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Sample records for hair follicle integrity

  1. Skin and hair follicle integrity is crucially dependent on beta 1 integrin expression on keratinocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, C; Grose, R; Quondamatteo, F

    2000-01-01

    developed severe hair loss due to a reduced proliferation of hair matrix cells and severe hair follicle abnormalities. Eventually, the malformed hair follicles were removed by infiltrating macrophages. The epidermis of the back skin became hyperthickened, the basal keratinocytes showed reduced expression......, the integrity of the basement membrane surrounding the beta 1-deficient hair follicle was not affected. Finally, the dermis became fibrotic. These results demonstrate an important role of beta 1 integrins in hair follicle morphogenesis, in the processing of basement membrane components, in the maintenance...

  2. Hair Follicle Pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej; Wortsman, Jacobo; Plonka, Przemyslaw M.; Schallreuter, Karin U.; Paus, Ralf; Tobin, Desmond J.

    2005-01-01

    Hair shaft melanin components (eu- or/and pheomelanin) are a long-lived record of precise interactions in the hair follicle pigmentary unit, e.g., between follicular melanocytes, keratinocytes, and dermal papilla fibroblasts. Follicular melanogenesis (FM) involves sequentially the melanogenic activity of follicular melanocytes, the transfer of melanin granules into cortical and medulla keratinocytes, and the formation of pigmented hair shafts. This activity is in turn regulated by an array of enzymes, structural and regulatory proteins, transporters, and receptors and their ligands, acting on the developmental stages, cellular, and hair follicle levels. FM is stringently coupled to the anagen stage of the hair cycle, being switched-off in catagen to remain absent through telogen. At the organ level FM is precisely coupled to the life cycle of melanocytes with changes in their compartmental distribution and accelerated melanoblast/melanocyte differentiation with enhanced secretory activity. The melanocyte compartments in the upper hair follicle also provides a reservoir for the repigmentation of epidermis and, for the cyclic formation of new anagen hair bulbs. Melanin synthesis and pigment transfer to bulb keratinocytes are dependent on the availability of melanin precursors, and regulation by signal transduction pathways intrinsic to skin and hair follicle, which are both receptor dependent and independent, act through auto-, para- or intracrine mechanisms and can be modified by hormonal signals. The important regulators are MC1 receptor its and adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone, agouti protein ligands (in rodents), c-Kit, and the endothelin receptors with their ligands. Melanin itself has a wide range of bioactivities that extend far beyond its determination of hair color. PMID:15654948

  3. Hair follicle proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    Proteoglycans are polymorphic macromolecules present in all mammalian tissues, including the skin and its appendages. They consist of a core protein to which one or more glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently attached. Broadly, they can be divided into classes based on location and core protein...... structure. These classes include cell surface proteoglycans, basement membrane proteoglycans, small leucine-rich proteoglycans, large proteoglycans aggregating with hyaluronan, and intracellular granule proteoglycans. They have a wide range of functions, but little is known of the proteoglycans...... that are present in the epithelial and stromal compartments of hair follicles. However, the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan may be important in follicle morphogenesis, both with respect to the epithelium and dermal papilla cells. Syndecan may possess both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains, interacts...

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  5. Leptin controls hair follicle cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Reiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kabashima-Kubo, Rieko; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nishio, Daisuke; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2014-04-01

    Leptin is a cytokine well known for its ability to control body weight and energy metabolism. Several lines of evidence have recently revealed that leptin also plays an important role in wound healing and immune modulation in skin. Sumikawa et al. Exp Dermatol 2014 evaluated the effect of leptin on hair follicle cycling using mutant and wild-type mice. They report that leptin is produced in dermal papilla cells in hair follicles and that leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice show an abnormality in hair follicle cycling. Moreover, leptin injection induced the transition into the growth stage of the hair cycle (anagen). On this basis, it now deserves exploration whether leptin-mediated signalling is a key stimulus for anagen induction and whether this may be targeted to manage human hair disorders with defect in the control of hair follicle cycling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

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    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth (anagen, apoptosis-driven regression (catagen, and relative quiescence (telogen. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on genetically engineered mouse models with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In this review, the basic concepts of hair follicle, a mini-complex organ, biology will be presented and its importance in clinical applications will be summarized.

  7. Rac1 is crucial for hair follicle integrity but is not essential for maintenance of the epidermis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrostek, Anna; Wu, Xunwei; Quondamatteo, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    follicles was observed. In the skin of mutant mice, epidermal keratinocytes showed normal differentiation, proliferation, cell-cell contacts, and basement membrane deposition, demonstrating no obvious defects of Rac1-deficient epidermis in vivo. In vitro, Rac1-null keratinocytes displayed a strong spreading...... defect and slightly impaired adhesion. These data show that Rac1 plays an important role in sustaining the integrity of the lower part of hair follicles but not in maintenance of the epidermis....

  8. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Zs. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary)]. E-mail: zsofi@atomki.hu; Szikszai, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Telek, A. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Biro, T. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary)

    2007-07-15

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  9. Depletion of CD200+ Hair Follicle Stem Cells in Human Prematurely Gray Hair Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Sujata; Kumar, Anil; Dhawan, Jyoti; Sharma, Vinod K; Gupta, Somesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Melanocyte stem cells (MelSCs) are known to be depleted in gray hair follicles. Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are important for maintenance of stemness of MelSCs. Methods: We compared the proportion of CD200+ (Cluster of Differentiation 200 positive) stem cells in the outer root sheath cell suspension of gray and pigmented hair follicles of three patients with the premature graying of hair. In addition, explants culture for HFSCs was also carried out from gray and pigmented h...

  10. Depletion of CD200+ hair follicle stem cells in human prematurely gray hair follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Mohanty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melanocyte stem cells (MelSCs are known to be depleted in gray hair follicles. Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs are important for maintenance of stemness of MelSCs. Methods: We compared the proportion of CD200+ (Cluster of Differentiation 200 positive stem cells in the outer root sheath cell suspension of gray and pigmented hair follicles of three patients with the premature graying of hair. In addition, explants culture for HFSCs was also carried out from gray and pigmented hair follicles. Cultured HFSCs were also differentiated into melanocytes. Results: The mean ± SD CD200+ HFSCs population were 9.4 ± 1.4% and 3.5 ± 0.5% for pigmented and gray hair follicles, respectively ( P = 0.002. In explants culture, the growth of HFSCs from the gray hair follicle stopped at around day 20-22, whereas the growth of the cells from the pigmented follicle continued. Conclusion: CD200+ HFSCs are depleted in prematurely gray hair in the humans. CD200+ hair follicle stem cell yield is poorer in gray hair explant culture than pigmented hair explant culture.

  11. Depletion of CD200+ Hair Follicle Stem Cells in Human Prematurely Gray Hair Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sujata; Kumar, Anil; Dhawan, Jyoti; Sharma, Vinod K; Gupta, Somesh

    2013-04-01

    Melanocyte stem cells (MelSCs) are known to be depleted in gray hair follicles. Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are important for maintenance of stemness of MelSCs. We compared the proportion of CD200+ (Cluster of Differentiation 200 positive) stem cells in the outer root sheath cell suspension of gray and pigmented hair follicles of three patients with the premature graying of hair. In addition, explants culture for HFSCs was also carried out from gray and pigmented hair follicles. Cultured HFSCs were also differentiated into melanocytes. The mean ± SD CD200+ HFSCs population were 9.4 ± 1.4% and 3.5 ± 0.5% for pigmented and gray hair follicles, respectively (P = 0.002). In explants culture, the growth of HFSCs from the gray hair follicle stopped at around day 20-22, whereas the growth of the cells from the pigmented follicle continued. CD200+ HFSCs are depleted in prematurely gray hair in the humans. CD200+ hair follicle stem cell yield is poorer in gray hair explant culture than pigmented hair explant culture.

  12. Human hair growth ex vivo is correlated with in vivo hair growth: selective categorization of hair follicles for more reliable hair follicle organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Oh, Jun Kyu; Kim, Mi Hyang; Park, So Hyun; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Kim, Kyu Han; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul

    2006-02-01

    Of the numerous assays used to assess hair growth, hair follicle organ culture model is one of the most popular and powerful in vitro systems. Changes in hair growth are commonly employed as a measurement of follicular activity. Hair cycle stage of mouse vibrissa follicles in vivo is known to determine subsequent hair growth and follicle behavior in vitro and it is recommended that follicles be taken at precisely the same cyclic stage. This study was performed to evaluate whether categorization of human hair follicles by the growth in vivo could be used to select follicles of the defined anagen stage for more consistent culture. Occipital scalp samples were obtained from three subjects, 2 weeks later after hair bleaching. Hair growth and follicle length of isolated anagen VI follicles were measured under a videomicroscope. Follicles were categorized into four groups according to hair growth and some were cultured ex vivo for 6 days. Follicles showed considerable variations with respect to hair growth and follicle length; however, these two variables were relatively well correlated. Hair growth in culture was closely related with hair growth rate in vivo. Moreover, minoxidil uniquely demonstrated a significant increase of hair growth in categorized hair follicles assumed at a similar early anagen VI stage of hair cycle. Selection of follicles at a defined stage based on hair-growth rate would permit a more reliable outcome in human hair follicle organ culture.

  13. Aging of the Hair Follicle Pigmentation System

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    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-01-01

    Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations. PMID:20927229

  14. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

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    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium, alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  15. An Integrated Analysis of MicroRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles to Identify RNA Expression Signatures in Lambskin Hair Follicles in Hu Sheep.

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    Xiaoyang Lv

    Full Text Available Wave patterns in lambskin hair follicles are an important factor determining the quality of sheep's wool. Hair follicles in lambskin from Hu sheep, a breed unique to China, have 3 types of waves, designated as large, medium, and small. The quality of wool from small wave follicles is excellent, while the quality of large waves is considered poor. Because no molecular and biological studies on hair follicles of these sheep have been conducted to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of different wave patterns is currently unknown. The aim of this article was to screen the candidate microRNAs (miRNA and genes for the development of hair follicles in Hu sheep. Two-day-old Hu lambs were selected from full-sib individuals that showed large, medium, and small waves. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles employed high-throughout sequencing technology. Approximately 13, 24, and 18 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between small and large waves, small and medium waves, and medium and large waves, respectively. A total of 54, 190, and 81 differentially expressed genes were found between small and large waves, small and medium waves, and medium and large waves, respectively, by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analysis. Differentially expressed genes were classified using gene ontology and pathway analyses. They were found to be mainly involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, growth, immune response, and ion transport, and were associated with MAPK and the Notch signaling pathway. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analyses of differentially-expressed miRNA and genes were consistent with sequencing results. Integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression indicated that, compared to small waves, large waves included 4 downregulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 8 upregulated genes and 3 upregulated miRNAs, which in turn influenced 13 downregulated genes. Compared to

  16. HISTOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE HAIR FOLLICLE IN THE YOUNG ALPACA

    OpenAIRE

    Badajoz L., Elmer; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Sandoval Ch., Nieves; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; García V., Wilber; Estación Experimental del Centro de Investigación IVITA-La Raya, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Pezo C., Danilo; Estación Experimental del Centro de Investigación IVITA-La Raya, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the distribution and an association of hair follicles of alpaca skin. Samples were collected from 42 young Suri and Huacaya alpacas, of both sexes and with various hair colours. Samples were collected by punch skin biopsy in the middle costal zone and processed for histological study using H-E staining. Hair follicles formed follicular nests distributed as a compound follicle group (CFG) and simple follicle group (SFG). The first was composed ...

  17. Dynamic signals for hair follicle development and regeneration.

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    Wang, Xusheng; Tredget, Edward E; Wu, Yaojiong

    2012-01-01

    Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth, regression, and relative quiescence. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Over the past decades, genetically engineered mouse models have been used to study hair follicle morphogenesis and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In contrast, much less is understood in signals regulating hair follicle regeneration. Like hair follicle development, hair follicle regeneration probably relies on populations of stem cells that undergo a highly coordinated and stepwise program of differentiation to produce the completed structure. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of the molecular signals underlying hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration, with a focus on the initiation of the primary hair follicle structure placode. Knowledge about hair follicle morphogenesis may help develop novel therapeutic strategies to enhance cutaneous regeneration and improve wound healing.

  18. Hair Follicle Nevus: A Case Report

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    İnci Mevlitoğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair follicle nevus (HFN is a rare hamartoma showing follicular differentiation. Hamartomas are benign tumoral formations caused by overproduction of normal tissues and cells. HFN was first introduced by Gans et al in 1928. There are a few reports in literature on HFN appearing as multiple lesions, which is often observed as a single papule or nodule. We are hereby present our patient having complaints beginning in early childhood as his lesions might be confused with other dermatoses located on face area. As far as we know, our patient is the first HFN case with bilateral, multiple, perioral, perinasal, periorbital and genital involvements.

  19. Cryopreservation of Hair-Follicle Associated Pluripotent (HAP) Stem Cells Maintains Differentiation and Hair-Growth Potential.

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    Hoffman, Robert M; Kajiura, Satoshi; Cao, Wenluo; Liu, Fang; Amoh, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells which originate above the bulge area of the follicle, below the sebaceous gland. We have termed these cells hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. We have established efficient cryopreservation methods of the hair follicle that maintain the pluripotency of HAP stem cells as well as hair growth. We cryopreserved the whole hair follicle by slow-rate cooling in TC-Protector medium or in DMSO-containing medium and storage in liquid nitrogen or at -80 °C. After thawing and culture of the cryopreserved whisker follicles, growing HAP stem cells formed hair spheres. The hair spheres contained cells that differentiated to neurons, glial cells, and other cell types. The hair spheres derived from slow-cooling cryopreserved hair follicles were as pluripotent as hair spheres from fresh hair follicles. We have also previously demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair-growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the HAP stem cells, evidenced by P75ntr expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair-shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles. HAP stem cells can be used for nerve and spinal-cord repair. This biobanking of hair follicles can allow each patient the potential for their own stem cell use for regenerative medicine or hair transplantation.

  20. Ratchet effect for nanoparticle transport in hair follicles.

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    Radtke, Matthias; Patzelt, Alexa; Knorr, Fanny; Lademann, Jürgen; Netz, Roland R

    2017-07-01

    The motion of a single rigid nanoparticle inside a hair follicle is investigated by means of Brownian dynamics simulations. The cuticular hair structure is modeled as a periodic asymmetric ratchet-shaped surface. Induced by oscillating radial hair motion we find directed nanoparticle transport into the hair follicle with maximal velocity at a specific optimal frequency and an optimal particle size. We observe flow reversal when switching from radial to axial oscillatory hair motion. We also study the diffusion behavior and find strongly enhanced diffusion for axial motion with a diffusivity significantly larger than for free diffusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of gamma rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle.

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    Sugaya, Kimihiko

    2017-09-01

    This review evaluates the effects of γ-rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle. A series of studies were performed to investigate this issue, in which the whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the 1st telogen phase of the hair cycle were irradiated with γ-rays. The dermis of the irradiated skin showed a decrease in hair follicle density and induction of curved hair follicles along with the presence of white hairs and hypopigmented hair bulbs in the 2nd and 3rd anagen phases. An increased frequency of hypopigmented hair bulbs was still observed in the later hair cycle at postnatal day 200. There was no significant difference in the number of stem cells in the hair bulge region between control and irradiated skin. These results show that the effects of γ-rays on the pigmentation of murine hair follicles are persistently carried over to later hair cycles, although those on the number and structure of hair follicles appear to be hidden by the effects of aging. Our findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms of the actions of stem cells on hair regeneration in connection with age-related phenotypes.

  2. Temporary hair removal by low fluence photoepilation: histological study on biopsies and cultured human hair follicles.

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    Roosen, Guido F; Westgate, Gillian E; Philpott, Mike; Berretty, Paul J M; Nuijs, Tom A M; Bjerring, Peter

    2008-10-01

    We have recently shown that repeated low fluence photoepilation (LFP) with intense pulsed light (IPL) leads to effective hair removal, which is fully reversible. Contrary to permanent hair removal treatments, LFP does not induce severe damage to the hair follicle. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the impact of LFP on the structure and the physiology of the hair follicle. Single pulses of IPL with a fluence of 9 J/cm(2) and duration of 15 milliseconds were applied to one lower leg of 12 female subjects, followed by taking a single biopsy per person, either immediately, or after 3 or 7 days. Additionally, we present a novel approach to examine the effects of LFP, in which ex vivo hairy human scalp skin was exposed to IPL pulses with the same parameters as above, followed by isolation and culturing of the hair follicles over several days. Samples were examined histologically and morphologically. The majority of the cultured follicles that had been exposed to LFP treatment showed a marked treatment effect. The melanin containing part of the hair follicle bulb was the target and a catagen-like transformation was observed demonstrating that hair formation had ceased. The other follicles that had been exposed to LFP showed a less strong or no response. The skin biopsies also revealed that the melanin-rich region of the hair follicle bulb matrix was targeted; other parts of the follicle and the skin remained unaffected. Catagen/telogen hair follicles were visible with unusual melanin clumping, indicating this cycle phase was induced by the IPL treatment. Low fluence photoepilation targets the pigmented matrix area of the anagen hair follicle bulb, causing a highly localized but mild trauma that interrupts the hair cycle, induces a catagen-like state and eventually leads to temporary loss of the hair. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Collecting Tail Hair Follicle for Bison DNA Sample

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection and processing of tail hair follicles from Bison for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect tail...

  4. Graying: gerontobiology of the hair follicle pigmentary unit.

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    Tobin, D J; Paus, R

    2001-01-01

    The visual appearance of humans derives predominantly from their skin and hair color. The phylogenetically ancient biochemical [corrected] pathway underling this phenomenon is called melanogenesis and results in the production of melanin pigments in neural crest-derived melanocytes, followed by its transfer to epithelial cells. While melanin from epidermal melanocytes clearly protects human skin by screening harmful ultraviolet radiation, the biologic value of hair pigmentation is less clear. In addition to important roles in social/sexual communication, one potential benefit of pigmented scalp hair in humans may be the rapid excretion of heavy metals, chemicals, toxins from the body by their selective binding to melanin. The hair follicle and epidermal melanogenic systems are broadly distinct, though open. The primary distinguishing feature of follicular melanogenesis, compared to the continuous melanogenesis in the epidermis, is the tight coupling of hair follicle melanogenesis to the hair growth cycle. This cycle appears to involve periods of melanocyte proliferation (during early anagen), maturation (mid to late anagen) and melanocyte death via apoptosis (during early catagen). Thus, each hair cycle is associated with the reconstruction of an intact hair follicle pigmentary unit... at least for the first 10 cycles or so. Thereafter, gray and white hairs appear, suggesting an age-related, genetically regulated exhaustion of the pigmentary potential of each individual hair follicle. Melanocyte aging may be associated with reactive oxygen species-mediated damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA with resultant accumulation of mutations with age, in addition to dysregulation of anti-oxidant mechanisms or pro/anti-apoptotic factors within the cells. While the perception of "gray hair" derives in large part from the admixture of pigmented and white hair, it is important to note that individual hair follicles can indeed exhibit pigment dilution or true grayness. This

  5. Stem cell dynamics in the hair follicle niche

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    Rompolas, Panteleimon; Greco, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Hair follicles are skin appendages of the mammalian skin that have the ability to periodically and stereotypically regenerate in order to continuously produce new hair over our lifetime. The ability of the hair follicle to regenerate is due to the presence of stem cells that along with other cell populations and non-cellular components, including molecular signals and extracellular material, make up a niche microenvironment. Mounting evidence suggests that the niche is critical for regulating stem cell behavior and thus the process of regeneration. Here we review the literature concerning past and current studies that have utilized mouse genetic models, combined with other approaches to dissect the molecular and cellular composition of the hair follicle niche. We also discuss our current understanding of how stem cells operate within the niche during the process of tissue regeneration and the factors that regulate their behavior. PMID:24361866

  6. The Hair Follicle: A Comparative Review of Canine Hair Follicle Anatomy and Physiology.

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    Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-06-01

    The hair follicle (HF) has a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical and immunological protection against external insults, sensory perception, social interactions, and camouflage. One of the most characteristic features of HFs is that they self-renew during hair cycle (HC) throughout the entire life of an individual to continuously produce new hair. HC disturbances are common in humans and comparable to some alopecic disorders in dogs. A normal HC is maintained by follicular stem cells (SCs), which are predominately found in an area known as the bulge. Due to similar morphological characteristics of the human and canine bulge area, the particularity of compound HFs in humans and dogs as well as similarities in follicular biomarker expression, the dog might be a promising model to study human HC and SC disorders. In this review, we give an overview of normal follicular anatomy, the HC, and follicular SCs and discuss the possible pathogenetic mechanisms of noninflammatory alopecia. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Modelling hair follicle growth dynamics as an excitable medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Murray

    Full Text Available The hair follicle system represents a tractable model for the study of stem cell behaviour in regenerative adult epithelial tissue. However, although there are numerous spatial scales of observation (molecular, cellular, follicle and multi follicle, it is not yet clear what mechanisms underpin the follicle growth cycle. In this study we seek to address this problem by describing how the growth dynamics of a large population of follicles can be treated as a classical excitable medium. Defining caricature interactions at the molecular scale and treating a single follicle as a functional unit, a minimal model is proposed in which the follicle growth cycle is an emergent phenomenon. Expressions are derived, in terms of parameters representing molecular regulation, for the time spent in the different functional phases of the cycle, a formalism that allows the model to be directly compared with a previous cellular automaton model and experimental measurements made at the single follicle scale. A multi follicle model is constructed and numerical simulations are used to demonstrate excellent qualitative agreement with a range of experimental observations. Notably, the excitable medium equations exhibit a wider family of solutions than the previous work and we demonstrate how parameter changes representing altered molecular regulation can explain perturbed patterns in Wnt over-expression and BMP down-regulation mouse models. Further experimental scenarios that could be used to test the fundamental premise of the model are suggested. The key conclusion from our work is that positive and negative regulatory interactions between activators and inhibitors can give rise to a range of experimentally observed phenomena at the follicle and multi follicle spatial scales and, as such, could represent a core mechanism underlying hair follicle growth.

  8. Capturing and profiling adult hair follicle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rebecca J; Liu, Yaping; Marles, Lee; Yang, Zaixin; Trempus, Carol; Li, Shulan; Lin, Jamie S; Sawicki, Janet A; Cotsarelis, George

    2004-04-01

    The hair follicle bulge possesses putative epithelial stem cells. Characterization of these cells has been hampered by the inability to target bulge cells genetically. Here, we use a Keratin1-15 (Krt1-15, also known as K15) promoter to target mouse bulge cells with an inducible Cre recombinase construct or with the gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), which allow for lineage analysis and for isolation of the cells. We show that bulge cells in adult mice generate all epithelial cell types within the intact follicle and hair during normal hair follicle cycling. After isolation, adult Krt1-15-EGFP-positive cells reconstituted all components of the cutaneous epithelium and had a higher proliferative potential than Krt1-15-EGFP-negative cells. Genetic profiling of hair follicle stem cells revealed several known and unknown receptors and signaling pathways important for maintaining the stem cell phenotype. Ultimately, these findings provide potential targets for the treatment of hair loss and other disorders of skin and hair.

  9. Personal samplers of bioavailable pesticides integrated with a hair follicle assay of DNA damage to assess environmental exposures and their associated risks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Anderson, Kim A; Chen, Haiying; Anderson, Rebecca; Salvador-Moreno, Naike; Mora, Dana C; Poutasse, Carolyn; Laurienti, Paul J; Daniel, Stephanie S; Arcury, Thomas A

    2017-10-01

    Agriculture in the United States employs youth ages ten and older in work environments with high pesticide levels. Younger children in rural areas may also be affected by indirect pesticide exposures. The long-term effects of pesticides on health and development are difficult to assess and poorly understood. Yet, epidemiologic studies suggest associations with cancer as well as cognitive deficits. We report a practical and cost-effective approach to assess environmental pesticide exposures and their biological consequences in children. Our approach combines silicone wristband personal samplers and DNA damage quantification from hair follicles, and was tested as part of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project involving ten Latino children from farmworker households in North Carolina. Our study documents high acceptance among Latino children and their caregivers of these noninvasive sampling methods. The personal samplers detected organophosphates, organochlorines, and pyrethroids in the majority of the participants (70%, 90%, 80%, respectively). Pesticides were detected in all participant samplers, with an average of 6.2±2.4 detections/participant sampler. DNA damage in epithelial cells from the sheath and bulb of plucked hairs follicles was quantified by immunostaining 53BP1-labled DNA repair foci. This method is sensitive, as shown by dose response analyses to γ radiations where the lowest dose tested (0.1Gy) led to significant increased 53BP1 foci density. Immunolabeling of DNA repair foci has significant advantages over the comet assay in that specific regions of the follicles can be analyzed. In this cohort of child participants, significant association was found between the number of pesticide detections and DNA damage in the papilla region of the hairs. We anticipate that this monitoring approach of bioavailable pesticides and genotoxicity will enhance our knowledge of the biological effects of pesticides to guide education programs and

  10. File list: InP.Epd.05.AllAg.Hair_Follicle [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Epd.05.AllAg.Hair_Follicle mm9 Input control Epidermis Hair Follicle SRX688940,...SRX700956,SRX699296,SRX323582,SRX700958,SRX450827,SRX209794,SRX450825,SRX209796 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Epd.05.AllAg.Hair_Follicle.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Epd.10.AllAg.Hair_Follicle [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Epd.10.AllAg.Hair_Follicle mm9 All antigens Epidermis Hair Follicle SRX376930,S...,SRX688940,SRX700958,SRX209795,SRX209796,SRX323582,SRX699296,SRX450825,SRX450827,SRX209794 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Epd.10.AllAg.Hair_Follicle.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Epd.50.AllAg.Hair_Follicle [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Epd.50.AllAg.Hair_Follicle mm9 All antigens Epidermis Hair Follicle SRX323585,S...,SRX209796,SRX699296,SRX688940,SRX450827,SRX450826,SRX209795,SRX450825,SRX323582,SRX209794 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Epd.50.AllAg.Hair_Follicle.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Epd.10.AllAg.Hair_Follicle [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Epd.10.AllAg.Hair_Follicle mm9 Input control Epidermis Hair Follicle SRX700956,...SRX688940,SRX700958,SRX209796,SRX323582,SRX699296,SRX450825,SRX450827,SRX209794 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Epd.10.AllAg.Hair_Follicle.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Epd.20.AllAg.Hair_Follicle [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Epd.20.AllAg.Hair_Follicle mm9 All antigens Epidermis Hair Follicle SRX323585,S...,SRX700958,SRX209796,SRX699296,SRX688940,SRX450827,SRX209794,SRX209795,SRX450825,SRX323582 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Epd.20.AllAg.Hair_Follicle.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Epd.20.AllAg.Hair_Follicle [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Epd.20.AllAg.Hair_Follicle mm9 Input control Epidermis Hair Follicle SRX700956,...SRX700958,SRX209796,SRX699296,SRX688940,SRX450827,SRX209794,SRX450825,SRX323582 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Epd.20.AllAg.Hair_Follicle.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Epd.50.AllAg.Hair_Follicle [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Epd.50.AllAg.Hair_Follicle mm9 Input control Epidermis Hair Follicle SRX700956,...SRX700958,SRX209796,SRX699296,SRX688940,SRX450827,SRX450825,SRX323582,SRX209794 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Epd.50.AllAg.Hair_Follicle.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Epd.05.AllAg.Hair_Follicle [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Epd.05.AllAg.Hair_Follicle mm9 All antigens Epidermis Hair Follicle SRX323585,S...,SRX450826,SRX450828,SRX323582,SRX700958,SRX700957,SRX450827,SRX209794,SRX450825,SRX209796 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Epd.05.AllAg.Hair_Follicle.bed ...

  18. Hair follicles as a target structure for nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lademann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For at least two decades, nanoparticles have been investigated for their capability to deliver topically applied substances through the skin barrier. Based on findings that nanoparticles are highly suitable for penetrating the blood–brain barrier, their use for drug delivery through the skin has become a topic of intense research. In spite of the research efforts by academia and industry, a commercial product permitting the nanoparticle-assisted delivery of topically applied drugs has not yet been developed. However, nanoparticles of approximately 600 nm in diameter have been shown to penetrate efficiently into the hair follicles, where they can be stored for several days. The successful loading of nanoparticles with drugs and their triggered release inside the hair follicle may present an ideal method for localized drug delivery. Depending on the particle size, such a method would permit targeting specific structures in the hair follicles such as stem cells or immune cells or blood vessels found in the vicinity of the hair follicles.

  19. Immunohistochemical localization of basement membrane components during hair follicle morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Shaw, D A; Harrap, G J

    1984-01-01

    Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA was not ...

  20. Towards expansion of human hair follicle stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J H; Mohebi, P; Farkas, D L; Tajbakhsh, J

    2011-06-01

    Multipotential human hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into various cell lineages and thus are investigated here as potential autologous sources for regenerative medicine. Towards this end, we have attempted to expand these cells, directly isolated from minimal amounts of hair follicle explants, to numbers more suitable for stem-cell therapy. Two types of human follicle stem cells, commercially available and directly isolated, were cultured using an in-house developed medium. The latter was obtained from bulge areas of hair follicles by mechanical and enzymatic dissociation, and was magnetically enriched for its CD200(+) fraction. Isolated cells were cultured for up to 4 weeks, on different supports: blank polystyrene, laminin- and Matrigel(TM) -coated surfaces. Two-fold expansion was found, highlighting the slow-cycling nature of these cells. Flow cytometry characterization revealed: magnetic enrichment increased the proportion of CD200(+) cells from initially 43.3% (CD200+, CD34: 25.8%; CD200+, CD34+: 17.5%) to 78.2% (CD200+, CD34: 41.5%; CD200+, CD34+: 36.7%). Enriched cells seemed to have retained and passed on their morphological and molecular phenotypes to their progeny, as isolated CD200(+) presenting cells expanded in our medium to a population with 80% of cells being CD200(+): 51.5% (CD200(+), CD34(-)) and 29.6% (CD200(+), CD34(+)). This study demonstrates the possibility of culturing human hair follicle stem cells without causing any significant changes to phenotypes of the cells. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The effects of gamma rays on the regeneration of hair follicles are carried over to later hair cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Kimihiko; Ishihara, Yoshie; Inoue, Sonoe; Hirobe, Tomohisa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effects of gamma rays on the regeneration of hair follicles are carried over to later hair cycles. The whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the 1st telogen phase were irradiated with (60)Co γ-rays. Mice were examined for the effects on hair follicles, including their number, morphology and pigmentation in the 3rd anagen phase. Effects of γ-rays on hair follicle stem cells were investigated by the indirect immunolabeling of keratin 15 (K15). Decreased hair follicle density and induction of curved hair follicles were observed in the dermis of irradiated skin. In addition, white hair and hypopigmented hair bulbs were found. The number of K15-positive hair follicle stem cells in the hair bulge region of irradiated skin appeared to decrease slightly but not significantly. These results suggest that the effects of γ-rays are carried over to a later hair cycle to affect the number, structure and pigmentation of hair follicles in the 3rd anagen phase when stem cells and committed progenitors for keratinocytes and melanocytes are irradiated in the 1st telogen phase.

  2. Palmitoylation regulates epidermal homeostasis and hair follicle differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleasantine Mill

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Palmitoylation is a key post-translational modification mediated by a family of DHHC-containing palmitoyl acyl-transferases (PATs. Unlike other lipid modifications, palmitoylation is reversible and thus often regulates dynamic protein interactions. We find that the mouse hair loss mutant, depilated, (dep is due to a single amino acid deletion in the PAT, Zdhhc21, resulting in protein mislocalization and loss of palmitoylation activity. We examined expression of Zdhhc21 protein in skin and find it restricted to specific hair lineages. Loss of Zdhhc21 function results in delayed hair shaft differentiation, at the site of expression of the gene, but also leads to hyperplasia of the interfollicular epidermis (IFE and sebaceous glands, distant from the expression site. The specific delay in follicle differentiation is associated with attenuated anagen propagation and is reflected by decreased levels of Lef1, nuclear beta-catenin, and Foxn1 in hair shaft progenitors. In the thickened basal compartment of mutant IFE, phospho-ERK and cell proliferation are increased, suggesting increased signaling through EGFR or integrin-related receptors, with a parallel reduction in expression of the key differentiation factor Gata3. We show that the Src-family kinase, Fyn, involved in keratinocyte differentiation, is a direct palmitoylation target of Zdhhc21 and is mislocalized in mutant follicles. This study is the first to demonstrate a key role for palmitoylation in regulating developmental signals in mammalian tissue homeostasis.

  3. Hair Follicle Plasticity with Complemented Immune-modulation Following Follicular Unit Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Reza P; Thomas, Alexander H; Lindner, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Background: During hair transplantation as an effective therapy for androgenetic alopecia, hair follicles were typically trans-located from the nonaffected occipital to the balding frontal or vertex region of the scalp. Although this is an autologous intervention, the donor and recipient hair follicle tissue differ in composition and local environment. Settings and Design: In two case studies, we investigated the changes in hair follicle morphology and the immune status of scalp and body hair follicles from different origins transplanted to the eyebrows and the frontal scalp using follicular unit extraction. Results: Quantitative histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry revealed a transformation in hair follicle length and dermal papilla size of the scalp, chest and beard hair follicles, which had been re-extracted after a 6-month period posttransplantation. Furthermore, a significant infiltration of B and T lymphocytes as well as macrophages could be observed most prominently in the infundibulum of transplanted hair follicles. Conclusion: The presented results demonstrate that hair follicle units from different body sites are capable to replace miniaturized or degraded hair follicles in different recipient areas like scalp or eyebrows as they keep their intrinsic capability or acquire the potential to readjust plastically within the beneficiary skin region. The essential secretory crosstalk underlying the observed tissue remodeling is possibly mediated by the infiltrating immune cells. PMID:25878444

  4. Predicting the spatiotemporal dynamics of hair follicle patterns in the developing mouse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chi Wa Cheng; Ben Niu; Mya Warren; Larysa Halyna Pevny; Robin Lovell-Badge; Terence Hwa; Kathryn S. E. Cheah

    2014-01-01

    .... We used the expression of sex-determining region Y box 2 to identify and distinguish the primary and secondary hair follicles and to infer the spatiotemporal dynamics of the follicle formation process...

  5. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  6. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Miao

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  7. Hair follicle reformation induced by dermal papilla cells from human scalp skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Tang-You; Lu, Yuan-Gang; Liu, Rong-Qing; Mai, Yue; Cheng, Bo; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zhong, Bai-Yu; Tang, Shu-Qian

    2006-09-01

    To investigate the possibility of hair follicle reformation induced by dermal papilla cells in vivo and in vitro. Dermal papilla cells, dermal sheath cells obtained from human scalp skin by enzyme digestion were mixed with collagen to form mesenchymal cell-populated collagen gels. Superior and inferior epithelial cells and bulb matrical cells were then cultured on these gels by organotypic culture to recombine bilayer artificial skins. Dermal papilla cells and outer root sheath keratinocytes were mingled together and transplanted under subcutaneous tissue of the dorsal skin of nude mice. The results of histologic examination was observed with HE stain. These recombinants by organotypic culture all reformed bilayer structure like nature skin. Hair follicle-like structure reformation was found in dermal sheath cell-populated collagen gel when combined with superior or inferior epithelial cells. Dermal papilla cells also induced superior and inferior epithelial cells to form hair follicle on nude mice. Low passage dermal papilla cells mixed with hair follicle epithelial cells reformed many typical hair follicle structures and produced hair fibres after transplantation on nude mice. The dermal part of hair follicle, such as dermal papilla cells and dermal sheath cells, has the ability to induce hair follicle formation by interaction with the epithelial cells of hair follicle.

  8. Comparative study of hair follicle morphology in eight mammalian species and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, Susanne; Vergou, Theognosia; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen; Patzelt, Alexa

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the present study was the investigation of hair follicle morphology in eight mammalian species in order to evaluate the species-specific contribution of hair follicles to skin penetration particularly with regard to the utilization of the different animal species as skin models for human skin. Cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsy method (CSSB), light microscopy and also digital photography were used for the measurements of hair follicle morphology. The results revealed species-specific differences regarding the pattern of hair follicle distribution and also differences with regard to hair follicle parameters and characteristics. The results also showed that hair follicles generally possess enormous reservoir capacities, regarding the follicular volume. In all examined species, hair follicles reached at least one-fifth of stratum corneum storage capacity. The results were compared with human data obtained in a previous study. With regard to hair follicle morphology and skin structure, the porcine skin seems to be the most appropriate skin model for human skin analog to previous investigations, whereas the skin of dog, cat, and rabbit showed the most significant differences. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction...... of embryonic rats throughout the period of hair follicle formation. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognizing a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan only weakly stained 16-d embryo dermal-epidermal junction, but strong staining was associated with hair follicle buds...... as they developed. Through the hair growth cycle, it was found that the heparan sulfate proteoglycan persisted around the follicles, while the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in amount through catagen until it was undetectable at the base and dermal papilla of the telogen follicle. As anagen commenced...

  10. Association of versican with dermal matrices and its potential role in hair follicle development and cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Cros, D L; LeBaron, R G; Couchman, J R

    1995-01-01

    Versican is a member of the group of aggregating proteoglycans involved in matrix assembly and structure and in cell adhesion. We examined changes in the distribution of versican in mammalian skin, with emphasis on hair follicle development and cycling. In adult human skin, immunostaining...... for versican appeared predominantly in the dermis, with intense staining of the reticular dermis. Weak staining was observed at the dermoepidermal junction and the connective tissue sheath of hair follicles. Versican expression was also noted in the reticular dermis of rat skin, within dermal papillae......, and possibly associated with follicle basement membranes. During mouse hair follicle development, versican was not expressed until the hair follicles were beginning to produce fibers. With follicle maturation, versican expression intensified in the dermal papillae, reaching a maximum at the height...

  11. Hair follicle characteristics and fibre production in South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, M

    2010-09-01

    Hair follicle and fibre characteristics of Peruvian alpaca and llama and Bolivian llama were analysed in three experimental studies. The first experiment was designed to determine the age at which all the secondary follicles reach maturity, as well as to compare the skin follicular structure and activity among these different types of Peruvian camelids. It is concluded that the South American camelids investigated in this study gained a complete and mature skin follicle apparatus at an early age, and hence producers should practise an early first shearing. A second Peruvian experiment investigated comparative fibre cuticular structure on twenty Peruvian domestic camelids comprising huacaya, suri and llama (woolly) 'chacos' genotypes. The results showed that the number of cuticular scales per 100 μm fibre length proved to be strongly affected by both the fleece type and the fibre diameter. The suri fleece was clearly differentiated from those of both huacaya and llama by possessing the highest percentage of fibres with a number of scales less than eight, the lowest percentage of fibres with more than nine scales, along with the lowest percentage of fibres with a diameter of more than 35 μm. It is concluded that, with the exception of the scale height, the cuticular parameters investigated in this study can be utilised in textile fibre analyses for distinguishing among these three types of fleece, as well as in selection projects designed to produce homogeneous fibres from Peruvian domestic camelids. A further study was conducted to determine the age at which the hair follicles in Bolivian llamas reach maturity as well as for comparing the skin follicular structure and activity between the two distinct genotypes. Thirty-one llama kids were chosen. They were born between January and April 1998 and were of different sex and of 'Q'aras' (or Carguera) or 'T'amphullis' type. Skin biopsies were taken from the right mid-costal region at 2, 4, 6, 8,10,12 and 14 months of

  12. Hair follicle melanocyte cells as a renewable source of melanocytes for culture and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ho; Liu, Perry H; Lew, Dae-Hyun; Nishimura, Emi; Orgill, Dennis P

    2008-01-01

    Advances in melanocyte culture techniques have not yet led to reliable clinical methods for treating hypopigmentation disorders. We hypothesized that melanocytes harvested from plucked hair follicles may provide a renewable source of melanocytes for the treatment of hypopigmentation. Hairs with attached cells from the follicles were plucked from Yucatan pigs and implanted in a collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix for either immediate or delayed implantation into full-thickness excisional porcine wounds. Wounds were allowed to heal and were biopsied at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Fully healed wounds with transplanted hair follicles showed central areas of dark pigmentation corresponding to the location of implanted hair follicles. Corresponding collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix wounds showed no central areas of pigmentation. Hair follicle--derived melanocytes may potentially serve as a renewable source of pigment-producing cells for treating hypopigmentation disorders.

  13. Bald scalp in men with androgenetic alopecia retains hair follicle stem cells but lacks CD200-rich and CD34-positive hair follicle progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Luis A.; Yang, Chao-Chun; Zhao, Tailun; Blatt, Hanz B.; Lee, Michelle; He, Helen; Stanton, David C.; Carrasco, Lee; Spiegel, Jeffrey H.; Tobias, John W.; Cotsarelis, George

    2011-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), also known as common baldness, is characterized by a marked decrease in hair follicle size, which could be related to the loss of hair follicle stem or progenitor cells. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed bald and non-bald scalp from AGA individuals for the presence of hair follicle stem and progenitor cells. Cells expressing cytokeratin15 (KRT15), CD200, CD34, and integrin, α6 (ITGA6) were quantitated via flow cytometry. High levels of KRT15 expression correlated with stem cell properties of small cell size and quiescence. These KRT15hi stem cells were maintained in bald scalp samples. However, CD200hiITGA6hi and CD34hi cell populations — which both possessed a progenitor phenotype, in that they localized closely to the stem cell–rich bulge area but were larger and more proliferative than the KRT15hi stem cells — were markedly diminished. In functional assays, analogous CD200hiItga6hi cells from murine hair follicles were multipotent and generated new hair follicles in skin reconstitution assays. These findings support the notion that a defect in conversion of hair follicle stem cells to progenitor cells plays a role in the pathogenesis of AGA. PMID:21206086

  14. Rat hair follicle stem cells differentiate and promote recovery following spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Nobakht, Maliheh; Pourheydar, Bagher; Golmohammadi, Mohammad Ghasem

    2013-01-01

    Emerging studies of treating spinal cord injury (SCI) with adult stem cells led us to evaluate the effects of transplantation of hair follicle stem cells in rats with a compression-induced spinal cord lesion. Here, we proposed a hypothesis that rat hair follicle stem cell transplantation can promote the recovery of injured spinal cord. Compression-induced spinal cord injury was induced in Wistar rats in this study. The bulge area of the rat vibrissa follicles was isolated, cultivated and char...

  15. Human hair follicle organ culture: theory, application and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Ewan A; Philpott, Michael P; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, ex vivo studies of human scalp hair follicles (HFs) have permitted major advances in hair research, spanning diverse fields such as chronobiology, endocrinology, immunology, metabolism, mitochondrial biology, neurobiology, pharmacology, pigmentation and stem cell biology. Despite this, a comprehensive methodological guide to serum-free human HF organ culture (HFOC) that facilitates the selection and analysis of standard HF biological parameters and points out both research opportunities and pitfalls to newcomers to the field is still lacking. The current methods review aims to close an important gap in the literature and attempts to promote standardisation of human HFOC. We provide basic information outlining the establishment of HFOC through to detailed descriptions of the analysis of standard read-out parameters alongside practical examples. The guide closes by pointing out how serum-free HFOC can be utilised optimally to obtain previously inaccessible insights into human HF biology and pathology that are of interest to experimental dermatologists, geneticists, developmental biologists and (neuro-) endocrinologists alike and by highlighting novel applications of the model, including gene silencing and gene expression profiling of defined, laser capture-microdissected HF compartments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Strategies to enhance epithelial-mesenchymal interactions for human hair follicle bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Manabu; Veraitch, Ophelia

    2013-05-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration depend on intensive but well-orchestrated interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal components. Accordingly, the enhancement of this crosstalk represents a promising approach to achieve successful bioengineering of human hair follicles. The present article summarizes the techniques, both currently available and potentially feasible, to promote epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) necessary for human hair follicle regeneration. The strategies include the preparation of epithelial components with high receptivity to trichogenic dermal signals and/or mesenchymal cell populations with potent hair inductive capacity. In this regard, bulge epithelial stem cells, keratinocytes predisposed to hair follicle fate or keratinocyte precursor cells with plasticity may provide favorable epithelial cell populations. Dermal papilla cells sustaining intrinsic hair inductive capacity, putative dermal papilla precursor cells in the dermal sheath/neonatal dermis or trichogenic dermal cells derived from undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates as hair inductive dermal cells. The most established protocol for in vivo hair follicle reconstitution is co-grafting of epithelial and mesenchymal components into immunodeficient mice. In theory, combination of individually optimized cellular components of respective lineages should elicit most intensive EMIs to form hair follicles. Still, EMIs can be further ameliorated by the modulation of non-cell autonomous conditions, including cell compartmentalization to replicate the positional relationship in vivo and humanization of host environment by preparing human stromal bed. These approaches may not always synergistically intensify EMIs, however, step-by-step investigation probing optimal combinations should maximally enhance EMIs to achieve successful human hair follicle bioengineering. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by

  17. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of the penetration of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles by in vivo laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Schanzer, S.; Klenk, A.; Sterry, W.; Patzelt, A.

    2010-02-01

    In previous in vitro investigations, it was demonstrated that caffeine is able to stimulate the hair growth. Therefore, a penetration of caffeine into the hair follicle is necessary. In the present study, in vivo laser scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to investigate the penetration and storage of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles. It was shown that a 2-min contact time of the shampoo with the skin was enough to accumulate significant parts of the shampoo in the hair follicles. A penetration of the shampoo up to a depth of approx. 200 μm could be detected, which represents the detection limit of the LSM. At this depth, the close network of the blood capillaries surrounding the hair follicles commences. Even after 24 h, the substance was still detectable in the hair follicles. This demonstrates the long-term reservoir function of the hair follicles for topically applied substances such as caffeine.

  19. Demodex injai: a new species of hair follicle mite (Acari: Demodecidae) from the domestic dog (Canidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Clifford E; Hillier, Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Demondex injai sp. nov. is described from the hair follicles of a domestic dog in Columbus, OH in October 1996. The mites occupy follicles from the orifice down to and into the sebaceous glands. The individual host may harbor both this new species and D. canis. A comparison of these two species is provided for identification purposes.

  20. Notch signaling in bulge stem cells is not required for selection of hair follicle fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demehri, Shadmehr; Kopan, Raphael

    2009-01-01

    Summary Notch signaling plays an important role in hair follicle maintenance, and it has been suggested that Notch is also required for follicular fate selection by adult hair follicle stem cells in the bulge. Here we demonstrate that, on the contrary, Notch signaling in bi-potential bulge stem cells or their uncommitted descendents acts to suppress the epidermal fate choice, thus ensuring follicular fate selection. To examine the role of Notch signaling in adult hair follicle stem cells, we used a Krt1-15-CrePR1 transgenic mouse line to delete Rbpj or all Notch proteins specifically in the bulge stem cells. We conclusively determined that in the absence of Notch signaling, bulge stem cell descendents retain their capacity to execute the follicular differentiation program but fail to maintain it owing to their genetic deficiency. The defect in terminal differentiation caused the diversion of Notch-deficient hair follicles to epidermal cysts, and the presence of wild-type cells could not prevent this conversion. Importantly, our analysis revealed that a functional Notch signaling pathway was required to block bulge stem cells from migrating into, and assuming the fate of, interfollicular epidermis. Taken together, our findings yield detailed insight into the function of Notch signaling in hair follicle stem cells and reveal the mechanism of the replacement of Notch-deficient adult hair follicles by epidermal cysts. PMID:19211676

  1. Exposure to gamma-rays at the telogen phase of the hair cycle inhibits hair follicle regeneration at the anagen phase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Kimihiko; Hirobe, Tomohisa

    2014-02-01

    The effects of ionizing radiations on somatic stem cells largely remain to be studied. Hair follicles are self-renewing structures that reconstitute themselves throughout the hair cycle, which is comprised of the following phases: Anagen (growth), catagen (regression) and telogen (resting), suggesting the presence of their own stem cells. The whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the 1st telogen phase were irradiated with γ-rays. Mice were examined for effects on hair follicles, including their number, morphology and pigmentation in the 2nd anagen phase. Decreased hair follicle density and induction of curved hair follicles were observed in the dermal skin of irradiated mice. In addition to these keratinocyte-derived anomalies, melanocyte-derived anomalies including white hair and hypopigmented hair bulbs were found. The decrease in hair follicle density and the increase in the frequency of hypopigmented hair bulbs were dependent on the dose of γ-rays. These results suggest that γ-rays damage stem cells and progenitors for keratinocytes and melanocytes, thereby affecting the structure and character of regenerated hair follicles. The density of hair follicles and pigment production in hair bulbs are established as criteria for the effects of γ-rays on the hair cycle.

  2. Hair Follicle Development in Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Skin Organoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian hair follicle arises during embryonic development from coordinated interactions between the epidermis and dermis. It is currently unclear how to recapitulate hair follicle induction in pluripotent stem cell cultures for use in basic research studies or in vitro drug testing. To date, generation of hair follicles in vitro has only been possible using primary cells isolated from embryonic skin, cultured alone or in a co-culture with stem cell-derived cells, combined with in vivo transplantation. Here, we describe the derivation of skin organoids, constituting epidermal and dermal layers, from a homogeneous population of mouse pluripotent stem cells in a 3D culture. We show that skin organoids spontaneously produce de novo hair follicles in a process that mimics normal embryonic hair folliculogenesis. This in vitro model of skin development will be useful for studying mechanisms of hair follicle induction, evaluating hair growth or inhibitory drugs, and modeling skin diseases.

  3. [CO-TRANSPLANTATION OF MOUSE EPIDERMIS AND DERMIS CELLS IN INDUCING HAIR FOLLICLE REGENERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Xi, Jiafei; Liu, Daqing; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Lü, Yang; Li, Jing; Wang, Jingxue; Zhou, Junnian; Nan, Xue; Yue, Wen; Pei, Xuetao

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the co-transplantation of C57-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mouse epidermis and dermis cells subcutaneously to induce the hair follicle regeneration. C57-GFP mouse epidermis and dermis were harvested for isolation the mouse epidermis and dermis cells. The morphology of epidermis and dermis mixed cells at ratio of 1:1 of adult mouse, dermis cells of adult mouse, cultured 3rd generation dermis cells were observed by fluorescence microscope. Immunocytochemistry staining was used to detect hair follicle stem cells markers in cultured 3rd generation dermis cells from new born C57-GFP mouse. And then the epidermis and dermis mixed cells of adult mouse (group A), dermis cells of adult mouse (group B), cultured 3rd generation dermis cells of new born mouse (group C), and saline (group D) were transplanted subcutaneously into Balb/c nude mice. The skin surface of nude mice were observed at 4, 5, 6 weeks of transplantation and hair follicle formation were detected at 6 weeks by immunohistochemistry staining. The isolated C57-GFP mouse epidermis and dermis cells strongly expressed the GFP under the fluorescence microscope. Immunocytochemistry staining for hair follicle stem cells markers in cultured 3rd generation dermis cells showed strong expression of Vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin, indicating that the cells were dermal sheath cells; some cells expressed CD133, Versican, and cytokeratin 15. After transplanted for 4-6 weeks, the skin became black at the injection site in group A, indicating new hair follicle formation. However, no color change was observed in groups B, C, and D. Immunohistochemical staining showed that new complete hair follicles structures formed in group A. GFP expression could be only observed in the hair follicle dermal sheath and outer root sheath in group B, and it could also be observed in the hair follicle dermal sheath, outer root sheath, dermal papilla cells, and sweat gland in group C. The expression of GFP was negative in

  4. Genome array of hair follicle genes in lambskin with different patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    Full Text Available Hu sheep lambskin comes from a specific breed of sheep of China. Hu sheep are considered a protected breed by the Chinese government. The hair follicles of these sheep have three types of waves, large, medium, and small. There are only few histological reports of Hu sheep lambskin, and there are no modern molecular or biological studies, so the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of hair follicles with different patterns are not currently known. The aim of this article was to study the molecular mechanism of the formation of these types of hair follicles in Hu sheep. Histological and microscopic analysis indicated that the number of follicles with small waves was not significantly higher than the number of follicles with large waves (P>0.05. The diameters of primary and secondary small-wave follicles were significantly smaller than those of large-wave follicles (P<0.05; P<0.01. The ratio between the number primary follicles and the number of secondary follicles was significantly higher among small-wave follicles than among large-wave follicles (P<0.05. Differentially expressed genes in the skin tissue were screened using an Agilent gene chip and RT-PCR. Differential expression analysis revealed 3 groups of large waves and small waves; 1067, 2071, and 3879 differentially expressed genes; and 137 genes common to all 3 groups. Differentially expressed genes were classified using gene ontology. They were found to be mainly involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, growth, immune response, and ion transport. RT-PCR results of 4 differentially expressed genes were consistent with gene chip results. Combined with related literature, our results suggest that BMP7, MMP2, SNAI1, SFXN1, CDKNIC, MT3, and POU1F1 may have important effects on the formation of large-wave and small-wave hair follicles. This study may enrich knowledge of hair follicle development, and may identify the genes responsible for the formation of hair

  5. Macrophages contribute to the cyclic activation of adult hair follicle stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellana, Donatello; Paus, Ralf; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    in early telogen, we identify a novel involvement of macrophages in stem cell activation in vivo. Importantly, the macrophage-specific pharmacological inhibition of Wnt production delays hair follicle growth. Thus, perifollicular macrophages contribute to the activation of skin epithelial stem cells...... in number because of apoptosis before the onset of epithelial hair follicle stem cell activation during the murine hair cycle. This process is linked to distinct gene expression, including Wnt transcription. Interestingly, by mimicking this event through the selective induction of macrophage apoptosis...

  6. Aqueous Extract of Red Deer Antler Promotes Hair Growth by Regulating the Hair Cycle and Cell Proliferation in Hair Follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendage capable of regeneration. We aimed to investigate the effect of red deer antler extract in regulating hair growth, using a mouse model. The backs of male mice were shaved at eight weeks of age. Crude aqueous extracts of deer antler were prepared at either 4°C or 100°C and injected subcutaneously to two separate groups of mice (n=9 at 1 mL/day for 10 consecutive days, with water as a vehicle control group. The mice skin quantitative hair growth parameters were measured and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine was used to identify label-retaining cells. We found that, in both the 4°C and the 100°C deer antler aqueous extract-injection groups, the anagen phase was extended, while the number of BrdU-incorporated cells was dramatically increased. These results indicate that deer antler aqueous extract promotes hair growth by extending the anagen phase and regulating cell proliferation in the hair follicle region.

  7. Exploring Differentially Expressed Genes by RNA-Seq in Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus) Skin during Hair Follicle Development and Cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Rongqing Geng; Chao Yuan; Yulin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. To elucidate the genes involved in hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats, transcriptome profiling of skin was carried out by analysing samples from three hair follicle developmental stages using RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 8487344, 8142514 and 7345335 clean reads in anagen, catagen and telogen stages, respectively, which provided abund...

