humic substance-bound mercury ranged from 81.15 to 481.31 mg/kg in sediments and its two fractions existed as humic acid-bound mercury > fulvic acid-bound mercury with the ratio of humic substance-bound mercury to fulvic acid-bound mercury as 1.62 on the average. Humic substance-bound mercury and the two fractions fulvic acid-bound mercury and humic substance-bound mercury in sediments were favorably determined and found to correlate significantly positive with total organic carbon (r = 0.538) and total mercury (r = 0.574). However, there were poor correlations between SO(4) (2-) concentrations and humic substance-bound mercury (r = -0.391) as well as the two fractions; fulvic acid (r = -0.406) and humic acid (r = -0.381). By assuming that methyl mercury is mostly formed in sediments, these significant relations suggest that the efficiency of mercury being methylated from a given inorganic form depends on the amount, and most likely biochemical composition of total organic carbon in the lake sediment but not the SO(4) (2-) concentration.

  4. Mercury, monomethyl mercury, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in surface water entering and exiting constructed wetlands treated with metal-based coagulants, Twitchell Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpner, Elizabeth B.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Hansen, Angela M.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Horwath, William R.; DeWild, John F.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Bachand, Philip A.M.

    2015-09-02

    Coagulation with metal-based salts is a practice commonly employed by drinking-water utilities to decrease particle and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in water. In addition to decreasing dissolved organic carbon concentrations, the effectiveness of iron- and aluminum-based coagulants for decreasing dissolved concentrations both of inorganic and monomethyl mercury in water was demonstrated in laboratory studies that used agricultural drainage water from the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of California. To test the effectiveness of this approach at the field scale, nine 15-by-40‑meter wetland cells were constructed on Twitchell Island that received untreated water from island drainage canals (control) or drainage water treated with polyaluminum chloride or ferric sulfate coagulants. Surface-water samples were collected approximately monthly during November 2012–September 2013 from the inlets and outlets of the wetland cells and then analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey for total concentrations of mercury and monomethyl mercury in filtered (less than 0.3 micrometers) and suspended-particulate fractions and for concentrations of dissolved organic carbon.

  5. The interaction rainfall vs. weight as determinant of total mercury concentration in fish from a tropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, M; Lucena, L R R; Costa, M F; Barbosa-Cintra, S C T; Cysneiros, F J A

    2012-08-01

    Mercury loads in tropical estuaries are largely controlled by the rainfall regime that may cause biodilution due to increased amounts of organic matter (both live and non-living) in the system. Top predators, as Trichiurus lepturus, reflect the changing mercury bioavailability situations in their muscle tissues. In this work two variables [fish weight (g) and monthly total rainfall (mm)] are presented as being important predictors of total mercury concentration (T-Hg) in fish muscle. These important explanatory variables were identified by a Weibull Regression model, which best fit the dataset. A predictive model using readily available variables as rainfall is important, and can be applied for human and ecological health assessments and decisions. The main contribution will be to further protect vulnerable groups as pregnant women and children. Nature conservation directives could also improve by considering monitoring sample designs that include this hypothesis, helping to establish complete and detailed mercury contamination scenarios.

  6. Analysis of mercury, selenium, and tin concentrations in canned fish marketed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S V; Aflaki, F; Sobhanardakani, S; Tayebi, L; Lashkan, A Babakhani; Regenstein, J M

    2013-08-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment could constitute a hazard to food security and public health. These can be accumulated in aquatic animals such as fish. In the present paper, three heavy metals (mercury, selenium, and tin) in canned products produced and sold in Iran were studied: longtail tuna, Kawakawa, Kilka, and yellowfin tuna were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and a direct mercury analyzer. Analytical results were validated by spiking the samples with various concentrations of these metals to test recovery. The metal contents, expressed in micrograms per gram, wet weight, varied depending upon the species studied. The levels of Hg ranged from 0.0003 to 0.408 μg/g, the levels of Sn ranged from 0.036 to 0.480 μg/g, while the levels of Se ranged from 0.130 to 4.500 μg/g. Comparative evaluation of these metals in different brands of canned fish showed that the average concentrations of Hg, Sn, and Se of all species is significantly lower than adverse level for the species themselves and for human consumption when compared with FAO/WHO permissible limits. Therefore, their contribution to the total body burden of these heavy metals can be considered as negligibly small.

  7. The Feasibility of Using Lead in Hair Concentration in Monitoring Environmental Exposure in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibowo, A.A.E.; Brunekreef, B.; Lebret, E.; Pieters, H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of lead in hair as an indicator of lead exposure has been compared to that of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin in blood levels in 1-3 year-old children living within 1 km of a lead smelter. Lead exposure was measured as lead in house dust, outdoor and indoor lead in air

  8. Sexual difference in mercury concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Keir, M.J.; Whittle, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We determined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 50 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 69 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). Results showed that, on average, males were 8% higher in Hg concentration than females in Lake Ontario. We also used bioenergetics modeling to determine whether a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) could explain the observed sexual difference in Hg concentrations. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, male GGE was about 3% higher than female GGE, on average. Although the bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher Hg concentrations exhibited by the males, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in Hg concentrations of the lake trout. In an earlier study, male lake trout from Lake Ontario were found to be 22% higher in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration than females from Lake Ontario. Thus, although males were higher in both Hg and PCB concentrations, the degree of the sexual difference in concentration varied between the two contaminants. Further research on sexual differences in Hg excretion rates and Hg direct uptake rates may be needed to resolve the disparity in results between the two contaminants.

  9. Elevated mercury exposure in communities living alongside the Inanda Dam, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papu-Zamxaka, Vathiswa; Mathee, Angela; Harpham, Trudy; Barnes, Brendon; Röllin, Halina; Lyons, Michal; Jordaan, Wikus; Cloete, Marthinus

    2010-02-01

    Mercury is a persistent heavy metal that has been associated with damage to the central nervous system, including hearing and speech impairment, visual constriction and loss of muscle control. In aquatic environments mercury may be methylated to its most toxic form, methyl-mercury. In 1990 concerns were raised over mercury contamination in the vicinity of a mercury processing plant in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Mercury waste was reported to have been discharged into the Mngceweni River, situated in close proximity to the plant. The Mngceweni River joins the uMgeni River, which in turn flows into the Inanda Dam, along the banks of which several villages are located. This study evaluated the mercury levels in river and dam sediments, fish from the Inanda Dam and hair samples collected from residents of three villages along the banks of the Inanda Dam. The study results showed that 50% of the fish samples and 17% of hair samples collected from villagers had mercury concentrations that exceeded guideline levels of the World Health Organization. Mercury concentrations in 62% of the river sediment samples collected in close proximity to the former mercury processing plant exceeded the level at which remedial action is required according to legislation in the Netherlands. These preliminary findings give reasons for concern and should be used as a baseline for further investigations.

  10. Gaseous elemental mercury concentration in atmosphere at urban and remote sites in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhang-wei; CHEN Zuo-shuai; DUAN Ning; ZHANG Xiao-shan

    2007-01-01

    An investigation of gaseous elemental mercury concentration in atmosphere was conducted at Beijing and Guangzhou urban, Yangtze Delta regional sites and China Global Atmosphere Watch Baseline Observatory (CGAWBO) in Mt. Waliguan of remote continental area of China. High temporal resolved data were obtained using automated mercury analyzer RA-915+. Results showed that the overall hourly mean Hg0 concentrations in Mt. Waliguan were 1.7± 1.1 ng/m3 in summer and 0.6±0.08 ng/m3 in winter. The concentration in Yangtze Delta regional site was 5.4±4.1 ng/m3, which was much higher than those in Waliguan continental background area and also higher than that found in North America and Europe rural areas. In Beijing urban area the overall hourly mean Hg0 concentrations were 8.3±3.6 ng/m3 in winter, 6.5±5.2 ng/m3 in spring, 4.9±3.3 ng/m3 in summer, and 6.7±3.5 ng/m3 in autumn, respectively, and the concentration was 13.5±7.1 ng/m3 in Guangzhou site. The mean concentration reached the lowest value at 14:00 and the highest at 02:00 or 20:00 in all monitoring campaigns in Beijing and Guangzhou urban areas, which contrasted with the results measured in Yangtze Delta regional site and Mt. Waliguan. The features of concentration and diurnal variation of Hg0 in Beijing and Guangzhou implied the importance of local anthropogenic sources in contributing to the high Hg0 concentration in urban areas of China. Contrary seasonal variation patterns of Hg0 concentration were found between urban and remote sites. In Beijing the highest Hg0concentration was in winter and the lowest in summer, while in Mt. Waliguan the Hg0 concentration in summer was higher than that in winter. These indicated that different processes and factors controlled Hg0 concentration in urban, regional and remote areas.

  11. Secondary poisoning of cadmium, copper and mercury: implications for the Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations in water, sediment and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit CE; Wezel AP van; Jager T; Traas TP; CSR

    2000-01-01

    The impact of secondary poisoning on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) of cadmium, copper and mercury in water, sediment and soil have been evaluated. Field data on accumulation of these elements by fish, mussels and earthworms were used to derive MPC

  12. Secondary poisoning of cadmium, copper and mercury: implications for the Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations in water, sediment and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit CE; Wezel AP van; Jager T; Traas TP; CSR

    2000-01-01

    The impact of secondary poisoning on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) of cadmium, copper and mercury in water, sediment and soil have been evaluated. Field data on accumulation of these elements by fish, mussels and earthworms were used to derive

  13. [Mercury poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  14. Mercury concentrations in water, and mercury and selenium concentrations in fish from Brownlee Reservoir and selected sites in Boise and Snake Rivers, Idaho and Oregon, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) analyses were conducted on samples of sport fish and water collected from six sampling sites in the Boise and Snake Rivers, and Brownlee Reservoir to meet National Pollution Discharge and Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements for the City of Boise, Idaho. A water sample was collected from each site during October and November 2013 by the City of Boise personnel and was analyzed by the Boise City Public Works Water Quality Laboratory. Total Hg concentrations in unfiltered water samples ranged from 0.73 to 1.21 nanograms per liter (ng/L) at five river sites; total Hg concentration was highest (8.78 ng/L) in a water sample from Brownlee Reservoir. All Hg concentrations in water samples were less than the EPA Hg chronic aquatic life criterion in Idaho (12 ng/L). The EPA recommended a water-quality criterion of 0.30 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) methylmercury (MeHg) expressed as a fish-tissue residue value (wet-weight MeHg in fish tissue). MeHg residue in fish tissue is considered to be equivalent to total Hg in fish muscle tissue and is referred to as Hg in this report. The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality adopted the EPA’s fish-tissue criterion and a reasonable potential to exceed (RPTE) threshold 20 percent lower than the criterion or greater than 0.24 mg/kg based on an average concentration of 10 fish from a receiving waterbody. NPDES permitted discharge to waters with fish having Hg concentrations exceeding 0.24 mg/kg are said to have a reasonable potential to exceed the water-quality criterion and thus are subject to additional permit obligations, such as requirements for increased monitoring and the development of a Hg minimization plan. The Idaho Fish Consumption Advisory Program (IFCAP) issues fish advisories to protect general and sensitive populations of fish consumers and has developed an action level of 0.22 mg/kg wet weight Hg in fish tissue. Fish consumption advisories are water body- and species-specific and are used to

  15. Serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations during the summer and winter hair growth cycles of mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J; Kennedy, M; Johnston, B; Foster, W

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) during initiation and development of summer and winter hair growth (anagen) cycles in mink. In the spring, haloperidol (HAL) increased PRL concentrations and induced summer anagen earlier than controls, whereas melatonin (MEL) inhibited PRL secretion and completely blocked summer anagen. In the fall, HAL increased PRL concentrations, inducing anagen at an earlier time than controls, although the resulting fur was abnormal being almost devoid of underhair fibers. Exogenous MEL during the fall reduced PRL concentrations, initiating winter anagen 4 weeks earlier than controls. Adrenalectomy (ADX) induced earlier onset of summer and winter anagen and neutralized the inhibitory effects of HAL in the fall and MEL in the spring. No change in serum DHEA concentrations was observed during the onset of summer or winter anagen in any group although MEL increased DHEA levels from 27 March through 5 June relative to HAL-treated mink. We conclude that changes in serum levels of DHEA and PRL are not requisite to onset of summer or winter anagen in mink. It is possible that metabolites of DHEA and/or PRL may still affect other aspects of the hair growth cycle.

  16. Why are hatching and emergence success low? Mercury and selenium concentrations in nesting leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) and their young in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Justin; Wyneken, Jeanette; Thompson, Larry J; Johnson, Chris; Miller, Debra L

    2011-08-01

    Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) have low hatching and emergence success compared to other sea turtle species. Postmortem examinations of hatchlings showed degeneration of heart and skeletal muscle that was similar to that found in other neonates with selenium deficient mothers. Selenium deficiency can result from elevated concentrations of bodily mercury. Ingested mercury is detoxified by the liver through mercury-selenium compound formation. In animals persistently exposed to mercury, the liver's ability to detoxify this element may decrease, especially if dietary selenium is insufficient. We measured mercury and selenium concentrations in nesting female leatherbacks and their hatchlings from Florida and compared the levels to hatching and emergence success. Both liver selenium and the liver selenium-to-mercury ratio positively correlated with leatherback hatching and emergence success. This study provides the first evidence for the roles of mercury and selenium in explaining low reproductive success in a globally imperiled species, the leatherback sea turtle.

  17. Mercury concentrations in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Patterns of spatial and temporal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Adam M; Titcomb, Elizabeth Murdoch; Fair, Patricia A; Stavros, Hui-Chen W; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Bossart, Gregory D; Reif, John S

    2015-08-15

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) have tissue mercury concentrations among the highest reported worldwide. Analysis of total mercury (THg) concentrations in blood collected between 2003 and 2012 showed a significant linear decrease over time (p=0.04). Significant differences in the spatial distribution of THg in resident IRL dolphins were also observed with a general gradient in concentration from north to south. Evaluation of local biogeochemistry and accumulation of mercury in prey species is needed to better understand factors influencing the distribution of Hg in the apex predator. Analyses of temporal and spatial patterns of exposure to THg in this sentinel species may have implications for both ecosystem and public health in the region.

  18. Comparison of endogenous GHB concentrations in blood and hair in death cases with emphasis on the post mortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound which has a story of clinical use and illicit abuse since the 1960's. The possibility to use a multi-sample approach for GHB evaluation, including whole blood and hair, to better characterize a forensic toxicology case and evaluate a possible causal association with the death is an exciting up-to-date issue. In addition, its post-mortem behaviour, namely regarding degradation and metabolism, has been increasingly investigated as a putative biomarker for post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. Thus, in order to contribute to clarification of this specific aspect, whole blood and hair post-mortem GHB levels were evaluated in 32 real cases with previous information on death and autopsy data. The results obtained suggest that the PMI (until 5 days between death and sampling) influences GHB whole blood concentration, but not GHB levels in hair samples. No differences were encountered for the other parameters evaluated, including age, gender, cause of death and presence or absence of substances. This study brings new insights regarding the usefulness of GHB levels in forensic toxicology, which might be further strengthened with larger, but comparable, studies from other laboratories and institutions in the context of legal medicine.

  19. An analytical protocol for the determination of total mercury concentrations in solid peat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos-Barraclough, F; Givelet, N; Martinez-Cortizas, A; Goodsite, M E; Biester, H; Shotyk, W

    2002-06-20

    Traditional peat sample preparation methods such as drying at high temperatures and milling may be unsuitable for Hg concentration determination in peats due to the possible presence of volatile Hg species, which could be lost during drying. Here, the effects of sample preparation and natural variation on measured Hg concentrations are investigated. Slight increases in mercury concentrations were observed in samples dried at room temperature and at 30 degrees C (6.7 and 2.48 ng kg(-1) h(-1), respectively), and slight decreases were observed in samples dried at 60, 90 and 105 degrees C (2.36, 3.12 and 8.52 ng kg(-1) h(-1), respectively). Fertilising the peat slightly increased Hg loss (3.08 ng kg(-1) h(-1) in NPK-fertilised peat compared to 0.28 ng kg(-1) h(-1) in unfertilised peat, when averaged over all temperatures used). Homogenising samples by grinding in a machine also caused a loss of Hg. A comparison of two Hg profiles from an Arctic peat core, measured in frozen samples and in air-dried samples, revealed that no Hg losses occurred upon air-drying. A comparison of Hg concentrations in several plant species that make up peat, showed that some species (Pinus mugo, Sphagnum recurvum and Pseudevernia furfuracea) are particularly efficient Hg retainers. The disproportionally high Hg concentrations in these species can cause considerable variation in Hg concentrations within a peat slice. The variation of water content (1.6% throughout 17-cm core, 0.97% in a 10 x 10 cm slice), bulk density (40% throughout 17-cm core, 15.6% in a 10 x 10 cm slice) and Hg concentration (20% in a 10 x 10 cm slice) in ombrotrophic peat were quantified in order to determine their relative importance as sources of analytical error. Experiments were carried out to determine a suitable peat analysis program using the Leco AMA 254, capable of determining mercury concentrations in solid samples. Finally, an analytical protocol for the determination of Hg concentrations in solid peat samples

  20. Lower than expected mercury concentration in piscivorous African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desta, Zerihun [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway) and Awassa University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 5, Awassa (Ethiopia)]. E-mail: zerihun.desta@gmail.com; Borgstrom, Reidar [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway); Rosseland, Bjorn Olav [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway); Dadebo, Elias [Awassa University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 5, Awassa (Ethiopia)

    2007-04-15

    The concentrations of total mercury (THg), stable isotopes of nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) and carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C), and the diet of the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in Lake Awassa, Ethiopia, were studied from January 2003 to February 2004. Values of the {delta}{sup 15}N were used as an index of trophic position in four length groups and compared to actual stomach contents. The diet of C. gariepinus within the length range of 201-600 mm L {sub T} mainly consisted of the small barb Barbus paludinosus, aquatic insects, and mollusks. The proportion of fish prey in the diet was 60% by volume, irrespective of fish size. The differences in {delta}{sup 15}N values of individuals within and between length classes were less than 3 per mille , and were not significantly related to total length, showing the similarity in trophic niche of the different sizes, which corresponded to recorded stomach contents. Mercury concentrations were in the range of 0.002-0.154 mg kg{sup -1} ww, and had no significant relationship to total length. Hence, even large specimens of C. gariepinus have Hg values below the WHO threshold of 0.2 mg kg{sup -1} ww. The slope of the regression line between log [Hg] and {delta}{sup 15}N was small, 0.06, indicating the absence of trophic shifts and biomagnification of Hg in larger specimens in our samples. The low Hg concentrations in C. gariepinus compared to the Hg concentrations in other piscivorous fish species in Lake Awassa, such as Barbus intermedius and B. paludinosus, may be due to its dependence on invertebrate preys at small size, diet switching towards low Hg prey fish at larger size, and growth biodilution owing to higher growth rate.

  1. Measuring total mercury due to small-scale gold mining activities to determine community vulnerability in Cihonje, Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mega M; Inoue, Takanobu; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yokota, Kuriko

    2016-01-01

    This research is comparative study of gold mining and non-gold mining areas, using four community vulnerability indicators. Vulnerability indicators are exposure degree, contamination rate, chronic, and acute toxicity. Each indicator used different samples, such as wastewater from gold mining process, river water from Tajum river, human hair samples, and health questionnaire. This research used cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry to determine total mercury concentration. The result showed that concentration of total mercury was 2,420 times than the maximum content of mercury permitted in wastewater based on the Indonesian regulation. Moreover, the mercury concentration in river water reached 685 ng/l, exceeding the quality threshold standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). The mercury concentration in hair samples obtained from the people living in the research location was considered to identify the health quality level of the people or as a chronic toxicity indicator. The highest mercury concentration--i.e. 17 ng/mg, was found in the gold mining respondents. Therefore, based on the total mercury concentration in the four indicators, the community in the gold mining area were more vulnerable to mercury than communities in non-gold mining areas. It was concluded that the community in gold mining area was more vulnerable to mercury contamination than the community in non-gold mining area.