  8. Trps1 deficiency inhibits the morphogenesis of secondary hair follicles via decreased Noggin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yujing [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan Wen Hua Xi Road 44, Jinan 250012 (China); Nakanishi, Masako; Sato, Fuyuki; Oikawa, Kosuke [First Department of Pathology, Wakayama Medical University School of Medicine, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Muragaki, Yasuteru, E-mail: ymuragak@wakayama-med.ac.jp [First Department of Pathology, Wakayama Medical University School of Medicine, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Zhou, Gengyin, E-mail: zhougy@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan Wen Hua Xi Road 44, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • The number of secondary hair follicles is reduced by half in Trps1 KO embryonic skin compared to wild-type skin. • Noggin expression is significantly decreased and BMP signaling is promoted in Trps1 KO embryonic skin. • Treatment with a Noggin or BMP inhibitor rescued the decreased number of hair follicles in Trps1 KO skin graft cultures. • Cell proliferation and apoptosis of the epidermis were normalized by Noggin treatment. - Abstract: A representative phenotype of patients with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is sparse hair. To understand the developmental defects of these patient’s hair follicles, we analyzed the development of hair follicles histologically and biochemically using Trps1 deficient (KO) mice. First, we compared the numbers of primary hair follicles in wild-type (WT) and KO embryos at different developmental stages. No differences were observed in the E14.5 skins of WT and KO mice. However, at later time points, KO fetal skin failed to properly develop secondary hair follicles, and the number of secondary hair follicles present in E18.5 KO skin was approximately half compared to that of WT skin. Sonic hedgehog expression was significantly decreased in E17.5 KO skin, whereas no changes were observed in Eda/Edar expression in E14.5 or E17.5 skins. In addition, Noggin expression was significantly decreased in E14.5 and E17.5 KO skin compared to WT skin. In parallel with the suppression of Noggin expression, BMP signaling was promoted in the epidermal cells of KO skins compared to WT skins as determined by immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated Smad1/5/8. The reduced number of secondary hair follicles was restored in skin graft cultures treated with a Noggin and BMP inhibitor. Furthermore, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis in KO skin was rescued by Noggin treatment. Taken together, we conclude that hair follicle development in Trps1 KO embryos is impaired directly or indirectly by decreased Noggin

  9. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Terada

    Full Text Available Adaptation to the space environment can sometimes pose physiological problems to International Space Station (ISS astronauts after their return to earth. Therefore, it is important to develop healthcare technologies for astronauts. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using hair follicles, a readily obtained sample, to assess gene expression changes in response to spaceflight adaptation. In order to investigate the gene expression changes in human hair follicles during spaceflight, hair follicles of 10 astronauts were analyzed by microarray and real time qPCR analyses. We found that spaceflight alters human hair follicle gene expression. The degree of changes in gene expression was found to vary among individuals. In some astronauts, genes related to hair growth such as FGF18, ANGPTL7 and COMP were upregulated during flight, suggesting that spaceflight inhibits cell proliferation in hair follicles.

  10. Rat hair follicle stem cells differentiate and promote recovery following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Nobakht, Maliheh; Pourheydar, Bagher; Golmohammadi, Mohammad Ghasem

    2013-12-25

    Emerging studies of treating spinal cord injury (SCI) with adult stem cells led us to evaluate the effects of transplantation of hair follicle stem cells in rats with a compression-induced spinal cord lesion. Here, we proposed a hypothesis that rat hair follicle stem cell transplantation can promote the recovery of injured spinal cord. Compression-induced spinal cord injury was induced in Wistar rats in this study. The bulge area of the rat vibrissa follicles was isolated, cultivated and characterized with nestin as a stem cell marker. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeled bulge stem cells were transplanted into rats with spinal cord injury. Immunohistochemical staining results showed that some of the grafted cells could survive and differentiate into oligodendrocytes (receptor-interacting protein positive cells) and neuronal-like cells (βIII-tubulin positive cells) at 3 weeks after transplantation. In addition, recovery of hind limb locomotor function in spinal cord injury rats at 8 weeks following cell transplantation was assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale. The results demonstrate that the grafted hair follicle stem cells can survive for a long time period in vivo and differentiate into neuronal- and glial-like cells. These results suggest that hair follicle stem cells can promote the recovery of spinal cord injury.

  11. Bimodal behaviour of interfollicular epidermal progenitors regulated by hair follicle position and cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Edwige; Neufeld, Zoltan; Cerone, Luca; Wong, Ho Yi; Hodgson, Samantha; Livet, Jean; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2016-12-15

    Interfollicular epidermal (IFE) homeostasis is a major physiological process allowing maintenance of the skin barrier function. Despite progress in our understanding of stem cell populations in different hair follicle compartments, cellular mechanisms of IFE maintenance, in particular, whether a hierarchy of progenitors exists within this compartment, have remained controversial. We here used multicolour lineage tracing with Brainbow transgenic labels activated in the epidermis to track individual keratinocyte clones. Two modes of clonal progression could be observed in the adult murine dorsal skin. Clones attached to hair follicles showed rapid increase in size during the growth phase of the hair cycle. On the other hand, clones distant from hair follicles were slow cycling, but could be mobilized by a proliferative stimulus. Reinforced by mathematical modelling, these data support a model where progenitor cycling characteristics are differentially regulated in areas surrounding or away from growing hair follicles. Thus, while IFE progenitors follow a non-hierarchical mode of development, spatiotemporal control by their environment can change their potentialities, with far-reaching implications for epidermal homeostasis, wound repair and cancer development. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Dynamics of Lgr6(+) Progenitor Cells in the Hair Follicle, Sebaceous Gland, and Interfollicular Epidermis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Füllgrabe, Anja; Joost, Simon; Are, Alexandra; Jacob, Tina; Sivan, Unnikrishnan; Haegebarth, Andrea; Linnarsson, Sten; Simons, Benjamin D; Clevers, Hans; Toftgård, Rune; Kasper, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics and interactions between stem cell pools in the hair follicle (HF), sebaceous gland (SG), and interfollicular epidermis (IFE) of murine skin are still poorly understood. In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to mark Lgr6-expressing basal cells in the HF isthmus, SG, and IFE.

  13. Transcriptome and phenotypic analysis reveals Gata3-dependent signalling pathways in murine hair follicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kurek (Dorota); G.A. Garinis (George); J.H. van Doorninck (Hikke); J. van der Wees (Jacqueline); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The transcription factor Gata3 is crucially involved in epidermis and hair follicle differentiation. Yet, little is known about how Gata3 co-ordinates stem cell lineage determination in skin, what pathways are involved and how Gata3 differentially regulates distinct cell

  14. The histology of the pre-natal follicle and hair fibre in four curl types ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histology of the pre-natal follicle and hair fibre in four curl types of the Karakul sheep. J.H. Dreyer, Ellenor Rossouw and M.G. Steyn. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Irene. Inthe Karakul sheep of Southern Africa four major pelt types can be identified, namely pipe curl, developed shallow curl, shallow curl ...

  15. Daunomycin accumulation and induction of programmed cell death in rat hair follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Masashi; Larsson, Lars-Inge; Hougaard, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The anthracycline antibiotic daunomycin (DM) is useful for the treatment of leukemia but has side-effects such as alopecia. Using immunocytochemistry, we show that, after a single i.v. injection, DM accumulates in the nuclei of matrix cells and in the outer root sheath of hair follicles. DM...

  16. Exploring differentially expressed genes by RNA-Seq in cashmere goat (Capra hircus skin during hair follicle development and cycling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongqing Geng

    Full Text Available Cashmere goat (Capra hircus hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. To elucidate the genes involved in hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats, transcriptome profiling of skin was carried out by analysing samples from three hair follicle developmental stages using RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 8487344, 8142514 and 7345335 clean reads in anagen, catagen and telogen stages, respectively, which provided abundant data for further analysis. A total of 1332 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, providing evidence that the development of hair follicles among the three distinct stages changed considerably. A total of 683 genes with significant differential expression were detected between anagen and catagen, 530 DEGs were identified between anagen and telogen, and 119 DEGs were identified between catagen and telogen. A large number of DEGs were predominantly related to cellular process, cell & cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic process among the different stages of hair follicle development. In addition, the Wnt, Shh, TGF-β and Notch signaling pathways may be involved in hair follicle development and the identified DEGs may play important roles in these signaling pathways. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats and provide a foundation for future studies.

  17. Exploring differentially expressed genes by RNA-Seq in cashmere goat (Capra hircus) skin during hair follicle development and cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Rongqing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yulin

    2013-01-01

    Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. To elucidate the genes involved in hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats, transcriptome profiling of skin was carried out by analysing samples from three hair follicle developmental stages using RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 8487344, 8142514 and 7345335 clean reads in anagen, catagen and telogen stages, respectively, which provided abundant data for further analysis. A total of 1332 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, providing evidence that the development of hair follicles among the three distinct stages changed considerably. A total of 683 genes with significant differential expression were detected between anagen and catagen, 530 DEGs were identified between anagen and telogen, and 119 DEGs were identified between catagen and telogen. A large number of DEGs were predominantly related to cellular process, cell & cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic process among the different stages of hair follicle development. In addition, the Wnt, Shh, TGF-β and Notch signaling pathways may be involved in hair follicle development and the identified DEGs may play important roles in these signaling pathways. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats and provide a foundation for future studies.

  18. Long-Term Extensive Ectopic Hair Growth on the Spinal Cord of Mice from Transplanted Whisker Follicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenluo Cao

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells that can effect nerve and spinal cord repair upon transplantation. In the present study, isolated whisker follicles from nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP mice were histocultured on Gelfoam for 3 weeks for the purpose of transplantation to the spinal cord to heal an induced injury. The hair shaft was cut off from Gelfoam-histocultured whisker follicles, and the remaining part of the whisker follicles containing GFP-nestin expressing pluripotent stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cord of nude mice, along with the Gelfoam. After 90 days, the mice were sacrificed and the spinal cord lesion was observed to have healed. ND-GFP expression was intense at the healed area of the spinal cord, as observed by fluorescence microscopy, demonstrating that the hair follicle stem cells were involved in healing the spinal cord. Unexpectedly, the transplanted whisker follicles sprouted out remarkably long hair shafts in the spinal cord during the 90 days after transplantation of Gelfoam whisker histocultures to the injured spine. The pigmented hair fibers, grown from the transplanted whisker histocultures, curved and enclosed the spinal cord. The unanticipated results demonstrate the great potential of hair growth after transplantation of Gelfoam hair follicle histocultures, even at an ectopic site.

  19. Determination of the cuticula thickness of human and porcine hairs and their potential influence on the penetration of nanoparticles into the hair follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, Juergen; Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Antoniou, Christina; Sterry, Wolfram; Knorr, Fanny

    2009-03-01

    An efficient penetration and long-term storage of topically applied substances is important for drug delivery in medical treatment and cosmetics. It has recently become apparent that the hair follicles represent an efficient and long-term reservoir for topically applied substances. It was found that particles sized 300-600 nm penetrate more efficiently into the hair follicles than smaller or larger particles. In the present paper, the hair surface structure of human and porcine hairs was analyzed by electron microscopy. It could be observed that the thickness of the cuticula corresponds to the optimal size of the nanoparticles for penetration into the hair follicles. Additionally, it could be demonstrated that the cuticula of human vellus and terminal hairs were of similar thickness (approx. 530 nm), while the thickness of the cuticula obtained from porcine ear bristles were slightly thinner (approx. 320 nm).

  20. A review of adipocyte lineage cells and dermal papilla cells in hair follicle regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia is an exceedingly prevalent problem effecting men and women of all ages. The standard of care for alopecia involves either transplanting existing hair follicles to bald areas or attempting to stimulate existing follicles with topical and/or oral medication. Yet, these treatment options are fraught with problems of cost, side effects, and, most importantly, inadequate long-term hair coverage. Innovative cell-based therapies have focused on the dermal papilla cell as a way to grow new hair in previously bald areas. However, despite this attention, many obstacles exist, including retention of dermal papilla inducing ability and maintenance of dermal papilla productivity after several passages of culture. The use of adipocyte lineage cells, including adipose-derived stem cells, has shown promise as a cell-based solution to regulate hair regeneration and may help in maintaining or increasing dermal papilla cells inducing hair ability. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of the cellular contribution and regulation of dermal papilla cells and summarize adipocyte lineage cells in hair regeneration.

  1. MicroRNA-148b promotes proliferation of hair follicle cells by targeting NFAT5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanbao YANG,Qinqun LI,Bo SU,Mei YU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs, are involved in many aspects of biological processes. Previous studies have indicated that miRNAs are important for hair follicle development and growth. In our study, we found by qRT-PCR that miR-148b was significantly upregulated in sheep wool follicle bulbs in anagen phase compared with the telogen phase of the hair follicle cycle. Overexpression of miR-148b promoted proliferation of both HHDPC and HHGMC. By using the TOPFlash system we demonstrated that miR-148b could activate Wnt/β-catenin pathway and b-catenin, cycD, c-jun and PPARD were consistently upregulated accordingly. Furthermore, transcript factor nuclear factor of activated T cells type 5 (NFAT5 and Wnt10b were predicted to be the target of miR-148b and this was substantiated using a Dual-Luciferase reporter system. Subsequently NFAT5 was further identified as the target of miR-148b using western blotting. These results were considered to indicate that miR-148b could activate the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway by targeting NFAT5 to promote the proliferation of human hair follicle cells.

  2. Transgenic flash mice for in vivo quantitative monitoring of canonical Wnt signaling to track hair follicle cycle dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Samantha S; Neufeld, Zoltan; Villani, Rehan M; Roy, Edwige; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2014-06-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) upon development enter a lifelong cycle of growth, regression, and resting. These phases have been extensively studied at the cellular and molecular levels for individual HFs. However, HFs group into domains with coordinated cycling strongly influenced by their environment. These macroscopic hair domains have been difficult to study and can be influenced by physiological or pathological conditions, such as pregnancy or skin wounds. To robustly address this issue, we generated a mouse model for quantitative monitoring of β-catenin activity reflecting HF cycle dynamics macroscopically by using live bioluminescence imaging. These mice allowed live tracking of HF cycles and development, and highlighted hair regenerative patterns known to occur through macro-environmental cues, including initiation events, propagating anagen and border stability, and allowed refinement of a mechanistic mathematical model that integrates epidermal cell population dynamics into an excitable reaction-diffusion model. HF cycling could be studied in situations of pregnancy, wound healing, hair plucking, as well as in response to cyclosporine or Wnt3a stimulation. In conclusion, we developed a model for analysis of HF cycling at the macroscopic level that will allow refined analysis of hair cycle kinetics as well as its propagation dynamics.

  3. Intermediate filament-co-localized molecules with myosin heavy chain epitopes define distinct cellular domains in hair follicles and epidermis

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    Hughes Simon M

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins linking intermediate filaments to other cytoskeletal components have important functions in maintaining tissue integrity and cell shape. Results We found a set of monoclonal antibodies raised against specific human sarcomeric myosin heavy chain (MyHC isoforms labels cells in distinct regions of the mammalian epidermis. The antigens co-localize with intermediate filament-containing structures. A slow MyHC-related antigen is punctate on the cell surface and co-localizes with desmoplakin at desmosomal junctions of all suprabasal epidermal layers from rat fœtal day 16 onwards, in the root sheath of the hair follicle and in intercalated disks of cardiomyocytes. A fast MyHC-related antigen occurs in cytoplasmic filaments in a subset of basal cells of skin epidermis and bulb, but not neck, of hair follicles. A fast IIA MyHC-related antigen labels filaments of a single layer of cells in hair bulb. This 230 000 Mr antigen co-purifies with keratin. No obvious candidate for any of the antigens appears in the literature. Conclusions We describe a set of molecules that co-localize with intermediate filament in specific cell subsets in epithelial tissues. These antigens presumably influence intermediate filament structure or function.

  4. The role of hair follicles in the percutaneous absorption of caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otberg, Nina; Patzelt, Alexa; Rasulev, Utkur; Hagemeister, Timo; Linscheid, Michael; Sinkgraven, Ronald; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Aims The skin and its appendages are our protective shield against the environment and are necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis. Hypotheses concerning the penetration of substances into the skin have assumed diffusion through the lipid domains of the stratum corneum. It is believed that while hair follicles represent a weakness in the shield, they play a subordinate role in the percutaneous penetration processes. Previous investigation of follicular penetration has mostly addressed methodical and technical problems. Our study utilized a selective closure technique of hair follicle orifices in vivo, for the comparison of interfollicular and follicular absorption rates of caffeine in humans. Methods Every single hair follicle within a delimited area of skin was blocked with a microdrop of a special varnish-wax-mixture in vivo. Caffeine in solution was topically applied and transcutaneous absorption into the blood was measured by a new surface ionization mass spectrometry (SI/MS) technique, which enabled a clear distinction to be made between interfollicular and follicular penetration of a topically applied substance. Results Caffeine (3.75 ng ml−1) was detected in blood samples, 5 min after topical application, when the follicles remained open. When the follicles were blocked, caffeine was detectable after 20 min (2.45 ng ml−1). Highest values (11.75 ng caffeine ml−1) were found 1 h after application when the follicles were open. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that hair follicles are considerable weak spots in our protective sheath against certain hydrophilic drugs and may allow a fast delivery of topically applied substances. What is already known about this subject In recent years, it has been suggested that hair follicles represent important shunt routes into the skin for drugs and chemicals [1–3].In vitro studies have shown the importance of skin appendages for skin penetration by hydrophilic compounds [4]. Investigation of follicular

  5. Advances in a rapidly emerging field of hair follicle stem cell research.

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    Mokos, Zrinka Bukvić; Mosler, Elvira Lazić

    2014-03-01

    Human skin maintains the ability to regenerate during adulthood, as it constantly renews itself throughout adult life, and the hair follicle (HF) undergoes a perpetual cycle of growth and degeneration. The study of stem cells (SCs) in the epidermis and skin tissue engineering is a rapidly emerging field, where advances have been made in both basic and clinical research. Advances in basic science include the ability to assay SCs of the epidermis in vivo, identification of an independent interfollicular epidermal SC, and improved ability to analyze individual SCs divisions, as well as the recent hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation (FUT) in mice. Advances in the clinic include recognition of the importance of SCs for wound repair and for gene therapy in inherited skin diseases, for example epidermolysis bullosa. The study of the HF stem cells (HFSCs) started by identification of epidermal SC in the HF bulge as quiescent "label retaining cells". The research of these cells emerged rapidly after the identification of bulge cell molecular markers, such as keratin 15 (K15) and CD34 in mice and CD200 in humans, which allowed the isolation and characterization of bulge cells from follicles. This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge on epidermal SCs in the HF describing their essential characteristics and the control of follicle SCs fate, their role in alopecia, as well as their use in tissue engineering.

  6. Hair Follicle Dermal Sheath Derived Cells Improve Islet Allograft Survival without Systemic Immunosuppression

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    Xiaojie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressive drugs successfully prevent rejection of islet allografts in the treatment of type I diabetes. However, the drugs also suppress systemic immunity increasing the risk of opportunistic infection and cancer development in allograft recipients. In this study, we investigated a new treatment for autoimmune diabetes using naturally immune privileged, hair follicle derived, autologous cells to provide localized immune protection of islet allotransplants. Islets from Balb/c mouse donors were cotransplanted with syngeneic hair follicle dermal sheath cup cells (DSCC, group 1 or fibroblasts (FB, group 2 under the kidney capsule of immune-competent, streptozotocin induced, diabetic C57BL/6 recipients. Group 1 allografts survived significantly longer than group 2 (32.2 ± 12.2 versus 14.1 ± 3.3 days, P<0.001 without administration of any systemic immunosuppressive agents. DSCC reduced T cell activation in the renal lymph node, prevented graft infiltrates, modulated inflammatory chemokine and cytokine profiles, and preserved better beta cell function in the islet allografts, but no systemic immunosuppression was observed. In summary, DSCC prolong islet allograft survival without systemic immunosuppression by local modulation of alloimmune responses, enhancing of beta cell survival, and promoting of graft revascularization. This novel finding demonstrates the capacity of easily accessible hair follicle cells to be used as local immunosuppression agents in islet transplantation.

  7. Hair Follicle and Sebaceous Gland De Novo Regeneration With Cultured Epidermal Stem Cells and Skin-Derived Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Xusheng; Liu, Jianjun; Cai, Ting; Guo, Ling; Wang, Shujuan; Wang, Jinmei; Cao, Yanpei; Ge, Jianfeng; Jiang, Yuyang; Tredget, Edward E; Cao, Mengjun; Wu, Yaojiong

    2016-12-01

    : Stem cell-based organ regeneration is purported to enable the replacement of impaired organs in the foreseeable future. Here, we demonstrated that a combination of cultured epidermal stem cells (Epi-SCs) derived from the epidermis and skin-derived precursors (SKPs) was capable of reconstituting functional hair follicles and sebaceous glands (SG). When Epi-SCs and SKPs were mixed in a hydrogel and implanted into an excisional wound in nude mice, the Epi-SCs formed de novo epidermis along with hair follicles, and SKPs contributed to dermal papilla in the neogenic hair follicles. Notably, a combination of culture-expanded Epi-SCs and SKPs derived from the adult human scalp were sufficient to generate hair follicles and hair. Bone morphogenetic protein 4, but not Wnts, sustained the expression of alkaline phosphatase in SKPs in vitro and the hair follicle-inductive property in vivo when SKPs were engrafted with neonatal epidermal cells into excisional wounds. In addition, Epi-SCs were capable of differentiating into sebocytes and formed de novo SGs, which excreted lipids as do normal SGs. Thus our results indicate that cultured Epi-SCs and SKPs are sufficient to generate de novo hair follicles and SGs, implying great potential to develop novel bioengineered skin substitutes with appendage genesis capacity. In postpartum humans, skin appendages lost in injury are not regenerated, despite the considerable achievement made in skin bioengineering. In this study, transplantation of a combination of culture-expanded epidermal stem cells and skin-derived progenitors from mice and adult humans led to de novo regeneration of functional hair follicles and sebaceous glands. The data provide transferable knowledge for the development of novel bioengineered skin substitutes with epidermal appendage regeneration capacity. ©AlphaMed Press.

  8. Mutations in TSPEAR, Encoding a Regulator of Notch Signaling, Affect Tooth and Hair Follicle Morphogenesis.

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    Alon Peled

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of ectodermal dysplasias (EDs, the molecular basis of many of these disorders remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of a new form of ED featuring facial dysmorphism, scalp hypotrichosis and hypodontia. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified 2 frameshift and 2 missense mutations in TSPEAR segregating with the disease phenotype in 3 families. TSPEAR encodes the thrombospondin-type laminin G domain and EAR repeats (TSPEAR protein, whose function is poorly understood. TSPEAR knock-down resulted in altered expression of genes known to be regulated by NOTCH and to be involved in murine hair and tooth development. Pathway analysis confirmed that down-regulation of TSPEAR in keratinocytes is likely to affect Notch signaling. Accordingly, using a luciferase-based reporter assay, we showed that TSPEAR knock-down is associated with decreased Notch signaling. In addition, NOTCH1 protein expression was reduced in patient scalp skin. Moreover, TSPEAR silencing in mouse hair follicle organ cultures was found to induce apoptosis in follicular epithelial cells, resulting in decreased hair bulb diameter. Collectively, these observations indicate that TSPEAR plays a critical, previously unrecognized role in human tooth and hair follicle morphogenesis through regulation of the Notch signaling pathway.

  9. Gene expression profiling in psoriatic scalp hair follicles: clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% normalizes psoriasis disease markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, J; Reiniche, P; Fogel, P; Poulin, Y; Lui, H; Lynde, C; Shapiro, J; Villemagne, H; Soto, P; Voegel, J J

    2010-11-01

    Clobetasol propionate shampoo is effective and safe in treatment of scalp psoriasis (SP). Gene expression profiling of psoriatic skin biopsies led to the identification of numerous disease-related genes. However, it remained unknown whether the gene expression profile of hair follicles of SP patients was also affected. To determine whether psoriasis-related genes are differentially regulated in the hair follicles of SP patients and whether the modulation of these genes can be correlated with clinical severity scores. A single arm, open study was conducted in three centres. SP patients received daily treatment with clobetasol propionate shampoo. At Baseline, Weeks 2 and 4, investigators assessed clinical severity parameters and collected scalp hair follicles in anagen phase. Total RNA extracted from hair follicles was used to determine the expression level of 44 genes, which were reported previously to be upregulated in the skin of psoriasis patients. RNA of good quality and sufficient quantity was obtained from hair follicles of psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers (HV). The expression level of 10 inflammation-related genes was significantly increased in psoriatic hair follicles. The patient's exploratory transcriptomic score, defined as the mean fold modulation of these 10 genes compared with HV, correlated with clinical severity scores. Clobetasol propionate shampoo was effective in decreasing both the exploratory transcriptomics and the clinical severity scores. Hair follicles of SP patients are affected by the inflammatory process. The change in the expression level of inflammation-related genes correlates with the severity of the disease. © 2010 Galderma R&D. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. Msi2 Maintains Quiescent State of Hair Follicle Stem Cells by Directly Repressing the Hh Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianghui; Tian, Yuhua; Song, Yongli; Shi, Jianyun; Xu, Jiuzhi; Xiong, Kai; Li, Jia; Xu, Wenjie; Zhao, Yiqiang; Shuai, Jianwei; Chen, Lei; Plikus, Maksim V; Lengner, Christopher J; Ren, Fazheng; Xue, Lixiang; Yu, Zhengquan

    2017-05-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo precisely regulated cycles of active regeneration (anagen), involution (catagen), and relative quiescence (telogen). Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) play important roles in regenerative cycling. Elucidating mechanisms that govern HFSC behavior can help uncover the underlying principles of hair development, hair growth disorders, and skin cancers. RNA-binding proteins of the Musashi (Msi) have been implicated in the biology of different stem cell types, yet they have not been studied in HFSCs. Here we utilized gain- and loss-of-function mouse models to demonstrate that forced MSI2 expression retards anagen entry and consequently delays hair growth, whereas loss of Msi2 enhances hair regrowth. Furthermore, our findings show that Msi2 maintains quiescent state of HFSCs in the process of the telogen-to-anagen transition. At the molecular level, our unbiased transcriptome profiling shows that Msi2 represses Hedgehog signaling activity and that Shh is its direct target in the hair follicle. Taken together, our findings reveal the importance of Msi2 in suppressing hair regeneration and maintaining HFSC quiescence. The previously unreported Msi2-Shh-Gli1 pathway adds to the growing understanding of the complex network governing cyclic hair growth. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Roles of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway in Epidermal and Hair Follicle Development, Homeostasis, and Cancer

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    Yoshinori Abe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and provides a protective barrier against environmental insults. It is a rapidly-renewing tissue undergoing constant regeneration, maintained by several types of stem cells. The Hedgehog (HH signaling pathway is one of the fundamental signaling pathways that contributes to epidermal development, homeostasis, and repair, as well as to hair follicle development and follicle bulge stem cell maintenance. The HH pathway interacts with other signal transduction pathways, including those activated by Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein, platelet-derived growth factor, Notch, and ectodysplasin. Furthermore, aberrant activation of HH signaling is associated with various tumors, including basal cell carcinoma. Therefore, an understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of the HH signaling pathway is important for elucidating fundamental mechanisms underlying both organogenesis and carcinogenesis. In this review, we discuss the role of the HH signaling pathway in the development and homeostasis epidermis and hair follicles, and in basal cell carcinoma formation, providing an update of current knowledge in this field.

  12. Effects of Jujuba essential oil on hair follicle of the skin of Balb/c mice

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    Mehri Shadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: This study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of jujube seed oil on the hair follicle in BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male BALB/c mice (2.5 months of age were used. A 4 cm2of the back of animal’s body shaved with wax. The mice were then divided into five groups (n=8. The first three groups received Jujube oil concentrations 5%, 10% and 15%, respectively.The fourth and fifth groups were selected as the baseand sham control groups, respectively. The animals received topical treatment of jujuba seed oil for 12 day. Base and control groups received Ocerin and water respectively. After passing 12 day, back skin of animals was shaved againby wax and the treatment was repeated again for further 12 days. At 13th day the animals were sacrificed  and  samples  were collected and tissue processing  and staining were performed.Data were analyzed by the ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests with the 22th version of SPSS sofware. Results: This study showed that mean number of hair follicles in the skin of 5% jujuba essence treated group(37.75±6.6, 10% jujuba (42.75±8.3, 15% jujuba (41.25±6.2 was meaningful higher than the base (18.50±3.1and sham (15±2.1 groups. Furthermore, we  also showed  that the  number of hair papilla, fibroblast cells and collagen fibers  were increased in the  treatment groups as compared with the control groups. Conclusion: Based on our study, Jujube essensial oil can have very positive effects on improving hair growth and can be used for hair losing clinical trial.

  13. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) disposition and co-localization of immune cells in hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajay P; Hettick, Justin M; Siegel, Paul D; Anderson, Stacey E; Long, Carrie M; Green, Brett J; Beezhold, Donald H

    2014-08-01

    Diisocyanates (dNCOs) are potent chemical allergens utilized in various industries. It has been proposed that skin exposure to dNCOs produces immune sensitization leading to work-related asthma and allergic disease. We examined dNCOs sensitization by using a dermal murine model of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure to characterize the disposition of TDI in the skin, identify the predominant haptenated proteins, and discern the associated antigen uptake by dendritic cells. Ears of BALB/c mice were dosed once with TDI (0.1% or 4% v/v acetone). Ears and draining lymph nodes (DLNs) were excised at selected time points between 1 h and 15 days post-exposure and were processed for histological, immunohistochemical, and proteomic analyses. Monoclonal antibodies specific for TDI-haptenated protein (TDI-hp) and antibodies to various cell markers were utilized with confocal microscopy to determine co-localization patterns. Histopathological changes were observed following exposure in ear tissue of mice dosed with 4% TDI/acetone. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated TDI-hp localization in the stratum corneum, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands. TDI-hp were co-localized with CD11b(+) (integrin αM/Mac-1), CD207(+) (langerin), and CD103(+) (integrin αE) cells in the hair follicles and in sebaceous glands. TDI-hp were also identified in the DLN 1 h post-exposure. Cytoskeletal and cuticular keratins along with mouse serum albumin were identified as major haptenated species in the skin. The results of this study demonstrate that the stratum corneum, hair follicles, and associated sebaceous glands in mice are dendritic cell accessible reservoirs for TDI-hp and thus identify a mechanism for immune recognition following epicutaneous exposure to TDI. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Toxicological Sciences 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Study Of The Existence Of Neoantigens In Affected Hair Follicles Using Lymphocyte Transformation Test In Alopecia Areata And Healthy Persons

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    Saehi Nodeh A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata is a common, inflamatory and chronic disease of hair and nails, which in some cases result in growth inhibition and lose of hairs. Several factors such as genetic factors, autoimmunity, atopy, stress, fear etc, are known as effective factors in induction and severity of the disease, but the ethiology of this disease is not known exactly so far. Some evidences such as presence of an autoantibodies against hair follicules and infiltration of immunocompetent cells in affected areas of the disease lead that most investigators classify alopecia as autoimmune disease. In one investigation in immunology department of Tarbiat Modarres university concerning the humoral immunity in alopecia pathogenesis some evidences were found for the presences of a neoantigen in affected hair follicles. Since various studies indicates that cellular arm of the immune system is more important in alopecia areata pathogenesis, in this investigation we studied the existence of neoantigens in affected hair follicles using lymphocyte transformation test (LTT. Materials and Methods: The proliferation responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC from alopecia patients and normal individuals were investigated against the follicular extracts of affected and normal hairs separately. Results: Our results indicate a non significant difference between proliferation responses of MNC’s from alopecia patients and normal controls against follicular extract of normal hairs. These responses were not significantly different against folliclar extracts of affected hairs as well. Regarding our results. Conclusion: We could not show the existence of a neoantigen in alopecia hair follicles, but the obtained results can not completely reject the role of a neoantigen in alopecia pathogenesis as well, because in LTT the responding cells are of memory type and these cells may be very low in peripheral blood. The immune response in this disease may be restricted

  15. Extracted hair follicle outer root sheath cell suspension for pigment cell restoration in vitiligo

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    Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo surgery has come up a long way from punch skin grafts to epidermal cell suspension and latest to the extracted hair follicle outer root sheath cell suspension (EHF-ORS-CS transplantation. The progressive development from one technique to the other is always in a quest for the best. In the latest development- EHF-ORS-CS, which is an enriched source of follicular inactive melanocyte (melanocyte stem cells, seems to be a good addition to the prevailing cell-based therapies for vitiligo; however, need to be explored further in larger, and preferably randomized blinded studies. This review discusses the principle, technical details, and stem cell composition of hair follicular outer root sheath cell suspension.

  16. Expression and localization of the vascular endothelial growth factor and changes of microvessel density during hair follicle development of Liaoning cashmere goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Li, Y M; Chang, Q; Chen, Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

    2013-12-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) play important roles in neovascularization, tissue development, and angiogenesis. In this study, changes in VEGF expression patterns and microvessel density (MVD), and their correlations, were investigated during hair follicle development in epidermal appendages of Liaoning cashmere goats. Polyclonal antibodies to VEGF and microvessels were used for monthly immunohistochemical examinations of normal skin specimens from adult female goats for one year. VEGF was expressed in the hair bulb of primary and secondary hair follicles, the outer and inner root sheaths, sebaceous glands (ductal and secretory portions), eccrine sweat glands (ductal and secretory portions), and the epidermis. Abundant expression of VEGF was observed in the follicular basement membrane zone surrounding the bulb matrix and in ductal and secretory portions of eccrine sweat glands. The change in VEGFs in primary hair follicles showed a bimodal pattern, with the first peak observed from March to May, and the second in August. Maximal expression in secondary hair follicles occurred in May and August. Therefore, VEGF expression in primary and secondary hair follicles is synchronized throughout the year, and is correlated to hair development. In the later telogen and anagen phases, VEGF expression was higher in the secondary, compared to the primary, hair follicle. Changes in MVD also showed a bimodal pattern with peaks in May and August. VEGF expression and MVD showed moderate and strongly positive correlation in the primary and secondary hair follicles, respectively. Therefore, MVD and VEGF are closely related to the processes involved in hair cycle regulation.

  17. Hairless Streaks in Cattle Implicate TSR2 in Early Hair Follicle Formation.

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    Leonardo Murgiano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four related cows showed hairless streaks on various parts of the body with no correlation to the pigmentation pattern. The stripes occurred in a consistent pattern resembling the lines of Blaschko. The non-syndromic hairlessness phenotype observed occurred across three generations of a single family and was compatible with an X-linked mode of inheritance. Linkage analysis and subsequent whole genome sequencing of one affected female identified two perfectly associated non-synonymous sequence variants in the critical interval on bovine chromosome X. Both variants occurred in complete linkage disequilibrium and were absent in more than 3900 controls. An ERCC6L missense mutation was predicted to cause an amino acid substitution of a non-conserved residue. Analysis in mice showed no specific Ercc6l expression pattern related to hair follicle development and therefore ERCC6L was not considered as causative gene. A point mutation at the 5'-splice junction of exon 5 of the TSR2, 20S rRNA accumulation, homolog (S. cerevisiae, gene led to the production of two mutant transcripts, both of which contain a frameshift and generate a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 25% of the protein. Interestingly, in addition to the presence of both physiological TSR2 transcripts, the two mutant transcripts were predominantly detected in the hairless skin of the affected cows. Immunohistochemistry, using an antibody against the N-terminal part of the bovine protein demonstrated the specific expression of the TSR2 protein in the skin and the hair of the affected and the control cows as well as in bovine fetal skin and hair. The RNA hybridization in situ showed that Tsr2 was expressed in pre- and post-natal phases of hair follicle development in mice. Mammalian TSR2 proteins are highly conserved and are known to be broadly expressed, but their precise in vivo functions are poorly understood. Thus, by dissecting a naturally occurring mutation in a

  18. Matriptase/MT-SP1 is required for postnatal survival, epidermal barrier function, hair follicle development, and thymic homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Karin; Haudenschild, Christian C; Szabo, Roman

    2002-01-01

    , characterized by dysmorphic and pleomorphic corneocytes and the absence of vesicular bodies in transitional layer cells. This aberrant skin development seriously compromised both inward and outward epidermal barrier function, leading to the rapid and fatal dehydration of Matriptase/MT-SP1-deficient pups. Loss...... of Matriptase/MT-SP1 also seriously affected hair follicle development resulting in generalized follicular hypoplasia, absence of erupted vibrissae, lack of vibrissal hair canal formation, ingrown vibrissae, and wholesale abortion of vibrissal follicles. Furthermore, Matriptase/MT-SP1-deficiency resulted...... in dramatically increased thymocyte apoptosis, and depletion of thymocytes. This study demonstrates that Matriptase/MT-SP1 has pleiotropic functions in the development of the epidermis, hair follicles, and cellular immune system....

  19. Absence of catagen/telogen phase and loss of cytokeratin 15 expression in hair follicles in lichen planopilaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi-Daniel, Arlette; Roberts, Janet L; Desai, Nisha; Thompson, Curtis T

    2014-11-01

    Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is a lymphocyte-mediated cicatricial alopecia mostly involving the bulge region of the hair follicle. The origin of LPP is unknown. Therapy for LPP often does not prevent disease progression. We describe histologic and immunohistologic features that aid in diagnosis and provide an explanation for disease progression in LPP. We sought to demonstrate a decrease in the number of catagen-/telogen-phase follicles and to confirm the loss of cytokeratin 15 (CK15) expression in the stem cells of LPP-affected follicles. In all, 144 LPP cases were retrieved; 55 cases were stained immunohistochemically, targeting the CK15 antigen with 40 cases ultimately analyzed for CK15 expression. Catagen/telogen phase was significantly decreased or absent in all cases of LPP, a novel clue useful in histologic diagnostics. The loss of CK15+ stem cells in most affected follicles in LPP was also confirmed, with unaffected follicles retaining CK15+ stem cells. Limited tissue for analysis remained in the clinical sample tissue blocks. Damaged follicles that have lost their CK15+ stem cells disappear when they enter catagen phase. CK15+ stem cell loss explains the clinical observation that LPP progresses despite immunosuppressive therapies. Finally, the absence of catagen/telogen hair follicles is a helpful diagnostic clue for LPP. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Molecular dissection of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in the hair follicle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available De novo hair follicle formation in embryonic skin and new hair growth in adult skin are initiated when specialized mesenchymal dermal papilla (DP cells send cues to multipotent epithelial stem cells. Subsequently, DP cells are enveloped by epithelial stem cell progeny and other cell types to form a niche orchestrating hair growth. Understanding the general biological principles that govern the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions within the DP niche, however, has been hampered so far by the lack of systematic approaches to dissect the complete molecular make-up of this complex tissue. Here, we take a novel multicolor labeling approach, using cell type-specific transgenic expression of red and green fluorescent proteins in combination with immunolabeling of specific antigens, to isolate pure populations of DP and four of its surrounding cell types: dermal fibroblasts, melanocytes, and two different populations of epithelial progenitors (matrix and outer root sheath cells. By defining their transcriptional profiles, we develop molecular signatures characteristic for the DP and its niche. Validating the functional importance of these signatures is a group of genes linked to hair disorders that have been largely unexplored. Additionally, the DP signature reveals novel signaling and transcription regulators that distinguish them from other cell types. The mesenchymal-epithelial signatures include key factors previously implicated in ectodermal-neural fate determination, as well as a myriad of regulators of bone morphogenetic protein signaling. These findings establish a foundation for future functional analyses of the roles of these genes in hair development. Overall, our strategy illustrates how knowledge of the genes uniquely expressed by each cell type residing in a complex niche can reveal important new insights into the biology of the tissue and its associated disease states.

  1. The role of the hairless (hr) gene in the regulation of hair follicle catagen transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleyev, A A; Botchkareva, N V; Sundberg, J P; Christiano, A M; Paus, R

    1999-07-01

    Mice that carry a mutation at the hairless (hr) locus develop seemingly normal hair follicles (HF) but shed their hairs completely soon after birth. Histologically, their HFs degenerate into characteristic utriculi and dermal cysts shortly after the entry of the HF into the first regression phase (catagen), during the initiation of HF cycling. Here, we show that at least nine distinct stages of HF disintegration can be distinguished in hr/hr mice. Toward the end of HF morphogenesis (day 15 postpartum) the proximal hair bulb in hr/hr skin undergoes premature and massive apoptosis. This is associated with a dyscoordination of cell proliferation in defined HF compartments, malpositioning of the proximal inner root sheath, striking atrophy of outer root sheath, and failure of trichilemmal keratinization in the developing club hair. Rather than undergoing their normal catagen-associated involution, the hair bulb and central outer root sheath disintegrate into separate cell clusters, thus disrupting all epithelial contact with the dermal papilla. Dermal papilla fibroblasts fail to migrate upward, and break up into clusters of shrunken cells stranded in the reticular dermis as dermal cyst precursors, while the upper HF epithelium transforms into utriculi. Some dermal papilla cells, which normally never undergo apoptosis, also become TUNEL+ in hr/hr skin, and their normally high expression of a key adhesion molecule, neural cell adhesion molecule, declines. Thus, loss of a functional hr gene product (a putative zinc finger transcription factor) initiates a premature, highly dysregulated catagen, which results in the destruction of the normal HF architecture and abrogates the HF's ability to cycle. This provides new insights into the pathobiology of the hr mutation, and suggests that the normal hr gene product is a crucial element of catagen control.

  2. Post-transcriptional Regulation of Keratinocyte Progenitor Cell Expansion, Differentiation and Hair Follicle Regression by miR-22.

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    Shukai Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hair follicles (HF undergo precisely regulated recurrent cycles of growth, cessation, and rest. The transitions from anagen (growth, to catagen (regression, to telogen (rest involve a physiological involution of the HF. This process is likely coordinated by a variety of mechanisms including apoptosis and loss of growth factor signaling. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying follicle involution after hair keratinocyte differentiation and hair shaft assembly remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a highly conserved microRNA, miR-22 is markedly upregulated during catagen and peaks in telogen. Using gain- and loss-of-function approaches in vivo, we find that miR-22 overexpression leads to hair loss by promoting anagen-to-catagen transition of the HF, and that deletion of miR-22 delays entry to catagen and accelerates the transition from telogen to anagen. Ectopic activation of miR-22 results in hair loss due to the repression a hair keratinocyte differentiation program and keratinocyte progenitor expansion, as well as promotion of apoptosis. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that miR-22 directly represses numerous transcription factors upstream of phenotypic keratin genes, including Dlx3, Foxn1, and Hoxc13. We conclude that miR-22 is a critical post-transcriptional regulator of the hair cycle and may represent a novel target for therapeutic modulation of hair growth.

  3. The ethnic differences of the damage of hair and integral hair lipid after ultra violet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jae Hong; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Jin, Xin-Hai; Lee, Won-Soo

    2013-02-01

    Genetic factors account for the majority of differences in skin color and hair morphology across human populations. Although many studies have been conducted to examine differences in skin color across populations, few studies have examined differences in hair morphology. To investigate changing of integral hair lipids after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in three human ethnic groups. We studied the UV irradiation induced hair damage in hairs of three human populations. UV irradiation had been performed with self-manufactured phototherapy system. Damaged hair samples were prepared at 12 and 48 hours after UVA (20 J/sec) and UVB (8 J/sec) irradiation. We evaluated the changes of hair lipid using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), lipid TEM and HP-TLC. After UV irradiation, hair surface damage was shown. African hair showed more severe damage on hair surface than others. The lipid compositions across human populations were similar, but Asian hair had more integral hair lipids than other groups as a whole. Especially, free fatty acid contents were higher than other lipids. After UV irradiation, lipid contents were decreased. These patterns were shown in all human populations. Asian hair has more integral hair lipid than European or African hair. After UV irradiation, European and African hair samples exhibited more damage because they have less integral hair lipids. However, Asian hair samples have less damage. We conclude that integral hair lipid may protect the hair against the UV light.

  4. Advanced chemical imaging and comparison of human and porcine hair follicles for drug delivery by confocal Raman microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Lutz; Mathes, Christiane; Hansen, Steffi; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-06-01

    Hair follicles have recently gained a lot of interest for dermal drug delivery. They provide facilitated penetration into the skin and a high potential to serve as a drug depot. In this area of research, excised pig ear is a widely accepted in vitro model to evaluate penetration of drug delivery into hair follicles. However, a comparison of human and porcine follicles in terms of chemical composition has not been performed so far. In this study, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a chemically selective imaging technique to compare human and porcine follicle composition and to visualize component distribution within follicle cross-sections. Based on the evaluation of human and porcine Raman spectra optical similarity for both species was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies, which are generally used to determine the extent of follicular penetration, were imaged by a novel complementary analytical approach combining confocal Raman microscopy and optical profilometry. This all-encompassing analysis allows investigation of intactness and component distribution of the excised hair bulb in three dimensions. Confocal Raman microscopy shows a high potential as a noninvasive and chemically selective technique for the analysis of trans-follicular drug delivery.

  5. Prevention of follicular penetration: barrier-enhancing formulations against the penetration of pollen allergens into hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, M C; Patzelt, A; Richter, H; Schanzer, S; Sterry, W; Filbry, A; Bohnsack, K; Rippke, F; Galecka, J; Fölster-Holst, R; Lademann, J

    2011-01-01

    The hair follicles could be a reservoir for topically applied substances. They are not only surrounded by a close network of blood capillaries, which makes them interesting for drug delivery, but they are also the host of dendritic cells, which are important for immunomodulation. Previously, pollen allergens were shown to penetrate into the hair follicles. The application of barrier-enhancing formulations might represent an effective strategy to prevent pollen protein penetration into the hair follicle. In the present study, porcine skin areas were pretreated with 4 barrier-enhancing emulsions. One skin area served as control and remained without pretreatment. Afterwards, fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled grass pollen proteins were applied to the porcine skin samples, and their penetration was investigated via fluorescent laser scanning microscopy. It was shown that the barrier-enhancing formulations were able to significantly reduce the penetration of exogenous proteins into the hair follicles, the extent of such reduction depending on the formulation. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Fetal and adult hair follicle. An immunohistochemical study of anticytokeratin antibodies in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirren, C G; Burgdorf, W H; Sander, C A; Plewig, G

    1997-08-01

    The expression of cytokeratins (CK), involucrin, vimentin, CD34, and alpha-smooth-muscle actin was studied in fetal and adult hair follicles. The first stage of the developing hair follicle is characterized by palisaded, elongated epithelial cells budding from the epidermal basal layer. These cells express CK5/6, CK14, CK17, CK19, and vimentin. During the following weeks of gestation, different structures in the developing hair follicle can be identified and characterized. The matrical cells display only CK19. The keratinocytes of the outer root sheath express CK5/6, CK14, CK17, CK19, and involucrin; those of the inner root sheath, CK4, CK18, and involucrin; those of the isthmus, the same profile as the ORS. In the infundibulum, the basal-layer keratinocytes express CK5/6, CK14, CK17, and CK19, whereas in the suprabasal layers CK1, CK4, CK10, CK14, and CK17 are seen. The adult hair follicle in anagen fails to express CK19 in the matrical cells and isthmus and both CK17 and CK19 in the infundibulum. These profiles of intermediate filaments and other markers appear to be potentially useful in categorizing neoplasms with apparent follicular differentiation.

  7. Constitutive transgene expression of Stem Cell Antigen-1 in the hair follicle alters the sensitivity to tumor formation and progression

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    Rikke Christensen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The cell surface protein Stem Cell Antigen-1 (Sca-1 marks stem or progenitor cells in several murine tissues and is normally upregulated during cancer development. Although the specific function of Sca-1 remains unknown, Sca-1 seems to play a role in proliferation, differentiation and cell migration in a number of tissues. In the skin epithelium, Sca-1 is highly expressed in the interfollicular epidermis but is absent in most compartments of the hair follicle; however, the function of Sca-1 in the skin has not been investigated. To explore the role of Sca-1 in normal and malignant skin development we generated transgenic mice that express Sca-1 in the hair follicle stem cells that are normally Sca-1 negative. Development of hair follicles and interfollicular epidermis appeared normal in Sca-1 mutant mice; however, follicular induction of Sca-1 expression in bulge region and isthmus stem cells reduced the overall yield of papillomas in a chemical carcinogenesis protocol. Despite that fewer papillomas developed in transgenic mice a higher proportion of the papillomas underwent malignant conversion. These findings suggest that overexpression of Sca-1 in the hair follicle stem cells contributes at different stages of tumour development. In early stages, overexpression of Sca-1 decreases tumour formation while at later stages overexpression of Sca-1 seems to drive tumours towards malignant progression.

  8. Stem cells in the hair follicle bulge contribute to wound repair but not to homeostasis of the epidermis.

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    Ito, Mayumi; Liu, Yaping; Yang, Zaixin; Nguyen, Jane; Liang, Fan; Morris, Rebecca J; Cotsarelis, George

    2005-12-01

    The discovery of long-lived epithelial stem cells in the bulge region of the hair follicle led to the hypothesis that epidermal renewal and epidermal repair after wounding both depend on these cells. To determine whether bulge cells are necessary for epidermal renewal, here we have ablated these cells by targeting them with a suicide gene encoding herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) using a Keratin 1-15 (Krt1-15) promoter. We show that ablation leads to complete loss of hair follicles but survival of the epidermis. Through fate-mapping experiments, we find that stem cells in the hair follicle bulge do not normally contribute cells to the epidermis which is organized into epidermal proliferative units, as previously predicted. After epidermal injury, however, cells from the bulge are recruited into the epidermis and migrate in a linear manner toward the center of the wound, ultimately forming a marked radial pattern. Notably, although the bulge-derived cells acquire an epidermal phenotype, most are eliminated from the epidermis over several weeks, indicating that bulge stem cells respond rapidly to epidermal wounding by generating short-lived 'transient amplifying' cells responsible for acute wound repair. Our findings have implications for both gene therapy and developing treatments for wounds because it will be necessary to consider epidermal and hair follicle stem cells as distinct populations.

  9. The dog mite, Demodex canis: prevalence, fungal co-infection, reactions to light, and hair follicle apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3.

  10. Trps1 and its target gene Sox9 regulate epithelial proliferation in the developing hair follicle and are associated with hypertrichosis.

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    Katherine A Fantauzzo

    Full Text Available Hereditary hypertrichoses are a group of hair overgrowth syndromes that are extremely rare in humans. We have previously demonstrated that a position effect on TRPS1 is associated with hypertrichosis in humans and mice. To gain insight into the functional role of Trps1, we analyzed the late morphogenesis vibrissae phenotype of Trps1(Δgt mutant mice, which is characterized by follicle degeneration after peg downgrowth has been initiated. We found that Trps1 directly represses expression of the hair follicle stem cell regulator Sox9 to control proliferation of the follicle epithelium. Furthermore, we identified a copy number variation upstream of SOX9 in a family with hypertrichosis that significantly decreases expression of the gene in the hair follicle, providing new insights into the long-range regulation of SOX9. Our findings uncover a novel transcriptional hierarchy that regulates epithelial proliferation in the developing hair follicle and contributes to the pathology of hypertrichosis.

  11. Discrimination between basal cell carcinoma and hair follicles in skin tissue sections by Raman micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraona-Puy, M.; Ghita, A.; Zoladek, A.; Perkins, W.; Varma, S.; Leach, I. H.; Koloydenko, A. A.; Williams, H.; Notingher, I.

    2011-05-01

    Skin cancer is the most common human malignancy and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents approximately 80% of the non-melanoma cases. Current methods of treatment require histopathological evaluation of the tissues by qualified personnel. However, this method is subjective and in some cases BCC can be confused with other structures in healthy skin, including hair follicles. In this preliminary study, we investigated the potential of Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) to discriminate between hair follicles and BCC in skin tissue sections excised during Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). Imaging and diagnosis of skin sections was automatically generated using ' a priori'-built spectral model based on LDA. This model had 90 ± 9% sensitivity and 85 ± 9% specificity for discrimination of BCC from dermis and epidermis. The model used selected Raman bands corresponding to the largest spectral differences between the Raman spectra of BCC and the normal skin regions, associated mainly with nucleic acids and collagen type I. Raman spectra corresponding to the epidermis regions of the hair follicles were found to be closer to those of healthy epidermis rather than BCC. Comparison between Raman spectral images and the gold standard haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology diagnosis showed good agreement. Some hair follicle regions were misclassified as BCC; regions corresponded mainly to the outermost layer of hair follicle (basal cells) which are expected to have higher nucleic acid concentration. This preliminary study shows the ability of RMS to distinguish between BCC and other tissue structures associated to healthy skin which can be confused with BCC due to their similar morphology.

  12. Influence of the Vehicle on the Penetration of Particles into Hair Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Dähne, Lars; Walden, Peter; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Wank, Ute; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that particulate substances penetrate preferentially into the hair follicles and that the penetration depth depends on the particle size. In the present study, the influence of the vehicle of the particulate substances on the penetration depth was investigated. Four different formulations (ethanolic suspension, aqueous suspension, ethanolic gel and aqueous gel) containing peptide-loaded particles of 1 μm in diameter were prepared and applied on porcine ear skin. After penetration, punch biopsies were taken and the penetration depths of the particles were investigated by laser scanning microscopy. The deepest penetration was achieved with the gel formulations demonstrating an influence of the vehicle on the penetration depth of particulate substances. PMID:24310497

  13. A Case of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Outer Hair Follicle Sheath Differentiation

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    Masazumi Onishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old Japanese man presented at our hospital with an asymptomatic, blackish, irregularly shaped plaque with a gray nodule in the periphery on his left lower leg. The lesion had been present for 10 years and had recently enlarged, associated with bleeding. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of three distinct parts: The first part showed massive aggregation of basophilic basaloid cells with peripheral palisading and abundant melanin granules, and was diagnosed as solid-type basal cell carcinoma. The second part showed aggregation of clear cells with squamous eddies, and was diagnosed as proliferating trichilemmal tumor. The third part showed reticular aggregation of basaloid cells with infundibular cysts in the papillary dermis, and was diagnosed as infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. We diagnosed this tumor as basal cell carcinoma with various forms of hair follicle differentiation, including differentiation into the outer root sheath.

  14. Influence of the Vehicle on the Penetration of Particles into Hair Follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Wank

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that particulate substances penetrate preferentially into the hair follicles and that the penetration depth depends on the particle size. In the present study, the influence of the vehicle of the particulate substances on the penetration depth was investigated. Four different formulations (ethanolic suspension, aqueous suspension, ethanolic gel and aqueous gel containing peptide-loaded particles of 1 µm in diameter were prepared and applied on porcine ear skin. After penetration, punch biopsies were taken and the penetration depths of the particles were investigated by laser scanning microscopy. The deepest penetration was achieved with the gel formulations demonstrating an influence of the vehicle on the penetration depth of particulate substances.

  15. Topical application of Polygonum multiflorum extract induces hair growth of resting hair follicles through upregulating Shh and β-catenin expression in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Zhang, Nannan; Park, Dong Ki

    2011-05-17

    Polygonum multiflorum has traditionally been used for treating patients suffering from baldness and hair loss in East Asia. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth promoting activities of Polygonum multiflorum and its mechanism of action. The Polygonum multiflorum extract was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL6/N mice. To determine the effect of Polygonum multiflorum extract in telogen to anagen transition, the expression of β-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) was determined by immunohistochemistry analysis. Polygonum multiflorum extract promoted hair growth by inducing anagen phase in telogenic C57BL6/N mice. In Polygonum multiflorum extract treated group, we observed increase in the number and the size of hair follicles that are considered as evidence for anagen phase induction. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that earlier induction of β-catenin and Shh were observed in Polygonum multiflorum extract treated group compared to that in control group. These results suggest that Polygonum multiflorum extract promotes hair growth by inducing anagen phase in resting hair follicles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inflammatory mediator TAK1 regulates hair follicle morphogenesis and anagen induction shown by using keratinocyte-specific TAK1-deficient mice.

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    Koji Sayama

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1 is a member of the NF-kappaB pathway and regulates inflammatory responses. We previously showed that TAK1 also regulates keratinocyte growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, it is unknown whether TAK1 has any role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. To examine this possibility, we studied the role of TAK1 in mouse hair follicle development and cycling as an instructive model system. By comparing keratinocyte-specific TAK1-deficient mice (Map3k7(fl/flK5-Cre with control mice, we found that the number of hair germs (hair follicles precursors in Map3k7(fl/flK5-Cre mice was significantly reduced at E15.5, and that subsequent hair follicle morphogenesis was retarded. Next, we analyzed the role of TAK1 in the cyclic remodeling in follicles by analyzing hair cycle progression in mice with a tamoxifen-inducible keratinocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency (Map3k7(fl/flK14-Cre-ER(T2. After active hair growth (anagen was induced by depilation, TAK1 was deleted by topical tamoxifen application. This resulted in significantly retarded anagen development in TAK1-deficient mice. Deletion of TAK1 in hair follicles that were already in anagen induced premature, apoptosis-driven hair follicle regression, along with hair follicle damage. These studies provide the first evidence that the inflammatory mediator TAK1 regulates hair follicle induction and morphogenesis, and is required for anagen induction and anagen maintenance.

  17. Approach towards developing a novel procedure to selectively quantify topically applied substances in the hair follicles of the model tissue porcine ear skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Fanny; Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Schanzer, Sabine; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2013-06-01

    Hair follicles represent reservoirs for localized drug therapy and transport pathways for systemic drug delivery. This study describes an approach towards developing a novel procedure for quantifying topically applied substances located in the hair follicles of porcine ear skin, a model for human in vivo skin, using a fluorescent dye. Approximately 5% of the topically applied dye was recovered from the hair follicles, which is in accordance with a previous study. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of intense pulsed light treatment on human skin in vitro: analysis of immediate effects on dermal papillae and hair follicle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, D; Kim, D H; Ratté, G; Beaumont, C; Germain, L

    2013-10-01

    Hair follicles house a permanent pool of epithelial stem cells. Intense pulsed light (IPL) sources have been successfully used for hair removal, but long-term hair reduction may require several treatments. Many questions remain regarding the impact of IPL treatment on the structure of the hair follicle, more specifically on hair follicular stem cells and dermal papilla cells, a group of specialized cells that orchestrate hair growth. To characterize the destruction of human hair follicles and surrounding tissues following IPL treatment, with more attention paid to the bulge and the bulb regions. Human scalp specimens of Fitzpatrick skin phototype II were exposed ex vivo to IPL pulses and were then processed for histological analysis, immunodetection of stem cell-associated keratin 19, and revelation of the endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity expressed in dermal papilla cells. Histological analysis confirmed that pigmented structures, such as the melanin-rich matrix cells of the bulb in anagen follicles and the hair shaft, are principally targeted by IPL treatment, while white hairs and epidermis remained unaffected. Damage caused by heat sometimes extended over the dermal papilla cells, while stem cells were mostly spared. IPL epilation principally targets pigmented structures. Our results suggest that, under the tested conditions, collateral damage does not deplete stem cells. Damage at the dermal papilla was observed only with high-energy treatment modalities. Extrapolated to frequently treated hairs, these observations explain why some hairs grow back after a single IPL treatment. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Exploring the "brain-skin connection": Leads and lessons from the hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paus, R

    Research into how the central nervous system (CNS) and the skin of mammals are physiologically connected and how this "brain-skin connection" may be therapeutically targeted in clinical medicine has witnessed a renaissance. A key element in this development has been the discovery that mammalian skin and its appendages, namely human scalp hair follicles (HFs), not only are important, long-underestimated target tissues for classical neurohormones, neurotrophins and neuropeptides, but also are eminent peripheral tissue sources for the production and/or release of these neuromediators. This essay summarizes the many different levels of biology at which human scalp HFs respond to and generate a striking variety of neurohormones, and portrays HFs as prototypic, cyclically remodelled miniorgans that utilize these neurohormones to autoregulate their growth, hair shaft production, rhythmic organ transformation, pigmentation, mitochondrial energy metabolism, and immune status. The essay also explores how preclinical research on human scalp HFs can be exploited to unveil and explore "novel" and clinically as yet untapped, but most likely ancestral functions of neurohormones within mammalian epithelial biology that still impact substantially on human skin physiology. Arguably, systematic investigation of the "brain-skin connection" is one of the most intriguing current research frontiers in investigative dermatology, not the least since it has reversed the traditional CNS focus in studying the interactions between two key organ systems by placing the skin epithelium on center stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of Astrotactin2 as a Genetic Modifier That Regulates the Global Orientation of Mammalian Hair Follicles.

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    Hao Chang

    Full Text Available Planar cell polarity (PCP signaling controls the global orientation of surface structures, such as hairs and bristles, in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In Frizzled6(-/- (Fz6(-/- mice, hair follicle orientations on the head and back are nearly random at birth, but reorient during early postnatal development to eventually generate a nearly parallel anterior-to-posterior array. We report the identification of a naturally occurring exon 5 deletion in Astrotactin2 (Astn2 that acts as a recessive genetic modifier of the Fz6(-/- hair patterning phenotype. A genetically engineered Astn2 exon 5 deletion recapitulates the modifier phenotype. In Fz6(-/-;Astn2(ex5del/del mice, hair orientation on the back is subtly biased from posterior-to-anterior, leading to a 180-degree orientation reversal in mature mice. These experiments suggest that Astn2, an endosomal membrane protein, modulates PCP signaling.

  1. Androgens trigger different growth responses in genetically identical human hair follicles in organ culture that reflect their epigenetic diversity in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Benjamin H; Charlesworth, Matthew R; Tobin, Desmond J; Sharpe, David T; Randall, Valerie A

    2017-10-18

    Male sex hormones-androgens-regulate male physique development. Without androgen signaling, genetic males appear female. During puberty, increasing androgens harness the hair follicle's unique regenerative ability to replace many tiny vellus hairs with larger, darker terminal hairs (e.g., beard). Follicle response is epigenetically varied: some remain unaffected (e.g., eyelashes) or are inhibited, causing balding. How sex steroid hormones alter such developmental processes is unclear, despite high incidences of hormone-driven cancer, hirsutism, and alopecia. Unfortunately, existing development models are not androgen sensitive. Here, we use hair follicles to establish an androgen-responsive human organ culture model. We show that women's intermediate facial follicles respond to men's higher androgen levels by synthesizing more hair over several days, unlike donor-matched, androgen-insensitive, terminal follicles. We demonstrate that androgen receptors-androgen-activated gene transcription regulators-are required and are present in vivo within these follicles. This is the first human organ that involves multiple cell types that responds appropriately to hormones in prolonged culture, in a way which mirrors its natural behavior. Thus, intermediate hair follicles offer a hormone-switchable human model with exceptional, unique availability of genetically identical, but epigenetically hormone-insensitive, terminal follicles. This should enable advances in understanding sex steroid hormone signaling, gene regulation, and developmental and regenerative systems and facilitate better therapies for hormone-dependent disorders.-Miranda, B. H., Charlesworth, M. R., Tobin, D. J., Sharpe, D. T., Randall, V. A. Androgens trigger different growth responses in genetically identical human hair follicles in organ culture that reflect their epigenetic diversity in life. © FASEB.

  2. Vibrissaeless mutant rats with a modular representation of innervated sinus hair follicles in the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljis, R O

    1992-01-01

    Specialized areas in the cerebral cortex are essential to mediate the various sensory modalities and are crucial to their recovery in disease. We recently observed that prenatal photoreceptor cues are not indispensable for the development of the elaborate modular organization of the primate primary visual (striate) cortex (Kuljis, R. O. and P. Rakic. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 5303-5306). By contrast, the elegant experiments of Woolsey, Van der Loos, and collaborators (Van der Loos, H., and T. A. Woolsey. 1973. Science 179: 395-398; Van der Loos, H. and J. Dörfl. 1978. Neurosci Lett. 7: 23-30; Woolsey, T. A. 1967. John Hopkins Med. J. 121: 91-112; Woolsey, T. A. and H. Van der Loos. 1970. Brain Res. 17: 205-242) indicate that postnatal vibrissal receptor input is necessary for the development of modular organization in the posteromedial barrel subfield (PMBSF) of the rodent somatosensory cortex. The present report is part of a series of studies designed to address the variables that result in seemingly different results in these two models. Here, I address the role of pre- and postnatal tactile experience in the development of the rat homologue of the mouse PMBSF using mutants that lack vibrissae. Mutants exhibit cytoarchitectonic units in layer IV similar to those in controls, as revealed by NissI stains and histochemistry for succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase. Sections from flat mounts of the vibrissal pad reveal that all mutants contain vibrissal follicles with stumps of sinus hairs in a geometric array and number similar to that in controls, and that the follicles are innervated heavily by fascicles of fibers from the infraorbital nerve.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Non-invasive delivery of nanoparticles to hair follicles: a perspective for transcutaneous immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ankit; Raber, Anne S; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Weissmann, Sebastian; Ebensen, Thomas; Schulze, Kai; Guzmán, Carlos A; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Hansen, Steffi

    2013-07-25

    Transfollicular vaccination aims to reach the peri-follicular antigen presenting cells without impairing the stratum corneum (SC) barrier. This would be an optimal vaccination strategy under critical hygienic conditions. Nanoparticles (NPs) are the ideal vehicles for transfollicular delivery of vaccines as they are able to (i) penetrate deeper into the hair follicles than molecules in solution, (ii) can help to stabilize protein based antigen and (iii) improve and modulate the immune response. This study investigates the potential of transfollicular delivery of polymeric NPs using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen. NPs were prepared by a double emulsion method from pharmaceutically well characterized biocompatible and biodegradable polymers poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or chitosan-coated PLGA (Chit-PLGA) using polyvinyl alcohol as stabilizer. The NP formulations are available as freeze dried product which can be re-constituted with water or cell culture medium before use to yield any desired OVA/NP concentration. OVA was protected from cleavage or aggregation inside the NPs and retained its biological activity to 74% (PLGA) and 64% (Chit-PLGA). Thus, when applying a typical dose of 8.5 μl/cm(2) NP formulation (50mg NPs/ml, 54.3±0.047 and 66.5±0.044 μg OVA/mg NPs for PLGA and Chit-PLGA NPs, respectively) an effective dose of 17 μg/cm(2) (PLGA) or 18 μg/cm(2) (Chit-PLGA) of active OVA is administered. In a cell culture assay encapsulated OVA stimulated the proliferation of CD4+ (PLGA and Chit-PLGA) and CD8+ T-cells (only Chit-PLGA) to a larger extent than OVA in solution. An adoptive transfer experiment demonstrated that the model antigen OVA can be delivered via the transfollicular route. This preliminary experiment is a proof of concept that by this transfollicular immunization approach it is possible to deliver antigens, thereby stimulating antigen-specific T cells. Both NP formulations improved the delivery efficiency of OVA into the hair follicles on

  4. Gene Expression in Hair Follicle Dermal Papilla Cells after Treatment with Stanozolol

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    M. Reiter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Doping with anabolic agents is a topic in sports where strength is crucial, e.g. sprinting, weight lifting and many more. Testosterone and its functional analogs are the drugs of choice taken as pills, creams, tape or injections to increase muscle mass and body performance, and to reduce body fat. Stanozolol (17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androst- 2-eno[3,2c]pyrazol is a testosterone analogue with the same anabolic effect like testosterone but its ring structure makes it possible to take it orally. Therefore, stanozolol is one of the most frequently used anabolic steroids. Common verification methods for anabolic drugs exist, identifying the chemicals in tissues, like hair or blood samples. The idea of this feasibility study was to search for specific gene expression regulations induced by stanozolol to identify the possible influence of the synthetically hormone on different metabolic pathways. Finding biomarkers for anabolic drugs could be supportive of the existing methods and an additional proof for illegal drug abuse. In two separate cell cultures, human HFDPC (hair follicle dermal papilla cells from a female and a male donor were treated with stanozolol. In the female cell culture treatment concentrations of 0 nM (control, 1 nM, 10 nM and 100 nM were chosen. Cells were taken 0 h, 6 h, 24 h and 48 h after stimulation and totalRNA was extracted. Learning from the results of the pilot experiment, the male cell culture was treated in 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations and taken after 0 h, 6 h, 24 h and 72 h. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR expression of characteristics of different target genes were analysed. Totally 13 genes were selected according to their functionality by screening the actual literature and composed to functional groups: factors of apoptosis regulation were Fas Ligand (FasL, its receptor (FasR, Caspase 8 and Bcl-2. Androgen receptor (AR and both estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ were summarized in the steroid receptor group

  5. Gene expression in hair follicle dermal papilla cells after treatment with stanozolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M; Pfaffl, M W; Schönfelder, M; Meyer, H H D

    2008-12-23

    Doping with anabolic agents is a topic in sports where strength is crucial, e.g. sprinting, weight lifting and many more. Testosterone and its functional analogs are the drugs of choice taken as pills, creams, tape or injections to increase muscle mass and body performance, and to reduce body fat. Stanozolol (17beta-hydroxy-17alpha-methyl-5alpha-androst-2-eno[3,2c]pyrazol) is a testosterone analogue with the same anabolic effect like testosterone but its ring structure makes it possible to take it orally. Therefore, stanozolol is one of the most frequently used anabolic steroids.Common verification methods for anabolic drugs exist, identifying the chemicals in tissues, like hair or blood samples. The idea of this feasibility study was to search for specific gene expression regulations induced by stanozolol to identify the possible influence of the synthetically hormone on different metabolic pathways. Finding biomarkers for anabolic drugs could be supportive of the existing methods and an additional proof for illegal drug abuse.In two separate cell cultures, human HFDPC (hair follicle dermal papilla cells) from a female and a male donor were treated with stanozolol. In the female cell culture treatment concentrations of 0 nM (control), 1 nM, 10 nM and 100 nM were chosen. Cells were taken 0 h, 6 h, 24 h and 48 h after stimulation and totalRNA was extracted. Learning from the results of the pilot experiment, the male cell culture was treated in 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations and taken after 0 h, 6 h, 24 h and 72 h. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR expression of characteristics of different target genes were analysed.Totally 13 genes were selected according to their functionality by screening the actual literature and composed to functional groups: factors of apoptosis regulation were Fas Ligand (FasL), its receptor (FasR), Caspase 8 and Bcl-2. Androgen receptor (AR) and both estrogen receptors (ERalpha, ERbeta) were summarized in the steroid receptor group. The

  6. Thyroxine differentially modulates the peripheral clock: lessons from the human hair follicle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Hardman

    Full Text Available The human hair follicle (HF exhibits peripheral clock activity, with knock-down of clock genes (BMAL1 and PER1 prolonging active hair growth (anagen and increasing pigmentation. Similarly, thyroid hormones prolong anagen and stimulate pigmentation in cultured human HFs. In addition they are recognized as key regulators of the central clock that controls circadian rhythmicity. Therefore, we asked whether thyroxine (T4 also influences peripheral clock activity in the human HF. Over 24 hours we found a significant reduction in protein levels of BMAL1 and PER1, with their transcript levels also decreasing significantly. Furthermore, while all clock genes maintained their rhythmicity in both the control and T4 treated HFs, there was a significant reduction in the amplitude of BMAL1 and PER1 in T4 (100 nM treated HFs. Accompanying this, cell-cycle progression marker Cyclin D1 was also assessed appearing to show an induced circadian rhythmicity by T4 however, this was not significant. Contrary to short term cultures, after 6 days, transcript and/or protein levels of all core clock genes (BMAL1, PER1, clock, CRY1, CRY2 were up-regulated in T4 treated HFs. BMAL1 and PER1 mRNA was also up-regulated in the HF bulge, the location of HF epithelial stem cells. Together this provides the first direct evidence that T4 modulates the expression of the peripheral molecular clock. Thus, patients with thyroid dysfunction may also show a disordered peripheral clock, which raises the possibility that short term, pulsatile treatment with T4 might permit one to modulate circadian activity in peripheral tissues as a target to treat clock-related disease.

  7. BRCA1 deficiency in skin epidermis leads to selective loss of hair follicle stem cells and their progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, Panagiota A.; Karambelas, Andrea E.; Debaugnies, Maud; Candi, Aurelie; Bouwman, Peter; Moers, Virginie; Revenco, Tatiana; Rocha, Ana Sofia; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Jonkers, Jos; Blanpain, Cedric

    2013-01-01

    The accurate maintenance of genomic integrity is essential for tissue homeostasis. Deregulation of this process leads to cancer and aging. BRCA1 is a critical mediator of this process. Here, we performed conditional deletion of Brca1 during epidermal development and found that BRCA1 is specifically required for hair follicle (HF) formation and for development of adult HF stem cells (SCs). Mice deficient for Brca1 in the epidermis are hairless and display a reduced number of HFs that degenerate progressively. Surprisingly, the interfollicular epidermis and the sebaceous glands remain unaffected by Brca1 deletion. Interestingly, HF matrix transient amplifying progenitors present increased DNA damage, p53 stabilization, and caspase-dependent apoptosis compared with the interfollicular and sebaceous progenitors, leading to hyperproliferation, apoptosis, and subsequent depletion of the prospective adult HF SCs. Concomitant deletion of p53 and Brca1 rescues the defect of HF morphogenesis and loss of HF SCs. During adult homeostasis, BRCA1 is dispensable for quiescent bulge SCs, but upon their activation during HF regeneration, Brca1 deletion causes apoptosis and depletion of Brca1-deficient bulge SCs. Our data reveal a major difference in the requirement of BRCA1 between different types of epidermal SCs and progenitors and during the different activation stages of adult HF SCs. PMID:23271346

  8. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  9. Dynamics of Lgr6+ Progenitor Cells in the Hair Follicle, Sebaceous Gland, and Interfollicular Epidermis

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    Anja Füllgrabe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics and interactions between stem cell pools in the hair follicle (HF, sebaceous gland (SG, and interfollicular epidermis (IFE of murine skin are still poorly understood. In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to mark Lgr6-expressing basal cells in the HF isthmus, SG, and IFE. We show that these Lgr6+ cells constitute long-term self-renewing populations within each compartment in adult skin. Quantitative analysis of clonal dynamics revealed that the Lgr6+ progenitor cells compete neutrally in the IFE, isthmus, and SG, indicating population asymmetry as the underlying mode of tissue renewal. Transcriptional profiling of Lgr6+ and Lgr6− cells did not reveal a distinct Lgr6-associated gene expression signature, raising the question of whether Lgr6 expression requires extrinsic niche signals. Our results elucidate the interrelation and behavior of Lgr6+ populations in the IFE, HF, and SG and suggest population asymmetry as a common mechanism for homeostasis in several epithelial skin compartments.

  10. Dynamics of Lgr6+ Progenitor Cells in the Hair Follicle, Sebaceous Gland, and Interfollicular Epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllgrabe, Anja; Joost, Simon; Are, Alexandra; Jacob, Tina; Sivan, Unnikrishnan; Haegebarth, Andrea; Linnarsson, Sten; Simons, Benjamin D.; Clevers, Hans; Toftgård, Rune; Kasper, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Summary The dynamics and interactions between stem cell pools in the hair follicle (HF), sebaceous gland (SG), and interfollicular epidermis (IFE) of murine skin are still poorly understood. In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to mark Lgr6-expressing basal cells in the HF isthmus, SG, and IFE. We show that these Lgr6+ cells constitute long-term self-renewing populations within each compartment in adult skin. Quantitative analysis of clonal dynamics revealed that the Lgr6+ progenitor cells compete neutrally in the IFE, isthmus, and SG, indicating population asymmetry as the underlying mode of tissue renewal. Transcriptional profiling of Lgr6+ and Lgr6− cells did not reveal a distinct Lgr6-associated gene expression signature, raising the question of whether Lgr6 expression requires extrinsic niche signals. Our results elucidate the interrelation and behavior of Lgr6+ populations in the IFE, HF, and SG and suggest population asymmetry as a common mechanism for homeostasis in several epithelial skin compartments. PMID:26607954

  11. Morphogenetic Mechanisms in the Cyclic Regeneration of Hair Follicles and Deer Antlers from Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have made comparisons between hair follicles (HFs and antler units (AUs—two seemingly unrelated mammalian organs. HFs are tiny and concealed within skin, whereas AUs are gigantic and grown externally for visual display. However, these two organs share some striking similarities. Both consist of permanent and cyclic/temporary components and undergo stem-cell-based organogenesis and cyclic regeneration. Stem cells of both organs reside in the permanent part and the growth centres are located in the temporary part of each respective organ. Organogenesis and regeneration of both organs depend on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Establishment of these interactions requires stem cells and reactive/niche cells (dermal papilla cells for HFs and epidermal cells for AUs to be juxtaposed, which is achieved through destruction of the cyclic part to bring the reactive cells into close proximity to the respective stem cell niche. Developments of HFs and AUs are regulated by similar endocrine (particularly testosterone and paracrine (particularly IGF1 factors. Interestingly, these two organs come to interplay during antlerogenesis. In conclusion, we believe that investigators from the fields of both HF and AU biology could greatly benefit from a comprehensive comparison between these two organs.

  12. Basal cell carcinoma preferentially arises from stem cells within hair follicle and mechanosensory niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shelby C; Eberl, Markus; Vagnozzi, Alicia N; Belkadi, Abdelmadjid; Veniaminova, Natalia A; Verhaegen, Monique E; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Ward, Nicole L; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Wong, Sunny Y

    2015-04-02

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is characterized by frequent loss of PTCH1, leading to constitutive activation of the Hedgehog pathway. Although the requirement for Hedgehog in BCC is well established, the identity of disease-initiating cells and the compartments in which they reside remain controversial. By using several inducible Cre drivers to delete Ptch1 in different cell compartments in mice, we show here that multiple hair follicle stem cell populations readily develop BCC-like tumors. In contrast, stem cells within the interfollicular epidermis do not efficiently form tumors. Notably, we observed that innervated Gli1-expressing progenitors within mechanosensory touch dome epithelia are highly tumorigenic. Sensory nerves activate Hedgehog signaling in normal touch domes, while denervation attenuates touch dome-derived tumors. Together, our studies identify varying tumor susceptibilities among different stem cell populations in the skin, highlight touch dome epithelia as "hot spots" for tumor formation, and implicate cutaneous nerves as mediators of tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A new hair follicle-derived human epidermal model for the evaluation of sunscreen genoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacqueville, D; Douki, T; Duprat, L; Rebelo-Moreira, S; Guiraud, B; Dromigny, H; Perier, V; Bessou-Touya, S; Duplan, H

    2015-10-01

    Induction of skin cancer is the most deleterious effect of excessive exposure to sunlight. Accurate evaluation of sunscreens to protect the genome is thus of major importance. In particular, the ability of suncare products to prevent the formation of DNA damage should be evaluated more directly since the Sun Protection Factor is only related to erythema induction. For this purpose, we developed an in vitro approach using a recently characterized reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) model engineered from hair follicle. The relevance of this skin substitute in terms of UV-induced genotoxicity was compared to ex vivo explants exposed to solar-simulated radiation (SSR). The yield of bipyrimidine photoproducts, their rate of repair, and the induction of apoptosis were very similar in both types of skin samples. In order to evaluate the protection afforded by sunscreen against DNA damage, bipyrimidine photoproducts were quantified in tissue models following SSR exposure in the presence or absence of a SPF50+ formula. A rather high DNA protection factor of approximately 20 was found in RHE, very similar to that determined for explants. Thus, RHE is a good surrogate to human skin, and also a convenient and useful tool for investigation of the genoprotection of sunscreens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Advances in Understanding Hair Growth [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Bernard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this short review, I introduce an integrated vision of human hair follicle behavior and describe opposing influences that control hair follicle homeostasis, from morphogenesis to hair cycling. The interdependence and complementary roles of these influences allow us to propose that the hair follicle is a true paradigm of a “Yin Yang” type, that is a cold/slow-hot/fast duality. Moreover, a new promising field is emerging, suggesting that glycans are key elements of hair follicle growth control.

  15. Ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd regulate proliferation of mature keratinocytes through induction of p63 expression in hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Li, Jing-Jie; Gu, Li-Juan; Zhang, Dong-Liang; Wang, Yun-Bo; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2013-07-01

    Ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd are the two main types of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng and have been used as an additive to against alopecia. However, the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. To determine how ginsenosides prevent hair loss, we topically applied protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd over the shaved skin of B57CL/6 mice, and monitored and assessed them for 35 days. We then investigated the effects of ginsenosides on cell genesis in different phases of adult hair follicles (HFs), using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine as a marker for dividing cells. Moreover, p63, a specific marker and a major regulator of keratinocyte progenitor cells of the multi-layered epithelia, was detected in epidermis. Results indicated that treatment with ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd increased cell proliferation in both anagen and telogen of HFs. However, it had no significant effect on the survival of cells in the bulge and upper follicle region. Investigation of p63 demonstrated that up-regulation of p63 expression in the matrix and outer root sheath might be one of the mechanisms by which ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd promote cell proliferation in HFs. Our study reveals a novel mechanism by which ginsenoside promotes hair growth through p63 induction in follicular keratinocytes and indicates that ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd might be developed as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of hair loss. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Molecular evolution of HR, a gene that regulates the postnatal cycle of the hair follicle

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Ali Abbasi

    2011-01-01

    Hair is a unique mammalian trait that is absent in all other animal forms. Hairlessness is rare in mammals and humans are exceptional among primates in lacking dense layer of hair covering. HR was the first gene identified to be implicated in hair-cycle regulation. Point mutations in HR lead to congenital human hair loss, which results in the complete loss of body and scalp hairs. HR functions are indispensable for initiation of postnatal hair follicular cycling. This study investigates the p...

  17. The Dog Mite, Demodex canis: Prevalence, Fungal Co-Infection, Reactions to Light, and Hair Follicle Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

  18. Discovery of cashmere goat (Capra hircus) microRNAs in skin and hair follicles by Solexa sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Wang, Xiaolong; Geng, Rongqing; He, Xiaolin; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yulin

    2013-07-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large family of endogenous, non-coding RNAs, about 22 nucleotides long, which regulate gene expression through sequence-specific base pairing with target mRNAs. Extensive studies have shown that miRNA expression in the skin changes remarkably during distinct stages of the hair cycle in humans, mice, goats and sheep. In this study, the skin tissues were harvested from the three stages of hair follicle cycling (anagen, catagen and telogen) in a fibre-producing goat breed. In total, 63,109,004 raw reads were obtained by Solexa sequencing and 61,125,752 clean reads remained for the small RNA digitalisation analysis. This resulted in the identification of 399 conserved miRNAs; among these, 326 miRNAs were expressed in all three follicular cycling stages, whereas 3, 12 and 11 miRNAs were specifically expressed in anagen, catagen, and telogen, respectively. We also identified 172 potential novel miRNAs by Mireap, 36 miRNAs were expressed in all three cycling stages, whereas 23, 29 and 44 miRNAs were specifically expressed in anagen, catagen, and telogen, respectively. The expression level of five arbitrarily selected miRNAs was analyzed by quantitative PCR, and the results indicated that the expression patterns were consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that five major biological pathways (Metabolic pathways, Pathways in cancer, MAPK signalling pathway, Endocytosis and Focal adhesion) accounted for 23.08% of target genes among 278 biological functions, indicating that these pathways are likely to play significant roles during hair cycling. During all hair cycle stages of cashmere goats, a large number of conserved and novel miRNAs were identified through a high-throughput sequencing approach. This study enriches the Capra hircus miRNA databases and provides a comprehensive miRNA transcriptome profile in the skin of goats during the hair follicle cycle.

  19. Sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Janet; Desai, Nisha; McCoy, John; Goren, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Two percent topical minoxidil is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Its success has been limited by the low percentage of responders. Meta-analysis of several studies reporting the number of responders to 2% minoxidil monotherapy indicates moderate hair regrowth in only 13-20% of female patients. Five percent minoxidil solution, when used off-label, may increase the percentage of responders to as much as 40%. As such, a biomarker for predicting treatment response would have significant clinical utility. In a previous study, Goren et al. reported an association between sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles and minoxidil response in a mixed cohort of male and female patients. The aim of this study was to replicate these findings in a well-defined cohort of female patients with AGA treated with 5% minoxidil daily for a period of 6 months. Consistent with the prior study, we found that sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts treatment response with 93% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Our study further supports the importance of minoxidil sulfation in eliciting a therapeutic response and provides further insight into novel targets for increasing minoxidil efficacy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Penetration of topically applied nanocarriers into the hair follicles of dog and rat dorsal skin and porcine ear skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Fanny; Patzelt, Alexa; Darvin, Maxim E; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Schäfer, Ulrich; Gruber, Achim D; Ostrowski, Anja; Lademann, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    In humans, topically applied nanocarriers penetrate effectively into the hair follicles where they can be exploited for the localized and targeted treatment of skin disorders. The objective of the present study was to examine the applicability of particle-based systems for follicular drug delivery in companion animals and livestock, which have a large follicular reservoir. Skin samples from 10 beagle dogs, 14 Wistar rats and four ears from freshly slaughtered cross-bred pigs were used. Fluoresceinamine labelled poly (L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanocarriers (256 or 430 nm) were applied on the different skin samples. After penetration, skin biopsies were removed and cryohistological cross sections prepared and investigated with regard to the follicular penetration depths (in μm ± standard deviation) of the nanocarriers using confocal laser scanning microscopy. In canine, rat and porcine hair follicles, the smaller nanoparticles were detected at mean follicular penetration depths of 630.16 ± 135.75 μm, 253.55 ± 47.36 μm and 653.40 ± 94.71 μm, respectively. The larger particles were observed at average follicular depths of 604.79 ± 132.42 μm; 262.87 ± 55.25 μm and 786.81 ± 121.73 μm, respectively, in canine, rat and porcine hair follicles. Statistically significant differences (P porcine skin samples. The mean follicular penetration depths of the differently sized nanocarriers were mostly significantly different between the different species, which might be due to different species-specific follicular dimensions. This issue needs to be addressed specifically in further studies. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Triggered release of model drug from AuNP-doped BSA nanocarriers in hair follicles using IRA radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Knorr, F; Patzelt, A; Darvin, M E; Rühl, E; Cheung, K Y; Lai, K K; Renneberg, R; Mak, W C

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of dermatotherapy have resulted in research efforts focusing on the use of particle-based drug delivery systems for the stimuli-responsive release of drugs in the skin and skin appendages, i.e. hair follicles and sebaceous glands. However, effective and innocuous trigger mechanisms which result in the release of the drugs from the nanocarriers upon reaching the target structures are still lacking. For the first time, the present study demonstrated the photo-activated release of the model drug fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) from topically applied gold nanoparticle-doped bovine serum albumin (AuNPs-doped BSA) particles (approx. 545nm) using water-filtered infrared A (IRA) radiation in the hair follicles of an ex vivo porcine skin model. The IRA radiation-induced plasmonic heating of the AuNPs results in the partial decomposition or opening of the albumin particles and release the model drug, while control particles without AuNPs show insignificant release. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using IRA radiation to induce release of encapsulated drugs from plasmonic nanocarriers for the targeting of follicular structures. However, the risk of radiation-induced skin damage subsequent to repeated applications of high infrared dosages may be significant. Future studies should aim at determining the suitability of lower infrared A dosages, such as for medical treatment regimens which may necessitate repeated exposure to therapeutics. Follicular targeting using nanocarriers is of increasing importance in the prophylaxis and treatment of dermatological or other diseases. For the first time, the present study demonstrated the photo-activated release of the model drug fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) from topically applied gold nanoparticle-doped bovine serum albumin (AuNPs-doped BSA) particles using water-filtered infrared A (IRA) radiation in the hair follicles of an ex vivo porcine skin model. The results demonstrate the feasibility

  2. Molecular evolution of HR, a gene that regulates the postnatal cycle of the hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2011-01-01

    Hair is a unique mammalian trait that is absent in all other animal forms. Hairlessness is rare in mammals and humans are exceptional among primates in lacking dense layer of hair covering. HR was the first gene identified to be implicated in hair-cycle regulation. Point mutations in HR lead to congenital human hair loss, which results in the complete loss of body and scalp hairs. HR functions are indispensable for initiation of postnatal hair follicular cycling. This study investigates the phylogenetic history and analyzes the protein evolutionary rate to provide useful insight into the molecular evolution of HR. The data demonstrates an acceleration of HR sequence evolution in human branch and suggests that the ability of HR protein to mediate postnatal hair-cycling has been altered in the course of human evolution. In particular those residues were pinpointed which should be regarded as target of positive Darwinian selection during human evolution.

  3. Topical formulations containing finasteride. Part II: determination of finasteride penetration into hair follicles using the differential stripping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampucci, Silvia; Burgalassi, Susi; Chetoni, Patrizia; Lenzi, Carla; Pirone, Andrea; Mailland, Federico; Caserini, Maurizio; Monti, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    The differential stripping technique consists of a tape-stripping phase followed by a cyanoacrylate biopsy. This technique not only allows the quantification of drug retained in the stratum corneum (SC) and in the hair follicles but also differentiates transepidermal from transfollicular penetration. Our study aimed at both validating the differential stripping procedure on hairless rat skin and assessing the role of the hair follicle in the cutaneous penetration of finasteride (FNS) after application of two experimental formulations for 6 or 24 h: P-08-016, a hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH)-based formulation and P-10-008, an anhydrous formulation devoid of HPCH. Microscopic and histological evaluation showed that after 15 tape strips both the SC and the viable epidermis were completely removed. A subsequent cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsy led to the removal of the infundibula content. The largest amounts of FNS were found in the epidermis and in the appendages after application of P-08-016, regardless of the time from application. In contrast, smaller and statistically significant amounts of FNS were recovered with P-10-008 6 h after application, compared with that at 24 h. In conclusion, the differential stripping technique allowed determination of the amount of FNS localized in different skin districts, focusing particularly on the follicular contribution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. A keratin 15 containing stem cell population from the hair follicle contributes to squamous papilloma development in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shulan; Park, Heuijoon; Trempus, Carol S; Gordon, Derek; Liu, Yaping; Cotsarelis, George; Morris, Rebecca J

    2013-10-01

    The multistage model of nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis has contributed significantly to our understanding of epithelial cancer in general. We used the Krt1-15CrePR1;R26R transgenic mouse to determine the contribution of keratin 15+ cells from the hair follicle to skin tumor development by following the labeled progeny of the keratin 15 expressing cells into papillomas. We present three novel observations. First, we found that keratin 15 expressing cells contribute to most of the papillomas by 20 weeks of promotion. Second, in contrast to the transient behavior of labeled keratin 15-derived progeny in skin wound healing, keratin 15 progeny persist in papillomas, and some malignancies for many months following transient induction of the reporter gene. Third, papillomas have surprising heterogeneity not only in their cellular composition, but also in their expression of the codon 61 signature Ha-ras mutation with approximately 30% of keratin 15-derived regions expressing the mutation. Together, these results demonstrate that keratin 15 expressing cells of the hair follicle contribute to cutaneous papillomas with long term persistence and a subset of which express the Ha-ras signature mutation characteristic of initiated cells. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Fetal Skin Reveals Key Genes Related to Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in Cashmere Goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Gao

    Full Text Available Cashmere goat skin contains two types of hair follicles (HF: primary hair follicles (PHF and secondary hair follicles (SHF. Although multiple genetic determinants associated with HF formation have been identified, the molecules that determine the independent morphogenesis of HF in cashmere goats remain elusive. The growth and development of SHF directly influence the quantity and quality of cashmere production. Here, we report the transcriptome profiling analysis of nine skin samples from cashmere goats using 60- and 120-day-old embryos (E60 and E120, respectively, as well as newborns (NB, through RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq. HF morphological changes indicated that PHF were initiated at E60, with maturation from E120, while differentiation of SHF was identified at E120 until formation of cashmere occurred after birth (NB. The RNA-sequencing analysis generated over 20.6 million clean reads from each mRNA library. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs in E60 vs. E120, E120 vs. NB, and E60 vs. NB were 1,024, 0 and 1,801, respectively, indicating that no significant differences were found at transcriptomic levels between E120 and NB. Key genes including B4GALT4, TNC, a-integrin, and FGFR1, were up-regulated and expressed in HF initiation from E60 to E120, while regulatory genes such as GPRC5D, PAD3, HOXC13, PRR9, VSIG8, LRRC15, LHX2, MSX-2, and FOXN1 were up-regulated and expressed in HF keratinisation and hair shaft differentiation from E120 and NB to E60. Several genes belonging to the KRT and KRTAP gene families were detected throughout the three HF developmental stages. The transcriptional trajectory analyses of all DEGs indicated that immune privilege, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, and growth factor receptors all played dominant roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal interface and HF formation. We found that the Wnt, transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein, and Notch family

  6. Keratin-6 driven ODC expression to hair follicle keratinocytes enhances stemness and tumorigenesis by negatively regulating Notch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Weng, Zhiping; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2014-08-29

    Highlights: • Targeting ODC to hair follicle augments skin carcinogenesis and invasive SCCs. • Hair follicle ODC expands stem cell compartment carrying CD34{sup +}/K15{sup +}/p63{sup +} keratinocytes. • Negatively regulated Notch1 is associated with expansion of stem cell compartment. - Abstract: Over-expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is known to be involved in the epidermal carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism by which it enhances skin carcinogenesis remains undefined. Recently, role of stem cells localized in various epidermal compartments has been shown in the pathogenesis of skin cancer. To direct ODC expression in distinct epidermal compartments, we have developed keratin 6 (K6)-ODC/SKH-1 and keratin 14 (K14)-ODC/SKH-1 mice and employed them to investigate the role of ODC directed to these epidermal compartments on UVB-induced carcinogenesis. K6-driven ODC over-expression directed to outer root sheath (ORS) of hair follicle was more effective in augmenting tumorigenesis as compared to mice where K14-driven ODC expression was directed to inter-follicular epidermal keratinocytes. Chronically UVB-irradiated K6-ODC/SKH-1 developed 15 ± 2.5 tumors/mouse whereas K14-ODC/SKH-1 developed only 6.8 ± 1.5 tumors/mouse. K6-ODC/SKH-1 showed augmented UVB-induced proliferation and much higher pro-inflammatory responses than K14-ODC/SKH-1 mice. Tumors induced in K6-ODC/SKH-1 were rapidly growing, invasive and ulcerative squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) showing decreased expression of epidermal polarity marker E-cadherin and enhanced mesenchymal marker, fibronectin. Interestingly, the number of CD34/CK15/p63 positive stem-like cells was significantly higher in chronically UVB-irradiated K6-ODC/SKH-1 as compared to K14-ODC/SKH-1 mice. Reduced Notch1 expression was correlated with the expansion of stem cell compartment in these animals. However, other signaling pathways such as DNA damage response or mTOR signaling pathways were not significantly different in

  7. Bottom-up Nanoencapsulation from Single Cells to Tunable and Scalable Cellular Spheroids for Hair Follicle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Miao, Yong; Huang, Yong; Lin, Bojie; Liu, Xiaomin; Xiao, Shune; Du, Lijuan; Hu, Zhiqi; Xing, Malcolm

    2017-12-11

    Cell surface engineering technology advances cell therapeutics and tissue engineering by accurate micro/nanoscale control in cell-biomaterial ensembles and cell spheroids formation. By tailoring cell surface, microgels can encapsulate cells for versatile uses. However, microgels are coated in a thick layer to house multiple cells together but not a single cell based. Besides, excessive deposition on cell surface is detrimental to cellular functions. Herein, layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly to encapsulate single cell using nanogel is reported, owing to its security and tunable thickness at nanoscale, and further forms cell spheroids by physical cross-linking on nanogel-coated cells for delivery. A hair follicle (HF) regeneration model where the dermal papilla cells (DPCs) are given a 3D installation to maintain its ability of HF induction during in vitro culture is studied. Dermal papilla (DP) spheroids are optimized and that LbL-DPCs aggregation is akin to primary DP is demonstrated. The markers ALP, Versican, and NCAM are examined to investigate that high-passaged (P8) DP spheroids can restore the hair induction potential, which are lost in 2D culture. New HFs are regenerated successfully by implantation of DP spheroids in vivo. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Identification of Differentially Expressed miRNAs between White and Black Hair Follicles by RNA-Sequencing in the Goat (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyang Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play a key role in many biological processes by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. A number of miRNAs have been identified from livestock species. However, compared with other animals, such as pigs and cows, the number of miRNAs identified in goats is quite low, particularly in hair follicles. In this study, to investigate the functional roles of miRNAs in goat hair follicles of goats with different coat colors, we sequenced miRNAs from two hair follicles samples (white and black using Solexa sequencing. A total of 35,604,016 reads were obtained, which included 30,878,637 clean reads (86.73%. MiRDeep2 software identified 214 miRNAs. Among them, 205 were conserved among species and nine were novel miRNAs. Furthermore, DESeq software identified six differentially expressed miRNAs. Quantitative PCR confirmed differential expression of two miRNAs, miR-10b and miR-211. KEGG pathways were analyzed using the DAVID website for the predicted target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs. Several signaling pathways including Notch and MAPK pathways may affect the process of coat color formation. Our study showed that the identified miRNAs might play an essential role in black and white follicle formation in goats.

  9. Identification of differentially expressed miRNAs between white and black hair follicles by RNA-sequencing in the goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenyang; Fu, Yuhua; Cao, Jianhua; Yu, Mei; Tang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Shuhong

    2014-05-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in many biological processes by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. A number of miRNAs have been identified from livestock species. However, compared with other animals, such as pigs and cows, the number of miRNAs identified in goats is quite low, particularly in hair follicles. In this study, to investigate the functional roles of miRNAs in goat hair follicles of goats with different coat colors, we sequenced miRNAs from two hair follicles samples (white and black) using Solexa sequencing. A total of 35,604,016 reads were obtained, which included 30,878,637 clean reads (86.73%). MiRDeep2 software identified 214 miRNAs. Among them, 205 were conserved among species and nine were novel miRNAs. Furthermore, DESeq software identified six differentially expressed miRNAs. Quantitative PCR confirmed differential expression of two miRNAs, miR-10b and miR-211. KEGG pathways were analyzed using the DAVID website for the predicted target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs. Several signaling pathways including Notch and MAPK pathways may affect the process of coat color formation. Our study showed that the identified miRNAs might play an essential role in black and white follicle formation in goats.

  10. Hair follicle growth by stromal vascular fraction-enhanced adipose transplantation in baldness

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    Perez-Meza D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available David Perez-Meza,1 Craig Ziering,2 Marcos Sforza,3 Ganesh Krishnan,4 Edward Ball,5 Eric Daniels6 1Ziering Medical, Marbella, Spain; 2Ziering Medical, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3The Hospital Group, Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, 4Ziering Medical, Birmingham, 5Ziering Medical, London, UK; 6Kerastem Technologies, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Great interest remains in finding new and emerging therapies for the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss. The autologous fat grafting technique is >100 years old, with a recent and dramatic increase in clinical experience over the past 10–15 years. Recently, in 2001, Zuk et al published the presence of adipose-derived stem cells, and abundant research has shown that adipose is a complex, biological active, and important tissue. Festa et al, in 2011, reported that adipocyte lineage cells support the stem cell niche and help drive the complex hair growth cycle. Adipose-derived regenerative cells (also known as stromal vascular fraction [SVF] is a heterogeneous group of noncultured cells that can be reliably extracted from adipose by using automated systems, and these cells work largely by paracrine mechanisms to support adipocyte viability. While, today, autologous fat is transplanted primarily for esthetic and reconstructive volume, surgeons have previously reported positive skin and hair changes posttransplantation. This follicular regenerative approach is intriguing and raises the possibility that one can drive or restore the hair cycle in male and female pattern baldness by stimulating the niche with autologous fat enriched with SVF. In this first of a kind patient series, the authors report on the safety, tolerability, and quantitative, as well as photographic changes, in a group of patients with early genetic alopecia treated with subcutaneous scalp injection of enriched adipose tissue. The findings suggest that scalp stem cell-enriched fat grafting may represent a promising alternative approach to

  11. The development and integrity of equine pre-antral follicles cultured in vitro with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M C; Silva, C B; González, S M; Lindquist, A G; Búfalo, I; Gomes, R G; Morotti, F; Costa, C B; Barreiros, Trr; Lisboa, L A; Seneda, M M

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of different concentrations of FSH (10, 50, 100 and 200 ng/ml) in supplemented MEM+ on the development of equine pre-antral follicles that were cultured in vitro for 2 or 6 days. The ovaries (n = 5) from mares in seasonal anoestrus were collected from a local abattoir. Ten ovarian tissue fragments of approximately 3 × 3 × 1 mm were obtained from each animal. The fragments were cultured in situ for 2 days (D2) or 6 days (D6) in MEM+ or MEM+ supplemented with FSH at four different concentrations, establishing the following 11 groups: control (D0); MEM + (D2); MEM + (D6); MEM + 10 ng/ml of FSH (D2); MEM + 10 ng/ml of FSH (D6); MEM + 50 ng/ml of FSH (D2); MEM + 50 ng/ml of FSH (D6); MEM + 100 ng/ml of FSH (D2); MEM + 100 ng/ml of FSH (D6); MEM + 200 ng/ml of FSH (D2); and MEM + 200 ng/ml of FSH (D6). Follicles were observed in only 9.65% (388 of 4,018) of the histological sections. Of the 861 follicles evaluated, 488 were in the primordial stage, and 373 were in various developmental stages; 59.7% were morphologically normal. Regarding the integrity of the pre-antral follicles, the groups with 100 ng/ml FSH of 2-days culture as well as 50, 100 and 200 ng/ml FSH of 6-days culture provided the best results. In conclusion, the in vitro culture of abattoir-derived equine ovarian fragments presented better morphological integrity when supplemented with FSH for 6 days, in comparison with the MEM culture group. However, no clear effects were observed with FSH regarding the promotion of activation from a primordial to a developing follicle. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Dynamics of Lgr6⁺ Progenitor Cells in the Hair Follicle, Sebaceous Gland, and Interfollicular Epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllgrabe, Anja; Joost, Simon; Are, Alexandra; Jacob, Tina; Sivan, Unnikrishnan; Haegebarth, Andrea; Linnarsson, Sten; Simons, Benjamin D; Clevers, Hans; Toftgård, Rune; Kasper, Maria

    2015-11-10

    The dynamics and interactions between stem cell pools in the hair follicle (HF), sebaceous gland (SG), and interfollicular epidermis (IFE) of murine skin are still poorly understood. In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to mark Lgr6⁺ -expressing basal cells in the HF isthmus, SG, and IFE.We show that these Lgr6⁺ cells constitute long-term self-renewing populations within each compartment in adult skin. Quantitative analysis of clonal dynamics revealed that the Lgr6⁺ progenitor cells compete neutrally in the IFE, isthmus, and SG, indicating population asymmetry as the underlying mode of tissue renewal. Transcriptional profiling of Lgr6⁺ and Lgr6⁺ cells did not reveal a distinct Lgr6⁺ -associated gene expression signature, raising the question of whether Lgr6⁺ expression requires extrinsic niche signals. Our results elucidate the interrelation and behavior of Lgr6⁺ populations in the IFE, HF, and SG and suggest population asymmetry as a common mechanism for homeostasis in several epithelial skin compartments.

  13. A Conditioned Medium of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Overexpressing Wnt7a Promotes Wound Repair and Regeneration of Hair Follicles in Mice

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    Liang Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can affect the microenvironment of a wound and thereby accelerate wound healing. Wnt proteins act as key mediators of skin development and participate in the formation of skin appendages such as hair. The mechanisms of action of MSCs and Wnt proteins on skin wounds are largely unknown. Here, we prepared a Wnt7a-containing conditioned medium (Wnt-CM from the supernatant of cultured human umbilical cord-MSCs (UC-MSCs overexpressing Wnt7a in order to examine the effects of this CM on cutaneous healing. Our results revealed that Wnt-CM can accelerate wound closure and induce regeneration of hair follicles. Meanwhile, Wnt-CM enhanced expression of extracellular matrix (ECM components and cell migration of fibroblasts but inhibited the migratory ability and expression of K6 and K16 in keratinocytes by enhancing expression of c-Myc. However, we found that the CM of fibroblasts treated with Wnt-CM (HFWnt-CM-CM can also promote wound repair and keratinocyte migration; but there was no increase in the number of hair follicles of regeneration. These data indicate that Wnt7a and UC-MSCs have synergistic effects: they can accelerate wound repair and induce hair regeneration via cellular communication in the wound microenvironment. Thus, this study opens up new avenues of research on the mechanisms underlying wound repair.

  14. Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract protects human foreskin melanocytes from oxidative stress in vitro and potentiates hair follicle pigmentation ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sextius, P; Betts, R; Benkhalifa, I; Commo, S; Eilstein, J; Massironi, M; Wang, P; Michelet, J-F; Qiu, J; Tan, X; Jeulin, S

    2017-08-01

    To examine the ability of an extract from traditional Chinese medicine, Polygonum multiflorum Radix, to protect melanocyte viability from oxidative stress, a key mechanism in the initiation and progression of hair greying. To assess the antioxidant capacity of Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract, primary human foreskin melanocytes were treated with a commercially available Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract added to culture medium and exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), using intracellular reactive oxygen species concentrations and glutathione/protein ratios as endpoints. To improve solubility for cosmetic uses, a new Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract was derived. As hair greying is the consequence of melanocyte disappearance in an oxidative stress environment, we checked whether the antioxidant capacity of the new Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract could preserve melanocyte viability in response to H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress, and preserve pigmentation within ex vivo human hair follicles. In vitro treatment of primary human foreskin melanocytes with traditional available Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract resulted in decreased intracellular ROS accumulation in response to H 2 O 2 exposure with a concomitant preservation of glutathione-to-protein ratio, consistent with a protective response against H 2 O 2 exposure and demonstrating the promise of this extract for protecting melanocytes against oxidative stress. Melanocytes treated with the improved Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract exhibited attenuated H 2 O 2 -induced cell death, demonstrating a clear cytoprotective effect. Treatment of ex vivo human hair follicles with the improved Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract resulted in a higher level of melanin compared to vehicle-treated controls, demonstrating an ex vivo protective effect on hair pigmentation. Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract protects in vitro primary human foreskin melanocytes from the deleterious effects of H 2 O 2

  15. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in keloid tissues and TGF-β1-induced hair follicle outer root sheath keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Cao, Rui; Wang, Lianzhao; Liu, Yuanbo; Pan, Bo; Yin, Yanhua; Lv, Xiaoyan; Zhuang, Qiang; Sun, Xuejian; Xiao, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Keloid is a skin fibrotic disease with the characteristics of recurrence and invasion, its pathogenesis still remains unrevealed. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for wound healing, fibrosis, recurrence, and invasion of cancer. We sought to investigate the EMT in keloid and the mechanism through which the EMT regulates keloid formation. In keloid tissues, the expressions of EMT-associated markers and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad3 signaling were examined by immunohistochemistry. In the keloid epidermis and dermal tissue, the expressions of genes related to the regulation of skin homeostasis, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) and p63, were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that accompanying the loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and the gain of the mesenchymal markers fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) and vimentin in epithelial cells from epidermis and skin appendages, and in endothelial cells from dermal microvessels, enhanced TGF-β1 expression and Smad3 phosphorylation were noted in keloid tissues. Moreover, alternative splicing of the FGFR2 gene switched the predominantly expressed isoform from FGFR2-IIIb to -IIIc, concomitant with the decreased expression of ΔNp63 and TAp63, which changes might partially account for abnormal epidermis and appendages in keloids. In addition, we found that TGF-β1-induced hair follicle outer root sheath keratinocytes (ORSKs) and normal skin epithelial cells underwent EMT in vitro with ORSKs exhibiting more obvious EMT changes and more similar expression profiles for EMT-associated and skin homeostasis-related genes as in keloid tissues, suggesting that ORSKs might play crucial roles in the EMT in keloids. Our study provided insights into the molecular mechanisms mediating the EMT pathogenesis of keloids. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  16. Characterization of a human epidermis model reconstructed from hair follicle keratinocytes and comparison with two commercially models and native skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, B; Hernandez-Pigeon, H; Ceruti, I; Mas, S; Palvadeau, Y; Saint-Martory, C; Castex-Rizzi, N; Duplan, H; Bessou-Touya, S

    2014-10-01

    Outer root sheath (ORS) cells of human hair follicles are a readily available, non-invasive source of keratinocytes for epidermis reconstruction. The aim of this study was to characterize a model of epidermis reconstructed from ORS cells (ORS-derived model) and to evaluate its reproducibility, in comparison with native human skin and two marketed reconstructed skin models (model A, Episkin(®) and model B, Skinethic(®) ). Cell morphology and tissue architecture of the three models were analysed histologically and proliferation and differentiation marker expression by immunohistochemistry and mRNA quantification. All models displayed the same general epidermal architecture as native epidermis, but with a thicker stratum corneum in models A and B. Compared with native epidermis, Ki67 was correctly localized in epidermal basal cells in all models, as K10 in suprabasal layers. In all skin models, transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) was prematurely expressed in suprabasal layers. However, this expression was only observed from the upper stratum spinosum in the ORS-derived model. In this model, filaggrin and loricrin were correctly located in the stratum granulosum. Filaggrin, involucrin, loricrin and TGM1 mRNAs (markers of keratinocyte terminal differentiation) were transcriptionally expressed in all models. In the ORS-derived model, transcriptional expression level was similar to that of native skin. ORS cell-based reconstructed epidermis is a valid and reproducible model for human epidermis and it may be used to evaluate the effects of active substances and cosmetic formulations. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Comparison of Early- and Late-Passage Human Dermal Papilla Cell Secretome in Relation to Inducing Hair Follicle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Zhu, Ning-Xia; Huang, Keng; Cai, Bo-Zhi; Zeng, Yang; Xu, Yan-Ming; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Yan-Ping; Lin, Chang-Min

    2016-01-01

    Alopecia is an exceedingly prevalent problem that lacks effective therapy. Recently, research has focused on early-passage dermal papilla cells (DPCs), which have hair inducing activity both in vivo and in vitro. Our previous study indicated that factors secreted from early-passage DPCs contribute to hair follicle (HF) regeneration. To identify which factors are responsible for HF regeneration and why late-passage DPCs lose this potential, we collected 48-h-culture medium (CM) from both of passage 3 and 9 DPCs, and subcutaneously injected the DPC-CM into NU/NU mice. Passage 3 DPC-CM induced HF regeneration, based on the emergence of a white hair coat, but passage 9 DPC-CM did not. In order to identify the key factors responsible for hair induction, CM from passage 3 and 9 DPCs was analyzed by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic technology. We identified 1360 proteins, of which 213 proteins were differentially expressed between CM from early-passage vs. late-passage DPCs, including SDF1, MMP3, biglycan and LTBP1. Further analysis indicated that the differentially-expressed proteins regulated the Wnt, TGF-β and BMP signaling pathways, which directly and indirectly participate in HF morphogenesis and regeneration. Subsequently, we selected 19 proteins for further verification by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) between the two types of CM. These results indicate DPC-secreted proteins play important roles in HF regeneration, with SDF1, MMP3, biglycan, and LTBP1 being potential key inductive factors secreted by dermal papilla cells in the regeneration of hair follicles.