  2. Mercury concentration in the feathers of birds from various trophic levels in Fereydunkenar International wetland (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpour, Mousa; Lan-Hai, Li; Ahmadpour, Mohsen; Hoseini, Seyed Hamid; Mashrofeh, Abdolreza; Binkowski, Łukasz J

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the main global pollutants that may biomagnify in food nets, especially in wetlands. Birds may be useful in the biomonitoring of Hg in such habitats and may even serve in vivo samples. This paper examined Hg concentration in the feathers of seven bird species foraging on Fereydunkenar International wetland (in 2013). Mean Hg concentrations found ranged from 0.005 ± 0.002 μg g(-1) d.w. (dry weight) (Common hoopoe) to 0.38 ± 0.047 μg g(-1) d.w. (Greylag goose). Significant differences in Hg concentrations were noted between bird species as well as between trophic levels (one-way ANOVAs, p  Northern pintail ≥ Gadwall ≥ Mallard > Eurasian bittern ≥ Little bittern > Common hoopoe. The position in the trophic chain significantly influenced Hg concentrations, which were the highest in omnivorous species. Hg concentrations may also depend on migration routes and breeding habitats, but the evaluation of the exposure exceeds the ambit of this paper. The Hg concentrations found generally were low, lower than the safe thresholds reported in the literature.

  3. Avian, salamander, and forest floor mercury concentrations increase with elevation in a terrestrial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Jason M; Driscoll, Charles T; Rimmer, Christopher C; McFarland, Kent P

    2014-01-01

    High-elevation ecosystems of the northeastern United States are vulnerable to deposition and environmental accumulation of atmospheric pollutants, yet little work has been done to assess mercury (Hg) concentrations in organisms occupying montane ecosystems. The authors present data on Hg concentrations in ground-foraging insectivorous songbirds, a terrestrial salamander, and forest floor horizons sampled along a forested elevational gradient from 185 m to 1273 m in the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA. Mean Hg concentrations in Catharus thrushes and the salamander Plethodon cinereus increased with elevation, as did Hg concentrations in all forest floor horizons. Mean Hg concentrations in organic soils at approximately 1200 m elevation (503.5 ± 17.7 ng/g, dry wt) were 4.4-fold greater than those at approximately 200 m. Montane ecosystems of the northeastern United States, and probably elsewhere, are exposed to higher levels of atmospheric Hg deposition as reflected in accumulation patterns in the forest floor and associated high-elevation fauna. This information can be used to parameterize and test Hg transport and bioaccumulation models of landscape-specific patterns and may serve as a monitoring tool for decision makers considering future controls on Hg emissions. Further investigation is needed into the potential effects of increased Hg concentrations on high-elevation fauna. © 2013 SETAC.

  4. Increased cortisol concentrations in hair of severely traumatized Ugandan individuals with PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Steudte, Susann; Kolassa, Iris; Stalder, Tobias; Pfeiffer, Anett; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Elbert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has mostly suggested general hypocortisolism in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, PTSD is a complex disorder and opposite neuroendocrinological changes have also been reported. Amongst other things, heterogeneous results might be related to differences in sample characteristics as well as methodological factors associated with the assessment of cortisol. The current study used the novel method of hair cortisol analysis to examine cumulative long-term cortisol se...

  5. Increased cortisol concentrations in hair of severely traumatized Ugandan individuals with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte, Susann; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Stalder, Tobias; Pfeiffer, Anett; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Elbert, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Previous research has mostly suggested general hypocortisolism in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, PTSD is a complex disorder and opposite neuroendocrinological changes have also been reported. Amongst other things, heterogeneous results might be related to differences in sample characteristics as well as methodological factors associated with the assessment of cortisol. The current study used the novel method of hair cortisol analysis to examine cumulative long-term cortisol secretion in a severely traumatized PTSD sample. Hair samples of 10 traumatized individuals with PTSD and 17 traumatized controls without PTSD from a civil war area of Northern Uganda were analyzed. Results revealed that hair samples of PTSD participants contained higher cortisol levels than those of traumatized controls (pPTSD in severely traumatized individuals who continue to live under stressful conditions might be associated with general hypercortisolism. Future research examining participants after traumatic events at different follow-up periods is needed to determine the specific influence of time interval since traumatization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterizing mercury concentrations and fluxes in a Coastal Plain watershed: Insights from dynamic modeling and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, H.E.; Knightes, C.D.; Conrads, P.A.; Davis, G.M.; Feaster, T.D.; Journey, C.A.; Benedict, S.T.; Brigham, M.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the leading water quality concerns in surface waters of the United States. Although watershed-scale Hg cycling research has increased in the past two decades, advances in modeling watershed Hg processes in diverse physiographic regions, spatial scales, and land cover types are needed. The goal of this study was to assess Hg cycling in a Coastal Plain system using concentrations and fluxes estimated by multiple watershed-scale models with distinct mathematical frameworks reflecting different system dynamics. We simulated total mercury (HgT, the sum of filtered and particulate forms) concentrations and fluxes from a Coastal Plain watershed (McTier Creek) using three watershed Hg models and an empirical load model. Model output was compared with observed in-stream HgT. We found that shallow subsurface flow is a potentially important transport mechanism of particulate HgT during periods when connectivity between the uplands and surface waters is maximized. Other processes (e.g., stream bank erosion, sediment re-suspension) may increase particulate HgT in the water column. Simulations and data suggest that variable source area (VSA) flow and lack of rainfall interactions with surface soil horizons result in increased dissolved HgT concentrations unrelated to DOC mobilization following precipitation events. Although flushing of DOC-HgT complexes from surface soils can also occur during this period, DOC-complexed HgT becomes more important during base flow conditions. TOPLOAD simulations highlight saturated subsurface flow as a primary driver of daily HgT loadings, but shallow subsurface flow is important for HgT loads during high-flow events. Results suggest limited seasonal trends in HgT dynamics.

  7. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P.; Cole, Megan A.; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65 ± 5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1 ± 1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus −73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation. PMID:28216604

  8. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Gentile

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet rich plasma (PRP was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System. For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2, whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2 were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex. Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  9. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P; Cole, Megan A; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-02-14

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  10. Mercury from chlor-alkali plants: measured concentrations in food product sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hightower Jane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mercury cell chlor-alkali products are used to produce thousands of other products including food ingredients such as citric acid, sodium benzoate, and high fructose corn syrup. High fructose corn syrup is used in food products to enhance shelf life. A pilot study was conducted to determine if high fructose corn syrup contains mercury, a toxic metal historically used as an anti-microbial. High fructose corn syrup samples were collected from three different manufacturers and analyzed for total mercury. The samples were found to contain levels of mercury ranging from below a detection limit of 0.005 to 0.570 micrograms mercury per gram of high fructose corn syrup. Average daily consumption of high fructose corn syrup is about 50 grams per person in the United States. With respect to total mercury exposure, it may be necessary to account for this source of mercury in the diet of children and sensitive populations.

  11. Mercury concentration trend as a possible result of changes in cod population demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruus, Anders; Hjermann, Dag Ø; Beylich, Bjørnar; Schøyen, Merete; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Green, Norman W

    2017-07-20

    Mercury (Hg) in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is one of many parameters that are monitored through OSPAR's Joint Assessment and Monitoring Programme. Time series for cod in the Inner Oslofjord (Norway) go back to 1984. Until 2014, annual median Hg-concentrations in cod from the Inner Oslofjord showed both significant upward long-term (whole time series) and short-term (recent 10 years) trends (when 2015 was included, the short-term trend was not significant). However, the median length of the cod sampled also showed upward trends. This may have been caused by low cod recruitment in the area since the start of the 2000s, as indicated by beach seine surveys. To investigate how length would impact the trend analysis, the Hg-concentrations in the cod were normalised to 50 cm. No significant short-term trend in Hg-concentrations could be detected for length-normalised concentrations. The results indicated that most of the upward trend in Hg-concentrations could be attributed to the sampling of larger fish. The reasons for the apparent change in the cod population demography are not conclusive, however, sampling bias must also be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Qualitative assessment of visuospatial errors in mercury-exposed Amazonian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevrier, Cécile; Sullivan, Kimberly; White, Roberta F.;

    2009-01-01

    In order to better define the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure on neurodevelopment, qualitative error types observed in the responses of exposed children to the Stanford-Binet Copying Test were categorized and quantified using raw data from two studies of 395 Amazonian children aged 7...... with adjustment for confounders. In the combined data set, mercury exposure was negatively associated with scores on the drawing task: a score reduction of 1.2 (s.e., 0.3) points was observed in the children with a hair-mercury concentration above 10 μg/g compared to those with a hair level below 1 μg....../g; this effect appeared to be stronger in the younger children. Risk of committing one or more errors of rotation, simplification or perseveration in the drawings increased with hair-mercury concentration in both cultural settings, providing convergent evidence of specific types of MeHg-related neurocognitive...

  13. Geographic and temporal patterns of variation in total mercury concentrations in blood of harlequin ducks and blue mussels from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Lucas; Flint, Paul L.; Zwiefelhofer, Denny; Brant, Heather; Perkins, Christopher R.; Taylor, Robert J.; Lane, Oksana P.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Evers, David C.; Schamber, Jason

    2017-01-01

    We compared total mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole blood of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) sampled within and among two geographically distinct locations and across three years in southwest Alaska. Blue mussels were collected to assess correlation between Hg concentrations in locally available forage and birds. Mercury concentrations in harlequin duck blood were significantly higher at Unalaska Island (0.31 ± 0.19 mean ± SD, μg/g blood) than Kodiak Island (0.04 ± 0.02 mean ± SD, μg/g blood). We found no evidence for annual variation in blood Hg concentration between years at Unalaska Island. However, blood Hg concentration did vary among specific sampling locations (i.e., bays) at Unalaska Island. Findings from this study demonstrate harlequin ducks are exposed to environmental sources of Hg, and whole blood Hg concentrations are associated with their local food source.

  14. Geographic and temporal patterns of variation in total mercury concentrations in blood of harlequin ducks and blue mussels from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Lucas; Flint, Paul; Zwiefelhofer, Denny; Brant, Heather; Perkins, Christopher; Taylor, Robert; Lane, Oksana; Hall, Jeff; Evers, David; Schamber, Jason

    2017-04-15

    We compared total mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole blood of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) sampled within and among two geographically distinct locations and across three years in southwest Alaska. Blue mussels were collected to assess correlation between Hg concentrations in locally available forage and birds. Mercury concentrations in harlequin duck blood were significantly higher at Unalaska Island (0.31±0.19 mean±SD, μg/g blood) than Kodiak Island (0.04±0.02 mean±SD, μg/g blood). We found no evidence for annual variation in blood Hg concentration between years at Unalaska Island. However, blood Hg concentration did vary among specific sampling locations (i.e., bays) at Unalaska Island. Findings from this study demonstrate harlequin ducks are exposed to environmental sources of Hg, and whole blood Hg concentrations are associated with their local food source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors affecting biotic mercury concentrations and biomagnification through lake food webs in the Canadian high Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescord, Gretchen L., E-mail: glescord@gmail.com [University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6 (Canada); Kirk, Jane L. [Environment Canada, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada); O' Driscoll, Nelson J. [Acadia University, 15 University Ave, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa; Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    In temperate regions of Canada, mercury (Hg) concentrations in biota and the magnitude of Hg biomagnification through food webs vary between neighboring lakes and are related to water chemistry variables and physical lake features. However, few studies have examined factors affecting the variable Hg concentrations in landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) or the biomagnification of Hg through their food webs. We estimated the food web structure of six high Arctic lakes near Resolute Bay, Nunavut, Canada, using stable carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopes and measured Hg (total Hg (THg) in char, the only fish species, and methylmercury (MeHg) in chironomids and zooplankton) concentrations in biota collected in 2010 and 2011. Across lakes, δ{sup 13}C showed that benthic carbon (chironomids) was the dominant food source for char. Regression models of log Hg versus δ{sup 15}N (of char and benthic invertebrates) showed positive and significant slopes, indicting Hg biomagnification in all lakes, and higher slopes in some lakes than others. However, no principal components (PC) generated using all water chemistry data and physical characteristics of the lakes predicted the different slopes. The PC dominated by aqueous ions was a negative predictor of MeHg concentrations in chironomids, suggesting that water chemistry affects Hg bioavailability and MeHg concentrations in these lower-trophic-level organisms. Furthermore, regression intercepts were predicted by the PCs dominated by catchment area, aqueous ions, and MeHg. Weaker relationships were also found between THg in small char or MeHg in pelagic invertebrates and the PCs dominated by catchment area, and aqueous nitrate and MeHg. Results from these high Arctic lakes suggest that Hg biomagnification differs between systems and that their physical and chemical characteristics affect Hg concentrations in lower-trophic-level biota. - Highlights: • Mercury (Hg) in Arctic char and invertebrates

  16. Mercury concentrations in different tissues of turtle and caiman species from the Rio Purus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggins, Sam; Schneider, Larissa; Krikowa, Frank; Vogt, Richard C; Da Silveira, Ronis; Maher, William

    2015-12-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations of muscle, liver, blood, and epidermal keratin were measured in typically consumed, economically and culturally important species of turtle (Podocnemis unifilis and Podocnemis expansa) and caiman (Melanosuchus niger and Caiman crocodilus) from the Rio Purus in the Amazon basin, Brazil. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were also measured in muscle tissue, representing the first analysis of MeHg concentrations in Amazonian reptile species. In muscle tissues Hg was mostly MeHg (79-96%) for all species. No correlations existed between animal size and total Hg or MeHg concentrations for any species other than M. niger, possibly as a result of growth dilution or the evolution of efficient Hg elimination mechanisms. Significant linear correlations were found between total Hg concentrations in all pairs of nonlethally sampled tissues (keratin and blood) and internal tissues (muscle and liver) for M. niger and between keratin and internal tissues for P. expansa, indicating that nonlethally sampled tissues can be analyzed to achieve more widespread and representative monitoring of Hg bioaccumulation in Amazonian reptiles. Although mean Hg concentrations in muscle for all species were below the World Health Organization guideline for safe consumption (500 µg kg(-1)), mean concentrations in caiman liver were above the safe limit for pregnant women and children (200 µg kg(-1)). No significant differences were found between total Hg and MeHg concentrations in tissues from wild-caught and farm-raised P. expansa, suggesting that farming may not reduce Hg exposure to humans. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Assessment of mercury exposure among small-scale gold miners using mercury stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Laura S., E-mail: lsaylors@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Blum, Joel D. [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Basu, Niladri [McGill University, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada H9X3V9 (Canada); Rajaee, Mozhgon [University of Michigan, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Evers, David C.; Buck, David G. [Biodiversity Research Institute, 19 Flaggy Meadow Road, Gorham, ME 04038 (United States); Petrlik, Jindrich [Arnika Association, Chlumova 17, Prague 3 (Czech Republic); DiGangi, Joseph [IPEN, Box 7256, SE-402 35 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-02-15

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in hair and urine are often used as biomarkers of exposure to fish-derived methylmercury (MeHg) and gaseous elemental Hg, respectively. We used Hg stable isotopes to assess the validity of these biomarkers among small-scale gold mining populations in Ghana and Indonesia. Urine from Ghanaian miners displayed similar Δ{sup 199}Hg values to Hg derived from ore deposits (mean urine Δ{sup 199}Hg=0.01‰, n=6). This suggests that urine total Hg concentrations accurately reflect exposure to inorganic Hg among this population. Hair samples from Ghanaian miners displayed low positive Δ{sup 199}Hg values (0.23–0.55‰, n=6) and low percentages of total Hg as MeHg (7.6–29%, n=7). These data suggest that the majority of the Hg in these miners' hair samples is exogenously adsorbed inorganic Hg and not fish-derived MeHg. Hair samples from Indonesian gold miners who eat fish daily displayed a wider range of positive Δ{sup 199}Hg values (0.21–1.32‰, n=5) and percentages of total Hg as MeHg (32–72%, n=4). This suggests that total Hg in the hair samples from Indonesian gold miners is likely a mixture of ingested fish MeHg and exogenously adsorbed inorganic Hg. Based on data from both populations, we suggest that total Hg concentrations in hair samples from small-scale gold miners likely overestimate exposure to MeHg from fish consumption. - Highlights: • Mercury isotopes were measured in hair and urine from small-scale gold miners. • Mercury isotopes indicate that Hg in urine comes from mining activity. • Mercury isotopes suggest Hg in hair is a mixture of fish MeHg and inorganic Hg. • A large percentage of Hg in miner’s hair is released during amalgam burning and adsorbed.

  18. Mecury in Fin Clips and Scales as Assessment Methods for Predicting Muscle Tissue Mercury Concentrations in Red Drum and Snook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-lethal techniques for assessing total mercury concentrations in fish are desired because they minimize impacts on fish populations and allow trends in Hg accumulation to be assessed through repeated sampling of individual fish. This study developed relationships of Hg concent...

  19. Assessment of Caudal Fin Clips as a Non-lethal Technique for Predicting Muscle Tissue Mercury Concentrations in Largeouth Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The statistical relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentration in clips from the caudal fin and muscle tissue of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 26 freshwater sites in Rhode Island, USA was developed and evaluated to determine the utility of fin clip analysis ...

  20. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues, sediment and water from fish farm along the Karoun River in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Maktabi, Payvand; Javaheri baboli, Mehran; Jafarnejadi, Ali Reza; Askary Sary, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The Karoun River is major source of water for warm‌water fish culture industry in southwest of Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of mercury in tissues of marketable common carp and in bottom sediments of fish farms in Khouzestan province. This study was carried out on 45 fish farms that are located on the bank of the Karoun River in Khouzestan province, south-west Iran. Concentration of mercury (Hg) was determined using spectrophotometery in three tissues ...

  1. Reservoirs and water management influence fish mercury concentrations in the western United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willacker, James J.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Tate, Michael T.; Lepak, Jesse M.; Ackerman, Josh

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic manipulation of aquatic habitats can profoundly alter mercury (Hg) cycling and bioaccumulation. The impoundment of fluvial systems is among the most common habitat manipulations and is known to increase fish Hg concentrations immediately following impoundment. However, it is not well understood how Hg concentrations differ between reservoirs and lakes at large spatial and temporal scales or how reservoir management influences fish Hg concentrations. This study evaluated total Hg (THg) concentrations in 64,386 fish from 883 reservoirs and 1387 lakes, across the western United States and Canada, to assess differences between reservoirs and lakes, as well as the influence of reservoir management on fish THg concentrations. Fish THg concentrations were 1.4-fold higher in reservoirs (0.13 ± 0.011 μg/g wet weight ± standard error) than lakes (0.09 ± 0.006), though this difference varied among ecoregions. Fish THg concentrations were 1.5- to 2.6-fold higher in reservoirs than lakes of the North American Deserts, Northern Forests, and Mediterranean California ecoregions, but did not differ between reservoirs and lakes in four other ecoregions. Fish THg concentrations peaked in three-year-old reservoirs then rapidly declined in 4–12 year old reservoirs. Water management was particularly important in influencing fish THg concentrations, which were up to 11-times higher in reservoirs with minimum water storage occurring in May, June, or July compared to reservoirs with minimum storage occurring in other months. Between-year changes in maximum water storage strongly influenced fish THg concentrations, but within-year fluctuations in water levels did not influence fish THg concentrations. Specifically, fish THg concentrations increased up to 3.2-fold over the range of between-year changes in maximum water storage in all ecoregions except Mediterranean California. These data highlight the role of reservoir creation and management in influencing fish

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of mercury concentrations in freshwater fish across the Western United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Josh; Willacker, James J.; Tate, Michael T.; Lutz, Michelle A; Fleck, Jacob; Stewart, Robin; Wiener, James G.; Evers, David C.; Lepak, Jesse M; Davis, Jay A; Pritz, Colleen Flanagan

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of fish is a global threat to environmental health. Mercury (Hg) monitoring programs are valuable for generating data that can be compiled for spatially broad syntheses to identify emergent ecosystem properties that influence fish Hg bioaccumulation. Fish total Hg (THg) concentrations were evaluated across the Western United States (US) and Canada, a region defined by extreme gradients in habitat structure and water management. A database was compiled with THg concentrations in 96,310 fish that comprised 206 species from 4262 locations, and used to evaluate the spatial distribution of fish THg across the region and effects of species, foraging guilds, habitats, and ecoregions. Areas of elevated THg exposure were identified by developing a relativized estimate of fish mercury concentrations at a watershed scale that accounted for the variability associated with fish species, fish size, and site effects. THg concentrations in fish muscle ranged between 0.001 and 28.4 (μg/g wet weight (ww)) with a geometric mean of 0.17. Overall, 30% of individual fish samples and 17% of means by location exceeded the 0.30 μg/g ww US EPA fish tissue criterion. Fish THg concentrations differed among habitat types, with riverine habitats consistently higher than lacustrine habitats. Importantly, fish THg concentrations were not correlated with sediment THg concentrations at a watershed scale, but were weakly correlated with sediment MeHg concentrations, suggesting that factors influencing MeHg production may be more important than inorganic Hg loading for determining fish MeHg exposure. There was large heterogeneity in fish THg concentrations across the landscape; THg concentrations were generally higher in semi-arid and arid regions such as the Great Basin and Desert Southwest, than in temperate forests. Results suggest that fish mercury exposure is widespread throughout Western US and Canada, and that species, habitat type, and region play an important

  3. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Hänni, Daniel C; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates), compared with a control without human contact or conflict. Concerning methodological issues, season [F(2,129) = 37.4, p effects of anthropogenic impacts, our results neither showed elevation of HCC due to ecotourism, nor due to illegal logging compared to their control groups. We did, however, find significantly increased HCC in the fragment group compared to chimpanzees living in a nearby intact forest [F(1,88) = 5.0, p = 0.03, r2 = 0.20]. In conclusion, our results suggest that hair cortisol analysis is a powerful tool that can help understanding the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on chimpanzee well-being and could be applied to other great ape species.