  18. Induction of hair follicle dermal papilla cell properties in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived multipotent LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) mesenchymal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraitch, Ophelia; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Sasaki, Takashi; Okuno, Hironobu; Tsukashima, Aki; Amagai, Masayuki; Okano, Hideyuki; Ohyama, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) is a specialised mesenchymal component of the hair follicle (HF) that plays key roles in HF morphogenesis and regeneration. Current technical difficulties in preparing trichogenic human DP cells could be overcome by the use of highly proliferative and plastic human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this study, hiPSCs were differentiated into induced mesenchymal cells (iMCs) with a bone marrow stromal cell phenotype. A highly proliferative and plastic LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) subset of iMCs was subsequently programmed using retinoic acid and DP cell activating culture medium to acquire DP properties. The resultant cells (induced DP-substituting cells [iDPSCs]) exhibited up-regulated DP markers, interacted with human keratinocytes to up-regulate HF related genes, and when co-grafted with human keratinocytes in vivo gave rise to fibre structures with a hair cuticle-like coat resembling the hair shaft, as confirmed by scanning electron microscope analysis. Furthermore, iDPSCs responded to the clinically used hair growth reagent, minoxidil sulfate, to up-regulate DP genes, further supporting that they were capable of, at least in part, reproducing DP properties. Thus, LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) iMCs may provide material for HF bioengineering and drug screening for hair diseases. PMID:28220862

  19. Human hair follicle transcriptome profiling: a minimally invasive tool to assess molecular adaptations upon low-volume, high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wallace, Sarah J; Shiu, Maria Y; Smith, Ingrid; Rhind, Shawn G; Langlois, Valerie S

    2017-12-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has become a popular fitness training approach under both civilian and military settings. Consisting of brief and intense exercise intervals, HIIT requires less time commitment yet is able to produce the consistent targeted physical adaptations as conventional endurance training. To effectively characterize and monitor HIIT-induced cellular and molecular responses, a highly accessible yet comprehensive biomarker discovery source is desirable. Both gene differential expression (DE) and gene set (GS) analyses were conducted using hair follicle transcriptome established from pre and postexercise subjects upon a 10-day HIIT program by RNA-Seq, Comparing between pre and posttraining groups, differentially expressed protein coding genes were identified. To interpret the functional significance of the DE results, a comprehensive GS analysis approach featuring multiple algorithms was used to enrich gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways. The GS analysis revealed enriched themes such as energy metabolism, cell proliferation/growth/survival, muscle adaptations, and cytokine-cytokine interaction, all of which have been previously proposed as HIIT responses. Moreover, related cell signaling pathways were also measured. Specifically, G-protein-mediated signal transduction, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) - protein kinase B (PKB) and Janus kinase (JAK) - Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) signaling cascades were over-represented. Additionally, the RNA-Seq analysis also identified several HIIT-responsive microRNAs (miRNAs) that were involved in regulating hair follicle-specific processes, such as miR-99a For the first time, this study demonstrated that both existing and new biomarkers like miRNA can be explored for HIIT using the transcriptomic responses exhibited by the hair follicle. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and

  20. 3-Deoxysappanchalcone Promotes Proliferation of Human Hair Follicle Dermal Papilla Cells and Hair Growth in C57BL/6 Mice by Modulating WNT/β-Catenin and STAT Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Choi, Hyung Chul; Lee, In-Chul; Yuk, Dong Yeon; Lee, Hyosung; Choi, Bu Young

    2016-01-01

    3-Deoxysappanchalcone (3-DSC) has been reported to possess anti-allergic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 3-DSC on the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HDPCs) and mouse hair growth in vivo. A real-time cell analyzer system, luciferase assay, Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed to measure the biochemical changes occurring in HDPCs in response to 3-DSC treatment. The effect of 3-DSC on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice was also examined. 3-DSC promoted the proliferation of HDPCs, similar to Tofacitinib, an inhibitor of janus-activated kinase (JAK). 3-DSC promoted phosphorylation of β-catenin and transcriptional activation of the T-cell factor. In addition, 3-DSC potentiated interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced phosphorylation and subsequent transactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), thereby increasing the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (Cdk4), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). On the contrary, 3-DSC attenuated STAT6 mRNA expression and IL4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation in HDPCs. Finally, we observed that topical application of 3-DSC promoted the anagen phase of hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. 3-DSC stimulates hair growth possibly by inducing proliferation of follicular dermal papilla cells via modulation of WNT/β-catenin and STAT signaling. PMID:27795451

  1. Gradient-dependent release of the model drug TRITC-dextran from FITC-labeled BSA hydrogel nanocarriers in the hair follicles of porcine ear skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngo Bich Nga Nathalie; Knorr, Fanny; Mak, Wing Cheung; Cheung, Kwan Yee; Richter, Heike; Meinke, Martina; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa

    2017-07-01

    Hair follicle research is currently focused on the development of drug-loaded nanocarriers for the targeting of follicular structures in the treatment of skin and hair follicle-related disorders. In the present study, a dual-label nanocarrier system was implemented in which FITC-labeled BSA hydrogel nanocarriers loaded with the model drug and dye TRITC-dextran were applied topically to porcine ear skin. Follicular penetration and the distribution of both dyes corresponding to the nanocarriers and the model drug in the follicular ducts subsequent to administration to the skin were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The release of TRITC-dextran from the particles was induced by washing of the nanocarriers, which were kept in a buffer containing TRITC-labeled dextran to balance out the diffusion of the dextran during storage, thereby changing the concentration gradient. The results showed a slightly but statistically significantly deeper follicular penetration of fluorescent signals corresponding to TRITC-dextran as opposed to fluorescence corresponding to the FITC-labeled particles. The different localizations of the dyes in the cross-sections of the skin samples evidenced the release of the model drug from the labeled nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterisation of cell cycle arrest and terminal differentiation in a maximally proliferative human epithelial tissue: Lessons from the human hair follicle matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Talveen S; Brunken, Lars; Peake, Michael; Shahmalak, Asim; Chaves, Asuncion; Poblet, Enrique; Ceballos, Laura; Gandarillas, Alberto; Paus, Ralf

    2017-09-01

    Human hair follicle (HF) growth and hair shaft formation require terminal differentiation-associated cell cycle arrest of highly proliferative matrix keratinocytes. However, the regulation of this complex event remains unknown. CIP/KIP family member proteins (p21(CIP1), p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2)) regulate cell cycle progression/arrest, endoreplication, differentiation and apoptosis. Since they have not yet been adequately characterized in the human HF, we asked whether and where CIP/KIP proteins localise in the human hair matrix and pre-cortex in relation to cell cycle activity and HF-specific epithelial cell differentiation that is marked by keratin 85 (K85) protein expression. K85 expression coincided with loss or reduction in cell cycle activity markers, including in situ DNA synthesis (EdU incorporation), Ki-67, phospho-histone H3 and cyclins A and B1, affirming a post-mitotic state of pre-cortical HF keratinocytes. Expression of CIP/KIP proteins was found abundantly within the proliferative hair matrix, concomitant with a role in cell cycle checkpoint control. p21(CIP1), p27(KIP1) and cyclin E persisted within post-mitotic keratinocytes of the pre-cortex, whereas p57(KIP2) protein decreased but became nuclear. These data imply a supportive role for CIP/KIP proteins in maintaining proliferative arrest, differentiation and anti-apoptotic pathways, promoting continuous hair bulb growth and hair shaft formation in anagen VI. Moreover, post-mitotic hair matrix regions contained cells with enlarged nuclei, and DNA in situ hybridisation showed cells that were >2N in the pre-cortex. This suggests that CIP/KIP proteins might counterbalance cyclin E to control further rounds of DNA replication in a cell population that has a propensity to become tetraploid. These data shed new light on the in situ-biography of human hair matrix keratinocytes on their path of active cell cycling, arrest and terminal differentiation, and showcase the human HF as an excellent, clinically

  3. Differential effects of caffeine on hair shaft elongation, matrix and outer root sheath keratinocyte proliferation, and transforming growth factor-β2/insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated regulation of the hair cycle in male and female human hair follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T W; Herczeg-Lisztes, E; Funk, W; Zillikens, D; Bíró, T; Paus, R

    2014-11-01

    Caffeine reportedly counteracts the suppression of hair shaft production by testosterone in organ-cultured male human hair follicles (HFs). We aimed to investigate the impact of caffeine (i) on additional key hair growth parameters, (ii) on major hair growth regulatory factors and (iii) on male vs. female HFs in the presence of testosterone. Microdissected male and female human scalp HFs were treated in serum-free organ culture for 120 h with testosterone alone (0·5 μg mL(-1)) or in combination with caffeine (0·005-0·0005%). The following effects on hair shaft elongation were evaluated by quantitative (immuno)histomorphometry: HF cycling (anagen-catagen transition); hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation; expression of a key catagen inducer, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2; and expression of the anagen-prolonging insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Caffeine effects were further investigated in human outer root sheath keratinocytes (ORSKs). Caffeine enhanced hair shaft elongation, prolonged anagen duration and stimulated hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation. Female HFs showed higher sensitivity to caffeine than male HFs. Caffeine counteracted testosterone-enhanced TGF-β2 protein expression in male HFs. In female HFs, testosterone failed to induce TGF-β2 expression, while caffeine reduced it. In male and female HFs, caffeine enhanced IGF-1 protein expression. In ORSKs, caffeine stimulated cell proliferation, inhibited apoptosis/necrosis, and upregulated IGF-1 gene expression and protein secretion, while TGF-β2 protein secretion was downregulated. This study reveals new growth-promoting effects of caffeine on human hair follicles in subjects of both sexes at different levels (molecular, cellular and organ). © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Surface Tension Guided Hanging-Drop: Producing Controllable 3D Spheroid of High-Passaged Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Forming Inductive Microtissues for Hair-Follicle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bojie; Miao, Yong; Wang, Jin; Fan, Zhexiang; Du, Lijuan; Su, Yongsheng; Liu, Bingcheng; Hu, Zhiqi; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-03-09

    Human dermal papilla (DP) cells have been studied extensively when grown in the conventional monolayer. However, because of great deviation from the real in vivo three-dimensional (3D) environment, these two-dimensional (2D) grown cells tend to lose the hair-inducible capability during passaging. Hence, these 2D caused concerns have motivated the development of novel 3D culture techniques to produce cellular microtissues with suitable mimics. The hanging-drop approach is based on surface tension-based technique and the interaction between surface tension and gravity field that makes a convergence of liquid drops. This study used this technique in a converged drop to form cellular spheroids of dermal papilla cells. It leads to a controllable 3Dspheroid model for scalable fabrication of inductive DP microtissues. The optimal conditions for culturing high-passaged (P8) DP spheroids were determined first. Then, the morphological, histological and functional studies were performed. In addition, expressions of hair-inductive markers including alkaline phosphatase, α-smooth muscle actin and neural cell adhesion molecule were also analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunostaining and immunoblotting. Finally, P8-DP microtissues were coimplanted with newborn mouse epidermal cells (EPCs) into nude mice. Our results indicated that the formation of 3D microtissues not only endowed P8-DP microtissues many similarities to primary DP, but also confer these microtissues an enhanced ability to induce hair-follicle (HF) neogenesis in vivo. This model provides a potential to elucidate the native biology of human DP, and also shows the promising for the controllable and scalable production of inductive DP cells applied in future follicle regeneration.

  5. Transcriptional Analysis of Hair Follicle-Derived Keratinocytes from Donors with Atopic Dermatitis Reveals Enhanced Induction of IL32 Gene by IFN-γ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshie Yoshikawa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We cultured human hair follicle-derived keratinocytes (FDKs from plucked hairs. To gain insight into gene expression signatures that can distinguish atopic dermatitis from non-atopic controls without skin biopsies, we undertook a comparative study of gene expression in FDKs from adult donors with atopic dermatitis and non-atopic donors. FDK primary cultures (atopic dermatitis, n = 11; non-atopic controls, n = 7 before and after interferon gamma (IFN-γ treatment were used for microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR. Comparison of FDKs from atopic and non-atopic donors indicated that the former showed activated pathways with innate immunity and decreased pathways of cell growth, as indicated by increased NLRP2 expression and decreased DKK1 expression, respectively. Treatment with IFN-γ induced the enhanced expression of IL32, IL1B, IL8, and CXCL1 in the cells from atopic donors compared to that in cells from non-atopic donors at 24 h after treatment. IL1B expression in FDKs after IFN-γ treatment correlated with IL32 expression. We hypothesized that overexpression of IL32 in hair follicle keratinocytes of patients with atopic dermatitis would lead to the excessive production of pro-IL1β and that the activation of IL1β from pro-IL1β by inflammasome complex, in which NLRP2 protein might be involved, would be augmented. This is the first report to show enhanced induction of cytokine/chemokine genes by IFN-γ in atopic dermatitis using cultured FDKs.

  6. Use of body hair and beard hair in hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sanusi

    2013-08-01

    For many hair restoration patients with limited scalp donor hair it is possible to use nonhead hair sources to increase the potential follicle supply. Follicular unit extraction provides the hair restoration surgeon with a useful surgical means for accessing this valuable source of donor reserve. Nonhead hair can also be used to restore eyebrows, eyelashes, and moustaches. This article focuses on the use of body hair and beard in hair restoration. Discussed are the indications and effective techniques for performing hair transplants using non head hair donor sources, along with the pitfalls and risks of this surgical modality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. In vivo Quantification of the Effects of Radiation and Presence of Hair Follicle Pores on the Proliferation of Fibroblasts in an Acellular Human Dermis in a Dorsal Skinfold Chamber: Relevance for Tissue Reconstruction following Neoadjuvant Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vitacolonna

    Full Text Available In neoadjuvant therapy, irradiation has a deleterious effect on neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the post-implantation effects of neoadjuvant irradiation on the survival and proliferation of autologous cells seeded onto an acellular human dermis (hAD; Epiflex. Additionally, we examined the influence of dermal hair follicle pores on viability and proliferation. We used dorsal skinfold chambers implanted in rats and in-situ microscopy to quantify cell numbers over 9 days.24 rats received a skinfold chamber and were divided into 2 main groups; irradiated and unirradiated. In the irradiated groups 20Gy were applied epicutaneously at the dorsum. Epiflex pieces were cut to size 5x5mm such that each piece had either one or more visible hair follicle pores, or no such visible pores. Fibroblasts were transduced lentiviral with a fluorescent protein for cell tracking. Matrices were seeded statically with 2.5x104 fluorescent fibroblasts and implanted into the chambers. In each of the two main groups, half of the rats received Epiflex with hair follicle pores and half received Epiflex without pores. Scaffolds were examined in-situ at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after transplantation. Visible cells on the surface were quantified using ImageJ.In all groups cell numbers were decreased on day 3. A treatment-dependent increase in cell numbers was observed at subsequent time points. Irradiation had an adverse effect on cell survival and proliferation. The number of cells detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated subjects was increased in those subjects that received transplants with hair follicle pores.This in-vivo study confirms that radiation negatively affects the survival and proliferation of fibroblasts seeded onto a human dermis transplant. The presence of hair follicle pores in the dermis transplants is shown to have a positive effect on cell survival and proliferation even in irradiated subjects.

  8. In vivo Quantification of the Effects of Radiation and Presence of Hair Follicle Pores on the Proliferation of Fibroblasts in an Acellular Human Dermis in a Dorsal Skinfold Chamber: Relevance for Tissue Reconstruction following Neoadjuvant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitacolonna, Mario; Belharazem, Djeda; Maier, Patrick; Hohenberger, Peter; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2015-01-01

    In neoadjuvant therapy, irradiation has a deleterious effect on neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the post-implantation effects of neoadjuvant irradiation on the survival and proliferation of autologous cells seeded onto an acellular human dermis (hAD; Epiflex). Additionally, we examined the influence of dermal hair follicle pores on viability and proliferation. We used dorsal skinfold chambers implanted in rats and in-situ microscopy to quantify cell numbers over 9 days. 24 rats received a skinfold chamber and were divided into 2 main groups; irradiated and unirradiated. In the irradiated groups 20Gy were applied epicutaneously at the dorsum. Epiflex pieces were cut to size 5x5mm such that each piece had either one or more visible hair follicle pores, or no such visible pores. Fibroblasts were transduced lentiviral with a fluorescent protein for cell tracking. Matrices were seeded statically with 2.5x104 fluorescent fibroblasts and implanted into the chambers. In each of the two main groups, half of the rats received Epiflex with hair follicle pores and half received Epiflex without pores. Scaffolds were examined in-situ at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after transplantation. Visible cells on the surface were quantified using ImageJ. In all groups cell numbers were decreased on day 3. A treatment-dependent increase in cell numbers was observed at subsequent time points. Irradiation had an adverse effect on cell survival and proliferation. The number of cells detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated subjects was increased in those subjects that received transplants with hair follicle pores. This in-vivo study confirms that radiation negatively affects the survival and proliferation of fibroblasts seeded onto a human dermis transplant. The presence of hair follicle pores in the dermis transplants is shown to have a positive effect on cell survival and proliferation even in irradiated subjects.

  9. Adult interfollicular tumour-initiating cells are reprogrammed into an embryonic hair follicle progenitor-like fate during basal cell carcinoma initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Khalil Kass; Lapouge, Gaëlle; Bouvrée, Karine; Rorive, Sandrine; Brohée, Sylvain; Appelstein, Ornella; Larsimont, Jean-Christophe; Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Van de Sande, Bram; Pucci, Doriana; Dekoninck, Sophie; Berthe, Jean-Valery; Aerts, Stein; Salmon, Isabelle; del Marmol, Véronique; Blanpain, Cédric

    2012-12-01

    Basal cell carcinoma, the most frequent human skin cancer, arises from activating hedgehog (HH) pathway mutations; however, little is known about the temporal changes that occur in tumour-initiating cells from the first oncogenic hit to the development of invasive cancer. Using an inducible mouse model enabling the expression of a constitutively active Smoothened mutant (SmoM2) in the adult epidermis, we carried out transcriptional profiling of SmoM2-expressing cells at different times during cancer initiation. We found that tumour-initiating cells are massively reprogrammed into a fate resembling that of embryonic hair follicle progenitors (EHFPs). Wnt/ β-catenin signalling was very rapidly activated following SmoM2 expression in adult epidermis and coincided with the expression of EHFP markers. Deletion of β-catenin in adult SmoM2-expressing cells prevents EHFP reprogramming and tumour initiation. Finally, human basal cell carcinomas also express genes of the Wnt signalling and EHFP signatures.

  10. Immunohistochemical dissection of cystic panfolliculoma focusing on the expression of multiple hair follicle lineage markers with an insight into the pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Masahiro; Sato, Yohei; Yamazaki, Yoshimi; Ohyama, Manabu

    2017-10-01

    Panfolliculoma (PF) is a rare benign tumor with signs of differentiation toward all components of the hair follicle (HF). Cystic panfolliculoma (CPF) is a subset of PF with histological similarity to trichofolliculoma making the differential diagnosis difficult in some cases. Immunohistopathological investigations of PF have been reported; however, previous studies focused mostly on the expression profile of the outer root sheath markers. Herein, we report a case of CPF. A panel of antibodies was developed and used for the detection of the expression of cytokeratin (CK) 10, CK13, CK14, CK15, hair-hard keratin (AE13) and EpCAM within the lesion, supporting the differentiation of all epithelial lineages of the HF and the diagnosis of CPF. Immunohistopathological examinations clearly showed the spatial distribution pattern of each subset of tumor cells with distinct HF differentiation marker expression. Intriguingly, fibroblastic dermal cells were distributed preferentially near CK15-negative epithelium or CK13-positive HF-like structures, suggesting a role for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) in CPF pathogenesis. Further characterization of EMIs between the tumor and surrounding mesenchymal cells in CPF may provide an explanation for immature HF differentiation. These findings suggest that the more intense and coordinated EMI in the analogous tumorigenesis gives rise to mature HF structures, resulting in trichofolliculoma, which may explain their histological resemblance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of age and sex on fiber and follicle characteristics of an Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    B Mobini. Department of Anatomical Sciences,. School of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord branch, .... hair follicles was 6, but in most compound hair follicles, cluster of 4 were most common (Plate III). ... reported arrangements of the compound hair follicles in sheep that each follicle cluster contained.

  12. Disruption of FGF5 in Cashmere Goats Using CRISPR/Cas9 Results in More Secondary Hair Follicles and Longer Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haijing; Niu, Yiyuan; Ma, Baohua; Yu, Honghao; Lei, Anmin; Yan, Hailong; Shen, Qiaoyan; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Xiaoe; Hua, Jinlian; Huang, Xingxu; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    Precision genetic engineering accelerates the genetic improvement of livestock for agriculture and biomedicine. We have recently reported our success in producing gene-modified goats using the CRISPR/Cas9 system through microinjection of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs targeting the MSTN and FGF5 genes in goat embryos. By investigating the influence of gene modification on the phenotypes of Cas9-mediated goats, we herein demonstrate that the utility of this approach involving the disruption of FGF5 results in increased number of second hair follicles and enhanced fiber length in Cas9-mediated goats, suggesting more cashmere will be produced. The effects of genome modifications were characterized using H&E and immunohistochemistry staining, quantitative PCR, and western blotting techniques. These results indicated that the gene modifications induced by the disruption of FGF5 had occurred at the morphological and genetic levels. We further show that the knockout alleles were likely capable of germline transmission, which is essential for goat population expansion. These results provide sufficient evidences of the merit of using the CRISPR/Cas9 approach for the generation of gene-modified goats displaying the corresponding mutant phenotypes. PMID:27755602

  13. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Minjuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM. The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration.

  14. Profiling mRNA of the graying human hair follicle constitutes a promising state-of-the-art tool to assess its aging: an exemplary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Eva M J; Liezmann, Christiane; Spatz, Katharina; Ungethüm, Ute; Kuban, Ralf-Jürgen; Daniltchenko, Maria; Kruse, Johannes; Imfeld, Dominik; Klapp, Burghard F; Campiche, Remo

    2013-05-01

    Determining hitherto uninvestigated and safe targets to halt the aging process is important in our aging society. Graying is a hallmark of the aging process and may be used to identify aging tissue for comparative analysis. Here we analyzed differential gene expressions between pigmented, gray, and white human scalp skin hair follicles (HFs) from identical donors. Forming intersections between five donors identified 194/192 downregulated and 186/177 upregulated genes in gray/white HFs. These included melanogenesis (tyrosinase; tyrosinase-related protein 1)- and melanosome structure (Melan-A; Pmel17)-associated genes and regulation of melanocyte relevant tyrosine kinases. Alongside these expected changes, regulated genes included nonmelanocyte-related genes associated with aging as well as nonaging-related genes associated with melanocytes. Intriguingly, among them, genes associated with energy metabolism (i.e., glutaminase) and axon guidance (plexin C1) were altered. These results were reflected by pathway analysis and exemplarily confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemical studies. Supplementing cultured HFs with glutamine or plexin C1 revealed biological relevance and pharmacointerventional potential of these microarray results in altering the HF aging process. Together, we present intriguing data obtained from intra-individual sample comparison that suggest the graying HF to be a valid aging model and a promising target for testing therapeutic interventions.

  15. Homing of allogeneic nestin-positive hair follicle-associated pluripotent stem cells after maternal transplantation in experimental model of cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Ameneh; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Akbari, Mohammad; Mortezaee, Keywan; Ghasemi, Soudabeh; Beyer, Cordian; Zendedel, Adib

    2015-12-01

    An embryo has the capability to accept allo- or xeno-geneic cells, which probably makes it an ideal candidate for stem cell transplantation of various cerebral cortex abnormalities, such as cortical dysplasia. The aim of this study was to determine hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells homing into various organs of mother and fetus. Cells were obtained, analyzed for immunophenotypic features, and then labelled with CM-Dil; nestin(+)HAP stem cells or media phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were intravenously delivered on day 16 of gestation in BALB/c mice, which intraperitoneally received methylazoxymethanol (MAM) one day in advance, and homing was assessed at 24 h after cell injection. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry manifested positive expression of nestin in HAP stem cells. For both mother and fetus, brain, lungs, liver, and spleen were the host organs for cell implants. For the brain, the figure was considerably higher in fetus, 4.05 ± 0.5% (p ≤ 0.05 vs. mother). MAM-injected mice had a downward trend for SDF-1α and CXCR4 (p ≤ 0.05 vs. control), but HAP stem cells group showed an upward trend for CXCR4 (p ≤ 0.05 vs. MAM). We conclude the HAP stem cells show homing potential in experimental cortical dysplasia, which may permit these cells to be a target in future work on prenatal therapy of neural disorders.

  16. Aging changes in hair and nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the follicles make less melanin, and this causes gray hair. Graying often begins in the 30s. Scalp hair ... all. Graying is largely determined by your genes. Gray hair tends to occur earlier in white people and ...

  17. Integrating motion-detection cameras and hair snags for wolverine identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey J. Magoun; Clinton D. Long; Michael K. Schwartz; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Richard E. Lowell; Patrick Valkenburg

    2011-01-01

    We developed an integrated system for photographing a wolverine's (Gulo gulo) ventral pattern while concurrently collecting hair for microsatellite DNA genotyping. Our objectives were to 1) test the system on a wild population of wolverines using an array of camera and hair-snag (C&H) stations in forested habitat where wolverines were known to occur, 2)...

  18. Supporting cells eliminate dying sensory hair cells to maintain epithelial integrity in the avian inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jonathan E; Daudet, Nicolas; Warchol, Mark E; Gale, Jonathan E

    2010-09-15

    Epithelial homeostasis is essential for sensory transduction in the auditory and vestibular organs of the inner ear, but how it is maintained during trauma is poorly understood. To examine potential repair mechanisms, we expressed β-actin-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the chick inner ear and used live-cell imaging to study how sensory epithelia responded during aminoglycoside-induced hair cell trauma. We found that glial-like supporting cells used two independent mechanisms to rapidly eliminate dying hair cells. Supporting cells assembled an actin cable at the luminal surface that extended around the pericuticular junction and constricted to excise the stereocilia bundle and cuticular plate from the hair cell soma. Hair bundle excision could occur within 3 min of actin-cable formation. After bundle excision, typically with a delay of up to 2-3 h, supporting cells engulfed and phagocytosed the remaining bundle-less hair cell. Dual-channel recordings with β-actin-EGFP and vital dyes revealed phagocytosis was concurrent with loss of hair cell integrity. We conclude that supporting cells repaired the epithelial barrier before hair cell plasmalemmal integrity was lost and that supporting cell activity was closely linked to hair cell death. Treatment with the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 did not prevent bundle excision but prolonged phagocytic engulfment and resulted in hair cell corpses accumulating within the epithelium. Our data show that supporting cells not only maintain epithelial integrity during trauma but suggest they may also be an integral part of the hair cell death process itself.

  19. Delayed cutaneous wound healing and aberrant expression of hair follicle stem cell markers in mice selectively lacking Ctip2 in epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Liang

    Full Text Available COUP-TF interacting protein 2 [(Ctip2, also known as Bcl11b] is an important regulator of skin homeostasis, and is overexpressed in head and neck cancer. Ctip2(ep-/- mice, selectively ablated for Ctip2 in epidermal keratinocytes, exhibited impaired terminal differentiation and delayed epidermal permeability barrier (EPB establishment during development, similar to what was observed in Ctip2 null (Ctip2(-/- mice. Considering that as an important role of Ctip2, and the fact that molecular networks which underlie cancer progression partially overlap with those responsible for tissue remodeling, we sought to determine the role of Ctip2 during cutaneous wound healing.Full thickness excisional wound healing experiments were performed on Ctip2(L2/L2 and Ctip2(ep-/- animals per time point and used for harvesting samples for histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC and immunoblotting. Results demonstrated inherent defects in proliferation and migration of Ctip2 lacking keratinocytes during re-epithelialization. Mutant mice exhibited reduced epidermal proliferation, delayed keratinocyte activation, altered cell-cell adhesion and impaired ECM development. Post wounding, Ctip2(ep-/- mice wounds displayed lack of E-Cadherin suppression in the migratory tongue, insufficient expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA in the dermis, and robust induction of K8. Importantly, dysregulated expression of several hair follicle (HF stem cell markers such as K15, NFATc1, CD133, CD34 and Lrig1 was observed in mutant skin during wound repair.Results confirm a cell autonomous role of keratinocytic Ctip2 to modulate cell migration, proliferation and/or differentiation, and to maintain HF stem cells during cutaneous wounding. Furthermore, Ctip2 in a non-cell autonomous manner regulated granulation tissue formation and tissue contraction during wound closure.

  20. The human hair follicle: a reservoir of CD40+ B7-deficient Langerhans cells that repopulate epidermis after UVB exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilliam, A. C.; Kremer, I. B.; Yoshida, Y.; Stevens, S. R.; Tootell, E.; Teunissen, M. B.; Hammerberg, C.; Cooper, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of skin to maintain its protective structural and functional integrity depends on both resident and circulating cells. Until now, it was thought that dendritic antigen presenting cells of epidermis (Langerhans cells) were replaced by circulating bone marrow derived precursors. Here we

  1. TMHS is an Integral Component of the Mechanotransduction Machinery of Cochlear Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Grillet, Nicolas; Elledge, Heather M.; Wagner, Thomas F.J.; Zhao, Bo; Johnson, Kenneth R.; Kazmierczak, Piotr; Müller, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Hair cells are mechanosensors for the perception of sound, acceleration and fluid motion. Mechanotransduction channels in hair cells are gated by tip links, which connect the stereocilia of a hair cell in the direction of their mechanical sensitivity. The molecular constituents of the mechanotransduction channels of hair cells are not known. Here we show that mechanotransduction is impaired in mice lacking the tetraspan TMHS. TMHS binds to the tip-link component PCDH15 and regulates tip-link assembly, a process that is disrupted by deafness-causing Tmhs mutations. TMHS also regulates transducer channel conductance and is required for fast channel adaptation. TMHS therefore resembles other ion channel regulatory subunits such as the TARPs of AMPA receptors that facilitate channel transport and regulate the properties of pore-forming channel subunits. We conclude that TMHS is an integral component of the hair cells mechanotransduction machinery that functionally couples PCDH15 to the transduction channel. PMID:23217710

  2. Functional assessment of a novel COL4A5 splice region variant and immunostaining of plucked hair follicles as an alternative method of diagnosis in X-linked Alport syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Andrew F; Funk, Steven D; Alhamad, Tarek; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2017-06-01

    Many COL4A5 splice region variants have been described in patients with X-linked Alport syndrome, but few have been confirmed by functional analysis to actually cause defective splicing. We sought to demonstrate that a novel COL4A5 splice region variant in a family with Alport syndrome is pathogenic using functional studies. We also describe an alternative method of diagnosis. Targeted next-generation sequencing results of an individual with Alport syndrome were analyzed and the results confirmed by Sanger sequencing in family members. A splicing reporter minigene assay was used to examine the variant's effect on splicing in transfected cells. Plucked hair follicles from patients and controls were examined for collagen IV proteins using immunofluorescence microscopy. A novel splice region mutation in COL4A5, c.1780-6T>G, was identified and segregated with disease in this family. This variant caused frequent skipping of exon 25, resulting in a frameshift and truncation of collagen α5(IV) protein. We also developed and validated a new approach to characterize the expression of collagen α5(IV) protein in the basement membranes of plucked hair follicles. Using this approach we demonstrated reduced collagen α5(IV) protein in affected male and female individuals in this family, supporting frequent failure of normal splicing. Differing normal to abnormal transcript ratios in affected individuals carrying splice region variants may contribute to variable disease severity observed in Alport families. Examination of plucked hair follicles in suspected X-linked Alport syndrome patients may offer a less invasive alternative method of diagnosis and serve as a pathogenicity test for COL4A5 variants of uncertain significance.

  3. Various Wavelengths of Light-Emitting Diode Light Regulate the Proliferation of Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Hair Follicles via Wnt/β-Catenin and the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hong Jin; Jeong, Kwan Ho; Kim, Jung Eun; Kang, Hoon

    2017-12-01

    The human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) play an important role in regulation of hair cycling and growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different wavelengths of light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation on the proliferation of cultured hDPCs and on the growth of human hair follicles (HFs) in vitro. We examined the effect of LED irradiation on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in hDPCs. Anagen HFs were cultured with LED irradiation and elongation of each hair shaft was measured. The most potent wavelength in promoting the hDPC proliferation is 660 nm and 830 nm promoted hDPC proliferation to a lesser extent than 660 nm. Various wavelengths significantly increased β-catenin, Axin2, Wnt3a, Wnt5a and Wnt10b mRNA expression. LED irradiation significantly increased β-catenin and cyclin D expression, and the phosphorylation of MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). HFs irradiated with 415 nm and 660 nm grew longer than control. Our result suggests that LED has a potential to stimulate hDPC proliferation via the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and ERK pathway. To our best knowledge, this is the first report which investigated that the effect of various wavelengths of LED on hDPC proliferation and the underlying mechanisms.

  4. Hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New treatment procedures are evolving. Consumer-based treatments with portable home devices are rapidly evolving, and presently include low-level diode lasers and IPL devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Stress and Hair Loss: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of your body. Hair pulling can be a way of dealing with ... possibly including severe stress. With alopecia areata, the body's immune system attacks the hair follicles — causing hair loss. Stress and hair loss ...

  6. TMHS is an integral component of the mechanotransduction machinery of cochlear hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Grillet, Nicolas; Elledge, Heather M; Wagner, Thomas F J; Zhao, Bo; Johnson, Kenneth R; Kazmierczak, Piotr; Müller, Ulrich

    2012-12-07

    Hair cells are mechanosensors for the perception of sound, acceleration, and fluid motion. Mechanotransduction channels in hair cells are gated by tip links, which connect the stereocilia of a hair cell in the direction of their mechanical sensitivity. The molecular constituents of the mechanotransduction channels of hair cells are not known. Here, we show that mechanotransduction is impaired in mice lacking the tetraspan TMHS. TMHS binds to the tip-link component PCDH15 and regulates tip-link assembly, a process that is disrupted by deafness-causing Tmhs mutations. TMHS also regulates transducer channel conductance and is required for fast channel adaptation. TMHS therefore resembles other ion channel regulatory subunits such as the transmembrane alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) of AMPA receptors that facilitate channel transport and regulate the properties of pore-forming channel subunits. We conclude that TMHS is an integral component of the hair cell's mechanotransduction machinery that functionally couples PCDH15 to the transduction channel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A study of the expression of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK1-3) in sensory endings of muscle spindles and lanceolate endings of hair follicles in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Fiona; Bewick, Guy S; Banks, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Processes underlying mechanotransduction and its regulation are poorly understood. Inhibitors of Ca2+-activated K+ channels cause a dramatic increase in afferent output from stretched muscle spindles. We used immunocytochemistry to test for the presence and location of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK1-3) in primary endings of muscle spindles and lanceolate endings of hair follicles in the rat. Tissue sections were double immunolabelled with antibodies to one of the SK channel isoforms and to either synaptophysin (SYN, as a marker of synaptic like vesicles (SLV), present in many mechanosensitive endings) or S100 (a Ca2+-binding protein present in glial cells). SK channel immunoreactivity was also compared to immunolabelling for the Na+ ion channel ASIC2, previously reported in both spindle primary and lanceolate endings. SK1 was not detected in sensory terminals of either muscle spindles or lanceolate endings. SK2 was found in the terminals of both muscle spindles and lanceolate endings, where it colocalised with the SLV marker SYN (spindles and lanceolates) and the satellite glial cell (SGC) marker S100 (lanceolates). SK3 was not detected in muscle spindles; by contrast it was present in hair follicle endings, expressed predominantly in SGCs but perhaps also in the SGC: terminal interface, as judged by colocalisation statistical analysis of SYN and S100 immunoreactivity. The possibility that all three isoforms might be expressed in pre-terminal axons, especially at heminodes, cannot be ruled out. Differential distribution of SK channels is likely to be important in their function of responding to changes in intracellular [Ca2+] thereby modulating mechanosensory transduction by regulating the excitability of the sensory terminals. In particular, the presence of SK2 throughout the sensory terminals of both kinds of mechanoreceptor indicates an important role for an outward Ca2+-activated K+ current in the formation of the receptor potential in both

  8. T-cell "induced-self" MHC class I/peptide complexes may enable "de novo" tolerance induction to neo-antigens occurring outside of the thymus: Lessons from the hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelert, Thilo; Gilhar, Amos; Paus, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    The hair follicle (HF) epithelium can present self-antigens to cognate CD8+ T cells. These cells express periodically during the hair cycle arising or age-related immunogenic proteins including HF-specific neo-antigens. We propose that IFN-gamma derived from the respective antigen-specific T cells spotting the particular self-peptides may thereby significantly induce and alter self-antigen presentation ("induced-self"). This induction, at first, may silence T cells, including neo-epitope-specific T cells. As the thymus cannot significantly recapitulate neo-epitopes evolving in the periphery, we propose that peripheral tissue-specific induction of MHC molecules presenting exactly these neo-epitopes by self-MHC/peptide-reactive CD8+ T cells is a key element of self-tolerance. Subsequently, however, the local perpetuation and modification of the same crosstalk in the context of HF immune privilege collapse can invite HF immunopathology, as typically seen in alopecia areata. This concept may essentially complement thymus-based regulation models of self/non-self-discrimination beyond "missing-self" to the fine-tuned "induced-self" to ensure peripheral needs to maintain self-tolerance in the case of "danger" and any "alteration of self". © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The histone acetyltransferases CBP and Chameau integrate developmental and DNA replication programs in Drosophila ovarian follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kristopher H; Dixon, Michael; Calvi, Brian R

    2012-10-01

    DNA replication origin activity changes during development. Chromatin modifications are known to influence the genomic location of origins and the time during S phase that they initiate replication in different cells. However, how chromatin regulates origins in concert with cell differentiation remains poorly understood. Here, we use developmental gene amplification in Drosophila ovarian follicle cells as a model to investigate how chromatin modifiers regulate origins in a developmental context. We find that the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Chameau (Chm) binds to amplicon origins and is partially required for their function. Depletion of Chm had relatively mild effects on origins during gene amplification and genomic replication compared with previous knockdown of its ortholog HBO1 in human cells, which has severe effects on origin function. We show that another HAT, CBP (Nejire), also binds amplicon origins and is partially required for amplification. Knockdown of Chm and CBP together had a more severe effect on nucleosome acetylation and amplicon origin activity than knockdown of either HAT alone, suggesting that these HATs collaborate in origin regulation. In addition to their local function at the origin, we show that Chm and CBP also globally regulate the developmental transition of follicle cells into the amplification stages of oogenesis. Our results reveal a complexity of origin epigenetic regulation by multiple HATs during development and suggest that chromatin modifiers are a nexus that integrates differentiation and DNA replication programs.

  10. Stem cell plasticity enables hair regeneration following Lgr5+ cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeck, Joerg D; Biehs, Brian; Kurtova, Antonina V; Kljavin, Noelyn M; de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Alicke, Bruno; Koeppen, Hartmut; Modrusan, Zora; Piskol, Robert; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2017-06-01

    Under injury conditions, dedicated stem cell populations govern tissue regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce stem cell regeneration and enable plasticity are poorly understood. Here, we investigate stem cell recovery in the context of the hair follicle to understand how two molecularly distinct stem cell populations are integrated. Utilizing diphtheria-toxin-mediated cell ablation of Lgr5+ (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5) stem cells, we show that killing of Lgr5+ cells in mice abrogates hair regeneration but this is reversible. During recovery, CD34+ (CD34 antigen) stem cells activate inflammatory response programs and start dividing. Pharmacological attenuation of inflammation inhibits CD34+ cell proliferation. Subsequently, the Wnt pathway controls the recovery of Lgr5+ cells and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents Lgr5+ cell and hair germ recovery. Thus, our study uncovers a compensatory relationship between two stem cell populations and the underlying molecular mechanisms that enable hair follicle regeneration.

  11. Integrating variability in half-lives and dietary intakes to predict mercury concentration in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Isabelle; Villeret, Grégory; Paris, Alain; Verger, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a bioaccumulative environmental toxin that exerts its effect on fetal and infant neurodevelopment. Mercury concentration in hair is a good biomarker of MeHg accumulation in the body, with seafood being the main source of MeHg in humans. Therefore, modeling the link between food intake and mercury concentration in hair is a key step in assessing the risk of MeHg exposure. Using repeated measurements of diet and mercury concentration in hair, we studied 125 French pregnant women who consumed seafood (e.g., fish, mollusks and crustaceans) and compared their individual estimated dietary MeHg intakes with their hair mercury concentrations. We used a one-compartment toxicokinetic model for these comparisons. We integrated and estimated the between-person variability in MeHg half-life into the model. In a second model, we took into account an intra-individual MeHg intake variability to improve the performance of the toxicokinetic model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and formed a cosmetically acceptable forelock.

  13. Skin permeation of small-molecule drugs, macromolecules, and nanoparticles mediated by a fractional carbon dioxide laser: the role of hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Yang, Hung-Hsu; Li, Yi-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate skin permeation enhancement mediated by fractional laser for different permeants, including hydroquinone, imiquimod, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FD), and quantum dots. Skin received a single irradiation of a fractional CO(2) laser, using fluence of 2 or 4 mJ with densities of 100 ∼ 400 spots/cm(2). In vitro and in vivo skin penetration experiments were performed. Fluorescence and confocal microscopies for imaging delivery pathways were used. The laser enhanced flux of small-molecule drugs 2 ∼ 5-fold compared to intact skin. A laser fluence of 4 mJ with a 400-spot/cm(2) density promoted FD flux at 20 and 40 kDa from 0 (passive transport) to 0.72 and 0.43 nmol/cm(2)/h, respectively. Microscopic images demonstrated a significant increase in fluorescence accumulation and penetration depth of macromolecules and nanoparticles after laser exposure. Predominant routes for laser-assisted delivery may be intercellular and follicular transport. CO(2) laser irradiation produced 13-fold enhancement in follicular deposition of imiquimod. Laser-mediated follicular transport could deliver permeants to deeper strata. Skin barrier function as determined by transepidermal water loss completely recovered by 12 h after irradiation, much faster than conventional laser treatment (4 days). Fractional laser could selectively enhance permeant targeting to follicles such as imiquimod and FD but not hydroquinone, indicating the importance of selecting feasible drugs for laser-assisted follicle delivery.

  14. Effects of topical application of EGCG on testosterone-induced hair loss in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Young; Up No, Sun; Kim, Min Ho; Kim, Hei Sung; Kang, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the effect of topical epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on testosterone (T)-induced hair loss in mice. Marked hair loss was observed at the T-injected site, and topical EGCG significantly reduced the hair loss (P hair loss by apoptosis of the hair follicles rather than through the androgen metabolic pathway and also saw that T-induced apoptosis of hair follicles was reduced by topical EGCG. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Photodynamic therapy for hair removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted hair is one of the most common medical problems affecting women of reproductive age inducing a lot of psychological stress and threatening their femininity and self-esteem. Old methods of removing unwanted hair include shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis, all of which have temporary results. However laser-assisted hair removal is the most efficient method of long-term hair removal currently available. It is desirable to develop a reduced cost photodynamic therapy (PDT system whose properties should include high efficiency and low side-effects. Method: Mice skin tissues were used in this study and divided into six groups such as controls, free methylene blue (MB incubation, liposome methylene blue (MB incubation, laser without methylene blue (MB, free methylene blue (MB for 3 and 4 hrs and laser, liposome methylene blue (MB for 3 hrs and laser. Methylene blue (MBwas applied to wax epilated areas. The areas were irradiated with CW He-Ne laser system that emits orange-red light with wavelength 632.8 nm and 10 mW at energy density of 5 J/ cm2 for 10 minutes. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was collected by Cary spectrophotometer. Results: Methylene blue (MB is selectively absorbed by actively growing hair follicles due to its cationic property. Methylene blue (MBuntreated sections showed that hair follicle and sebaceous gland are intact and there is no change due to the laser exposure. Free methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed that He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles, leaving an intact epidermis. Treated section with free methylene blue (MB for 4 hrs showed degeneration and necrosis in hair follicle, leaving an intact epidermis. Liposomal methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles with intradermal leucocytic infiltration. Conclusions: Low power CW He:Ne laser and methylene blue (MB offered a successful PDT system

  17. A zinc finger protein gene ZFP5 integrates phytohormone signaling to control root hair development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lijun; Zhou, Zhongjing; Sun, Lili; Yan, An; Xi, Wanyan; Yu, Nan; Cai, Wenjuan; Chen, Xiaoya; Yu, Hao; Schiefelbein, John; Gan, Yinbo

    2012-11-01

    Although root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana has been extensively studied, it remains unknown whether the zinc finger proteins, the largest family of transcription factors in plants, are involved in this process. Here we report that the C2H2 zinc finger protein ZINC FINGER PROTEIN 5 (ZFP5) is a key regulator of root hair initiation and morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. ZFP5 is mainly expressed in root and preferentially in root hair cells. Using both zfp5 mutants and ZFP5 RNAi lines, we show that reduction in ZFP5 function leads to fewer and much shorter root hairs compared to wild-type. Genetic and molecular experiments demonstrate that ZFP5 exerts its effect on root hair development by directly promoting expression of the CAPRICE (CPC) gene. Furthermore, we show that ZFP5 expression is induced by cytokinin, and that ZFP5 mediates cytokinin and ethylene effects on the formation and growth of root hairs. These results suggest that ZFP5 integrates various plant hormone cues to control root epidermal cell development in Arabidopsis. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Determination of amphetamines in hair by integrating sample disruption, clean-up and solid phase derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argente-García, A; Moliner-Martínez, Y; Campíns-Falcó, P; Verdú-Andrés, J; Herráez-Hernández, R

    2016-05-20

    The utility of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the direct analysis of amphetamines in hair samples has been evaluated, using liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection and precolumn derivatization. The proposed approach is based on the employment of MSPD for matrix disruption and clean-up, followed by the derivatization of the analytes onto the dispersant-sample blend. The fluorogenic reagent 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) has been used for derivatization. Different conditions for MSPD, analyte purification and solid phase derivatization have been tested, using amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), ephedrine (EPE) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as model compounds. The results have been compared with those achieved by using ultrasound-assisted alkaline digestion and by MSPD combined with conventional solution derivatization. On the basis of the results obtained, a methodology is proposed for the analysis of amphetamines in hair which integrates sample disruption, clean-up and derivatization using a C18 phase. Improved sensitivity is achieved with respect to that obtained by the alkaline digestion or by the MSPD followed by solution derivatization methods. The method can be used for the quantification of the tested amphetamines within the 2.0-20.0ng/mg concentration interval, with limits of detection (LODs) of 0.25-0.75ng/mg. The methodology is very simple and rapid (the preparation of the sample takes less than 15min). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Premature graying of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhi, Deepika; Khanna, Deepshikha

    2013-01-01

    Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  20. Premature graying of hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Pandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  1. Laser hair removal pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal.

  2. Hair transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair transplant is a surgical procedure to improve baldness. Description During a hair transplant, hairs are moved ... a hair transplant have male or female pattern baldness . Hair loss is on the front or top ...

  3. To grow or not to grow: hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Human Hair and the Impact of Cosmetic Procedures: A Review on Cleansing and Shape-Modulating Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia F. Cruz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair can be strategically divided into two distinct parts: the hair follicle, deeply buried in the skin, and the visible hair fiber. The study of the hair follicle is mainly addressed by biological sciences while the hair fiber is mainly studied from a physicochemical perspective by cosmetic sciences. This paper reviews the key topics in hair follicle biology and hair fiber biochemistry, in particular the ones associated with the genetically determined cosmetic attributes: hair texture and shape. The traditional and widespread hair care procedures that transiently or permanently affect these hair fiber features are then described in detail. When hair is often exposed to some particularly aggressive cosmetic treatments, hair fibers become damaged. The future of hair cosmetics, which are continuously evolving based on ongoing research, will be the development of more efficient and safer procedures according to consumers’ needs and concerns.

  5. Hair structures are effectively altered during 810 nm diode laser hair epilation at low fluences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, Mario A; Urdiales, Fernándo; Al-Zarouni, Marwan

    2010-03-01

    Diode lasers with high fluence and cooling technology are effective at removing unwanted hair but are also associated with discomfort and morbidity, especially when treating dark or tanned skins. Thirty patients with skin phototypes IV and V (range: 23-62 years of age; average: 39 years) underwent a single hair removal treatment using a new diode laser (810 nm) technology that incorporates low fluence but very high average power. The treatment technique employed multiple, in-motion, repetitive laser passes on a 100 cm(2) area of the skin. A 5mm punch biopsy was carried out before and after a single treatment. Tissue samples were harvested and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. The physical integrity of hair follicles was altered with inflammatory infiltrate, hair shaft detachment from its sheath, and perifollicular oedema, related to incipient necrosis. Low fluence but high average power diode laser technology yields significant changes in hair structure and architecture in patients with dark skin types. The procedure caused low levels of discomfort and was well tolerated.

  6. Healthy hair: what is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth.

  7. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overall hair thinning and not bald patches. Full-body hair loss. Some conditions and medical treatments, such as ... in the loss of hair all over your body. The hair usually grows back. Patches of scaling that spread ...

  8. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  9. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Rosen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair.

  10. Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

    2011-12-01

    Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to

  11. Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Hair Loss Disease Alopecia Areata

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia areata is considered to be a cell-mediated autoimmune disease, in which autoreactive cytotoxic T cells recognize melanocyte-associated proteins such as tyrosinase. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of alopecia areata, focusing on immunobiology and hormonal aspects of hair follicles (HFs). The HF is a unique “miniorgan” with its own immune and hormonal microenvironment. The immunosuppressive milieu of the anagen hair bulb modulated by immunosuppressive factors is known as “hair follicle immune privilege.” The collapse of the hair follicle immune privilege leads to autoimmune reactions against hair follicle autoantigens. Alopecia areata is sometimes triggered by viral infections such as influenza that causes excess production of interferons (IFN). IFN-γ is one of the key factors that lead to the collapse of immune privilege. This paper reviews the interactions between the endocrine and immune systems and hair follicles in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata. PMID:24151515

  12. Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Hair Loss Disease Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Ito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata is considered to be a cell-mediated autoimmune disease, in which autoreactive cytotoxic T cells recognize melanocyte-associated proteins such as tyrosinase. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of alopecia areata, focusing on immunobiology and hormonal aspects of hair follicles (HFs. The HF is a unique “miniorgan” with its own immune and hormonal microenvironment. The immunosuppressive milieu of the anagen hair bulb modulated by immunosuppressive factors is known as “hair follicle immune privilege.” The collapse of the hair follicle immune privilege leads to autoimmune reactions against hair follicle autoantigens. Alopecia areata is sometimes triggered by viral infections such as influenza that causes excess production of interferons (IFN. IFN-γ is one of the key factors that lead to the collapse of immune privilege. This paper reviews the interactions between the endocrine and immune systems and hair follicles in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata.

  13. Hair root characteristics of the human scalp hair in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.R. Peereboom-Wynia

    1982-01-01

    textabstractMorphological data on hair follicles have been available for over a hundred years, but only in recent years has a substantial advance been made in our knowledge of types and distribution of hair, its structure, metabolism, biochemistry and clinical patterns, and hormonal influences on

  14. Hair: what is new in diagnosis and management? Female pattern hair loss update: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanaskova Mesinkovska, Natasha; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women. FPHL is characterized histologically with increased numbers of miniaturized, velluslike hair follicles. The goal of treatment of FPHL is to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate hair regrowth. The treatments for FPHL can be divided into androgen-dependent and androgen-independent. There is an important adjuvant role for nutritional supplements, light therapy, and hair transplants. All treatments work best when initiated early. Combinations of treatments tend to be more efficacious. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... spreads up in a V shape over time. Body hair is normal, and some people think it looks ...

  16. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the product. ...

  17. Prevention of hair graying by factors that promote the growth and differentiation of melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endou, Mariko; Aoki, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Tatsushi; Kunisada, Takahiro

    2014-08-01

    Epidermal melanocyte precursors migrate into developing hair follicles to form the melanocyte stem cell system required to supply pigmented melanocytes necessary for hair pigmentation in repetitive hair cycles. Hair graying is caused by irreversible defects in the self-renewal and/or development of follicular melanocyte stem cells in the hair follicles. To investigate the mechanism(s) of hair graying during the normal aging process, we established a hair graying model in mice by repeatedly plucking or shaving trunk hairs. We repeatedly plucked or shaved trunk hairs to induce and accelerate the hair graying and counted the gray hairs. By using this functional model of hair graying in mice, we assessed the effects of genes known to affect melanocyte development, such as Kitl, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and endotheline 3 (ET3). After increasing the total numbers of cumulative hair cycles by plucking or shaving, we observed a significant increase in the gray hair of C57BL/6 mice. Kitl expression in the skin was the most effective for preventing hair graying and a significant effect was also confirmed for HGF and ET3 expression. The repeated hair plucking or shaving led to hair graying without any genetic lesion. Kitl is a more effective factor for prevention of hair graying than HGF or ET3. Our simple model of hair graying may provide a basic tool for screening the molecules or reagents preventing the progression of hair graying. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Senile hair graying: H2O2-mediated oxidative stress affects human hair color by blunting methionine sulfoxide repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J M; Decker, H; Hartmann, H; Chavan, B; Rokos, H; Spencer, J D; Hasse, S; Thornton, M J; Shalbaf, M; Paus, R; Schallreuter, K U

    2009-07-01

    Senile graying of human hair has been the subject of intense research since ancient times. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in hair follicle melanocyte apoptosis and DNA damage. Here we show for the first time by FT-Raman spectroscopy in vivo that human gray/white scalp hair shafts accumulate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in millimolar concentrations. Moreover, we demonstrate almost absent catalase and methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B protein expression via immunofluorescence and Western blot in association with a functional loss of methionine sulfoxide (Met-S=O) repair in the entire gray hair follicle. Accordingly, Met-S=O formation of Met residues, including Met 374 in the active site of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis, limits enzyme functionality, as evidenced by FT-Raman spectroscopy, computer simulation, and enzyme kinetics, which leads to gradual loss of hair color. Notably, under in vitro conditions, Met oxidation can be prevented by L-methionine. In summary, our data feed the long-voiced, but insufficiently proven, concept of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage in the entire human hair follicle, inclusive of the hair shaft, as a key element in senile hair graying, which does not exclusively affect follicle melanocytes. This new insight could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process.

  19. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair treatments? Hair treatments include hair coloring, hair curling (permanents), hair bleaching, and hair straightening (relaxers) agents. ... dyes include hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, and alcohols. Hair curling or permanent wave chemicals include ammonium thioglycolate and ...

  20. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of nucleolar organizing regions and Ki-67 expression with recurrence rate of hair follicle tumor in dogs Associação das regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e da expressão do Ki-67 com a taxa de recorrência dos tumores de folículo piloso em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitotic index, nuclear diameter, number of nucleolar organizing regions, and Ki-67 expression, in hair follicle tumors of 82 dogs were evaluated. Tissue specimens were used to prepare sections for histological staining for number of nucleolar organizing region and immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67. Tumors were classified as trichoblastoma (n=32, benign trichoepithelioma (n=30, pilomatricoma (n=7, malignant trichoepithelioma (n=6, infundibular keratinizing acanthoma (n=5, and tricholemmoma (n=2. Head, dorsum, and limbs were the most affected sites. Malignant trichoepithelioma presented significantly higher mitotic index, number of nucleolar organizing regions and Ki-67 expression. Regarding benign neoplasms, trichoblastoma presented significantly higher mitotic index and number of nucleolar organizing regions. Ki-67 expression did not differ among hair follicle benign neoplasms. Recurrence was only observed in two cases, with one benign trichoepithelioma and one malignant trichoepithelioma. In the two cases, nodules have not been removed with clean surgical margin. It was concluded that in benign neoplasms of hair follicles, the number of nucleolar organizing regions and Ki-67 expression were significantly smaller than in malignant neoplasm. Clean surgical margins are suggested to be more responsible to tumor recurrences than the number of nucleolar organizing regions, expression of Ki-67, and the mitotic index.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o índice mitótico, o diâmetro nuclear, o número de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e a expressão do Ki-67 em 82 tumores de folículo piloso de cães, entre 2000 e 2006. Os tumores foram classificados como tricoblastoma (n=32, tricoepitelioma benigno (n=30, tricoepitelioma maligno (n=6, pilomatricoma (n=7, acantoma infundibular ceratinizante (n=5 e tricolemoma (n=2. A cabeça, o dorso e os membros foram os locais mais frequentemente acometidos. O tricoepitelioma maligno apresentou

  2. Tβ4-overexpression based on the piggyBac transposon system in cashmere goats alters hair fiber characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bingbo; Ding, Qiang; He, Xiaolin; Zhu, Haijing; Niu, Yiyuan; Cai, Bei; Cai, Jiao; Lei, Anming; Kang, Danju; Yan, Hailong; Ma, Baohua; Wang, Xiaolong; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yulin

    2017-02-01

    Increasing cashmere yield is one of the vital aims of cashmere goats breeding. Compared to traditional breeding methods, transgenic technology is more efficient and the piggyBac (PB) transposon system has been widely applied to generate transgenic animals. For the present study, donor fibroblasts were stably transfected via a PB donor vector containing the coding sequence of cashmere goat thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) and driven by a hair follicle-specific promoter, the keratin-associated protein 6.1 (KAP6.1) promoter. To obtain genetically modified cells as nuclear donors, we co-transfected donor vectors into fetal fibroblasts of cashmere goats. Five transgenic cashmere goats were generated following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Via determination of the copy numbers and integration sites, the Tβ4 gene was successfully inserted into the goat genome. Histological examination of skin tissue revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing, transgenic goats had a higher secondary to primary hair follicle (S/P) ratio compared to wild type goats. This indicates that Tβ4-overexpressing goats possess increased numbers of secondary hair follicles (SHF). Our results indicate that Tβ4-overexpression in cashmere goats could be a feasible strategy to increase cashmere yield.

  3. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with curly beards. It develops when shaved hairs curve back into the skin, leading to inflammation. Chronic ingrown hairs can lead to: Bacterial infection (from scratching) Skin darkening (hyperpigmentation) Permanent scarring (keloids) Pseudofolliculitis barbae, also known as razor bumps Prevention ...

  4. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair, like that on your cheek, is almost invisible. Depending on where it is, hair has different ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  5. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to treat acne, bipolar disorder, and ADHD. Diet pills that contain amphetamines also can cause hair loss. Alopecia areata (pronounced: al-uh-PEE-shuh air-ee-AH-tuh) . This skin disease causes hair ...

  6. Identification of hair shaft progenitors that create a niche for hair pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Ping; Booker, Reid C; Morrison, Sean J; Le, Lu Q

    2017-04-15

    Hair differentiates from follicle stem cells through progenitor cells in the matrix. In contrast to stem cells in the bulge, the identities of the progenitors and the mechanisms by which they regulate hair shaft components are poorly understood. Hair is also pigmented by melanocytes in the follicle. However, the niche that regulates follicular melanocytes is not well characterized. Here, we report the identification of hair shaft progenitors in the matrix that are differentiated from follicular epithelial cells expressing transcription factor KROX20. Depletion of Krox20 lineage cells results in arrest of hair growth, confirming the critical role of KROX20 + cells as antecedents of structural cells found in hair. Expression of stem cell factor (SCF) by these cells is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated melanocytes and for hair pigmentation. Our findings reveal the identities of hair matrix progenitors that regulate hair growth and pigmentation, partly by creating an SCF-dependent niche for follicular melanocytes. © 2017 Liao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schembri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm. The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future.

  8. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair if you have certain diseases, such as thyroid problems, diabetes, or lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends ...

  9. Root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grierson, C.; Nielsen, E.; Ketelaar, T.; Schiefelbein, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair

  10. Hair cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products.

  11. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  12. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in girls who need it. Deciding to remove body hair is a personal choice. Getting rid of body hair doesn't make a person healthier, and you ... you don't want to. Some cultures view body hair as beautiful and natural, so do what feels ...

  13. Ber-EP4 antigen is a marker for a cell population related to the secondary hair germ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Maki; Aiba, Setsuya; Kurosawa, Masahiro; Tagami, Hachiro

    2004-07-01

    Ber-EP4 is an antibody to a cell membrane glycoprotein of unknown function. In the skin, Ber-EP4 immunoreactivity has been reported to be localized in structures composed of basaloid epithelial cells, i.e. fetal epithelial germ cells, basal cell carcinoma, and trichoepithelioma as well as eccrine or apocrine ducts. In this study, we further characterized the follicular expression of Ber-EP4 immunoreactivity at different stages of the hair cycle of human terminal hair follicles. In addition, to clarify the location of Ber-EP4(+) cells, we compared the Ber-EP4 immunoreactivity with the expression of keratin 15 and keratin 19. Positive staining by Ber-EP4 was found in the lower part of the epithelial strand of late catagen hair follicles, in the secondary hair germ of telogen hair follicles, and in the matrix of early anagen hair follicles but not in any parts of mature anagen hair follicles. In contrast, the follicular expression of keratin 15 detected by using LHK15 antibody was restricted to two distinct parts of anagen hair follicles, i.e. the outer root sheath above the hair bulb and that of the isthmus including the bulge area, and to the outer root sheath of late catagen and telogen hair follicles. The follicular expressions of keratin 19 and that of keratin 15 were apparently superimposed, whereas keratin 15 expression was more extended. The immunoreactivity of LHK15 antibody and antikeratin 19 antibody against the secondary hair germ of telogen follicles was negative or dim. Our results suggest that Ber-EP4 reacts with the secondary hair germ and possibly a cell population related to the secondary hair germ but not with the presumptive stem cell population as revealed immunohistochemically either by the keratin 15 or keratin 19 expression.

  14. Hair removal with intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bedewi, Ahmed F

    2004-01-01

    The use of light and laser for hair removal has evolved during the past few years. Laser systems such as the ruby laser (694 nm), alexandrite laser (755 nm), diode laser (810 nm) and neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1,064 nm) are commonly used in hair removal. However, permanent hair removal has been difficult to achieve using lasers owing to the long growth/rest cycle of normal human hair follicles. There is still an increasing demand for safer and more efficient hair removal techniques. The latest and most effective choice in the treatment of hair removal is non-coherent intense pulsed light (IPL), which is both efficient and safe for hair removal. A group of 210 patients with skin type III-V were treated for superfluous hair in different areas of the body (face, extremities, axillae, bikini line and back) for three to five sessions at 6-week intervals using IPL. There was a significant hair reduction of about 80% with no side effects and minimal complications. Follow-up was done 6 months after the last session. In conclusion, IPL is very effective and safe for hair removal.

  15. Intelligent Image Analysis for Image-Guided Laser Hair Removal and Skin Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian; Lu, Thomas; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    We present the development of advanced automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms for the hair follicles identification in digital skin images to accurately direct the laser beam to remove the hair. The ATR system first performs a wavelet filtering to enhance the contrast of the hair features in the image. The system then extracts the unique features of the targets and sends the features to an Adaboost based classifier for training and recognition operations. The ATR system automatically classifies the hair, moles, or other skin lesion and provides the accurate coordinates of the intended hair follicle locations. The coordinates can be used to guide a scanning laser to focus energy only on the hair follicles. The intended benefit would be to protect the skin from unwanted laser exposure and to provide more effective skin therapy.

  16. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. PMID:26375213

  17. Hair casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta S Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions,which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  18. Hair morphology in androgenetic alopecia: sonographic and electron microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortsman, Ximena; Guerrero, Robinson; Wortsman, Jacobo

    2014-07-01

    To assess hair morphology in androgenetic alopecia on sonography and electron microscopy. A prospective study was performed in 33 patients with androgenetic alopecia and 10 unaffected control participants. In vivo sonography of the hair follicles of the scalp and in vitro sonography and electron microscopy of the hair shafts were performed according to a standardized protocol that included analysis of the right frontal and occipital regions. The upper frequency limit of the ultrasound probes ranged between 15 and 18 MHz. Scalp hair follicles and hair shafts were recognizable on sonography in all cases. Hair follicles in alopecia cases had significantly lower depths (P alopecia also had a different distribution of their laminar pattern on in vitro sonography, with a greater presence of mixed (trilaminar and bilaminar) and solely bilaminar tracts in comparison with the controls (mostly trilaminar). On electron microscopy, the alopecia hair tracts showed irregularities and commonly a "melted candle" appearance of the cuticle. Sonography and electron microscopy uncover distinct abnormalities in the morphology of hair in androgenetic alopecia, which may potentially support the diagnosis and management of this common condition. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Expression of the homeobox gene, Barx2, in wool follicle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, G; Bawden, C S; Hynd, P I; Nesci, A; Rogers, G; Powell, B C

    2000-10-01

    We have cloned ovine Barx2, a member of the Bar class of homeobox genes, and present the first description of Barx2 expression in wool follicle development. Barx2 is uniformly expressed in the embryonic ectoderm but is transiently downregulated during the initiation of follicle morphogenesis. Subsequently, Barx2 is expressed throughout the epithelial component of the developing follicle except for a small group of cells at the leading edge of the follicle placode. These Barx2-negative cells are destined to form the follicle bulb and are the progenitors of the inner root sheath and hair shaft. In adult follicles, Barx2 is expressed throughout the outer root sheath but not in the inner root sheath or hair shaft, or in dermal cells associated with the follicle. The pattern of Barx2 expression in follicle morphogenesis is similar to that of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin, a similarity that echoes Barx2 coexpression with the L1 cell adhesion molecule in other tissues during mouse embryogenesis. Barx2 is also expressed in tongue and esophagus, two other keratinizing tissues, and we speculate that Barx2 may have a general function in controlling adhesive processes in keratinizing epithelia.

  20. Histopathological insights into hair loss in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome: diffuse anagen-telogen conversion precedes clinical hair loss progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe-Okada, Emiko; Inazumi, Toyoko; Matsukawa, Hidehiko; Ohyama, Manabu

    2014-05-01

    Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare disorder characterised by gastrointestinal polyposis and ectodermal changes, represented by extensive alopecia. Detailed histopathological investigations of alopecic lesions in two female CCS patients with severe hair loss revealed a marked increase in telogen hair follicles with no sign of loss or of the minaturisation or atrophy of hair follicle structures and the absence of inflammatory change, despite severe inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggested that hair regrowth can be expected without systemic corticosteroids, if they are not necessary for treatment of the gastrointestinal tract, and that anagen-telogen transition is an early event preceding clinical hair loss in CCS. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  1. Hair Loss: Common Causes and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T Grant; Slomiany, W Paul; Allison, Robert

    2017-09-15

    Hair loss is often distressing and can have a significant effect on the patient's quality of life. Patients may present to their family physician first with diffuse or patchy hair loss. Scarring alopecia is best evaluated by a dermatologist. Nonscarring alopecias can be readily diagnosed and treated in the family physician's office. Androgenetic alopecia can be diagnosed clinically and treated with minoxidil. Alopecia areata is diagnosed by typical patches of hair loss and is self-limited. Tinea capitis causes patches of alopecia that may be erythematous and scaly and must be treated systemically. Telogen effluvium is a nonscarring, noninflammatory alopecia of relatively sudden onset caused by physiologic or emotional stress. Once the precipitating cause is removed, the hair typically will regrow. Trichotillomania is an impulse-control disorder; treatment is aimed at controlling the underlying psychiatric condition. Trichorrhexis nodosa occurs when hairs break secondary to trauma and is often a result of hair styling or overuse of hair products. Anagen effluvium is the abnormal diffuse loss of hair during the growth phase caused by an event that impairs the mitotic activity of the hair follicle, most commonly chemotherapy. Physician support is especially important for patients in this situation.

  2. Human hair genealogies and stem cell latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavaré Simon

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cells divide to reproduce themselves and produce differentiated progeny. A fundamental problem in human biology has been the inability to measure how often stem cells divide. Although it is impossible to observe every division directly, one method for counting divisions is to count replication errors; the greater the number of divisions, the greater the numbers of errors. Stem cells with more divisions should produce progeny with more replication errors. Methods To test this approach, epigenetic errors (methylation in CpG-rich molecular clocks were measured from human hairs. Hairs exhibit growth and replacement cycles and "new" hairs physically reappear even on "old" heads. Errors may accumulate in long-lived stem cells, or in their differentiated progeny that are eventually shed. Results Average hair errors increased until two years of age, and then were constant despite decades of replacement, consistent with new hairs arising from infrequently dividing bulge stem cells. Errors were significantly more frequent in longer hairs, consistent with long-lived but eventually shed mitotic follicle cells. Conclusion Constant average hair methylation regardless of age contrasts with the age-related methylation observed in human intestine, suggesting that error accumulation and therefore stem cell latency differs among tissues. Epigenetic molecular clocks imply similar mitotic ages for hairs on young and old human heads, consistent with a restart with each new hair, and with genealogies surreptitiously written within somatic cell genomes.

  3. Hair curvature: a natural dialectic and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissimov, Joseph N; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran

    2014-08-01

    Although hair forms (straight, curly, wavy, etc.) are present in apparently infinite variations, each fibre can be reduced to a finite sequence of tandem segments of just three types: straight, bent/curly, or twisted. Hair forms can thus be regarded as resulting from genetic pathways that induce, reverse or modulate these basic curvature modes. However, physical interconversions between twists and curls demonstrate that strict one-to-one correspondences between them and their genetic causes do not exist. Current hair-curvature theories do not distinguish between bending and twisting mechanisms. We here introduce a multiple papillary centres (MPC) model which is particularly suitable to explain twisting. The model combines previously known features of hair cross-sectional morphology with partially/completely separated dermal papillae within single follicles, and requires such papillae to induce differential growth rates of hair cortical material in their immediate neighbourhoods. The MPC model can further help to explain other, poorly understood, aspects of hair growth and morphology. Separate bending and twisting mechanisms would be preferentially affected at the major or minor ellipsoidal sides of fibres, respectively, and together they exhaust the possibilities for influencing hair-form phenotypes. As such they suggest dialectic for hair-curvature development. We define a natural-dialectic (ND) which could take advantage of speculative aspects of dialectic, but would verify its input data and results by experimental methods. We use this as a top-down approach to first define routes by which hair bending or twisting may be brought about and then review evidence in support of such routes. In particular we consider the wingless (Wnt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as paradigm pathways for molecular hair bending and twisting mechanisms, respectively. In addition to the Wnt canonical pathway, the Wnt/Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways

  4. Towards an integrated experimental-theoretical approach for assessing the mechanistic basis of hair and feather morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, K J; Hunt, G S; Wells, K L; Johansson, J A; Headon, D J

    2012-08-06

    In his seminal 1952 paper, 'The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis', Alan Turing lays down a milestone in the application of theoretical approaches to understand complex biological processes. His deceptively simple demonstration that a system of reacting and diffusing chemicals could, under certain conditions, generate spatial patterning out of homogeneity provided an elegant solution to the problem of how one of nature's most intricate events occurs: the emergence of structure and form in the developing embryo. The molecular revolution that has taken place during the six decades following this landmark publication has now placed this generation of theoreticians and biologists in an excellent position to rigorously test the theory and, encouragingly, a number of systems have emerged that appear to conform to some of Turing's fundamental ideas. In this paper, we describe the history and more recent integration between experiment and theory in one of the key models for understanding pattern formation: the emergence of feathers and hair in the skins of birds and mammals.

  5. Towards an integrated experimental–theoretical approach for assessing the mechanistic basis of hair and feather morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, K. J.; Hunt, G. S.; Wells, K. L.; Johansson, J. A.; Headon, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    In his seminal 1952 paper, ‘The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis’, Alan Turing lays down a milestone in the application of theoretical approaches to understand complex biological processes. His deceptively simple demonstration that a system of reacting and diffusing chemicals could, under certain conditions, generate spatial patterning out of homogeneity provided an elegant solution to the problem of how one of nature's most intricate events occurs: the emergence of structure and form in the developing embryo. The molecular revolution that has taken place during the six decades following this landmark publication has now placed this generation of theoreticians and biologists in an excellent position to rigorously test the theory and, encouragingly, a number of systems have emerged that appear to conform to some of Turing's fundamental ideas. In this paper, we describe the history and more recent integration between experiment and theory in one of the key models for understanding pattern formation: the emergence of feathers and hair in the skins of birds and mammals. PMID:23919127

  6. Blood Supply--Susceptible Formation of Melanin Pigment in Hair Bulb Melanocytes of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Maeda, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Melanin pigment formation in the hair bulb melanocytes appeared to be susceptible to the blood supply, and melanocytosis was promoted in the follicles and in the epidermis of Kitl-Tg C57BL/6 mice.

  7. Morphological analysis of patchy thickening and reddish discoloration of active hair growth areas in the skin of New Zealand White rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Tomoko; Yamashita, Haruhiro; Sakurai, Takanobu; Morita, Junya; Sakamoto, Kouji; Ishii, Aiko; Sasaki, Minoru

    2017-10-01

    Patchy thickening and reddish discoloration of active hair growth areas of skin in rabbits are occasionally found, and this gross feature could affect precise evaluation when conducting a dermal irritation test. Since little is known about the mechanism of this phenomenon, we examined the dorsal skin of New Zealand White rabbits morphologically and immunohistochemically in order to identify the possible mechanism responsible for developing these skin changes in relation to the hair cycle. Skin samples from 4 rabbits were divided into three groups (5 samples/group) based on their macroscopic characteristics: a thickened skin, erythematous skin, and smooth skin group. Histomorphological examination revealed that the percentage of hair follicles in the anagen phase, hair follicle length, hair follicle area, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells in the hair follicles were greater in the thickened skin and erythematous skin groups than in the smooth skin group. Unlike mice and rats, the dermis was nearly adjacent to the muscular layer with a thin hypodermis, and the whole lengths of hair follicles in the anagen phase were located in the dermis in the rabbit skin. These results suggest that large hair follicles in the anagen phase compressed the surrounding dermis; therefore, the skin was grossly raised and showed thickening. A higher number of CD31-positive blood vessels, suggesting the occurrence of angiogenesis, was observed around the hair follicles in the erythematous skin group, and they seemed to affect the reddish discoloration of skin noted grossly.

  8. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair...

  9. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair...

  10. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP. Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH, β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF. Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00% than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%. However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression.

  11. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfei; Han, Mingnuan; He, Yanran; Zhao, Ronghua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR) has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP). Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00%) than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%). However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression. PMID:26294926

  12. Emergent cellular self-organization and mechanosensation initiate follicle pattern in the avian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyer, Amy E; Rodrigues, Alan R; Schroeder, Grant G; Kassianidou, Elena; Kumar, Sanjay; Harland, Richard M

    2017-08-25

    The spacing of hair in mammals and feathers in birds is one of the most apparent morphological features of the skin. This pattern arises when uniform fields of progenitor cells diversify their molecular fate while adopting higher-order structure. Using the nascent skin of the developing chicken embryo as a model system, we find that morphological and molecular symmetries are simultaneously broken by an emergent process of cellular self-organization. The key initiators of heterogeneity are dermal progenitors, which spontaneously aggregate through contractility-driven cellular pulling. Concurrently, this dermal cell aggregation triggers the mechanosensitive activation of β-catenin in adjacent epidermal cells, initiating the follicle gene expression program. Taken together, this mechanism provides a means of integrating mechanical and molecular perspectives of organ formation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) pre-exposure ensures follicle integrity during in vitro culture of ovarian tissue but not during cryopreservation in the domestic cat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanpradit, Nae; Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Comizzoli, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    Temporary and reversible downregulation of metabolism may improve the survival of tissues exposed to non-physiological conditions during transport, in vitro culture, and cryopreservation. The objectives of the study were to (1) optimize the concentration and duration of carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP-a mitochondrial uncoupling agent) exposures for biopsies of domestic cat ovarian tissue and (2) examine the effects of FCCP pre-exposures on follicle integrity after tissue culture and/or cryopreservation. Biopsies of cat ovarian tissue were first treated with various concentrations of FCCP (0, 10, 40, or 200 nM) for 10 or 120 min to determine the most suitable pre-exposure conditions. Based on these results, tissues were pre-exposed to 200 nM FCCP for 120 min for the subsequent studies on culture and cryopreservation. In all experiments and for each treatment group, tissue activity and integrity were measured by mitochondrial membrane potential (relative optical density of rhodamine 123 fluorescence), follicular viability (calcein assay), follicular morphology (histology), granulosa cell proliferation (Ki-67 immunostaining), and follicular density. Ovarian tissues incubated with 200 nM FCCP for 120 min led to the lowest mitochondrial activity (1.17 ± 0.09; P  0.05). After 2 days of in vitro culture, percentage of viable follicles (78.8 ± 8.9 %) in similar pre-exposure conditions was higher (P  0.05). Interestingly, percentages of cellular proliferation and follicular density were unaltered by the FCCP exposures. Based on the indicators mentioned above, the FCCP-treated tissue fragments did not have a better follicle integrity after freezing and thawing. Pre-exposure to 200 nM FCCP during 120 min protects and enhances the follicle integrity in cat ovarian tissue during short-term in vitro culture. However, FCCP does not appear to exert a beneficial or detrimental effect during ovarian tissue cryopreservation.

  14. ESTROGEN RECEPTORS OF HAIRS BLACKS AND WHITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laswati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is termed as same as degenerative process, in which all part of tissue organs retarted the microstructure either macrostructure, forming and function even the colour, including black hair change to white hair. Several researchers have been recommended that estrogen hormone be able ease black to white hair, but hormone without any presenting of receptor won’t be work properly. The main aim of this study were to determine amount of estrogen receptor contents in famales and males black and white hairs included the microscopically structure. Method: Twelve females and males there were 50 -56 years old each pairs black and white head hairs were plucked along with follicles. This estrogen receptors analyzed using radioreceptor binding assay there were 5mm eah hair follices including the root cutted and each pair put its in 2 ml glass tube already filled in with 500 µl 125I-estradiol and incubated in 37oC for 3 hrs. Following times were over the tube flushed twice carefully the hair won’t be flushed. Then count by putting in the gamma counter chamber for 1 minute each. The values that shown in the monitor as CPM (count per minute, recorded as receptor of estradiol. Results: Mean (±SD sum estrogen receptor in females black and white hairs were 479.3 ± 37.5 and 387.7 ± 33.0, but significantly decreased in male black hair was 316.9±17.8 and 274.0 ± 19.8. All those pairs significantly different either female black and white hairs or male black and white hair and also significantly different among groups. Conclusion: The lowest estrogen receptors recorded in male white hairs and microstructure decreasing of melanin contents.

  15. Hair loss and herbs for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2013-09-01

    or androgenetic alopecia directly distresses self-confidence affecting the individual's quality of life. Hair loss is therefore a significant psychosocial manifestation that worth much expense on treatment. Androgenetic alopecia is noticed as a slow transformation of large scalp terminal hair follicles to shorter, thinner, and less deep vellus hair with a much shorter anagen. Although minoxidil, finasteride, and dutasteride including other synthetic therapeutic agents are mostly used for alopecia treatment, their adverse effects encourage sorting of alternative efficient treatment agent with a limited side effect particularly herbs. Thus, this review briefly summarized causes of hair loss and emphasized on active ingredients for treatment in particular currently used herbs and the potential candidates. Treatment choices will be further wider and conclusively select herbs that fitting the consumers' preference. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Fibroblast Growth Factors Stimulate Hair Growth through β-Catenin and Shh Expression in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-hong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors are involved in the regulation of hair morphogenesis and cycle hair growth. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth promoting activities of three approved growth factor drugs, fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF-10, acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1, and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2, and the mechanism of action. We observed that FGFs promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric analysis data indicates that topical application of FGFs induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, in contrast to the control group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of β-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh in hair follicles of the FGFs-treated group. These results suggest that FGFs promote hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might be a potential hair growth-promoting agent.

  17. Management of hair loss diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Ohyama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of hair loss diseases is sometimes difficult because of insufficient efficacy and limited options. However, recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology and development of new remedies have improved the treatment of refractory hair loss conditions. In this article, an update on the management of hair loss diseases is provided, especially focusing on recently reported therapeutic approaches for alopecia areata (AA. An accurate diagnosis is indispensable to optimize treatment. Dry dermoscopy represents new diagnostic techniques, which could enable the differentiation of barely indistinguishable alopecias, e.g. AA and trichotillomania. An organized scalp biopsy adopting both vertical and transverse sectioning approaches also provides a deep insight into the pathophysiology of ongoing alopecias. Among various treatments for AA, intraregional corticosteroid and contact immunotherapy have been recognized as first-line therapies. However, some AA cases are refractory to both treatments. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of pulse corticosteroid therapy or the combination of oral psoralen ultraviolet A therapy and systemic corticosteroids for severe AA. Previous clinical observations have suggested the potential role of antihistamines as supportive medications for AA. Experimental evaluation using AA model mice further supports their effectiveness in AA treatment. Finasteride opens up new possibilities for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. For androgenetic alopecia patients refractory to finasteride, the combination of finasteride with topical minoxidil or the administration of dutasteride, another 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, may provide better outcomes. Scarring alopecia is the most difficult form of hair loss disorder to treat. The bulge stem cell area is destroyed by unnecessary immune reactions with resultant permanent loss of hair follicle structures in scarring alopecia. Currently, treatment options for

  18. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Frontier in hair loss and trichoscopy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtisam Elghblawi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin surfaces have always been examined using dermoscopy, a familiar tool which is useful to magnify and examine skin especially in cases of pigmented skin lesions. However, to examine the hair and scalp, a practical tool called trichoscopy has surfaced recently and has proven to be handy and functional in diagnosing most hair-related diseases. It is also referred to as dermoscopy of the hair and the scalp. It can aid in assessing active diseases in the scalp and hair, such as yellow dots, dystrophic hairs, cadaverized black dots, white dots, and exclamation mark hairs – all of which denote specific criteria for hair diseases. Trichoscopy is a very newly developed non-invasive technique for hair image analysis. It permits non-invasive visualization of hair shafts at higher intensification (about ×70 and ×100 and enables measurement of hair shaft width without the need for removing hair for diagnostic reasons. Moreover, it helps in vivo visualization of the epidermal portion of hair follicles and perifollicular epidermis (orifices. Consequently, it is valuable as it permits the inspection of structures that are otherwise not seen by the naked eye. Trichoscopy is the new frontier for the diagnosis of hair and scalp disease. Nowadays, a trichoscope is considered a must for dermatologists and it is a hot topic in the treatment of hair diseases. There is pooled evidence that the utilization of trichoscopy in the clinical setting for evaluating hair disorders can improve its diagnostic capability beyond simple clinical scrutiny. Trichoscopy can identify both hair shaft and hair opening abnormalities without the need for hair sampling, as well as distinguish between different scalp and hair diseases. Furthermore, it can give easy and quick evaluation of the hair with a follow-up to determine progress and prognosis of the disease with photos. It can also aid in some genetic hair shaft dystrophies such as trichorrhexis nodosa, trichorrhexis

  20. Effect of age and sex on fiber and follicle characteristics of an Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mammalian hair fibers represent an interesting biological material which also is used in the textile industry. Histological structures of the fibers and follicles differ not only among different species but also among different areas and ages in an animal species. Skin samples were collected from neonatal (1-2 months), ...

  1. Global divergence of the human follicle mite Demodex folliculorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palopoli, Michael F.; Fergus, Daniel J.; Minot, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries and...

  2. Detection of basic drugs (methamphetamine, antidepressants, and nicotine) from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, I; Nagai, T; Toshida, S

    1983-04-01

    Human hair contains methamphetamine, amitriptyline, imipramine, nicotine, and their metabolites in some amount, which can be detected by routine toxicological methods. Sometimes, the level of drugs reaches over 100 micrograms/g. Animal experiments indicate that these drugs are found solely in sections of hair grown after administration of the drugs. The negative stage after the administration of drugs means that the hair section containing drugs has not come out of the hair follicle. Toxicological examination of the hairs may give some clue helping to identify the chronology of the intoxication.

  3. [Recent findings on follicle and oocyte maturation. 1. Development of follicles and maturation of follicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudik, R; Rudolf, K; Fliess, F R

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of the present knowledge of the development of follicles and oocytes, especially in the human. The first report deals with the course of development of follicles from the beginning in the fetal ovary to the mature Graafian follicle in the adult women. Questions of terminology, functional morphology and important aspects of the regulation of follicular growth are discussed. The last part of the paper summarizes the present day possibilities in monitoring growth and maturation of ovarian follicles in clinical practice.

  4. Age-related hair changes in men: mechanisms and management of alopecia and graying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of human scalp hair is often tied to perceptions of youth and virility, especially in men. Hair loss, or alopecia and hair graying are commonly associated with advancing age and are frequently a source for emotional distress and anxiety. Our understanding of the complex molecular signals and mechanisms that regulate and influence the hair follicle has expanded in recent years. By harnessing this understanding we are poised to address the esthetic concerns of aging hair. Additionally, changes in the hair follicle may be a reflection of systemic senescent signals, thus because of its accessibility, the hair follicle may serve as an important research tool in gerontology. In this review, the most current knowledge and research regarding mechanisms of androgenetic alopecia, senescent alopecia, and graying are discussed, as are extrinsic factors that may contribute to hair changes with age. Evidence based management strategies for treatment of age-related hair changes are also reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hair Dye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cosmetics, temporary tattoos, photographic development and lithography plates, photocopying and printing inks, black rubber, oils, greases and gasoline [2]. PPD is the most common constituent of hair dye formulations. It is often the key ingredient but can also be used for color enhancement. PPD is commonly used.

  6. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Shoulder Problems Skin Rashes & Other Skin Problems Throat Problems Tooth Problems Urination Problems Back to Symptoms Step 2 Answering Questions Is your hair falling out in small patches?YesNoAre these patches red, itchy or oily?YesNoAre you a man who has gradually lost ...

  7. Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boo Hyeong; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice (100 μL per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in hair follicle number, dermal thickness, and hair follicle depth were observed in skin tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the number of mast cells was measured in the dermal and hypodermal layers stained with toluidine blue. PC, E1, and E2 groups showed a significantly increased number of hair follicles, deepened hair follicle depth, and thickened dermal layer, along with a significantly decreased number of mast cells compared to the N group. These results indicated that LO has a marked hair growth-promoting effect, as observed morphologically and histologically. There was no significant difference in the weight of the thymus among the groups. However, both absolute and relative weights of the spleen were significantly higher in the PC group than in the N, VC, E1, or E2 group at week 4. Thus, LO could be practically applied as a hair growth-promoting agent.

  8. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Gao

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed Tβ4 in the epidermis, as well as Tβ4 global knockout mice, to study the role of Tβ4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of Tβ4 on hair growth. To study Tβ4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. To explore the effect of Tβ4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of Tβ4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased Tβ4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, Tβ4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts.

  9. [Repigmentation of gray hair after thyroid hormone treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, P; Guzmán, M; Marquina, M; Pretel, M; Aguado, L; Lloret, P; Gorrochategui, A

    2007-11-01

    Darkening of gray and white hairs occurred in 2 patients with increased exogenous triiodothyronine (T3) due to treatment of myxedema coma in one case and iatrogenic hyperthyroidism in the other. We hypothesized that thyroid hormone may affect the homeostasis of hair follicles. To test our hypothesis and investigate the influence of thyroid hormone on the hair cycle, we used an in vivo murine model and an in vitro model based on culture of follicular units. We used the standard C57BL/6 murine model of the hair cycle. T3 (0.5 microg) dissolved in ethanol was applied topically once daily for 10 days to a depilated area in the telogen phase on the backs of the mice. Follicular units, obtained from hair transplant interventions, were cultured in vitro with different concentrations of T3. On day 5, all T3-treated mice entered the anagen phase, whereas the anagen phase started spontaneously in control mice on day 9, and not until day 15 had all controls entered this phase. In the in vitro experiment, follicular units treated with 100 nmol/L T3 grew significantly larger compared to the control group. These data suggest that follicles in the telogen phase can be induced to enter the anagen phase by the topical application of T3. This thyroid hormone may reverse graying of the terminal hair. In the in vitro experiments, T3 stimulated hair shaft growth. Follicular melanocytes may be the target cell for these actions.

  10. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Conditioned Media for Hair Regeneration Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdasi, Sushilkumar; Tiwari, Shashi Kant

    Hair loss can have major psychological impact on affected population belonging to varied ethnic background. Hair is a mini organ in itself and serves many distinguishing functions ranging from maintaining body temperature to promoting social interactions. Major cause of hair loss is androgenic alopecia. Hair follicles possess receptor for androgen. However, DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) in excess results into shrinkage of hair follicle affecting hair growth adversely. The present review is focused on etiology of hair loss, traditional treatment approach and their limitations with side effects with special emphasis on unique properties of stem cells, favourable growth factors secreted by stem cells and strategies to enhance favourable growth factor/cytokine production for hair loss therapeutics. We discussed in details the present available treatment options for hair loss like drugs (Finasteride and Minoxidil), follicular hair transplant, laser therapy and serum therapy. These treatment options have their own disadvantages and side effects with appropriate alerts from regulatory authorities. The side effects of these modalities cannot be ignored and demands alternate therapy approach with less or no side effects. We feel that the stem cell therapy is advancing and is a promising modality in near future owing to its advantages and promising outcomes. This review article discusses possible stem cell therapy for hair regrowth and its advantages. We focused on use of conditioned media derived from stem cells instead of using stem cells directly for the therapy.

  11. Spaying-induced coat changes: the role of gonadotropins, GnRH and GnRH treatment on the hair cycle of female dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichler, Iris Margaret; Welle, Monika; Eckrich, Christine; Sattler, Ursula; Barth, Andrea; Hubler, Madeleine; Nett-Mettler, Claudia S; Jöchle, Wolfgang; Arnold, Susi

    2008-04-01

    Although spaying can result in qualitative hair coat changes in dogs, the influence of spaying on the hair growth cycle has never been described. The study aims were to examine the effect of spaying and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) treatment on canine hair coat, cycle stages of hair follicles, plasma gonadotropin concentrations and mRNA transcription of luteinizing hormone (LH) and GnRH receptors in hair follicles. Fifteen female dogs were examined before and 1 year after spaying and 24 spayed dogs before and after GnRH treatment. Spaying resulted in increased plasma gonadotropin concentrations and increased anagen : telogen ratio of hair follicles, but only 20% of the dogs developed coat changes. No differences were found in mRNA transcription of LH and GnRH receptors. GnRH treatment resulted in reduced plasma gonadotropin concentrations and improvement of coat changes in 79% of patients. This was associated with an increase in catagen hair follicles without changes in the anagen : telogen ratio. The present study demonstrated that spaying had an effect on the anagen : telogen ratio of hair follicles. Spaying-induced coat changes did not correlate with the anagen : telogen ratio. GnRH treatment reduced gonadotropin concentrations and reversed coat changes in some dogs, but had no effect on the hair growth cycle other than increasing the number of catagen hair follicles. A weak positive correlation between the plasma LH concentration and the anagen : telogen ratio was noted; however, our data did not suggest a direct receptor-mediated hormonal effect on the hair follicle. The present study did not identify the pathomechanism of spaying-induced coat changes.

  12. Hair growth promoting activity of discarded biocomposite keratin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Md Rashedunnabi; Kim, Hak-Yong; Park, Mira; Kim, In-Shik; Ahn, Dongchoon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Byung-Yong

    2017-08-01

    Keratin biomaterial has been used in regenerative medicine owing to its in-vivo and in-vitro biocompatibility. The present study was aimed to investigate the hair growth promoting activity of keratin extract and its mechanism of action. Keratin extract was topically applied on the synchronized depilated dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 mice and promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase. The histomorphometric observation indicated significantly increases the number, shaft of hair follicles and deep subcutis area in the keratin extract treated group in contrast to the control group, which was considered an indication of anagen phase induction. Subsequently, the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that fibroblast growth factor-10, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, β-catenin, and Shh were expressed earlier in the keratin extract-treated group than in the control group. Besides, keratin extract has been observed to be biocompatible when analyzed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining using immortalized human keratinocyte cells, showing more than 90% cell viability. Our study demonstrated that keratin extract stimulating hair follicle growth by inducing the growth phase; anagen in telogenic C57BL/6 mice and thus the topical application of keratin extract may represent a promising biomaterial for the management and applications of hair follicle disorder.

  13. The physiology of follicle selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleznik Anthony J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the follicular phase of the primate menstrual cycle, a single follicle usually matures to the preovulatory stage and releases its oocyte for fertilization and the potential establishment of pregnancy. In assisted reproductive technology procedures, it is desirable to override the natural process of follicle selection to produce many oocytes that are capable of being fertilized and undergoing normal embryo development. The goal of this chapter is to summarize the current views regarding the natural process of follicle selection in primates and to discuss how this process may be amplified to produce a greater number of oocytes.

  14. Characterization of hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes provides insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Zhengfei; Xu, Shixia; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang

    2013-02-09

    Hair is one of the main distinguishing characteristics of mammals and it has many important biological functions. Cetaceans originated from terrestrial mammals and they have evolved a series of adaptations to aquatic environments, which are of evolutionary significance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their aquatic adaptations have not been well explored. This study provided insights into the evolution of hair loss during the transition from land to water by investigating and comparing two essential regulators of hair follicle development and hair follicle cycling, i.e., the Hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes, in representative cetaceans and their terrestrial relatives. The full open reading frame sequences of the Hr and FGF5 genes were characterized in seven cetaceans. The sequence characteristics and evolutionary analyses suggested the functional loss of the Hr gene in cetaceans, which supports the loss of hair during their full adaptation to aquatic habitats. By contrast, positive selection for the FGF5 gene was found in cetaceans where a series of positively selected amino acid residues were identified. This is the first study to investigate the molecular basis of the hair loss in cetaceans. Our investigation of Hr and FGF5, two indispensable regulators of the hair cycle, provide some new insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans. The results suggest that positive selection for the FGF5 gene might have promoted the termination of hair growth and early entry into the catagen stage of hair follicle cycling. Consequently, the hair follicle cycle was disrupted and the hair was lost completely due to the loss of the Hr gene function in cetaceans. This suggests that cetaceans have evolved an effective and complex mechanism for hair loss.

  15. Premature graying as a consequence of compromised antioxidant activity in hair bulb melanocytes and their precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Luo, Long-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Qiong; Xu, Shi-Zheng; Lei, Tie-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Intricate coordinated mechanisms that govern the synchrony of hair growth and melanin synthesis remain largely unclear. These two events can be uncoupled in prematurely gray hair, probably due to oxidative insults that lead to the death of oxidative stress-sensitive melanocytes. In this study, we examined the gene expression profiles of middle (bulge) and lower (hair bulb) segments that had been micro-dissected from unpigmented and from normally pigmented hair follicles from the same donors using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) arrays. We found a significant down-regulation of melanogenesis-related genes (TYR, TYRP1, MITF, PAX3, POMC) in unpigmented hair bulbs and of marker genes typical for melanocyte precursor cells (PAX3, SOX10, DCT) in unpigmented mid-segments compared with their pigmented analogues. qPCR, western blotting and spin trapping assays revealed that catalase protein expression and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities are strongly repressed in unpigmented hair follicles. These data provide the first clear evidence that compromised antioxidant activity in gray hair follicles simultaneously affects mature hair bulb melanocytes and their immature precursor cells in the bulge region.

  16. Premature graying as a consequence of compromised antioxidant activity in hair bulb melanocytes and their precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shi

    Full Text Available Intricate coordinated mechanisms that govern the synchrony of hair growth and melanin synthesis remain largely unclear. These two events can be uncoupled in prematurely gray hair, probably due to oxidative insults that lead to the death of oxidative stress-sensitive melanocytes. In this study, we examined the gene expression profiles of middle (bulge and lower (hair bulb segments that had been micro-dissected from unpigmented and from normally pigmented hair follicles from the same donors using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR arrays. We found a significant down-regulation of melanogenesis-related genes (TYR, TYRP1, MITF, PAX3, POMC in unpigmented hair bulbs and of marker genes typical for melanocyte precursor cells (PAX3, SOX10, DCT in unpigmented mid-segments compared with their pigmented analogues. qPCR, western blotting and spin trapping assays revealed that catalase protein expression and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities are strongly repressed in unpigmented hair follicles. These data provide the first clear evidence that compromised antioxidant activity in gray hair follicles simultaneously affects mature hair bulb melanocytes and their immature precursor cells in the bulge region.

  17. Wnt/β-catenin signaling promotes aging-associated hair graying in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihui; Lei, Mingxing; Xin, Haoran; Hu, Chunyan; Yang, Tian; Xing, Yizhan; Li, Yuhong; Guo, Haiying; Lian, Xiaohua; Deng, Fang

    2017-09-19

    Canities is an obvious sign of aging in mouse and human, shown as hair graying. Melanocytes in the hair follicle show cyclic activity with hair cycling, which transitions from anagen, catagen to telogen. How the hairs turn gray during aging is not completely uncovered. Here, by using immunostaining and LacZ staining in Dct-LacZ mice, we show that β-catenin is expressed in melanocytes during hair cycling. RT-PCR, western blot and immunostaining show that β-catenin expression is significantly increased in both anagen and telogen skin of aged mice, when compared to the anagen and telogen skin of young mice, respectively. Overexpression of Wnt10b not only accelerates hair follicle to enter anagen phase, but also promotes melanocytes differentiation in young adult mice (2-month old), with increased β-catenin expression in melanocytes at the secondary hair germ and matrix region of regenerated hair follicles. Overexpression of Wnt10b also promotes melanocyte progenitor cells differentiation in vitro . Our data suggest that increased Wnt signaling promotes excessive differentiation of melanocytes, leading to exhaustion of melanocyte stem cells and eventually canities in aged mice.

  18. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

  19. [Inhibition effect of 6-gingerol on hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Ya-Bin; Wang, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Jiang, Jin-Dou; Li, Ze-Hua; Hu, Zhi-Qi

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effect of 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo. Firstly, Hair follicles were co-cultured with 3 different concentration of 6-gingerol for 5 days and hair elongation in three groups was measured. Secondly, The proliferative effect of 6-gingerol on DPCs was measured using MTT assay. Thirdly, the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in DPCs were measured using Western blotting. In vivo study, the influence of 6-gingerol on hair growth in C57BL/6 rats was measured through topical application of 6-gingerol on the dorsal skin of each animal. The length of hair shaft in 20 microg/ml 6-Gingerol group (0.50 +/- 0.08 mm) is less than 0 microg/ml (0.66 +/- 0.19) mm and 10 microg/ml (0.64 +/- 0.03) mm 6-Gingerol group (P Gingerol, 10 microg/ml 6-Gingerol can significantly inhibited the proliferation of DPCs (P gingerol, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased obviously. In vivo study, the hair length and density decreased a lot after using 1 mg/ml 6-gingerol. 6-Gingerol can suppress human hair shaft elongation because it has pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs via increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. It might inhibit hair growth by prolonging the telogen stage in vivo.

  20. The role of neprilysin in regulating the hair cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Morisaki

    Full Text Available In most mammals, each hair follicle undergoes a cyclic process of growing, regressing and resting phases (anagen, catagen, telogen, respectively called the hair cycle. Various biological factors have been reported to regulate or to synchronize with the hair cycle. Some factors involved in the extracellular matrix, which is a major component of skin tissue, are also thought to regulate the hair cycle. We have focused on an enzyme that degrades elastin, which is associated with skin elasticity. Since our previous study identified skin fibroblast elastase as neprilysin (NEP, we examined the fluctuation of NEP enzyme activity and its expression during the synchronized hair cycle of rats. NEP activity in the skin was elevated at early anagen, and decreased during catagen to telogen. The expression of NEP mRNA and protein levels was modulated similarly. Immunostaining showed changes in NEP localization throughout the hair cycle, from the follicular epithelium during early anagen to the dermal papilla during catagen. To determine whether NEP plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle, we used a specific inhibitor of NEP (NPLT. NPLT was applied topically daily to the dorsal skin of C3H mice, which had been depilated in advance. Mice treated with NPLT had significantly suppressed hair growth. These data suggest that NEP plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle by its increased expression and activity in the follicular epithelium during early anagen.

  1. Ultrastructure of sheep primordial follicles cultured in the presence of indol acetic acid, EGF, and FSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Evelyn Rabelo; Hyttel, Poul; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda Da Cruz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured...... in MEM (control) or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6¿d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus......, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro....

  2. Nonlinear flow response of soft hair beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, José; Comtet, Jean; de Langre, Emmanuel; Hosoi, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    We are `hairy' on the inside: beds of passive fibres anchored to a surface and immersed in fluids are prevalent in many biological systems, including intestines, tongues, and blood vessels. These hairs are soft enough to deform in response to stresses from fluid flows. Yet fluid stresses are in turn affected by hair deformation, leading to a coupled elastoviscous problem that is poorly understood. Here we investigate a biomimetic model system of elastomer hair beds subject to shear-driven Stokes flows. We characterize this system with a theoretical model that accounts for the large-deformation flow response of hair beds. Hair bending results in a drag-reducing nonlinearity because the hair tip lowers towards the base, widening the gap through which fluid flows. When hairs are cantilevered at an angle subnormal to the surface, flow against the grain bends hairs away from the base, narrowing the gap. The flow response of angled hair beds is axially asymmetric and amounts to a rectification nonlinearity. We identify an elastoviscous parameter that controls nonlinear behaviour. Our study raises the hypothesis that biological hairy surfaces function to reduce fluid drag. Furthermore, angled hairs may be incorporated in the design of integrated microfluidic components, such as diodes and pumps.

  3. Peppermint Oil Promotes Hair Growth without Toxic Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Young; Park, Min Ah; Kim, Young Chul

    2014-12-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is a plant native to Europe and has been widely used as a carminative and gastric stimulant worldwide. This plant also has been used in cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component and skin conditioning agent. This study investigated the effect of peppermint oil on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were randomized into 4 groups based on different topical applications: saline (SA), jojoba oil (JO), 3% minoxidil (MXD), and 3% peppermint oil (PEO). The hair growth effects of the 4-week topical applications were evaluated in terms of hair growth, histological analysis, enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gene expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), known bio-markers for the enhanced hair growth. Of the 4 experimental groups, PEO group showed the most prominent hair growth effects; a significant increase in dermal thickness, follicle number, and follicle depth. ALP activity and IGF-1 expression also significantly increased in PEO group. Body weight gain and food efficiency were not significantly different between groups. These results suggest that PEO induces a rapid anagen stage and could be used for a practical agent for hair growth without change of body weight gain and food efficiency.

  4. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    The amount and distribution of fibronectin associated with hair follicles was found to vary during the hair growth cycle in the rat. Immunocytochemical staining of follicles in mid-late anagen (the growth stage) revealed the presence of fibronectin in the dermal papilla matrix, in the basement...... membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...... of anagen, involving cell division and follicle elongation, was associated with a great increase in the amount of fibronectin in this zone and in and around the dermal papilla. Analysis of entry into anagen by [3H]thymidine incorporation and autoradiography revealed that growth could be detected before...

  5. Modeling Chemotherapy-Induced Hair Loss: From Experimental Propositions toward Clinical Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchkarev, Vladimir A; Sharov, Andrey A

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced hair loss is one of the most devastating side effects of cancer treatment. To study the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the hair follicle, a number of experimental models have been proposed. Yoon et al. report that transplantation of human scalp hair follicles onto chemotherapy-treated immunodeficient mice serves as an excellent in vivo model for chemotherapy-induced hair loss. Yoon et al. demonstrate that (i) the response of human hair follicles grafted onto immunodeficient mice to cyclophosphamide resembles the key features of the chemotherapy-induced hair loss seen in patients with cancer and (ii) this human in vivo model for chemotherapy-induced hair loss is closer to clinical reality than to any earlier models. Undoubtedly, this model will serve as a valuable tool for analyses of the mechanisms that underlie this devastating side effect of anti-cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the literature of the past 30 years there are only some publications concerned with hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women. Therefore, the relevance of hyperprolactinemia was evaluated in 40 women with diffuse alopecia. Hair loss was assessed by clinical appearance and the pluck trichogram. 82.5% of the female patients had diffuse hair loss and 17.5% had androgenetic alopecia. The highest prolactin values measured were 1390 ng/ml and 255 ng/ml. Six patients had values between 150–80.4 ng/ml and 10 between 79.1–51.7 ng/ml. All others had prolactin values below 50 ng/ml. Fifteen untreated patients with elevated prolactin levels could be followed up. Without any prolactin-inhibiting drugs, reductions and normalizations beside moderate fluctuations could be detected. Thyroid-specific diagnostics showed in 95% of the patients a normal thyroid function. 2.5% had a slight hyperthyreoidism and 2.5% had a slight hypothyreoidism. No female patient had clinical signs of androgenization and the determined androgens testosterone, androstendione and dihydroepiandrostendione were in the normal range. According to these results, moderate elevated prolactin levels in association with diffuse or androgenetic hair loss can be neglected as causative for the hair loss, because there is no evidence that they have an influence to the pattern, the extent or the duration of the hair loss. These results are supported by investigations of other authors who described only in high doses of prolactin an inhibiting effect on human hair follicles in vitro. Nevertheless, moderate constantly elevated prolactin levels should induce further diagnostics to exclude a prolactin-producing tumor of the pituitary gland. PMID:22870355

  7. Cornu cervi pantotrichum Pharmacopuncture Solution Facilitate Hair Growth in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Yong Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cornu cervi pantotrichum (CCP has been widely used in Korean and China, as an anti-fatigue, anti-aging, and tonic agent to enhance the functions of the reproductive and the immune systems. Because CCP has various growth factors that play important roles in the development of hair follicles, we examined whether CCP pharmacopuncture solution (CCPPS was capable of promoting hair growth in an animal model. Methods: One day after hair depilation, CCPPS were topically applied to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice once a day for 15 days. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using macro- and microscopic observations. Dorsal skin tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7 were examined by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was also conducted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA expression of FGF-7. Results: CCPPS induced more active hair growth than normal saline. Histologic analysis showed enlargement of the dermal papilla, elongation of the hair shaft, and expansion of hair thickness in CCPPS treated mice, indicating that CCPPS effectively induced the development of anagen. CCPPS treatment markedly increased the expressions of BrdU and PCNA in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, CCPPS up regulated the expression of FGF-7, which plays an important role in the development of hair follicles. Conclusion: These results reveal that CCPPS facilitates hair re-growth by proliferation of hair follicular cells and up-regulation of FGF-7 and suggest that CCPPS can potentially be applied as an alternative treatment for patients with alopecia.

  8. Chemotherapy-induced alopecia: advice and support for hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Helen

    This article provides insight into the growth cycle of a hair follicle and the potential impact chemotherapy agents can have on this process, which often results in hair loss (alopecia). It explores the psychological consequences of chemotherapy-induced alopecia for an individual as a result of the perceptions of others as well as an individual's perception of his or her self-image. Despite the development of various forms of scalp cooling, chemotherapy-induced alopecia remains a major side effect for patients receiving chemotherapy; however, there have been improvements in wig provision and changing public opinion relating to baldness. Although chemotherapy-induced alopecia affects both males and females and all age groups, this article focuses on the potential impact for patients receiving chemotherapy as a form of treatment for breast cancer. As professionals we need to understand the social significance of hair in relation to a person's outward presentation and social interactions, along with the possible psychological implications of a person losing his or her bodily hair, and not just the head hair. We must aim to minimize the distress alopecia can cause by: ensuring we provide patients with up-to-date verbal and written information to enable them to prepare for losing their hair; helping them to preserve their self-image and minimize the psychological consequences of hair loss while receiving chemotherapy; and preparing them for their hair re-growth following completion of chemotherapy.

  9. A pair of transmembrane receptors essential for the retention and pigmentation of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rong; Beppu, Hideyuki; Lee, Yun-Kyoung; Georgopoulos, Katia; Larue, Lionel; Li, En; Weiner, Lorin; Brissette, Janice L

    2012-11-01

    Hair follicles are simple, accessible models for many developmental processes. Here, using mutant mice, we show that Bmpr2, a known receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps), and Acvr2a, a known receptor for Bmps and activins, are individually redundant but together essential for multiple follicular traits. When Bmpr2/Acvr2a function is reduced in cutaneous epithelium, hair follicles undergo rapid cycles of hair generation and loss. Alopecia results from a failure to terminate hair development properly, as hair clubs never form, and follicular retraction is slowed. Hair regeneration is rapid due to premature activation of new hair-production programs. Hair shafts differentiate aberrantly due to impaired arrest of medullary-cell proliferation. When Bmpr2/Acvr2a function is reduced in melanocytes, gray hair develops, as melanosomes differentiate but fail to grow, resulting in organelle miniaturization. We conclude that Bmpr2 and Acvr2a normally play cell-type-specific, necessary roles in organelle biogenesis and the shutdown of developmental programs and cell division. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A.; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; López-Otín, Carlos; Tobin, Desmond J.; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10−8 to 3 × 10−119), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair. PMID:26926045

  11. Female Pattern Hair Loss: a clinical and pathophysiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paulo Müller; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Female Pattern Hair Loss or female androgenetic alopecia is the main cause of hair loss in adult women and has a major impact on patients' quality of life. It evolves from the progressive miniaturization of follicles that lead to a subsequent decrease of the hair density, leading to a non-scarring diffuse alopecia, with characteristic clinical, dermoscopic and histological patterns. In spite of the high frequency of the disease and the relevance of its psychological impact, its pathogenesis is not yet fully understood, being influenced by genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. In addition, response to treatment is variable. In this article, authors discuss the main clinical, epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of female pattern hair loss.

  12. The Effect of Autologous Activated Platelet Rich Plasma (AA-PRP Injection on Pattern Hair Loss: Clinical and Histomorphometric Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cervelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of AA-PRP injections for pattern hair loss. AA-PRP, prepared from a small volume of blood, was injected on half of the selected patients’ scalps with pattern hair loss. The other half was treated with placebo. Three treatments were given for each patient, with intervals of 1 month. The endpoints were hair re-growth, hair dystrophy as measured by dermoscopy, burning or itching sensation, and cell proliferation as measured by Ki-67 evaluation. At the end of the 3 cycles of treatment, the patients presented clinical improvement in the mean number of hairs, with a mean increase of 18.0 hairs in the target area, and a mean increase in total hair density of 27.7 ( number of hairs/cm2 compared with baseline values. Microscopic evaluation showed the increase of epidermis thickness and of the number of hair follicles two weeks after the last AA-PRP treatment compared to baseline value (P<0.05. We also observed an increase of Ki67+ keratinocytes of epidermis and of hair follicular bulge cells and a slight increase of small blood vessels around hair follicles in the treated skin compared to baseline (P<0.05.