  4. Mercury concentrations and pools in four adjacent coniferous and deciduous upland forests in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Gao, Yu

    2017-05-01

    Understanding of forest mercury (Hg) pools is important for quantifying the global atmospheric Hg removal. We studied gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) concentrations, litterfall Hg depositions, and pool sizes in four adjacent stands at Mount Dongling to assess Hg dynamics in the forested catchment and the potential of Hg release during wildfires. The average GEM concentration was 2.5 ± 0.5 ng m-3, about 1.5 times of the background levels in the Northern Hemisphere. In all four stands, Hg concentrations increase in the following order: bole wood < branch/twig < bark < mineral soil < needles/leaves < litterfall < Oi litter < Oe soil < Oa organic soil. The Hg pools of aboveground biomass were comparable in the forests of larch, oak, and Chinese pine, which were much greater than that of mixed broadleaf stands due to lower biomass. The total Hg pools in ecosystems were similar in the four stands, because of the comparable Hg pool in the soil horizons (0-40 cm), which accounted for over 97% of the total ecosystem Hg storage in the four stands. Although Hg pools of the forest ecosystem in north China were comparable to North America and North Europe, Hg storage in forests constituted a high threat for large Hg emission pulses to the atmosphere by wildfires. The potential Hg emissions from the combustion at the four stands were ranged from 0.675 to 1.696 mg m-2.

  5. Development of a UPLC–MS/MS method for determining ɣ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and GHB glucuronide concentrations in hair and application to forensic cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xin; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    We present a series of forensic cases measuring concentrations in hair of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its glucuronide. The compounds were extracted from hair by incubation for 1.5 h in a 25:25:50 (v/v/v) mixture of methanol/acetonitrile/2 mM ammonium formate (8 % acetonitrile, pH 5.3). The co...... to detection of exogenous exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first report to present GHB glucuronide in human hair.......We present a series of forensic cases measuring concentrations in hair of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its glucuronide. The compounds were extracted from hair by incubation for 1.5 h in a 25:25:50 (v/v/v) mixture of methanol/acetonitrile/2 mM ammonium formate (8 % acetonitrile, pH 5.......3). The compounds were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS). The limits of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.32 and 0.48 ng/mg hair for GHB and its glucuronide, respectively, and linearity up to 50 ng/mg. Extraction recoveries were 62–92 % for the analytes...

  6. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Hair Removal KidsHealth > For Teens > Hair Removal Print A ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  7. Oily hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  8. Methyl mercury concentrations in edible fish and shellfish from Dunedin, and other regions around the South Island, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Ashish K; Kim, Jonathan P; Furrell, Hamish; Bostock, Ben

    2015-12-15

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in edible fish and shellfish available in local markets in Dunedin, New Zealand. While most of the fish species were sourced in Dunedin, some specimens of fish were also collected from waters off Picton, around Stewart Island and also off-shore of the South Island in the Puysegur and Subantarctic regions. The concentrations of MeHg were analysed in 25 different fish species and shellfish (103 muscle tissue samples). Total mercury (HgT) levels were also analysed in a few (n=12) selected fish samples. Most of the Hg was in the form of MeHg (≥ 96%). Higher MeHg concentrations were found in fish at higher trophic levels, particularly in predatory fish species such as ling, school shark, spiny dogfish and albacore tuna. Concentrations of MeHg in all samples ranged from 0.002 to 2.515 μg MeHg/g.

  9. An Application of Passive Samplers to Understand Atmospheric Mercury Concentration and Dry Deposition Spatial Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two modified passive samplers were evaluated at multiple field locations. The sampling rate (SR) of the modified polyurethane foam (PUF)-disk passive sampler for total gaseous mercury (TGM) using gold-coated quartz fiber filters (GcQFF) and gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) using io...

  10. Cow hair allergen concentrations in dairy farms with automatic and conventional milking systems: From stable to bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlandt, A; Schierl, R; Heizinger, J; Dietrich-Gümperlein, G; Zahradnik, E; Bruckmaier, L; Sültz, J; Raulf, M; Nowak, D

    2016-01-01

    Bovine hair and dander are considered to be a notable risk factor for sensitization and allergic symptoms in occupationally exposed cattle farmers due to various IgE binding proteins. Farmers are suspected not only to be exposed during their work inside the stables but also inside their homes as allergens could be transferred via hair and clothes resulting in continued bovine allergen exposure in private areas. In recent years a new sensitive sandwich ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) test has been developed to measure the cow hair allergen (CHA) concentration in dust. The aim of the present study was to determine the CHA concentration in airborne and settled dust samples in stables and private rooms of dairy cattle farms with automatic milking systems (AM) and conventional milking systems (CM), also with respect to questionnaire data on farming characteristics. For this purpose different sampling techniques were applied, and results and practicability of the techniques were compared. Dust sampling was performed in the stable, computer room (only AM), changing room, living room and bedroom (mattress) of 12 dairy farms with automatic milking systems (AM group) and eight dairy farms with conventional milking systems (CM group). Altogether, 90 samples were taken by ALK filter dust collectors from all locations, while 32 samples were collected by an ion charging device (ICD) and 24 samples by an electronic dust fall collector (EDC) in computer rooms (AM) and/or changing and living rooms (not stables). The dust samples were extracted and analyzed for CHA content with a sandwich ELISA. At all investigated locations, CHA concentrations were above the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng/ml dust extract. The median CHA concentrations in dust collected by ALK filters ranged from 63 to 7154 μg/g dust in AM farms and from 121 to 5627 μg/g dust in CM farms with a steep concentration gradient from stables to bedrooms. ICD sampling revealed median CHA contents of 112

  11. Mercury in the Umbilical Cord: Implications for Risk Assessment for Minamata Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen;

    1994-01-01

    in umbilical cord blood and in maternal hair. The results were compared with published values for mercury in umbilical cord tissue from 12 infants diagnosed with congenital methylmercury poisoning in Minamata, Japan. From the regression coefficients obtained in the Faroese samples, the median umbilical cord...... mercury concentration of 4.95 nmol/g dry weight in Minamata would correspond to 668 nmol/l cord blood and 114 nmol/g maternal hair. These levels agree well with other evidence of susceptibility of the fetus to increased exposure to methylmercury....

  12. Dynamic versus static ultrasonic sample treatment for the solid-liquid pre-concentration of mercury from human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricio, A; Fernandez, C; Mota, A M; Capelo, J L

    2006-05-15

    Dynamic and static ultrasonic procedures involving ultrasonic bath and tandem focused ultrasound (i.e. two probes were used in the same sample treatment) have been assessed in order to implement a reliable solid-liquid back extraction of mercury from commercial resins (dowex and chelex-100), previously used to concentrate Hg(II) from treated urine. The urine had been previously treated with an advanced oxidation process provided by the conjunction of potassium permanganate, hydrochloric acid and high intensity focused ultrasound, which allowed that organic matter degradation was achieved in less than 3min. 95+/-10% of mercury in the certified urine and 97+/-6% of the spiked methyl-mercury was recovered with the dowex resin plus the static ultrasonic procedure, whilst 96+/-11% of the spiked mercury was recovered with the dowex resin plus the dynamic procedure, for which ultrasonication was not necessary. The Hg pre-concentration factor used in this work was 8 (20mL of urine to 2.5mL of acid), but different volume ratios can be used in order to increase this factor.

  13. Toward a real-time measurement of atmospheric mercury concentrations using cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Faïn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A new sensor based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS has been developed for the measurement of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0 mass concentration with sub-ng m−3 detection limit and high temporal resolution. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy is a direct absorption technique that utilizes path lengths of up to multiple kilometers in a compact absorption cell and has a significantly higher sensitivity than conventional absorption spectroscopy. Our prototype uses a frequency-doubled, tuneable dye laser emitting pulses at ~253.65 nm with a pulse repetition frequency of 50 Hz. The dye laser incorporates a unique piezo element attached to its tuning grating allowing it to tune the laser on and off the Hg0 absorption line on a pulse to pulse basis to facilitate differential absorption measurements. Hg0 absorption measurements with this CRDS laboratory prototype are highly linearly related to Hg0 concentrations determined by a Tekran 2537B analyzer over a Hg0 concentration range of four orders of magnitude, from 0.2 ng m−3 to 573 ng m−3 implying excellent linearity of both instruments. The current CRDS instrument has a~sensitivity of 0.10 ng m−3 at 10 s time resolution. This tool opens new prospects for the study of Hg0 because of its high temporal resolution and reduced limited sample volume requirements (<0.5 l of sample air. Future applications may include ambient Hg0 flux measurements with eddy covariance techniques, which require measurements of Hg0 concentrations with sub-ng m−3 sensitivity and sub-second time resolution.

  14. Elements in the hair of South-east Asian islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, S C; Tan, T C

    1998-01-19

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in hair samples from Singapore island (85 samples) and two islands off Batam, Indonesia (68 samples) were analysed to assess the environmental uptake of elements. Hair samples were washed with 0.1% Triton X-100 solution for 20 min in an ultrasonic bath, rinsed five times with de-ionized water and air dried. Ten to 20 mg of hair samples were digested with 1 ml of ultra-pure concentrated nitric acid in Parr bombs at 120 degrees C for 2 h. Hair digests were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Hg was determined by the cold vapour AAS method and Pb, Cd and Cu by the electro-thermal graphite furnace AAS method. For Singapore hair, the contents of Cd (in microgram/g) averaged 0.17 (range 0.02-1.81); Cu 13.2 (range 3.1-70.1); Hg 5.92 (range 1.14-35.52); and Pb 6.74 (range 0.06-107.8). For the islands off Batam, Cd was 0.32 (range 0.06-1.80); Cu 21.1 (range 3.8-143.6); Hg 5.59 (range 0.78-60.86); and Pb 15.1 (range 0.13-116.6). Statistically significant differences in Cd, Pb and Hg contents were observed between the hair samples from Singapore and those of the islands off Batam in cumulative logit analysis. Hair from Singapore contained more Hg, but less Cd and Pb compared to hair from the islands off Batam. For Pb in hair, significant differences were also observed between the two islands off Batam (island 1, 18.9; and island 2, 10.2). These differences in hair metal contents are due to differences in community lifestyle (dietary, environmental or occupational intake).

  15. Methyl Mercury Exposure at Niigata, Japan: Results of Neurological Examinations of 103 Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimio Maruyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Large-scale poisonings caused by methyl mercury (MeHg have occurred in Japan (Minamata in the 1950s and Niigata in the 1960s and Iraq (in the 1970s. The current WHO neurological risk standard for adult exposure (hair level: 50 μg/g was based partly on evidence from Niigata which did not consider any cases who were diagnosed later and/or exposed to low level of MeHg (hair mercury level less than 50 μg/g. Methods. Early in the Niigata epidemic in June 1965 there were two extensive surveys. From these two surveys, we examined 103 adults with hair mercury measurement who consulted two medical institutions. We compared the prevalence and the distribution of neurological signs related to MeHg poisoning between exposure categories. Result. We found 48 subjects with neurological signs related to MeHg poisoning who had hair mercury concentration less than 50 μg/g. Among the neurological signs, sensory disturbance of the bilateral distal extremities was observed more frequently, followed by disequilibrium, hearing impairment, and ataxia, in groups with hair MeHg concentration both below 50 μg/g and over 50 μg/g. Conclusion. The present study suggests the possibility that exposure to MeHg at levels below the current WHO limits could cause neurologic signs, in particular, sensory disturbance.

  16. Use of naturally occurring mercury to determine the importance of cutthroat trout to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, L.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Rye, R.O.; Gunther, K.A.; Crock, J.G.; Haroldson, M.A.; Waits, L.; Robbins, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)) are a potentially important food resource for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord, 1815) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We developed a method to estimate the amount of cutthroat trout ingested by grizzly bears living in the Yellowstone Lake area. The method utilized (i) the relatively high, naturally occurring concentration of mercury in Yellowstone Lake cutthroat trout (508 ± 93 ppb) and its virtual absence in all other bear foods (6 ppb), (ii) hair snares to remotely collect hair from bears visiting spawning cutthroat trout streams between 1997 and 2000, (iii) DNA analyses to identify the individual and sex of grizzly bears leaving a hair sample, (iv) feeding trials with captive bears to develop relationships between fish and mercury intake and hair mercury concentrations, and (v) mercury analyses of hair collected from wild bears to estimate the amount of trout consumed by each bear. Male grizzly bears consumed an average of 5 times more trout/kg bear than did female grizzly bears. Estimated cutthroat trout intake per year by the grizzly bear population was only a small fraction of that estimated by previous investigators, and males consumed 92% of all trout ingested by grizzly bears.

  17. Total gaseous concentrations in mercury in Seoul, Korea: Local sources compared to long-range transport from China and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Kim, Seung-Hee [Graduate School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Seoul National University, Yeongon-dong, Chongro-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Holsen, Thomas M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); Yi, Seung-Muk [Graduate School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Seoul National University, Yeongon-dong, Chongro-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Health and Environment, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Yeongon-dong, Chongro-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yiseung@snu.ac.kr

    2009-03-15

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured every 5 min and hourly, respectively, in Seoul, Korea, from February 2005 through December 2006. The mean concentrations of TGM and CO were 3.44 {+-} 2.13 ng m{sup -3} and 613 {+-} 323 ppbv, respectively. TGM and CO concentrations were highest during the winter and lowest during the summer. In total, 154 high TGM concentration events were identified: 86 were classified as long-range transport events and 68 were classified as local events. The TGM and CO concentrations were well correlated during all long-range transport events and were weakly correlated during local events. Five-day backward trajectory analysis for long-range transport events showed four potential source regions: China (79%), Japan (13%), the Yellow Sea (6%), and Russia (2%). Our results suggest that measured {delta}TGM/{delta}CO can be used to identify long-range transported mercury and to estimate mercury emissions from long-range transport. - This study identified long-range transport from China and local sources of elevated TGM concentrations in Seoul, Korea using the relationship between {delta}TGM and {delta}CO.

  18. Evaluation of potentially nonlethal sampling methods for monitoring mercury concentrations in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated three potentially nonlethal alternatives to fillet sampling for the determination of mercury (Hg) concentrations in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Fish (n = 62, 226-464 mm total length) from six sites in southern Missouri were captured by electrofishing. Blood samples (1 mL) from each fish were obtained by caudal veinipuncture with a heparinized needle and syringe. Biopsy needle (10 mm x 14 gauge; three cuts per fish; 10-20 mg total dry weight) and biopsy punch (7 mm x 5 mm in diameter, one plug per fish, 30-50 mg dry weight) samples were obtained from the area beneath the dorsal fin. Fillet samples were obtained from the opposite side of the fish. All samples were freeze-dried and analyzed for total Hg by combustion amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean relative standard deviations (RSDs) of triplicate samples were similar for all four methods (2.2-2.4%), but the range of RSDs was greater for blood (0.4-5.5%) than for the muscle methods (1.8-4.0%). Total Hg concentrations in muscle were 0.0200-0.8809 ??g/g wet weight; concentrations in plug, needle, and fillet samples from each fish were nearly identical. Blood Hg concentrations were 0.0006-0.0812 ??g/mL and were highly correlated with muscle concentrations; linear regressions between log-transformed blood and fillet Hg concentrations were linear and statistically significant (p explained 91-93% of the total variation. Correlations between fillet Hg concentrations and fish size and age were weak; together they explained ???37% of the total variation, and the relations differed among sites. Overall, any of the alternative methods could provide satisfactory estimates of fillet Hg in smallmouth bass; however, both blood and plug sampling with disposable instruments were easier to perform than needle sampling. The biopsy needle was the most difficult to use, especially on smaller fish, and its relative expense necessitates reuse and, consequently, thorough cleaning between fish

  19. Waterbird egg mercury concentrations in response to wetland restoration in south San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Watts, Trevor C.; Barr, Jarred R.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of 50–90 percent of 15,100 acres of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh habitat in the south San Francisco Bay, California, is planned as part of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. This large-scale habitat restoration may change the bioavailability of methylmercury. The South Bay already is known to have high methylmercury concentrations, with methylmercury concentrations in several waterbirds species more than known toxicity thresholds where avian reproduction is impaired. In this 2013 study, we continued monitoring bird egg mercury concentrations in response to the restoration of the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex to a potential tidal marsh in the future. The restoration of the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex began in autumn 2010, and the Pond A8 Notch was opened 5 feet (one of eight gates) to muted tidal action on June 1, 2011, and then closed in the winter. In autumn 2010, internal levees between Ponds A8, A7, and A5 were breached and water depths were substantially increased by flooding the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex in February 2011. In June 2012, 15 feet (three of eight gates) of the Pond A8 Notch was opened, and then closed in December 2012. In June 2013, 15 feet of the Pond A8 Notch again was opened, and the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex was a relatively deep and large pond with muted tidal action in the summer. This report synthesizes waterbird data from the 2013 breeding season, and combines it with our prior study’s data from 2010 and 2011.

  20. Mercury concentrations in tidal marsh sparrows and their use as bioindicators in Delaware Bay, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Sarah E; Shriver, W Gregory; Pepper, Margaret A; Taylor, Robert J

    2010-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination from industrial sources is pervasive throughout North America and is recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a health hazard for wildlife and humans. Avian species are commonly used as bioindicators of Hg because they are sensitive to contaminants in the environment and are relatively easy to sample. However, it is important to select the appropriate avian species to use as a bioindicator, which should be directly related to the project objectives. In this study, we tested the utility of two tidal marsh sparrows, Seaside (Ammodramus maritimus) and Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) sparrows, as bioindicator species of the extent of Hg contamination in tidal marshes along the Delaware Bay. To determine the possibility of using one or both of these species, we estimated sparrow blood Hg burden in five Delaware watersheds. We found no difference in Hg concentrations between species (F (1,133) bioindicator species given their habitat specificity, relative abundance, widespread distribution in marsh habitats, ease of sampling, and limited variation in blood Hg estimates within a sampling area. In Delaware Bay, Saltmarsh Sparrows may be too rare (making them difficult to sample) to be a viable tidal marsh Hg bioindicator.

  1. Development of low-concentration mercury adsorbents from biohydrogen-generation agricultural residues using sulfur impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Hsing-Chengi; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Kuo, Tien-Ho; Chiang, Cheng-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Mercury adsorbents were derived from waste biohydrogen-generation barley husk and rice husk via carbonization, steam activation, and sulfur impregnation at 300-650°C. The samples derived from agricultural residues showed a greater Hg(0) adsorption than that of a coal-based activated carbon, confirming the feasibility of resource recovery of these agricultural residuals for low-concentration gaseous Hg adsorption. Sulfur impregnation reduced both the surface area and pore volume of the samples, with lower temperature causing a greater decrease. Elevating the impregnation temperature increased the organic sulfur contents, suggesting that in addition to elemental sulfur, organic sulfur may also act as active sites to improve Hg(0) adsorption. Oxygen and sulfur functional groups accompanying the microporous structures may account for the enhancing Hg(0) adsorption of the raw and sulfur-treated samples, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model can best describe the chemisorption characteristics, implying that Hg(0) adsorption on the samples was in a bimolecular reaction form.