  13. Hair removal with a second generation broad spectrum intense pulsed light source--a long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troilius, A; Troilius, C

    1999-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for safe and efficient hair removal. Although long-term hair removal has been demonstrated using lasers and non-coherent light sources, permanent hair removal has been difficult to claim due to the long growth/rest cycle of normal human hair follicles. To evaluate bikini line hair removal with a second generation intense pulsed light (IPL) source. Ten females (20 bikini lines) with dark hair and skin types II-IV were treated with an IPL (600 nm) four times with a 1-month interval. Counting of the hair follicles was carried out with a computer imaging system before treatment, and 4 and 8 months after the treatments. Hair reduction of 74.7% (SD +/- 18.3%) was seen 4 months after the treatments and 80.2% (SD +/- 20.3%) 8 months after the last treatment. Only minimal side effects were noted and no pain or other discomfort was registered during the treatments. The present study demonstrated that this new IPL system is both efficient and safe for hair removal. Because the follow up period of 8 months is twice the cycle time for hairs in the bikini line area, the obtained hair reduction in this study was long-lasting.

  14. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05, and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p<0.05. MXD (3% and DA-5512 (1%, 5% significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs versus the controls (each p<0.05. The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p<0.05. In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  15. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  16. Rosacea and the pilosebaceous follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Frank C

    2004-09-01

    The pathophysiology of rosacea remains unknown. A leading theory suggests a vascular basis; however, clinical observations and histopathologic studies suggest that inflammation of the pilosebaceous follicle may be central to the pathogenesis of rosacea. Demodex folliculorum is a frequently seen commensal in the follicles of facial skin. According to evidence from biopsies of the skin surface, individuals with rosacea have a higher density of this parasite. This increased mite density may play a role in the pathophysiology of rosacea by triggering inflammatory or specific immune reactions, mechanically blocking the follicles, or acting as a vector for bacteria. Ongoing research has shown that bacteria from patients with rosacea may behave differently at the higher skin temperature that may be present in patients with rosacea. Another group has isolated bacteria from the Demodex mites; these bacteria may play a pathogenic role in papulopustular rosacea by facilitating follicular-based inflammatory changes.

  17. Cortisol in Hair and the Metabolic Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Alexander, Nina; Bornstein, Stefan R; Gao, Wei; Miller, Robert; Stark, Sabine; Bosch, Jos A; Fischer, Joachim E

    2013-01-01

    ...), the importance of physiological variation in basal cortisol secretion is less clear. This issue can be addressed by using hair cortisol analysis, which for the first time allows the assessment of long-term integrated hormone levels...

  18. Androgenetic alopecia: new insights into the pathogenesis and mechanism of hair loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Rodney; Torkamani, Niloufar; Jones, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    The hair follicle is a complete mini-organ that lends itself as a model for investigation of a variety of complex biological phenomena, including stem cell biology, organ regeneration and cloning.  The arrector pili muscle inserts into the hair follicle at the level of the bulge- the epithelial stem cell niche.  The arrector pili muscle has been previously thought to be merely a bystander and not to have an active role in hair disease. Computer generated 3D reconstructions of the arrector pili muscle have helped explain why women with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) experience diffuse hair loss rather than the patterned baldness seen in men.  Loss of attachment between the bulge stem cell population and the arrector pili muscle also explains why miniaturization is irreversible in AGA but not alopecia areata. A new model for the progression of AGA is presented. PMID:26339482

  19. The Walking Dead: sequential nuclear and organelle destruction during hair development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L A; Harland, D P; Jarrold, B B; Connolly, J E; Davis, M G

    2017-11-27

    Transition of hair shaft keratinocytes from actively respiring, nucleated cells to structural cells devoid of nucleus and cytoplasm, is key to hair production. This form of cell "death", or cornification, requires cellular organelle removal to allow the cytoplasm to become packed with keratin filament bundles that further require cross-linking to create a strong hair fibre. Although these processes are well described in epidermal keratinocytes, there is a lack of understanding of such mechanisms specifically in the hair follicle. To gain insights into cornification mechanisms within the hair follicle and thus improve our understanding of normal hair physiology. Scalp biopsies and hair pluck samples were obtained from healthy human donors and analysed microscopically following immunohistochemical staining. A focal point of respiratory activity was evident in keratogenous zone cells within the hair shaft that also exhibited nuclear damage. Nuclear degradation occurred via both caspase-dependant and -independent pathways. Conversely, mitophagy was driven by Bnip3L and restricted to the boundary of the keratogenous zone at Adamson's Fringe. We propose a model of stepwise living-dead transition within the first 1 mm of hair formation, whereby fully functional, nucleated cells first consolidate required functions by degrading nuclear DNA, yet continue to respire and provide the source of ROS required for keratin cross-linking. Finally, as the cells become packed with keratin bundles, Bnip3L expression triggers mitophagy to rid the cells of the last remaining "living" characteristic thus completing the march from "living" to "dead" within the hair follicle. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride: An account of maintenance of hair density after replacing oral finasteride

    OpenAIRE

    B S Chandrashekar; Nandhini, T.; Vani Vasanth; Rashmi Sriram; Shreya Navale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Finasteride acts by reducing dihydrotestosterone levels, thereby inhibiting miniaturization of hair follicles in patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Oral finasteride is associated with side effects such as decreased libido, sexual dysfunction, and gynecomastia. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess the efficacy of maintaining hair growth with 5% topical minoxidil fortified with 0.1% finasteride in patients with AGA after initial treatment with 5% topical minoxidi...

  1. Promoting extracellular matrix remodeling via ascorbic acid enhances the survival of primary ovarian follicles encapsulated in alginate hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagler, David; Makanji, Yogeshwar; Tu, Tao; Bernabé, Beatriz Peñalver; Lee, Raymond; Zhu, Jie; Kniazeva, Ekaterina; Hornick, Jessica E; Woodruff, Teresa K; Shea, Lonnie D

    2014-07-01

    The in vitro growth of ovarian follicles is an emerging technology for fertility preservation. Various strategies support the culture of secondary and multilayer follicles from various species including mice, non-human primate, and human; however, the culture of early stage (primary and primordial) follicles, which are more abundant in the ovary and survive cryopreservation, has been limited. Hydrogel-encapsulating follicle culture systems that employed feeder cells, such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), stimulated the growth of primary follicles (70-80 µm); yet, survival was low and smaller follicles (ascorbic acid based on its role in extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition/remodeling for other applications. The selection of ascorbic acid was further supported by a microarray analysis that suggested a decrease in mRNA levels of enzymes within the ascorbate pathway between primordial, primary, and secondary follicles. The supplementation of ascorbic acid (50 µg/mL) significantly enhanced the survival of primary follicles (<80 µm) cultured in alginate hydrogels, which coincided with improved structural integrity. Follicles developed antral cavities and increased to diameters exceeding 250 µm. Consistent with improved structural integrity, the gene/protein expression of ECM and cell adhesion molecules was significantly changed. This research supports the notion that modifying the culture environment (medium components) can substantially enhance the survival and growth of early stage follicles. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Erythroid Differentiation Regulator 1 as a Novel Biomarker for Hair Loss Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Yu Ri; Hwang, Sewon; Jeong, Seo Won; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2017-02-03

    Erythroid differentiation regulator 1 (Erdr1) is known to be involved in the inflammatory process via regulating the immune system in many cutaneous disorders, such as psoriasis and rosacea. However, the role of Erdr1 in various hair loss disorders remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the putative role of Erdr1 in alopecias. Skin samples from 21 patients with hair loss disorders and five control subjects were retrieved, in order to assess their expression levels of Erdr1. Results revealed that expression of Erdr1 was significantly downregulated in the epidermis and hair follicles of patients with hair loss disorders, when compared to that in the control group. In particular, the expression of Erdr1 was significantly decreased in patients with alopecia areata. We propose that Erdr1 downregulation might be involved in the pathogenesis of hair loss, and could be considered as a novel biomarker for hair loss disorders.

  3. Erythroid Differentiation Regulator 1 as a Novel Biomarker for Hair Loss Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Yu Ri; Hwang, Sewon; Jeong, Seo Won; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Erythroid differentiation regulator 1 (Erdr1) is known to be involved in the inflammatory process via regulating the immune system in many cutaneous disorders, such as psoriasis and rosacea. However, the role of Erdr1 in various hair loss disorders remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the putative role of Erdr1 in alopecias. Skin samples from 21 patients with hair loss disorders and five control subjects were retrieved, in order to assess their expression levels of Erdr1. Results revealed that expression of Erdr1 was significantly downregulated in the epidermis and hair follicles of patients with hair loss disorders, when compared to that in the control group. In particular, the expression of Erdr1 was significantly decreased in patients with alopecia areata. We propose that Erdr1 downregulation might be involved in the pathogenesis of hair loss, and could be considered as a novel biomarker for hair loss disorders. PMID:28165377

  4. Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles <200 nm being internalized by keratinocytes and dendritic cells at sites of barrier disruption (e.g., hair follicles) combined with recent advances in nanodermatology add interesting new facets to the possibilities carrier technologies could offer, for example, unprecedented levels of selectivity. The authors provide thought-provoking ideas on how smart delivery technologies and advances in our molecular understanding of hair pathophysiology could result in a whole new era of hair therapeutics. As the field still largely remains in preclinical investigation, determined efforts towards production of medical grade material and truly translational work are needed to demonstrate surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Topical Products for Human Hair Regeneration: A Comparative Study on an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasan, Meda Sandra; Bolfa, Pompei; Coneac, Andrei; Muresan, Adriana; Mihu, Carmen

    2016-02-01

    Hair loss and hair growth is the subject of tremendous amount of research. This study investigated the efficacy of three chemical treatments used in humans for hair loss, using a rat model of hair regrowth. The products tested were 2% minoxidil, Hairgrow (Dar-Al-Dawa Pharma), Aminexil, Dercos (Vichy Laboratoires), and Kerium, Anti-chute (La Roche-Posay). Thirty-two adult female Wistar-Bratislava rats were assigned to 4 groups. Two rectangular areas (2×4 cm) were shaved on either sides of the mid dorsal line (left side - control; right side - test area). Group I was treated topically with 2% minoxidil, group II with Aminexil, and group III with Kerium. Each rat received 0.3 ml of substance applied topically to the shaved dorsal skin every day for 28 days. Rats in group IV served as sham controls receiving no treatment. Hair regrowth was evaluated by trichoscopy (with a dermatoscope), grown hair weight (from a surface area of 1 cm(2)), and histopathological examination for skin thickness, follicle count, and percentage of anagen induction (morphometric assessment). Treatment with 2% minoxidil significantly induced hair regrowth as assessed by trichoscopy, hair weight examination, and morphometric evaluation. Hair weight examination and morphometric assessment demonstrated the lowest hair growth effect with Aminexil among the tested products. Treatment with Kerium was found to significantly induce hair regrowth (pproducts recommended for human use is not similar when tested on an animal model.

  6. Leukotrichia developed following application of intense pulsed light for hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmanesh, Mohammed; Mostaghimi, Mehran; Yousefi, Ismail; Mousavi, Zahra Beigum; Rasai, Sima; Esmaili, Hamid Reza; Khadivi, Heshmat A

    2002-07-01

    Lasers and light sources are now used worldwide for permanent or prolonged hair removal. Patients now prefer lasers and light sources for hair removal because of their noninvasiveness and fewer reported side effects. To study and report on leukotrichia that developed following application of intense pulsed light (IPL). From February 9, 2001 to February 14, 2002 a total of 821 patients were treated for unwanted hair. The system used was a noncoherent IPL system, with a 650 nm flashlamp filter; the parameters used varied with different Fitzpatrick skin types. The patients were treated monthly, with the rate of hair loss, measured by hair counts, and possible side effects recorded. Twenty-nine of 821 patients treated developed leukotrichia. Thirteen patients had no white or gray hairs before IPL therapy; the remaining 16 patients, who had few white hairs before treatment reported accelerated development of new white hairs starting after the first or second IPL therapy. Restoration of hair color occurred in 9 patients and the remaining 20 patients had no improvement or worsening of the condition within the next 2-6 months. Temporary or permanent leukotrichia may develop following IPL and laser hair removal therapy. This finding may be explained by the difference in the thermal relaxation times of melanocytes and germinative cells. The light absorbed and the heat produced by melanin may be sufficient enough to destroy or impair the function of melanocytes but insufficient to damage the hair follicle cells.

  7. The canine hair cycle - a guide for the assessment of morphological and immunohistochemical criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntener, Tabitha; Doherr, Marcus G; Guscetti, Franco; Suter, Maja M; Welle, Monika M

    2011-10-01

    The hair follicle has a lifelong capacity to cycle through recurrent phases of controlled growth (anagen), regression (catagen) and quiescence (telogen), each associated with specific morphological changes. A comprehensive classification scheme is available for mice to distinguish the cycle stages anagen I-VI, catagen I-VIII and telogen. For dogs, such a classification system does not exist, although alopecia associated with hair cycle arrest is common. We applied analogous morphological criteria and various staining techniques to subdivide the canine hair cycle stages to the same extent as has been done in mice. Of all the staining techniques applied, haematoxylin and eosin stain, Sacpic, Masson Fontana and immunohistochemistry for vimentin and laminin proved to be most useful. To evaluate the applicability of our criteria, we investigated skin biopsies from healthy beagle dogs (n=20; biopsies from shoulder and thigh) kept in controlled conditions. From each biopsy, at least 50 hair follicles were assessed. Statistical analysis revealed that 30% of the follicles were in anagen (12% early and 18% late), 8% in catagen (2% early, 5% late and 1% not determinable) and 27% in telogen. Thirty-five per cent of hair follicles could not be assigned to a specific cycle stage because not all follicles within one biopsy were oriented perfectly. In conclusion, this guide will not only be helpful for the investigation of alopecic disorders and possibly their pathogenesis, but may also serve as a basis for research projects in which the comparison of hair cycle stages is essential, e.g. comparative analysis of gene expression patterns. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2011 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Hair removal in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several removal methods currently available. Shaving and depilation with chemicals products are temporary methods, that need frequent repetition, because hair removal is next to the cutaneous surface. The epilating methods in which there is full hair extraction include: epilation with wax, thread, tweezers, epilating machines, laser, intense pulsed light, and electrolysis. Conclusions: The age of beginning hair removal and the method choice must be individualized and take into consideration the skin and hair type, location, dermatological and endocrine problems, removal frequency, cost and personal preferences.

  9. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002703.htm Hair dye poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair dye poisoning occurs when someone swallows dye or tint ...

  10. Forensic Science: Hair Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Elhannan L.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

  11. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hormone imbalance, such as excess facial or body hair, a hormone evaluation should be done. Hormonal changes ... any sudden physical or psychological stress to the body. These types of hair loss are "Telogen Effluvium" and are usually temporary. ...

  12. Hair removal in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Pereira; Susana Machado; Manuela Selores

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several remova...

  13. Epidermal hairs of Acanthaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, Khwaja J.

    1978-01-01

    Structure and distribution of the foliar epidermal hairs of 109 species and two varieties belonging to 39 genera of the family Acanthaceae have been studied. Both glandular and non-glandular epidermal hairs have been recorded in the investigated taxa. The glandular hairs may be subsessile or

  14. FGF18 signaling in the hair cycle resting phase determines radioresistance of hair follicles by arresting hair cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuko Kawano, PhD

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that FGF18 signaling mediates radioresistance in telogen HFs by arresting the cell cycle, and that FGF18 has potential as a radioprotector for radiation-induced alopecia.

  15. In Vitro Methodologies to Evaluate the Effects of Hair Care Products on Hair Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Miranda da Gama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner. Evaluating efficacy of hair care products in vitro involves the use of highly accurate equipment. This review aims to discuss in vitro methodologies used to evaluate the effects of hair care products on hair fiber, which can be assessed by various methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Protein Loss, Electrophoresis, color and brightness, thermal analysis and measuring mechanical resistance to combing and elasticity. The methodology used to test hair fibers must be selected according to the property being evaluated, such as sensory characteristics, determination of brightness, resistance to rupture, elasticity and integrity of hair strain and cortex, among others. If equipment is appropriate and accurate, reproducibility and ease of employment of the analytical methodology will be possible. Normally, the data set must be discussed in order to obtain conclusive answers to the test.

  16. Novel insights into the pathways regulating the canine hair cycle and their deregulation in alopecia X.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena A T Brunner

    Full Text Available Alopecia X is a hair cycle arrest disorder in Pomeranians. Histologically, kenogen and telogen hair follicles predominate, whereas anagen follicles are sparse. The induction of anagen relies on the activation of hair follicle stem cells and their subsequent proliferation and differentiation. Stem cell function depends on finely tuned interactions of signaling molecules and transcription factors, which are not well defined in dogs. We performed transcriptome profiling on skin biopsies to analyze altered molecular pathways in alopecia X. Biopsies from five affected and four non-affected Pomeranians were investigated. Differential gene expression revealed a downregulation of key regulator genes of the Wnt (CTNNB1, LEF1, TCF3, WNT10B and Shh (SHH, GLI1, SMO, PTCH2 pathways. In mice it has been shown that Wnt and Shh signaling results in stem cell activation and differentiation Thus our findings are in line with the lack of anagen hair follicles in dogs with Alopecia X. We also observed a significant downregulation of the stem cell markers SOX9, LHX2, LGR5, TCF7L1 and GLI1 whereas NFATc1, a quiescence marker, was upregulated in alopecia X. Moreover, genes coding for enzymes directly involved in the sex hormone metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, HSD17B14 were differentially regulated in alopecia X. These findings are in agreement with the so far proposed but not yet proven deregulation of the sex hormone metabolism in this disease.

  17. Novel insights into the pathways regulating the canine hair cycle and their deregulation in alopecia X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Magdalena A T; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Waluk, Dominik P; Roosje, Petra; Linek, Monika; Panakova, Lucia; Leeb, Tosso; Wiener, Dominique J; Welle, Monika M

    2017-01-01

    Alopecia X is a hair cycle arrest disorder in Pomeranians. Histologically, kenogen and telogen hair follicles predominate, whereas anagen follicles are sparse. The induction of anagen relies on the activation of hair follicle stem cells and their subsequent proliferation and differentiation. Stem cell function depends on finely tuned interactions of signaling molecules and transcription factors, which are not well defined in dogs. We performed transcriptome profiling on skin biopsies to analyze altered molecular pathways in alopecia X. Biopsies from five affected and four non-affected Pomeranians were investigated. Differential gene expression revealed a downregulation of key regulator genes of the Wnt (CTNNB1, LEF1, TCF3, WNT10B) and Shh (SHH, GLI1, SMO, PTCH2) pathways. In mice it has been shown that Wnt and Shh signaling results in stem cell activation and differentiation Thus our findings are in line with the lack of anagen hair follicles in dogs with Alopecia X. We also observed a significant downregulation of the stem cell markers SOX9, LHX2, LGR5, TCF7L1 and GLI1 whereas NFATc1, a quiescence marker, was upregulated in alopecia X. Moreover, genes coding for enzymes directly involved in the sex hormone metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, HSD17B14) were differentially regulated in alopecia X. These findings are in agreement with the so far proposed but not yet proven deregulation of the sex hormone metabolism in this disease.

  18. Hair and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Graham A; Bhogal, Ranjit K

    2016-01-01

    Hair is the ultimate personal beauty tool of self-expression. It is more malleable than skin and it is more personal than clothing; however, hair does not remain constant with age. Hair is arguably in peak condition at about 30 years of age. With time, there is a gradual change in many aspects of hair: hair diameter is reduced, hair density is decreased, androgenic alopecia may develop, and pigmentation may be diminished, producing a significant psychological impact. These age-related changes can be exacerbated by blast drying, heat straightening, perming, and coloring. In this review, the changes in hair fiber and array (collection of fiber) properties that occur during aging and the impact on styling and potential interventions that consumers undergo to circumvent these issues are discussed.

  19. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  20. Cow placenta extract promotes murine hair growth through enhancing the insulin - like growth factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE, water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice for the case, negative and positive control respectively. We checked the proliferation of cells which are resident in hair sheath, and the expression of a few growth factors which stimulate hair growth. Results: Result shows that placenta extract more efficiently accelerates cell division and growth factor expression, by raising the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 mRNA and protein level to increase HF size and hair length. Conclusions: The extract is not a purified product; so, it is less effective than minoxidil, which is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of male pattern baldness. If refinement is done, the placenta extract would be a good candidate medicine for hair loss.

  1. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Begum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta alba (L. Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq. F. Maek (Asiasari radix, and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly P>0.001 than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs. The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.

  2. Why care about linear hair growth rates (LHGR)? a study using in vivo imaging and computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) in unaffected male controls and men with male pattern hair loss (MPHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The words "hair growth" frequently encompass many aspects other than just growth. Report on a validation method for precise non-invasive measurement of thickness together with linear hair growth rates of individual hair fibres. To verify the possible correlation between thickness and linear growth rate of scalp hair in male pattern hair loss as compared with healthy male controls. To document the process of validation of hair growth measurement from in vivo image capturing and manual processing, followed by computer assisted image analysis. We analysed 179 paired images obtained with the contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram method with exogen collection (CE-PTG-EC) in 13 healthy male controls and in 87 men with male pattern hair loss (MPHL). There was a global positive correlation between thickness and growth rate (ANOVA; phairs from controls. Finally, the growth rate recorded in the more severe patterns was significantly (ANOVA; P ≤ 0.001) reduced compared with equally thick hair from less severely affected MPHL or controls subjects. Reduced growth rate, together with thinning and shortening of the anagen phase duration in MPHL might contribute together to the global impression of decreased hair volume on the top of the head. Amongst other structural and functional parameters characterizing hair follicle regression, linear hair growth rate warrants further investigation, as it may be relevant in terms of self-perception of hair coverage, quantitative diagnosis and prognostic factor of the therapeutic response.

  3. Polygonum multiflorum root extract as a potential candidate for treatment of early graying hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Thang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite Polygonum multiflorum (PM has been experiencely used as a drug to treat early graying hair phenomenon in Asian countries for a long time, there is limited study examined the real biological effects of PM on hair graying in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of PM root extract (PM-RE on melanin synthesis in human melanoma SKMEL-28 cells and embryos/larvae of wild-type strain AB zebrafish. We also preliminary revealed the molecular mechanism of early hair graying phenomenon in both in vitro and in vivo models. Our results showed that PM-RE significantly induced melanin synthesis in melanin-producing SKMEL-28 melanoma cells and also in zebrafish embryos/larvae at 4-day postfertilization through activation of MC1R/MITF/tyrosinase-signaling pathway. We also investigated the differences in genotype between graying hair follicle and black hair follicle of young peoples and found that early hair graying phenomenon may be related to downregulation of MC1R/MITF/tyrosinase pathway. Taken together, we suggested that PM-RE at safe doses could be used as a potential agent for the treatment of early hair graying and other loss pigmentation-related diseases.

  4. Integration of Tmc1/2 into the mechanotransduction complex in zebrafish hair cells is regulated by Transmembrane O-methyltransferase (Tomt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Timothy; Morgan, Clive P; Olt, Jennifer; Hardy, Katherine; Busch-Nentwich, Elisabeth; Maeda, Reo; Clemens, Rachel; Krey, Jocelyn F; Nechiporuk, Alex; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G; Marcotti, Walter; Nicolson, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Transmembrane O-methyltransferase (TOMT/LRTOMT) is responsible for non-syndromic deafness DFNB63. However, the specific defects that lead to hearing loss have not been described. Using a zebrafish model of DFNB63, we show that the auditory and vestibular phenotypes are due to a lack of mechanotransduction (MET) in Tomt-deficient hair cells. GFP-tagged Tomt is enriched in the Golgi of hair cells, suggesting that Tomt might regulate the trafficking of other MET components to the hair bundle. We found that Tmc1/2 proteins are specifically excluded from the hair bundle in tomt mutants, whereas other MET complex proteins can still localize to the bundle. Furthermore, mouse TOMT and TMC1 can directly interact in HEK 293 cells, and this interaction is modulated by His183 in TOMT. Thus, we propose a model of MET complex assembly where Tomt and the Tmcs interact within the secretory pathway to traffic Tmc proteins to the hair bundle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28474.001 PMID:28534737

  5. An isotopic comparison of cross-latitudinal horse hair data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elisabeth; Ramsey, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    This study explores whether the Rayleigh distillation process latitude effect, of depleted δ18O in precipitation toward the poles, can be observed in horse hair. This study specifically compares δ18O values in horse hair with meteorological variables, and examines whether regional changes in global climate can be observed. The sampling sites and the pony breeds used in this study will add to the increasing network of isotopic horse hair data and will create an even better understanding of the intra-species variation within the δ18O values of horse hair. By directly correlating the meteorological variables to δ18O variations, the effects of specific weather events at different latitudes can also be explored at a very high resolution. 24 horses were sampled within approximately 24 hours on the 7th March 2016 from Thordale Stud in Shetland; the Icelandic Food And Veterinary Authority in Iceland; the Exmoor Pony Centre in Exmoor; and the Pigeon House Equestrian Centre in Oxfordshire. Starting the sampling process from the most recent growth at the follicle, the sampling date becomes a chronological marker, temporally fixing the first sample within a sequential set of data points extending for one year or longer, depending on the length of each individual hair. Preliminary results confirm the hypothesis, demonstrating that a study of oxygen isotope ratios in horse hair from Oxfordshire to Iceland shows a latitudinal depletion gradient, consistent with a depletion of oxygen isotope ratios due to decreasing temperatures.

  6. Clinical and histological characterization of hair coat and glandular tissue of Chinese crested dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Dominique J; Gurtner, Corinne; Panakova, Lucia; Mausberg, Theresa-Bernadette; Müller, Eliane J; Drögemüller, Cord; Leeb, Tosso; Welle, Monika M

    2013-04-01

    Two varieties exist in the Chinese crested dog breed, namely hairless Chinese crested dogs presenting with hypotrichosis and dentition abnormalities, and the coated powderpuffs. Hairless Chinese crested dogs are obligate heterozygotes for a FOXI3 mutation, and this phenotype is classified as a form of canine ectodermal dysplasia. We provide a detailed histological description of hair follicles and their density for the three subphenotypes (true hairless, semi-coated and powderpuffs) of Chinese crested dogs. Apocrine and exocrine glands of the skin and other tissues were compared with findings reported from dogs with X-linked ectodermal dysplasia. Skin biopsies were collected from 22 Chinese crested dogs. Additionally, the glands of the skin and other tissues were examined from another two dogs available for postmortem examination. Skin biopsies and tissues were processed, stained and evaluated in a blinded fashion. Hair follicular anomalies decreased with increasing number of hairs in the different phenotypes. The FOXI3 mutants had only simple primary hair follicles, whereas the nonmutant powderpuffs had compound follicles identical to other dog breeds. All Chinese crested dogs had an anagen-dominated hair cycle. Furthermore, apocrine glands in the skin and respiratory mucous glands of the mutant Chinese crested dogs were present and normal. We have identified striking histopathological differences between the three subphenotypes of Chinese crested dogs. We clearly demonstrated distinct differences between the canine ectodermal dysplasia in Chinese crested dogs and dogs with X-linked ectodermal dysplasia. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Hair loss in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Romero, J A; Grimalt, R

    2014-02-01

    Hair diseases represent a significant portion of cases seen by pediatric dermatologists although hair has always been a secondary aspect in pediatricians and dermatologists training, on the erroneous basis that there is not much information extractable from it. Dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders with simple diagnostic techniques. The hair is easily accessible to examination but, paradoxically, this approach is often disregarded by non-dermatologist. This paper has been written on the purpose of trying to serve in the diagnostic process of daily practice, and trying to help, for example, to distinguish between certain acquired and some genetically determined hair diseases. We will focus on all the data that can be obtained from our patients' hair and try to help on using the messages given by hair for each patient. Quite often it is extremely hard to distinguish between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. We will specially focus in the most common physiological changes that may mislead to an incorrect diagnosis. Specific treatment for those hair diseases that do have one, and basic general approach to improve the cosmetic appearance of hair, will be also be discussed for those hair disturbances that do not have a specific treatment.

  8. Hairless controls hair fate decision via Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kuicheng; Xu, Cunshuan; Liu, Mengduan; Zhang, Jintao

    2017-09-23

    The hairless (Hr) gene plays a central role in the hair cycle, considering that mutations in the gene result in hair loss with the exception of a few vibrissae after the first hair growth cycle in both mice and humans. This study examinedthe uncommon phenotype and using microarray analyses and functional studies, we found that β-catenin was mediated by Hr. Progenitor keratinocytes from the bulge region differentiate into both epidermis and sebaceous glands, and fail to adopt the hair keratinocytes fate in the mutant scalp, due to the decreased Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the absence of the hairless protein. This may be attributed to the dysfunction of normal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the hair follicle (HF). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hair repigmentation associated with the use of lenalidomide: graying may not be an irreversible process!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanu, Constantin A; Mitsis, Demytra; Alexandrescu, Doru T

    2013-06-01

    We report the first case of progressive hair repigmentation associated with the use of lenalidomide in an elderly patient with multiple myeloma. The influence of lenalidomide on follicular melanogenesis may involve removing the inhibitory influences of some cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. In addition, certain endocrine effects of lenalidomide on the hypophyseal-adrenal axis could explain its action on hair pigmentation. We further hypothesize that lenalidomide may be capable of stimulating migration and/or differentiation of melanocytes to promote repigmentation of gray hair follicles. Pending the clarification of how hair repigmentation occurs with lenalidomide, our observation materializes the concept that hair graying may not be an irreversible process, which opens avenues for targeted therapeutics in the fields of cosmetics and anti-aging medicine.

  10. Expression of Fox-related genes in the skin follicles of Inner Mongolia Cashmere Goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lele; Wang, Honghao; Yang, Kun; Wang, Zhixin; Wang, Ruijun; Su, Rui; Liu, Zhihong; Zhao, Yanhong; Zhang, Yanjun; Li, Jinquan

    2017-06-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of genes in cashmere goats at different periods of their fetal development. Bioinformatics analysis was used to evaluate data obtained by transcriptome sequencing of fetus skin samples collected from Inner Mongolia cashmere goats on days 45, 55, and 65 of fetal age. We found that FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 genes of the Fox gene family were probably involved in the growth and development of the follicle and the formation of hair, which is consistent with previous findings. Real-time qPCR and Western blot analysis were employed to study the relative differentially expressed genes FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 in the body skin of Cashmere goat fetuses and adult individuals. This study provided new fundamental information for further investigation of the genes related to follicle development and exploration of their roles in hair follicle initiation, growth, and development.

  11. Do You Have Hair Loss or Hair Shedding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can eventually cause hair loss. Related resources Alopecia areata Developing in otherwise healthy people, this disease that can cause round bald patches on the scalp, diffuse hair loss, or in rare cases, complete hair loss. Five ...

  12. Drugs and hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mansi; Harrison, Shannon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a common complaint, both in men and women, and use of prescription medications is widespread. When there is a temporal association between the onset of hair loss and commencement of a medication, the medication is commonly thought to have caused the hair loss. However, hair loss and in particular telogen effluvium may occur in response to a number of triggers including fever, hemorrhage, severe illness, stress, and childbirth, and a thorough exclusion of these potential confounders is necessary before the hair loss can be blamed on the medication. Certain medications are known to cause hair loss by a variety of mechanisms including anagen arrest, telogen effluvium, or accentuation of androgenetic alopecia by androgens. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Follicle Structure Influences the Availability of Oxygen to the Oocyte in Antral Follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Clark

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of an oocyte to successfully mature is highly dependent on intrafollicular conditions, including the size and structure of the follicle. Here we present a mathematical model of oxygen transport in the antral follicle. We relate mean oxygen concentration in follicular fluid of bovine follicles to the concentration in the immediate vicinity of the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC. The model predicts that the oxygen levels within the antral follicle are dependent on the size and structure of the follicle and that the mean level of dissolved oxygen in follicular fluid does not necessarily correspond to that reaching the COC.

  14. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  15. Trichoscopy findings in loose anagen hair syndrome: rectangular granular structures and solitary yellow dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Adriana; Zadurska, Malgorzata; Czuwara, Joanna; Warszawik-Hendzel, Olga; Kurzeja, Marta; Maj, Malgorzata; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-03-31

    Loose anagen hair syndrome (LAHS) is typically diagnosed in girls older than 2 years who present with hair that "will not grow". Hair microscopic examination shows absent inner and outer root sheaths, ruffling of the cuticle on the proximal hair shaft and deformed pigmented anagen bulbs. The aim of the study was to assess whether there are characteristic trichoscopic features favoring the diagnosis of LAHS. Eighty nine children patients were included into the study (24 girls with LAHS, 25 with alopecia areata, 20 with telogen effluvium and 20 healthy children). In all groups trichoscopy was performed. Trichoscopy images were analyzed for abnormalities in the hairs shafts, the hair follicle openings and the interfollicular area. Dirty dots were present in all groups. A unique feature of LAHS was the presence of rectangular black granular structures which differs from dense black dots seen in patients with alopecia areata. This feature was observed in 71% of patients with LAHS. Follicular units with single hairs constituted 92,9% of hair units in these patients (65,5% in telogen effluvium and 53% in the control group). Solitary yellow dots were found in 50% of patient with LAHS and in 24% of patients with alopecia areata, but was not found in control group or in patients with telogen effluvium. The trichoscopy features favoring the diagnosis of LAHS are: rectangular black granular structures, solitary yellow dots and major predominance of follicular units with single hairs.

  16. The topical penta-peptide Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Ser increases the proportion of thick hair in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Takeda, Shunsuke; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Tsuruda, Akinori; Shibata, Hideaki; Ito, Tomoko; Komatsu, Nobuyuki; Terai, Keiko; Oka, Syuichi

    2016-06-01

    A penta-peptide, Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Ser (GPIGS), promotes proliferation of mouse hair keratinocytes and accelerates hair growth in mice. This study focused on the ability of the peptide to promote human hair growth. We used a human hair keratinocyte proliferation assay and organ cultures of human hair follicle as in vitro systems. The lotions with and without the penta-peptide were administered to 22 Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) for 4 months in a double-blind and randomized clinical study. The penta-peptide significantly stimulated the proliferation of human hair keratinocytes at a concentration of 2.3 μm (P baldness (P = 0.020) when blinded reviewers graded photographs of the participants according to a standardized baldness scale. No adverse dermatological effects due to treatment were noted during this clinical study. This penta-peptide promotes proliferation of human hair keratinocytes and hair shaft elongation of human hair follicles, in vitro. This peptide increases thick hair ratio in vivo, and this compound is useful for the improvement of AGA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Ultrastructure of Sheep Primordial Follicles Cultured in the Presence of Indol Acetic Acid, EGF, and FSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Rabelo Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF, and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured in MEM (control or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6 d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro.

  18. Hair Loss Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective. METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth. RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments. DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694..

  19. Hair and nail relationship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, R.; Dawber, R.P.; Haneke, E.

    2005-01-01

    Hair and nails are often stated to have much in common in relation to their origin, anatomical structures, and common involvement in many diseases. Hair and nails are predominantly epithelial structures derived from primitive epidermis and made up of keratinous fibrils embedded in a sulfur-rich

  20. Hair and Physiological Baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercantini, Edward S.

    1965-01-01

    Human hair is one of the structures of the body about which little is generally known. Disease affecting the hair is often minimized or ignored by physicians because of lack of knowledge of this rudimentary organ. However, the patient's attitude toward hair loss is very different from the doctor's and he feels great concern about such loss. The development, growth and morphology of human hair are briefly presented. Experimental work which will increase our knowledge of hair growth and loss is reviewed. The various forms of physiological alopecia from birth onward are discussed, with special emphasis on the least-known type of physiological baldness, “male-pattern baldness” in the adult female. PMID:14312445

  1. Follicle dynamics: visualization and analysis of follicle growth and maturation using murine ovarian tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Tomohiko; Iwase, Akira; Komatsu, Kouji; Bayasula; Nakamura, Tomoko; Osuka, Satoko; Takikawa, Sachiko; Goto, Maki; Kotani, Tomomi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2017-10-27

    To visualize and analyze follicle development in ovarian tissue culture using physiological concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in order to establish an ovarian tissue culture system that enables efficient in vitro growth of follicles. Ovarian tissues from 4-week-old female ICR mice were sliced and cultured. Images of ovarian tissues in culture were obtained at 24-h or 30-min intervals by using a microscope. The area of each follicle observed in the ovarian tissue slices was tracked and analyzed in association with oocyte maturation. We were able to track the development of each follicle using this culture system. Follicle growth was associated with oocyte maturation. Meiotically matured oocytes (MII) were obtained from 33% of all follicles investigated. Approximately, a quarter of follicles (24%) did not grow and resulted in atresia. Follicle dynamics were successfully visualized and analyzed in murine ovarian tissue culture. We were able to obtain mature oocytes from the fully grown follicles in vitro. This culture system would be helpful for efficient in vitro culturing of ovarian tissues.

  2. 76 FR 37636 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Supported Hair Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... connection. Typically, such hair dryers have a big, barrel-like body with a pistol grip handle. Frequently... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1120 Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Supported Hair Dryers AGENCY: U.S. Consumer... are issuing a final rule to determine that any hand-supported hair dryer without integral immersion...

  3. Comparison of – Mixture and Minoxidil on Hair Growth Promoting Effect in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Soo Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlgae have traditionally been used for promotion of hair growth. Use of hair regrowth drugs, such as minoxidil, is limited due to side effects. The aim of this study was to examine a mixture of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida (L-U mixture on hair growth and to compare the promoting effect of hair growth by a 3% minoxidil and a L-U mixture.MethodsTo evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity, saline, 50% ethanol, 3% minoxidil, and the L-U mixture were applied 2 times a day for a total of 14 days on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice after depilation. Analysis was determined by using a high-resolution hair analysis system, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and H&E staining.ResultsOn day 14, the hair growth effect of the L-U mixture was the same as that of the 3% minoxidil treatment. The L-U mixture significantly (P<0.05 stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and insulin-like growth factor -1. Increase of VEGF was observed in the L-U mixture group compared with minoxidil and the negative control. In contrast, the L-U mixture suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1, which is the hair loss-related gene. In histological examination in the L-U mixture and minoxidil groups, the induction of an anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of control groups.ConclusionsThis study provides evidence that the L-U mixture can promote hair growth in mice, similar to the effect from minoxidil, and suggests that there is potential application for hair loss treatments.

  4. Outpatient follicle monitoring: a plea for standardization in ultrasound based follicle monitoring and data transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtinger, Maximilian; Zech, Mathias H; Spitzer, Dietmar; Zech, Nicolas H

    2014-04-01

    The complexity of assisted reproductive technology (ART) increased during the last decades. New scientific and medical findings as well as the statutory requirements for improving the safety and the outcome of ART were the main impetus for its development. While therapy planning is done and ART is used by the IVF centers, the medical support and monitoring of patients is conducted by referring gynecologists. Reported follicle measurements by the gynecologist allow the adoption of the therapy plan. Most notably, the crucial aspect is processing and interpretation of ultrasound scan (US). The results of the received US, the transfer of data between IVF center(s) and referred physician(s) as well as the subjective interpretation often culminate in interpretation and logistical problems. This might increase the error probability with considerable detriments for the patients and ART outcome. The follicle monitoring was performed using Voluson I ultrasound system combined with SonoAVC(®) software. Results were communicated via DICOM language to DynaMed(®) software, a medical program for managing an IVF center with seamless integration of all processes needed for an accurate and precise workflow. In this study, no loss of data was detected. All data were integrated by DynaMed(®) software and were recallable in a fast and easy manner. The broad usage of Voluson I ultrasound SonoAVC(®) software and communication of the results via Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) server between the IVF center and local gynecologist would provide more assistance for the patients and consequently the ART outcomes can be improved.

  5. Africans Consuming Hair, Africans Consumed by Hair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If relationships forged and entertained with hair are anything to go by, Africans, it seems to us, are more amenable to flexible, composite and negotiated personal and collective identities than they are to fixities and purities. Perhaps schooled by repeated encounters with the violence of dominant others or simply enlightened ...

  6. Clinical Evaluation of Hair Removal Using an 810 nm Diode Laser With a Novel Scanning Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Erin; Goldberg, David J

    2016-11-01

    Diode lasers are often considered as the gold standard preference for hair removal due to the deep penetration and ef- fective targeting of the hair follicle. A wide variety of diode lasers are available, which can differ in terms of their parameters (such as fluence, pulse duration, repetition rate, scanner, and cooling). The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and ef cacy of hair removal with an 810 nm novel scanning diode laser, up to six months after last treatment. A scanning 810 nm diode laser was used for axillary hair removal of 14 female patients who received 3 treatments, 4-6 weeks apart. Follow-up on hair count was conducted 3 and 6 months after last treatment and compared to baseline hair count. No unexpected or signi cant adverse events were recorded. An average hair count reduction of 72.8% after 3 months and 67.6% 6 months after the last treatment is demonstrated. The examined 810 nm diode laser was proven to be safe and effective for hair removal. Results were sustained for 6 months after last treatment. Longer follow-up data are followed for further substantiation of the clinical effect. Scanning technology can provide for potentially faster and safer treatments. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1330-1333..

  7. The pattern of hair dyeing in koreans with gray hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Choi, Jae Woo; Lee, Jong Hee; Cho, Soyun; Kwon, Ohsang

    2013-11-01

    Hair graying is considered as a part of normal ageing process. Nonetheless, this process raises a significant cosmetic concern, especially among ethnic Korean elderly whose baseline hair color is black. For this reason, Korean elderly dye their hair with frequency despite the risk of dermatologic problems such as allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, the authors investigate the prevalence and pattern of hair dyeing and its relation with scalp diseases in Korea. Six hundred twenty subjects (330 men and 290 women) with graying hair were given a questionnaire survery and underwent a physical examination. Of the 620 total, 272 subjects (43.9%) dyed their hair. Hair dyeing was significantly more frequent among women than among men (phair dyeing when compared to either younger or older groups. Subjective self-assessment of the extent of hair graying was associated with increased prevalence of hair dyeing, that is, individuals who feel graying has advanced by more than 20% of the overall hair were much more likely to dye their hair (pHair dyeing did not correlate with either alopecia or scalp disease. Our survey has found that the prevalence of hair dyeing is higher among Korean women than men. People in their fifties and sixties and people with more than 20% extent of grayness were more likely to dye their hair than otherwise. Hair dyeing was not associated with any increase in the prevalence of scalp diseases.

  8. Prostaglandin D2 Inhibits Hair Growth and Is Elevated in Bald Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Luis A.; Liu, Yaping; Yang, Zaixin; Alagesan, Brinda; Lawson, John A.; Norberg, Scott M.; Loy, Dorothy E.; Zhao, Tailun; Blatt, Hanz B.; Stanton, David C.; Carrasco, Lee; Ahluwalia, Gurpreet; Fischer, Susan M.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Cotsarelis, George

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone is necessary for the development of male pattern baldness, known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA); yet, the mechanisms for decreased hair growth in this disorder are unclear. We show that prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels in bald scalp compared to haired scalp of men with AGA. The product of PTGDS enzyme activity, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), is similarly elevated in bald scalp. During normal follicle cycling in mice, Ptgds and PGD2 levels increase immediately preceding the regression phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect on hair growth. We show that PGD2 inhibits hair growth in explanted human hair follicles and when applied topically to mice. Hair growth inhibition requires the PGD2 receptor G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide)–coupled receptor 44 (GPR44), but not the PGD2 receptor 1 (PTGDR). Furthermore, we find that a transgenic mouse, K14-Ptgs2, which targets prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 expression to the skin, demonstrates elevated levels of PGD2 in the skin and develops alopecia, follicular miniaturization, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, which are all hallmarks of human AGA. These results define PGD2 as an inhibitor of hair growth in AGA and suggest the PGD2-GPR44 pathway as a potential target for treatment. PMID:22440736

  9. HSL Attenuates the Follicular Oxidative Stress and Enhances the Hair Growth in ob/ob Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Minematsu, PhD

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We demonstrated enhanced hair regeneration following topical administration of N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (HSL in ob/ob mice. The ob/ob mice showed delayed hair regeneration (more than 6 wk after depilation, which rapidly induced transition to anagen in the hair cycle in wild-type mice. Vehicle and HSL solutions were applied to the depilated dorsal skin of ob/ob mice. The depilated skin of the HSL-treated mice was fully covered with hair, whereas no macroscopic alteration was observed in vehicle-treated group by the fourth week after depilation. Oxidative stress was drastically decreased and the expression of the antioxidative enzymes PON1 and PON3 was increased in the HSL-treated skin with highly proliferative anagen follicles. These results suggest that HSL is a candidate therapeutic agent for alopecia in metabolic syndrome.

  10. Evaluation of the effect of formic acid and sodium formate on hair reduction in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banihashemi M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mahnaz Banihashemi1,2, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad2, Seyed Abbas Tabatabaee Yazdi2, Hasan Rakhshande2, Vahid Mashayekhi Ghoyonlo1,2, Zahra Zabihi3, Hadis Yousefzadeh41Research Center for Skin Diseases and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Ghaem Hospital, 2School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS, Mashad, Iran; 3Neishabour Medical University, Neishabour, Iran; 4Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, IranAbstract: Hirsutism is a common problem in dermatology that imposes high socioeconomical costs on medical care. Consequently, researchers are actively searching for cheaper and safer methods for therapeutic treatment. The objective of the present study is to evaluate formic oil, enriched from formic acid, for the removal of unwanted hair. In this study, 32 female rats (150–200 g were randomly divided into four groups and maintained with normal water and food availability. A patch of skin was shaved on each rat for application of test solutions. The control group was treated with local once-daily applications of normal saline. The formic acid, acetic acid, and sodium formate groups were treated with once-daily applications of formic acid (pH 5.5, acetic acid (pH 5.5, or sodium formate, respectively. After 2 weeks, horizontally cut sample biopsies were removed, and the numbers of hair follicles were counted under high field microscopy by a specialist blinded to the treatments. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test results indicated a nonparametric distribution for the rat groups. ANOVA analysis indicated no statistically significant differences between groups (P < 0.05. There weren't any side effects or evidence for toxicity during the study period. However, hair follicle counts showed a descending order of control, acetic acid, formic acid, and sodium formate. Although the sodium formate group had the lowest hair follicle numbers, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Formic acid was not

  11. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...

  12. A feature-preserving hair removal algorithm for dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qaisar; Garcia, Irene Fondón; Emre Celebi, M; Ahmad, Waqar

    2013-02-01

    Accurate segmentation and repair of hair-occluded information from dermoscopy images are challenging tasks for computer-aided detection (CAD) of melanoma. Currently, many hair-restoration algorithms have been developed, but most of these fail to identify hairs accurately and their removal technique is slow and disturbs the lesion's pattern. In this article, a novel hair-restoration algorithm is presented, which has a capability to preserve the skin lesion features such as color and texture and able to segment both dark and light hairs. Our algorithm is based on three major steps: the rough hairs are segmented using a matched filtering with first derivative of gaussian (MF-FDOG) with thresholding that generate strong responses for both dark and light hairs, refinement of hairs by morphological edge-based techniques, which are repaired through a fast marching inpainting method. Diagnostic accuracy (DA) and texture-quality measure (TQM) metrics are utilized based on dermatologist-drawn manual hair masks that were used as a ground truth to evaluate the performance of the system. The hair-restoration algorithm is tested on 100 dermoscopy images. The comparisons have been done among (i) linear interpolation, inpainting by (ii) non-linear partial differential equation (PDE), and (iii) exemplar-based repairing techniques. Among different hair detection and removal techniques, our proposed algorithm obtained the highest value of DA: 93.3% and TQM: 90%. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is highly accurate, robust and able to restore hair pixels without damaging the lesion texture. This method is fully automatic and can be easily integrated into a CAD system. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hairs to break close to the scalp. Alopecia areata (say: ar-ee-AT-uh) . In this condition, ... fall out. No one knows exactly what causes alopecia areata, but it looks like the body's own immune ...

  14. Tips for Healthy Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... less oil, so you may not need to shampoo as often. But if you see flakes in ... lead to dandruff and other scalp diseases. Concentrate shampoo on the scalp. When washing your hair, concentrate ...

  15. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... restore hair. *Photograph used with permission of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. This photograph was published in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Vol. # 60, Gathers RC, Jankowski M, Eide M, ...

  16. Hair growth activity of Crataegus pinnatifida on C57BL/6 mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Sang-Yong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ju-Han; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2013-09-01

    Crataegus pinnatifida has a long history of use in traditional oriental herbal medicine to stimulating digestion and improving blood circulation. Based on nutrition of hair, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of C. pinnatifida extract on hair growth using mouse model and its mechanisms of action. The C. pinnatifida extract containing the contents of total polyphenol of 5.88□0.82 g gallic acid/100 g extract and proanthocyanidin of 9.15□1.58 mg cyaniding chloride/100 g extract was orally administered daily at a dosage of 50 mg/kg weight to the 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice in telogen. The C. pinnatifida extract promoted hair growth by inducing anagen phase in mice in telogen, reflected by color of skin, thickness of hair shaft, and density of hair. The ratio of anagento telogen was determined by shape of hair follicles in vertically sectioned slide and increased by oral administration of C. pinnatifida extract. The number and the size of hair follicles were also enlarged, indicating anagen phase induction. The proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPC) was accelerated by addition of C. pinnatifida extract, which activated the signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk, p-38, and JNK) and Akt. Moreover, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax as the determinant of cell fate was also raised in skin. These results suggest that the C. pinnatifida extract promotes hair growth by inducing anagen phase, which might be mediated by the activation of cellular signalings that enhance the survival of cultured hDPC and the increase of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax that protects cells against cell death. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Blood supply--susceptible formation of melanin pigment in hair bulb melanocytes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shogo; Ueda, Koichi; Yamana, Hidenori; Tashiro-Yamaji, Junko; Ibata, Minenori; Mikura, Ayako; Okada, Masashi; Yasuda, Emi; Shibayama, Yuro; Yoshino, Miya; Kubota, Takahiro; Yoshida, Ryotaro

    2015-03-01

    Allogeneic skin grafts onto C57BL/6 mice are rejected, and the rejected skin is replaced by surrounding skin with black hair. In contrast, syngeneic skin grafts are tolerated, and gray hair grows on the grafts. To explore the mechanism of gray hair growing on the tolerated skin grafts, we prepared full-thickness skin (2-cm square) autografts, 2 (2 cm + 2 cm) horizontal or vertical parallel incisions, and U-shaped (2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm) flaps with or without pedicle vessels. The grafts, incisions, and flaps were fixed by suturing with string and protected by a transparent bandage. On day 14 after the operation, the bandages were removed to observe the color of the hair growing on the skin. Skin autografts from wild-type or hepatocyte growth factor-transgenic (Tg) C57BL/6 mice survived with gray hair, whereas those from steel factor (Kitl)-Tg C57BL/6 mice survived with black hair. In addition, U-shaped flaps lacking both of the 2 main feeding vessels of wild-type mice had gray hair at the tip of the flaps. Light microscopy after staining with hematoxylin and eosin or dihydroxyphenylalanine showed that the formation of melanin pigment in the follicles, but not in the interadnexal skin, was susceptible to the blood supply. Melanin pigment formation in the hair bulb melanocytes appeared to be susceptible to the blood supply, and melanocytosis was promoted in the follicles and in the epidermis of Kitl-Tg C57BL/6 mice.

  18. Hair biology and its comprehensive sequence in female pattern baldness: clinical connotation diagnosis and differential diagnosis--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Midha, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Hair can become a source of concern when there is a change in its texture, number, and thinning. Although female pattern baldness is common, it has received little attention compared with male pattern baldness. Thinning that affects the vertex is insidious and progressive. Hair loss in women has accordingly been interpreted and classified differently than that in men. The Ludwig scale is the most accepted classification. The gross anatomy and the general microanatomy of the hair follicle, including that of the anagen, catagen, and telogen phase, are presented. The hair growth cycle, encompassing anagen, catagen, telogen, exogen, and kenogen, is also discussed to address pattern hair loss in women and provide therapeutic options that are currently available.

  19. The elusive mechanotransduction machinery of hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Müller, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    Hair cells in the mammalian cochlea are specialized sensory cells that convert mechanical signals evoked by sound waves into electrochemical signals. Several integral membrane proteins have recently been identified that are closely linked to the mechanotransduction process. Efforts are under way to determine the extent to which they are subunits of the long thought-after mechanotransduction channel. Recent findings also suggest that mechanotransduction may have a role in fine tuning the length of the stereocilia and thus in the regulation of morphological features of hair cells that are inherently linked to the mechanotransduction process. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Androgenetic alopecia: new insights into the pathogenesis and mechanism of hair loss [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5ar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Sinclair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a complete mini-organ that lends itself as a model for investigation of a variety of complex biological phenomena, including stem cell biology, organ regeneration and cloning.  The arrector pili muscle inserts into the hair follicle at the level of the bulge- the epithelial stem cell niche.  The arrector pili muscle has been previously thought to be merely a bystander and not to have an active role in hair disease. Computer generated 3D reconstructions of the arrector pili muscle have helped explain why women with androgenetic alopecia (AGA experience diffuse hair loss rather than the patterned baldness seen in men.  Loss of attachment between the bulge stem cell population and the arrector pili muscle also explains why miniaturization is irreversible in AGA but not alopecia areata. A new model for the progression of AGA is presented.

  1. Hair plucking, stress, and urinary cortisol among captive bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Colin M; Boose, Klaree J; Squires, Erica C; Marchant, Linda F; White, Frances J; Meinelt, Audra; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2016-09-01

    Hair plucking has been observed in many captive primate species, including the great apes; however, the etiology of this behavioral pattern is poorly understood. While this behavior has not been reported in wild apes, an ethologically identical behavior in humans, known as trichotillomania, is linked to chronic psychosocial stress and is a predominantly female disorder. This study examines hair plucking (defined here as a rapid jerking away of the hair shaft and follicle by the hand or mouth, often accompanied by inspection and consumption of the hair shaft and follicle) in a captive group of bonobos (N = 13) at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium in Columbus, Ohio. Plucking data were collected using behavior and all-occurrence sampling; 1,450 social and self-directed grooming bouts were recorded during 128 hr of observation. Twenty-one percent of all grooming bouts involved at least one instance of plucking. Urine samples (N = 55) were collected and analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol. Analyses of urinary cortisol levels showed a significant positive correlation between mean cortisol and self-directed plucking for females (r = 0.88, P bonobos. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between hair plucking and cortisol among apes. Overall, these data add to our knowledge of a contemporary issue in captive ape management. Zoo Biol. 35:415-422, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Organ-level quorum sensing directs regeneration in hair stem cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Lei; Plikus, Maksim V.; Jiang, Ting Xin; Murray, Philip J.; Ramos, Raul; Guerrero-Juarez, Christian F.; Hughes, Michael W; Lee, Oscar K.; Shi, Songtao; Widelitz, Randall B.; Lander, Arthur D.; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Coordinated organ behavior is crucial for an effective response to environmental stimuli. By studying regeneration of hair follicles in response to patterned hair removal, we demonstrate that organ-level quorum sensing allows coordinated responses to skin injury. Removing hair at different densities leads to a regeneration of up to 5 times more neighboring, unplucked resting hairs, indicating activation of a collective decision-making process. Through data modeling, the range of the quorum signal was estimated to be on the order of 1 mm, greater than expected for a diffusible molecular cue. Molecular and genetic analysis uncovered a two-step mechanism, where release of CCL2 from injured hairs leads to recruitment of TNF-α secreting macrophages, which accumulate and signal to both plucked and unplucked follicles. By coupling immune response with regeneration, this mechanism allows skin to respond predictively to distress, disregarding mild injury, while meeting stronger injury with full-scale cooperative activation of stem cells. PMID:25860610

  3. Outcome of intra-operative injected platelet-rich plasma therapy during follicular unit extraction hair transplant: A prospective randomised study in forty patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy is finding importance in aesthetic medicine. Aim: The objective of this study was to study efficacy of PRP therapy in follicular unit extraction (FUE hair transplant. Materials and Methods: It is a single-blind, prospective randomised study on 40 FUE hair transplant subjects, allocated in two groups (PRP and non-PRP alternately. PRP was injected intra-operatively immediately after creating slits over the recipient area in PRP group; and normal saline in non-PRP group. Two groups were evaluated at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, 3 and 6 months of the procedure. Statistical Analysis: It was done using Chi-square test and test of significance was set as P 75% hair regrowth at 6 months, density of >75% grafts was noticed in 12 patients at 4 weeks meaning reduced fall of transplanted hair during catagen phase. New hair growth started at 8 weeks in 16 patients and redness over recipient area completely disappeared in 19 patients at 3 months of surgery and activity in dormant follicles as fine thread like hair was noticed besides the thick transplanted hair in all subjects. In non-PRP group, four patients had >75% hair regrowth at 6 months; none showed >75% graft density at 4 weeks, and 13 subjects showed dormant follicle activity at 4 months. The number of patients having lengthier hairs was significantly more in PRP group. Conclusion: Intra-operative PRP therapy is beneficial in giving faster density, reducing the catagen loss of transplanted hair, recovering the skin faster and activating dormant follicles in FUE transplant subjects.

  4. Drug discovery for alopecia: gone today, hair tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Zenildo; Avci, Pinar; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hair loss or alopecia affects the majority of the population at some time in their life, and increasingly, sufferers are demanding treatment. Three main types of alopecia (androgenic [AGA], areata [AA] and chemotherapy-induced [CIA]) are very different, and have their own laboratory models and separate drug-discovery efforts. Areas covered In this article, the authors review the biology of hair, hair follicle (HF) cycling, stem cells and signaling pathways. AGA, due to dihydrotesterone, is treated by 5-α reductase inhibitors, androgen receptor blockers and ATP-sensitive potassium channel-openers. AA, which involves attack by CD8+NK group 2D-positive (NKG2D+) T cells, is treated with immunosuppressives, biologics and JAK inhibitors. Meanwhile, CIA is treated by apoptosis inhibitors, cytokines and topical immunotherapy. Expert opinion The desire to treat alopecia with an easy topical preparation is expected to grow with time, particularly with an increasing aging population. The discovery of epidermal stem cells in the HF has given new life to the search for a cure for baldness. Drug discovery efforts are being increasingly centered on these stem cells, boosting the hair cycle and reversing miniaturization of HF. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the immune attack in AA will yield new drugs. New discoveries in HF neogenesis and low-level light therapy will undoubtedly have a role to play. PMID:25662177

  5. Drug discovery for alopecia: gone today, hair tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Zenildo; Avci, Pinar; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss or alopecia affects the majority of the population at some time in their life, and increasingly, sufferers are demanding treatment. Three main types of alopecia (androgenic [AGA], areata [AA] and chemotherapy-induced [CIA]) are very different, and have their own laboratory models and separate drug-discovery efforts. In this article, the authors review the biology of hair, hair follicle (HF) cycling, stem cells and signaling pathways. AGA, due to dihydrotesterone, is treated by 5-α reductase inhibitors, androgen receptor blockers and ATP-sensitive potassium channel-openers. AA, which involves attack by CD8(+)NK group 2D-positive (NKG2D(+)) T cells, is treated with immunosuppressives, biologics and JAK inhibitors. Meanwhile, CIA is treated by apoptosis inhibitors, cytokines and topical immunotherapy. The desire to treat alopecia with an easy topical preparation is expected to grow with time, particularly with an increasing aging population. The discovery of epidermal stem cells in the HF has given new life to the search for a cure for baldness. Drug discovery efforts are being increasingly centered on these stem cells, boosting the hair cycle and reversing miniaturization of HF. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the immune attack in AA will yield new drugs. New discoveries in HF neogenesis and low-level light therapy will undoubtedly have a role to play.

  6. Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Alessandrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.

  7. Quantitative analysis of methamphetamine in hair of children removed from clandestine laboratories--evidence of passive exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassindale, T

    2012-06-10

    In New Zealand many children have been removed from clandestine laboratories following Police intervention. In the last few years it has become standard procedure that these children have hair samples taken and these samples are submitted to the laboratory for analysis. There are various mechanisms for the incorporation of drugs into hair. The hair follicle has a rich blood supply, so any drug that may be circulating in the blood can be incorporated into the growing hair. Another mechanism is via external contamination, such as spilling a drug on the hair or through exposure to fumes or vapours. Hair samples were analysed for methamphetamine and amphetamine. From the 52 cases analysed 38 (73%) were positive for methamphetamine (>0.1 ng/mg) and amphetamine was detected in 34 of these cases. In no case was amphetamine detected without methamphetamine. The hair washes (prior to extraction) were also analysed (quantified in 30 of the positive cases) and only 3 had a wash to hair ratio of >0.1 (all were <0.5), which may be indicative of a low level of external contamination. This low level of evidence of external contamination suggests that the children are exposed to methamphetamine and are incorporating it into the hair through the blood stream. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  9. How to Stop Damaging Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage your hair Washing your hair by rubbing shampoo into the length of your hair Changes that can help prevent hair damage: Gently massage shampoo into your scalp. When you rinse the shampoo ...

  10. Non-invasive method distinguishes chronic telogen effluvium from mild female pattern hair loss: clinicopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Caroline; Teixeira, Fernanda; Ferraro, Daniela A; Soares, Tania C B; Moraes, Aparecida M; Cintra, Maria L

    2016-07-01

    The distinction between chronic telogen effluvium (CTE) and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is important because of their different prognosis and treatment. Non-invasive methods have been described to be useful in differentiating FPHL from CTE. This prospective study investigated the use of the washing method to differentiate CTE from mild FPHL. Twenty patients with CTE and 17 with FPHL were recruited and followed for 18 months. The diagnosis was established through clinical, laboratory, and histological studies. The patients were asked to abstain from washing their hair for 5 days and then shampoo and collect all hair shed in the process. Hair shafts were then counted and divided into two groups: up to 3 cm in length or longer. In the CTE group, the mean hair count was high (438), and in all cases, hairs comprised hairs, the higher was the density of terminal follicles seen histologically. The CTE group presented a greater number of patients with serum iron values <70 μg/dl. Ferritin levels ranged from 6.98 to 128.33, average of 66.65 (CTE), and 16.5-304.8, average of 114.97 ng/ml (FPHL), but no significant differences were found. The washing test can be useful to avoid biopsy procedures. Iron serum levels are possibly an additional parameter that may improve CTE diagnosis if combined with an earlier test. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Combover/CG10732, a novel PCP effector for Drosophila wing hair formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy K Fagan

    Full Text Available The polarization of cells is essential for the proper functioning of most organs. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP, the polarization within the plane of an epithelium, is perpendicular to apical-basal polarity and established by the non-canonical Wnt/Fz-PCP signaling pathway. Within each tissue, downstream PCP effectors link the signal to tissue specific readouts such as stereocilia orientation in the inner ear and hair follicle orientation in vertebrates or the polarization of ommatidia and wing hairs in Drosophila melanogaster. Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh and Rho Kinase (Rok are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs. In a genome-wide screen in vitro, we identified Combover (Cmb/CG10732 as a novel Rho kinase substrate. Overexpression of Cmb causes the formation of a multiple hair cell phenotype (MHC, similar to loss of rok and mwh. This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by removal of rok or of other members of the PCP effector gene family. Furthermore, we show that Cmb physically interacts with Mwh, and cmb null mutants suppress the MHC phenotype of mwh alleles. Our data indicate that Cmb is a novel PCP effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh.

  12. Combover/CG10732, a novel PCP effector for Drosophila wing hair formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jeremy K; Dollar, Gretchen; Lu, Qiuheng; Barnett, Austen; Pechuan Jorge, Joaquin; Schlosser, Andreas; Pfleger, Cathie; Adler, Paul; Jenny, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The polarization of cells is essential for the proper functioning of most organs. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), the polarization within the plane of an epithelium, is perpendicular to apical-basal polarity and established by the non-canonical Wnt/Fz-PCP signaling pathway. Within each tissue, downstream PCP effectors link the signal to tissue specific readouts such as stereocilia orientation in the inner ear and hair follicle orientation in vertebrates or the polarization of ommatidia and wing hairs in Drosophila melanogaster. Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh) and Rho Kinase (Rok) are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs. In a genome-wide screen in vitro, we identified Combover (Cmb)/CG10732 as a novel Rho kinase substrate. Overexpression of Cmb causes the formation of a multiple hair cell phenotype (MHC), similar to loss of rok and mwh. This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by removal of rok or of other members of the PCP effector gene family. Furthermore, we show that Cmb physically interacts with Mwh, and cmb null mutants suppress the MHC phenotype of mwh alleles. Our data indicate that Cmb is a novel PCP effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh.

  13. Grey hair: clinical investigation into changes in hair fibres with loss of pigmentation in a photoprotected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, P D; Polefka, T; Grove, G; Daly, S; Jumbelic, L; Harper, D; Nori, M; Evans, T; Ramaprasad, R; Bianchini, R

    2011-04-01

    Loss of pigmentation in hair fibres is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes with ageing and has been a topic of increasing interest in the study of follicle biology. The onset of greying brings cosmetic complaints that grey fibres are wild or difficult to manage. Of course, these perceptions may be the consequence of visual obviousness rather than underlying physical or chemical differences. Although several studies have compared pigmented and unpigmented fibres, few have tried to control genetic and ethnic difference as well as extrinsic factors such as photoexposure and chemical treatment. We have recruited subjects with salt-and-pepper hair from a population of Old Order Mennonites who, for cultural reasons, are not only prohibited from chemically treating their hair but also limit their exposure to sunlight. Hair samples were examined for elemental composition, surface energy, Young's modulus, break stress, bending modulus, shear modulus and water sorption/desorption isotherm. The parameters were evaluated statistically for global differences, individual differences and typical individual differences. Consistent with previous published literature, few global differences were found between pigmented and unpigmented hair across the population. We do find that many individual subjects had differences between pigmented and unpigmented fibres. These differences tend to be more pronounced in bulk than in surface properties. The small differences in mechanical properties and moisture uptake and loss lend support to the perception by consumers that grey hair is wilder, drier and less manageable. © 2011 TRI/Princeton. Journal compilation. © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Smokers? hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    OpenAIRE

    Zayed, Ayman A.; Shahait, Awni D.; Ayoub, Musa N.; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and meas...

  15. The Changes of Gene Expression on Human Hair during Long-Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Higashibata, Akira; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sudoh, Masamichi; Minamisawa, Susumu

    Hair has many advantages as the experimental sample. In a hair follicle, hair matrix cells actively divide and these active changes sensitively reflect physical condition on human body. The hair shaft records the metabolic conditions of mineral elements in our body. From human hairs, we can detect physiological informations about the human health. Therefore, we focused on using hair root analysis to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts. In 2009, we started a research program focusing on the analysis of astronauts’ hairs to examine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the gene expression in the human body. We want to get basic information to invent the effectivly diagnostic methods to detect the health situations of astronauts during space flight by analyzing human hair. We extracted RNA form the collected samples. Then, these extracted RNA was amplified. Amplified RNA was processed and hybridized to the Whole Human Genome (4×44K) Oligo Microarray (Agilent Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Slide scanning was performed using the Agilent DNA Microarray Scanner. Scanning data were normalized with Agilent’s Feature Extraction software. Data preprocessing and analysis were performed using GeneSpring software 11.0.1. Next, Synthesis of cDNA (1 mg) was carried out using the PrimeScript RT reagent Kit (TaKaRa Bio) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The qRT-PCR experiment was performed with SYBR Premix Ex Taq (TaKaRa Bio) using the 7500 Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems). We detected the changes of some gene expressions during spaceflight from both microarray and qRT-PCR data. These genes seems to be related with the hair proliferation. We believe that these results will lead to the discovery of the important factor effected during space flight on the hair.

  16. Topical liposomal Rose Bengal for photodynamic white hair removal: randomized, controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Nevien; Fadel, Maha

    2014-04-01

    Blond and white hair removal by laser is a complicated task with weak satisfactory results due to the deficiency in laser-absorbing chromophore. To investigate if repetitive sessions of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using external application of liposomal Rose bengal (RB) photosensitizer followed by intense pulsed light (IPL) exposure enables removal of gray and white hair. Rose bengal loaded in liposomes (LRB) was constructed, prepared in hydrogel, and was studied for some pharmaceutical properties. Penetration and selective hair follicle damage in mice skin were studied. Topical gel containing LRB was used for treating fifteen adult females who were complaining of facial white terminal hair. Unwanted facial hair was treated for three sessions at intervals of 4-6 weeks using intense pulsed light (IPL). At each session, the treatment area was pre-treated with topical LRB gel, while a control group of another 15 patients applied placebo gel before IPL treatment. Evaluations included hair regrowth, which was measured 4 weeks after each treatment session and at 6 months follow-up by counting the number of terminal hair compared with baseline pretreatment values. Treatment outcomes and complications if any were also reported. Average hair regrowth in the LRB group was 56% after 3 treatment cycles. After six-months follow up, average terminal hair count compared with baseline pretreatment showed 40% reduction and no recorded side effects. A significant difference (Phair removal using rose bengal-encapsulated liposomal gel in combination with IPL treatment showed significant efficacy in the treatment of white hair compared with a control group.

  17. Inside black holes with synchronized hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Brihaye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various examples of asymptotically flat, rotating black holes (BHs with synchronized hair have been explicitly constructed, including Kerr BHs with scalar or Proca hair, and Myers–Perry BHs with scalar hair and a mass gap, showing there is a general mechanism at work. All these solutions have been found numerically, integrating the fully non-linear field equations of motion from the event horizon outwards. Here, we address the spacetime geometry of these solutions inside the event horizon. Firstly, we provide arguments, within linear theory, that there is no regular inner horizon for these solutions. Then, we address this question fully non-linearly, using as a tractable model five dimensional, equal spinning, Myers–Perry hairy BHs. We find that, for non-extremal solutions: (1 the inside spacetime geometry in the vicinity of the event horizon is smooth and the equations of motion can be integrated inwards; (2 before an inner horizon is reached, the spacetime curvature grows (apparently without bound. In all cases, our results suggest the absence of a smooth Cauchy horizon, beyond which the metric can be extended, for hairy BHs with synchronized hair.

  18. Inside black holes with synchronized hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brihaye, Yves, E-mail: yves.brihaye@umons.ac.be [Physique-Mathématique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Mons (Belgium); Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and Centre for Research and Development in Mathematics and Applications (CIDMA), Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-09-10

    Recently, various examples of asymptotically flat, rotating black holes (BHs) with synchronized hair have been explicitly constructed, including Kerr BHs with scalar or Proca hair, and Myers–Perry BHs with scalar hair and a mass gap, showing there is a general mechanism at work. All these solutions have been found numerically, integrating the fully non-linear field equations of motion from the event horizon outwards. Here, we address the spacetime geometry of these solutions inside the event horizon. Firstly, we provide arguments, within linear theory, that there is no regular inner horizon for these solutions. Then, we address this question fully non-linearly, using as a tractable model five dimensional, equal spinning, Myers–Perry hairy BHs. We find that, for non-extremal solutions: (1) the inside spacetime geometry in the vicinity of the event horizon is smooth and the equations of motion can be integrated inwards; (2) before an inner horizon is reached, the spacetime curvature grows (apparently) without bound. In all cases, our results suggest the absence of a smooth Cauchy horizon, beyond which the metric can be extended, for hairy BHs with synchronized hair.

  19. Taking Care of Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it may be better to choose a mild shampoo instead of a shampoo designed for oily hair. For some people — especially ... at the crown but dry on the ends) — shampoos for oily hair can be too harsh. If ...

  20. Optimization of biomimetic hair sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi, N.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2007-01-01

    High density arrays of artificial hair sensors, biomimicking the extremely sensitive mechanoreceptive filiform hairs found on cerci of crickets have been fabricated. We assess the sensitivity of these artificial sensors and present a scheme for further optimization addressing the deteriorating

  1. Evidence-based treatments for female pattern hair loss: a summary of a Cochrane systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, E J; Fedorowicz, Z; Carter, B

    2012-11-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) or androgenic alopecia is the most common type of hair loss affecting women with reduced hair density and can have a serious psychological impact. It is characterized by progressive replacement of slow cycling terminal hair follicles by miniaturized, rapidly cycling vellus hair follicles. The frontal hair line may or may not be preserved. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of the treatments available for FPHL. Searches included: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO, LILACS and several ongoing trials registries (October 2011). Randomized controlled trials in women with FPHL were identified. Twenty-two trials, comprising 2349 participants, were included. A range of interventions was evaluated, with 10 studies examining varying concentrations of minoxidil. Pooled data from four studies indicated that a greater proportion of participants treated with minoxidil reported a moderate increase in their hair regrowth compared with placebo (relative risk 1·86, 95% confidence interval 1·42-2·43). There was no difference between the number of adverse events experienced in the twice daily minoxidil and the placebo intervention groups, except for a reported increase with minoxidil 5% twice daily. Single studies accounted for most of the other comparisons, which were assessed as either having high risk of bias and/or they did not address the prespecified outcomes for this review and provided limited evidence of either the effectiveness or safety of these interventions. Further well-designed, adequately powered randomized controlled trials investigating other treatment options are still required. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Tissue-engineered skin preserving the potential of epithelial cells to differentiate into hair after grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Danielle; Cuffley, Kristine; Paquet, Claudie; Germain, Lucie

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tissue-engineered skin produced in vitro was able to sustain growth of hair follicles in vitro and after grafting. Different tissues were designed. Dissociated newborn mouse keratinocytes or newborn mouse hair buds (HBs) were added onto dermal constructs consisting of a tissue-engineered cell-derived matrix elaborated from either newborn mouse or adult human fibroblasts cultured with ascorbic acid. After 7-21 days of maturation at the air-liquid interface, no hair was noticed in vitro. Epidermal differentiation was observed in all tissue-engineered skin. However, human fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (hD) promoted a thicker epidermis than mouse fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (mD). In association with mD, HBs developed epithelial cyst-like inclusions presenting outer root sheath-like attributes. In contrast, epidermoid cyst-like inclusions lined by a stratified squamous epithelium were present in tissues composed of HBs and hD. After grafting, pilo-sebaceous units formed and hair grew in skin elaborated from HBs cultured 10-26 days submerged in culture medium in association with mD. However, the number of normal hair follicles decreased with longer culture time. This hair-forming capacity after grafting was not observed in tissues composed of hD overlaid with HBs. These results demonstrate that epithelial stem cells can be kept in vitro in a permissive tissue-engineered dermal environment without losing their potential to induce hair growth after grafting.

  3. Hair regrowth through wound healing process after ablative fractional laser treatment in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung Min; Jung, Han Mi; Goo, Boncheol; Park, Young Min

    2015-07-01

    Alopecia is one of the most common dermatological problems in the elderly; however, current therapies for it are limited by low efficacy and undesirable side effects. Although clinical reports on fractional laser treatment for various alopecia types are increasing, the exact mechanism remains to be clarified. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the effect of ablative fractional laser treatment on hair follicle regrowth in vivo and investigate the molecular mechanism after laser treatment. Ablative CO2 fractional laser was applied to the shaved dorsal skin of 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice whose hair was in the telogen stage. After 12 mice were treated at various energy (10-40 mJ/spot) and density (100-400 spots/cm(2) ) settings to determine the proper dosage for maximal effect. Six mice were then treated at the decided dosage and skin specimens were sequentially obtained by excision biopsy from the dorsal aspect of each mouse. Tissue samples were used for the immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to examine hair follicle status and their related molecules. The most effective dosage was the 10 mJ/spot and 300 spots/cm(2) setting. The anagen conversion of hair was observed in the histopathological examination, while Wnt/β-catenin expression was associated with hair regrowth in the immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. Ablative fractional lasers appear to be effective for inducing hair regrowth via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in vivo. Our findings indicate that fractional laser treatment can potentially be developed as new treatment options for stimulating hair regrowth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Measuring changes in chemistry, composition, and molecular structure within hair fibers by infrared and Raman spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; Senak, Laurence; Moore, David J.

    2011-05-01

    Spatially resolved infrared (IR) and Raman images are acquired from human hair cross sections or intact hair fibers. The full informational content of these spectra are spatially correlated to hair chemistry, anatomy, and structural organization through univariate and multivariate data analysis. Specific IR and Raman images from untreated human hair describing the spatial dependence of lipid and protein distribution, protein secondary structure, lipid chain conformational order, and distribution of disulfide cross-links in hair protein are presented in this study. Factor analysis of the image plane acquired with IR microscopy in hair sections, permits delineation of specific micro-regions within the hair. These data indicate that both IR and Raman imaging of molecular structural changes in a specific region of hair will prove to be valuable tools in the understanding of hair structure, physiology, and the effect of various stresses upon its integrity.

  5. Follicle activation is a significant and immediate cause of follicle loss after ovarian tissue transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Zohar; Spector, Itay; Peer, Gil; Schlatt, Stefan; Wistuba, Joachim; Roness, Hadassa; Meirow, Dror

    2017-11-03

    Extensive follicle loss has been demonstrated in ovarian grafts post transplantation, reducing their productivity and lifespan. Several mechanisms for this loss have been proposed, and this study aims to clarify when and how the massive follicle loss associated with transplantation of ovarian tissue graft occurs. An understanding of the mechanisms of follicle loss will pinpoint potential new targets for optimization and improvement of this important fertility preservation technique. Frozen-thawed marmoset (n = 15), bovine (n = 37), and human (n = 46) ovarian cortical tissue strips were transplanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient castrated male mice for 3 or 7 days. Histological (H&E, Masson's trichrome) analysis and immunostaining (Ki-67, GDF9, cleaved caspase-3) were conducted to assess transplantation-associated follicle dynamics, with untransplanted frozen-thawed tissue serving as a negative control. Evidence of extensive primordial follicle (PMF) activation and loss was observed already 3 days post transplantation in marmoset, bovine, and human tissue grafts, compared to frozen-thawed untransplanted controls (p < 0.001). No significant additional PMF loss was observed 7 days post transplantation. Recovered grafts of all species showed markedly higher rates of proliferative activity and progression from dormant to growing follicles (Ki-67 and GDF9 staining) as well as higher growing/primordial (GF/PMF) ratio (p < 0.02) and higher collagen levels compared with untransplanted controls. This multi-species study demonstrates that follicle activation plays an important role in transplantation-induced follicle loss, and that it occurs within a very short time frame after grafting. These results underline the need to prevent this activation at the time of transplantation in order to retain the maximal possible follicle reserve and extend graft lifespan.

  6. Viability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles after vitrification in a metal container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Lis S; Bos-Mikich, Adriana; Godoy, Leandro C; Silva, Laura A; Maschio, Daniel; Zhang, Tiantian; Streit, Danilo P

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been studied for female germline preservation of farm animals and endangered mammalian species. However, there are relatively few reports on cryopreservation of fish ovarian tissue and especially using vitrification approach. Previous studies of our group has shown that the use of a metal container for the cryopreservation of bovine ovarian fragments results in good primordial and primary follicle morphological integrity after vitrification. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and in vitro development of zebrafish follicles after vitrification of fragmented or whole ovaries using the same metal container. In Experiment 1, we tested the follicular viability of five developmental stages following vitrification in four vitrification solutions using fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide fluorescent probes. These results showed that the highest viability rates were obtained with immature follicles (Stage I) and VS1 (1.5 M methanol + 4.5 M propylene glycol). In Experiment 2, we used VS1 to vitrify different types of ovarian tissue (fragments or whole ovaries) in two different carriers (plastic cryotube or metal container). In this experiment, Stage I follicle survival was assessed following vitrification by vital staining after 24 h in vitro culture. Follicular morphology was analyzed by light microscopy after vitrification. Data showed that the immature follicles morphology was well preserved after cryopreservation. Follicular survival rate was higher (P vitrification devices were compared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitrification of bovine preantral follicles with dimethylsulfoxide and sucrose plus α-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R. Jimenez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the vitrification of bovine preantral follicles with dimethylsulfoxide (D and sucrose (S plus α-tocopherol 5mmol/L (T5 or 10mmol/L (T10 and, evaluate the thawed with minimal essential medium (m with or without sucrose (s. Ovaries of cows were collected from slaughterhouse for the experiment I (n=66 and II (n=51. In the laboratory ovarian fragments were randomly assigned either to fresh control and 8 vitrification treatments (Controle and Dm; Dms, DSm; DSms; DST5m; DST5ms; DST10m; DST10ms. Ovarian fragments were placed in vitrification solution (5 min and immersed in liquid nitrogen (-196°C, after a week, the fragments were thawed and analyzed. In the experiments I, preantral follicles were morphologically observed for histological evaluation, (normal; degenerated and developing of stage. In the experiment II, preantral follicles were mechanically isolated from ovarian tissue and examined with trypan blue, where dead and live corresponded to stained or non-stained. The treatments DSm, DSms and DST10m were effective in preserving the morphology in situ. However, the viability of isolated preantral follicles after vitrification remained high only in treatment DST10m. Thus, DST10m preserves survival rates and morphological integrity during vitrification of bovine preantral follicles.

  8. The "vanishing follicle" in women with low number of developing follicles during assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Johnny S; Yakovi, Shiran; Izhaki, Ido; Haddad, Sami; Ben-Ami, Moshe

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of the "vanishing follicle" phenomenon in women with low number of developing follicles in assisted reproduction. Women with ≤ 6 follicles on the day of hCG administration with ≥ 14mm diameter were prospectively studied. Primary outcome measures were disappearance of ≥14mm and all-diameter follicles on the day of oocyte pick-up compared to the day of hCG administration. Among the 120 women recruited, 95 were found eligible and completed the study. The "vanishing follicle" phenomenon occurred in 3.1% (95% confidence level: 0.7%-9.0%) and 18.9% (95% confidence level: 11.6%-28.3%) of cases affecting ≥14mm and all-diameter follicles, respectively. In all cases, mid-late follicular serum LH and P levels remained within normal follicular phase range and trans-vaginal scan did not show signs of ovulation. Markedly, the main significant difference between the study and control groups in the ≥14mm follicle group was serum E 2 level on the day of hCG administration; median (Interquartile range), corresponding to 395 (382.0-405.5) versus 823.0 (544.5-1291.0) pg/mL, respectively (P=0.04). The same trend was encountered in all-diameter vanishing follicles group but it did not reach significance. Interestingly, in all-diameter vanishing group, chronic smoking and the P/E 2 ratio on the hCG day were significantly higher than controls. Post hoc multiple logistic regression analysis of data in accordance with the Bologna criteria reveled that antral follicle count was found to significantly affect the development of the "vanishing follicle" phenomenon. The "vanishing follicle" phenomenon occasionally occurs in women with low number of developing follicles during assisted reproduction with no signs of ovulation. Our preliminary findings suggest that this phenomenon may be related to exhausted ovarian reserve however, an early-unrecognized LH elevation could not be ruled out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interventions for female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Schoones, Jan

    2016-05-26

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL), or androgenic alopecia, is the most common type of hair loss affecting women. It is characterised by progressive shortening of the duration of the growth phase of the hair with successive hair cycles, and progressive follicular miniaturisation with conversion of terminal to vellus hair follicles (terminal hairs are thicker and longer, while vellus hairs are soft, fine, and short). The frontal hair line may or may not be preserved. Hair loss can have a serious psychological impact on women. To determine the efficacy and safety of the available options for the treatment of female pattern hair loss in women. We updated our searches of the following databases to July 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1872), AMED (from 1985), LILACS (from 1982), PubMed (from 1947), and Web of Science (from 1945). We also searched five trial registries and checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies. We included randomised controlled trials that assessed the efficacy of interventions for FPHL in women. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality, extracted data and carried out analyses. We included 47 trials, with 5290 participants, of which 25 trials were new to this update. Only five trials were at 'low risk of bias', 26 were at 'unclear risk', and 16 were at 'high risk of bias'.The included trials evaluated a wide range of interventions, and 17 studies evaluated minoxidil. Pooled data from six studies indicated that a greater proportion of participants (157/593) treated with minoxidil (2% and one study with 1%) reported a moderate to marked increase in their hair regrowth when compared with placebo (77/555) (risk ratio (RR) = 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51 to 2.47; moderate quality evidence). These results were confirmed by the investigator-rated assessments in seven studies with 1181

  10. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: A possible hair pigmentation bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A. (Alexander); G. Noppe (Gerard); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association

  11. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  12. New approach for assessing human perfluoroalkyl exposure via hair

    OpenAIRE

    Alves,Andreia; Jacobs, Griet; VANERMEN Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: In the recent years hair has been increasingly used as alternative matrix in human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental pollutants. Sampling advantages and time integration of exposure assessment seems the most attractive features of hair matrix. In the current study, a novel miniaturized method was developed and validated for measuring 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluoro n-butanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro n-hexanoic acid (PFHx...

  13. Mutations in the cholesterol transporter gene ABCA5 are associated with excessive hair overgrowth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina M DeStefano

    Full Text Available Inherited hypertrichoses are rare syndromes characterized by excessive hair growth that does not result from androgen stimulation, and are often associated with additional congenital abnormalities. In this study, we investigated the genetic defect in a case of autosomal recessive congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis (CGHT (OMIM135400 using whole-exome sequencing. We identified a single base pair substitution in the 5' donor splice site of intron 32 in the ABC lipid transporter gene ABCA5 that leads to aberrant splicing of the transcript and a decrease in protein levels throughout patient hair follicles. The homozygous recessive disruption of ABCA5 leads to reduced lysosome function, which results in an accumulation of autophagosomes, autophagosomal cargos as well as increased endolysosomal cholesterol in CGHT keratinocytes. In an unrelated sporadic case of CGHT, we identified a 1.3 Mb cryptic deletion of chr17q24.2-q24.3 encompassing ABCA5 and found that ABCA5 levels are dramatically reduced throughout patient hair follicles. Collectively, our findings support ABCA5 as a gene underlying the CGHT phenotype and suggest a novel, previously unrecognized role for this gene in regulating hair growth.

  14. Topical Application of Oleuropein Induces Anagen Hair Growth in Telogen Mouse Skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Tong

    Full Text Available Oleuropein promoted cultured human follicle dermal papilla cell proliferation and induced LEF1 and Cyc-D1 mRNA expression and β-catenin protein expression in dermal papilla cells. Nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in dermal papilla cells was observed after oleuropein treatment. Topical application of oleuropein (0.4 mg/mouse/day to C57BL/6N mice accelerated the hair-growth induction and increased the size of hair follicles in telogenic mouse skin. The oleuropein-treated mouse skin showed substantial upregulation of Wnt10b, FZDR1, LRP5, LEF1, Cyc-D1, IGF-1, KGF, HGF, and VEGF mRNA expression and β-catenin protein expression.These results demonstrate that topical oleuroepin administration induced anagenic hair growth in telogenic C57BL/6N mouse skin. The hair-growth promoting effect of oleuropein in mice appeared to be associated with the stimulation of the Wnt10b/β-catenin signaling pathway and the upregulation of IGF-1, KGF, HGF, and VEGF gene expression in mouse skin tissue.

  15. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  16. Biology and Biotechnology of Follicle Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Palma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development of ovarian follicles require a series of coordinated events that induce morphological and functional changes within the follicle, leading to cell differentiation and oocyte development. The preantral early antral follicle transition is the stage of follicular development during which gonadotropin dependence is obtained and the progression into growing or atresia of the follicle is made. Follicular growth during this period is tightly regulated by oocyte-granulosatheca cell interactions. A cluster of early expressed genes is required for normal folliculogenesis. Granulosa cell factors stimulate the recruitment of theca cells from cortical stromal cells. Thecal factors promote granulosa cell proliferation and suppress granulosa cell apoptosis. Cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions influence the production of growth factors in the different follicular compartments (oocyte, granulosa, and theca cells. Several autocrine and paracrine factors are involved in follicular growth and differentiation; their activity is present even at the time of ovulation, decreasing the gap junction communication, and stimulating the theca cell proliferation. In addition, the identification of the factors that promote follicular growth from the preantral stage to the small antral stage may provide important information for the identification for assisted reproduction techniques.

  17. Ovarian ultrasound image analysis: follicle segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, A; Sonka, M

    1998-12-01

    Ovarian ultrasound is an effective tool in infertility treatment. Repeated measurements of the size and shape of follicles over several days are the primary means of evaluation by physicians. Currently, follicle wall segmentation is achieved by manual tracing which is time consuming and susceptible to inter-operator variation. An automated method for follicle wall segmentation is reported that uses a four-step process based on watershed segmentation and knowledge-based graph search algorithm which utilizes priori information about follicle structure for inner and outer wall detection. The automated technique was tested on 36 ultrasonographic images of women's ovaries. Validation against manually traced borders has shown good correlation of manually defined and computer-determined area measurements (R2 = 0.85 - 0.96). The border positioning errors were small: 0.63+/-0.36 mm for inner border and 0.67+/-0.41 mm for outer border detection. The use of watershed segmentation and graph search methods facilitates fast, accurate inner and outer border detection with minimal user-interaction.

  18. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  19. Comparison of Follicle Isolation Methods for Mouse Ovarian Follicle Culture In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Jaewang; Youm, Hye Won; Kim, Seul Ki; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian follicle in vitro culture is a promising fertility preservation option to avoid risk of reintroduction of malignant cells. The objective of this study is to compare 4 different follicle isolation methods from ovarian tissue and evaluate the effect of follicle isolation on further in vitro follicle culture and oocyte competency. Mouse ovaries were dissected and randomly divided into 4 groups according to follicle isolation method: mechanical (MCH) isolation, mincing (MNC) isolation, enzymatically digestion using collagenase (COL), and enzymatically digestion using liberase (LIB). The isolated early secondary follicles were cultured for day 10, and ovulation induction was conducted. Follicular diameter and concentrations of steroid hormone in spent media were measured. Also, follicular survival rate and pseudo-antrum formation rate were examined. After ovulation induction, the cumulus oocyte complexes rate and the number of mature oocyte, normal spindle rate, and mitochondrial activity in ovulated oocyte were counted. After in vitro culture, follicular diameter was significantly greater in MNC and MCH group than other groups. Also, follicle survival rate was significantly higher in MNC and MCH groups than other groups. The MNC group had made a result that significantly improved the mature oocyte rate than other groups. The normal meiotic spindle and chromosome rate is significantly higher in MNC and MCH groups than other groups. The MNC method showed significantly improved rate of follicle diameter, survival, pseudo-antrum formation, a mature oocyte, and normal spindle in ovulated oocyte after in vitro culture. Based on the results, MNC method can be an alternative for MCH method that is laborious and time-consuming.

  20. Eruptive vellus hair cysts: report of a new case with immunohistochemical study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Daniela; Kanitakis, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Eruptive vellus hair cysts (EVHC) are rather uncommon lesions, of which 222 cases have been published in the literature. Their etiopathogenesis is poorly known. We report herein a new typical case of EVHC that was studied immunohistochemically. A 15-year-old male presented with a 4-year history of progressively developing small brown-gray papules on the trunk and extremities. Microscopically the lesions consisted of small epidermoid cysts containing vellus hairs. Immunohistochemically, the lesions expressed keratin 1/10, calretinin and p63 but no epithelial membrane antigen, filaggrin or androgen receptors. A review of the relevant literature shows that EVHC may be inherited or acquired and may be associated to other genodermatoses, namely sebocystomatosis. They could be due to hamartomatous follicular growth, to a trouble in infundibular keratinization leading to vellus hair follicle occlusion, or represent an example of acquired hamartoma. Although benign, this condition is difficult to treat. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Association Between Human Hair Loss and the Expression Levels of Nucleolin, Nucleophosmin, and UBTF Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Sener; Eroz, Recep; Dogan, Hasan; Erdem, Haktan Bagis; Sahin, Ibrahim; Kara, Murat; Engin, Ragip Ismail; Turkez, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Nucleolar organizer regions, also known as argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions, are associated with ribosomal genes. The main function of the nucleolus is the rapid production of ribosomal subunits, a process that must be highly regulated to provide the appropriate levels for cellular proliferation and cell growth. There are no studies in the literature addressing the expression and function of nucleolar component proteins, including nucleophosmin, nucleolin and the upstream binding transcription factor (UBTF), in human follicular hair cells. Nineteen healthy males who had normal and sufficient hair follicles on the back of the head, but exhibited hair loss on the frontal/vertex portions of the head and 14 healthy males without hair loss were included in the current study. Gene expression levels were measured by relative quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. In the individuals suffering from alopecia, the total expression levels of nucleolin, nucleophosmin, and UBTF were lower in normal sites than in hair loss sites. Strong expression level correlations were detected between: nucleophosmin and nucleolin; nucleophosmin and UBTF, and nucleolin and UBTF for both groups. There was an association between human hair loss and the expression levels of nucleolin, nucleophosmin, and UBTF genes.

  2. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: a possible hair pigmentation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Alexander; Noppe, Gerard; Liu, Fan; Kayser, Manfred; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-08-17

    Cortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association arises from local effects, such as increased hormone extractability, or whether the association represents systemic differences arising from population stratification. We tested the hypothesis that hair pigmentation gene variants are associated with varying cortisol levels independent of genetic ancestry. Hormone concentrations and genotype were measured in 1674 children from the Generation R cohort at age 6. We computed a polygenic score of hair color based on 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms. This score was used to predict hair cortisol concentrations, adjusted for genetic ancestry, sex, age and corticosteroid use. A 1-standard deviation (SD) higher polygenic score (darker hair) was associated with 0.08 SD higher cortisol levels (SE = 0.03, p = 0.002). This suggests that variation in hair cortisol concentrations is partly explained by local hair effects. In multi-ancestry studies this hair pigmentation bias can reduce power and confound results. Researchers should therefore consider adjusting analyses by reported hair color, by polygenic scores, or by both.

  3. Static and dynamic modes of 810 nm diode laser hair removal compared: A clinical and histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Tokuya

    2017-03-31

    Laser hair removal has recently become a major indication. Diode lasers have become commercially available offering two modes of application: a stamping or static mode, and a dynamic mode whereby the handpiece is continuously moved across the target tissue. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches clinically and histologically. Twenty-five subjects participated in the study, 12 males and 13 females, ages ranging from 20 to 57 yr (Mean age 41.6 yr). A baseline hair count was performed on both the target areas. The ms-pulsed diode laser delivered 810 nm via a handpiece with a cooled tip, offering both static and dynamic modes which were used on the subjects' left and right crura, respectively. Pain during treatment was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) and gross inspection was performed immediately after treatment for any abnormality in the treated skin. Hair counts were performed on both crura at 1 and 3 months after the treatment, and compared with the baseline counts. Biopsies were performed in the dynamic mode treated skin at baseline and at 1 month after the treatment, and assessed with light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All subjects completed the study. Compared with baseline, hair counts were significantly lower at 1 and 3 months post-treatment with no significant difference between the static and dynamic laser depilation modes, nor in the severity of the pain experienced during the procedure. Histologically, degenerative changes in the hair follicles were noted immediately after laser treatment. At one month, cystic formation was seen in the hair follicles showing a strong tendency towards apoptotic cell death. With the diode laser system and at the parameters used in the present study, high depilation efficacy was seen with no significant difference between the static and dynamic modes. Interestingly, good long-term depilation is probably a result of induced

  4. Parathyroid hormone linked to a collagen binding domain promotes hair growth in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Seymour, Andrew; Sakon, Joshua; Gensure, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a major source of psychological stress in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy, and it can influence treatment decisions. Although there is currently no therapy for alopecia, a fusion protein of parathyroid hormone and collagen binding domain (PTH-CBD) has shown promise in animal models. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are dose-dependent effects of PTH-CBD on chemotherapy-induced alopecia in a mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were waxed to synchronize hair follicles; treated on day 7 with vehicle or PTH-CBD (100, 320, and 1000 mcg/kg subcutaneous injection); and treated on day 9 with vehicle or cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg intraperitoneally). Mice were photographed every 3-4 days and killed on day 63 for histological analysis. Photographs were quantified by gray scale analysis to assess hair content. Mice not receiving chemotherapy showed regrowth of hair 2 weeks after waxing and normal histology after 2 months. Mice receiving chemotherapy alone showed marked hair loss after chemotherapy, which was sustained for 10 days and was followed by rapid regrowth of a normal coat. Histological analysis revealed rapid cycling dystrophic anagen/catagen follicles. Animals receiving chemotherapy and PTH-CBD showed decreased hair loss and more rapid regrowth of hair than that seen with chemotherapy alone (increased hair growth by gray scale analysis, Phair follicles in animals receiving the highest dose of PTH-CBD were in a quiescent phase, similar to that in mice that did not receive chemotherapy. Single-dose subcutaneous administration of PTH-CBD showed dose-dependent effects in minimizing hair loss and speeding up recovery from chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

  5. Titrated extract of Centella asiatica increases hair inductive property through inhibition of STAT signaling pathway in three-dimensional spheroid cultured human dermal papilla cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeong Min; An, Sungkwan; Lee, Junwoo; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Nam; Kim, Young Sam; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Bae, Seunghee

    2017-12-01

    Dermal papilla (DP) is a pivotal part of hair follicle, and the smaller size of the DP is related with the hair loss. In this study, we investigated the effect of titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) on hair growth inductive property on 3D spheroid cultured human DP cells (HDP cells). Significantly increased effect of TECA on cell viability was only shown in 3D sphered HPD cells, not in 2D cultured HDP cells. Also, TECA treatment increased the sphere size of HDP cells. The luciferase activity of STAT reporter genes and the expression of STAT-targeted genes, SOCS1 and SOCS3, were significantly decreased. Also, TECA treatment increased the expression of the hair growth-related signature genes in 3D sphered HDP cells. Furthermore, TECA led to downregulation of the level of phosphorylated STAT proteins in 3D sphered HDP cells. Overall, TECA activates the potential of hair inductive capacity in HDP cells.

  6. The Promoting Effect of Ishige sinicola on Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Kyoung Kang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3β level, β-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of β-catenin pathway, and the 5α-reductase inhibition.

  7. Autosomal recessive transmission of a rare KRT74 variant causes hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia: allelism with dominant woolly hair/hypotrichosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroteya Raykova

    Full Text Available Pure hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia (PHNED comprises a heterogeneous group of rare heritable disorders characterized by brittle hair, hypotrichosis, onychodystrophy and micronychia. Autosomal recessive (AR PHNED has previously been associated with mutations in either KRT85 or HOXC13 on chromosome 12p11.1-q14.3. We investigated a consanguineous Pakistani family with AR PHNED linked to the keratin gene cluster on 12p11.1 but without detectable mutations in KRT85 and HOXC13. Whole exome sequencing of affected individuals revealed homozygosity for a rare c.821T>C variant (p.Phe274Ser in the KRT74 gene that segregates AR PHNED in the family. The transition alters the highly conserved Phe274 residue in the coil 1B domain required for long-range dimerization of keratins, suggesting that the mutation compromises the stability of intermediate filaments. Immunohistochemical (IHC analyses confirmed a strong keratin-74 expression in the nail matrix, the nail bed and the hyponychium of mouse distal digits, as well as in normal human hair follicles. Furthermore, hair follicles and epidermis of an affected family member stained negative for Keratin-74 suggesting a loss of function mechanism mediated by the Phe274Ser substitution. Our observations show for the first time that homozygosity for a KRT74 missense variant may be associated with AR PHNED. Heterozygous KRT74 mutations have previously been associated with autosomal dominant woolly hair/hypotrichosis simplex (ADWH. Thus, our findings expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with KRT74 mutations and imply that a subtype of AR PHNED is allelic with ADWH.

  8. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...

  9. Systemic causes of hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richard L; Garibyan, Lilit; Kimball, Alexandra B; Drake, Lynn A

    2016-09-01

    Hair loss is both a common chief complaint by patients and a clinical challenge for physicians, especially general practitioners, yet few dermatological problems yield as much patient satisfaction when resolved as hair loss. The diagnosis is often attributed to androgen-related hair loss, while other causes, some of which are life-threatening but treatable, are overlooked. We searched for relevant literature on hair loss and supported these findings with our clinical experience to identify seven major systemic etiologies of hair loss, ranging from infectious agents to consumption of unsafe supplements. Many causes are only described in the literature through case studies, though some original articles and meta-analyses are available. Careful history taking, proper examination techniques, and judicious use of laboratory tests are essential to reach at the correct diagnosis in a cost-effective manner when performing patient work-up. Such methodical evaluation of hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction. Key messages Hair loss is a common chief complaint and a difficult challenge for both general practitioners and dermatology consultants. We identified seven major categories of systemic hair loss etiology and present a framework for their clinical evaluation. A methodical approach to hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction.

  10. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with trichotillomania, hair pulling is a way of dealing with negative or uncomfortable feelings, such as stress, anxiety, tension, boredom, loneliness, fatigue or frustration. Positive feelings. ...

  11. Empty follicle syndrome-Still an enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Empty follicle syndrome (EFS, although rare with an incidence of 0.2-7%, is a frustrating condition where no oocytes are retrieved in in vitro fertilization (IVF, even though ultrasound and estradiol measurements show the presence of many potential follicles. It is a complex phenomenon that cannot be explained by low bioavailability of human chorionic gonadotrophin alone; neither can it be reliably diagnosed by the measurement of serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (bhCG on the day of oocyte retrieval (OR, except possibly when the bhCG concentration is very low. Here we report a case who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI for her partner′s severe oligoasthenozoospermia. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH was done in her first cycle of ICSI, using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist long protocol with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG. However, as we were unable to retrieve any oocytes, her COH protocol was changed in the subsequent cycle with a successful outcome.

  12. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 0; c Teaching your child healthy hair care habits Many common hair care practices can lead to ... conditioner. Teaching your child other healthy hair care habits Many things that we do to style our ...

  13. A Microarray-Based Analysis Reveals that a Short Photoperiod Promotes Hair Growth in the Arbas Cashmere Goat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    Full Text Available Many animals exhibit different behaviors in different seasons. The photoperiod can have effects on migration, breeding, fur growth, and other processes. The cyclic growth of the fur and feathers of some species of mammals and birds, respectively, is stimulated by the photoperiod as a result of hormone-dependent regulation of the nervous system. To further examine this phenomenon, we evaluated the Arbas Cashmere goat (Capra hircus, a species that is often used in this type of research. The goats were exposed to an experimentally controlled short photoperiod to study the regulation of cyclic cashmere growth. Exposure to a short photoperiod extended the anagen phase of the Cashmere goat hair follicle to increase cashmere production. Assessments of tissue sections indicated that the short photoperiod significantly induced cashmere growth. This conclusion was supported by a comparison of the differences in gene expression between the short photoperiod and natural conditions using gene chip technology. Using the gene chip data, we identified genes that showed altered expression under the short photoperiod compared to natural conditions, and these genes were found to be involved in the biological processes of hair follicle growth, structural composition of the hair follicle, and the morphogenesis of the surrounding skin appendages. Knowledge about differences in the expression of these genes as well as their functions and periodic regulation patterns increases our understanding of Cashmere goat hair follicle growth. This study also provides preliminary data that may be useful for the development of an artificial method to improve cashmere production by controlling the light cycle, which has practical significance for livestock breeding.

  14. New approach for assessing human perfluoroalkyl exposure via hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Jacobs, Griet; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years hair has been increasingly used as alternative matrix in human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental pollutants. Sampling advantages and time integration of exposure assessment seems the most attractive features of hair matrix. In the current study, a novel miniaturized method was developed and validated for measuring 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluoro n-butanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro n-hexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoro n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluor n-octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoro n-nonanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoro tetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro pentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononane sulfonic acid (PFNS), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) and perfluorododecane sulfonic acid (PFDoS) in human hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After extraction using ethyl acetate, dispersive ENVI-Carb was used for clean-up. Good intra- and inter-day precision for low (LQ 5 ng/g hair) and high spike (HQ 15n g/g) levels were achieved (in general RSD hair and 3-13 pg/g hair, respectively. The method limit of quantification (LOQm) ranged between 6 and 301 pg/g hair. The PFAS levels were measured in 30 human hair samples indicating that the levels are low (14-1534 pg/g hair). Some PFAS were not present in any hair sample (e.g. PFHpA, PFTeDA, PFNA, PFPeS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFNS), while other PFAS were frequently detected (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS and PFDoS) in human hair. Although levels in general were low, there is evidence of higher human exposure to some analytes, such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, and PFDoS. The current study shows that hair is a suitable alternative non-invasive matrix for exposure assessment of PFAS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Smokers′ hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A Zayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Results: Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2% had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group while the other 103 (49.8% were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031. Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4 vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6, P = 0.034. Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6 more prone to develop PHG. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  16. Smokers' hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A; Shahait, Awni D; Ayoub, Musa N; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-04-01

    To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2%) had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group) while the other 103 (49.8%) were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031). Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4) vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6), P = 0.034). Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6) more prone to develop PHG. This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half) between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  17. Cellular development of the human cochlea and the regenerative potential of hair follicle bulge stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locher, heiko

    2015-01-01

    The embryonic development of the human cochlea (the organ of hearing) has been investigated for over one hundred years. However, little is still known about the development on a cellular and protein level, which is important to better understand etiologies and pathologies of various types of

  18. Cathepsin B as a potential cystatin M/E target in the mouse hair follicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oortveld, M.A.W.; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M.J.J. van; Kersten, F.F.J.; Cheng, T.; Verdoes, M.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Verbeek, S.; Reinheckel, T.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Schalkwijk, J.; Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Deficiency of the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin M/E (Cst6) in mice leads to disturbed epidermal cornification, impaired barrier function, and neonatal lethality. We report the rescue of the lethal skin phenotype of ichq (Cst6-deficient; Cst6-/-) mice by transgenic, epidermis-specific,

  19. Investigation of Hair Follicle and Plasma Biomarkers for Low-Level VX Vapor Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    become a popular method to determine exposure to drugs of abuse (e.g. cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine , heroin, marijuana, and steroids...inhibition levels of less than 20%. Secondly, due to the de novo synthesis of new AChE, this method cannot be used for retrospective determination

  20. Dataset on gene expression profiling of multiple murine hair follicle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Anders Patrik; Christensen, Rikke; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    panel was used in our associated article doi:10.1016/j.scr.2016.06.002 (A.P. Gunnarsson, R. Christensen, J. Li, U.B. Jensen, 2016) [1] and the present dataset describes the basic controls for the FACS. We also used imaging flow cytometry to visualize the identified populations as control. A more...

  1. Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Hair Follicle Bulge Neural Crest Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; Czepiel, Marcin; Krause, Tina; Schaefer, Karl-Herbert; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are promising candidates for the study of disease models as well as for tissue engineering purposes. Part of a strategy to develop safe reprogramming technique is reducing the number of exogenous reprogramming factors. Some cells types are more prone to

  2. Home-applied IPL epilation may prevent the problems due to hair follicle in amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergözen, S; Ercan, E; Demir, Y

    2016-08-01

    Amputees may suffer from dermatoses such as folliculitis and pilonidal sinus caused by pressure on the stump in hairy parts of the skin. These conditions commonly cause pain and need treatment that result in abandonment of prosthesis use and disrupt the patient's daily living activities. We believe these conditions may be easily, effectively and cheaply prevented with the use of intense pulsed light technology, which is produced for home epilation. The use of this kind of epilator in the early period post-amputation may prevent the development of folliculitis and pilonidal sinus. This application may also be cost-effective in long term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    , to be replaced by synthesis of other components including type I and III collagens. It seems likely therefore that the dermal papilla cells in vivo synthesize a basement membrane type of extracellular matrix, although a contribution from epithelial, and in some cases capillary endothelial, cells cannot be ruled...

  4. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating.......20-0.71 and 0.80-1.63) per exercise. The results revealed relative standard deviations of 7.87-13.55% and 4.04-11.31% for the low and high mercury concentration ranges, respectively. A total of 16 out of 18 participating laboratories the QAP requirements and were allowed to analyze samples from the DEMOCOPHES...

  5. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  6. Hair regrowth after cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, S.L.; Whitton, A.; Plowman, P.N. (Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (UK))

    1983-07-01

    Florid scalp hair regrowth following the depilatory effects of both whole cranial radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy is described in a patient who simultaneously exhibited acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa in the head and neck region. The regrowth of more youthful and more senile scalp hair following cranial radiotherapy are exemplified in two further case reports.

  7. Professionalizing hair care in Tonga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the last two decades, Nuku'alofa, the capital of Tonga, witnessed an explosion of a particular kind of business, hair salons. For owners, workers, and customers alike, hair salons represent modernity and cosmopolitanism, and they thus attract a particular kind of clientele and

  8. Biological evaluation of human hair keratin scaffolds for skin wound repair and regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Songmei; Sang, Lin [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Yaping [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wang, Xiaoliang [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, Xudong, E-mail: xli20004@yahoo.com [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The cytocompatibility, in vivo biodegradation and wound healing of keratin biomaterials were investigated. For the purposes, three groups of keratin scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying reduced solutions at 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 8 wt.% keratins extracted from human hairs. These scaffolds exhibited evenly distributed high porous structures with pore size of 120-220 {mu}m and the porosity > 90%. NIH3T3 cells proliferated well on these scaffolds in culture lasting up to 22 days. Confocal micrographs stained with AO visually revealed cell attachment and infiltration as well as scaffold architectural stability. In vivo animal experiments were conducted with 4 wt.% keratin scaffolds. Early degradation of subcutaneously implanted scaffolds occurred at 3 weeks in the outermost surface, in concomitant with inflammatory response. At 5 weeks, the overall porous structure of scaffolds severely deteriorated while the early inflammatory response in the outermost surface obviously subsided. A faster keratin biodegradation was observed in repairing full-thickness skin defects. Compared with the blank control, keratin scaffolds gave rise to more blood vessels at 2 weeks and better complete wound repair at 3 weeks with a thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles. These preliminary results suggest that human hair keratin scaffolds are promising dermal substitutes for skin regeneration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of highly-interconnected human hair keratin scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term cell culturing and in vivo animal experiments with keratin scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradation is dependent on implantation site and function Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early vascularization and better repair in treating full-thickness skin wounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles are observed.