  2. Temporal change estimation of mercury concentrations in northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in Swedish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerblom, Staffan; Nilsson, Mats; Yu, Jun; Ranneby, Bo; Johansson, Kjell

    2012-02-01

    Adequate temporal trend analysis of mercury (Hg) in freshwater ecosystems is critical to evaluate if actions from the human society have affected Hg concentrations ([Hg]) in fresh water biota. This study examined temporal change in [Hg] in Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in Swedish freshwater lakes between 1994 and 2006. To achieve this were lake-specific, multiple-linear-regression models used to estimate pike [Hg], including indicator variables representing time and fish weight and their interactions. This approach permitted estimation of the direction and magnitude of temporal changes in 25 lakes selected from the Swedish national database on Hg in freshwater biota. A significant increase was found in 36% of the studied lakes with an average increase in pike [Hg] of 3.7±6.7% per year that was found to be positively correlated with total organic carbon. For lakes with a significant temporal change the dataset was based on a mean of 30 fish, while for lakes with no temporal change it was based on a mean of 13 fish.

  3. Trend and seasonal variation of atmospheric mercury concentrations at the Cape Point GAW observatory, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunke E.-G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM has been measured at the WMO Global Atmospheric Watch station at Cape Point, South Africa since September 1995. Two techniques were used: a low resolution manual technique till the end of 2004 and a high resolution automated technique since March 2007. The GEM measurements at Cape Point constitute only one component of the GAW monitoring program consisting of continuous measurements of CO, CH4, CO2, O3, N2O, and since March 1999 also of 222Rn. The seasonality and trend of GEM concentrations from the low resolution data was analyzed by Slemr et al. (2008 and the trend of the combined low and high resolution data until the end of 2009 by Slemr et al. (2011. In this paper we will present an updated analysis of the trend and seasonality of GEM data until the end of 2011 and compare these to measurements made at Troll, a Norwegian research station in Antarctica (Pfaffhuber et al., 2012.

  4. Mercury concentrations in human placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid and their relations with body parameters of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozikowska, Iwona; Binkowski, Łukasz J; Szczepańska, Katarzyna; Sławska, Helena; Miszczuk, Katarzyna; Śliwińska, Magdalena; Łaciak, Tomasz; Stawarz, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Studies were conducted on samples taken from giving birth women (n = 40) living in Poland, representing three age groups: 19-25, 26-30 and 31-38 years old. Mercury concentrations were measured with CV-AAS in placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid. The placentas weight did not exceed the 750 g value and was heavier than 310 g. Mean values of Hg concentrations in blood, placenta and umbilical cord were similar (c.a. 9 μg/g). High levels of mercury were noted in cord blood which in 75% of all observations exceeded (up to 17 μg/L) the safe dose set by US EPA (5.8 μg/L). No statistically significant differences in medium level of Hg in all the studied tissues among age groups of women were observed. Positive correlations between Hg concentrations in placenta and umbilical cord and cord blood were revealed as well as some negative ones between mercury concentrations and pregnancy parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trophic calculations reveal the mechanism of population-level variation in mercury concentrations between marine ecosystems: case studies of two polar seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Polito, Michael J

    2013-10-15

    The incorporation of quantitative trophic level analysis in ecotoxicological studies provides explanatory power to identify the factors, trophic or environmental, driving population-level variation in mercury exposure at large geographic scales. In the Antarctic marine ecosystem, mercury concentrations and stable isotope values in Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) were compared between the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea. Correcting tissue δ(15)N values for baseline δ(15)N values revealed population-level differences in trophic position which contributes to differences in mercury. Data from Thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) were synthesized from published values from Baffin Bay and Svalbard to demonstrate the utility of baseline δ(15)N values in identifying differences in environmental mercury exposure independent of diet. Here, we demonstrate the importance of calculating population-specific trophic level data to uncover the source of variation in mercury concentrations between geographically distinct populations of marine predators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between mercury concentrations in the blood with that in the muscle of four estuarine tropical fish species, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Maciel, Patrícia Oliveira; da Silva, Luiz César Cavalcanti Pereira; Almosny, Nádia Regina Pereira; Andreata, José Vanderli; Bidone, Edison Dausacker; Castilhos, Zuleica Carmen

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between mercury concentrations in the blood with that in muscle for non-invasive mercury contamination assessment in fish. At Ribeira Bay were collected 198 fishes of 4 species (Genidens genidens, Arius luniscutis, Haemulon steindachneri, Micropogonias furnieri). At Guanabara Bay were collected 84 fishes of 2 species (Genidens genidens, Micropogonias furnieri). Means of mercury concentrations in fish muscles in both areas were below 500 ng/g. The mean ratio, including all specimens of all species, for mercury in muscle-to-whole blood was 13.4:1, for muscle-to-erythrocytes, 6.5:1 and for erythrocytes-to-plasma, 6.5:1. Further studies are necessary to insure that blood could be used as an exposure biomarker, in order to assess mercury availability in aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Mercury concentrations in blood and feathers of prebreeding Forster's terns in relation to space use of San Francisco Bay, California, USA, habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Takekawa, John Y; Bluso, Jill D; Adelsbach, Terrence L

    2008-04-01

    We examined mercury concentrations and space use of prebreeding Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, to assess factors influencing mercury levels in piscivorous birds. In 2005 and 2006, we collected blood and feathers from 122 Forster's terns and radio-marked and tracked 72 terns to determine locations of dietary mercury uptake. Capture site and capture date were the most important factors explaining variation in blood mercury concentrations (geometric mean +/- standard error: 1.09+/-0.89 microg/g wet wt), followed by sex and year. Accordingly, radiotelemetry data revealed that Forster's terns generally remained near their site of capture and foraged in nearby salt ponds, managed and tidal marshes, and tidal flats. In contrast, capture site and capture date were not important factors explaining variation in feather mercury concentrations, probably because feathers were grown on their wintering grounds several months prior to our sampling. Instead, sex and year were the most important factors explaining mercury concentrations in breast feathers (9.57+/-8.23 microg/g fresh wt), and sex was the most important factor for head feathers (6.94+/-7.04 microg/g fresh wt). Overall, 13 and 22% of prebreeding Forster's terns were estimated to be at high risk for deleterious effects due to mercury concentrations in blood (>3.0 microg/g wet wt) and feathers (>20.0 microg/g fresh wt), respectively. Breeding terns are likely to be even more at risk because blood mercury concentrations more than tripled during the 45-d prebreeding time period. These data illustrate the importance of space use and tissue type in interpreting mercury concentrations in birds.

  8. Source, concentration, and distribution of elemental mercury in the atmosphere in Toronto, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, Elaine; Tharumakulasingam, Kavitharan [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada); Athar, Makshoof [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan); Yousaf, Muhammad; Cheng, Irene; Huang, Y. [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada); Lu, Julia, E-mail: julialu@ryerson.ca [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada); Yap, Dave [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Toronto, ON M9P 3V6 (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury [GEM] at 1.8, 4, and 59 m above ground, in parking lots, and in indoor and outdoor air was measured in Toronto City, Canada from May 2008-July 2009. The average GEM value at 1.8 m was 1.89 {+-} 0.62 ng m{sup -3}. The GEM values increased with elevation. The average GEM in underground parking lots ranged from 1.37 to 7.86 ng m{sup -3} and was higher than those observed from the surface parking lots. The GEM in the indoor air ranged from 1.21 to 28.50 ng m{sup -3}, was higher in the laboratories than in the offices, and was much higher than that in the outdoor air. All these indicate that buildings serve as sources of mercury to the urban atmosphere. More studies are needed to estimate the contribution of urban areas to the atmospheric mercury budget and the impact of indoor air on outdoor air quality and human health. - Highlights: > Buildings served as mercury sources to urban atmosphere. > Atmospheric mercury level increased with increasing height in the street canyon. > Emission from vehicles and ground surfaces was not the major sources of Hg to urban air. > Mercury levels were higher in indoor than outdoor air and in laboratories than in offices. > Mercury levels were higher in the outdoor air near building walls. - Buildings serve as sources of gaseous elemental mercury and research is needed to quantify the emission and to assess the impact of indoor air on outdoor air quality and human health.

  9. Analysis of mercury and selenium in biological samples by neutron activation analysis; Analise de mercurio e selenio em materiais biologicos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catharino, Marilia Gabriela Miranda

    2002-07-01

    In the present work, hair samples from populations suspected of contamination by mercury, in the localities of Serra do Navio, Vila Nova and Tartarugalzinho, in the State of Amapa, were analyzed. Hair samples of children under odontopediatric treatment were also analyzed for mercury, in order to study the possibility of transfer of mercury from the dental amalgam and also to obtain data of hair mercury in a control population of children. Another step of the work was the development of a method for the determination of selenium, by using the short-lived radioisotope {sup 77}mSe. After the certification of the method it was applied to the analysis of hair, nails and a vitamin supplement. A comparison was made with the results obtain ed by using the long-lived radioisotope of selenium, {sup 75}Se. The results obtained for mercury in the hair samples of populations living in the State of Amapa have shown that the mercury concentrations in these populations are much higher than in the controls. As for the hair samples of children under treatment with mercury amalgam, no significant differences were found in the concentrations of mercury after the treatment. On the other hand, these data were important to obtain data for a control population of children. The results obtained by using the radioisotope {sup 77}mSe showed that the method developed was suitable for the analyzed matrixes and the results were similar to the ones obtained by employing the usual AANI method, with the radioisotope {sup 75}Se. (author)

  10. Low mercury concentration produces vasoconstriction, decreases nitric oxide bioavailability and increases oxidative stress in rat conductance artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Belem Lemos

    Full Text Available Mercury is an environmental pollutant that reduces nitric oxide (NO bioavailability and increases oxidative stress, having a close link with cardiovascular diseases, as carotid atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease and hypertension. One of the main sites affected by oxidative stress, which develops atherosclerosis, is the aorta. Under acute exposure to low mercury concentrations reactive oxygen species (ROS production were only reported for resistance vessels but if low concentrations of mercury also affect conductance arteries it is still unclear. We investigated the acute effects of 6 nM HgCl(2 on endothelial function of aortic rings measuring the reactivity to phenylephrine in rings incubated, or not, with HgCl(2 for 45 min, the protein expression for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 and the AT1 receptor. HgCl(2 increased Rmax and pD2 to phenylephrine without changing the vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Endothelial damage abolished the increased reactivity to phenylephrine. The increase of Rmax and pD2 produced by L-NAME was smaller in the presence of HgCl(2. Enalapril, losartan, indomethacin, furegrelate, the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS 398, superoxide dismutase and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin reverted HgCl(2 effects on the reactivity to phenylephrine, COX-2 protein expression was increased, and AT1 expression reduced. At low concentration, below the reference values, HgCl(2 increased vasoconstrictor activity by reducing NO bioavailability due to increased ROS production by NADPH oxidase activity. Results suggest that this is due to local release of angiotensin II and prostanoid vasoconstrictors. Results also suggest that acute low concentration mercury exposure, occurring time to time could induce vascular injury due to endothelial oxidative stress and contributing to increase peripheral resistance, being a high risk factor for public health.

  11. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in high altitude lakes and fish (Arctic charr) from the French Alps related to watershed characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusczak, Nicolas; Larose, Catherine; Dommergue, Aurélien; Paquet, Serge; Beaulne, Jean-Sébastien; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Lucotte, Marc; Nedjai, Rachid; Ferrari, Christophe P

    2011-04-15

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were measured in the muscle of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and in the water column of 4 lakes that are located in the French Alps. Watershed characteristics were determined (6 coverage classes) for each lake in order to evaluate the influence of watershed composition on mercury and methylmercury concentrations in fish muscle and in the water column. THg and MeHg concentrations in surface water were relatively low and similar among lakes and watershed characteristics play a major role in determining water column Hg and MeHg levels. THg muscle concentrations for fish with either a standardized length of 220mm, a standardized age of 5 years or for individualuals did not exceed the 0.5mg kg(-1) fish consumption advisory limit established for Hg by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1990). These relatively low THg concentrations can be explained by watershed characteristics, which lead to short Hg residence time in the water column, and also by the short trophic chain that is characteristic of mountain lakes. Growth rate did not seem to influence THg concentrations in fish muscles of these lakes and we observed no relationship between fish Hg concentrations and altitude. This study shows that in the French Alps, high altitude lakes have relatively low THg and MeHg concentrations in both the water column and in Arctic charr populations. Therefore, Hg does not appear to present a danger for local populations and the fishermen of these lakes.

  12. Mercury speciation in seawater by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following solid phase extraction pre-concentration by using an ionic imprinted polymer based on methyl-mercury-phenobarbital interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Reino, María Pilar; Rodríguez-Fernández, Roi; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Domínguez-González, Raquel; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2015-04-24

    Trace levels of inorganic mercury, methyl-mercury and ethyl-mercury have been assessed in seawater by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after solid phase extraction (SPE) pre-concentration with a novel synthesized ionic imprinted polymer. The adsorbent material was prepared by trapping a non-vinylated chelating ligand (phenobarbital) via imprinting of a ternary mixed ligand complex of the non-vinylated chelating agent, the template (methyl-mercury), and the vinyl ligand (metacrylic acid, MAA). Ethylene dimetacrylate (EDMA) and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) were used as cross-linker and initiator reagents, respectively; and the precipitation polymerization technique was used in a porogen of acetonitrile/water (4:1). The best retention properties for methyl-mercury, inorganic mercury and ethyl-mercury species from seawater were obtained when loading 200 mL of sample adjusted to pH 8.0 and at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1) on a column-packed with 200mg of the material. Quantitative mercury species recoveries were obtained using 4 mL of an eluting solution consisting of 0.8% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol and 20% (v/v) methanol (pH adjusted to 4.5) pumped at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1). Mercury species separation was achieved on a Kinetex C18 column working under isocratic conditions (0.4% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol, 10% (v/v) methanol, pH 2.5, flow rate 0.7 mL min(-1)). ICP-MS detection was performed by monitoring the mercury mass to charge ratio of 202. The limits of quantification of the method were 11, 6.7, and 12 ng L(-1), for inorganic mercury, methyl-mercury and ethyl-mercury, respectively (pre-concentration factor of 50); whereas, analytical recoveries ranged from 96 to 106%. The developed method was successfully applied to several seawater samples from unpolluted areas.

  13. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity predict PTSD symptom increase after trauma exposure during military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Schönfeld, Sabine; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Trautmann, Sebastian; Alexander, Nina; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    Previous evidence on endocrine risk markers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been inconclusive. Here, we report results of the first prospective study to investigate whether long-term hair cortisol levels and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity are predictive of the development of PTSD symptomatology in response to trauma during military deployment. Male soldiers were examined before deployment to Afghanistan and at a 12-month post-deployment follow-up using dimensional measures for psychopathological symptoms. The predictive value of baseline (i) hair cortisol concentrations (HCC, N=90) and (ii) salivary cortisol stress reactivity (measured by the Trier Social Stress Test, N=80) for the development of PTSD symptomatology after being exposed to new-onset traumatic events was analyzed. Baseline cortisol activity significantly predicted PTSD symptom change from baseline to follow-up upon trauma exposure. Specifically, our results consistently revealed that lower HCC and lower cortisol stress reactivity were predictive of a greater increase in PTSD symptomatology in soldiers who had experienced new-onset traumatic events (explaining 5% and 10.3% of variance, respectively). Longitudinal analyses revealed an increase in HCC from baseline to follow-up and a trend for a negative relationship between HCC changes and the number of new-onset traumatic events. Additional pre-deployment analyses revealed that trauma history was reflected in lower HCC (at trend level) and that HCC were negatively related to stressful load. Our data indicate that attenuated cortisol secretion is a risk marker for subsequent development of PTSD symptomatology upon trauma exposure. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in other samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hair cortisol concentration in preschoolers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms-Roles of gender and family adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Schloß, Susan; Ruhl, Isabelle; Skoluda, Nadine; Nater, Urs M; Becker, Katja

    2017-09-05

    Previous studies on the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity and ADHD yielded inconsistent findings, particularly in younger children. This might be due to the heterogeneity of the disorder, making moderator effects of variables probable, which circumscribe more homogenous subgroups. There have been indications of moderator effects on this association by gender of child and exposure to family adversity. Moreover, difficulties in capturing long-term basal HPAA activity in younger children might have contributed to the inconsistencies. We therefore analyzed moderator effects of gender and family adversity while using the hair cortisol concentration (HCC) to assess integrated long-term HPAA. The community-based sample consisted of 122 4-5-year-old preschoolers (71 screened positive for elevated ADHD symptoms). ADHD symptoms were measured by a clinical parent interview and parent and teacher questionnaires. HCC in the most proximal 3-cm scalp hair segment was analyzed using luminescence immunoassay. An extended family adversity index was used. Hierarchical linear regression analyses yielded an interaction effect (p<.05) between ADHD symptom groups and gender on HCC, indicating a low HCC in boys with elevated ADHD symptoms. Further exploratory analyses revealed that this interaction effect was most pronounced under the condition of family adversity. The results held after controlling for oppositional, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Low HCC might indicate a specific pathogenic mechanism in boys with elevated ADHD symptoms. This mechanism might further involve an exposure to family adversity. However, the results need to be cross-validated before definitive conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Ingrown hair By Mayo Clinic Staff An ingrown hair occurs when a shaved or tweezed hair grows back into the skin. It can cause ... and tiny bumps in the area where the hair was removed. Ingrown hair is a common condition ...

  16. Segmental hair mercury evaluation of a single family along the Upper Madeira Basin, Brazilian Amazon Avaliação de mercúrio em segmentos de cabelo dos indivíduos de uma única família residente na Bacia do Alto Madeira, Amazônia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Peixoto Boischio

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury pollution (MeHg up the aquatic food chains in the Amazonian ecosystems has been a major concern in environmental health. Riverside people (ribeirinhos along the Upper Madeira river are heavy fish eaters. Hair is the best biomarker for MeHg exposure. By assuming a constant hair growth rate, it is possible to evaluate a temporal profile of Hg exposure over the recent defined past. In this paper we present the segmental total hair Hg concentrations from a single family from which some of the 10 persons investigated had high hair Hg concentrations (peak of 339 ppm. We also presented the hair MeHg content from 4 out of the 10 family members investigated. There was a wide variation in total hair Hg concentrations (8 to 339 ppm among these individuals, who were mostly sharing their meals; there was also a wide variation in total Hg concentrations in the same individual over time (136 to 274 ppm. Hg speciation showed a mean and standard deviation in the MeHg content of 62% and 6%, respectively. The wide variation in total hair Hg concentration strongly indicated that it is possible to mitigate critical Hg exposure levels by conducting a fish advisory.A poluição por mercúrio orgânico (MeHg das cadeias alimentares aquáticas nos ecossistemas amazônicos constitui tema de relevância na saúde ambiental. O MeHg pode chegar às populações humanas mediante o consumo de peixe. Os ribeirinhos do Alto Madeira consomem grandes quantidades de peixe. O cabelo é o melhor biomarcador para exposição ao MeHg; é possível também assumir uma taxa constante de crescimento do cabelo, para verificar o comportamento das exposições no passado recente. Neste trabalho apresentamos as concentrações de Hg total (máxima de 339 ppm em segmentos de 3 cm de cabelo de dez pessoas de uma única família. Apresentamos também os percentuais de MeHg nas amostras de cabelo de quatro pessoas, dentre as dez em estudo. Nessa família, foi observada uma grande varia

  17. Nondestructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): I. Relationships between concentrations of metals and arsenic in hair, spines, and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Havé, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Mubiana, Valentine Kayawe; Verhagen, Ron; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim

    2005-09-01

    Conventional metal exposure assessment in terrestrial mammals is generally based on organ analyses of sacrificed animals. Few studies on mammals use nondestructive methodologies despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling. Nondestructive methods involve minimal stress to populations and permit successive biomonitoring of the same populations and individuals. In the present study we assessed metal exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) by investigating relationships between concentrations of metals (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and As in soil samples and in hair and spines of hedgehogs. Samples were collected in seven study sites along a metal pollution gradient, characterized by decreasing total soil Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb concentrations with increasing distance from a nonferrous metallurgic factory. For a number of elements, soil contamination was related both to distance to the smelter and to habitat. Soil concentrations were positively related to levels in hair and spines for Ag, As, Cd, and Pb and thus to hedgehog exposure. Metal concentrations in soil did not relate to metal concentrations in hair and spines for essential elements (e.g., Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn), except Co in hair and soil. Our results demonstrate that, at least for nonessential elements, concentrations in soils can be used to predict contamination of these elements in hedgehogs or vice versa. Furthermore, hedgehog exposure increased toward the smelter and was higher for hedgehogs foraging in grasslands than for animals foraging in the forest. Moreover, we believe that hair and spines are promising tools in terrestrial wildlife exposure assessment studies of metals and As.

  18. Toward real-time measurement of atmospheric mercury concentrations using cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Faïn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS is a direct absorption technique that utilizes path lengths up to multiple kilometers in a compact absorption cell and has a significantly higher sensitivity than conventional absorption spectroscopy. This tool opens new prospects for study of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0 because of its high temporal resolution and reduced sample volume requirements (<0.5 l of sample air. We developed a new sensor based on CRDS for measurement of (Hg0 mass concentration. Sensor characteristics include sub-ng m−3 detection limit and high temporal resolution using a frequency-doubled, tuneable dye laser emitting pulses at ~253.65 nm with a pulse repetition frequency of 50 Hz. The dye laser incorporates a unique piezo element attached to its tuning grating allowing it to tune the laser on and off the Hg0 absorption line on a pulse-to-pulse basis to facilitate differential absorption measurements. Hg0 absorption measurements with this CRDS laboratory prototype are highly linearly related to Hg0 concentrations determined by a Tekran 2537B analyzer over an Hg0 concentration range from 0.2 ng m−3 to 573 ng m−3, implying excellent linearity of both instruments. The current CRDS instrument has a sensitivity of 0.10 ng Hg0 m−3 at 10-s time resolution. Ambient-air tests showed that background Hg0 levels can be detected at low temporal resolution (i.e., 1 s, but also highlight a need for high-frequency (i.e., pulse-to-pulse differential on/off-line tuning of the laser wavelength to account for instabilities of the CRDS system and variable background absorption interferences. Future applications may include ambient Hg0 flux measurements with eddy covariance techniques, which require measurements of Hg0 concentrations with sub-ng m−3 sensitivity and sub-second time

  19. μPIXE for a μBrain: The vinegar fly's brain, antenna, sensilla hairs and eye ion concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Anja; Barapatre, Nirav; Sachse, Silke; Reinert, Tilo

    2011-10-01

    The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster is used as model organism to study a variety of different scientific purposes. Thus, our laboratory studies the olfactory system by neurobiological experiments. These techniques are often disruptive and need to compensate or exchange the body fluid, the lymph, with an artificial Ringer's solution in defined compartments of the fly. The solution mainly contains Na, Cl, K and Ca and is to keep physiological conditions. Therefore, the knowledge about the ion concentrations in the respective Drosophila lymph is required for a correct mixture of the ions. This paper presents the spatially resolved concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in lyophilised head cryosections of Drosophila by using quantitative μPIXE at the ion beam facility LIPSION in Leipzig. The PIXE maps enable a detailed analysis of particular regions of interest down to a spatial resolution of 0.5 μm. We quantified the ion concentrations especially in the brain, the antenna and its sensilla hairs acting as the olfactory organ of the fly, in the compound eye and in the mouthparts. The averaged element concentrations of these main compartments are (in descending order): P: 90 mM, K: 81 mM, S: 38 mM, Cl: 18 mM, Ca: 4.9 mM, Fe: 1.4 mM, Zn: 1.2 mM, Cu: 0.06 mM. Certain structures or cavities possess a remarkably high concentration of particular elements and might reflect the different functions of the compartments. An example presented in more detail is the composition of the compound eye. Conclusively, our findings on the ion concentrations might be useful for the mixture of the Drosophila Ringer's solution to ensure physiological conditions in experiments.

  20. Atmospheric mercury concentrations at two sites in the Kyushu Islands, Japan, and evidence of long-range transport from East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumoto, Kohji; Hayashi, Masahiko; Takami, Akinori

    2015-09-01

    Continuous monitoring of atmospheric gaseous mercury at Fukuoka and Minamata in the Kyushu Islands, western Japan, was carried out from June 2012 to May 2013 to investigate the influence of long-range transport of mercury in the Asian region. Speciation data at Fukuoka indicated that approximately 99% of the atmospheric mercury was in the gaseous elemental form. The average concentration of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Fukuoka was slightly higher than that of total gaseous mercury (TGM) at Minamata. Synchronous pollution events of higher concentrations of both GEM at Fukuoka and TGM at Minamata were frequently observed from late fall to early spring. We infer that these events occurred due to long-range transport of mercury rather than local, domestic emission sources because the two sites are far apart (about 150 km), and local sources would be unlikely to synchronously influence concentrations at both sites over such a long distance. The results of backward trajectory analyses indicated that these events occurred when air masses came from the Asian continent. In addition, the pollution events were often the result of cold fronts or migratory anticyclones that passed over the Kyushu Islands, often accompanied by descending cool and heavy air currents. Thus, these results indicate that, under specific climate conditions, higher concentrations of atmospheric mercury are transported to the Kyushu Islands from the Asian continent, and are evident in ground-based observations there.

  1. Spatial relations of mercury contents in Pike (Esox lucius) and sediments concentration of the Anzali wetland, along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-07-15

    In recent decades, the Anzali wetland has been threatened and destroyed by environmental pollution from several sources. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relationships between mercury concentrations in Pike and their respective sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike (100, 250 and 500 m in radius). To gain a better understanding spatial distribution pattern of Hg in sediments and to pursue the main purpose of this study, kriging (geostatistic spatial interpolation method) was applied. Poor relationships were found between mercury concentrations of Pike and sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike. The mercury sediment influence diminished with the increasing radii of assumed activity centers. The results of the present study indicate that fish and sediment mercury concentrations in western parts of the Anzali wetland were low in comparison with the concentrations reported in the literature from other regions.

  2. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in two newly constructed reservoirs in the Wujiang River, Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Heng; Feng, Xinbin; Guo, Yanna; Yan, Haiyu; Fu, Xuewu; Li, Zhonggen; Meng, Bo

    2011-03-01

    We studied the distribution of different mercury species in two newly created reservoirs (Hongjiadu [HJD] and Suofengying [SFY] Reservoir) within the Wujiang River, Guizhou Province, China. These reservoirs were sampled four times between January, 2007, and November, 2007. Water, soil, and fish tissue samples were collected and analyzed for organic (methylmercury) and total Hg. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content in water was measured as well. In both reservoirs, the DOC concentration was low (range 0.5-4.9 mg/L). Organic matter content in soil collected near the bank of both reservoirs was also low (range 0.4-6.9%). The total MeHg level did not increase significantly with depth in water column, nor did it exhibit a pronounced spatial pattern moving from upstream to the dam. The total MeHg level did not increase significantly with depth in water column, nor did it exhibit a pronounced spatial pattern moving from upstream to the dam. The total Hg content in fish tissue was on average 0.044 mg/kg wet weight, which is a very low content in an international comparison. It is suggested that the studied reservoirs were not active sites of net Hg methylating. Low levels of organic matter (OM) may constrict the evolution of the bulk Hg methylation process occurring in flooded soil. Therefore, we hypothesize that newly constructed reservoirs in the karstic region of Southwest China appear to be much less beset by the problems of MeHg pollution that have been reported for corresponding reservoirs in North America and Europe. However, further research is required to verify this finding.

  3. Mercury concentrations in urine of amerindian populations near oil fields in the peruvian and ecuadorian amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Ross, Nancy; Mergler, Donna

    2016-11-01

    Mercury is a global contaminant with toxic, persistent effects on human health. Petroleum extraction is an important source of elemental mercury; little is known about human exposure levels near oil fields in the Amazon basin. To characterize mercury levels in people living near oil production sites in the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon, controlling for fish consumption, occupation, source of water and socio-demographic characteristics. Analyze mercury levels in urine samples using cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry from 76 indigenous men and women in eight riverine communities situated near oil wells or pipelines. Subjects answered a questionnaire soliciting socio-demographic, occupational and dietary information. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression modeling. The mean value of U-Hg was 2.61μg/g creatinine (95% CI: 2.14-3.08), with 7% of the sample recording values above the global background standard suggested by The World Health Organization (5μg/g creatinine). Women who used water from a surface source had two and a half times the amount of mercury in their urine (mean=3.70μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 2.26-5.15) compared with women who used other water sources (mean =1.39μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 0.51-2.25). Men who were involved in an oil clean-up operation had twice as much mercury in their urine (mean =3.07μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.97-4.16) as did those who worked on other tasks (mean =1.56μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.48-2.65). Mercury levels were not associated with the number of fish meals per week. Indigenous peoples of the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon living near oil production sites generally had urine mercury levels within the global background standard suggested by the World Health Organization. Increased levels of mercury in urine were detected for men involved in oil spill remediation and for women who relied on surface water for household needs. These findings signal the need for strict safety measures to limit the amount

  4. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: A possible hair pigmentation bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A. (Alexander); G. Noppe (Gerard); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association

  5. Dry hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normally style your hair? Do you use a hair dryer? What type? How often? What other symptoms are also present? Diagnostic tests that may be performed include: Examination of the hair under a microscope Blood tests

  6. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hair Removal KidsHealth > For Teens > Hair Removal A A A ... recommend an electrologist with the proper credentials. Laser Hair Removal How It Works: A laser is directed through ...

  7. High concentrations of lead and barium in hair of the rural population caused by water pollution in the Thar Jath oilfields in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, Fritz; Stieglitz, Klaus; Runge, Hella; Runow, Klaus-Dietrich; Quig, David; Osborne, Robert; Runge, Christian; Ariki, John

    2016-12-23

    In the oil fields of Thar Jath, South Sudan, increasing salinity of drinking water was observed together with human incompatibilities and rise in livestock mortalities. Hair analysis was used to characterize the toxic exposure of the population. Hair samples of volunteers from four communities with different distance from the center of the oil field (Koch 23km, n=24; Leer 50km, n=26; Nyal 110km, n=21; and Rumbek 220km, n=25) were analyzed for altogether 39 elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Very high concentrations and a toxic health endangerment were assessed for lead and barium. The concentration of lead increased steadily with decreasing distance from the oil field from Rumbek (mean 2.8μg/g) to Koch (mean 18.7μg/g) and was there in the same range as in highly contaminated mining regions in Kosovo, China or Bolivia. The weighting materials in drilling muds barite (BaSO4) and galena (PbS) were considered to be the sources of drinking water pollution and high hair values. The high concentrations of lead and barium in hair demonstrate clearly the health risk caused by harmful deposition of toxic industrial waste but cannot be used for diagnosis of a chronic intoxication of the individuals.

  8. A summary of total mercury concentrations in flora and fauna near common contaminant sources in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M; Chancy, C

    2008-02-01

    Total mercury concentrations are summarized for environmental media and biota collected from near-coastal areas, several impacted by contaminant sources common to the Gulf of Mexico. Water, sediment, fish, blue crabs, oysters, clams, mussels, periphyton and seagrasses were collected during 1993-2002 from targeted areas affected by point and non-point source contaminants. Mean concentrations in water and sediment were 0.02 (+/-1 standard deviation=0.06) microg l(-1) and 96.3 (230.8) ng g(-1) dry wt, respectively. Mean total mercury concentrations in fish, blue crabs, brackish clams and mussels were significantly greater than those in sediment, seagrass, colonized periphyton and oysters. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry wt) averaged 23.1 (two seagrass species), 220.1 (oysters), 287.8 (colonized periphyton), 604.0 (four species of freshwater mussels), 772.4 (brackish clam), 857.9 (blue crabs) and 933.1 (nine fish species). Spatial, intraspecific and interspecific variability in results limited most generalizations concerning the relative mercury contributions of different stressor types. However, concentrations were significantly greater for some biota collected from areas receiving wastewater discharges and golf course runoff (fish), agricultural runoff (oysters) and urban stormwater runoff (colonized periphyton and sediment). Marine water quality criteria and proposed sediment quality guidelines were exceeded in 1-12% of total samples. At least one seafood consumption guideline, criteria or screening value were exceeded in edible tissues of blue crabs (6% total samples) and nine fish species (8-33% total samples) but all residues were less than the US Federal Drug Administration action limit of 1.0 ppm and the few reported toxic effect concentrations available for the targeted biota.

  9. Total mercury in muscles and liver of Mugil spp. from three coastal lagoons of NW Mexico: concentrations and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alvarez, C G; Frías-Espericueta, M G; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Becerra-Álvarez, M J; Osuna-Martínez, C C; Aguilar-Juárez, M; Osuna-López, J I; Escobar-Sánchez, O; Voltolina, D

    2017-07-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in muscles and liver of composite samples of Mugil cephalus and M. curema collected during November 2013 and in January, April, and July 2014 from the coastal lagoons Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón (AEP), Ceuta (CEU), and Teacapán-Agua Brava (TAG) of Sinaloa State. The mean Hg contents and information on local consumption were used to assess the possible risk caused by fish ingestion. Mean total mercury levels in the muscles ranged from 0.11 to 0.39 μg/g, while the range for liver was 0.12-3.91 μg/g. The mean Hg content of the liver was significantly (p 1, indicating a possible risk for some fishing communities of the Mexican Pacific coast.

  10. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  11. Mercury concentrations in Northwest Atlantic winter-caught, male spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias): A geographic mercury comparison and risk-reward framework for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Gelais, Adam T; Costa-Pierce, Barry A

    2016-01-15

    Mercury (Hg) contamination testing was conducted on winter-caught male spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in southern New England and results compared to available data on Hg concentrations for this species. A limited risk-reward assessment for EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid) lipid concentrations of spiny dogfish was completed in comparison with other commonly consumed marine fish. Mean Hg concentrations were 0.19 ppm (±0.30) wet weight. In comparison, mean Hg concentrations in S. acanthias varied geographically ranging from 0.05 ppm (Celtic Sea) to 2.07 ppm (Crete, Mediterranean Sea). A risk-reward assessment for Hg and DHA+EPA placed S. acanthias in both "low-risk, high-reward" and "high-risk, high-reward" categories for consumption dependent on locations of the catch. Our results are limited and are not intended as consumption advisories but serve to illustrate the need for making more nuanced, geo-specific, consumption guidance for spiny dogfish that is inclusive of seafood traceability and nutritional benefits.

  12. Strong Correlation Between Concentrations of Tenofovir (TFV) Emtricitabine (FTC) in Hair and TFV Diphosphate and FTC Triphosphate in Dried Blood Spots in the iPrEx Open Label Extension: Implications for Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Adherence Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Monica; Glidden, David V.; Liu, Albert; Anderson, Peter L.; Horng, Howard; Defechereux, Patricia; Guanira, Juan V.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Grant, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has limitations, raising interest in pharmacologic monitoring. Drug concentrations in hair and dried blood spots (DBS) are used to assess long-term-exposure; hair shipment/storage occurs at room temperature. The iPrEx Open Label Extension collected DBS routinely, with opt-in hair collection; concentrations were measured with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In 806 hair-DBS pairs, tenofovir (TFV) hair levels and TFV diphosphate (DP) in DBS were strongly correlated (Spearman coefficient r = 0.734; P < .001), as were hair TFV/DBS emtricitabine (FTC) triphosphate (TP) (r = 0.781; P < .001); hair FTC/DBS TFV-DP (r = 0.74; P < .001); hair FTC/DBS FTC-TP (r = 0.587; P < .001). Drug detectability was generally concordant by matrix. Hair TFV/FTC concentrations correlate strongly with DBS levels, which are predictive of PrEP outcomes. PMID:25895984

  13. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues, sediment and water from fish farm along the Karoun River in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maktabi, Payvand; Javaheri Baboli, Mehran; Jafarnejadi, Ali Reza; Askary Sary, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The Karoun River is major source of water for warm‌water fish culture industry in southwest of Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of mercury in tissues of marketable common carp and in bottom sediments of fish farms in Khouzestan province. This study was carried out on 45 fish farms that are located on the bank of the Karoun River in Khouzestan province, south-west Iran. Concentration of mercury (Hg) was determined using spectrophotometery in three tissues (muscles, liver and gills) of farmed common carp (Cyprinus carpio), water and bottom sediments of fish farms collected from three regions (North, center and south) of the Karoun River, in Khouzestan province, Iran. The concentrations of Hg in muscle tissue (2.71 mg kg(-1) dry matter) of fish from the south were significantly higher (p south sampling zones, Hg concentration in muscle was found to be above the maximum tolerable values provided by Food and Drug Administration standards. The Hg concentration of fish farm sediment and water samples were ranged as 0.46 to 0.48 mg kg(-1) dry matter and 3.10 to 4.11 μg Hg L(-1), respectively. Finally, Hg concentrations at downstream site were higher than upstream site.

  14. Mercury Concentrations in Pacific Angel Sharks (Squatina californica) and Prey Fishes from Southern Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Sánchez, O; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Moreno-Sánchez, X G; Romo-Piñera, A K; Frías-Espericueta, M G

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of mercury (Hg) were quantified in muscle tissues of the Pacific angel shark, Squatina californica sampled from Southern Gulf of California, Mexico, considering total length, sex, diet and the dietary risk assessment. High Hg levels are typically associated with carnivorous fishes, however S. californica showed low Hg concentrations (shark (p > 0.05). Hg concentrations were highest in the darkedge mishipman: Porichthys analis (0.14 ± 0.08 µg g(-1)) and red-eye round herring Etrumeus teres (0.13 ± 0.05 µg g(-1)) relative to other prey species, which could suggest that Hg concentrations in S. californica were influenced by these species. Given the relatively low concentration of Hg across age-classes and sex, consumption of S. californica's muscle tissue poses limited risk to humans.

  15. Hair cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Alterations in the cuticle, cortex, and medulla are necessary to modify the hair cosmetically. The hair can be modified externally by the use of shampoos to remove excess sebum, conditioners to restore shine, and styling aids to increase manageability. Several different formulations of all these products exist, depending on the needs of the patient. Furthermore, the hair can be modified both externally and internally through the use of hair dyes, permanent waving lotions, and hair straighteners. Use of these products causes external damage to the hair shaft by disrupting the overlapping cuticular scales, rendering the hair susceptible to static electricity and the effects of humidity while decreasing manageability and shine. Internal damage created by these products decreases the hair shaft's elastic properties, allowing increased hair breakage. The dermatologist can better aid the patient with hair difficulties if he or she has an understanding of the formulation and effects of products designed to cleanse, beautify, and modify the hair.

  16. Mercury biomagnification in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Blum, J. D.; Xie, Z.; Hren, M.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2007-12-01

    Mercury biomagnification occurs in a variety of ecosystems resulting in greater potential for toxicological effects in higher-level trophic feeders. However, Hg transport pathways through different foodweb channels are not well known, particularly in high-latitude systems affected by atmospheric Hg deposition associated with snow and ice. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios and Hg concentrations determined for 26 late 19th and early 20th century polar bear hair specimens collected from cataloged museum collections elucidate relationships between high latitude marine foodweb structure and Hg transport pathways. Nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions suggest that polar bears derive nutrition from both open water (pelagic) and ice associated (sympagic) foodweb channels. Correlation between Hg concentrations and nitrogen isotope compositions indicate mercury biomagnification occurred in most of the polar bears investigated. Interpretation of stable isotope based foodweb structure in concert with Hg concentrations further suggests that Hg biomagnification occurred to a greater degree in polar bears participating in pelagic foodweb channels.

  17. Mercury Concentration and Isotopic Composition of Epiphytic Tree Lichens in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic heavy metal that is found associated with fossil fuel deposits and that can be released to the atmosphere during fossil fuel combustion and/or processing. Hg emitted to the atmosphere can be deposited to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems where it can be m...

  18. Mercury Concentrations in Plant Tissues as Affected by FGDG Application to Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) is produced by reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from themo-electric coal-fired power plants. The most common practice of FGDG production may trap some of the Mercury (Hg) present in the coal that normally would escape as vapor in the stack gases. Concern for t...

  19. Mercury Concentration and Isotopic Composition of Epiphytic Tree Lichens in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic heavy metal that is found associated with fossil fuel deposits and that can be released to the atmosphere during fossil fuel combustion and/or processing. Hg emitted to the atmosphere can be deposited to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems where it can be m...

  20. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Janle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose.

  1. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in recently fled asylum seekers in comparison to permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, R; Reich, H; Skoluda, N; Seele, F; Nater, U M

    2017-03-07

    Recently fled asylum seekers generally live in stressful conditions. Their residency status is mostly insecure and, similar to other immigrants, they experience stress due to acculturation. Moreover, they often suffer from traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). All of these factors can result in chronic maladaptive biological stress responses in terms of hyper- or hypocortisolism and, ultimately, illness. We believe the current study is the first to compare hair cortisol concentration (HCC) of recently fled asylum seekers with PTSD to those without PTSD, and to compare HCC of asylum seekers to HCC of permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrant individuals. HCC of the previous 2 months was compared between 24 asylum seekers without PTSD, 32 asylum seekers with PTSD, 24 permanently settled healthy Turkish immigrants and 28 non-immigrant healthy Germans as the reference group. Statistical comparisons were controlled for age, sex and body mass index. No significant difference in HCC was found between asylum seekers with and without PTSD. However, the asylum seekers showed a 42% higher HCC than the reference group. In contrast, the permanently settled immigrants exhibited a 23% lower HCC than the reference group. We found relative hypercortisolism in recently fled asylum seekers, but no difference between persons with and without PTSD. These findings add to the very few studies investigating HCC in groups with recent traumatization and unsafe living conditions. Contrary to the findings in asylum seekers, permanently settled immigrants showed relative hypocortisolism. Both hyper- and hypocortisolism may set the stage for the development of stress-related illnesses.

  2. Tissue-specific mercury concentrations in two catfish species from the Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Souza Azevedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some regions of Brazil have particularly high levels of mercury (Hg emissions due to industrial activities, and their fish species may therefore suffer high levels of contamination through bioaccumulation. In this paper we assess Hg contamination in the muscle, liver, gills and blood of two different species of catfish collected from the Cananéia and Santos-São Vicente estuaries, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fish from the most polluted site (Santos-São Vicente showed higher median Hg concentrations in both species (Cathorops spixii - liver: 1530 µg Kg-1, muscle: 327 µg Kg-1 and gill: 101 µg Kg-1; Genidens genidens - liver: 2617 µg Kg-1, muscle: 393 µg Kg-1 and gill: 118 µg Kg-1. Multivariate analysis revealed the importance and influence of key biological variables (size, condition, etc. in determining the overall level of Hg and its distribution within different tissues.Algumas regiões do Brasil apresentam, altos níveis de emissões de mercúrio (Hg devido às atividades industriais, e suas espécies de peixes podem, portanto, estar expostos a elevados níveis de contaminação por meio da bioacumulação. Neste trabalho avaliamos a contaminação por Hg no músculo, fígado, brânquias e sangue de duas espécies de bagres coletados nos estuários de Cananéia e Santos-São Vicente, São Paulo, Brasil. Peixes amostrados no local mais poluído (Santos-São Vicente mostraram maiores concentrações de Hg em ambas as espécies (Cathorops spixii - fígado: 1530 µg Kg-1, músculo: 327 µg Kg-1 e brânquias: 101 µg Kg-1; Genidens genidens - fígado: 2617 µg Kg-1, músculo: 393 µg Kg-1 e brânquias: 118 µg Kg-1. Análises multivariadas revelaram a importância e influência das principais variáveis biológicas (tamanho, condição, etc. no teor geral de Hg e sua distribuição nos diferentes tecidos.

  3. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to support hair growth. Some teens who are vegetarians also lose their hair if they don't get enough protein from non-meat sources. And some athletes are at higher risk for hair loss because they may be more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Disruption of the hair growth cycle. Some ...

  4. Avaliação da contaminação mercurial mediante análise do teor de Hg total em amostras de cabelo em comunidades ribeirinhas do Tapajós, Pará, Brasil Total mercury in hair samples of inhabitants of Tapajós river, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a contaminação mercurial em comunidades de pescadores em quatro localidades nas margens do rio Tapajós: Rainha, Barreiras, São Luís do Tapajós e Paraná-Mirim. Análises toxocológicas das amostras de cabelo foram realizadas por espectofotometria de absorção atômica. Os níveis de mercúrio total em amostras de cabelo variaram entre 2,9µg/g e 71,5µg/g. Os valores mais baixos foram encontrados na comunidade de Paraná-Mirim. Os mais elevados, em São Luís do Tapajós e Barreiras, cerca de seis a sete vezes superiores ao valor estabelecido. As diferenças entre as concentrações médias de mercúrio total nas amostras, coletadas em populações ribeirinhas, a montante e a jusante do rio Tapajós em Itaituba, não apresentaram significância estatística (p > 0,05. Conclui-se que a exposição humana ao mercúrio por ingestão de peixes contaminados constitui risco potencial para o aparecimento de sintomas e sinais da doença de Minamata, o que recomenda a manutenção de um programa de vigilância epidemiológica.This study evaluates human exposure to methylmercury in fishermen and their families in four villages on the Tapajós river: Rainha, Barreiras, São Luís do Tapajós and Paraná-Mirim. Hair analyses were performed with atomic absorption spectophotometry. Total hair mercury levels varied between 2.9mg/g and 71.5mg/g. Paraná-Mirim showed the lowest level. The highest level was found in São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras. The hair mercury was six to seven times higher than the established safe limit of 10mg/g. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean level of total mercury taken from the inhabitants living downstream and upstream in Itaituba village (p > 0.05. These results confirm that human exposure to methylmercury is occurring on the Tapajós river and suggest that continued fish ingestion in that region is a potential risk factor for the appearance of symptoms and signs of

  5. Current approaches of the management of mercury poisoning: need of the hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati-Rahimzadeh, Mehrdad; Rafati-Rahimzadeh, Mehravar; Kazemi, Sohrab; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2014-06-02

    Mercury poisoning cases have been reported in many parts of the world, resulting in many deaths every year. Mercury compounds are classified in different chemical types such as elemental, inorganic and organic forms. Long term exposure to mercury compounds from different sources e.g. water, food, soil and air lead to toxic effects on cardiovascular, pulmonary, urinary, gastrointestinal, neurological systems and skin. Mercury level can be measured in plasma, urine, feces and hair samples. Urinary concentration is a good indicator of poisoning of elemental and inorganic mercury, but organic mercury (e.g. methyl mercury) can be detected easily in feces. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a rapid, cheap and sensitive method for detection of thymine bound mercuric ions. Silver nanoparticles are used as a sensitive detector of low concentration Hg2+ ions in homogeneous aqueous solutions. Besides supportive therapy, British anti lewisite, dimercaprol (BAL), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. succimer) and dimercaptopropanesulfoxid acid (DMPS) are currently used as chelating agents in mercury poisoning. Natural biologic scavengers such as algae, azolla and other aquatic plants possess the ability to uptake mercury traces from the environment.

  6. Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Fey, David L.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Samples of soil, water, mine waste leachates, soil gas, and air were collected from areas mined for mercury (Hg) and baseline sites in the Big Bend area, Texas, to evaluate potential Hg contamination in the region. Soil samples collected within 300 m of an inactive Hg mine contained elevated Hg concentrations (3.8–11 µg/g), which were considerably higher than Hg in soil collected from baseline sites (0.03–0.05 µg/g) distal (as much as 24 km) from mines. Only three soil samples collected within 300 m of the mine exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 µg/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of Hg in mine water runoff (7.9–14 ng/L) were generally higher than those found in springs and wells (0.05–3.1 ng/L), baseline streams (1.1–9.7 ng/L), and sources of drinking water (0.63–9.1 ng/L) collected in the Big Bend region. Concentrations of Hg in all water samples collected in this study were considerably below the 2,000 ng/L drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L guideline recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect aquatic wildlife from chronic effects of Hg. Concentrations of Hg in water leachates obtained from leaching of mine wastes varied widely from wastes were elevated, persistent wind in southwest Texas disperses Hg in the air within a few meters of the ground surface.

  7. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments include hair coloring, hair curling (permanents), hair bleaching, and hair straightening (relaxers) agents. For this fact sheet, hair ... permanent wave chemicals include ammonium thioglycolate and ammonia. Hair bleaching chemicals include hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners (relaxers) use ...

  8. Changes in Sport Fish Mercury Concentrations from Food Web Shifts Suggest Partial Decoupling from Atmospheric Deposition in Two Colorado Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Brian A; Johnson, Brett M; Lepak, Jesse M

    2017-02-01

    Partial decoupling of mercury (Hg) loading and observed Hg concentrations ([Hg]) in biotic and abiotic samples has been documented in aquatic systems. We studied two Colorado reservoirs to test whether shifts in prey for sport fish would lead to changes in [Hg] independent of external atmospheric Hg deposition. We compared sport fish total mercury concentrations ([T-Hg]) and macroinvertebrate (chironomids and crayfish) methylmercury concentrations ([MeHg]) before and after food web shifts occurred in both reservoirs. We also monitored wet atmospheric Hg deposition and sediment [T-Hg] and [MeHg] at each reservoir. We found rapid shifts in Hg bioaccumulation in each reservoir's sport fish, and these changes could not be attributed to atmospheric Hg deposition. Our study shows that trends in atmospheric deposition, environmental samples (e.g., sediments), and samples of species at the low trophic levels (e.g., chironomids and crayfish) may not accurately reflect conditions that result in fish consumption advisories for high trophic level sport fish. We suggest that in the short-term, monitoring fish [Hg] is necessary to adequately protect human health because natural and anthropogenic perturbations to aquatic food-webs that affect [Hg] in sport fish will continue regardless of trends in atmospheric deposition.

  9. Mercury and Organic Matter Concentrations in Lake and Stream Sediments in relation to One Another and to Atmospheric Mercury Deposition and Climate Variations across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Nasr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on analyzing the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC data for total mercury concentrations (THg in lake and stream sediments. The objective was to quantify how sediment THg varies by (i sediment organic matter, determined by loss on ignition (LOI at 500∘C, (ii atmospheric Hg deposition (atm.Hgdep as derived from the Global/Regional Atmospheric Heavy Metals Model GRAHM2005, and (iii mean annual precipitation and mean monthly July and January temperatures (TJuly, TJan. Through regression analyses and averaging by National Topographic System tiles (NTS, 1:250,000 scale, it was found that 40, 70, and 80% of the sediment THg, LOI, and atm.Hgdep variations were, respectively, related to precipitation, TJuly, and TJan. In detail, lake sediment THg was related to atm.Hgdep and precipitation, while stream sediment THg was related to sediment LOI and TJuly. Plotting sediment THg versus sediment LOI revealed a curvilinear pattern, with highest Hg concentrations at intermediate LOI values. Analysing the resulting 10th and 90th log10THg percentiles within each 10% LOI class from 0 to 100% revealed that (i atm.Hgdep contributed to the organic component of sediment THg and (ii this was more pronounced for lakes than for streams.

  10. Source, concentration, and distribution of elemental mercury in the atmosphere in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Elaine; Tharumakulasingam, Kavitharan; Athar, Makshoof; Yousaf, Muhammad; Cheng, Irene; Huang, Y; Lu, Julia; Yap, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury [GEM] at 1.8, 4, and 59 m above ground, in parking lots, and in indoor and outdoor air was measured in Toronto City, Canada from May 2008-July 2009. The average GEM value at 1.8 m was 1.89 ± 0.62 ng m(-3). The GEM values increased with elevation. The average GEM in underground parking lots ranged from 1.37 to 7.86 ng m(-3) and was higher than those observed from the surface parking lots. The GEM in the indoor air ranged from 1.21 to 28.50 ng m(-3), was higher in the laboratories than in the offices, and was much higher than that in the outdoor air. All these indicate that buildings serve as sources of mercury to the urban atmosphere. More studies are needed to estimate the contribution of urban areas to the atmospheric mercury budget and the impact of indoor air on outdoor air quality and human health.

  11. Age-associated changes in integral cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate concentrations in human scalp hair and finger nail clippings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosche, T; Dressler, S; Platt, D

    2001-04-01

    In contrast to surface lipids originating from the sebaceous glands, membrane-forming integral lipids occur in keratinized tissues of skin, and skin appendages like fingernail plates or scalp hair. After removal of lipids of sebaceous origin by exhaustive solvent extraction, lyophilizing and hydrolyzing fingernail plate and scalp hair samples, fractions of integral cholesterol (CH) and cholesterol sulfate (CS) were quantified using gas chromatography. We studied these bound lipids and the serum lipids of 70 healthy subjects, aged 20.1 to 92.0 years. We observed higher amounts of CS in hair clippings of men than of women (775+/-241 vs 662+/-239 nmol/g hair, respectively). The highest amounts of CS were found in men with serum LDL-CH > 4.14 mmol/L; this subgroup also showed the highest CH values in fingernail clippings (2293+/-621 nmol/g nail). However, analysis of integral lipids of hair and fingernail plate clippings had little significance in detecting hypercholesterolemia in normal persons. An increase in integral CH levels in fingernail clippings with donor age was noted, independently of variations in serum CH or LDL-CH. This correlation proved to be significant in men (R=0.43), but not in women (R=0.38). In contrast, in women but not in men we found donor age correlated with internal CH of hair samples (R=0.43) and with CS of nail plates (R=-0.59), independently of serum CH or LDL-CH variations. This age-dependent decrease in CS levels might explain the previously observed higher incidence of brittle nails in women. Obviously, the metabolism of internal lipids CH and CS in fingernail and scalp hair differs between genders, and shows age-associated changes.

  12. Concentrations of Mercury, Lead, Chromium, Cadmium, Arsenic and Aluminum in Irrigation Water Wells and Wastewaters Used for Agriculture in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sadeghi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of water by toxic chemicals has become commonly recognized as an environmental concern. Based on our clinical observation in Mashhad, northeastern Iran, many people might be at risk of exposure to high concentrations of toxic heavy metals in water. Because wastewater effluents as well as water wells have been commonly used for irrigation over the past decades, there has been some concern on the toxic metal exposure of crops and vegetables irrigated with the contaminated water.Objective: To measure the concentrations of mercury, lead, chromium, cadmium, arsenic and aluminium in irrigation water wells and wastewaters used for agriculture in Mashhad, northeastern Iran.Methods: 36 samples were taken from irrigation water wells and a wastewater refinery in North of Mashhad at four times—May 2008, March 2009, and June and July 2010. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure the concentration of toxic metals. Graphite furnace was used for the measurement of lead, chromium, cadmium and aluminum. Mercury and arsenic concentrations were measured by mercury/hydride system.Results: Chromium, cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations in the samples were within the standard range. The mean±SD concentration of mercury in irrigation wells (1.02±0.40 μg/L exceeded the FAO maximum permissible levels. The aluminum concentration in irrigation water varied significantly from month to month (p=0.03. All wastewater samples contained high mercury concentrations (6.64±2.53 μg/L.Conclusion: For high mercury and aluminum concentrations, the water sources studied should not be used for agricultural use. Regular monitoring of the level of heavy metals in water and employing the necessary environmental interventions in this area are strongly recommended.

  13. Signs and symptoms of mercury-exposed gold miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bose-O'Reilly

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gold miners use mercury to extract gold from ore adding liquid mercury to the milled gold-containing ore. This results in a mercury-gold compound, called amalgam. Miners smelt this amalgam to obtain gold, vaporizing it and finally inhaling the toxic mercury fumes. The objective was to merge and analyze data from different projects, to identify typical signs and symptoms of chronic inorganic mercury exposure. Material and Methods: Miners and community members from various artisanal small-scale gold mining areas had been examined (Philippines, Mongolia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Indonesia. Data of several health assessments were pooled. Urine, blood and hair samples were analyzed for mercury (N = 1252. Questionnaires, standardized medical examinations and neuropsychological tests were used. Participants were grouped into: Controls (N = 209, living in an exposed area (N = 408, working with mercury as panners (N = 181, working with mercury as amalgam burners (N = 454. Chi2 test, linear trend test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation coefficient, Spearman’s rho, and analysis of variance tests were used. An algorithm was used to define participants with chronic mercury intoxication. Results: Mean mercury concentrations in all exposed subgroups were elevated and above threshold limits, with amalgam burners showing highest levels. Typical symptoms of chronic metallic mercury intoxication were tremor, ataxia, coordination problems, excessive salivation and metallic taste. Participants from the exposed groups showed poorer results in different neuropsychological tests in comparison to the control group. Fifty-four percent of the high-exposed group (amalgam burners were diagnosed as being mercury-intoxicated, compared to 0% within the control group (Chi2 p < 0.001. Conclusions: Chronic mercury intoxication, with tremor, ataxia and other neurological symptoms together with a raised body burden of mercury was clinically diagnosed in

  14. Mercury cycling in boreal ecosystems: The long-term effect of acid rain constituents on peatland pore water methylmercury concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branfireun, Brian A.; Bishop, Kevin; Roulet, Nigel T.; Granberg, Gunnar; Nilsson, Mats

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria have been identified as primary methylators of mercury (Hg) in the laboratory and in field investigations. However, no studies have investigated the effect of long-term deposition of sulphate on methylmercury (MeHg) dynamics in peatlands, which are known to be significant sources of MeHg to downstream waters in the boreal forest zone. As an ancillary experiment to a larger project investigating the effects of acid rain constituents on peatland carbon dynamics, the influence of experimentally elevated Na2SO4 and/or NH4NO3 deposition on peat pore water MeHg concentrations was determined using a simple mesocosm experimental design. After three years, additions of S in amounts equivalent to the 1980s dry and wet deposition in Southern Sweden resulted in peat pore water MeHg concentrations up to six times above background levels. Elevated N loads had no effect on pore water MeHg concentrations.

  15. Anatomical mercury speciation in bay scallops by thio-bearing chelating resin concentration and GC-electron capture detector determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qihua; Yang, Guipeng

    2014-01-01

    The highly toxic methyl-, ethyl- and phenylmercury species that may exist in the three main anatomical parts - the adductor muscle, the mantle and the visceral mass - of bay scallops (Argopecten irradias) were quantitatively released by cupric chloride, zinc acetate, sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid (HCl) under ultrasonic extraction. After centrifugation, the mercury species in the supernatant were concentrated by thio (SH)-bearing chelating resins, eluted with HClO4 and HCl and extracted with toluene. Separation was achieved by capillary GC equipped with programmed temperatures, a constant nitrogen flow and detected by a micro-electron capture detector (μECD). Under optimised conditions, the LODs for methyl-, ethyl- and phenylmercury in bay scallop samples were 1.1, 0.65 and 0.80 ng g(-1), respectively. The maximum RSD for three replicate determinations of methyl-, ethyl- and phenylmercury in bay scallop samples were 13.7%, 14.0% and 11.2%, respectively. In the concentration range of 4-200 ng g(-1) in bay scallop samples, the calibration graphs were linear with correlation coefficients not less than 0.997. Recoveries for spiked samples were in the range of 92.7-103.5% (methylmercury), 87.5-108.3% (ethylmercury) and 91.6-106.0% (phenylmercury), respectively. The method was verified by the determination of methylmercury in a CRM GBW10029 (Total Mercury and Methyl Mercury in Fish Tissue), with results in good agreement with the certified values. Methylmercury - the only existing species in bay scallops - was successfully determined by the method.

  16. Reduction of metal exposure of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) following remediation of pond sediment as evidenced by metal concentrations in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flache, Lucie; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Kierdorf, Uwe; Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Encarnação, Jorge A

    2016-03-15

    Transfer of contaminants from freshwater sediments via aquatic insects to terrestrial predators is well documented in spiders and birds. Here, we analyzed the metal exposure of Myotis daubentonii using an urban pond as their preferred foraging area before and after a remediation measure (sediment dredging) at this pond. Six metal elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni) were measured in the sediment of the pond, in EDTA extracts of the sediment and in hair samples of M. daubentonii foraging at the pond. Samples were taken before remediation in 2011 and after remediation in 2013. Metal concentrations were quantified by ICP-OES after miniaturized microwave assisted extraction. In 2011, the pond sediment exhibited a high contamination with nickel, a moderate contamination with copper and chromium and low contents of zinc, cadmium and lead. While sediment metal contents declined only weakly after remediation, a much more pronounced reduction in the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and lead concentrations was observed in bat hair. Our results suggest a marked decline in metal exposure of the bats foraging at the pond as a consequence of the remediation measure. It is concluded that Daubenton's bats are suitable bioindicators of metal contamination in aquatic environments, integrating metal exposure via prey insects over their entire foraging area. We further suggest that bat hair is a useful monitoring unit, allowing a non-destructive and non-invasive assessment of metal exposure in bats.

  17. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  18. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Cabaña-Muñoz

    Full Text Available The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems.To determine whether heavy metals (in hair, antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1 and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings.55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years. Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27 with those with more than four (n = 15. As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42.Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury.Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity.

  19. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus.

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    Diana J R Lafferty

    Full Text Available Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol, key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116 as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD] and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD. We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  20. Mercury pollution in the upper Beni River, Amazonian Basin: Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice-Bourgoin, L. [ORSTOM, French Scientific Research Inst. for Development by Cooperation, La Paz (Bolivia); Quiroga, Irma [Univ. Mayor de San Andres, La Paz (Bolivia). Chemical Research Inst.; Guyot, J.L. [ORSTOM, French Scientific Research Inst. for Development by Cooperation, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Malm, O. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica

    1999-06-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small-scale gold mining is an environmental problem of increasing concern, particularly in tropical regions like the Amazon, where a new boom of such gold mining started in the 1970s. In Brazil, research into these problems has been carried out for many years, but there is no available data for Bolivia. The present paper surveys mercury contamination of a Bolivian river system in the Amazon drainage basin, measured in water, fish, and human hair. High concentrations in fish and human hair from consumers of carnivorous fish species are reported. The potential health risk from fish consumption was evident in people living downstream of gold-mining activities, but not in the mining population itself 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  1. MERCURY DEPOSITION AND LAKE QUALITY TRENDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed factors influence the differing trends in mercury residue levels. Fish mercury concentrations show positive correlations with water color, methylmercury concentrations, and plankton mercury, and negative correlations with pH and alkalinity.

  2. Atmospheric mercury concentrations observed at ground-based monitoring sites globally distributed in the framework of the GMOS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola; Bencardino, Mariantonia; D'Amore, Francesco; Carbone, Francesco; Cinnirella, Sergio; Mannarino, Valentino; Landis, Matthew; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Weigelt, Andreas; Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Labuschagne, Casper; Martin, Lynwill; Munthe, John; Wängberg, Ingvar; Artaxo, Paulo; Morais, Fernando; Barbosa, Henrique de Melo Jorge; Brito, Joel; Cairns, Warren; Barbante, Carlo; Diéguez, María del Carmen; Garcia, Patricia Elizabeth; Dommergue, Aurélien; Angot, Helene; Magand, Olivier; Skov, Henrik; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Read, Katie Alana; Mendes Neves, Luis; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Sena, Fabrizio; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Obolkin, Vladimir; Wip, Dennis; Feng, Xin Bin; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Xuewu; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Cossa, Daniel; Knoery, Joël; Marusczak, Nicolas; Nerentorp, Michelle; Norstrom, Claus

    2016-09-01

    Long-term monitoring of data of ambient mercury (Hg) on a global scale to assess its emission, transport, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition processes is vital to understanding the impact of Hg pollution on the environment. The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project was funded by the European Commission (gmos.eu" target="_blank">http://www.gmos.eu) and started in November 2010 with the overall goal to develop a coordinated global observing system to monitor Hg on a global scale, including a large network of ground-based monitoring stations, ad hoc periodic oceanographic cruises and measurement flights in the lower and upper troposphere as well as in the lower stratosphere. To date, more than 40 ground-based monitoring sites constitute the global network covering many regions where little to no observational data were available before GMOS. This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded worldwide in the framework of the GMOS project (2010-2015), analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. Major findings highlighted in this paper include a clear gradient of Hg concentrations between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, confirming that the gradient observed is mostly driven by local and regional sources, which can be anthropogenic, natural or a combination of both.

  3. Reduction of metal exposure of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) following remediation of pond sediment as evidenced by metal concentrations in hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flache, Lucie, E-mail: Lucie.Flache@bio.uni-giessen.de [Mammalian Ecology Group, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Ekschmitt, Klemens [Animal Ecology, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kierdorf, Uwe [Department of Biology, University of Hildesheim, Universitätsplatz 1, D-31141 Hildesheim (Germany); Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander [Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Encarnação, Jorge A. [Mammalian Ecology Group, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Transfer of contaminants from freshwater sediments via aquatic insects to terrestrial predators is well documented in spiders and birds. Here, we analyzed the metal exposure of Myotis daubentonii using an urban pond as their preferred foraging area before and after a remediation measure (sediment dredging) at this pond. Six metal elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni) were measured in the sediment of the pond, in EDTA extracts of the sediment and in hair samples of M. daubentonii foraging at the pond. Samples were taken before remediation in 2011 and after remediation in 2013. Metal concentrations were quantified by ICP-OES after miniaturized microwave assisted extraction. In 2011, the pond sediment exhibited a high contamination with nickel, a moderate contamination with copper and chromium and low contents of zinc, cadmium and lead. While sediment metal contents declined only weakly after remediation, a much more pronounced reduction in the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and lead concentrations was observed in bat hair. Our results suggest a marked decline in metal exposure of the bats foraging at the pond as a consequence of the remediation measure. It is concluded that Daubenton's bats are suitable bioindicators of metal contamination in aquatic environments, integrating metal exposure via prey insects over their entire foraging area. We further suggest that bat hair is a useful monitoring unit, allowing a non-destructive and non-invasive assessment of metal exposure in bats. - Highlights: • Changes in metal exposure of bats due to remediation measure are documented. • Bats are suitable bioindicators of metal pollution. • Bat hair is a useful monitoring unit in such studies.

  4. Tissue mercury concentrations and adrenocortical responses of female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) near a contaminated river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Haruka; Yates, David E; Evers, David C; Taylor, Robert J; Hopkins, William A

    2010-10-01

    Much of the research on mercury (Hg) in wild vertebrates has focused on piscivores and other animals at high trophic levels. However, recent studies indicated that insectivorous terrestrial vertebrates may also be at risk. In the present study, we examined blood and fur Hg concentrations as well as the adrenocortical responses of insectivorous big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) near the Hg-contaminated South River, VA and a nearby reference area. Baseline glucocorticoids and adrenocortical responses to handling have been widely used to assess the influence of environmental stressors because plasma glucocorticoids rise in response to various physical, psychological, and physiological challenges. Female bats captured at the contaminated site had 2.6 times higher blood and fur Hg concentrations than those captured at the reference site (blood: 0.11 vs. 0.04 μg/g wet weight; fur: 28.0 vs. 10.9 μg/g fresh weight). Fur Hg concentrations at the contaminated site were higher than most wild omnivorous and carnivorous mammals reported in the literature. Although fur and blood Hg concentrations were tightly correlated, fur Hg concentrations averaged 260 times higher than concentrations in blood. This suggests that fur may be an important depuration route for bats, just as it is in other mammals. Despite the high Hg concentrations in bat tissue, we did not observe any site difference in adrenocortical responses. Our results suggest that the bats at the contaminated site were exposed to Hg concentrations below those causing adverse effects on their adrenal axis.

  5. AN INTRODUCTION TO XG-7Z ZEEMAN MERCURY MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT AND THE ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR TRACE CONCENTRATIONS OF MERCURY%XG-7Z塞曼测汞仪介绍及痕量汞的分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏建山; 窦智; 邓艳龙; 张勤

    2014-01-01

    汞蒸气及其化合物在地质构造、金属矿床、污染源及古墓和古遗址等处相对富集形成汞气晕,利用汞的特性,进行汞量测量,开展地质构造、矿产勘查、污染源的圈定等方面的研究,使其在工农业生产中得到更广泛的应用。笔者对方法、仪器原理进行简单的介绍,并详细讨论各种样品中痕量微量汞含量测试方法及应用效果。针对汞分析前处理操作繁琐、重现性差的问题,提出了直接测汞法测定固体粉末样品中汞,该法样品无须进行处理,含汞废气经吸收剂无害化处理后排放。分析速度快,准确度高,且不需任何化学试剂,对人体无伤害。%The mercury vapor and its compounds would be relatively concentrated to form mercury gas halo in geological structure, me-tallic ore deposits, pollution sources and such places as ancient tombs and ruins. These characteristics of mercury can be utilized to conduct mercury survey, geological structure investigation, mineral exploration and pollution source delineation so as to apply mercury more extensively in industrial and agricultural production. The authors made a simple description of the method and instrument principle and discussed in detail the analytical means and application results of trace and minor amounts of mercury in various kinds of samples. Aimed at solving such problems in mercury analysis as the complex operation before processing and poor reproducibility, the authors put forward the utilization of the direct mercury measurement method to determine the mercury in solid powder samples. With this method, samples don't need being processed, and mercury waste gas will be discharged after harmless treatment with absorbing agent. The meth-od is characterized by fast analysis and high accuracy;in addition, it needs no chemical reagent and has no harm to human body.

  6. Sensitive determination of mercury in tap water by cloud point extraction pre-concentration and flow injection-cold vapor-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wuilloud, Jorgelina C. A.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.; Silva, María. F.; Olsina, Roberto A.; Martinez, Luis D.

    2002-02-01

    A pre-concentration and determination methodology for mercury at trace levels in water samples was developed. Cloud point extraction was successfully employed for the pre-concentration of mercury prior to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry coupled to a flow injection with cold vapor generation system. The mercury was extracted as mercury-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol [Hg(II)-(5-Br-PADAP)] complex, at pH 9.2 mediated by micelles of the non-ionic surfactant polyethyleneglycolmono- p-nonylphenylether (PONPE 5). Cold vapor generation was developed from 100 μl of the extracted surfactant-rich phase by means of a stannous chloride (SnCl 2) solution as reluctant. An exhaustive study of the variables affecting the cloud point extraction with PONPE 5 and cold vapor mercury generation from the surfactant phase was performed. The 50-ml sample solution pre-concentration allowed us to raise an enrichment factor of 200-fold. The lower limit of detection obtained under the optimal conditions was 4 ng l -1. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 0.5-μg l -1 Hg level was 3.4% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), calculated with the peak heights. The calibration graph using the pre-concentration system for mercury was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 50 μg l -1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in tap water samples.

  7. Got Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie; James, John T.; McCoy, Torin; Garcia, Hector

    2010-01-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed through the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may be completely vaporized when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. Using an existing study, we estimated mercury vapor releases from lamps that are not in operation during missions lasting less than or equal to 30 days; whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from lamps that are operating or being used during missions lasing more than 30 days. Based on mercury toxicity, the Johnson Space Center's Toxicology Group recommends stringent safety controls and verifications for any hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting less than or equal to 30 days, or concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting more than 30 days.

  8. Total Mercury Concentrations in Fish Muscle from the Colorado River and Bright Angel Creek, AZ, USA (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mercury is a globally distributed pollutant that threatens human and ecosystem health. Even protected areas, such as national parks, are subjected to mercury...

  9. Temporal variations in gaseous elemental mercury concentrations at a contaminated site: Main factors affecting nocturnal maxima in daily cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbrí, José M.; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Higueras, Pablo L.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is considered to be a global pollutant and it has been globally transported as gaseous elemental mercury (GEM). International networks for the continuous monitoring of mercury, all of which are based on background sites, study the dispersion pattern of this metal and trends in its evolution in time and space. However, information about seasonal and daily cycling of polluted sites is scarce. The aim of the work described here was to cover this gap in knowledge. For this purpose, continuous (GEM) measurements were carried out in Almadén town from November 2011 to September 2013. Meteorological data were also collected during this time. GEM data show an average concentration during the sampling period (2011-2013) of 27.4 ng m-3, with a range of 0.8-686.9 ng m-3. The results highlighted seasonal and daily cycles of GEM in Almadén town, with seasonally higher levels in summer (686.9 ng m-3) and significantly daily higher levels during the night. A multiple linear regression model has established wind speed as the best GEM predictor in all seasons during the night, while the best predictor in winter is relative humidity, temperature in spring, solar radiation in summer and wind speed in autumn during the day. These results provide evidence that, in mining polluted sites like Almadén, photochemical reactions have a negligible impact on GEM levels during the daytime and that meteorological parameters are more relevant. Further studies on diurnal GEM cycling in polluted sites must be carried out to obtain a realistic local risk assessment, taking into account night GEM levels and their importance in each case study.

  10. Elevated serum ferritin and mercury concentrations are associated with hypertension; analysis of the fourth and fifth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3, 2008-2009 and V-1, 2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Beomhee; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jung; Kim, Kyu-Nam; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The impact of simultaneously elevated serum ferritin and mercury concentrations on hypertension in the general population is not known. To determine the association of serum ferritin and mercury concentrations with hypertension, 6213 subjects (3060 men and 3153 women) over 20 years of age from 2008 to 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into tertiles according to serum ferritin and mercury concentrations in each gender. Serum ferritin (258.2 vs. 94.8 pmol/L) and mercury concentrations (28.4 vs. 19.9 nmol/L) were higher in men than in women. Serum ferritin (men; P = 0.029, women; P serum ferritin and mercury concentrations in both men (r = 0.193, P serum ferritin concentrations were more prominent in men (P serum mercury tertiles increased after proper adjustments. Furthermore, significantly higher odds ratios of hypertension were found in the second (OR = 1.86, 95% CI; 1.05-3.30), and third (OR = 1.84, 95% CI; 1.01-3.36) tertiles of serum ferritin with the top tertile of serum mercury in men. The current study indicate that serum ferritin and mercury concentrations are associated with the prevalence of hypertension and that simultaneously elevated serum ferritin and mercury concentrations are related to the risk for hypertension in men. © 2013 The Authors. The Environmental Toxicology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A new mass screening method for methylmercury poisoning using mercury-volatilizing bacteria from Minamata Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Naruse, I; Takizawa, Y

    1999-09-01

    A simplified mass screening method for methylmercury exposure was developed using methylmercury-volatilizing bacteria from Minamata Bay. Some bacteria can transform methylmercury into mercury vapor. Most mercury in the hair is methylmercury, which is readily extracted with HCl solution. Black spots are formed on X-ray film due to the reduction of Ag(+) emulsion with mercury vapor produced by methylmercury-volatilizing bacteria. By exploiting these characteristics, a screening method was developed, whereby the fur of rats injected with methylmercury chloride formed clear black spots on X-ray film, whereas the fur of rats injected with saline did not. Subsequently, 50 human hair samples were examined using this mass screening method. The method identified people who had high mercury concentration, over 20 microg/g. A few thousand hair samples may be screened in a day using this method because it is rapid, simple, and economical. This method, therefore, enables screening of persons with methylmercury poisoning in mercury-polluted areas.

  12. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss at the scarred areas. These conditions include lichen planus, some types of lupus and sarcoidosis. Hair- ... increase your risk of hair loss, including: Family history Age Poor nutrition Certain medical conditions, such as ...

  13. Hair transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007205.htm Hair transplant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A hair transplant is a surgical procedure to improve baldness. Description ...

  14. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or some other combination? Hair color comes from melanin (say: MEL-uh-nun), the substance that gives ... its pigment. The lighter someone's hair, the less melanin there is. A person with brown or black ...

  15. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To avoid spreading infections, don’t share razors. Hair removal creams, gels, and liquids (depilatories) These use chemicals ... electrologist with a current license or certification. Laser hair removal Light is beamed through the skin to stop ...

  16. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  17. [Long-term follow-up after intravenous injection of mercury--two cases report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszcz, Halina; Szczepańska, Łucja; Lech, Teresa; Groszek, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the long-term follow-up of two patients, after injection of metallic mercury. Case 1. In 1997, 29-years-old man injected himself to left elbow about 20 ml of metallic mercury by mistake (he was heroin abuser for short time). Mercury concentration in the blood was 400 microg/L. X-ray of the chest, abdomen and affected elbow area showed radiopaque foreign material (depots of mercury). Depots of mercury were also visible on the tricuspid valve in echocardiography. Mercury from the soft tissue left elbow pit was partially surgically removed. During 15 years follow-up two times chelating therapy was performed with d-penicyllamine and DMPS. In 2012, he was admitted to hospital next time. The blood and urine mercury concentration was still elevated (55.2 microg/L and 197 microg/L), mercury depots in the lung and abdomen were present. The signs and symptoms of CNS damage, like peripheral polyneuropathy and ataxia, were diagnosed. CT of brain did not revealed any changes, despite head trauma before 6 years. However neurological findings are typical for chronic mercury poisoning, it is not possible to determine whether these changes are directly related to mercury, because head trauma history, Case 2. In 2003, 16-years-old woman injected herself one month before, in suicidal attempts to both elbows several millilitres of metallic mercury. Mercury concentration in the blood was 56.2 microg/L, in urine 906 microg/L and in the hair 1.12 microg/g. Chest Xray showed depots of mercury in the lung. Mercury from the soft tissue was two times surgically removed. During 9 years two times chelating therapy was performed with d-penicyllamine and DMPS. After 9 years there is no symptoms of mercury poisoning. Mercury depots in the lung are still present. The blood and urine mercury concentration is low (13.7 microg/L and 2.53 microg/L). In mean time she gave birth two healthy children. Further patients evaluation is necessary.

  18. Integrating toxicity risk in bird eggs and chicks: Using chick down feathers to estimate mercury concentrations in eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of mercury (Hg) in eggs that causes reduced hatching success is regarded as a critical end point for Hg toxicity in birds. However, incorporating effects of in ovo mercury exposure on chick health and survival could improve risk assessment. We developed equations to predict Hg in eggs using Hg in chick down feathers, and vice versa, by assessing the relationship between Hg in feathers (0.5−32.4 μg g−1 fw) and eggs (0.04−2.79 μg g−1 fww) for three waterbird species in San Francisco Bay, CA. Feather Hg sampled from embryos of pipping eggs was highly correlated with fresh whole-egg Hg (n = 94, r2 = 0.96). Additionally, using an egg microsampling technique, albumen Hg was correlated with feather Hg sampled from chicks in the same nest (n = 28, r2 = 0.79). Down feather Hg in recaptured chicks (≤10 days old) was correlated with down feather Hg at hatching (≤3 days old; n = 88, r2 = 0.74). Our results demonstrate the utility of using down feathers of chicks ≤10 days of age to nonlethally predict Hg in eggs and thus provide the ability to develop exposure thresholds for eggs that incorporate in ovo Hg’s effects on both egg hatchability and subsequent chick mortality.

  19. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  20. Root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grierson, C.; Nielsen, E.; Ketelaar, T.; Schiefelbein, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair

  1. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  2. Hair cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products.

  3. Research on the Relationship between Hair Mercury and the Frequency of Fish-eating in Pregnant Women in Wujiang City%吴江地区孕期妇女发汞与食鱼频率关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡胜蓝; 吕弘道; 苏海兰; 郭俊良

    2014-01-01

    Objective:By determinating mercury content in hair and analysising relevance between hair mercury and the frequency of fish-eating during pregnancy,to make suggestions for suitable fish intake.Method:Conducting fish-eating history investigation(fish-eating species and weekly frequency) of the hospitalized pregnant women that lived locally during the entire pregnancy and had no major disease history and history of occupation of mercury,while determinating mercury content in hair by collecting the hair of pregnant women at the same time.Result:The average content of mercury in hair of the 303 cases was (494.28±1.94)ng/g.Amone the 303 cases,the numbers of weekly fish-eating during pregnancy were 1-2 times(142 cases), 3-4 times(145 cases),5 and above times(16 cases).The corresponding average values of mercury in hair were (319.82±1.70)ng/g,(719.62±1.67)ng/g and (800.57±1.57)ng/g.Thus,the cases of mercury in hair that exceeded the RfD were positively correlation to the frequency of fish-eating during pregnancy(P<0.01).Conclusion:Fish-eating is the main source of mercury exposure in the general population.Because Methyl mercury affected the development of nervous system of fetus,for the special sensitive pregnant women,that are suggested to eat fiah less than 2 times per week and can add the necessary nutrients through diet by more diverse ways.%目的:测定孕期妇女发汞含量,分析孕期食鱼频率与发汞的相关性,从而对孕期适宜的鱼类摄入量提出建议。方法:对整个孕期生活在本地,无重大疾病史和职业汞接触史的入院孕妇,进行孕期食鱼史(食鱼种类和每周食鱼频率)调查;同时采集产妇头发进行汞含量测定。结果:303例发汞含量均值为(494.28±1.94)ng/g。303例中,孕期每周食鱼次数:1~2次(142例)、3~4次(145例)、5次及以上(16例),相应的发汞均值分别为(319.82±1.70)ng/g、(719.62±1.67)ng/g、(800.57±1.57)ng/g;发汞含量超出RfD例数与

  4. Mercury Exposure in Children of the Wanshan Mercury Mining Area, Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Buyun; Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Zhou, Jun; Maurice, Laurence

    2016-11-08

    To evaluate the mercury (Hg) exposure level of children located in a Hg mining area, total Hg concentrations and speciation were determined in hair and urine samples of children in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, China. Rice samples consumed by these same children were also collected for total mercury (THg) and methyl-mercury (MeHg) analysis. The geometric mean concentrations of THg and MeHg in the hair samples were 1.4 (range 0.50-6.0) μg/g and 1.1 (range 0.35-4.2) μg/g, respectively, while the geometric mean concentration of urine Hg (UHg) was 1.4 (range 0.09-26) μg/g Creatinine (Cr). The average of the probable daily intake (PDI) of MeHg via rice consumption was 0.052 (0.0033-0.39) µg/kg/day, which significantly correlated with the hair MeHg concentrations (r = 0.55, p < 0.01), indicating that ingestion of rice is the main pathway of MeHg exposure for children in this area. Furthermore, 18% (26/141) of the PDIs of MeHg exceeded the USEPA Reference Dose (RfD) of 0.10 µg/kg/day, indicating that children in this area are at a high MeHg exposure level. This paper for the first time evaluates the co-exposure levels of IHg and MeHg of children living in Wanshan mining area, and revealed the difference in exposure patterns between children and adults in this area.

  5. Association between Hair Cortisol Concentration and Adiposity Measures among Children and Parents from the “Healthy Start” Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Olsen, Nanna J.; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested a direct association between hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as other adiposity measures. However, these studies have mostly been conducted among adult populations. Objective To examine the association between HCC and different measures of adiposity among a selected group of children predisposed to obesity and their parents. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 363 children and their parents (301 mothers and 231 fathers) participating in the “Healthy Start” study. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations between HCC and adiposity measures while taking into account possible confounding factors. Analyses were performed examining the association between HCC and BMI, fat mass and fat free mass index Z-scores, as well as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio among the children. Likewise, the association between HCC and BMI among the parents was explored. Finally, we examined the association between parental HCC and children’s adiposity measures. Results HCC was directly associated with a higher BMI among the fathers (0.49 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.09, 0.90, P = 0.02] per 100 pg/mg) and the mothers (0.93 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.24, 1.61, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg). We found no clear evidence of an association between HCC and adiposity measures among children. However, a high maternal HCC was associated with a high fat mass index and low fat free mass index z-score in the offspring (0.14 SD [95% CI: 0.02, 0.26, P = 0.02] and -0.17 SD [95% CI: -0.30, -0.05, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg, respectively). Conclusions Our study found no evidence of an association between HCC and measures of adiposity among children predisposed to obesity. However, HCC may be directly associated with BMI among men and women, and maternal HCC may be related to a higher fat mass and a lower fat free mass among their children. PMID:27662656

  6. How incense and joss paper burning during the worship activities influences ambient mercury concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments of an Asian temple?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huazhen; Tsai, Cheng-Mou; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Jen, Yi-Hsiu; Ie, Iau-Ren

    2017-01-01

    This study firstly investigated the species, concentration variation, and emission factors of mercury emitted from the burning of incenses and joss papers in an Asian temple. Both indoor and outdoor speciated mercury (GEM, GOM, and PHg) were sampled by manual samplers, while ambient GEM at an indoor site was in-situ monitored by a continuous GEM monitor. Field measurement results showed that the total atmospheric mercury (TAM) concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments were in the range of 8.03-35.72 and 6.03-31.35 ng/m(3), respectively. The indoor and outdoor ratios (I/O) of TAM in the daytime and at nighttime were in the range of 0.64-0.90 and 1.50-2.04, respectively. The concentrations of GEM, GOM, and PHg during the holiday periods were approximately 1-4 times higher than those during the non-holiday periods. GEM was the dominant mercury species in the indoor and outdoor environments and accounted for 63-81% of TAM, while the oxidized mercury accounted for 19-37% of TAM. Burning incenses and joss papers in a combustion chamber showed that the concentration of GEM from joss paper burning ranged from 4.07 to 11.62 μg/m(3), or about 13.97 times higher than that of incense burning, while the concentration of PHg from incense burning ranged from 95.91 to 135.07 ng/m(3), or about 3.29 times higher than that of joss paper burning. The emission factors of incense burning were 10.39 ng/g of GEM and 1.40 ng/g of PHg, while those of joss paper burning were 12.65 ng/g of GEM and 1.27 ng/g of PHg, respectively. This study revealed that speciated mercury emitted from worship activities had significant influence on the indoor and outdoor mercury concentrations in an Asian temple. Higher intensity of worship activities during holidays resulted in a higher concentration of speciated mercury in indoor and outdoor air, which might cause health threats to worshipers, staffs, and surrounding inhabitants through long-term exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Mercury and selenium concentrations in leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea): population comparisons, implications for reproductive success, hazard quotients and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Justin R; Miller, Debra L; Garner, Jeanne; Wyneken, Jeanette

    2013-10-01

    Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are long-distance migrants that travel thousands of km from foraging grounds to breeding and nesting grounds. These extensive journeys are fueled by ingestion of an estimated 300-400 kg of prey/d and likely result in exposure to high concentrations of environmental toxicants (e.g., mercury compounds). Increased bodily concentrations of mercury and its compounds in nesting female turtles may have detrimental effects on reproductive success. Leatherbacks have relatively low reproductive success compared with other sea turtles (global average hatching success ~50-60%). To assess toxicants and necessary nutrients as factors affecting leatherback turtle reproductive success at Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge (SPNWR), St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, we collected blood from nesting female leatherbacks and tissues from their hatchlings (blood from live turtles, liver and yolk sac from dead turtles). We compared the concentrations in those tissues to hatching and emergence success. We found that on SPNWR, hatching and emergence success were more closely related to seasonal factors than to total mercury and selenium concentrations in both nesting females and hatchlings. Selenium concentrations of nesting females were positively correlated with those of their hatchlings. Mercury and selenium in the liver of hatchlings were positively correlated with one another. Turtles with greater remigration intervals tended to have higher blood selenium concentrations, suggesting that selenium accumulates in leatherbacks through time. Through hazard quotients, we found evidence that selenium may be at or above concentrations that may cause physiologic harm to hatchlings. We also found evidence that population level differences exist for these trace elements. The concentrations of mercury and selenium established in this manuscript form a baseline for future toxicant studies.

  8. [Two cases of long-term home parenteral nutrition in which increased doses of intravenous selenium were administered and the serum and hair selenium concentration was measured].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washizawa, Naohiro; Kozono, Koki; Naganuma, Hirokazu; Kimura, Yuki; Sato, Yukihiko; Sakai, Masahiro; Chino, Kenichi; Shimoda, Masato; Suzuki, Takashi; Oshima, Yoko; Kaneko, Hiromasa

    2013-12-01

    Care should be taken regarding the intravenous administration of selenium (Se), an essential element, which is known to be associated with toxemia. The concentration of Se in the serum and hair of 2 patients (patient A and B) with short bowel syndrome, undergoing long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN), was measured. As nutritional management, commercial total parenteral nutrition infusion was used without restricting oral intake. The patients received sodium selenite (Na2O3Se x 5H2O), a hospital preparation, at the Toho University Omori Medical Center. The dosage was gradually increased from 40 microg/ week to 120 micog/week over 17 months, and the Se concentration in serum and hair was measured bimonthly using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The serum concentration of Se increased from 2.0 to 5.3 microg/dL and from 9.0 to 9.7 microg/dL in the case of patient A and B, respectively; however, it did not reach the average value that was observed in healthy volunteers (11.8 microg/dL). In contrast, the concentration of Se in hair gradually approached the reference value (reference range, 405-784 ppb at color correction criteria range 217-520 ppb) in the case of patient A (change from 189 to 278 ppb) and B (change from 291 to 200 ppb). Therefore, we were able to safely manage these cases without any deficiency and poisoning symptoms, by gradually increasing the administration doses.

  9. KONSUMSI IKAN LAUT KADAR MERCURY DALAM RAMBUT DAN KESEHATAN NELAYAN DI PANTAI KENJERAN SURABAYA (Sea Fish Consumption, Degree of Mercury Content in Hair, and Fisherman Health at Surabaya Kenjeran Beach, Indonesia

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    Sudarmaji Sudarmaji

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pantai Kenjeran di Surabaya mempunyai banyak fungsi baik sebagai tempat rekreasi, perikanan serta tempat pembuangan limbah dari kota Surabaya. Studi sebelumnya telah menjelaskan bahwa pantai Kenjeran telah tercemar khususnya Hg. Polutan ini telah diindikasikan terdapat dalam ikan yang dikonsumsi masyarakat sekitar. Penelitian ini mengkaji dampak mengkonsumsi ikan dari Kenjeran kaitannya dengan kesehatan masyarakat yang menkonsumsi ikan. Peneliltian ini rnengambil sample 70 orang yang mengkonsumsi ikan dan 45 orang sebagai kontrol grup. Dalarn penelitian ini rambut responden diambil dan dikaji dengan Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. Penelitian ini menghasilkan bahwa responden yang mengkonsumsi ikan sebanyak rata-rata 99,11 gram/hari mempunyai kadar Hg dalam rambutnya sebesar 0.511 ppb. Penelitian ini mengindikasikan gejala-gejala penyakit yang terjadi pada mereka yang rnengkonsumsi ikan antara lain ginjal, pusing-pusing, tumor, pendarahan gusi, dan gangguan penglihatan. Penelitian ini rnenyimpulkan adanya korelasi yang signifikan antara responden yang mengkonsumsi ikan yang tercemar dengan kadar Hg dalam rambutnya.   ABSTRACT Surabaya Kenjeran Beach, as a part of Eastern coastal area at East Java, functions as a sea recreation place and fishing. The condition of Surabaya Kenderan Beach is polluted by Hg as observed by previous researchers. They suggested that water, sediment, and fish from Kenjeran beach were already contaminated by Hg at dangerous level. Fisherman communities is one of the group which have a risk of getting affected by methyl Hg, because they usually consume fish from sea. This research is to study the relationship between consumption of sea fish and degree of Hg in fisherman’s hair, to measure the average degree of Hg in their hair and then to compare it with limit value. It is also studying the health disorder that likely appears as a result of Hg poisoning. This research took place at Kenjeran district

  10. Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-03-15

    In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (pmushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety.

  11. Direct and indirect causes of sex differences in mercury concentrations and parasitic infections in a marine bird

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provencher, J.F., E-mail: jennifpro@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Gilchrist, H.G. [Wildlife Research Division, National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, M.L. [Department of Biology, Acadia University, 33 Westwood Ave, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Mitchell, G.W. [Wildlife Research Division, National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Forbes, M.R. [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2016-05-01

    In many animal species, males and females differ in their levels of contaminants and/or parasitic infections. Most contaminants and gastro-intestinal parasites are obtained through prey ingestion, and thus the causes of sex differences in the distribution of these factors might follow similar pathways. We studied the northern common eider duck (Somateria molissima borealis) as an avian model, and used directed separation path analysis to explore the causes of sex differences in mercury (Hg) and gastro-intestinal helminths. Two trophically transmitted helminths were examined: a cestode (Lateriporus sp.) and an acanthocephalan (Polymorphus sp). We found that the number of Lateriporus sp. varied positively with stable isotope signature (as indicated by δ{sup 15}N in eider breast muscle tissue), and negatively with crustaceans being present in the short term diet. We also found that Polymorphus sp. varied positively with eider tissue stable isotope signature. However, Polymorphus sp. varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass. Similarly, Hg concentrations also varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass, with both Polymorphus sp. intensity and Hg concentrations significantly higher in males. We found that model fit increased when a negative relationship between the two helminth species was included, suggesting a yet unknown causal mechanism linking these parasites. Our findings suggest that although Hg and gastro-intestinal parasites are both trophically transmitted through the eider's prey items, the factors that contribute towards bioaccumulation of these two burdens differ in source, likely caused by several different factors and may potentially influence each other. - Highlights: • Contaminants and parasitic infections often co-occur in wildlife and have similar effects • Understanding the distribution of multiple burdens allows for better interpretation of effects • Path analysis was used to

  12. Controlling Factors of Long-Term Trends in Mercury Wet Deposition and Precipitation Concentrations at Huntington Wildlife Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Mao, H.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Observations from the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) at Huntington Wildlife Forest (HWF) suggested that a significant decline (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.03) from 2000 to 2013 in volume weighted mean (VWM) Hg concentrations in precipitation was linked to Hg emission decreases in the United States, especially in the Northeast and Midwest, and yet Hg wet deposition has remained fairly constant over the past two decades. The present study aimed to investigate the climatic, terrestrial, and anthropogenic factors that influenced the decadal pattern in Hg wet deposition in upstate NY. In spring and summer, when Hg wet deposition was the strongest, significant positive correlation (r2 = 0.89, p < 0.0001 in spring; r2 = 0.58, p = 0.002 in summer) of Hg wet deposition with precipitation was found. Increases in precipitation during these seasons could offset the decreasing of Hg concentration in precipitation. Besides, springtime positive correlation (r2 = 0.35, p = 0.02) between precipitation and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index together with geopotential height and wind speed analysis indicated that large-scale dynamical forcing was likely an important factor influencing the long term trend in springtime Hg wet deposition at HWF. To further quantify the roles of meteorological and anthropogenic factors in Hg wet deposition, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was employed using an algorithm depicting state-of-the-art Hg chemistry mechanism and up-to-date Hg emission inventories evaluated with MDN and Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet) measurement data. CMAQ simulations with a constant vs. realistic meteorological conditions for multiple warm seasons (including spring and summer) were used to characterize and quantify the impacts of inter-annual variability of precipitation and atmospheric circulation on Hg wet deposition. In addition, contributions to Hg wet deposition from decreases in anthropogenic emissions in NYS and nation-wide were quantified from

  13. Mercury alters the bacterial community structure and diversity in soil even at concentrations lower than the guideline values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Subashchandrabose, Suresh Ramraj; Krishnan, Kannan; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of inorganic mercury (Hg) on bacterial community and diversity in different soils. Three soils-neutral, alkaline and acidic-were spiked with six different concentrations of Hg ranging from 0 to 200 mg kg(-1) and aged for 90 days. At the end of the ageing period, 18 samples from three different soils were investigated for bacterial community structure and soil physicochemical properties. Illumina MiSeq-based 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing revealed the alteration in the bacterial community between un-spiked control soils and Hg-spiked soils. Among the bacterial groups, Actinobacteria (22.65%) were the most abundant phyla in all samples followed by Proteobacteria (21.95%), Bacteroidetes (4.15%), Firmicutes (2.9%) and Acidobacteria (2.04%). However, the largest group showing increased abundance with higher Hg doses was the unclassified group (45.86%), followed by Proteobacteria. Mercury had a considerable negative impact on key soil functional bacteria such as ammonium oxidizers and nitrifiers. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that among the measured soil properties, Hg had a major influence on bacterial community structure. Furthermore, nonlinear regression analysis confirmed that Hg significantly decreased soil bacterial alpha diversity in lower organic carbon containing neutral and alkaline soils, whereas in acidic soil with higher organic carbon there was no significant correlation. EC20 values obtained by a nonlinear regression analysis indicated that Hg significantly decreased soil bacterial diversity in concentrations lower than several guideline values.

  14. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Melissa A., E-mail: melissa.mckinney@uconn.edu [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P. [KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Umhlanga Rocks 4320 (South Africa); Biomedical Resource Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Dudley, Sheldon F.J. [KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Umhlanga Rocks 4320 (South Africa); Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cape Town 8012 (South Africa); Zungu, M. Philip [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cape Town 8012 (South Africa); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n = 283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg{sup −1} dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ{sup 15}N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ{sup 13}C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. - Highlights: • Hg concentrations in 17 shark species from South Africa's east coast were measured. • Higher values relative to other regions suggested the importance of local

  15. Neurological abnormalities in a mercury exposed population among indigenous Wayana in Southeast Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplow, Daniel; Augustine, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The indigenous Wayana community of Puleowime (Apetina) in Suriname is susceptible to the effects of mercury because they consume large amounts of fish compared to mainstream communities. Small-scale and artisanal gold mining activities occur at numerous sites in eastern and southeastern Suriname placing the Wayana at risk from exposure to mercury released into the environment. A previous community-led risk assessment study showed that the Wayana were at a high lifetime risk of adverse effects from exposure to mercury. Subsequent to this earlier study, the residents of Puleowime requested assistance in a community-led follow-up research project to determine for themselves whether there were health impacts associated with exposure to mercury contamination. Neurotoxic effects consistent with methylmercury exposure were documented in an exposed population through a battery of neurological tests. Although the specific motor and cognitive batteries were not exactly the same, similar associations were observed between neurologic impairment and hair mercury concentrations compared to other studies in the Amazonia region where mean hair mercury levels were in the subacute range.

  16. Persistent organic pollutant and mercury concentrations in eggs of ground-nesting marine birds in the Canadian high Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Liam E; Gilchrist, H Grant; Mallory, Conor D; Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L

    2016-06-15

    We collected eggs of eight marine bird species from several colony sites in the Canadian high Arctic located at approximately 76°N and analyzed them for concentrations of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury. We provide the first report on concentrations of POPs in eggs of three Arctic species (Thayer's gull Larus thayeri, Sabine's gull Xema sabini, Ross's Gull Rhodostethia rosea), and we found significant differences in each of the POP profiles among the five species with sufficient data for statistical comparisons (Thayer's gull, black guillemot Cepphus grylle, Sabine's gull, Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and common eider Somateria mollissima borealis). The Ross's Gull had unexpectedly high POP concentrations relative to the other species examined, although this was based on a single egg, while glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus eggs from our sampling location had very low POPs. Sabine's gulls had the lowest Hg of the eggs studied, consistent with their low trophic position, but concentrations of their legacy POPs were higher than expected. We also noted that total hexachlorocyclohexanes were higher than reported elsewhere in the circumpolar Arctic in three species.

  17. Total mercury concentrations in fish from Urrá reservoir (Sinú river, Colombia. Six years of monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marrugo-Negrete

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to monitor the total mercury (T-Hg concentrations in fish from the Urrá reservoir, after impoundment. Materials and methods. Five fish species at different trophic levels were sampled from 2004 to 2009 and analyzed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy for T-Hg concentrations in muscle tissue. Water quality parameters were evaluated. Results. The highest (1.39±0.69 μg/g ww and lowest (0.15±0.02 μg/g ww T-Hg concentrations were detected in Hoplias malabaricus (piscivorous and Cyphocharax magdalenae (iliophagous/detritivorous respectively, whereas Leporinus muyscorum (omnivorous had an intermediate level (0.40±0.11 μg/g ww. The organic matter content in the water increased with time and depth, whereas dissolved oxygen and pH decreased. A covariance analysis (with fish length as a covariate shows a steady increase of T-Hg levels in all the studied species after impoundment. Conclusions. The T-Hg concentrations in the evaluated fish species, increased after impoundment. The water quality variables showed conditions favoring Hg methylation and its biomagnification, this last was evident in the fish food chain of the reservoir.

  18. Characteristics of total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in an industrial complex in South Korea: impacts from local sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong-Seok; Jeong, Seung-Pyo; Holsen, Thomas M.; Han, Young-Ji; Choi, Eunhwa; Park, Eun Ha; Kim, Tae Young; Eum, Hee-Sang; Park, Dae Gun; Kim, Eunhye; Kim, Soontae; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Choi, Jaewon; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2016-08-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were measured every 5 min in Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, during summer (17-23 August 2012), fall (9-17 October 2012), winter (22-29 January 2013), and spring (26 March-3 April 2013) to (1) characterize the hourly and seasonal variations of atmospheric TGM concentrations; (2) identify the relationships between TGM and co-pollutants; and (3) identify likely source directions and locations of TGM using the conditional probability function (CPF), conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF) and total potential source contribution function (TPSCF). The TGM concentration was statistically significantly highest in fall (6.7 ± 6.4 ng m-3), followed by spring (4.8 ± 4.0 ng m-3), winter (4.5 ± 3.2 ng m-3) and summer (3.8 ± 3.9 ng m-3). There was a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between the TGM concentration and ambient air temperature (r = -0.08, pindustrial activities and activation of local surface emission sources. The observed ΔTGM / ΔCO was significantly lower than that of Asian long-range transport, but similar to that of local sources in Korea and in US industrial events, suggesting that local sources are more important than those of long-range transport. CPF, CBPF and TPSCF indicated that the main sources of TGM were iron and manufacturing facilities, the hazardous waste incinerators and the coastal areas.

  19. Serum long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mercury, and risk of sudden cardiac death in men: a prospective population-based study.

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    Jyrki K Virtanen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fish consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, especially sudden cardiac death (SCD. Fish is the major source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also a major source of methylmercury, which was associated with increased risk of CVD in this study population. Impact of interaction between long-chain n-3 PUFA and methylmercury on the SCD risk is unknown. METHODS: A total of 1857 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984-1989, were studied. Serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was used as the marker for long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and hair mercury as the marker for mercury exposure. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 91 SCD events occurred. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models, serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was not associated with the risk of SCD until hair mercury was accounted for; then the hazard ratio (HR in the highest vs. lowest tertile was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.32 to 0.91, p for trend = 0.046]. When the analyses were stratified by hair mercury content, among those with lower hair mercury, each 0.5 percentage unit increase in the serum long-chain n-3