  9. A toddler with hair fascination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Patricia; Needlman, Robert D; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    Joseph is a 24-months old boy referred by his pediatrician because of an "obsession" with pulling and eating hair. When Joseph was 14 months old, he enjoyed touching and twirling his mother's long hair. She observed that it seemed to provide comfort to him. At 18 months, he initiated pulling out and eating his own hair, twirling his mother's hair around his thumb and then sucking on it. Currently, he searches the carpet or a hard floor and looks for hair to eat. The identical behavior is observed at daycare. Joseph's teacher commented, "He pulled hair from a girl who has the longest hair of all the children. We try to distract him from this habit, but he is not distracted for long." Less frequently, Joseph has also eaten sand, chalk, and crayons at daycare. Joseph's mother describes him as a "happy and outgoing" child who interacts with his peers and has a best friend at the daycare. There have not been recent changes or stressful events in his life. Joseph separates from his mother with ease and he sleeps comfortably through the night in his own bed. There have been no episodes of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or constipation. Strands of hair are occasionally seen in the stool. Prenatal and perinatal history was unremarkable. Joseph was breast-fed for 11 months, described as an "easy" baby, achieved motor, social, and language developmental milestones at the usual time, and has been in excellent health. He lives with his mother and maternal grandparents; the biological father has never been involved in his care. At 20 months, Joseph's pediatrician suggested cutting his hair. After several haircuts, Joseph stopped pulling his own hair. However, he continued to search the floor for hair. Hemoglobin and a blood lead level were normal. Joseph appeared pleasant and friendly with normal growth parameters and facial features. He was sitting comfortably on his mother's lap, sucking on his thumb. Social interactions with his mother were appropriate and reciprocal. He

  10. Lengthened superstimulatory treatment in cattle: Evidence for rescue of follicles within a wave rather than continuous recruitment of new follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Guerra, A; Tribulo, A; Yapura, J; Adams, G P; Singh, J; Mapletoft, R J

    2015-08-01

    A study was designed to compare the effects of a conventional (4 days) versus a lengthened (7 days) superstimulation protocol on follicle dynamics and to test the hypothesis that superstimulatory treatment only rescues small follicles within the wave. Nonlactating beef cows received a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device [PRID] and were superstimulated with 400-mg FSH on the day of follicle ablation-induced wave emergence (Day 0). The control group (n = 5) received FSH over 4 days, whereas the long group (n = 5) received FSH over 7 days. PGF was administered twice on Day 2 (control group) or 5 (long group), and PRIDs were removed 24 hours after the first PGF. Cows received 25-mg LH 24 hours after PRID removal. The cows chosen for the present study represented a subset from a larger group of 24 cows in which superovulation results were obtained and published. Cows in the present study were those with the lowest antral follicle counts at the time of wave emergence in order to facilitate tracking of individual follicles. Daily ultrasonographic examinations monitored follicle diameters and numbers. A reduction (P < 0.01) in the number of 1- to 2-mm follicles from Day 0 to the end of the superstimulatory treatment was associated with a progressive shift to the next size category in both groups. On the day of LH treatment, the number of follicles in any size category did not differ between groups. The number of follicles of diameter 5 mm or less decreased during superstimulation (i.e., no continuous recruitment of small follicles; P < 0.001), and the number of follicles of diameter 1 mm or greater at the end of superstimulation did not differ from that at the beginning of superstimulation (P = 0.739). However, the total number of follicles of diameter 3 mm or greater at the end was greater than the number of follicles of diameter 3 mm or greater at the beginning of superstimulation because of growth of the 1- to 2-mm population during treatment (P < 0

  11. The influence of hair lipids in ethnic hair properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, M; Barba, C; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Coderch, L

    2016-02-01

    Biochemical studies have mainly focused on the composition of hair. African hair exhibited lower moisturization and less radial swelling when flushing with water compared with Asian or Caucasian hair, and they assumed a possible lipid differentiation among human populations. This study consists in the lipid characterization of different ethnic hairs (Caucasian, Asian and African hairs) and the influence of these lipids in different hair properties such as humidity and mechanical properties. Evaluation of water sorption and desorption of the different ethnic hairs and with and without lipids is also studied mainly to determine permeation changes of the keratin fibres. Extractions of exogenous and endogenous lipids with different organic solvents were performed; lipid analysis and its quantification using thin-layer chromatography coupled to an automated flame ionization detector (TLC/FID) were performed. Absorption and desorption curves were obtained in a thermogravimetric balance equipped with a controlled humidity chamber, the Q5000SA Sorption Analyzer (TA Instruments, New Castle, IL, U.S.A.). Also, mechanical properties (breaking stress and breaking elongation) were analysed using a computer programmable dynamometer (Instron 5500R). Lipid extraction showed the highest amount of total lipids for the African hair which may come from external sebaceous lipids compared with Asian or Caucasian hair. Caucasian fibres were found to be the most hydrated fibre, and a decrease in moisture was found in the extracted fibres, again, which is more important for the Caucasian hair. A superior lineal mass was found for the Asian fibres which supported their higher strength. The results obtained from the analysis of the mechanical properties of delipidized fibres indicate a surprising increase in the strength of African and Caucasian fibres. Perhaps this increase in strength could be related to the humidity decrease in lipid-extracted hair fibres. Results of water uptake and

  12. Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH): a new player in human hair-growth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáspár, Erzsébet; Hardenbicker, Celine; Bodó, Eniko; Wenzel, Björn; Ramot, Yuval; Funk, Wolfgang; Kromminga, Arno; Paus, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is the most proximal component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis that regulates thyroid hormone synthesis. Since transcripts for members of this axis were detected in cultured normal human skin cells and since human hair follicles (HFs) respond to stimulation with thyrotropin, we now have studied whether human HF functions are also modulated by TRH. Here we report that the epithelium of normal human scalp HFs expresses not only TRH receptors (TRH-R) but also TRH itself at the gene and protein level. Stimulation of microdissected, organ-cultured HFs with TRH promotes hair-shaft elongation, prolongs the hair cycle growth phase (anagen), and antagonizes its termination by TGF-beta2. It also increases proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of hair matrix keratinocytes. These TRH effects may be mediated in part by reducing the ATM/Atr-dependent phosphorylation of p53. By microarray analysis, several differentially up- or down-regulated TRH-target genes were detected (e.g., selected keratins). Thus, human scalp HFs are both a source and a target of TRH, which operates as a potent hair-growth stimulator. Human HFs provide an excellent discovery tool for identifying and dissecting nonclassical functions of TRH and TRH-mediated signaling in situ, which emerge as novel players in human epithelial biology.

  13. Hair removal using a combination radio-frequency and intense pulsed light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmai, Dina; Garden, Jerome M; Bakus, Aboneal D; Spenceri, Elizabeth A; Hruza, George J; Kilmer, Suzanne L

    2004-12-01

    The long-term removal of unwanted hair is achieved by many laser and intense pulse light sources. One limitation is the treatment of individuals with dark skin. The light energy with the current systems has to penetrate through the epidermis before being absorbed by the hair follicle. In individuals with dark skin the high melanin concentration in the epidermis absorbs high energies that can lead to complications. The objective of our study was to study a new system that combines optical energy, intense pulsed light (IPL), with radio frequency (RF). This allows for the use of less optical energy due to the addition of RF energy. The lower optical fluence allows for safer treatment of darker skin types. This was a multicenter study, in which 87 patients were enrolled. A single treatment was performed on a specified body site. Twenty-one of the 69 subjects that completed the study had skin types IV-VI. Each subject was evaluated at 1, 7, 30, and 90 days after the treatment session. Hair counts were significantly reduced from baseline after one treatment by an average of 46%. Individual patient data showed that the percentage in hair count reduction achieved ranged from 0 to 100%, with 43% of the patients having a 50% or greater decrease. The combination of optical energy and RF when delivered simultaneously achieves effective hair reduction with the use of less optical energy, allowing for the safe treatment of all skin types.

  14. Undariopsis peterseniana Promotes Hair Growth by the Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin and ERK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Il Kang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of Undariopsis peterseniana, an edible brown alga, on hair growth. The treatment of vibrissa follicles with U. peterseniana extract ex vivo for 21 days significantly increased the hair-fiber lengths. The U. peterseniana extract also significantly accelerated anagen initiation in vivo. Moreover, we found that U. peterseniana extract was able to open the KATP channel, which may contribute to increased hair growth. The U. peterseniana extract decreased 5α-reductase activity and markedly increased the proliferation of dermal papilla cells, a central regulator of the hair cycle. The U. peterseniana extract increased the levels of cell cycle proteins, such as Cyclin D1, phospho(ser780-pRB, Cyclin E, phospho-CDK2, and CDK2. The U. peterseniana extract also increased the phosphorylation of ERK and the levels of Wnt/β-catenin signaling proteins such as glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β and β-catenin. These results suggested that the U. peterseniana extract had the potential to influence hair growth by dermal papilla cells proliferation through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin and ERK pathways. We isolated a principal of the U. peterseniana extract, which was subsequently identified as apo-9′-fucoxanthinone, a trichogenic compound. The results suggested that U. peterseniana extract may have a pivotal role in the treatment of alopecia.

  15. A study of hair follicular transplantation as a treatment option for vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repigmentation of vitiligo is closely related to hair follicles. Hence, replenishing melanocytes in vitiliginous patches utilizing undifferentiated stem cells of the hair follicles using follicular unit transplantation (FUT is a possible treatment option. Objectives of the Study: To study the efficacy of FUT in cases of segmental/stabilized vitiligo as a treatment option for leukotrichia. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with 63 lesions of stable vitiligo over nonglabrous areas were treated with follicular unit grafts. Reduction in the size of vitiligo patches as well as improvement in the associated leukotrichia were evaluated using subjective and objective assessments. Results: Of the 63 patches, good to excellent response was seen in 39 (61.9%, fair in 16 (25.4%, and poor in eight (12.7% lesions. No repigmentation was seen in two (4.8% lesions. The mean improvement seen was 61.17%. Excellent color match was observed in 44 lesions (69.8%. Repigmentation of the depigmented hairs occurred in 11 out of 46 patients with associated leukotrichia. Conclusion: FUT is a safe and effective method for treating localized and segmental vitiligo, especially on hairy parts of the skin. Though labor intensive, it was found to be associated with a quick patient recovery time, very low morbidity, and good color match.

  16. A quantitative assessment of follicle size on oocyte developmental competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Mitchell P.; Shen, Shehua; Dobson, Anthony T.; Rinaudo, Paolo F.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Cedars, Marcelle I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively assess the impact of follicle size on oocyte maturation, fertilization, and embryo quality. Design Prospective study. Setting Academic medical center. Patient(s) Couples undergoing ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Intervention(s) A total of 235 cycles were monitored prospectively, and 2934 oocytes were collected from five groups of follicle size. Repeated measures multivariate analyses were used to compare the smaller follicle sizes with the lead follicle. Main Outcome Measure(s) Oocyte maturation, fertilization, and embryo quality. Result(s) Compared with the lead follicular group (>18 mm), the odds of a mature oocyte from a 16 to 18 mm size follicle were 37% and declined progressively with each size. The odds of fertilization of oocytes from follicles 16 to 18 mm in size was 28% less than the lead group and decreased with each size. The rate of polyspermy with conventional insemination was increased for the smaller follicular groups (adjusted odds ratio =2.37). Follicle size did not predict embryo cell number, but embryos from smaller follicles had a statistically significantly higher fragmentation compared with the lead group. Conclusion(s) The lead follicular group was most likely to have a mature oocyte that was capable of fertilization and best suited for development into a high-quality embryo. The smaller follicles were capable of producing metaphase II oocytes that could fertilize, but at rates approaching only 60% that of the lead follicular group. PMID:18249377

  17. Genomic portrait of ovarian follicle growth regulation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielak-Steciwko, Anna E; Evans, Alexander C O

    2016-09-01

    The female reproductive cycle is characterized by cyclic patterns of growth of ovarian follicles destined to ovulate and the degeneration of those not chosen for ovulation. Apoptosis is the underlying mechanism of ovarian follicle degeneration during atresia. The fate of ovarian follicles is under the control of endocrine hormones (e.g. gonadotropins) and intra-ovarian regulators (e.g. growth factors and gonadal steroids), but the intra-cellular and molecular regulation of follicle fate (cellular proliferation or atresia) are still not fully understood. Studies using genomic tools which aim to determine the expression profiles of mRNAs and miRNAs in bovine dominant and subordinate ovarian follicles at different stages of the follicle wave have indicated that there are some novel molecular factors (e.g. FOXO1 and miR-183∼96∼182 cluster) associated with ovarian follicle development. Furthermore, bioinformatics tools have been used to identify the interactions between mRNAs and miRNAs leading to better understanding of ovarian follicle growth regulation in cattle. This review summarizes the recent findings about the complex intracellular communication networks involving miRNA, their target genes and signalling molecules which together may coordinate the fate of cattle ovarian follicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  18. Viability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles after vitrification in a metal container.

    OpenAIRE

    MARQUES, L.S.; Bos-Mikich, A.; Godoy, L.C.; Silva,L.A; Maschio, D; Zhang, Tiantian; Streit, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been studied for female germline preservation of farm animals and endangered mammalian species. However, there are relatively few reports on cryopreservation of fish ovarian tissue and especially using vitrification approach. Previous studies of our group has shown that the use of a metal container for the cryopreservation of bovine ovarian fragments results in good primordial and primary follicle morphological integrity after vitrification. The aim of t...

  19. Superiority of dutasteride over finasteride in hair regrowth and reversal of miniaturization in men with androgenetic alopecia: A randomized controlled open-label, evaluator-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanshanwal, Sujit J S; Dhurat, Rachita S

    2017-01-01

    Finasteride and dutasteride are inhibitors of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase which inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Dutasteride inhibits both type I and type II 5-alpha-reductase while finasteride inhibits only the type II enzyme. As both isoenzymes are present in hair follicles, it is likely that dutasteride is more effective than finasteride. To compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of dutasteride and finasteride in men with androgenetic alopecia. Men with androgenetic alopecia between 18 and 40 years of age were randomized to receive 0.5 mg dutasteride or 1 mg finasteride daily for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy variables were hair counts (thick and thin) in the target area from modified phototrichograms and global photography evaluation by blinded and non-blinded investigators. The secondary efficacy variable was subjective assessment using a preset questionnaire. Patients were assessed monthly for side effects. Ninety men with androgenetic alopecia were recruited. The increase in total hair count per cm[2] representing new growth was significantly higher in dutasteride group (baseline- 223 hair; at 24 weeks- 246 hair) compared to finasteride group (baseline- 227 hair; at 24 weeks- 231 hair). The decrease in thin hair count per cm[2] suggestive of reversal of miniaturization was significantly higher in dutasteride group (baseline- 65 hair; at 24 weeks- 57 hair) compared to finasteride group (baseline- 67 hair; at 24 weeks- 66 hair). Both the groups showed a similar side effect profile with sexual dysfunction being the most common and reversible side effect. Limitations include the short duration of the study (6 months), the small sample size and the fact that it was an open-label study. Dutasteride was shown to be more efficacious than finasteride and the side-effect profiles were comparable.

  20. Superiority of dutasteride over finasteride in hair regrowth and reversal of miniaturization in men with androgenetic alopecia: A randomized controlled open-label, evaluator-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit J.S Shanshanwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finasteride and dutasteride are inhibitors of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase which inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Dutasteride inhibits both type I and type II 5-alpha-reductase while finasteride inhibits only the type II enzyme. As both isoenzymes are present in hair follicles, it is likely that dutasteride is more effective than finasteride. Aims: To compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of dutasteride and finasteride in men with androgenetic alopecia. Methods: Men with androgenetic alopecia between 18 and 40 years of age were randomized to receive 0.5 mg dutasteride or 1 mg finasteride daily for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy variables were hair counts (thick and thin in the target area from modified phototrichograms and global photography evaluation by blinded and non-blinded investigators. The secondary efficacy variable was subjective assessment using a preset questionnaire. Patients were assessed monthly for side effects. Results: Ninety men with androgenetic alopecia were recruited. The increase in total hair count per cm[2] representing new growth was significantly higher in dutasteride group (baseline- 223 hair; at 24 weeks- 246 hair compared to finasteride group (baseline- 227 hair; at 24 weeks- 231 hair. The decrease in thin hair count per cm[2] suggestive of reversal of miniaturization was significantly higher in dutasteride group (baseline- 65 hair; at 24 weeks- 57 hair compared to finasteride group (baseline- 67 hair; at 24 weeks- 66 hair. Both the groups showed a similar side effect profile with sexual dysfunction being the most common and reversible side effect. Limitations: Limitations include the short duration of the study (6 months, the small sample size and the fact that it was an open-label study. Conclusions: Dutasteride was shown to be more efficacious than finasteride and the side-effect profiles were comparable.

  1. Hallmarks of Human Small Antral Follicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine G; Mamsen, Linn S; Jeppesen, Janni V

    2018-01-01

    Regulation of human ovarian steroidogenesis differs from other species and precise knowledge on how human small antral follicles (hSAF) develop and acquire competence for continued growth and steroid output is still incomplete. The present study has characterized almost 1,000 normal hSAF collected...... increased steroid output profoundly. Furthermore, the highly significant association between FSHR and AR mRNA gene expression enforces important functions of androgens in follicular development. Collectively, these data reintroduce the understanding of the follicular phase as two parted in which regulation...

  2. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  3. A Comparative Study of Vitamin D Levels in Persons with Hair Loss and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Eshghi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Alopecia or hair loss is defined as the loss of hair on the head or body. Despite the benign prognosis of hair loss, it has a clear impact on the quality of life of the patients who are involved. There are many reasons to explain the pathophysiology of hair loss. Among many nutritional factors, vitamin D deficiency may play a role in hair loss too. Active vitamin D or 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D has an effect on the expression of some genes in normal differentiation of epidermal cells and hair follicles. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of vitamin D in patients with hair loss compared with healthy controls. Materials & Methods: From 2014 to 2015, 70 patients were enrolled in this case-control study. Including 40 women and 30 men, the mean age was 31.2 ± 0.82 years in the case group, 33.8 ± 0.92 years in the control group. Groups were matched by sex, age and season of review. In the both groups, there were 20 women (57.1% and 15 men (42.5%. After the clinical diagno-sis of hair loss by the physician, patient's blood samples were sent for testing vitamin D levels by kits of a laboratory center. Results: Patients, compared with controls, had lower levels of vitamin D and there was signifi-cant relationship between hair loss and low levels of vitamin D (16.188±6.91 vs 20.37±7.47, and P=0.04. Female patients had lower levels of vitamin D, compared with controls and there was significant relationship between hair loss and low levels of vitamin D (14.14±5.8 vs 18.74±7.08 and P=0.03. The group of male patients had lower levels of vitamin D, but in comparison with the control group, no significant relationship was found. Conclusion: This study showed that, there is a relationship between vitamin D levels and hair loss in women. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (1:71-75

  4. Transcriptome response to hormonal manipulation of follicle-enclosed oocytes in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captive fish often display reproductive dysfunction associated with follicle maturation. Gonadotropins and the progestogen maturation-inducing hormones (MIH) are important regulators of follicle maturation; however, their actions including regulating follicle maturation are not fully understood. The...

  5. Isolation, expansion and neural differentiation of stem cells from human plucked hair: a further step towards autologous nerve recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gho, Coen G; Schomann, Timo; de Groot, Simon C; Frijns, Johan H M; Rivolta, Marcelo N; Neumann, Martino H A; Huisman, Margriet A

    2016-10-01

    Stem cells from the adult hair follicle bulge can differentiate into neurons and glia, which is advantageous for the development of an autologous cell-based therapy for neurological diseases. Consequently, bulge stem cells from plucked hair may increase opportunities for personalized neuroregenerative therapy. Hairs were plucked from the scalps of healthy donors, and the bulges were cultured without prior tissue treatment. Shortly after outgrowth from the bulge, cellular protein expression was established immunohistochemically. The doubling time was calculated upon expansion, and the viability of expanded, cryopreserved cells was assessed after shear stress. The neuroglial differentiation potential was assessed from cryopreserved cells. Shortly after outgrowth, the cells were immunopositive for nestin, SLUG, AP-2α and SOX9, and negative for SOX10. Each bulge yielded approximately 1 × 10(4) cells after three passages. Doubling time was 3.3 (±1.5) days. Cellular viability did not differ significantly from control cells after shear stress. The cells expressed class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) and synapsin-1 after 3 weeks of neuronal differentiation. Glial differentiation yielded KROX20- and MPZ-immunopositive cells after 2 weeks. We demonstrated that human hair follicle bulge-derived stem cells can be cultivated easily, expanded efficiently and kept frozen until needed. After cryopreservation, the cells were viable and displayed both neuronal and glial differentiation potential.

  6. Hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone reduce production of melanin in melanoma cells by tyrosinase activity inhibition and decreasing tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-09

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future.

  7. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Mei Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future.

  8. Hair Cortisol in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu

    2017-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors....... However, whether HCC and psychological variables share genetic risk factors remains unclear. The aims of the present twin study were to: (i) assess the heritability of HCC; (ii) estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlation between HPA axis activity and the psychological variables perceived stress...... depression, and neuroticism were calculated using data from large genome wide association studies. The twin model revealed a heritability for HCC of 72%. No significant phenotypic or genetic correlation was found between HCC and the three psychological variables of interest. PRS did not explain variance...

  9. Root hair-specific disruption of cellulose and xyloglucan in AtCSLD3 mutants, and factors affecting the post-rupture resumption of mutant root hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, Moira E; Eng, Ryan C; Schiefelbein, John W; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O

    2011-05-01

    The glycosyl transferase encoded by the cellulose synthase-like gene CSLD3/KJK/RHD7 (At3g03050) is required for cell wall integrity during root hair formation in Arabidopsis thaliana but it remains unclear whether it contributes to the synthesis of cellulose or hemicellulose. We identified two new alleles, root hair-defective (rhd) 7-1 and rhd7-4, which affect the C-terminal end of the encoded protein. Like root hairs in the previously characterized kjk-2 putative null mutant, rhd7-1 and rhd7-4 hairs rupture before tip growth but, depending on the growth medium and temperature, hairs are able to survive rupture and initiate tip growth, indicating that these alleles retain some function. At 21°C, the rhd7 tip-growing root hairs continued to rupture but at 5ºC, rupture was inhibited, resulting in long, wild type-like root hairs. At both temperatures, the expression of another root hair-specific CSLD gene, CSLD2, was increased in the rhd7-4 mutant but reduced in the kjk-2 mutant, suggesting that CSLD2 expression is CSLD3-dependent, and that CSLD2 could partially compensate for CSLD3 defects to prevent rupture at 5°C. Using a fluorescent brightener (FB 28) to detect cell wall (1 → 4)-β-glucans (primarily cellulose) and CCRC-M1 antibody to detect fucosylated xyloglucans revealed a patchy distribution of both in the mutant root hair cell walls. Cell wall thickness varied, and immunogold electron microscopy indicated that xyloglucan distribution was altered throughout the root hair cell walls. These cell wall defects indicate that CSLD3 is required for the normal organization of both cellulose and xyloglucan in root hair cell walls.

  10. Hair removal using a combination of conducted radiofrequency and optical energies--an 18-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadick, Neil S; Shaoul, James

    2004-05-01

    Multiple lasers and intense pulsed light sources have been shown to provide long-term hair removal; however, the management of all dark skin phenotypes and light-colored hair remains problematic. The present study examined the long-term photoepilatory effect of a combined intense pulsed light (IPL) (680-980 nm)/radiofrequency (RF) (10-30 J/cm3) light source and its efficiency for the treatment of multiple skin phenotypes and varied hair colors. Forty adult patients (skin phenotypes II-V) with varied facial and non-facial hair colors were treated with a combined IPL/RF technology. Four treatments were carried out over a period of 9-12 months at 8-12-week intervals. Light energy ranged from 15 to 26 J/cm2, while RF energy varied from 10 to 20 J/cm3. Hair counts and photographic evaluation of skin sites were obtained at baseline, and months 1, 3 and 5 after the final treatment session. H&E biopsies were examined at 1 week in five randomly selected study cohorts. Maximum hair reduction was observed at 6-8 weeks after each treatment. An average clearance of 75% was observed in all body locations at 18 months. No significant adverse sequelae were reported. Results showed no significant dependence on skin color: lighter and darker skin types responded similarly to treatment. Histologic evaluation revealed thermal damage to hair follicles with vacuolar degeneration. The combined IPL (680-980 nm)/RF light source with contact cooling is a safe and effective method of long-term hair reduction in patients of diversified skin types and varied hair colors and is associated with excellent patient safety.

  11. A mechanical model of overnight hair curling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hang; Chen, Xi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the observation of overnight hair curling procedure, we establish a mechanical model to describe the temporary wave formation of straight hair (initial curvature is zero), which incorporates the contact between hair and hair roller. Systematic studies are carried out to explore the effects of radius ratio between hair and hair roller, hair's average axial strain, creep time, Poisson's ratio and gravity on the curl retention. The variation of curl retention with respect to time obtained from our numerical model is validated by a simple theoretical model and by overnight curling experiments on hair samples. The results of simulation show that overnight hair curling is suitable to create a wavy hairstyle within about 7 hours, while the combined usage with hair fixatives enables a wavy hairstyle with desired curvature that lasts for a day or more.

  12. Superficially located enlarged lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuma; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Hitomi; Iwaya, Yugo; Tanaka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Nodular gastritis is a form of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis affecting the gastric antrum and characterised endoscopically by the presence of small nodular lesions resembling gooseflesh. It is generally accepted that hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles histologically characterises nodular gastritis; however, quantitative analysis in support of this hypothesis has not been reported. Our goal was to determine whether nodular gastritis is characterised by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.The number, size, and location of lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were determined and those properties compared to samples of atrophic gastritis. The percentages of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels were also evaluated.The number of lymphoid follicles was comparable between nodular and atrophic gastritis; however, follicle size in nodular gastritis was significantly greater than that seen in atrophic gastritis. Moreover, lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were positioned more superficially than were those in atrophic gastritis. The percentage of MECA-79 HEV-like vessels was greater in areas with gooseflesh-like lesions in nodular versus atrophic gastritis.Superficially located hyperplastic lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis, and these follicles correspond to gooseflesh-like nodular lesions observed endoscopically. These observations suggest that MECA-79 HEV-like vessels could play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of nodular gastritis.

  13. Growth of ovarian follicles in the Natal clinging bat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here the cells at the opposite poles of the ovoid follicles were slightly in advance of those on the sides (Fig. ID), and in many the cells at the opposite poles were .... In this figure the theca intern a (l.i.) and basement membrane (b.m.) arc also clearly visible. ... 3 Scatter diagram for M. s. natalensis illustrating oocyte and follicle.

  14. Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found

  15. Interrelationships between ovarian follicles grown in culture and possible mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Florkovičová Koničková, Iveta; Schaeffer, Hans-Jorg; Laurincik, Jozef; Harrath, Abdel Halim

    2017-03-01

    Dominance or cooperation between ovarian follicles can determine the number of ovulations and fecundity, but interrelationships between follicles in mono- and poly-ovulatory species and their mechanisms are poorly understood. The goals of this work were to determine the existence and compare the character of mutual influence of cultured ovarian follicles from a mono-ovulatory species (cow) with established follicular dominance with those from a poly-ovulatory species (pig), in which interrelationship between follicles remain unknown, and to examine the role of ovarian cell proliferation, the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)- oxytocin (OT) system, and steroid hormones in mediating interrelationships among ovarian follicles. Bovine and porcine ovarian follicles were isolated and cultured alone and in pairs, and the percentage of growing follicles was calculated. Porcine follicles were cultured alone and in pairs after addition of exogenous OT and IGF-I (100ngmL-1) or inactivation of endogenous OT and IGF-I by antisera against these hormones (1%). Proliferation of porcine follicular cells was assessed by SDS PAGE-Western immunoblotting, the release of IGF-I, progesterone, androstenedione and estradiol by cultured porcine ovarian follicles was analyzed by RIA/EIA. Overall, our observations suggest (1) competition/dominance (mutual suppression of growth) in bovine ovarian follicles, (2) cooperation (mutual support of growth) in porcine ovarian follicles, (3) that this mutual growth of porcine ovarian follicles was caused by the promotion of cell proliferation, (4) that this mechanism was probably not involved in bovine follicular dominance, (5) that communication between both porcine and bovine follicles affects their secretory activity, and (6) that both follicular dominance in cows and cooperation of follicles in pigs can be mediated by either down- or up-regulation of the IGF-I-OT system, which in turn affects follicular steroidogenesis and promotes follicular

  16. Mechanotransduction in mouse inner ear hair cells requires transmembrane channel-like genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Géléoc, Gwenaëlle S G; Kurima, Kiyoto; Labay, Valentina; Lelli, Andrea; Asai, Yukako; Makishima, Tomoko; Wu, Doris K; Della Santina, Charles C; Holt, Jeffrey R; Griffith, Andrew J

    2011-12-01

    Inner ear hair cells convert the mechanical stimuli of sound, gravity, and head movement into electrical signals. This mechanotransduction process is initiated by opening of cation channels near the tips of hair cell stereocilia. Since the identity of these ion channels is unknown, and mutations in the gene encoding transmembrane channel-like 1 (TMC1) cause hearing loss without vestibular dysfunction in both mice and humans, we investigated the contribution of Tmc1 and the closely related Tmc2 to mechanotransduction in mice. We found that Tmc1 and Tmc2 were expressed in mouse vestibular and cochlear hair cells and that GFP-tagged TMC proteins localized near stereocilia tips. Tmc2 expression was transient in early postnatal mouse cochlear hair cells but persisted in vestibular hair cells. While mice with a targeted deletion of Tmc1 (Tmc1(Δ) mice) were deaf and those with a deletion of Tmc2 (Tmc2(Δ) mice) were phenotypically normal, Tmc1(Δ)Tmc2(Δ) mice had profound vestibular dysfunction, deafness, and structurally normal hair cells that lacked all mechanotransduction activity. Expression of either exogenous TMC1 or TMC2 rescued mechanotransduction in Tmc1(Δ)Tmc2(Δ) mutant hair cells. Our results indicate that TMC1 and TMC2 are necessary for hair cell mechanotransduction and may be integral components of the mechanotransduction complex. Our data also suggest that persistent TMC2 expression in vestibular hair cells may preserve vestibular function in humans with hearing loss caused by TMC1 mutations.

  17. Horse Shampoo for Human Hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Anca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lately, a new idea has caught the attention of young people of both genders, being debated in consultation rooms, during classes, and especially on social media: is using horse shampoo for human hair wrong or not?

  18. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal.

  19. Hair-Thread Tourniquet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gokcen

    2016-01-01

    Two month-old male infant was brought to the emergency service with the complaint of fever, uneasiness, and swelling on 4th-5th toes of right foot.  Apparent swelling, rubescence and increase in heat were seen and a constrictive band was observed to surround proximal phalanges of both toes in the physical examination of the patient (Figure 1.  A hair was found on the constrictive band surrounding both toes. The hair was removed by means of forceps. Oral antibiotic was administered to the patient. The patient was treated successfully by not letting a necrosis develop on the toes. It should be remembered that hair-thread tourniquet syndrome may be observed in the infant patients applying to the hospital with the complaints of unexplained fever and uneasiness. Figure 1: Appearance of the toes right after the hair was removed. Arrows show the constrictive band. 

  20. [Dynamics of follicle development in stimulated in vitro fertilization cycles--sonographic follow-up and findings following follicle puncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudik, R; Fliess, F R; Klemm, G

    1987-01-01

    Results of ultrasonical folliculometry during treatment by 5 different stimulation protocols were evaluated in 122 cycles of IVF-patients. Additionally, the structure of follicular population was investigated by measurement of follicular volume which was the basis of a follicular hierarchy. - Number of developing, sonographically detectable and punctured follicles increased significantly from stimulation by Clomiphene to stimulation by Folistiman. Only in stimulation by Clomiphene number of sonographical visible follicles was in accordance with laparoscopically punctured follicles. Development of relationship of the follicular classes during treatment supports hypothesis that exogenous gonadotropins do not increase follicular recruitment in the follicular phase but prevent atresia of follicles recruited earlier. Long lasting action of FSH as in stimulation by gonadotropins stimulates a greater number of follicles more intensively as demonstrated by an increased follicular volume in follicles with high rank numbers in gonadotropin treated patients compared with treatment by Clomiphene and Clomiphene/Anthrogon. Very high FSH-levels probably cause a heterogenous population of follicles with an increased number of small follicles at time of follicular puncture.

  1. Mapping the follicle-stimulating hormone-induced signalling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eGloaguen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH is a central regulator of male and female reproductive function. Over the last decade, there has been a growing perception of the complexity associated with FSH-induced cellular signalling. It is now clear that the canonical Gs/cAMP/PKA pathway is not the sole mechanism that must be considered in FSH biological actions. In parallel, consistent with the emerging concept of biased agonism, several examples of ligand-mediated selective signalling pathway activation by gonadotropin receptors have been reported. In this context, it is important to gain an integrative view of the signalling pathways induced by FSH and how they interconnect to form a network. In this review, we propose a first attempt at building topological maps of various pathways known to be involved in the FSH-induced signalling network. We discuss the multiple facets of FSH-induced signalling and how they converge to the hormone integrated biological response. Despite of their incompleteness, these maps of the FSH-induced signalling network represent a first step towards gaining a system-level comprehension of this hormone’s actions, which may ultimately facilitate the discovery of novel regulatory processes and therapeutic strategies for infertilities and non-steroidal contraception.

  2. Effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeck, SeungKyung; Han, EunYoung; Chung, HeeSun; Pyo, MyoungYun

    2011-03-20

    The effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in hair samples of MA addicts were studied. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples collected from male (n = 24, 24-51 yrs) and female abusers (n = 7, 17-46 yrs) were evaluated for MA and AM concentration's changes after repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples, no additional treatment hair sample group (NAT), were treated in vitro with liquid soap or three kinds of hair dyes which were black, brown and yellow color hair dye, respectively. Quantitation of AM and MA in hair samples was utilized GC-MS using selected ion monitoring. MA and AM concentrations in NAT were 10.41 ± 8.91 ng/mg (range 1.50-30.0 ng/mg) and 2.24 ± 2.75 ng/mg (range 0.41-12.90 ng/mg). And, their concentrations were decreased about 23.3 ± 4.5% (range 16.7-32.8%) in hair repeated washing group (WAS) and 32.6 ± 4.82 (22.2-41.9) in three kinds of a single hair dyeing groups in comparison to original concentrations of MA and AM in NAT. A statistically significant difference was found between NAT and WAS or three hair dyeing groups (p 0.05). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Laser hair removal: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Stephanie D; Graber, Emmy M

    2013-06-01

    Unwanted hair growth is a common aesthetic problem. Laser hair removal has emerged as a leading treatment option for long-term depilation. To extensively review the literature on laser hair removal pertaining to its theoretical basis, current laser and light-based devices, and their complications. Special treatment recommendations for darker skin types were considered. A comprehensive literature search related to the long-pulse alexandrite (755 nm), long-pulse diode (810 nm), long-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG; 1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) system, as well as newer home-use devices, was conducted. The literature supports the use of the alexandrite, diode, Nd:YAG and IPL devices for long-term hair removal. Because of its longer wavelength, the Nd:YAG is the best laser system to use for pigmented skin. Further research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of home-use devices. Current in-office laser hair removal devices effectively provide a durable solution for unwanted hair removal. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, Patrick R., E-mail: phannon2@illinois.edu; Brannick, Katherine E., E-mail: kbran@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: Wei.Wang2@covance.com; Gupta, Rupesh K., E-mail: drrupesh@yahoo.com; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2015-04-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant found in consumer products that causes ovarian toxicity. Antral follicles are the functional ovarian units and must undergo growth, survival from atresia, and proper regulation of steroidogenesis to ovulate and produce hormones. Previous studies have determined that DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth and decreases estradiol levels in vitro; however, the mechanism by which DEHP elicits these effects is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that DEHP directly alters regulators of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis to inhibit antral follicle functionality. Antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or DEHP (1–100 μg/ml) for 24–96 h to establish the temporal effects of DEHP on the follicle. Following 24–96 h of culture, antral follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis, and media were subjected to measurements of hormone levels. DEHP increased the mRNA levels of cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase 4, cyclin E1, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1 and decreased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A prior to growth inhibition. Additionally, DEHP increased the mRNA levels of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death, BCL2-associated X protein, BCL2-related ovarian killer protein, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and Bcl2-like 10, leading to an increase in atresia. Further, DEHP decreased the levels of progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone prior to the decrease in estradiol levels, with decreased mRNA levels of side-chain cleavage, 17α-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase. Collectively, DEHP directly alters antral follicle functionality by inhibiting growth, inducing atresia, and inhibiting steroidogenesis. - Highlights: • DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth by dysregulating cell cycle regulators. • DEHP induces antral follicle atresia by dysregulating apoptosis regulators. • DEHP

  5. Significance of follicle anatomy of Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoth Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pericarp structure of Aganosma, Alstonia, Catharanthus sp., Holarrhena, Ichnocarpus, Parsonsia, Strophanthus, Vallaris and Wrightia sp. distinguished into epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp has been used to put forward their taxonomic and phylogenetic importance. Epicarp is single layered in Catharanthus sp., Ichnocarpus, Parsonsia and Vinca, while in the rest of the genera it is multilayered. Mesocarp is parenchymatous which embeds vasculature and non-articulated laticifers. Endocarp is multilayered and thick walled. Dehiscence of the follicle is marginicidal. A comparison table of follicular features of Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Periplocaceae is furnished and their features are discussed. A taxonomic key based on follicular fruit characteristic to indentify the genera and species is appended.

  6. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they can continue to produce new hair growth. Platelet-rich plasma therapy: This therapy uses your own blood. After ... FPHL is still in the experimental stages. Like platelet-rich plasma therapy, more studies are needed to know whether ...

  7. Melatonin induces follicle maturation in Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliana Carnevali

    Full Text Available Most organisms modulate their reproductive activity responding to day length by the nocturnal release of melatonin by the pineal gland. This hormone is also responsible for synchronizing reproduction with specific external environment stimuli in order to optimize reproductive success.The aim of this study was to establish the effect of melatonin on zebrafish reproduction.Adult females were daily exposed, via water, to two different doses (100 nM and 1 µM of melatonin. Melatonin led to an increase of the Gonado Somatic Index (GSI associated with the increase of eggs production, and the raise of gene and protein levels of vitellogenin (VTG and estradiol receptor α (ERα in the liver. The ability of melatonin to increase fecundity was consistent with a significant increase of gene transcription of kiss 1, kiss 2, gnrh3, in the brain, and lh in the pituitary, while in the ovary (in class IIIB follicles, with a significant decrease of two genes codifying for intra-ovarian regulators of premature oocyte maturation, the tgfβ1 and the bmp15. The reduction in the expression of these two genes was concomitant with the increase of lhr and a modulation of mprα and mprβ gene transcription, whose proteins are involved in oocyte maturation. Melatonin also exerted a direct action on follicles as shown by the increase of the oocytes undergoing to germinal vesicle break down (GVBD and modulated mpr α and β gene expression in the in vitro exposure.These data highlight the effects of melatonin in promoting zebrafish reproduction exerting its effects either in the brain-pituitary and in the gonads.

  8. Effect of repeated adrenocorticotropic hormone administration on reproductive function and hair cortisol concentration during the estrous cycle in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Natsumi; Yamane, Hiroaki; Rahayu, Larasati Puji; Tanaka, Tomomi

    2018-04-01

    Measurement of the cortisol concentration in hair has been used as an index of chronic stress in several species including humans, wildlife and domestic animals. However, how accurately the cortisol concentration in hair reflects the changes in circulating cortisol concentrations has not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of repeated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration on the reproductive function during the estrous cycle and hair cortisol concentrations in goats. In experiment 1, goats were administered ACTH (0.625 IU/10 kg of body weight, n = 6) or saline (n = 6) intramuscularly once a day for 7 days on Day 11-17 of the estrous cycle (day 0 was the day of ovulation). In experiment 2, goats were administered ACTH (0.625 IU/10 kg of body weight, n = 6) or saline (n = 6) intramuscularly twice a day on Day 11-24 of the estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected 0, 0.5, and 6 h after first administration to determine the circulating cortisol concentrations. Hair was clipped at 0, 1, and 2 months after the start of administration. In both experiments, the plasma cortisol concentration increased at 0.5 h and returned to baseline at 6 h after ACTH administration. During the experiments, estrus was observed in most animals in ACTH and saline groups (6/6 and 4/6 in experiment 1 and 5/6 and 6/6 in experiment 2, respectively) and ovulation was observed in all goats examined. However, the number of ovulatory follicles was significantly different between the ACTH and saline groups, and the maximal diameter of ovulatory follicles tended to be different (P = .07) between the ACTH and saline groups. In experiment 1, the hair cortisol concentration was not influenced by the ACTH administration throughout the sampling period. In experiment 2, the hair cortisol concentration in the ACTH group was greater at 1 month after administration than the pre-administration value, but was not

  9. Over-expression of thymosin beta 4 promotes abnormal tooth development and stimulation of hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hee-Jae; Philp, Deborah; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Hye-Sung; Kleinman, Hynda K; Nakamura, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 has multi-functional roles in cell physiology. It accelerates wound healing, hair growth and angiogenesis, and increases laminin-5 expression in corneal epithelium. Furthermore, thymosin beta 4 stimulates tumor growth and metastasis by induction of cell migration and vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis. Using a construct on the skin-specific keratin-5 promoter, we have developed thymosin beta 4 over-expressing transgenic mice to further study its functional roles. Thymosin beta 4 in adult skin and in embryonic stages of the transgenic mouse was analyzed by both Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The over-expression of thymosin beta 4 was observed especially around hair follicles and in the teeth in the transgenic mice. We examined the phenotype of the thymosin beta 4 over-expressing mice. Hair growth was accelerated. In addition, the transgenic mice had abnormally-shaped white teeth and dull incisors. We found that the expression of laminin-5 was up-regulated in the skin of the transgenic mice. We conclude that thymosin beta 4 has an important physiological role in hair growth and in tooth development.

  10. Promotion effect of constituents from the root of Polygonum multiflorum on hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya Nan; Cui, Long; Li, Wei; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kang, Jung Il; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-09-01

    Two new compounds, gallic acid ester of torachrysone-8-O-β-D-glucoside (1) and (E)-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-xyloside (4), along with eight known compounds (2, 3, 5-10) were isolated from a 70% ethanol extract of Polygonum multiflorum roots. The structures were determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR, HMQC, and HMBC spectrometry. Extracts of P. multiflorum have been reported to promote hair growth in vivo. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of isolated compounds from P. multiflorum on promoting hair growth using dermal papilla cells (DPCs), which play an important role in hair growth. When DPCs were treated with compounds (1-10) from P. multiflorum, compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 10 increased the proliferation of DPCs compared with the control. Specifically, compound 2 (10 and 20 μM) induced a greater increase in the proliferation of DPCs than minoxidil (10 μM). Additionally, treatment of vibrissa follicles with compound 2 for 21 days increased hair-fiber length significantly. On the basis of this result, further investigation and optimization of these derivatives might help in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of alopecia. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Pregnancy and the hair growth cycle: anagen induction against hair growth disruption using Nourkrin®with Marilex®, a proteoglycan replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Erling

    2017-09-01

    Postpartum effluvium is a well-known clinical fact. However, following some minor research activities in the 1960s, very little has happened on the research front of the subject. It was hypothesized that postpartum hair loss might be a manifestation of a change in the hair growth cycle occurring normally during pregnancy. Recently, new research has been published trying to explain the mechanism of action behind this frequently occurring hair growth disruption, and to develop a functional treatment schedule and regime. Under normal circumstances, postpartum effluvium will disappear by itself as a function of time, and therefore adequate information to the patient is important in order to reduce the anxiety that it will not be a permanent problem. However, in some subjects it can manifest itself for longer stages and even become permanent. At the present time, treatments aim at correcting underlying hormonal imbalances and at improving overall cosmetic appearance. Several treatments in the form of thyroid supplementation, topical progesterone and estradiol lotions, and even oral contraceptive have been studied. All the available studies have significant limitations in their scientific basis, such as small sample size, absence of control group, or highly subjective measurement of treatment response. It is evident from the available studies that no specific treatment has been investigated thoroughly enough to justify recommendation in clinical treatment or to be termed "effective." Without the ability to provide a pathogenic diagnosis or causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment by trial and error will adequately be able to control hair effluvium. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific; therefore, future research must aim at developing new and targeted methods with a point of departure in observing concomitant biological mechanisms. Based on the research in the 1960s, current knowledge about the hair follicle and the regulation of

  12. Mobilizing Transit-Amplifying Cell-Derived Ectopic Progenitors Prevents Hair Loss from Chemotherapy or Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Lai, Shih-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Chang, Michael; Plikus, Maksim V; Chan, Chih-Chieh; Chen, You-Tzung; Tsao, Po-Nien; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Chi, Peter; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2017-11-15

    Genotoxicity-induced hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy is often encountered in cancer treatment, and there is a lack of effective treatment. In growing hair follicles (HF), quiescent stem cells (SC) are maintained in the bulge region, and hair bulbs at the base contain rapidly dividing, yet genotoxicity-sensitive transit-amplifying cells (TAC) that maintain hair growth. How genotoxicity-induced HF injury is repaired remains unclear. We report here that HFs mobilize ectopic progenitors from distinct TAC compartments for regeneration in adaptation to the severity of dystrophy induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Specifically, after low-dose IR, keratin 5+ basal hair bulb progenitors, rather than bulge SCs, were quickly activated to replenish matrix cells and regenerated all concentric layers of HFs, demonstrating their plasticity. After high-dose IR, when both matrix and hair bulb cells were depleted, the surviving outer root sheath cells rapidly acquired an SC-like state and fueled HF regeneration. Their progeny then homed back to SC niche and supported new cycles of HF growth. We also revealed that IR induced HF dystrophy and hair loss and suppressed WNT signaling in a p53- and dose-dependent manner. Augmenting WNT signaling attenuated the suppressive effect of p53 and enhanced ectopic progenitor proliferation after genotoxic injury, thereby preventing both IR- and cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Hence, targeted activation of TAC-derived progenitor cells, rather than quiescent bulge SCs, for anagen HF repair can be a potential approach to prevent hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6083-96. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose PT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul T RoseHair Transplant Institute of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. Keywords: hair loss, alopecia, hair transplant, surgical procedure

  14. The effect of breast cancer on the Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Donald J; Fay, Sheila G

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the Synchrotron x-ray diffraction pattern of scalp hair were shown to occur in patients with breast cancer. A preliminary Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy study of scalp hair using attenuated total reflection (ATR) supported the concept that these changes are due to an increase in the lipid content of the hair fibre. This study was undertaken to determine whether the ATR-FT-IR spectrum obtained using a single hair fibre ATR cell could be used in the detection of breast cancer. In addition, variable angle ATR-FT-IR difference spectra were obtained to investigate the location and the molecular structure of this lipid material in the hair fibre, which appears to be an indicator of breast cancer. Patients with breast cancer showed an increase in the peak height ratio of the 1446-1456 cm(-1) C-H bending absorption bands of the ATR-FT-IR spectra of a single hair fibre. Peak height ratios > 1.0 were indicative of breast cancer. The spectra of scalp hair of subjects with breast cancer also showed a slight shift in C-H bending absorption from 1446 to 1448 cm(-1) and from 1456 to 1458 cm(-1) that could result from the formation of secondary structures by the increased lipid material. Variable angle difference spectra indicated that this increased lipid material is located in the cuticle-cortex interface area and appears to be similar to the lipids normally found here. An alteration in hair biosynthesis in the follicle caused by breast cancer signalling molecules, or biomarkers, is most likely involved. ATR-FT-IR spectral analysis of a long hair fibre containing a distal portion formed when the breast cancer was present and a proximal portion formed after the breast cancer was removed showed that hair fibre synthesis had become normal after the removal of the cancer. This study demonstrates the potential of ATR-FT-IR analysis of a hair fibre in the early detection of breast cancer and in studying how hair acts as a biosensor for breast cancer.

  15. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  16. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β maintains follicular ultrastructure and stimulates preantral follicle growth in caprine ovarian tissue cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Q. Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate whether TGF-β affect the survival, activation and further growth of goat primordial follicles enclosed in ovarian cortex after in vitro culture. Goat ovaries were collected from an abattoir and pieces of ovarian tissues were cultured for one or seven days in a supplemented alpha Minimum Essential Medium, alone or containing TGF-β (1, 5, 10 or 50ng/mL. Ovarian tissues from the fresh control as well as those cultured were processed for histological and ultrastructural studies. The results showed that when compared with fresh control, there was decrease in the percentages of histologically normal follicles in all treatments only after seven days culture. TGF-β did not affect the activation of preantral follicles regardless of its concentration, however, larger follicles diameter (P<0.05 was observed using 10ng/mL TGF-β than in the fresh control and other treatments. Moreover, this concentration maintained the normal ultrastructure after seven days of culture. In conclusion, TGF-β showed additional effect on the follicle growth and the maintenance of ultrastructural integrity of goat preantral follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue when used at 10ng/mL during seven days of culture.

  17. Protective effect of superoxide dismutase against hair graying in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerit, I; Filipe, P; Freitas, J; Vassy, J

    2004-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals play a role in the aging process, and the protective effect of various antioxidants has been intensively studied, in particular for cutaneous aging. Besides hereditary factors, free radical-mediated damage to melanocytes of the hair follicle has been considered as a mechanism for aging of the hair. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the role of photosensitization reactions for hair graying and to demonstrate potential protective effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Mice with black hair were depilated with the fingertips on a surface of 6 x 2.5 cm on both sides of the dorsum. The right side received five applications of a SOD-containing gel before exposure to psoralen (concentration 0.5 mg/mL) plus UV-A (365 nm, 4 J/cm2). The left side was pretreated in the same way with a gel free of SOD. When the hair started growing again, the SOD-protected side was covered with black hair, whereas the hair on the vehicle-treated side was gray or white in 27 of the 30 animals studied. The 0.01% SOD concentration was as protective as the 0.1% concentration. Heat-inactivated SOD, applied in another five animals, was not protective. Using fluorescent labeling of the SOD with fluorescein isothiocyanate, epifluorescence microscopy and digital imaging processing, we show that SOD applied to the skin surface penetrates through the follicular appendages, as well as through the unbroken stratum corneum. Our findings suggest that superoxide radicals, generated by interaction of UV-A light with the sensitizer, initiated the formation of secondary products with well-known DNA-damaging effects, such as lipid peroxidation products and tumor necrosis factor alpha. SOD prevented the damage to melanocyte DNA by dismutating superoxide. Photosensitization may be another mechanism for hair graying, which can be influenced by antioxidants. Given the large number of exogenous and endogenous sensitizers, this mechanism deserves further study for human hair graying.

  18. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P; Cole, Megan A; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-02-14

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  19. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Gentile

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet rich plasma (PRP was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System. For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2, whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2 were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex. Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  20. Comparison of hair removal efficacy and side effect of neodymium:Yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser and intense pulsed light systems (18-month follow-up).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szima, Georgina Zita; Janka, Eszter Anna; Kovács, Anikó; Bortély, Blanka; Bodnár, Edina; Sawhney, Irina; Szabó, Éva; Remenyik, Éva

    2017-06-01

    Photothermal destruction of hair shaft melanin with intense pulsed light (IPL) and neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser has become an effective treatment of hair removal. Our aim was to compare efficacy, satisfactory levels, safety, and side effects of Nd:YAG and IPL in hair reduction. This was a prospective randomized intrapatient, right-left, assessor-blinded comparison of Nd:YAG vs IPL. There were 38 volunteers recruited. Seven sessions were performed. Hair count, efficacy, and side effects were compared before and after each treatment and 6 months after the last treatment. In respect of 12 volunteers, we have examined the reduction in hair after 18 months. Initially, there was no significant difference between the numbers of hair follicles. There was significant hair reduction after each treatment on the Nd:YAG-treated side. The hair reduction became significant after the third treatment with IPL. Comparison of the efficacy of the two devices on each visits showed no significant difference. There was statistically lower pain score on the IPL-treated side and statistically higher erythema, burning sensation, and edema on the Nd:YAG-treated side. Statistically lower side effect score was observed on the IPL-treated side. Eight months after the last treatment, there was significant hair reduction both on the Nd:YAG and on the IPL-treated side, and there was no difference between the efficacy. The patient satisfaction scores were higher with the IPL. Unwanted hair can be reduced by both systems safely and effectively; however, IPL has less side effects and higher satisfaction scores. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. -growth and Gene Expression of Porcine Preantral Follicles Retrieved by Different Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Ahn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine how the isolation method of the porcine preantral follicles influenced the following follicular growth in vitro. Mechanical and enzymatical isolations were used for retrieving the follicles from prepubertal porcine ovaries, and in vitro-growth of the follicles and the expression of folliculogenesis-related genes were subsequently monitored. The enzymatic retrieval with collagenase treatment returned more follicles than the mechanical retrieval, while the percentage of morphologically normal follicles was higher with mechanical retrieval than with enzymatic retrieval. After 4 days of culture, mechanically retrieved, preantral follicles yielded more follicles with normal morphology than enzymatically retrieved follicles, which resulted in improved follicular growth. The mRNA expression of FSHR, LHR Cx43, DNMT1 and FGFR2 genes was significantly higher after culture of the follicles retrieved mechanically. These results suggest that mechanical isolation is a better method of isolating porcine preantral follicles that will develop into competent oocytes in in vitro culture.

  2. Engineering the ovarian cycle using in vitro follicle culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skory, Robin M; Xu, Yuanming; Shea, Lonnie D; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2015-06-01

    Can cultured follicles model the ovarian cycle, including follicular- and luteal-phase hormone synthesis patterns and ovulation? Under gonadotrophin stimulation, murine follicles grown in an encapsulated three-dimensional system ovulate in vitro and murine and human follicle hormone synthesis mimics follicular and luteal phases expected in vivo. Studies of the human ovary and follicle function are limited by the availability of human tissue and lack of in vitro models. We developed an encapsulated in vitro follicle growth (eIVFG) culture system, which preserves 3D follicular structure. Thus far, the alginate system has supported the culture of follicles from mice, dog, rhesus macaque, baboon and human. These studies have shown that cultured follicles synthesize steroid hormones similar to those observed during the follicular phase in vivo. Cultured murine follicles were treated with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and either assayed for luteinization or removed from alginate beads and assayed for ovulation. Human follicles were also cultured, treated with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), hCG and EGF to mimic gonadotrophin changes throughout the ovarian cycle, and culture medium was assayed for hormone production. Murine and human follicles were cultured in alginate hydrogel and hormone production [17β-estradiol, progesterone, inhibin A, inhibin B, activin A and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)] was quantified in medium by enzyme-linked immuno assay (ELISA). Human ovarian tissue was acquired from females between 6 and 34 years of age with a cancer diagnosis. These participants were undergoing ovarian tissue cryopreservation at National Physicians Cooperative sites as part of the Oncofertility Consortium. When grown in this system, 96% of mouse follicles ovulated in response to hCG and released meiotically competent eggs. Ovulated follicles recapitulated transcriptional, morphologic and hormone synthesis patterns post

  3. Relationship between Follicle Size at Insemination and Pregnancy Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George A. Perry; Michael F. Smith; Matthew C. Lucy; Jonathan A. Green; Tina E. Parks; Michael D. MacNeil; Andrew J. Roberts; Thomas W. Geary; R. Michael Roberts

    2005-01-01

    .... Our objectives were to determine the effect of follicle size at the time of ovulation on corpus luteum function and establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in cows in which ovulation was either...

  4. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-Xing; Li, Cheng-Rang

    2014-05-01

    Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs is rare. Here we present 4 cases with patchy non-scarring hair loss, which attacked pigmented hairs only and spared gray hairs. It should be differentiated from vitiligo, colocalization of vitiligo and alopecia areata, and depigmented hair regrowth after alopecia areata.

  5. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-Xing; Li, Cheng-Rang

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopec