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Sample records for hair dye reactions

  1. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  2. Severe allergic hair dye reactions in 8 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2006-01-01

    Serious adverse skin reactions to permanent hair dyes and temporary black tattoos have been reported. As temporary tattoos have become fashionable among adolescents, the risk profile for p-phenylenediamine (PPD) sensitization of the population has changed simultaneously with an increasing use...... of hair dyes in this age group. This investigation reports PPD sensitization in children with regard to cause of sensitization, clinical presentation and consequences. Clinical history and patch test results for consecutive children below 16 years of age with suspected hair dye allergic reactions...... and positive patch tests to PPD were collected over 2 years in 2 Danish dermatology clinics. 8 children aged 12-15 years were collected, and they all reacted to several hair dye ingredients. 5 of the patients were hospitalized, 1 in the intensive care unit. 6 of the patients gave a history of prior reaction...

  3. 55 cases of allergic reactions to hair dye: a descriptive, consumer complaint-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Agner, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2002-01-01

    themselves, and adverse reactions to hair dye may not necessarily be recorded by the health care system, unless the reactions are especially severe. Based on this assumption, we suspected that hair dye dermatitis was occurring more frequently than reported in the literature. Consumer complaint-based data......Severe facial and scalp dermatitis following the use of permanent hair dyes has been reported in several cases. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is known as a potent contact allergen, and PPD is allowed in hair dye at a concentration of 6%. Hair dye reactions are usually diagnosed by the patients...

  4. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  5. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  6. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.fda.gov/aboutfda/centersoffices/officeoffoods/cfsan/default.htm . Selected References Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis. ...

  8. Personal use of hair dyes and temporary black tattoos in Copenhagen hairdressers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette S; Johansen, Jeanne D; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2010-01-01

    Hairdressers are occupationally and personally exposed to hair dye substances and adverse reactions from the skin are well known. Currently, little is known about personal exposure to hair dye ingredients and temporary black tattoos.......Hairdressers are occupationally and personally exposed to hair dye substances and adverse reactions from the skin are well known. Currently, little is known about personal exposure to hair dye ingredients and temporary black tattoos....

  9. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  10. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  11. Contact dermatitis to hair dyes in a Danish adult population: an interview-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Hesse, U; Menné, T

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients is a well-known entity seen both in consumers using hair dyes and among hairdressers with occupational contact dermatitis. Surveys show that consumers with even severe adverse skin reactions to hair dyes only rarely contact the healthcare services....... The frequency of hair dye-induced skin reactions in the consumer population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: An epidemiological investigation with the aim of establishing the proportion of hair dye-induced skin reactions was performed in a population-based sample. METHODS: A representative random sample (n = 4000......) was taken of the Danish adult population. Personal interview questions were asked regarding adverse skin reactions to hair dyes, either compatible with a classical allergic eczematous reaction with redness, scaling and itching or a severe allergic reaction with oedema of the forehead and face. The response...

  12. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...... status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1–2 cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair...... washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. Results: No statistically significant difference (p = 0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean...

  13. Contact allergy to common ingredients in hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed.......p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed....

  14. Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene......-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative...... hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus...

  15. Continuous usage of a hair dye product containing 2-methoxymethyt-para-phenylenediamine by hair-dye-allergic individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, M.; Coenraads, P. -J.; Bloemeke, B.; Goebel, C.

    Background Despite a positive patch test reaction to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and/or toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD), many people attempt to continue dyeing their hair with products containing PPD or its derivatives. Objectives Investigation of elicitation reactions among PPD/PTD-allergic individuals

  16. A STUDY ON CONTACT DERMATITIS TO HAIR DYE AND HENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available P- Phenylenediamine is an oxidative chemical that is frequently used as a permanent hair-coloring agent. It is added to henna to increase the intensity and longevity of the tattoo and expedites its drying time. Henna itself is a greenish brown vegetable coloring made from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis and rarely causes allergic contact dermatitis. The addition of PPD causes the contact sensitization to black henna. Serious adverse skin reactions to permanent hair dyes and temporary black tattoos have been reported. As temporary tattoos have become fashionable among adolescents, the risk profile for p-phenylenediamine (PPD sensitization of the population has changed simultaneously with an increasing use of hair dyes in this age group. With increased popularity of body art such as body piercing and tattooing, an increase in temporary henna tattoos has also occurred. Although the appeal of non-permanence exists for henna tattoos, dermatologists have begun to see numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis linked with a certain type of henna. We selected 50 patients using hair dye and henna for our study. Patch testing was done in all the patients using Indian standard series of antigens. Regarding to the side effects to hair dye and henna and itching was the commonest symptom seen in 16% patients, erythematous scaly plaques were seen in 10% patients, vesicular reactions were seen in 6% patients, angioneurotic oedema and contact urticaria was seen in 4% patients each and anaphylaxis and keloidal reaction was seen in 2% patients each.

  17. Supramolecular hair dyes: a new application of cocrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delori, Amit; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the first report of hair dyes of various colors formed by cocrystallization. Unlike the most popular oxidative hair dye (OHD) products, these dyes are NH3 free and do not require H2O2 as a color developer. The importance of these new hair dyes products is further enhanced...

  18. Morbidity and Mortality in 7,684 Women According to Personal Hair Dye Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Schnohr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Permanent hair dye contains aromatic amines which are carcinogenic, and can cause allergic skin reactions. In the long term personal use of hair dye might therefore influence both morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that personal use of hair dye in women...... is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population. METHODS: We included 7,684 women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with information on the use of personal hair dye. We assessed the risk of cancer, skin diseases, other morbidities, and mortality during a median follow-up of 27...... years (range 0-37). RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for malignant melanoma in women with versus without personal use of hair dye was 2.07 (95% confidence interval 1.25-3.42). There was no increased risk of other cancer types. For other skin diseases and other major causes of morbidity...

  19. The use of personal hair dye and its implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-01-01

    Hair dye products now represent one of the most rapidly growing beauty and personal care industries as both men and women commonly change hair color to enhance youth and beauty and to follow fashion trends. Irrespective of economic and education status, people dye their hair to emphasize the importance given to appearance. Despite adverse reactions, many people continue dyeing mainly for cosmetic purposes. This paper provides a comprehensive review on various aspects of hair dying products, especially with respect to the hair-coloring process, classification, chemical ingredients, possible human health impacts, and regulations. Permanent hair dye, which is the most commonly used product type, is formed by an oxidative process involving arylamines to bring about concerns with long-term exposure. Hence, significant efforts have been put to understand the possible side effects of such exposure including cancer risk. However, hair dyes and their ingredients are mainly identified to have moderate to low acute toxicity such as the cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Although some hair dye components are reported to be carcinogenic in animals, such evidence is not consistent enough in the case of human studies. Consequently, further research is desirable to critically address the significance of this issue, especially with respect to the safety of hair dye ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously.

  1. Ranking of hair dye substances according to predicted sensitization potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Basketter, D A; Estrada, E

    2004-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis following the use of hair dyes is well known. Many chemicals are used in hair dyes and it is unlikely that all cases of hair dye allergy can be diagnosed by means of patch testing with p-phenylenediamine (PPD). The objectives of this study are to identify all hair dye...... in order to help select a number of chemically diverse hair dye substances that could be used in subsequent clinical work. Various information sources, including the Inventory of Cosmetics Ingredients, new regulations on cosmetics, data on total use and ChemId (the Chemical Search Input website provided...... by the National Library of Medicine), were used in order to identify the names and structures of the hair dyes. A QSAR model, developed with the help of experimental local lymph node assay data and topological sub-structural molecular descriptors (TOPS-MODE), was used in order to predict the likely sensitization...

  2. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment. Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M: F 47:33 consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet. Results: 54 Fifty-four (M: F 21:33 patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71% patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use.

  3. Comparative sensitizing potencies of fragrances, preservatives, and hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidén, Carola; Yazar, Kerem; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2016-01-01

    the sensitizing potencies of fragrance substances, preservatives, and hair dye substances, which are skin sensitizers that frequently come into contact with the skin of consumers and workers, LLNA results and EC3 values for 72 fragrance substances, 25 preservatives and 107 hair dye substances were obtained from...... two published compilations of LLNA data and opinions by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety and its predecessors. The median EC3 values of fragrances (n = 61), preservatives (n = 19) and hair dyes (n = 59) were 5.9%, 0.9%, and 1.3%, respectively. The majority of sensitizing preservatives...... and hair dyes are thus strong or extreme sensitizers (EC3 value of ≤2%), and fragrances are mostly moderate sensitizers. Although fragrances are typically moderate sensitizers, they are among the most frequent causes of contact allergy. This indicates that factors other than potency need to be addressed...

  4. Are gloves sufficiently protective when hairdressers are exposed to permanent hair dyes? An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelmi, Annarita; Young, Ewa; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Engfeldt, Malin; Foti, Caterina; Bruze, Magnus

    2015-04-01

    The use of permanent hair dyes exposes hairdressers to contact allergens such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD), and the preventive measures are insufficient. To perform an in vivo test to study the protective effect of gloves commonly used by hairdressers. Six gloves from Sweden, Italy and Germany were studied: two vinyl, one natural rubber latex, two nitrile, and one polyethylene. The hair dye used for the provocation was a dark shade permanent dye containing PPD. The dye was mixed with hydrogen peroxide, and 8 PPD-sensitized volunteers were tested with the gloves as a membrane between the hair dye and the skin in a cylindrical open chamber system. Three exposure times (15, 30 and 60 min) were used. Eczematous reactions were found when natural rubber latex, polyethylene and vinyl gloves were tested with the dye. The nitrile gloves gave good protection, even after 60 min of exposure to the hair dye. Many protective gloves used by hairdressers are unsuitable for protection against the risk of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis caused by PPD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Personal use of hair dyes and temporary black tattoos in Copenhagen hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henriette S; Johansen, Jeanne D; Thyssen, Jacob P; Linneberg, Allan; Søsted, Heidi

    2010-06-01

    Hairdressers are occupationally and personally exposed to hair dye substances and adverse reactions from the skin are well known. Currently, little is known about personal exposure to hair dye ingredients and temporary black tattoos. To investigate hairdressers' professional and personal risk exposures and to compare the frequency of temporary tattoos among hairdressers and subjects from the general population. A questionnaire was sent to 1679 Copenhagen hairdressers and 1063 (63.3%) responded; 3471 subjects from the general population in Copenhagen were asked about temporary black tattoos. Of the female hairdressers, 38.3% had coloured hair within the previous week. Adverse skin reactions to own hair dye were reported in 29.5%. In the hairdresser population, no significant association was observed between self-reported adverse skin reactions to hair dye and having had a temporary black tattoo when adjusted for sex, age, and atopy. A total of 19.0% of hairdressers (43.5% of apprentices) and 6.3% of participants from the general population had ever had a temporary black tattoo performed at one point. There were no differences in frequency of eczema after temporary tattooing between hairdressers and subjects in the general population. Almost all hairdressers (99.2%) used gloves for hair colouring, 51% for high/low lighting, 39.6% for perming and 21.1% used gloves for shampooing. In conclusion, skin reactions to hair colour are frequent among Copenhagen hairdressers. Temporary black tattoos were more frequent among hairdressers than in a sample of the general population and increased with decreasing age.

  6. Occupational exposure to allergens in oxidative hair dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Zaletel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative hair dyes are the most important hair dying products. Hairdressers are exposed to the allergens found in oxidative hair dyes during the process of applying dyes to the hair, when cutting freshly dyed hair, or as a consequence of prior contamination of the working environment. pphenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine and its sulphate are the most common ingredients in oxidative hair dyes that cause allergic contact dermatitis in hairdressers. Cross-reactivity of p-phenylenediamine with para-amino benzoic acid, sulphonamides, sulphonylurea, dapsone, azo dyes, benzocaine, procaine, and black henna temporary tattoos is possible. Allergic contact dermatitis is classified as delayed-type hypersensitivity, according to Coombs and Gell. Skin changes typically appear on the hands after previous sensitization to causative allergens. Combined with the patient’s overall medical and work history and clinical picture, epicutaneous testing is the basic diagnostic procedure for confirming the diagnosis and identifying the causative allergens. The simplest and most effective measure for preventing the occurrence of allergic contact dermatitis in hairdressers is prevention. Preventive measures should be applied as early as in the beginning stage of vocational guidance for this profession. It is important to include health education in the process of professional training and to implement general technical safety measures, in order to reduce sensitization to allergens in hairdressing. Here, special emphasis must be given to the correct use of protective gloves. Legislation must limit the concentration of allergenic substances in hair dyes, based on their potential hazards documented by scientific research.

  7. Self-testing for contact sensitization to hair dyes--scientific considerations and clinical concerns of an industry-led screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Søsted, Heidi; Uter, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The cosmetic industry producing hair dyes has, for many years, recommended that their consumers perform 'a hair dye allergy self-test' or similar prior to hair dyeing, to identify individuals who are likely to react upon subsequent hair dyeing. This review offers important information...... on the requirements for correct validation of screening tests, and concludes that, in its present form, the hair dye self-test has severe limitations: (i) it is not a screening test but a diagnostic test; (ii) it has not been validated according to basic criteria defined by scientists; (iii) it has been evaluated...... in the wrong population group; (iv) skin reactions have been read by dermatologists and not by the targeted group (consumers and hairdressers); (v) hair dyes contain strong and extreme sensitizers that are left on the skin in high concentrations, potentially resulting in active sensitization; and (vi...

  8. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes... coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall bear, in...

  9. Evaluation of concordance between labelling and content of 52 hair dye products: overview of the market of oxidative hair dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelmi, Annarita; Bruze, Magnus; Zimerson, Erik; Engfeldt, Malin; Young, Ewa; Persson, Lena; Foti, Caterina; Sörensen, Östen; Svedman, Cecilia

    2017-04-01

    Hair dyes contain strong allergens and are widely available. Correct labelling is a necessity in order to provide information about the contents. To compare the labelling and content of hair dyes. In total, 52 hair dyes, from 11 different countries, were bought over the counter. High-pressure liquid chromatography was used for the analysis of p-phenylenediamine (PPD), toluene-2,5-diamine (2,5-TDA), and three oxidation products of PPD. There was good agreement between labelling and content, although seven of the 52 products (13.5%) studied were incorrectly labelled. There were differences in the geographical use of PPD and 2,5-TDA; 2,5-TDA was more common in European products, while PPD was more common in products purchased outside Europe and was present in higher concentrations. All dyes purchased in Europe contained PPD and 2,5-TDA at levels within the limits defined by European legislation, however, levels were higher in some products purchased outside Europe. Only a small group of hair dyes sold in Europe were mislabelled. Further improvement in labelling, by providing the concentration of chemicals, may facilitate products to be purchased both locally and within the global market, when travelling or on the internet.

  10. Consumer available permanent hair dye products cause major allergic immune activation in an animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, C M; Larsen, J M; Dabelsteen, S

    2010-01-01

    Background p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and related substances are ingredients of more than two-thirds of oxidative (permanent) hair dyes currently used. Although PPD is a potent skin sensitizer in predictive assays, the extent to which permanent hair dyes sensitize humans has been questioned due...... to the in-use conditions, e.g. the presence of couplers in the hair dye gel and rapid oxidation using a developer. Objectives To study the skin sensitizing potential of permanent hair dyes in mice. Methods Two different permanent hair dye products containing PPD were studied in CBA mice using a modified......-cell proliferation within the draining lymph nodes. Treatment with the mixture induced at least 20% more skin inflammation, cytokine production and CD4+ T-cell activation compared with the colour gel alone. Conclusions Consumer available PPD-containing permanent hair dyes can be potent and rapid immune activators...

  11. Self-testing for contact allergy to hair dyes - a 5-year follow-up multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Goosens, An; Giménez-Arnau, Ana Maria

    2018-01-01

    the method of application, the amount of hair dye applied, the location and size of the application area, the number of applications, whether or not rinsing was performed after application, the reading times, and how a positive reaction was defined. CONCLUSIONS: Self-testing is still recommended by almost...

  12. Immune responses to hair dyes containing toluene-2,5-diamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, J D; Johansen, J D; Nielsen, M M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD) is the most frequently used dye in oxidative hair dyes on the Scandinavian market. However, little is known about immune responses to PTD-containing oxidative hair dyes. OBJECTIVES: To study immune responses induced by PTD-containing hair dyes in mice. METHODS......: Immune responses against two different permanent hair dye products containing 1·60% (w/w) and 0·48% (w/w) PTD within the colour gel, and various concentrations of pure PTD were studied. The local inflammatory response was measured by ear swelling and cell infiltration, and T- and B-cell infiltration...... and proliferation was determined in the draining lymph nodes. RESULTS: Concentration-dependent immune responses were seen to PTD both in the skin and draining lymph nodes. The hair dye containing 1·60% PTD induced strong local inflammation and caused T- and B-cell infiltration and proliferation as well...

  13. Hair-dye induced erythema multiforme like allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme (EM is an acute, self limited skin disease characterized by the sudden eruption of symmetrical lesions in typical targetoid fashion usually confined to face and extremities. The most commonly implicated factors include infections like herpes simplex, mycoplasma, drugs like antibiotics and anticonvulsants and vaccinations. Contact dermatitis induced EM is a rarely reported entity. Herein we present a case of a 40 year old female who presented with EM due to contact sensitivity to p-Paraphenylenediamine (PPD, a common coloring agent in hair-dyes and a potent sensitizer. Till date, there have been only a few case reports of PPD induced EM.

  14. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers which prevent...

  15. Repeated exposure to hair dye induces regulatory T cells in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, I M C; Dabelsteen, S; Nielsen, M M

    2010-01-01

    We have recently shown that commercial p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-containing hair dyes are potent immune activators that lead to severe contact hypersensitivity in an animal model. However, only a minority of people exposed to permanent hair dyes develops symptomatic contact hypersensitivity...

  16. A study of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding hair dye use among general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hair dye usage is extremely common all over the world. Hair dyes have been reported to cause a wide range of adverse effects, therefore, the consumer’s knowledge about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of general population towards the use of hair dyes. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty consecutive persons using hair dyes were enrolled for this questionnaire-based cross-sectional, descriptive study. Results: These 250 patients comprised 141 men (56.4% and 109 women (43.6% (M: F 1.29:1, aged between 16 and 74 (mean 47.13 years. The majority, 212 patients (84.8% were aged between 20–60 years and 66.4% (n=166 belonged to an urban background. When asked about the reason for using hair color, the principle reason was “to look younger” (59.6%, n=149. Most of the respondents were using synthetic hair dye preparations (55.2%, n=138 and when asked about the brand of hair dye being used, 25.2% (n=63 did not know about the brand they were using. When asked about their perception regarding safety of HD, 61% (n=152 respondents agreed that hair dyes are not safe and on being asked about the carcinogenic potential of HD, only 24% (n=60 respondents agreed. When enquired about the safest variety of HD, majority of respondents (52.4%, n=131 believed that plant based hair colors are the safest. When asked about the safety of HD during pregnancy and lactation, 68% (n=168 of the respondents were unaware regarding this aspect. 14.4% of the respondents reported suffering from some adverse effects due to hair dye use but only 11.11% (n=4 of those stopped using hair dyes. Conclusions: There is lack of awareness about the hair dyes and their adverse effects in the general population. There is an urgent need to increase awareness among consumers regarding the adverse effects of hair dyes and the available safer alternatives. Limitations: Small number of respondents and

  17. Human systemic exposure to [14C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohynek, G.J.; Skare, J.A.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Wehmeyer, K.R.; Bie, A.T.H.J. de; Vaes, W.H.J.; Dufour, E.K.; Fautz, R.; Steiling, W.; Bramante, M.; Toutain, H.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [14C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [14C] was measured in all

  18. p-Phenylenediamine and other allergens in hair dye products in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Dathan; Yazar, Kerem; Hamann, Carsten R

    2014-01-01

    product contained six (range 0-11). p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) was found in 83 products (78%), but resorcinol (89%), m-aminophenol (75%), p-aminophenol (60%) and toluene-2,5-diamine (21%) were also frequently identified. CONCLUSIONS: Potent contact sensitizers were almost universally included in the hair...... dyes investigated in the United States. Although PPD is a common allergen, resorcinol and m-aminophenol were found more frequently. In total, 30 potent sensitizers were found. Clinicians should consider other allergens in addition to PPD when evaluating patients with suspected hair dye allergy....

  19. Occupational exposure of hairdressers to [14C]-para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: A mass balance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueber-Becker, F.; Nohynek, G.J.; Dufour, E.K.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Bie, A.T.H.J.de; Toutain, H.; Bolt, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    We monitored the exposure of hairdressers to oxidative hair dyes for 6 working days under controlled conditions. Eighteen professional hairdressers (3/day) coloured hairdresser's training heads bearing natural human hair (hair length: approximately 30 cm) for 6 h/working day with a dark-shade

  20. Skin sensitization quantitative risk assessment for occupational exposure of hairdressers to hair dye ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Carsten; Diepgen, Thomas L; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Gaspari, Anthony A; Schnuch, Axel; Fuchs, Anne; Schlotmann, Kordula; Krasteva, Maya; Kimber, Ian

    2018-06-01

    Occupational exposure of hairdressers to hair dyes has been associated with the development of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) involving the hands. p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD) have been implicated as important occupational contact allergens. To conduct a quantitative risk assessment for the induction of contact sensitization to hair dyes in hairdressers, available data from hand rinsing studies following typical occupational exposure conditions to PPD, PTD and resorcinol were assessed. By accounting for wet work, uneven exposure and inter-individual variability for professionals, daily hand exposure concentrations were derived. Secondly, daily hand exposure was compared with the sensitization induction potency of the individual hair dye defined as the No Expected Sensitization Induction Levels (NESIL). For PPD and PTD hairdresser hand exposure levels were 2.7 and 5.9 fold below the individual NESIL. In contrast, hand exposure to resorcinol was 50 fold below the NESIL. Correspondingly, the risk assessment for PPD and PTD indicates that contact sensitization may occur, when skin protection and skin care are not rigorously applied. We conclude that awareness of health risks associated with occupational exposure to hair dyes, and of the importance of adequate protective measures, should be emphasized more fully during hairdresser education and training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of demipermanent and semipermanent hair dyes gels from ethanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan L. using carbomer as gelling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, T.; Syahrin, A.; Irpan

    2017-07-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (Cs L) contains of essential oils, saponin, brazilin, brazilein, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins that have a function as cationic natural dyes. The aim of this research was to prepare the ethanol extract of Cs L wood and to prepare demi-permanent and semi-permanent of hair dye gels by using Carbomer of 2 % and 1.5 % as gelling agent and Cs L extract as cationic dyes. The Extract of Cs L was macerated by using ethanol of 96 % as the solvent, and then thickened. Three formula of demi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 3 %, 6% and 9 %. Three formula of semi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 2.50 %, 7.00 % and 10.50 %. Those hair dyes gels were prepared by swelling and mixing methods. All products of hair dyes gels were evaluated with organoleptic test, homogeneity test, pH test, consistency test, rheological properties test and dyeing effect test. The demi-permanent hair dye gels products had brown to brown dark black colors, pH of 5.05-5.43, homogeny, specific Cs L odor, and had pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristic. The semi-permanent hair dye gels products had red color pH of 6.5-6.25, homogeny, Cs L odor, and have pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristics. The optimum formula of demi-permanent was formula gel that contained of 6 % extract of Cs L and the optimum formula of permanent hair dyes gel was formula that contained of 10.50 % extract of Cs L.

  2. Distribution kinetics of 3H-labelled p-phenylene diamine - - a hair dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.; Jain, I.S.; Sharma, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution kinetics of the 3 H-labelled p-phenylene diamine (a hair dye compound), was studied when administered iv and when applied percutaneously. The tracer experiments in rabbits after iv administration showed a biphasic blood clearance with half life values of 24 min and 43.5 h and quick-percutaneous absorption. The tissue distribution pattern investigated after iv and percutaneous administration in 16 different tissues and also in blood did not demonstrate any target organ for selective localisation of the dye. Not more than 0.06 percent of the iv administered radioactivity was measured per 10 mg of any tissue at 12th day. (author)

  3. Hair dye-incorporated poly-γ-glutamic acid/glycol chitosan nanoparticles based on ion-complex formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HY

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hye-Young Lee1,*, Young-IL Jeong2,*, Ki-Choon Choi31Anyang Science University, Anyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 2Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Jeonnam, South Korea; 3Grassland and Forages Research Center, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Chungnam, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this work.Background: p-Phenylenediamine (PDA or its related chemicals are used more extensively than oxidative hair dyes. However, permanent hair dyes such as PDA are known to have potent contact allergy reactions in humans, and severe allergic reactions are problematic.Methods: PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared based on ion-complex formation between the cationic groups of PDA and the anionic groups of poly(γ-glutamic acid (PGA. To reinforce PDA/PGA ion complexes, glycol chitosan (GC was added. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD.Results: Nanoparticles were formed by ion-complex formation between the amine groups of PDA and the carboxyl groups of PGA. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles are small in size (<100 nm, and morphological observations showed spherical shapes. FT-IR spectra results showed that the carboxylic acid peak of PGA decreased with increasing PDA content, indicating that the ion complexes were formed between the carboxyl groups of PGA and the amine groups of PDA. Furthermore, the intrinsic peak of the carboxyl groups of PGA was also decreased by the addition of GC. Intrinsic crystalline peaks of PDA were observed by XRD. This crystalline peak of PDA was completely nonexistent when nanoparticles were formed by ion complex between PDA, PGA, and GC, indicating that PDA was complexed with PGA and no free drug existed in the formulation. During the drug-release experiment, an initial burst release of PDA was

  4. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David; Mama, John; Hawkes, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates), the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N-nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety. PMID:28809322

  5. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Hawkes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates, the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N-nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety.

  6. Sensitization and Clinically Relevant Allergy to Hair Dyes and Clothes from Black Henna Tattoos: Do People Know the Risk? An Uncommon Serious Case and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A. Moro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Henna (Lawsonia inermis L. tattooing has been used in Egypt and India since ancient times. Today this temporary body art is becoming increasingly popular among young people. Various chemicals are added to henna to darken and enhance the definition of tattoos, especially para-phenylenediamine (PPD, which is a strong sensitizer known to cause cross sensitive reactions to azoic dyes and other para-amino compounds. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl who became clinically sensitive to textile dyes after having showed a serious reaction both to her first hair dying when she was 16 years old and following the application of a temporary henna tattoo when she was a kid. The evidence from our literature review showed 33 cases of manifest sensitization to hair dye and only one of observable contact allergy to both hair and textile dyes from henna tattoos. The sensitization of children may have long-life lasting consequences, because of cross-reaction to dyes and other chemicals contained in hair colourants, clothes and drugs. Since tattoos are very popular and globalization has increased the circulation of unauthorized products we point out the need for informative campaigns about the risk of sensitization caused by temporary tattoos.

  7. Hemolytic anemia after ingestion of the natural hair dye Lawsonia inermis (henna) in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardes, Daniel J; Ross, Linda A; Markovich, Jessica E

    2013-01-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and case management of a dog that developed hemolytic anemia and evidence of renal tubular dysfunction after ingestion of a natural hair dye containing Lawsonia inermis (henna). To review cases of henna toxicity reported in the human literature. An 8-year-old female spayed Border Collie was presented 5 days after ingestion of a box of natural hair dye. The dog was showing signs of lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, and weakness. A serum biochemistry profile, complete blood count, and urinalysis demonstrated evidence of renal tubular dysfunction and a regenerative anemia without spherocytosis. The dog was treated with a transfusion of packed RBCs and IV fluids, resulting in significant clinical improvement. Repeat diagnostics showed resolution of the anemia and no lasting evidence of tubular dysfunction. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case in the veterinary literature of toxicity following ingestion of Lawsonia inermis (henna). Henna ingestion was associated with the development of hemolytic anemia and acute kidney injury. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  8. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Mei Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future.

  9. Human systemic exposure to [¹⁴C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Skare, Julie A; Meuling, Wim J A; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Vaes, Wouter H J; Dufour, Eric K; Fautz, Rolf; Steiling, Winfried; Bramante, Mario; Toutain, Herve

    2015-07-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [(14)C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [(14)C] was measured in all materials, rinsing water, hair, plasma, urine and skin strips. Plasma and urine were also analysed by HLPC/MS/MS for PPD and its metabolites (B). Total mean recovery of radioactivity was 94.30% (A) or 96.21% (B). Mean plasma Cmax values were 132.6 or 97.4 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL, mean AUC(0-∞) values 1415 or 966 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL*hr in studies A or B, respectively. Urinary excretion of [(14)C] mainly occurred within 24 hrs after hair colouring with a total excretion of 0.72 or 0.88% of applied radioactivity in studies A or B, respectively. Only N,N'-diacetylated-PPD was detected in plasma and the urine. A TK-based human safety assessment estimated margins of safety of 23.3- or 65-fold relative to respective plasma AUC or Cmax values in rats at the NOAEL of a toxicity study. Overall, hair dyes containing PPD are unlikely to pose a health risk since they are used intermittently and systemic exposure is limited to the detoxified metabolite N,N'-diacetyl-PPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Permeation of hair dye ingredients, p-phenylenediamine and aminophenol isomers, through protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiao-Shu; Lin, Yu-Wen

    2009-04-01

    Skin irritation and contact allergies are skin disorders common to hairdressers. The predominant oxidative hair dye components, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and aminophenol isomers, can cause contact dermatitis. Use of protective gloves can prevent dermal contact with skin irritants. This study investigates the permeation behaviors of p-aminophenol (PAP), m-aminophenol (MAP), o-aminophenol (OAP) and PPD in single and mixed challenge solutions with disposable natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves, disposable polyvinylchloride (PVC) gloves and neoprene (NP) gloves. The challenge solutions were 4% PPD (w/v), 3% OAP (w/v), 2% PAP (w/v) and 2% MAP (w/v) in ethanol or 12% hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cocktail solutions of the four chemicals were also tested. An American Society for Testing and Materials type permeation cell, ethanol liquid collection and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection of samples taken from the collection medium every 10 min facilitated determination of breakthrough times (BTs), cumulative permeated masses and steady-state permeation rates (SSPRs). Experiments were 4 h long for the NRL and PVC gloves and 8 h for NP gloves. No chemicals tested broke through the NP gloves when exposed for 8 h. In the ethanol solution, PPD and OAP started breaking through the PVC gloves at 40 min. The SSPRs of PVC gloves were higher than those for NRL gloves in all challenge conditions for both single chemicals and mixtures. No tested chemicals in hydrogen peroxide solutions permeated the gloves during the 4-h tests. The chemical composition of the challenge solution was a main effecter of BTs and SSPRs for the NRL glove. For disposable PVC gloves, the main factors of BTs were molecular size [molar volume (MV)] and polarity (logK(ow)), and the primary factors of SSPRs were concentration, MV and logK(ow). In conclusion, disposable NRL gloves and disposable PVC gloves should not be used repeatedly for handling the hair dye products. Hydrogen peroxide did not

  11. Clinical Evidence of Increase in Hair Growth and Decrease in Hair Loss without Adverse Reactions Promoted by the Commercial Lotion ECOHAIR®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, María Rosario; Anesini, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Hair exerts protection, sensory functions, thermoregulation, and sexual attractiveness. Hair loss (alopecia) is caused by several diseases, drug intake, hormone imbalance, stress, and infections (Malassesia furfur). Drugs usually used in alopecia produce irreversible systemic and local side effects. An association of extracts of Coffea arabica and Larrea divaricata (ECOHAIR®) is successfully being commercialized in Argentina for hair growth. The aim of this study was to provide scientific support for the efficacy and innocuousness of ECOHAIR® in patients with noncicatricial alopecia during a 3-month treatment. The efficacy was determined through the assessment of an increase in hair volume, improvement in hair looks, growth of new hair, and a decrease in hair loss by the test of hair count and hair traction. The capacity to decrease the amount of dandruff was also evaluated as well as the adverse local effects caused by the treatment. ECOHAIR® spray improved the overall hair volume and appearance; it increased its thickness, induced hair growth, and decreased hair loss. Besides, no adverse local reactions were observed upon treatment with the product. This study provides scientific support for the clinical use of ECOHAIR® as a treatment to be used in noncicatricial alopecia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Decolorization kinetics of Procion H-exl dyes from textile dyeing using Fenton-like reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntampegliotis, K; Riga, A; Karayannis, V; Bontozoglou, V; Papapolymerou, G

    2006-08-10

    The decolorization kinetics of three commercially used Procion H-exl dyes was studied using a Fenton-like reagent. The effect of the major system parameters (pH, concentration of H(2)O(2) and Fe(3+) and initial dye concentration) on the kinetics was determined. For comparison, the effect of the use of UV irradiated Fenton-like reagent and of Fenton reagent on the kinetics was also examined. In addition, mineralization rates and the biodegradability improvement as well as the effect of the addition of Cl(-), CO(3)(2-) or HCO(3)(-) on the decolorization rates was studied. The reactions were carried out in a 300 ml stirred cylindrical reactor with the capability of UV irradiation. The dye half-life time goes through a minimum with respect to the solution pH between 3 and 4. It also exhibits a broad minimum with respect to Fe(3+) and H(2)O(2) at molar ratios of H(2)O(2)/Fe(3+) from about 100 to 10. The addition of CO(3)(2-) and HCO(3)(-) substantially reduces the decolorization rates, while this effect is significantly less pronounced with Cl(-). At an optimum range of parameters, the mineralization rate (TOC reduction) is very slow for the Fenton-like process (TOC decrease from an initial 49.5 to 41.1 mg/l after 30 min and to only 35.2 mg/l after 600 min), but it increases significantly for the photo-Fenton-like process (to TOC values of 39.7 and 11.4 mg/l, respectively). The biodegradability, as expressed by the BOD/COD ratio, increases significantly from an initial value of 0.11-0.55 for the Fenton-like and to 0.72 for the photo-Fenton-like processes.

  13. Trichocyanines: a Red-Hair-Inspired Modular Platform for Dye-Based One-Time-Pad Molecular Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Loredana; Pezzella, Alessandro; Crescenzi, Orlando; Napolitano, Alessandra; Barone, Vincenzo; d'Ischia, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Current molecular cryptography (MoCryp) systems are almost exclusively based on DNA chemistry and reports of cryptography technologies based on other less complex chemical systems are lacking. We describe herein, as proof of concept, the prototype of the first asymmetric MoCryp system, based on an 8-compound set of a novel bioinspired class of cyanine-type dyes called trichocyanines. These novel acidichromic cyanine-type dyes inspired by red hair pigments were synthesized and characterized with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Trichocyanines consist of a modular scaffold easily accessible via an expedient condensation of 3-phenyl- or 3-methyl-2H-1,4-benzothiazines with N-dimethyl- or o-methoxyhydroxy-substituted benzaldehyde or cinnamaldehyde derivatives. The eight representative members synthesized herein can be classified as belonging to two three-state systems tunable through four different control points. This versatile dye platform can generate an expandable palette of colors and appears to be specifically suited to implement an unprecedented single-use asymmetric molecular cryptography system. With this system, we intend to pioneer the translation of digital public-key cryptography into a chemical-coding one-time-pad-like system.

  14. Decolorization kinetics of Procion H-exl dyes from textile dyeing using Fenton-like reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntampegliotis, K. [Department of Physical Sciences, Technological and Educational Institute of Larisa, T.K 411 10 Larisa (Greece); Riga, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Technological and Educational Institute of Larisa, T.K 411 10 Larisa (Greece); Karayannis, V. [Department of Physical Sciences, Technological and Educational Institute of Larisa, T.K 411 10 Larisa (Greece); Bontozoglou, V. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, T.K 383 34 Volos (Greece); Papapolymerou, G. [Department of Physical Sciences, Technological and Educational Institute of Larisa, T.K 411 10 Larisa (Greece)]. E-mail: papapoly@teilar.gr

    2006-08-10

    The decolorization kinetics of three commercially used Procion H-exl dyes was studied using a Fenton-like reagent. The effect of the major system parameters (pH, concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup 3+} and initial dye concentration) on the kinetics was determined. For comparison, the effect of the use of UV irradiated Fenton-like reagent and of Fenton reagent on the kinetics was also examined. In addition, mineralization rates and the biodegradability improvement as well as the effect of the addition of Cl{sup -}, CO{sub 3} {sup 2-} or HCO{sub 3} {sup -} on the decolorization rates was studied. The reactions were carried out in a 300 ml stirred cylindrical reactor with the capability of UV irradiation. The dye half-life time goes through a minimum with respect to the solution pH between 3 and 4. It also exhibits a broad minimum with respect to Fe{sup 3+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at molar ratios of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 3+} from about 100 to 10. The addition of CO{sub 3} {sup 2-} and HCO{sub 3} {sup -} substantially reduces the decolorization rates, while this effect is significantly less pronounced with Cl{sup -}. At an optimum range of parameters, the mineralization rate (TOC reduction) is very slow for the Fenton-like process (TOC decrease from an initial 49.5 to 41.1 mg/l after 30 min and to only 35.2 mg/l after 600 min), but it increases significantly for the photo-Fenton-like process (to TOC values of 39.7 and 11.4 mg/l, respectively). The biodegradability, as expressed by the BOD/COD ratio, increases significantly from an initial value of 0.11-0.55 for the Fenton-like and to 0.72 for the photo-Fenton-like processes.

  15. Cross-elicitation responses to 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine under hair dye use conditions in p-phenylenediamine-allergic individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemeke, B.; Pot, L. M.; Coenraads, P. -J.; Hennen, J.; Kock, M.; Goebel, C.

    Background The factors influencing elicitation responses in individuals allergic to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes are not well understood. Objectives Investigation of the elicitation response to the new, less-sensitizing PPD alternative 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD) under

  16. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  17. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwaring, John, E-mail: manwaring.jd@pg.com [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Rothe, Helga [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany); Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J.; Baker, Timothy R.; Troutman, John A. [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Hewitt, Nicola J. [SWS, Erzhausen (Germany); Goebel, Carsten [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C{sub max} was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human

  18. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J.; Baker, Timothy R.; Troutman, John A.; Hewitt, Nicola J.; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K m and V max values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C max was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human skin explants and

  19. Analysis of in vivo penetration of textile dyes causing allergic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lademann, J; Patzelt, A; Worm, M; Richter, H; Sterry, W; Meinke, M

    2009-01-01

    Contact allergies to textile dyes are common and can cause severe eczema. In the present study, we investigated the penetration of a fluorescent textile dye, dissolved from a black pullover, into the skin of one volunteer during perspiration and nonperspiration. Previously, wearing this pullover had induced a severe contact dermatitis in an 82-year old woman, who was not aware of her sensitization to textile dyes. The investigations were carried out by in vivo laser scanning microscopy. It could be demonstrated that the dye was eluted from the textile material by sweat. Afterwards, the dye penetrated into the stratum corneum and into the hair follicles. Inside the hair follicles, the fluorescent signal was still detectable after 24 h, whereas it was not verifiable anymore in the stratum corneum, Laser scanning microscopy represents an efficient tool for in vivo investigation of the penetration and storage of topically applied substances and allergens into the human skin and reveals useful hints for the development and optimization of protection strategies

  20. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J; Baker, Timothy R; Troutman, John A; Hewitt, Nicola J; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis-Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  2. The oxidative response and viable reaction mechanism of the textile dyes by fenton reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masooda, Q.; Hijira, T.; Sitara, M.; Sehar, M.; Sundus, A.; Mohsin, A.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of the degradation of the Reactive Red 239 and Reactive Blue 19 by Fenton reagent was studied by advanced oxidation process in aqueous medium. The spectroscopic technique was adopted for the measurements of dye concentration. Moreover they were determined at 540 nm and 590 nm, respectively. Kinetics of the reaction was studied under the effect of concentration of reactive dyes, concentration of oxidant were followed under pseudo first order condition and found to influence the catalytic mechanism. The pH of the medium, vibrant response of several cations and anions and influence of ionic strength on the reaction kinetics were also monitored. Physical evidences for the degradation and mineralization of the dyes were evaluated by Lime water test, Ring Test and TLC test also confirmed the degradation of dye. Inhibitory effects of dyes were observed by CO3-, HCO3-, HPO42-, Cl-, I- Al3+ and Na+. Thermodynamic activation parameters in the oxidation reaction were studied and mode of mechanism was suggested on the basic of these parameters. This study explored the safe and eco friendly degradation of the textile dyes under Pseudo first order rate constant. It was observed that Fenton assisted degradation of the dyes under controlled conditions was found to be favorable for the treatment of textile wastewater. Moreover compared to other chemical methods it is effective and harmless to the environment. (author)

  3. WNT and DKK Determine Hair Follicle Spacing Through a Reaction-Diffusion Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sick, Stefanie; Reinker, Stefan; Timmer, Jens; Schlake, Thomas

    2006-12-01

    Mathematical reaction-diffusion models have been suggested to describe formation of animal pigmentation patterns and distribution of epidermal appendages. However, the crucial signals and in vivo mechanisms are still elusive. Here we identify WNT and its inhibitor DKK as primary determinants of murine hair follicle spacing, using a combined experimental and computational modeling approach. Transgenic DKK overexpression reduces overall appendage density. Moderate suppression of endogenous WNT signaling forces follicles to form clusters during an otherwise normal morphogenetic program. These results confirm predictions of a WNT/DKK-specific mathematical model and provide in vivo corroboration of the reaction-diffusion mechanism for epidermal appendage formation.

  4. Influence of mass transfer and chemical reaction on ozonation of azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, I.S.; Wiesmann, U. [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Technical Univ. of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Azo dyes can be only mineralised by chemical oxidation. In this paper the oxidation of reactive black 5 (RB 5) and reactive orange 96 (RO 96) with concentrations between 35 and 5700 mgL{sup -1} (RB 5) and between 20 and 2050 mgL{sup -1} (RO 96) is investigated. A lab scale bubble column was used, which was gassed by a mixture of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. The oxidation rate was influenced by mass transfer for all dye concentrations used. For lower dye concentrations mass transfer alone was decisive for reaction rate showing an enhancement factor of E {approx} 1. However, in the region of higher dye concentrations, the slope of the decreasing ozone concentration inside the liquid boundary layer increases more and more with increasing dye concentration as a result of a chemical oxidation. Therefore, the enhancement factor depends on the kind and concentration of the azo dyes. For RB 5 as an diazo dye an enhancement factor of E = 9 was observed for 3800 mgL{sup -1}, RO 96 as a mono azo dye with a remarkable higher chemical oxidation rate shows an E = 17 already for 2050 mgL{sup -1}. (orig.)

  5. Can long-term alopecia occur after appropriate pulsed-dye laser therapy in hair-bearing sites? Pediatric dermatologists weigh in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Totri, Christine R; Friedlander, Sheila F

    2015-03-01

    The risk of long-term alopecia after pulsed-dye laser (PDL) therapy is unknown. To identify how many practitioners treat hair-bearing sites with PDL and how commonly long-term alopecia occurs, the authors queried pediatric dermatologists about their experiences using this modality. A survey was designed to evaluate the frequency of and factors contributing to long-term alopecia after PDL treatment of port-wine stains (PWS). "Long-term" was defined as no sign of hair regrowth after several years of nontreatment. The survey was administered to attendees at the 2014 Society for Pediatric Dermatology biannual meeting. Sixty-four pediatric dermatologists completed the survey, 50 of whom had experience using PDL. Of these physicians, 86% have used PDL to treat PWS of the eyebrow and 80% have treated PWS of the scalp. Over one-quarter of respondents (25.5%) using PDL on hair-bearing areas had at least 1 of their patients develop long-term alopecia after PDL treatment. The incidence of long-term alopecia after PDL treatment in the surveyed population was 1.5% to 2.6%. The occurrence of long-term alopecia at hair-bearing sites after treatment with PDL may be greater than previously thought. Because the majority of physicians using PDL treat hair-bearing areas, prospective studies are needed to more accurately determine the risk of long-term alopecia and the factors that contribute to it.

  6. Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: an appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, D J; Henderson, L; Marzin, D; Müller, L; Parry, J M; Speit, G; Tweats, D J; Williams, G M

    2005-12-30

    reaction between the chemicals present in hair-dye formulations. Ideally, these should also be tested for genotoxicity, but at present such experiences are very limited. There is also the possibility that one component could mask the genotoxicity of another (e.g. by being more toxic), and so it is not practical at this time to recommend routine testing of complete hair-dye formulations as well. The most sensible approach would be to establish whether any reaction products within the hair-dye formulation penetrate the skin under normal conditions of use and test only those that penetrate at toxicologically relevant levels in the three-test in vitro battery. Recently published data [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggest the three-test battery will produce a significant number of false as well as real positives. Whilst we are aware of the desire to reduce animal experiments, determining the relevance of positive results in any of the three recommended in vitro assays will most likely have to be determined by use of in vivo assays. The bone marrow micronucleus test using routes of administration such as oral or intraperitoneal may be used where the objective is extended hazard identification. If negative results are obtained in this test, then a second in vivo test should be conducted. This could be an in vivo UDS in rat liver or a Comet assay in a relevant tissue. However, for hazard characterisation, tests using topical application with measurement of genotoxicity in the skin would be more appropriate. Such specific site-of-contact in vivo tests would minimise animal toxicity burden and invasiveness, and, especially for hair dyes, be more relevant to human routes of exposure, but there are not sufficient scientific data available to allow

  7. Enhancing and inhibiting effects of aromatic compounds on luminol-dimethylsulfoxide-OH(-) chemiluminescence and determination of intermediates in oxidative hair dyes by HPLC with chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Xu, Hong; Wan, Guo-Hui; Duan, Chun-Feng; Cui, Hua

    2004-10-08

    The effect of 36 aromatic compounds on the luminol-dimethylsulfoxide-OH(-) chemiluminescence (CL) was systematically studied. It was found that dihydroxybenzenes, and ortho- and para-substituted aminophenols and phenylenediamines inhibited the CL and phenols with three or more than three hydroxyls except phloroglucin tended to enhance the CL. The CL inhibition and enhancement was proposed to be dependent on whether superoxide anion radical (O(2)(-)) was competitively consumed by compounds in the CL system. Trihydroxybenzenes were capable of generating superoxide anion radical, leading to the CL enhancement, whereas dihydroxybenzenes were superoxide anion radical scavenger, causing the CL inhibition. Based on the inhibited CL, a novel method for the simultaneous determination of p-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, p-aminophenol, o-aminophenol, resorcinol and hydroquinone by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with chemiluminescence detection was developed. The method has been successfully applied to determine intermediates in oxidative hair dyes and wastewater of shampooing after hair dyed.

  8. Carbene Transfer Reactions Catalysed by Dyes of the Metalloporphyrin Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário M. Q. Simões

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbene transfer reactions are very important transformations in organic synthesis, allowing the generation of structurally challenging products by catalysed cyclopropanation, cyclopropenation, carbene C-H, N-H, O-H, S-H, and Si-H insertion, and olefination of carbonyl compounds. In particular, chiral and achiral metalloporphyrins have been successfully explored as biomimetic catalysts for these carbene transfer reactions under both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. In this work the use of synthetic metalloporphyrins (MPorph, M = Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir, Sn as homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts for carbene transfer reactions in the last years is reviewed, almost exclusively focused on the literature since the year 2010, except when reference to older publications was deemed to be crucial.

  9. Degradation of Anthraquinone Dye Reactive Blue 4 in Pyrite Ash Catalyzed Fenton Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Becelic-Tomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrite ash (PA is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4 degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH=2.5; [PA]0=0.2 g L−1; [H2O2]0=5 mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100 mg L−1. The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes.

  10. The hair-dye reagent 2-(2',4'-diaminophenoxy)ethanol is mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venitt, S; Crofton-Sleigh, C; Osborne, M R

    1984-01-01

    A new hair-dye ingredient, 2-(2',4'-diaminophenoxy)ethanol (2,4-DAPE), was described as being devoid of any genotoxic activity on the basis of a multi-laboratory study. Since 2,4-DAPE is a close analogue of 2,4-diaminoanisole (2,4-DAA), which is mutagenic and carcinogenic, we tested this claim by assaying 2,4-DAPE for bacterial mutagenicity. Two samples of 2,4-DAPE X 2HCl were synthesized by reduction of the corresponding dinitrophenoxyethanol and identity and purity were established by elemental analysis, NMR spectrometry, mass-spectrometry, UV-spectrophotometry, TLC and HPLC. Fresh aqueous solutions of 2,4-DAPE X 2HCl were assayed in several separate plate tests using S. typhimurium TA1538, TA97, TA98 and TA100, and E. coli WP2uvrA (pKM101), 3 plates per dose and 0%, 4%, 10% and 30% Aroclor 1254-induced rat-liver S9 in S9 mixes. We obtained negative results in TA100 and E. coli. Reproducible, statistically significant dose-related increases in revertants (up to 14 times the background) were obtained in frame-shift mutants of S. typhimurium in the dose range 10-80 micrograms per plate. Mutagenicity was S9-dependent, significant increases in revertants being obtained only with 50 microliter per plate or more of S9. 2,4-DAPE induced significant mutagenic effects at doses of less than 1 micrograms per ml in TA1538 and TA98 in fluctuation tests using 2% S9 in the S9 mix. In plate tests, 2,4-DAPE was less mutagenic (by a factor of about 8) than 2,4-DAA, which gave the highest mutant yields with 20 microliter S9 per plate (4% S9 in the S9 mix). 2,4-DAPE obtained commercially was about 8 times more mutagenic than our sample of 2,4-DAPE. After purification, the commercial product, now chromatographically identical with our own sample, gave plate-test results close to those obtained for our samples of 2,4-DAPE. A review of the published reports (in which 2,4-DAPE was claimed to be inactive in a variety of short-term tests) revealed: (a) the use of protocols for bacterial

  11. Kinetics and optimization on discoloration of dyeing wastewater by schorl-catalyzed fenton-like reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Huan-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics and optimization on the discoloration of an active commercial dye, Argazol Blue BFBR (ABB by heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction catalyzed by natural schorl were investigated in this study. Kinetic investigations revealed that the first-order kinetic model was more favorable to describe the discoloration of ABB at different reaction conditions than the second-order and Behnajady-Modirshahla-Ghanbery models. The relationship between the reaction rate constant k and reaction temperature T followed the Arrhenius equation, with the apparent activation energy Ea of 51.31kJ•mol-1. The central composite design under the response surface methodology was employed for the experimental design and optimization of the ABB discoloration process. The significance of a second order polynomial model for predicting the optimal values of ABB discoloration was evaluated by the analysis of variance and 3D response surface plots for the interactions between two variables were constructed. Then, the optimum conditions were determined.

  12. Electrochemical reaction rates in a dye sentisised solar cell - the iodide/tri-iodide redox system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Winter-Jensen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction rate of the redox couple iodide / tri-iodide in acetonitrile is characterised by impedance spectroscopy. Different electrode materials relevant for the function of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Preferably, the reaction with the iodide / tri......-iodide couple should be fast at the counter electrode, i.e. this electrode must have a high catalytic activity towards the redox couple, and the same reaction must be slow on the photo electrode. The catalytic activity is investigated for platinum, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy......), and polyaniline (PANI) - all deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Both Pt and PEDOT are found to have sufficiently high catalytic activities for practical use as counter electrode in DSSC. The reaction resistance on FTO and anatase confirmed the beneficial effect of a compact anatase layer on top...

  13. [Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral da; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20minutes after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial - like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU two hours after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; da Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20min after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial-like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU 2h after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. A Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using a Composite of PEDOT:PSS and Carbon Derived from Human Hair for a Counter Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klitsada Moolsarn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon derived from hair is interesting because it has good electrocatalytic activity due to the existence of innate heteroatom dopants especially nitrogen and sulfur. In this study, a carbon catalyst containing high nitrogen contents (9.47 at.% was fabricated without using any harsh chemicals. Moreover, the carbonization temperature was only 700°C. Carbonized hair/PEDOT:PSS composites (CxP with varied carbon contents from x = 0.2 to 0.8 g were tested as a counter electrode (CE for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. This type of DSSC CE has scarcely been investigated. A DSSC with a C0.6P CE provides the best efficiency (6.54 ± 0.11% among all composite CEs because it has a high fill factor (FF and a high short-circuit current density (Jsc. The efficiency of DSSC with C0.6P CE is lower than Pt’s (7.29 ± 0.01% since the Pt-based DSSC has higher FF and Jsc values. However, C0.6P is still promising as a DSSC CE since it is more cost-effective than Pt.

  16. Exposures and reactions to allergens among hairdressing apprentices and matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, Anne; Søsted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    Early and extensive exposures to chemical substances such as are found in hair dyes, perfumes and nickel are known risk factors for allergic reactions. Hairdressing apprentices belong to a high-risk group, as they are exposed both occupationally and personally.......Early and extensive exposures to chemical substances such as are found in hair dyes, perfumes and nickel are known risk factors for allergic reactions. Hairdressing apprentices belong to a high-risk group, as they are exposed both occupationally and personally....

  17. Hetero-atom doped carbon nanotubes for dye degradation and oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Ravi, E-mail: aerawat27@gmail.com; Nanda, Karuna Kar [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)

    2015-06-24

    We report the synthesis of nitrogen doped vertically aligned multi-walled (MWNCNTs) carbon nanotubes by pyrolysis and its catalytic performance for degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye & oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The degradation of MB was monitored spectrophotometrically with time. Kinetic studies show the degradation of MB follows a first order kinetic with rate constant k=0.0178 min{sup −1}. The present rate constant is better than that reported for various supported/non-supported semiconducting nanomaterials. Further ORR performance in alkaline media makes MWNCNTs a promising cost-effective, fuel crossover tolerance, metal-free, eco-friendly cathode catalyst for direct alcohol fuel cell.

  18. The dog mite, Demodex canis: prevalence, fungal co-infection, reactions to light, and hair follicle apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3.

  19. Degradation reaction of Diazo reactive black 5 dye with copper (II) sulfate catalyst in thermolysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yen-Yie; Wong, Yee-Shian; Ang, Tze-Zhang; Ong, Soon-An; Lutpi, Nabilah Aminah; Ho, Li-Ngee

    2018-03-01

    The theme of present research demonstrates performance of copper (II) sulfate (CuSO 4 ) as catalyst in thermolysis process to treat reactive black 5 (RB 5) dye. During thermolysis without presence of catalyst, heat was converted to thermal energy to break the enthalpy of chemical structure bonding and only 31.62% of color removal. With CuSO 4 support as auxiliary agent, the thermally cleaved molecular structure was further destabilized and reacted with CuSO 4 . Copper ions functioned to delocalize the coordination of π of the lone paired electron in azo bond, C=C bond of the sp 2 carbon to form C-C of the sp 3 amorphous carbon in benzene and naphthalene. Further, the radicals of unpaired electrons were stabilized and RB 5 was thermally decomposed to methyl group. Zeta potential measurement was carried out to analyze the mechanism of RB 5 degradation and measurement at 0 mV verified the critical chemical concentration (CCC) (0.7 g/L copper (II) sulfate), as the maximum 92.30% color removal. The presence of copper (II) sulfate catalyst has remarkably increase the RB 5 dye degradation as the degradation rate constant without catalyst, k 1 is 6.5224 whereas the degradation rate constant with catalyst, k 2 is 25.6810. This revealed the correlation of conversion of thermal energy from heat to break the chemical bond strength, subsequent fragmentation of RB 5 dye molecular mediated by copper (II) sulfate catalyst. The novel framework on thermolysis degradation of molecular structure of RB 5 with respect to the bond enthalpy and interfacial intermediates decomposition with catalyst reaction were determined.

  20. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrown hair Overview An ingrown hair occurs when a shaved or tweezed hair grows back into the skin. It can cause inflammation, pain and tiny bumps in the area where the hair was removed. Ingrown hair is a common condition ...

  1. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  2. Dropping and semimicrotest glass reactions on beryllium, lenthanum, vanadyl and uranyl cations with synthetic organic dyes and their mutual determination in binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemyakin, F.M.; Novikova, A.A.; Reshetnyak, V.Yu.; Teplyakov, G.K.; Nekrasov, E.L.

    1978-01-01

    Coloured reactions for beryllium, lanthanum, vanadyl and uranyl cations with a number of organic dyes, have been studied. These reactions are used in dropping analysis on papers, impregnated with relevant dyes, and for semimicro-test glass reactions on the above cations. Sensitivity and maximum permissible dilution have been determined for each of the reactions. Mutual determinations of relevant couples of the above cations have been performed. It is shown, that such binary mixtures enable to freely open relevant cations

  3. Hair follicle is a target of stress hormone and autoimmune reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Taisuke

    2010-11-01

    Interest in the hair follicle (HF) has recently increased, yet the detailed mechanisms of HF function and immune privilege (IP) have not yet been elucidated. This review discusses the critical points of immunobiology and hormonal aspects of HFs. The HF is a unique mini-organ because it has its own immune system and hormonal milieu. In addition, the HF immune and hormonal systems may greatly affect skin immunobiology. Therefore, knowledge of HF immunobiology and hormonal aspects will lead to a better understanding of skin biology. The HF has a unique hair cycle (anagen, catagen and telogen) and contains stem cells in the bulge area. The HF is closely related to sebaceous glands and the nervous system. This article reviews the interaction between the endocrine/immune system and HFs, including the pathogenesis of alopecia areata associated with stress. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical surface reactions by click chemistry: coumarin dye modification of 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensch, Claudia; Hoeppener, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2008-01-01

    The functionalization of surfaces and the ability to tailor their properties with desired physico-chemical functions is an important field of research with a broad spectrum of applications. These applications range from the modification of wetting properties, over the alteration of optical properties, to the fabrication of molecular electronic devices. In each of these fields, it is of specific importance to be able to control the quality of the layers with high precision. The present study demonstrates an approach that utilizes the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal acetylenes to prepare triazole-terminated monolayers on different substrates. The characterization of the precursor monolayers, the optimization of the chemical surface reactions as well as the clicking of a fluorescent dye molecule on such azide-terminated monolayers was carried out. A coumarin 343 derivative was utilized to discuss the aspects of the functionalization approach. Based on this approach, a number of potential surface reactions, facilitated via the acetylene-substituted functional molecules, for a broad range of applications is at hand, thus leading to numerous possibilities where surface modifications are concerned. These modifications can be applied on non-structured surfaces of silicon or glass or can be used on structured surfaces. Various possibilities are discussed

  5. A multi-institutional joint study of contact dermatitis related to hair colouring and perming agents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akiko; Nishioka, Kazue; Kanto, Hiromi; Yagami, Akiko; Yamada, Shigeki; Sugiura, Mariko; Yasunaga, Chihiro; Yoshii, Keiko; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Adachi, Atsuko; Ikezawa, Yuko; Washizaki, Kumiko; Inui, Shigeki; Miyazawa, Hitoshi; Oiso, Naoki; Nakata, Tokio; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2017-07-01

    In Japan, allergic contact dermatitis caused by hair colouring agents is a considerable problem for those occupationally exposed and also for consumers. Over the last 20 years, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) has been a common allergen, with ∼7% positive patch test reactions. To investigate which ingredients caused allergic contact dermatitis related to hair dye and perming solutions in Japan, to assess whether PPD is suitable for screening for hair dye allergy, and to propose allergens for a Japanese hairdresser series. We selected 19 hair cosmetic allergens, including PPD, Bandrowski's base, cysteamine HCl, and ammonium thioglycolate. Altogether 203 patients (26 males and 177 females) with suspected contact allergy to hair colouring or perming solutions at 14 hospitals in Japan were included. The highest prevalence of positive reactions (35.1%) was for PPD. p-Methylaminophenol and o-aminophenol were often positive, both in the PPD-positive and in the PPD-negative patients. Moreover, cysteamine HCl often yielded positive test reactions. PPD is insufficient to diagnose contact allergy caused by to hair dyes. We recommend 13 allergens to be included in a Japanese hairdresser series. © 2017 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Removal KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Removal What's in ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  7. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  8. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  9. Microwave-assisted intramolecular dehydrogenative Diels-Alder reactions for the synthesis of functionalized naphthalenes/solvatochromic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Laura S; Benedetti, Erica; Brummond, Kay M

    2013-04-01

    Functionalized naphthalenes have applications in a variety of research fields ranging from the synthesis of natural or biologically active molecules to the preparation of new organic dyes. Although numerous strategies have been reported to access naphthalene scaffolds, many procedures still present limitations in terms of incorporating functionality, which in turn narrows the range of available substrates. The development of versatile methods for direct access to substituted naphthalenes is therefore highly desirable. The Diels-Alder (DA) cycloaddition reaction is a powerful and attractive method for the formation of saturated and unsaturated ring systems from readily available starting materials. A new microwave-assisted intramolecular dehydrogenative DA reaction of styrenyl derivatives described herein generates a variety of functionalized cyclopenta[b]naphthalenes that could not be prepared using existing synthetic methods. When compared to conventional heating, microwave irradiation accelerates reaction rates, enhances yields, and limits the formation of undesired byproducts. The utility of this protocol is further demonstrated by the conversion of a DA cycloadduct into a novel solvatochromic fluorescent dye via a Buchwald-Hartwig palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Fluorescence spectroscopy, as an informative and sensitive analytical technique, plays a key role in research fields including environmental science, medicine, pharmacology, and cellular biology. Access to a variety of new organic fluorophores provided by the microwave-assisted dehydrogenative DA reaction allows for further advancement in these fields.

  10. Effect of Ionic Liquid on the Determination of Aromatic Amines as Contaminants in Hair Dyes by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Electrochemical Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valnice Boldrin Zanoni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The room temperature ionic liquid (IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluorometanesulfonylimide BMIm[NTf2] was used as a novel medium for improvement of separation and quantization of 16 aromatic amines typically present as contaminants in consumer products and detected by HPLC coupled to an electrochemical detector. The aromatic amines, namely 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, 4-chloroaniline, 2-methoxy-5-methyl-aniline, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 2,4-diaminotoluidine, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 4,4'-oxydianiline, aniline, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, o-dianisidine, o-anisidine, o-toluidine, 4,4'-methylene-bis-2-chloroaniline and 2-naphthyl-amine are oxidized in methanol/BMIm[NTf2] at a potential around +0.68V to +0.93V vs. Ag/AgCl at a glassy carbon electrode, which is the base for their determination by HPLC/ED. Using the optimized conditions of methanol/BMIm[NTf2] 70:30 (v/v as mobile phase, flow-rate of 0.8 mL·min−1, column CLC-ODS, Eap = +1.0 V and T = 40 °C analytical curves were constructed for each of the tested amines. Good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1.09 mg·L−1 to 217 mg·L−1, with excellent correlation coefficients. The limits of detection reached 0.021 mg·L−1 to 0.246 mg·L−1 and good relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 3 were obtained from the measurements. Satisfactory recovery for each aromatic amine was achieved, ranging from 95 to 103%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine six aromatic amines present as contaminants in commercial hair dye samples.

  11. Electrochemical reaction rates in a dye-sensitised solar cell - the iodide/tri-iodide redox system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, L.; West, K.; Winther-Jensen, B.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction rate of the redox couple iodide/tri-iodide in acetonitrile is characterised by impedance spectroscopy. Different electrode materials relevant for the function of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Preferably, the reaction with the iodide....../tri-iodide couple should be fast at the counter electrode, i.e. this electrode must have a high catalytic activity towards the redox couple, and the same reaction must be slow on the photo electrode. The catalytic activity is investigated for platinum, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy......), and polyaniline (PANI)-all deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Both Pt and PEDOT are found to have sufficiently high catalytic activities for practical use as counter electrodes in DSSC. The reaction resistance on FTO and anatase confirmed the beneficial effect of a compact anatase layer on top...

  12. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is why some people with eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia lose their hair: The body isn't getting enough protein, vitamins, and minerals to support hair growth. Some teens who are vegetarians also lose their hair if ...

  13. Mineralization of hetero bi-functional reactive dye in aqueous solution by Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrades, Francesc; García-Hortal, José Antonio; García-Montaño, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the advanced oxidation of the hetero bi-functional reactive dye Sumifix Supra Yellow 3RF (CI Reactive Yellow 145) using dark Fenton and photo-Fenton conditions in a lab-scale experiment. A 2(3) factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of the three key factors: temperature, Fe(II) and H2O2 concentrations, for a dye concentration of 250 mg L(-1) with chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 172 mg L(-1) O2 at pH=3. The response function was the COD reduction. This methodology lets us find the effects and interactions of the studied variables and their roles in the efficiency of the treatment process. In the optimization, the correlation coefficients for the model (R2) were 0.948 and 0.965 for Fenton and photo-Fenton treatments, respectively. Under optimized reaction conditions: pH=3, temperature=298 K, [H2O2]=11.765 mM and [Fe(II)]=1.075 mM; 60 min of treatment resulted in a 79% and 92.2% decrease in COD, for the dye taken as the model organic compound, after Fenton and photo-Fenton treatments, respectively.

  14. Comparative study on reaction selectivity of azo dye decolorization by Pseudomonas luteola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsueh, C.-C.; Chen, B.-Y.

    2007-01-01

    This study is to inspect how the variation of molecular structures and functional groups present in our model azo dyes (i.e., Congo red, Eriochrome black T (EBT), methyl orange, and methyl red) affects biodecolorization capability of Pseudomonas luteola. The most viable decolorization was found at pH 7-9 and the optimal cellular age for the most effective decolorization was 7 days after static incubation in dye-free cultures. In decolorization, the maximal absorption wavelength in UV-vis spectra for the different dye-containing cultures shifted from visible light range towards the ultraviolet visible range. Methyl red was not decolorized in contrast to methyl orange, Congo red, and Eriochrome black T. The sulfonic group para to azo bond (-N=N-) in methyl orange was a strong electron-withdrawing group through resonance to cause an enhancement of color removal to be easily biodecolorized. As a charged carboxyl group on methyl red is at ortho position (i.e., in the proximity) to azo bond, this led to a complete inhibition to decolorization. However, decolorization of Congo red and EBT in the absence of charged group (e.g., hydroxy or amino group) near azo bond was not completely repressed like methyl red. Thus, the presence of electron-withdrawing groups as the substituents on azo dyes enhanced decolorization capability for biodegradability. In addition, Monod kinetic model provided better predictions to all dye decolorization at initial short periods of time due to negligible intermediate formed at initial short time duration, but significant intermediate accumulation took place at longer period of time. In contrast, the decolorization performances of methyl orange at 400 ppm and EBT at 230 ppm were significantly less than those predicted from the Monod kinetic model likely due to accumulated intermediates exceeding the threshold levels for feedback inhibition

  15. CYP-450 isoenzymes catalyze the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after reaction with the azo dye Sudan III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Thalita Boldrin; Lizier, Thiago M; Assis, Marilda das Dores; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2013-07-01

    This work describes the mutagenic response of Sudan III, an adulterant food dye, using Salmonella typhimurium assay and the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after different oxidation methods of this azo dye. For that, we used metabolic activation by S9, catalytic oxidation by ironporphyrin and electrochemistry oxidation in order to simulate endogenous oxidation conditions. The oxidation reactions promoted discoloration from 65% to 95% of Sudan III at 1 × 10(-4)molL(-1) and generation of 7.6 × 10(-7)molL(-1) to 0.31 × 10(-4)molL(-1) of aniline, o-anisidine, 2-methoxi-5-methylaniline, 4-aminobiphenyl, 4,4'-oxydianiline; 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and 2,6-dimethylaniline. The results were confirmed by LC-MS-MS experiments. We also correlate the mutagenic effects of Sudan III using S. typhimurium with the strain TA1535 in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation (S9) with the metabolization products of this compound. Our findings clearly indicate that aromatic amines are formed due to oxidative reactions that can be promoted by hepatic cells, after the ingestion of Sudan III. Considering that, the use of azo compounds as food dyestuffs should be carefully controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hair Dye–DNA Interaction: Plausible Cause of Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Maiti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye is one of the most popular cosmetic products which are used more widely and frequently to improve an individual’s appearance. Although the genotoxic effects of dye ingredients are widely reported, hair dye in its usable form is not reported extensively. In this contribution, we report the possible mode of interaction of hair dye with DNA which leads to genotoxicity. The effect of dye DNA interaction was studied on the most popular and globally used hair dye with Calf Thymus DNA and plasmid DNA. This interaction of dye DNA was studied by spectroscopic analyses and gel electrophoresis. The result had shown positive interaction of dye with DNA. Gel electrophoresis study confirms the binding of dye with DNA which results in linearization and fragmentation of the plasmid DNA. Dye–DNA interaction causes fragmentation and oxidation of DNA in absence of any catalyst, implies high toxicity of commercial hair dyes. Thus, it can be deduced from the present studies that hair dye in its usable form may lead to its penetration through skin affecting genomic DNA possesses genotoxic property and can be treated as one of the most common mutagen.

  17. Paraphenylenediamine: Blackening more than just hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Gude

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylenediamine is an important constituent of hair dye toxicity of which one could herald fatal complications such as rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, angioneurotic edema, and respiratory failure. We present a case of hair dye poisoning that presented with respiratory distress due to laryngeal edema and later developed trismus, subclinical tetany, apnea, and conduction abnormality on electrocardiogram. This case report highlights the need for a thorough toxicological review of the components of any ingested substance.

  18. Structure and reactivity of thiazolium azo dyes: UV-visible, resonance Raman, NMR, and computational studies of the reaction mechanism in alkaline solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Laurence C; Batchelor, Stephen N; Moore, John N

    2013-03-07

    UV-visible absorption, resonance Raman, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, allied with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, have been used to study the structure, bonding, and alkaline hydrolysis mechanism of the cationic thiazloium azo dye, 2-[2-[4-(diethylamino)phenyl]diazenyl]-3-methyl-thiazolium (1a), along with a series of six related dyes with different 4-dialkylamino groups and/or other phenyl ring substituents (2a-c, 3a-c) and the related isothiazolium azo dye, 5-[2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]diazenyl]-2-methyl-isothiazolium (4). These diazahemicyanine dyes are calculated to have a similar low-energy structure that is cis, trans at the (iso)thiazolium-azo group, and for which the calculated Raman spectra provide a good match with the experimental data; the calculations on these structures are used to assign and discuss the transitions giving rise to the experimental spectra, and to consider the bonding and its variation between the dyes. UV-visible, Raman, and NMR spectra recorded from minutes to several weeks after raising the pH of an aqueous solution of 1a to ca. 11.5 show that the dominant initial step in the reaction is loss of diethylamine to produce a quinonimine (ca. hours), with subsequent reactions occurring on longer time scales (ca. days to weeks); kinetic analyses give a rate constant of 2.6 × 10(-2) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1) for reaction of 1a with OH(-). UV-visible spectra recorded on raising the pH of the other dyes in solution show similar changes that are attributed to the same general reaction mechanism, but with different rate constants for which the dependence on structure is discussed.

  19. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  20. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  1. Hair cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dr...

  2. Hair Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cani , Marie-Paule; Bertails , Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Processing interactions is one of the main challenges in hair animation. Indeed, in addition to the collisions with the body, an extremely large number of contacts with high friction rates are permanently taking place between individual hair strands. Simulating the latter is essential: without hair self-interactions, strands would cross each other during motion or come to rest at the same location, yielding unrealistic behavior and a visible lack of hair volume. This c...

  3. Interfacial charge recombination via the triplet state? Mimicry of photoprotection in the photosynthetic process with a dye-sensitized TiO 2 solar cell reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Xiang; Li, Long; Liu, Yin; Wang, Li; Yang, Guo-Zhen; Sheng, Jian-Qun

    2002-04-01

    Evidence for the photoinduced charge recombination to the excited-triplet state has been observed in chemical solar cell reaction consisting of dye-sensitized TiO 2 colloidal ethanol solution, which mimicks the photoprotection function in the photosynthetic units. The dye is all -trans-retinoic acid, a structural analog of β-carotenoid. Two channels of charge recombination, i.e., through triplet and ground states were observed by nano-second flash photolysis. The possibility of applying the function of photoprotection to the synthetic solar cell is discussed, which provides a potential entry of molecular engineering of the dye to improve the long term stability of the synthetic solar cell.

  4. Exposures and reactions to allergens among hairdressing apprentices and matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, Anne; Søsted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    Early and extensive exposures to chemical substances such as are found in hair dyes, perfumes and nickel are known risk factors for allergic reactions. Hairdressing apprentices belong to a high-risk group, as they are exposed both occupationally and personally....

  5. Sequence analysis of the canine mitochondrial DNA control region from shed hair samples in criminal investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, C; Berger, B; Parson, W

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, evidence from domestic dogs has increasingly been analyzed by forensic DNA testing. Especially, canine hairs have proved most suitable and practical due to the high rate of hair transfer occurring between dogs and humans. Starting with the description of a contamination-free sample handling procedure, we give a detailed workflow for sequencing hypervariable segments (HVS) of the mtDNA control region from canine evidence. After the hair material is lysed and the DNA extracted by Phenol/Chloroform, the amplification and sequencing strategy comprises the HVS I and II of the canine control region and is optimized for DNA of medium-to-low quality and quantity. The sequencing procedure is based on the Sanger Big-dye deoxy-terminator method and the separation of the sequencing reaction products is performed on a conventional multicolor fluorescence detection capillary electrophoresis platform. Finally, software-aided base calling and sequence interpretation are addressed exemplarily.

  6. Hair casts

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta S Parmar; Kirti S Parmar; Bela J Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  7. Flow injection determination of hydrogen peroxide using catalytic effect of cobalt(II) ion on a dye formation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Makoto; Muramatsu, Miyuki; Yamada, Mari; Kitamura, Naoya

    2012-07-15

    A novel flow injection photometric method was developed for the determination of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater. This method is based on a cobalt(II)-catalyzed oxidative coupling of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) with N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxy-3-sulfopropyl)-3,5-dimethoxyaniline (DAOS) as a modified Trinder's reagent to produce intensely colored dye (λ(max)=530nm) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide at pH 8.4. In this method, 1,2-dihydroxy-3,5-benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron) acted as an activator for the cobalt(II)-catalyzed reaction and effectively increased the peak height for hydrogen peroxide. The linear calibration graphs were obtained in the hydrogen peroxide concentration range 5×10(-8) to 2.2×10(-6)mol dm(-3) at a sampling rate of 20h(-1). The relative standard deviations for ten determinations of 2.2×10(-6) and 2×10(-7)mol dm(-3) hydrogen peroxide were 1.1% and 3.7%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater samples and the analytical results agreed fairly well with the results obtained by different two reference methods; peroxidase method and hydrogen peroxide electrode method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Capillary electrophoresis of Big-Dye terminator sequencing reactions for human mtDNA Control Region haplotyping in the identification of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesino, Marta; Prieto, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    Cycle sequencing reaction with Big-Dye terminators provides the methodology to analyze mtDNA Control Region amplicons by means of capillary electrophoresis. DNA sequencing with ddNTPs or terminators was developed by (1). The progressive automation of the method by combining the use of fluorescent-dye terminators with cycle sequencing has made it possible to increase the sensibility and efficiency of the method and hence has allowed its introduction into the forensic field. PCR-generated mitochondrial DNA products are the templates for sequencing reactions. Different set of primers can be used to generate amplicons with different sizes according to the quality and quantity of the DNA extract providing sequence data for different ranges inside the Control Region.

  9. Ni/MgAlO regeneration for catalytic wet air oxidation of an azo-dye in trickle-bed reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, Ana; Ovejero, Gabriel; Rodríguez, Araceli; Peres, José A.; García, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ni supported over hydrotalcite calcined precursors as catalyst. ► Catalytic wet air oxidation in trickle bed reactor for Chromotrope 2R removal. ► Dye removal depends on temperature, initial dye concentration and flow rate. ► The catalyst proved to bare-usable after in situ regeneration. -- Abstract: Active nickel catalysts (7 wt%) supported over Mg–Al mixed oxides have been recently developed and it has also been demonstrated that they are also highly selective in Catalytic Wet air Oxidation (CWAO) of dyes. CWAO of Chromotrope 2R (C2R) has been studied using a trickle bed reactor employing temperatures from 100 to 180 °C, liquid flow rates from 0.1 to 0.7 mL min −1 and initial dye concentration from 10 to 50 ppm. Total pressure and air flow were 25 bar and 300 mL min −1 , respectively. The catalyst showed a very stable activity up to 24 h on stream with an average TOC conversion of 82% at 150 °C and T r = 0.098 g Ni min mL −1 . After the reaction, a 1.1 wt% C of carbonaceous deposit is formed onto the catalyst and a diminution of 30% of the surface area with respect of the fresh catalyst was observed. An increase in the space time gave higher TOC conversions up to T r = 0.098 g Ni min mL −1 , attaining values of 80% at 180 °C. The performance of TOC and dye removal does not decrease after two regeneration cycles. In total, a 57 h effective reaction has been carried out with no loss of catalytic activity

  10. Ni/MgAlO regeneration for catalytic wet air oxidation of an azo-dye in trickle-bed reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallet, Ana [Grupo de Catálisis y Procesos de Separación (CyPS), Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ovejero, Gabriel, E-mail: govejero@quim.ucm.es [Grupo de Catálisis y Procesos de Separación (CyPS), Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodríguez, Araceli [Grupo de Catálisis y Procesos de Separación (CyPS), Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Peres, José A. [Centro de Química de Vila Real, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); García, Juan, E-mail: juangcia@quim.ucm.es [Grupo de Catálisis y Procesos de Separación (CyPS), Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Ni supported over hydrotalcite calcined precursors as catalyst. ► Catalytic wet air oxidation in trickle bed reactor for Chromotrope 2R removal. ► Dye removal depends on temperature, initial dye concentration and flow rate. ► The catalyst proved to bare-usable after in situ regeneration. -- Abstract: Active nickel catalysts (7 wt%) supported over Mg–Al mixed oxides have been recently developed and it has also been demonstrated that they are also highly selective in Catalytic Wet air Oxidation (CWAO) of dyes. CWAO of Chromotrope 2R (C2R) has been studied using a trickle bed reactor employing temperatures from 100 to 180 °C, liquid flow rates from 0.1 to 0.7 mL min{sup −1} and initial dye concentration from 10 to 50 ppm. Total pressure and air flow were 25 bar and 300 mL min{sup −1}, respectively. The catalyst showed a very stable activity up to 24 h on stream with an average TOC conversion of 82% at 150 °C and T{sub r} = 0.098 g{sub Ni} min mL{sup −1}. After the reaction, a 1.1 wt% C of carbonaceous deposit is formed onto the catalyst and a diminution of 30% of the surface area with respect of the fresh catalyst was observed. An increase in the space time gave higher TOC conversions up to T{sub r} = 0.098 g{sub Ni} min mL{sup −1}, attaining values of 80% at 180 °C. The performance of TOC and dye removal does not decrease after two regeneration cycles. In total, a 57 h effective reaction has been carried out with no loss of catalytic activity.

  11. Enhanced bimolecular exchange reaction through programmed coordination of a five-coordinate oxovanadium complex for efficient redox mediation in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaizu, Kenichi; Hayo, Noriko; Sasada, Yoshito; Kato, Fumiaki; Nishide, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-07

    Electrochemical reversibility and fast bimolecular exchange reaction found for VO(salen) gave rise to a highly efficient redox mediation to enhance the photocurrent of a dye-sensitized solar cell, leading to an excellent photovoltaic performance with a conversion efficiency of 5.4%. A heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant at an electrode (k0) and a second-order rate constant for an electron self-exchange reaction (k(ex)) were proposed as key parameters that dominate the charge transport property, which afforded a novel design concept for the mediators based on their kinetic aspects.

  12. Nanoporous of W/WO{sub 3} thin film electrode grown by electrochemical anodization applied in the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of the basic red 51 used in hair dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Luciano E.; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B., E-mail: fraga@iq.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2011-07-01

    Self-organized W/WO{sub 3} nanoporous electrodes can be obtained by simple electrochemical anodization of W foil in 0.15 mol L{sup -1} NaF solution as the supporting electrolyte, applying a ramp potential of 0.2 V s{sup -1} until it reached 60 V, which was maintained for 2 h. The monoclinic form is majority in the highly ordered WO{sub 3} annealed at 450 deg C, obtaining a higher photoactivity when irradiated by visible light than by UV light. The electrode promotes complete discoloration of the investigated basic red 51 dye after 60 min of photoelectrocatalytic oxidation, on current density of 1.25 mA cm{sup -2} and irradiation on wavelength of 420-630 nm. In this condition it was obtained 63% of mineralization. Lower efficiency is obtained for the system irradiated by wavelength (280- 400 nm) when only 40% of total organic carbon removal is obtained and 120 min is required for complete discoloration. (author)

  13. Ni/MgAlO regeneration for catalytic wet air oxidation of an azo-dye in trickle-bed reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Ana; Ovejero, Gabriel; Rodríguez, Araceli; Peres, José A; García, Juan

    2013-01-15

    Active nickel catalysts (7 wt%) supported over Mg-Al mixed oxides have been recently developed and it has also been demonstrated that they are also highly selective in Catalytic Wet air Oxidation (CWAO) of dyes. CWAO of Chromotrope 2R (C2R) has been studied using a trickle bed reactor employing temperatures from 100 to 180 °C, liquid flow rates from 0.1 to 0.7 mL min(-1) and initial dye concentration from 10 to 50 ppm. Total pressure and air flow were 25 bar and 300 mL min(-1), respectively. The catalyst showed a very stable activity up to 24 h on stream with an average TOC conversion of 82% at 150 °C and T(r)=0.098 g(Ni) min mL(-1). After the reaction, a 1.1 wt% C of carbonaceous deposit is formed onto the catalyst and a diminution of 30% of the surface area with respect of the fresh catalyst was observed. An increase in the space time gave higher TOC conversions up to T(r)=0.098 g(Ni) min mL(-1), attaining values of 80% at 180 °C. The performance of TOC and dye removal does not decrease after two regeneration cycles. In total, a 57 h effective reaction has been carried out with no loss of catalytic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Obstrucción aguda de la vía respiratoria superior y rabdomiolisis luego de intoxicación por tintura para el cabello Acute upper respiratory obstruction and rhabdomiolysis due to intoxication with a hair dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Arroyave

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Las intoxicaciones por tinturas para el cabello son infrecuentes en Antioquia; sin embargo, su toxicidad es potencialmente letal cuando ingresan al organismo por vía oral al producir un compromiso multiorgánico que puede llevar a la muerte del paciente. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 2 años que ingirió una dosis de 125 mg/kg de parafenilendiamina, asociada a ácido bórico y perborato de sodio, compuestos que hacen parte de una presentación comercial de una tintura para el cabello; la intoxicación por parafenilendiamina tuvo como consecuencia principal la obstrucción de la vía aérea por angioedema que requirió intubación endotraqueal, soporte ventilatorio y administración de esteroides y antihistamínicos; secundario al compromiso aéreo la paciente presentó edema agudo de pulmón y posteriormente un cuadro neumónico que requirió tratamiento con antibióticos. Adicionalmente presentó rabdomiolisis severa que se trató con líquidos endovenosos para que no se comprometiera la función renal. Luego de una terapia durante 10 días en el hospital, la niña fue dada de alta con resolución completa del cuadro tóxico. Se revisan los posibles mecanismos fisiopatológicos, las manifestaciones clínicas y el tratamiento de la intoxicación por parafenilendiamina, dado que este fue el compuesto tóxico clínicamente importante en el contexto de este caso. There have been few cases reported of intoxication by hair dyes in Antioquia; however, their toxicity may be potentially lethal when their components enter the organism by oral route inducing a multiorganic compromise that may lead to death. We report the case of a two year old girl who ingested 125mg/kg of paraphenylenediamine, with boric acid and sodium perborate; these compounds are part of the commercial presentation of a hair dye; the child suffered airway obstruction because of angioedema that required intubation, ventila tory support, steroids and antihistaminics; due to

  15. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants Before (left) and after (right) - top ...

  16. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  17. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation.

  18. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  19. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss Overview Hereditary hair loss: Millions of men ... of hair loss can often be successfully treated. Hair loss: Overview Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE- ...

  20. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus-like Reaction to Guasha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Tan, Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is an uncommon variant of lichen planus (LP) that manifests as macular hyperpigmentation involving chiefly the face and upper limbs. Although its etiology has not been fully elucidated, a relationship with hepatitis C infection, restrictive underwear, localized friction, and sun exposure have been proposed. Rarely, exposure to mustard oil, amla oil, henna, or hair dyes has been reported. We herein describe an LPP-like reaction to Guasha. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Degradation of a cationic dye (Rhodamine 6G) using hydrodynamic cavitation coupled with other oxidative agents: Reaction mechanism and pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoriya, Sunil; Bargole, Swapnil; Saharan, Virendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, decolorization and mineralization of a cationic dye, Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G), has been carried out using hydrodynamic cavitation (HC). Two cavitating devices such as slit and circular venturi were used to generate cavitation in HC reactor. The process parameters such as initial dye concentration, solution pH, operating inlet pressure, and cavitation number were investigated in detail to evaluate their effects on the decolorization efficiency of Rh6G. Decolorization of Rh6G was marginally higher in the case of slit venturi as compared to circular venturi. The kinetic study showed that decolorization and mineralization of the dye fitted first-order kinetics. The loadings of H 2 O 2 and ozone have been optimized to intensify the decolorization and mineralization efficiency of Rh6G using HC. Nearly 54% decolorization of Rh6G was obtained using a combination of HC and H 2 O 2 at a dye to H 2 O 2 molar ratio of 1:30. The combination of HC with ozone resulted in 100% decolorization in almost 5-10min of processing time depending upon the initial dye concentration. To quantify the extent of mineralization, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis was also performed using various processes and almost 84% TOC removal was obtained using HC coupled with 3g/h of ozone. The degradation by-products formed during the complete degradation process were qualitatively identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and a detailed degradation pathway has been proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reichardt's dye and its reactions with the alkylating agents 4-chloro-1-butanol, ethyl methanesulfonate, 1-bromobutane and Fast Red B - a potentially useful reagent for the detection of genotoxic impurities in pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Damion K; Whitcombe, Michael J; McCrossen, Sean; Piletsky, Sergey

    2009-04-01

    Alkylating agents are potentially genotoxic impurities that may be present in drug products. These impurities occur in pharmaceuticals as by-products from the synthetic steps involved in drug production, as impurities in starting materials or from in-situ reactions that take place in the final drug product. Currently, analysis for genotoxic impurities is typically carried out using either HPLC/MS or GC/MS. These techniques require specialist expertise, have long analysis times and often use sample clean-up procedures. Reichardt's dye is well known for its solvatochromic properties. In this paper the dye's ability to undergo alkylation is reported. The reaction between Reichardt's dye and alkylating agents such as 4-chloro-1-butanol and ethyl methanesulfonate was monitored spectrophotometrically at 618 nm in acetonitrile and 624 nm in N,N-dimethylformamide. Changes in absorption were observed using low levels of alkylating agent (5-10 parts per million). Alkylation of the dye with 4-chloro-1-butanol and ethyl methanesulfonate was confirmed. Reichardt's dye, and its changing UV absorption, was examined in the presence of paracetamol (10 and 100 mg/ml). Whilst the alkylation-induced changes in UV absorption were not as pronounced as with standard solutions, detection of alkylation was still possible. Using standard solutions and in the presence of a drug matrix, Reichardt's dye shows promise as a reagent for detection of low levels of industrially important alkylating agents.

  3. In Vitro Methodologies to Evaluate the Effects of Hair Care Products on Hair Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Miranda da Gama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner. Evaluating efficacy of hair care products in vitro involves the use of highly accurate equipment. This review aims to discuss in vitro methodologies used to evaluate the effects of hair care products on hair fiber, which can be assessed by various methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Protein Loss, Electrophoresis, color and brightness, thermal analysis and measuring mechanical resistance to combing and elasticity. The methodology used to test hair fibers must be selected according to the property being evaluated, such as sensory characteristics, determination of brightness, resistance to rupture, elasticity and integrity of hair strain and cortex, among others. If equipment is appropriate and accurate, reproducibility and ease of employment of the analytical methodology will be possible. Normally, the data set must be discussed in order to obtain conclusive answers to the test.

  4. Pump-shaped dump optimal control reveals the nuclear reaction pathway of isomerization of a photoexcited cyanine dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzek, Benjamin; Brüggemann, Ben; Pascher, Torbjörn; Yartsev, Arkady

    2007-10-31

    Using optimal control as a spectroscopic tool we decipher the details of the molecular dynamics of the essential multidimensional excited-state photoisomerization - a fundamental chemical reaction of key importance in biology. Two distinct nuclear motions are identified in addition to the overall bond-twisting motion: Initially, the reaction is dominated by motion perpendicular to the torsion coordinate. At later times, a second optically active vibration drives the system along the reaction path to the bottom of the excited-state potential. The time scales of the wavepacket motion on a different part of the excited-state potential are detailed by pump-shaped dump optimal control. This technique offers new means to control a chemical reaction far from the Franck-Condon point of absorption and to map details of excited-state reaction pathways revealing unique insights into the underlying reaction mechanism.

  5. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

  6. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  7. Laser Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amplification or generation of coherent light waves in the UV,. VIS, and near IR region. .... ciency in most flashlamp pumped dye lasers. It is used as reference dye .... have led to superior laser dyes with increased photostabilities. For instance ...

  8. Direct thermal dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Edward

    1990-07-01

    Direct thermal dyes are members of a class of compounds referred to in the imaging industry as color formers or leuco dyes. The oldest members of that class have simple triarylmethane structures, and have been employed for years in various dyeing applications. More complex triarylmethane compounds, such as phthalides and fluorans, are now used in various imaging systems to produce color. Color is derived from all of these compounds via the same mechanism, on a molecular level. That is, an event of activation produces a highly resonating cationic system whose interaction with incident light produces reflected light of a specific color. The activation event in the case of a direct thermal system is the creation of a melt on the paper involving dye and an acidic developer. The three major performance parameters in a thermal system are background color, image density, and image stability. The three major dye physical parameters affecting thermal performance are chemical constituency, purity, and particle size. Those dyes having the best combination of characteristics which can also be manufactured economically dominate the marketplace. Manufacturing high performance dyes for the thermal market involves multi-step, convergent reaction sequences performed on large scale. Intermediates must be manufactured at the right time, and at the right quality to be useful.

  9. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were used rapidly since 1970 in inks for the heat-transfer printing of polyester. The main synthetic route for the preparation of azo dyes is coupling reaction between an aromatic diazo compound and a coupling component. Of all dyes manufactured, about 60% are produced by this reaction. Arylazo pyridone dyes can be prepared from pyridone moiety as a coupling component, where substituent can be on nitrogen, and diazonim salts which can be derived from different substituted anilines or other heterocyclic derivatives. In addition, arylazo dyes containing pyridone ring can be prepared from arylazo diketones or arylazo ketoesters (obtained by coupling β-diketones or β-ketoesters with diazonim salts by condensation with cyanoacetamide. Disazo dyes can be prepared by tetrazotizing a dianiline and coupling it with a pyridone or by diazotizing aniline and coupling it with a dipyridone. Trisazo dyes can be also prepared by diazotizing of aniline and coupling it with a tripyridone or by hexazotizing a trianiline and coupling it with a pyridone. The main goal of this paper is to give a brief review on the synthesis of arylazo pyridone dyes due to the lack of such reviews. In addition, some properties of arylazo pyridone dyes as light fastness and azo-hydrazon tautomerism are disccused.

  10. Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Sven; Auwärter, Volker; Pragst, Fritz

    2003-01-28

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest concentration was 0.003% in a hair wax. From experiments with separated hair samples of alcoholics as well as from the evaluation of the FAEE concentrations and the data about hair care of 75 volunteers (alcoholics, social drinkers and teetotalers) follows that usual shampooing, permanent wave, dyeing, bleaching or shading are of minor importance as compared to the drinking amount and other individual features. However, false positive results were found after daily treatment with a hair lotion containing 62.5% ethanol, with a deodorant and with a hair spray. As an explanation, it is assumed that FAEE are formed in the sebum glands also after regular topical application of products with a higher ethanol content.

  11. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  12. Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction deposited kesterite Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoflakes counter electrodes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Shim, Chang Su; Hong, Chang Kook, E-mail: hongck@chonnam.ac.kr

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoflakes by SILAR technique. • Hydrothermal synthesis of TiO{sub 2}. • Counter electrode for DSSC application. • 4.48% conversion efficiency. - Abstract: In this investigation, we have successfully synthesized Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) nanoflakes by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and used as a counter electrode in the hydrothermally grown TiO{sub 2} based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared CZTS nanoflakes were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), micro Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive analysis. Our DSSCs results revealed that, compared with conventional Pt/FTO counter electrode DSSCs, nanoflakes of p-type CZTS as the photocathode and n-type TiO{sub 2} thin films as the photoanode shows an increased short circuit current (13.35 mA/cm{sup 2}) with 4.84% power conversion efficiency. The detailed interface properties of were analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements.

  13. Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction deposited kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoflakes counter electrodes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Shim, Chang Su; Hong, Chang Kook

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 nanoflakes by SILAR technique. • Hydrothermal synthesis of TiO 2 . • Counter electrode for DSSC application. • 4.48% conversion efficiency. - Abstract: In this investigation, we have successfully synthesized Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) nanoflakes by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and used as a counter electrode in the hydrothermally grown TiO 2 based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared CZTS nanoflakes were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), micro Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive analysis. Our DSSCs results revealed that, compared with conventional Pt/FTO counter electrode DSSCs, nanoflakes of p-type CZTS as the photocathode and n-type TiO 2 thin films as the photoanode shows an increased short circuit current (13.35 mA/cm 2 ) with 4.84% power conversion efficiency. The detailed interface properties of were analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements

  14. Protein loss in human hair from combination straightening and coloring treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França-Stefoni, Simone Aparecida; Dario, Michelli Ferrera; Sá-Dias, Tânia Cristina; Bedin, Valcinir; de Almeida, Adriano José; Baby, André Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-09-01

    Hair chemical treatments, such as dyeing and straightening products, are known to cause damage that can be assessed by protein loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hair protein loss caused by combined chemical treatments (dye and relaxer) using the validated bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method. Three kinds of straighteners, based on ammonium thioglycolate, guanidine hydroxide and sodium hydroxide, were evaluated and the least harmful combination indicated. Caucasian virgin dark brown hair tresses were treated with developed natural brown color oxidative hair dyeing and/or straightening commercial products based on ammonium thioglycolate, sodium hydroxide, or guanidine hydroxide. Protein loss quantification was assessed by the validated BCA method which has several advantages for quantifying protein loss in chemically treated hair. When both treatments (straightening and dyeing) were combined, a higher negative effect was observed, particularly for dyed hair treated with sodium hydroxide. In this case, a 356% increase in protein loss relative to virgin hair was observed and 208% in relation to only dyed hair. The combination of dying and relaxers based on ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide caused a small increase in protein loss, suggesting that these straightening products could be the best alternatives for individuals wishing to combine both treatments. These results indicated that when application of both types of products is desired, ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide should be chosen for the straightening process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective...... of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods...... (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges....

  16. Protection of oxidative hair color fading from shampoo washing by hydrophobically modified cationic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Foltis, L; Moore, D J; Rigoletto, R

    2009-01-01

    The fading of oxidative color in hair as a result of daily shampoo washing activities has become a common problem and a source of frequent complaints by consumers. The fading occurs primarily through hair dye solubility in water. One aspect of the current study investigates the physical and chemical factors that influence hair color fading during the washing process. This is accomplished by testing hair dye dissolution in water from dyed hair samples with variation of surfactant type, pH, and hair type. Furthermore, a new approach to preventing color fading is developed aiming to provide an effective barrier function for hair dye from dissolving into water. The preliminary investigation of a series of polymers with various functional groups indicates that polymers with hydrophobically modified and cationic functionalities are most effective in preventing hair dye dissolution in water. It is also evident that a synergistic effect of the polymer's hydrophobic moieties and cationic charges are important on hair color protection during shampoo washing processes. A primary example of a polymer within this category is a cationic terpolymer of vinylpyrrolidone, dimethylaminopropyl methacrylamide, and methacryloylaminopropyl lauryldimonium chloride (INCI: Polyquaternium-55). The color protection benefit of this polymer is evaluated using newly developed methodologies for evaluating hair color changes, such as hair color fading tests through multiple shampoo washes with mannequin heads and hair tresses, both derived from human hair, colorimetry, and quantitative digital image analysis. In addition, new infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques are used to detect the hair dye deposition behavior inside hair fibers both with and without the color protection treatment. Both visual and instrumental measurement results indicate that Polyquaternium-55 provides a high level of color protection when formulated in a hair color protection regimen with up to 50% color protection. This

  17. Detection of oxidative hair treatment using fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Silvana; Wunder, Cora; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2016-08-01

    In assessing abstinence from drug or alcohol abuse, hair analysis plays an important role. Cosmetic hair treatment influences the content of deposited drugs which is not always detectable during analysis. Since oxidation of melanin leads to an increase in fluorescence, a microscopic method was developed to distinguish natural from cosmetically treated hair. For validation, natural hair samples were treated with different types of cosmetics and inspected by fluorescence microscopy. Hair samples from 20 volunteers with documented cosmetic treatment and as a proof of concept 100 hair samples from forensic cases were analyzed by this method. Apart from autofluorescence with excitation at 365 nm, no obvious fluorescence was observed in untreated hair samples. Tinting and a natural plant product had no influence on fluorescence, but dyeing procedures including oxidation led to a marked increase in fluorescence. Proof of cosmetic treatment was achieved in hair samples from the 20 volunteers. In 100 forensic cases, 13 samples were characterized as oxidatively treated, which was in accordance with the respective disclosure except for one case where treatment was not admitted. This fluorescence microscopic procedure proved to be fast, easy, and reliable to identify oxidatively treated hair samples, which must be considered especially in evaluating cases of negative drug results. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Taking Care of Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Hair KidsHealth / For Teens / Taking Care of Your Hair ... role in how healthy it looks. Caring for Hair How you take care of your hair depends ...

  19. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  20. Management of hair loss diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Ohyama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of hair loss diseases is sometimes difficult because of insufficient efficacy and limited options. However, recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology and development of new remedies have improved the treatment of refractory hair loss conditions. In this article, an update on the management of hair loss diseases is provided, especially focusing on recently reported therapeutic approaches for alopecia areata (AA. An accurate diagnosis is indispensable to optimize treatment. Dry dermoscopy represents new diagnostic techniques, which could enable the differentiation of barely indistinguishable alopecias, e.g. AA and trichotillomania. An organized scalp biopsy adopting both vertical and transverse sectioning approaches also provides a deep insight into the pathophysiology of ongoing alopecias. Among various treatments for AA, intraregional corticosteroid and contact immunotherapy have been recognized as first-line therapies. However, some AA cases are refractory to both treatments. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of pulse corticosteroid therapy or the combination of oral psoralen ultraviolet A therapy and systemic corticosteroids for severe AA. Previous clinical observations have suggested the potential role of antihistamines as supportive medications for AA. Experimental evaluation using AA model mice further supports their effectiveness in AA treatment. Finasteride opens up new possibilities for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. For androgenetic alopecia patients refractory to finasteride, the combination of finasteride with topical minoxidil or the administration of dutasteride, another 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, may provide better outcomes. Scarring alopecia is the most difficult form of hair loss disorder to treat. The bulge stem cell area is destroyed by unnecessary immune reactions with resultant permanent loss of hair follicle structures in scarring alopecia. Currently, treatment options for

  1. Hair removal in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several removal methods currently available. Shaving and depilation with chemicals products are temporary methods, that need frequent repetition, because hair removal is next to the cutaneous surface. The epilating methods in which there is full hair extraction include: epilation with wax, thread, tweezers, epilating machines, laser, intense pulsed light, and electrolysis. Conclusions: The age of beginning hair removal and the method choice must be individualized and take into consideration the skin and hair type, location, dermatological and endocrine problems, removal frequency, cost and personal preferences.

  2. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  3. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  4. Viking Age Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Arwill-Nordbladh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of hair in the Viking Age. The article draws on medieval Icelandic and Scandinavian texts for interpretation. Further information is taken from pictoral representations of viking hair styles and decoration, hairdressing artefacts, figurines and actual remains of hair.

  5. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in this ... head are in the resting phase. What Causes Hair Loss? Men, especially older men, are the ones who ...

  6. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin, Hair, and Nails KidsHealth / For Parents / Skin, Hair, and ... piel, el cabello y las uñas About Skin, Hair and Nails Skin is our largest organ. If ...

  7. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  8. Tryptophan and kynurenine determination in human hair by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, Michelli F; Freire, Thamires Batello; Pinto, Claudinéia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Prado, María Segunda Aurora; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2017-10-15

    Tryptophan, an amino acid found in hair proteinaceous structure is used as a marker of hair photodegradation. Also, protein loss caused by several chemical/physical treatments can be inferred by tryptophan quantification. Kynurenine is a photo-oxidation product of tryptophan, expected to be detected when hair is exposed mainly to UVB (290-320nm) radiation range. Tryptophan from hair is usually quantified directly as a solid or after alkaline hydrolysis, spectrofluorimetrically. However, these types of measure are not sufficiently specific and present several interfering substances. Thus, this work aimed to propose a quantification method for both tryptophan and kynurenine in hair samples, after alkali hydrolysis process, by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric and UV detection. The tryptophan and kynurenine quantification method was developed and validated. Black, white, bleached and dyed (blond and auburn) hair tresses were used in this study. Tryptophan and kynurenine were separated within ∼9min by HPLC. Both black and white virgin hair samples presented similar concentrations of tryptophan, while bleaching caused a reduction in the tryptophan content as well as dyeing process. Unexpectedly, UV/vis radiation did not promote significantly the conversion of tryptophan into its photo-oxidation product and consequently, kynurenine was not detected. Thus, this works presented an acceptable method for quantification of tryptophan and its photooxidation metabolite kynurenine in hair samples. Also, the results indicated that bleaching and dyeing processes promoted protein/amino acids loss but tryptophan is not extensively degraded in human hair by solar radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  10. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hair loss in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Romero, J A; Grimalt, R

    2014-02-01

    Hair diseases represent a significant portion of cases seen by pediatric dermatologists although hair has always been a secondary aspect in pediatricians and dermatologists training, on the erroneous basis that there is not much information extractable from it. Dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders with simple diagnostic techniques. The hair is easily accessible to examination but, paradoxically, this approach is often disregarded by non-dermatologist. This paper has been written on the purpose of trying to serve in the diagnostic process of daily practice, and trying to help, for example, to distinguish between certain acquired and some genetically determined hair diseases. We will focus on all the data that can be obtained from our patients' hair and try to help on using the messages given by hair for each patient. Quite often it is extremely hard to distinguish between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. We will specially focus in the most common physiological changes that may mislead to an incorrect diagnosis. Specific treatment for those hair diseases that do have one, and basic general approach to improve the cosmetic appearance of hair, will be also be discussed for those hair disturbances that do not have a specific treatment.

  12. Hair cosmetics and camouflage technics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahide Eriş Eken

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is composed of a mixture of trace elements in small quantities, proteins, lipids and water. Proteins consist of helical polypeptide amino acid molecules. In the hair cells; polypeptide chains of keratin protein would be organized in filaments. In recent years, hair cosmetics showed a significant change and development. The content of shampoos which is used to cleanse the hair has enhanced significantly. Hair conditioner, hair styling products, pomades, brilliantine, and gloss sprays, hair protective products, camouflage products are most commonly used hair cosmetics. Hair shaping procedures are frequently applied.

  13. Drugs and hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mansi; Harrison, Shannon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a common complaint, both in men and women, and use of prescription medications is widespread. When there is a temporal association between the onset of hair loss and commencement of a medication, the medication is commonly thought to have caused the hair loss. However, hair loss and in particular telogen effluvium may occur in response to a number of triggers including fever, hemorrhage, severe illness, stress, and childbirth, and a thorough exclusion of these potential confounders is necessary before the hair loss can be blamed on the medication. Certain medications are known to cause hair loss by a variety of mechanisms including anagen arrest, telogen effluvium, or accentuation of androgenetic alopecia by androgens. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  15. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  16. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Thinning hair and hair loss: Could it be female pattern hair loss? Female pattern hair loss: Without treatment, female ... can I tell if I have female pattern hair loss? It’s best to make an appointment to ...

  17. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  18. Synthesized TiO{sub 2}/ZSM-5 composites used for the photocatalytic degradation of azo dye: Intermediates, reaction pathway, mechanism and bio-toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kefu; Hu, Xin-Yan [College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Chen, Bor-Yann; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qian [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jiajie; Lin, Yu-Jung [College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Chang, Chang-Tang, E-mail: ctchang73222@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan, Taiwan (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The major photo-catalytic degradation pathway of azo-dye was elaborated according to the identification of by-products from GC–MS and IC analysis. • Comparative assessment on characteristics of abiotic and biotic dye decolorization was analyzed. • EDTA (hole scavengers) and t-BuOH (radical scavengers) were used to determine the main active oxidative species in the system. • The toxicity effects of degradation intermediates of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) on the cellular respiratory activity were assessed. - Abstract: In this study, a one-step solid dispersion method was used to synthesize titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})/Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5) composites with substantially reduced time and energy consumption. A degradation efficiency of more than 95% was achieved within 10 min using 50% PTZ (synthesized TiO{sub 2}/ZSM-5 composites with TiO{sub 2} contents of 50 wt% loaded on ZSM-5) at pH 7 and 25 °C. The possible degradation pathway of azo-dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) was investigated using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and ion chromatography (IC). The bonds between the N atoms and naphthalene groups are likely attacked first and cleaved by hydroxyl radicals, ultimately resulting in the decolorization and mineralization of the azo dye. A comparative assessment of the characteristics of abiotic and biotic dye decolorization was completed. In addition, the toxicity effects of the degradation intermediates of azo-dye RB5 on cellular respiratory activity were analyzed. The bio-toxicity results showed that the decay rate constants of CO{sub 2} production from the azo-dye RB5 samples at different degradation times increased initially and subsequently decreased, indicating that intermediates of higher toxicity could adhere to the catalyst surface and gradually destroyed by further photocatalytic oxidation. Additionally, EDTA (hole scavengers) and t-BuOH (radical scavengers) were used to detect the main active oxidative species in the system

  19. Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles <200 nm being internalized by keratinocytes and dendritic cells at sites of barrier disruption (e.g., hair follicles) combined with recent advances in nanodermatology add interesting new facets to the possibilities carrier technologies could offer, for example, unprecedented levels of selectivity. The authors provide thought-provoking ideas on how smart delivery technologies and advances in our molecular understanding of hair pathophysiology could result in a whole new era of hair therapeutics. As the field still largely remains in preclinical investigation, determined efforts towards production of medical grade material and truly translational work are needed to demonstrate surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hair Loss Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective. METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth. RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments. DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694..

  1. Decolorization of reactive dyes under batch anaerobic condition by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, decolorization was lower for the dye of RB 49 than other two dyes in all concentrations despite 72 h incubation period by mixed anaerobic culture. All of the three dyes correlated with 1st order reaction kinetic with respect to decolorization kinetics. The results of the study demonstrated that high decolorization was ...

  2. Optical hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, R J; Anderson, R R

    1999-06-01

    Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.

  3. Nano-dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cui-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing nanofibers is a frontier of both modern textile engineering and nanotechnology. This paper suggest a feasible method for dyeing nanofibers with a natural red (Roselle Calyx by bubble electrospinning. Reactive dye (Red S3B and acid dye (Red 2B were also used in the experiment for comparison. The dyeing process was finished during the spinning process.

  4. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  5. Reaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    19 oct. 2017 ... Reaction to Mohamed Said Nakhli et al. concerning the article: "When the axillary block remains the only alternative in a 5 year old child". .... Bertini L1, Savoia G, De Nicola A, Ivani G, Gravino E, Albani A et al ... 2010;7(2):101-.

  6. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss.

  7. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2017-03-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  8. A Hairy Affair: Ophthalmia nodosa Due to Caterpillar Hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Pratik Y; Usgaonkar, Ugam; Kamat, Pradnya

    2018-01-01

    To study different clinical presentations, course, and final outcomes of ophthalmia nodosa, a rare disease caused by hairs of the caterpillar. A total of 29 eyes of 17 patients with the disease presenting to our institute in 2013 were included. Patients presented with foreign body sensation (94%), photophobia (88%), lacrimation (82%), redness (94%), and eyelid edema (82%). Hairs were found in the conjunctiva (89.6%), cornea (65.5%), and even anterior chamber (3.4%). There was a conjunctival nodule in two eyes (6.8%). Resolution of symptoms occurred in 3-21 days. Treatment included topical steroids, cycloplegia, and removal of hairs with forceps. More than one sitting was required in 17 eyes (62.9%) due to reactional inflammation, precluding visualization of all the hairs. Ophthalmia nodosa is a relatively rare condition with subtle findings, which can be missed, causing considerable discomfort to the patient if the hairs are not removed.

  9. Efficiency Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells’ Performance with ZnO Nanorods Grown by Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-I Lai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, aligned zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods (NRs with various lengths (1.5–5 µm were deposited on ZnO:Al (AZO-coated glass substrates by using a solution phase deposition method; these NRs were prepared for application as working electrodes to increase the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar cells. The results were observed in detail by using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible spectrophotometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency, and solar simulation. The results indicated that when the lengths of the ZnO NRs increased, the adsorption of D-719 dyes through the ZnO NRs increased along with enhancing the short-circuit photocurrent and open-circuit voltage of the cell. An optimal power conversion efficiency of 0.64% was obtained in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC containing the ZnO NR with a length of 5 µm. The objective of this study was to facilitate the development of a ZnO-based DSSC.

  10. The effect of the series resistance in dye-sensitized solar cells explored by electron transport and back reaction using electrical and optical modulation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weiqing; Hu Linhua; Dai Songyuan; Guo Lei; Jiang Nianquan; Kou Dongxing

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the series resistance on the electron transport and recombination processes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) has been investigated. The series resistances induced by some parts of DSC, such as the transparent conductive oxide (TCO), the electrolyte layer and the counter electrode, influence the performance of DSC. By combining three frequency-domain techniques, specifically electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) and intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS), we studied the relationship between the series resistance and the dynamic response of DSC. The results show that the series resistance induced by the TCO or counter electrode predominantly affects the electron transport under short circuit conditions and has no significant influence on the recombination under open circuit conditions. However, the resistance related to the electrolyte layer not only limits the carrier transport but also influences the recombination. Possible reasons for the influence of the series resistance on the electron transport and recombination processes in DSC are also discussed.

  11. Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Alessandrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.

  12. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dye...

  13. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  14. Hair analysis using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongkou.

    1983-10-01

    A simple new technique for examining single hair strands to obtain linear mass densities, longitudinal profiles and transverse distribution of each trace element is described. It is primarily based upon the PIXE technique, in combination with proton back- scattering. The three main components of this technique are: 1) An accurate way of using an interpolation method to evaluate the magnitude of the correction factor accounting for the proton energy loss and X-ray absorption in the bulk of the hair is formulated; 2) A simple method to qualitatively determine the transverse distribution of each trace element in a hair is in- troduced and proved to be effective; 3) Proton back-scattering is proved to be capable of providing an ideal linear measure of the geometric hair diameter, one of the most important parameters in quantifying the results of PIXE measurements in mass concentrations. Using the technique, a PIXE system designed and constructed for routine longitudinal scanning of single hair strands is also described. (Author)

  15. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and formed a cosmetically acceptable forelock.

  16. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pulling Biting, chewing or eating pulled-out hair Playing with pulled-out hair or rubbing it across ... of trichotillomania: Family history. Genetics may play a role in the development of trichotillomania, and the disorder ...

  17. Hair follicle proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    that are present in the epithelial and stromal compartments of hair follicles. However, the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan may be important in follicle morphogenesis, both with respect to the epithelium and dermal papilla cells. Syndecan may possess both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains, interacts...... basement membranes, including those surrounding the epithelial compartment of hair follicles. Additionally, and quite unlike the dermis, the dermal papilla is enriched in basement-membrane components, especially a chondroitin 6-sulfate-containing proteoglycan, BM-CSPG. The function of this proteoglycan...... is not known, but developmental studies indicate that it may have a role in stabilizing basement membranes. In the hair cycle, BM-CSPG decreases through catagen and is virtually absent from the telogen papilla. One or more heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including perlecan, are also present in papilla...

  18. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  19. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out, but people with naturally lighter hair are just as likely to go gray. From the time a person notices a few gray hairs, it may take more than 10 years for all of that person's hair to turn ... really believe that this happens. Just in case, try not to freak out your ...

  20. Pulse radiolysis of anthraquinone dye aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowski, J.; Gebicki, J.L.; Lubis, R.; Mayer, J.

    1988-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis of argon flushed aqueous solutions of 10 -5 -10 -4 mol dm -3 anthraquinone dye (C.I. Acid Blue 62) gives rise to the transients originated from the reactions of e - aq , OH and H. The rate constants of these reactions are determined. (author)

  1. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  2. Review: Paraphenylene Diamine (Hair Dye) Poisoning in Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: PPD intoxication is a major health problem in eastern Africa, particularly Sudan, and in Morocco. It is also common in the Indian subcontinent. In two large series from Morocco and Sudan, Children constituted 11.5% and 18% of affected individuals respectively. Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe ...

  3. Hair Cortisol in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu

    2017-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors...

  4. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  5. A simple method for purification of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells, and application for proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Meike; Scheibinger, Mirko; Guo, Zhaohua; Jan, Taha A; Adams, Christopher M; Cheng, Alan G; Heller, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanosensitive hair cells and supporting cells comprise the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The paucity of both cell types has hampered molecular and cell biological studies, which often require large quantities of purified cells. Here, we report a strategy allowing the enrichment of relatively pure populations of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells including supporting cells. We utilized specific uptake of fluorescent styryl dyes for labeling of hair cells. Enzymatic isolation and flow cytometry was used to generate pure populations of sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells. We applied mass spectrometry to perform a qualitative high-resolution analysis of the proteomic makeup of both the hair cell and non-sensory cell populations. Our conservative analysis identified more than 600 proteins with a false discovery rate of Analysis of proteins exclusively detected in either population revealed 64 proteins that were specific to hair cells and 103 proteins that were only detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical analyses extended these groups by 53 proteins that are strongly upregulated in hair cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 proteins. Our results demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl dye-labeled sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells is a valid method to generate pure enough cell populations for flow cytometry and subsequent molecular analyses.

  6. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  7. Chemistry of Natural Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scientific principles, and the interaction between the dye and the dyed material is ... Dyes are classified based on their structure, source, method of application .... the right source that gives not only beautiful tones, but colourfast shades as well.

  8. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  9. Synthesis and dyeing performance of bisazo disperse dyes based on 3-[4-(4-amino-2-chlorophenoxyanilino]phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh H. Parab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present communication aims to develop bisazo disperse dyes based on 3-[4-(4-amino-2-chlorophenoxyanilino]phenol (DAP both as a coupling component as well as a diazonium salt. Coupling reaction of DAP was carried out with a diazonium salt of 4-aminoacetanilide to yield a monoazo disperse dye, and then it was further used as a diazonium salt and coupled with a different aromatic phenol to synthesize bisazo disperse dyes. All the disperse dyes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR and UV–Visible spectral studies with a view to determine their chemical structure. The dyeing ability of these bisazo disperse dyes has been evaluated in terms of their dyeing behavior and fastness properties on different fabrics.

  10. uv dye lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumov, G.A.; Fadeev, V.V.; Khokhlov, R.V.; Simonov, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    The most important property of visible dye lasers, that is, continuous wavelength tuning, stimulated the search for dyes capable to lase in uv. They were found in 1968. Now the need for tunable uv lasers for applications in spectroscopy, photochemistry, isotope separation, remote air and sea probing, etc. is clearly seen. A review of some recent advances in uv dye lasers is reviewed

  11. Degradation of the azo dye Acid Red 1 by anodic oxidation and indirect electrochemical processes based on Fenton's reaction chemistry. Relationship between decolorization, mineralization and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florenza, Xavier; Solano, Aline Maria Sales; Centellas, Francesc; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Degradation of Acid Red 1 by anodic oxidation, electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton • Quicker and similar decolorization by electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton due to oxidation with ● OH in the bulk • Almost total mineralization by photoelectro-Fenton with Pt or BDD due to fast photolysis of products by UVA light • Detection of 11 aromatic products, 15 hydroxylated compounds, 13 desulfonated derivatives and 7 carboxylic acids • Release of NH 4 + , NO 3 − and SO 4 2− ions, and generation of persistent N-products of low molecular mass - Abstract: Solutions of 236 mg dm −3 Acid Red 1 (AR1), an azo dye widely used in textile dying industries, at pH 3.0 have been comparatively treated by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H 2 O 2 (AO-H 2 O 2 ), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) at constant current density (j). Assays were performed with a stirred tank reactor equipped with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for H 2 O 2 generation from O 2 reduction. The main oxidizing agents were hydroxyl radicals produced at the anode from water oxidation in all methods and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between generated H 2 O 2 and 0.5 mmol dm −3 Fe 2+ in EF and PEF. For each anode, higher oxidation power was found in the sequence AO-H 2 O 2 < EF < PEF. The oxidation ability of the BDD anode was always superior to that of Pt. Faster and similar decolorization efficiency was achieved in EF and PEF owing to the quicker destruction of aromatics with hydroxyl radicals produced in the bulk. The PEF process with BDD was the most potent method yielding almost total mineralization due to the additional rapid photolysis of recalcitrant intermediates like Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes under UVA irradiation. The increase in j always enhanced the decolorization and mineralization processes because of the greater production of hydroxyl radicals, but decreases the mineralization current efficiency

  12. Severe allergic reactions to para-phenylenediamine in children and adolescents: should the patch test concentration of PPD be changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spornraft-Ragaller, Petra; Kämmerer, Eva; Gillitzer, Claus; Schmitt, Jochen

    2012-04-01

    Semipermanent henna tattoos containing para-phenylenediamine (PPD) are a well-known cause of severe contact dermatitis, mainly in children. Another relevant exposure source to PPD are hair dyes, which are increasingly used by children and have also been reported to cause intense facial and scalp dermatitis. German patch test guidelines for children recommend that PPD should only be tested in patients who have had a henna tattoo, and then at a reduced concentration of PPD 0.5 % for 24 hours. We report on patch test results in four patients, three children and one adolescent, with a history of contact dermatitis to henna tattoos or hair dye. We used the recommended or even lower patch test concentrations of PPD with 24-hours exposure in all patients. All patients showed very strong patch test reactions to PPD and cross-reactions to related compounds even after dilution of PPD to as low as 0.05 %. Therefore, we suggest that in children with a history of allergic reactions to this compound, a titration test should be performed beginning at a concentration of maximal 0.05 %. This procedure has also been proposed previously based on a larger cases series in adults. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  13. Photochemistry of triarylmethane dyes bound to proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indig, Guilherme L.

    1996-04-01

    Triarylmethanes represent a class of cationic dyes whose potential as photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy of neoplastic diseases has never been comprehensively evaluated. Here, the laser-induced photodecomposition of three triarylmethane dyes, crystal violet, ethyl violet, and malachite green, non-covalently bound to bovine serum albumin (a model biological target) was investigated. Upon laser excitation at 532 nm, the bleaching of the corresponding dye-protein molecular complexes follows spectroscopic patterns that suggest the formation of reduced forms of the dyes as major reaction photoproducts. That implies that an electron or hydrogen atom transfer from the protein to the dye's moiety within the guest-host complex is the first step of the photobleaching process. Since the availability of dissolved molecular oxygen was not identified as a limiting factor for the phototransformations to occur, these dyes can be seen as potential phototherapeutic agents for use in hypoxic areas of tumors. These triarylmethane dyes strongly absorb at relatively long wavelengths (absorption maximum around 600 nm; (epsilon) max approximately equals 105 M-1 cm-1), and only minor changes in their absorption characteristics are observed upon binding to the protein. However the binding event leads to a remarkable increase in their fluorescence quantum yield and photoreactivity.

  14. Microscopy of the hair and trichogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Dicle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair microscopy is a fast and simple method for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair in daily practice. For the microscopy of the hair, samples are collected by either clipping or plucking. The trichogram technique which the hair sample is collected by a standardized plucking method is used for the diagnosis of hair shedding and of alopecia via hair root pattern. In this review, the examination techniques and details are discussed and the most common indications for the hair microscopy including hair abnormalities as a part of genodermatosis and, infections and infestations affecting the hair are highlighted.

  15. Effect of the multifunctional cosmetic ingredient sphinganine on hair loss in men and women with diffuse hair reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach N

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicole Gerlach,1,* Matthias Mentel,2,* Tim Köhler,2 Benjamin Tuchscherer,2 Birgit Garbe,1 Jasmina Ülker,1 Hagen Tronnier,1 Ulrike Heinrich,1 Mike Farwick2 1DermaTronnier GmbH & Co. KG, Institute for Experimental Dermatology, Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, 2Evonik Nutrition & Care GmbH, Essen, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Sphingolipids are well known to promote keratinocyte differentiation and to induce ceramide production. In addition, they show anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential effect of sphinganine on prolonging the hair anagen rate and improving the overall hair quality and scalp health. The inhibitory potential of sphinganine toward 5-α-reductase was studied using an in vitro assay. The stimulation of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2 by sphinganine was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Sphinganine bioavailability was studied ex vivo using a pig skin model. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of sphinganine on hair loss and hair/scalp quality in vivo. In vitro results showed that sphinganine is a potent inhibitor of 5-α-reductase type I that prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, a key factor of androgenetic male baldness. In vivo results demonstrated efficacy in reducing non-illness-related hair loss among males. In terms of expert rating, all hair quality and scalp parameters improved after application of sphinganine. Improved scalp health might be linked to the observed increase of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2. Thus, sphinganine is well suited as a topical alternative for the improvement of scalp health and hair quality and anti-hair loss application. Keywords: sphinganine, 5-α-reductase inhibition, HBD2, hair loss, anagen rate, TrichoScan®

  16. Polymerization of novel methacrylated anthraquinone dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dollendorf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new series of polymerizable methacrylated anthraquinone dyes has been synthesized by nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions and subsequent methacrylation. Thereby, green 5,8-bis(4-(2-methacryloxyethylphenylamino-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (2, blue 1,4-bis(4-((2-methacryloxyethyloxyphenylaminoanthraquinone (6 and red 1-((2-methacryloxy-1,1-dimethylethylaminoanthraquinone (12, as well as 1-((1,3-dimethacryloxy-2-methylpropan-2-ylaminoanthraquinone (15 were obtained. By mixing of these brilliant dyes in different ratios and concentrations, a broad color spectrum can be generated. After methacrylation, the monomeric dyes can be covalently emplaced into several copolymers. Due to two polymerizable functionalities, they can act as cross-linking agents. Thus, diffusion out of the polymer can be avoided, which increases the physiological compatibility and makes the dyes promising compounds for medical applications, such as iris implants.

  17. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  18. Female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  19. One electron reduction of triphenyl methane dyes by hydrated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhasikuttan, A C; Shastri, L V; Sapre, A V; Rama Rao, K V.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Chemistry Div.

    1994-12-31

    Electron reaction rates for the triphenylmethane (TPM) dyes have been evaluated. Spectral characteristics of the resulting dye radicals have been determined. Evolution of the transient spectra shows intramolecular rearrangement in the radical from brilliant green and malachite green. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. One electron reduction of triphenyl methane dyes by hydrated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasikuttan, A.C.; Shastri, L.V.; Sapre, A.V.; Rama Rao, K.V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Electron reaction rates for the triphenylmethane (TPM) dyes have been evaluated. Spectral characteristics of the resulting dye radicals have been determined. Evolution of the transient spectra shows intramolecular rearrangement in the radical from brilliant green and malachite green. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-01-01

    showed that element adsorption or desorption occurs due to the dye. Analysis of hair samples collected from different regions of the head presented significant differences for the elements Fe, Sc, Se and Cr, indicating the importance of defining head regions for hair sample collection. Results of hair analysis from individuals residing in Sao Paulo metropolitan area showed individual differences for age, gender and natural hair color. Results obtained in this population also showed, that the mean element concentrations found are within the literature values. (author)

  2. Systemic causes of hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richard L; Garibyan, Lilit; Kimball, Alexandra B; Drake, Lynn A

    2016-09-01

    Hair loss is both a common chief complaint by patients and a clinical challenge for physicians, especially general practitioners, yet few dermatological problems yield as much patient satisfaction when resolved as hair loss. The diagnosis is often attributed to androgen-related hair loss, while other causes, some of which are life-threatening but treatable, are overlooked. We searched for relevant literature on hair loss and supported these findings with our clinical experience to identify seven major systemic etiologies of hair loss, ranging from infectious agents to consumption of unsafe supplements. Many causes are only described in the literature through case studies, though some original articles and meta-analyses are available. Careful history taking, proper examination techniques, and judicious use of laboratory tests are essential to reach at the correct diagnosis in a cost-effective manner when performing patient work-up. Such methodical evaluation of hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction. Key messages Hair loss is a common chief complaint and a difficult challenge for both general practitioners and dermatology consultants. We identified seven major categories of systemic hair loss etiology and present a framework for their clinical evaluation. A methodical approach to hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction.

  3. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth (anagen, apoptosis-driven regression (catagen, and relative quiescence (telogen. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on genetically engineered mouse models with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In this review, the basic concepts of hair follicle, a mini-complex organ, biology will be presented and its importance in clinical applications will be summarized.

  4. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

  5. Yellowing and bleaching of grey hair caused by photo and thermal degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richena, M; Silveira, M; Rezende, C A; Joekes, I

    2014-09-05

    Yellowing is an undesirable phenomenon that is common in people with white and grey hair. Because white hair has no melanin, the pigment responsible for hair colour, the effects of photodegradation are more visible in this type of hair. The origin of yellowing and its relation to photodegradation processes are not properly established, and many questions remain open in this field. In this work, the photodegradation of grey hair was investigated as a function of the wavelength of incident radiation, and its ultrastructure was determined, always comparing the results obtained for the white and black fibres present in grey hair with the results of white wool. The results presented herein indicate that the photobehaviour of grey hair irradiated with a mercury lamp or with solar radiation is dependent on the wavelength range of the incident radiation and on the initial shade of yellow in the sample. Two types of grey hair were used: (1) blended grey hair (more yellow) and (2) grey hair from a single-donor (less yellow). After exposure to a full-spectrum mercury lamp for 200 h, the blended white hair turned less yellow (the yellow-blue difference, Db(*) becomes negative, Db(*)=-6), whereas the white hair from the single-donor turned slightly yellower (Db(*)=2). In contrast, VIS+IR irradiation resulted in bleaching in both types of hair, whereas a thermal treatment (at 81 °C) caused yellowing of both types of hair, resulting in a Db(*)=3 for blended white hair and Db(*)=9 for single-donor hair. The identity of the yellow chromophores was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results obtained with this technique were contradictory, however, and it was not possible to obtain a simple correlation between the sample shade of yellow and the absorption spectra. In addition, the results are discussed in terms of the morphology differences between the pigmented and non-pigmented parts of grey hair, the yellowing and bleaching effects of grey hair, and the occurrence of dark

  6. WATERLESS DYEING [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEVRENT Nalan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is believed to be one of the biggest consumers of water. Water consumption and exhaustion in dyeing textile materials in conventional methods is an important environmental problem. The cost of waste water treatment will cause a prominent problem in the future as it does today. Increasing consideration of ecologic consequences of industrial processes as well as legislation enforcing the avoidance of environmental problems have caused a reorientation of thinking and promoted projects for replacement of conventional technologies. One of these new technologies is dyeing in supercritical fluids. Dyeing with supercritical carbon dioxide is a favourable concept considering the value of water as a natural resource and the cost of waste water treatment. This dyeing method offers many advantages over conventional aqueous dyeing: During this dyeing process no water is used, therefore there is no waste water problem, no other chemicals are required; the carbon dioxide can be recycled; the dystuff which is not adsorbed on the substrate can be collected and reused; The necessary energy consumption in this process is relatively lower than is needed to heat water in conventional methods of dyeing. Due to unnecessary of drying process, it helps to save both energy and time; and dyeing cycle is shorter compared with traditional methods. In addition carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-flammable. Supercritical fluid, supercritical dyeing, disperse dyestuffs, solid-fluid equilibrium

  7. Anaphylaxis, contact urticaria, and allergic asthma caused by persulfates in hair bleaching products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Schuttelaar, M.L.; Coenraads, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persulfate salts are potent oxidizing agents in hair bleach products that accelerate the bleaching process. Ammonium and potassium persulfates may cause delayedtype and immediate skin reactions. Also allergic asthma and rhinitis have been described. Objectives: Ammonium and potassium

  8. Expeditious, mechanochemical synthesis of BODIPY dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laramie P. Jameson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BODIPY dyes have been synthesized under solvent-free or essentially solvent-free conditions, within about 5 minutes in an open-to-air setup by using a pestle and mortar, with yields that are comparable to those obtained via traditional routes that typically require reaction times of several hours to days.

  9. A toddler with hair fascination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Patricia; Needlman, Robert D; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    Joseph is a 24-months old boy referred by his pediatrician because of an "obsession" with pulling and eating hair. When Joseph was 14 months old, he enjoyed touching and twirling his mother's long hair. She observed that it seemed to provide comfort to him. At 18 months, he initiated pulling out and eating his own hair, twirling his mother's hair around his thumb and then sucking on it. Currently, he searches the carpet or a hard floor and looks for hair to eat. The identical behavior is observed at daycare. Joseph's teacher commented, "He pulled hair from a girl who has the longest hair of all the children. We try to distract him from this habit, but he is not distracted for long." Less frequently, Joseph has also eaten sand, chalk, and crayons at daycare. Joseph's mother describes him as a "happy and outgoing" child who interacts with his peers and has a best friend at the daycare. There have not been recent changes or stressful events in his life. Joseph separates from his mother with ease and he sleeps comfortably through the night in his own bed. There have been no episodes of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or constipation. Strands of hair are occasionally seen in the stool. Prenatal and perinatal history was unremarkable. Joseph was breast-fed for 11 months, described as an "easy" baby, achieved motor, social, and language developmental milestones at the usual time, and has been in excellent health. He lives with his mother and maternal grandparents; the biological father has never been involved in his care. At 20 months, Joseph's pediatrician suggested cutting his hair. After several haircuts, Joseph stopped pulling his own hair. However, he continued to search the floor for hair. Hemoglobin and a blood lead level were normal. Joseph appeared pleasant and friendly with normal growth parameters and facial features. He was sitting comfortably on his mother's lap, sucking on his thumb. Social interactions with his mother were appropriate and reciprocal. He

  10. Time dependent black holes and scalar hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadburn, Sarah; Gregory, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    We show how to correctly account for scalar accretion onto black holes in scalar field models of dark energy by a consistent expansion in terms of a slow roll parameter. At leading order, we find an analytic solution for the scalar field within our Hubble volume, which is regular on both black hole and cosmological event horizons, and compute the back reaction of the scalar on the black hole, calculating the resulting expansion of the black hole. Our results are independent of the relative size of black hole and cosmological event horizons. We comment on the implications for more general black hole accretion, and the no hair theorems. (paper)

  11. Photodynamic therapy for hair removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted hair is one of the most common medical problems affecting women of reproductive age inducing a lot of psychological stress and threatening their femininity and self-esteem. Old methods of removing unwanted hair include shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis, all of which have temporary results. However laser-assisted hair removal is the most efficient method of long-term hair removal currently available. It is desirable to develop a reduced cost photodynamic therapy (PDT system whose properties should include high efficiency and low side-effects. Method: Mice skin tissues were used in this study and divided into six groups such as controls, free methylene blue (MB incubation, liposome methylene blue (MB incubation, laser without methylene blue (MB, free methylene blue (MB for 3 and 4 hrs and laser, liposome methylene blue (MB for 3 hrs and laser. Methylene blue (MBwas applied to wax epilated areas. The areas were irradiated with CW He-Ne laser system that emits orange-red light with wavelength 632.8 nm and 10 mW at energy density of 5 J/ cm2 for 10 minutes. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was collected by Cary spectrophotometer. Results: Methylene blue (MB is selectively absorbed by actively growing hair follicles due to its cationic property. Methylene blue (MBuntreated sections showed that hair follicle and sebaceous gland are intact and there is no change due to the laser exposure. Free methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed that He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles, leaving an intact epidermis. Treated section with free methylene blue (MB for 4 hrs showed degeneration and necrosis in hair follicle, leaving an intact epidermis. Liposomal methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles with intradermal leucocytic infiltration. Conclusions: Low power CW He:Ne laser and methylene blue (MB offered a successful PDT system

  12. HCN channels are not required for mechanotransduction in sensory hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C Horwitz

    Full Text Available The molecular composition of the hair cell transduction channel has not been identified. Here we explore the novel hypothesis that hair cell transduction channels include HCN subunits. The HCN family of ion channels includes four members, HCN1-4. They were originally identified as the molecular correlates of the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels that carry currents known as If, IQ or Ih. However, based on recent evidence it has been suggested that HCN subunits may also be components of the elusive hair cell transduction channel. To investigate this hypothesis we examined expression of mRNA that encodes HCN1-4 in sensory epithelia of the mouse inner ear, immunolocalization of HCN subunits 1, 2 and 4, uptake of the transduction channel permeable dye, FM1-43 and electrophysiological measurement of mechanotransduction current. Dye uptake and transduction current were assayed in cochlear and vestibular hair cells of wildtype mice exposed to HCN channel blockers or a dominant-negative form of HCN2 that contained a pore mutation and in mutant mice that lacked HCN1, HCN2 or both. We found robust expression of HCNs 1, 2 and 4 but little evidence that localized HCN subunits in hair bundles, the site of mechanotransduction. Although high concentrations of the HCN antagonist, ZD7288, blocked 50-70% of the transduction current, we found no reduction of transduction current in either cochlear or vestibular hair cells of HCN1- or HCN2- deficient mice relative to wild-type mice. Furthermore, mice that lacked both HCN1 and HCN2 also had normal transduction currents. Lastly, we found that mice exposed to the dominant-negative mutant form of HCN2 had normal transduction currents as well. Taken together, the evidence suggests that HCN subunits are not required for mechanotransduction in hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

  13. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also

  14. for aqueous dye lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... inclusion complex of RhB with the container molecule cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]). Keywords. Temperature-dependent fluorescence; Rhodamine B; cucurbit[7]uril; host–guest complex; dye laser. PACS Nos 36.20.kd; 83.60.pq; 87.64.kv. 1. Introduction. Rhodamine B (RhB) is an efficient and photostable laser dye ...

  15. Extraction of dye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyes of natural origins are great for color appreciation as any variation in the concentration of dye, mordant, type of water, soil and climate give variations in ... Grey scale and blue dyed silk were used for color fastness rating. ..... Down to Earth.

  16. Comparison of – Mixture and Minoxidil on Hair Growth Promoting Effect in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Soo Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlgae have traditionally been used for promotion of hair growth. Use of hair regrowth drugs, such as minoxidil, is limited due to side effects. The aim of this study was to examine a mixture of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida (L-U mixture on hair growth and to compare the promoting effect of hair growth by a 3% minoxidil and a L-U mixture.MethodsTo evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity, saline, 50% ethanol, 3% minoxidil, and the L-U mixture were applied 2 times a day for a total of 14 days on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice after depilation. Analysis was determined by using a high-resolution hair analysis system, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and H&E staining.ResultsOn day 14, the hair growth effect of the L-U mixture was the same as that of the 3% minoxidil treatment. The L-U mixture significantly (P<0.05 stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and insulin-like growth factor -1. Increase of VEGF was observed in the L-U mixture group compared with minoxidil and the negative control. In contrast, the L-U mixture suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1, which is the hair loss-related gene. In histological examination in the L-U mixture and minoxidil groups, the induction of an anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of control groups.ConclusionsThis study provides evidence that the L-U mixture can promote hair growth in mice, similar to the effect from minoxidil, and suggests that there is potential application for hair loss treatments.

  17. PTCA (1H-pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid) as a marker for oxidative hair treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel-Witt, Silvana; Meier, Sylvia I; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2018-04-01

    Hair analysis for the assessment of alcohol or drug abstinence has become a routine procedure in forensic toxicology. Hair coloration leading to loss of incorporated xenobiotics and to false negative results has turned out to be a major problem. Currently only colored extracts provide hints of manipulations but not bleaching. A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to determine 1H-pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA), a major oxidation product of melanin. PTCA was determined in natural hair samples (n = 21) after treatment with 3% hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) for 30 or 40 minutes with concentrations up to 12% for 40 minutes. In another series, 12 natural hair samples were submitted to different coloration procedures (henna, tinting, semi-permanent and permanent dyeing, bleaching) and the changes in PTCA content were determined. A significant increase in the PTCA content was found for both incubation times and increasing H 2 O 2 concentrations. Coloration with henna or tinting had no influence on PTCA levels detected, but a significant increase was observed after semi-permanent and permanent dyeing and bleaching. As PTCA concentrations in natural hair were found to be in a range of <2.1-16.4 ng/mg (8.4 ± 3.8 ng/mg, mean ± SD, n = 33), a cut-off of 20 ng/mg is recommended for the distinction between natural vs. excessively oxidized hair. In case of naturally low melanin content (light-blond or white hair), no marked increase in PTCA may occur. The present study demonstrated that PTCA is formed during oxidative treatment of melanin in hair, which can be used to detect previous hair coloration including oxidation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Print this issue Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss En español Send us your comments Hair loss is often associated with men and aging, but ... or their treatments, and many other things cause hair loss. The most common type of hair loss is ...

  19. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  20. Stimulation of hair cells with ultraviolet light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh, Julien B.; Fabella, Brian A.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Hair bundles are specialized organelles that transduce mechanical inputs into electrical outputs. To activate hair cells, physiologists have resorted to mechanical methods of hair-bundle stimulation. Here we describe a new method of hair-bundle stimulation, irradiation with ultraviolet light. A hair bundle illuminated by ultraviolet light rapidly moves towards its tall edge, a motion typically associated with excitatory stimulation. The motion disappears upon tip-link rupture and is associated with the opening of mechanotransduction channels. Hair bundles can be induced to move sinusoidally with oscillatory modulation of the stimulation power. We discuss the implications of ultraviolet stimulation as a novel hair-bundle stimulus.

  1. Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suesse, S; Pragst, F; Mieczkowski, T; Selavka, C M; Elian, A; Sachs, H; Hastedt, M; Rothe, M; Campbell, J

    2012-05-10

    This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454 cases, respectively. A number of alcohol abstainers or low moderate drinkers and excessive drinkers were selected for assessment of cut-offs for FAEEs in the proximal 6cm hair segments and for EtG in the proximal 3cm hair segments. Cut-off values were assessed by ROC analysis. It was found that the cut-offs of 1.0ng/mg FAEE and 30pg/mg EtG presently used for excessive drinking lead to a low portion of false positives (4% and 3% respectively) but to a higher portion of false negatives (23% and 25% respectively). Comparison of the mean and medium concentrations in samples without any reported hair cosmetics (N=1079) and in samples with reported use of hair spray (N=79) showed an increase by the factor of about two for FAEE but no significant difference for EtG. Mean values of EtG were decreased by 80% in bleached samples (N=164) and by 63% in dyed samples (N=96). There was no significant effect of bleaching and dyeing on FAEE. Hair gel and hair wax, oil or grease showed no significant effect on both FAEE and EtG. With respect to gender and investigated hair length ambiguous results were obtained because of major differences in the compared subpopulations of male with higher alcohol consumption and mainly shorter hair, and less drinking female with longer hair. For excessive drinkers FAEEs in the 0-6cm hair segment and EtG in the 0-3cm segment decreased with increasing time of reported abstinence before sample collection. These drinkers attain the level of teetotalers only after more than 10 months of abstinence. In comparison to scalp hair, FAEEs recovered from armpit hair and leg hair were lower and from

  2. Dyes for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, U.

    1984-01-01

    The improvement of contrast and visibility of LCD by two different means was undertaken. The two methods are: (1) development of fluorescent dyes to increase the visibility of fluorescent activated displays (FLAD); and (2) development of dichroic dyes to increase the contrast of displays. This work was done in close cooperation with the electronic industry, where the newly synthesized dyes were tested. The targets for the chemical synthesis were selected with the help of computer model calculations. A marketable range of dyes was developed. Since the interest of the electronic industries concerning FLAD was low, the investigations were stopped. Dichroic dyes, especially black mixtures with good light fastness, order parameter, and solubility in nematic phases were developed. The application of these dyes is restricted to indoor use because of an increase of viscosity below -10 C. Applications on a technical scale, e.g., for the automotive industry, will be possible if the displays work at temperatures down to -40 C. This problem requires a complex optimization of the dye/nematic phase system.

  3. Contact allergy to ingredients of hair cosmetics - a comparison of female hairdressers and clients based on IVDK 2007-2012 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf; John, Swen Malte; Schnuch, Axel; Geier, Johannes

    2014-07-01

    Cosmetics for bleaching, waving/relaxing and dyeing hair contain well-known allergens, leading to a substantial number of cases of allergic contact dermatitis. To compare the frequency of important contact allergens (i) between two distinct groups of exposed patients, and (ii) with previous surveillance data. On the basis of data collected by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK; www.ivkd.org) between 2007 and 2012 in 824 female hairdressers and 2067 female clients, the current spectrum of contact sensitization to ingredients of hair cosmetics, as contained in different pertinent series, is described. A similar burden of sensitization as in previous analyses was observed, but with some increase in sensitization to oxidative hair dye components in clients. Some allergens mainly affected hairdressers, such as ammonium persulfate (18.7% positive) and glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG; still 4.7% positive, with a few cases also in young hairdressers, despite removal from the German market). Hair dyes remain important contact allergens, despite various attempts by the cosmetic industry to introduce hair dyes with lower allergenic potential. The re-emergence of GMTG as an occupational allergen should be considered as a warning signal ('sentinel event') prompting close monitoring. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Irradiation treatment of textile dyes: Apollofix-red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojnarovits, L.; Palfi, T.; Takacs, E.

    2004-01-01

    The UV-VIS absorption spectra of azo dyes in aqueous solutions strongly overlap with the spectra of intermediates produced in reaction with the intermediates of water radiolysis. This overlap complicates the investigation of reaction mechanisms. The paper describes a method for the separation of the two spectra on the example of Apollofix-Red, a triazine and H-acid containing dye. The reactivity of water radiolysis intermediates (e aq - , OH, H, O 2 /HO 2 ) with the dye is also discussed. The most intensive decolouration was found in the reaction of e aq - and H which is due to the fast reaction of these intermediates with the -N=N-azo group of the unreacted molecule and their slow reaction with the transformed molecules. (author)

  5. Horse Shampoo for Human Hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Anca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lately, a new idea has caught the attention of young people of both genders, being debated in consultation rooms, during classes, and especially on social media: is using horse shampoo for human hair wrong or not?

  6. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  7. Hair-Thread Tourniquet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gokcen

    2016-01-01

    Two month-old male infant was brought to the emergency service with the complaint of fever, uneasiness, and swelling on 4th-5th toes of right foot.  Apparent swelling, rubescence and increase in heat were seen and a constrictive band was observed to surround proximal phalanges of both toes in the physical examination of the patient (Figure 1.  A hair was found on the constrictive band surrounding both toes. The hair was removed by means of forceps. Oral antibiotic was administered to the patient. The patient was treated successfully by not letting a necrosis develop on the toes. It should be remembered that hair-thread tourniquet syndrome may be observed in the infant patients applying to the hospital with the complaints of unexplained fever and uneasiness. Figure 1: Appearance of the toes right after the hair was removed. Arrows show the constrictive band. 

  8. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  9. Degradation of Synthetic Dyes by Laccases – A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legerská Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Laccases provide a promising future as a tool to be used in the field of biodegradation of synthetic dyes with different chemical structures. These enzymes are able to oxidize a wide range of phenolic substrates without the presence of additional co-factors. Laccases have been confirmed for their potential of synthetic dye degradation from wastewater and degradation products of these enzymatic reactions become less toxic than selected dyes. This study discusses the potential of laccase enzymes as agents for laccase-catalyzed degradation in terms of biodegradation efficiency of synthetic dyes, specifically: azo dyes, triphenylmethane, indigo and anthraquinone dyes. Review also summarizes the laccase-catalyzed degradation mechanisms of the selected synthetic dyes, as well as the degradation products and the toxicity of the dyes and their degradation products.

  10. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  11. Pulse radiolysis of ethanolic solutions of rhodamine dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartasheva, L.I.; Kucherenko, E.A.; Kozlov, A.S.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    The primary products of radiolytical transformations of rhodamine 6G, rhodamine B, rhodamine 3B and rhodamine 110 in ethanolic solutions were studied by pulse radiolysis method under various conditions. It was found that the semireduced form of a dye was the only intermediate product of such transformations in ethanolic solutions of all dyes. It was shown that this species was formed by interaction of the dye with esub(s) - and CH 3 CHOH. The properties of this species were investigated and the rate constants of respective reactions for each dye were determined. It was found that nature and position of a substituent in the molecule of the dye have an effect on the rate of formation of the semi-reduced form. (author)

  12. Cornu cervi pantotrichum Pharmacopuncture Solution Facilitate Hair Growth in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Yong Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cornu cervi pantotrichum (CCP has been widely used in Korean and China, as an anti-fatigue, anti-aging, and tonic agent to enhance the functions of the reproductive and the immune systems. Because CCP has various growth factors that play important roles in the development of hair follicles, we examined whether CCP pharmacopuncture solution (CCPPS was capable of promoting hair growth in an animal model. Methods: One day after hair depilation, CCPPS were topically applied to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice once a day for 15 days. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using macro- and microscopic observations. Dorsal skin tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7 were examined by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was also conducted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA expression of FGF-7. Results: CCPPS induced more active hair growth than normal saline. Histologic analysis showed enlargement of the dermal papilla, elongation of the hair shaft, and expansion of hair thickness in CCPPS treated mice, indicating that CCPPS effectively induced the development of anagen. CCPPS treatment markedly increased the expressions of BrdU and PCNA in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, CCPPS up regulated the expression of FGF-7, which plays an important role in the development of hair follicles. Conclusion: These results reveal that CCPPS facilitates hair re-growth by proliferation of hair follicular cells and up-regulation of FGF-7 and suggest that CCPPS can potentially be applied as an alternative treatment for patients with alopecia.

  13. Automatic hair detection in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian, Pauline; Dehais, Christophe; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for segmenting the hair region in uncontrolled, real life conditions images. Our method is based on a simple statistical hair shape model representing the upper hair part. We detect this region by minimizing an energy which uses active shape and active contour....... The upper hair region then allows us to learn the hair appearance parameters (color and texture) for the image considered. Finally, those parameters drive a pixel-wise segmentation technique that yields the desired (complete) hair region. We demonstrate the applicability of our method on several real images....

  14. Contact dermatitis in tie and dye industry workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, N K; Mathur, A; Banerjee, K

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the Tie and Dye industry of Jodhpur City in India was made to investigate occupational dermatoses. 49 (16.6%) of 250 workers had incapacitating dermatitis. Skin lesions were seen mostly over the dorsa of the hands and fingers. 26 patients were patch tested with various dyes and chemicals; 14 were positive. Fast Red RC salt was the most potent sensitizer. Other dyes showing positive reactions were Orange GC salt, Bordeaux GP salt, Blue B salt, Red B base and naphthol.

  15. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  16. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  17. Transient hair loss in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria treated with omalizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noshela Ghazanfar, M; Thomsen, S F

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Omalizumab (anti-IgE) is used as add-on therapy for antihistamine refractory chronic urticaria patients. The most commonly reported adverse effects were headache, arthralgia, upper respiratory infections, fatigue, nausea and injection-site reactions. However, lately a few cases of hair...... loss have been reported. We describe a case of transient hair loss in a young female patient after initiating treatment with omalizumab. Despite this side effect, the patient continued with omalizumab treatment for 10 months with good effect....

  18. Influence of bleaching and coloring on ethyl glucuronide content in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel-Witt, Silvana; Pogoda, Werner; Wunder, Cora; Paulke, Alexander; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2018-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is increasingly used in forensic toxicology as a marker for alcohol use in analyses of hair samples, especially in abstinence control. Some cosmetic treatments are considered to markedly reduce the EtG content. In view of especially many women with coloured hair the present study was performed to further investigate the effect of a variety of colouring procedures (bleaching, tinting, permanent and semi-permanent dyeing, henna) on the EtG content. Untreated hair samples (n = 12, EtG 13.9-64.7 pg/mg) were re-analyzed (gas chromatography- negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry, 0.8 pg/mg quantification limit) after different treatment procedures. A decrease of the EtG content of at least 10% occurred in every case. The reduction in comparison to the untreated hair was expectedly high for permanent dyeing and bleaching with 18.1% of the initial content (median, range 0.0-50.9%) and 18.4% (0.0-46.7%), respectively. For henna this was 38.3% (0.0-83.0%), for tinting 70.4% (29.0-90.8%), for semi-permanent dyeing 41.9% (0.0-77.4%). With permanent hair dye the EtG content was decreased to below 7 pg/mg in 10 of 12 cases, in 3 cases even below the LOD (0.2 pg/mg). Surprisingly henna treatment without oxidative component had a marked influence, EtG was below 2 pg/mg in 2 of 12 samples. The study showed that all tested coloration procedures markedly affected the deposited EtG content. Even temporary or henna coloration may have a marked effect. The present data support the recommendation to exclude hair samples with colour manipulations for analysis on the EtG content as a precaution in alcohol abstinence programs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Diphenyl (4′-(Aryldiazenylbiphenyl-4-ylamino(pyridin-3-ylmethylphosphonates as Azo Disperse Dyes for Dyeing Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Abdel-Megeed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diphenyl (4′-aminobiphenyl-4-ylamino(pyridin-3-ylmethylphosphonate (1 was synthesized in 88% yield from reaction of pyridine-3-carboxaldehyde with benzidine and triphenylphosphite in the presence of titanium tetrachloride as a catalyst. Diazotization of 1 gave the corresponding diazonium salt 2 which was coupled with several hydroxyl or amino compounds to give the corresponding azo dyes 3–8 in 82–88% yields after crystallization. The dyes produced were applied to polyesters as disperse dyes and their fastness properties were elevated.

  20. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who has experience with performing laser hair removal. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the only hair removal method that permanently ... using slow strokes. Rinse your skin with warm water after you are done shaving and then pat ...

  1. Hair Transplantation in Migraine Headache Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safvet Ors, MD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions:. This report details 6 patients who experienced abatement of migraine headache symptoms following hair transplantation. The positive effects of hair transplantation on migraine headache and potential mechanisms of action are also discussed.

  2. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  3. Pollution Damage and Protection of Asian Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke was used to simulate a polluted environment and an experiment was performed to reveal how virgin and bleached hair are damaged by a polluted environment. The dry/wet combability, surface contact angle, tryptophan content, and cuticle morphology of the smoke exposed hair were evaluated, and compared to unexposed virgin hair. The results showed that pollution exposure can cause significant chemical damage to hair. In particular, virgin hair exposure to pollution can cause damage to the hair cuticles (higher wet/dry combing, protein degradation, and a more hydrophilic hair surface. The experiment also demonstrated that the styling polymer, polyimide-1 (isobutylene/dimethyl amino propyl maleimide/ethoxylated maleimide/maleic acid copolymer, can provide effective protection against such hair damage.

  4. Elution behaviors of elements from the hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Junko; Fukushima, Ichiro; Imahori, Akira

    1981-01-01

    The elution of the neutron activated elements out of hair soaked in some organic solvents and EDTA solution was studied. Soakage of the hair sample, which was washed with water and acetone in advance as IAEA's proposal, in ether and acetone for 30 minutes each resulted in no elution of Hg, Zn, Co and Se. Elution of Zn and Co from the powdered hair sample soaked in 0.1 M EDTA solution was rapid, while Zn did not elute out from the cut hair (2 -- 3 mm length) on the same condition. Hg, Se and Au were not eluted out by 0.1 M EDTA solution in the both case of cut hair and of powdered hair. Br was removed by 0.1 M EDTA solution from the cut hair and from the powdered hair with equal ease. (author)

  5. Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Marcel; van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; de Boer, J.H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy

  6. Hair transplantation in alopecia androgenetica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurinderjit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients suffering from male pattern baldness were given 3 to 4 sittings of hair transplantation at an interval of about 4 to 6 weeks each. They included 46 patients of type III baldness, 23 patients of type III (vertex baldness, and 31 patients of type IV baldness. It needed 3 sittings in type III as well as type III (vertex patients, whereas type IV patients needed 4 sittings for cosmetically acceptable results. Sixty percent patients of type III (including type III vertex showed excellent results; whereas 24 percent patients showed good response. Thirty-four percent patients of type IV got excellent cosmetic appearance; whereas, good results could be obtained in 17 percent patients. The reasons for poor results in certain patients were poor density of hair at donor sites and poor growth of hair in some of the transplanted plugs.

  7. Ethnic hair care products may increase false positives in hair drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, David A; Smith, Frederick P; Shepherd, Arica R

    2015-12-01

    The question of why different races appear more susceptible to hair contamination by external drugs remains controversial. This research studied susceptibility of head hair to external cocaine and methamphetamine when hair products have been applied. Three different chemical classes of ethnic hair products were applied to Caucasian, Asian, and African hair. Some products increased the methamphetamine and cocaine concentrations in all hair types. A unique finding of this research is that certain ethnic hair products can replace moisture as a diffusion medium, thereby increasing the susceptibility to contamination over 100-fold compared to petroleum-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Is TrichoScan a new diagnostic method for diffuse hair loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uce Özkol, Hatice; Çalka, Ömer; Akdeniz, Necmettin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of TrichoScan, a computer-based phototrichogram, in the evaluation of diffuse hair loss in women and the relationship between iron deficiency anemia and hair loss. We recruited 100 female patients with diffuse hair loss. In all of the patients, a 1-cm2 area of hair located in a temporoparietal region was shortened to 0.5 mm. The shaved scalp regions were stained with black dye. The subject then waited for 12 min. Subsequently, pictures of these regions were taken with a videodermoscope and analyzed with the TrichoScan software program. The ferritin levels were markedly low in these groups. The ratio of anagen was highest in the telogen effluvium (TE) mild group, followed by the TE severe group, and was lowest in the androgenetic alopecia (AGA) group (P hair analysis results with the TrichoScan software were satisfactory and the results were consistent with the clinical diagnosis. In particular, the use of TrichoScan was very successful in the differentiation between AGA and TE.

  9. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. The hair of the Prophet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This paper explore the politics of (in)visibility in Islam by discussing the affective presence and agency of relics - in this case a single hair of the Prophet Muhammad. The relic is obviously not the Prophet, but it is also not-not the Prophet, as the hair is filled with the baraka (blessings......) of the Prophet and thereby seems to confirm Sir James Frazer’s thesis of ‘sympathetic magic’ where part and wholes are forever connected. Based on a study of the Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Saifi tariqa, this paper set out to ‘follow the hair’ in different settings in Denmark, Norway and Pakistan in order to discuss...

  11. Therapeutic efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma and polydeoxyribonucleotide on female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si-Hyung; Zheng, Zhenlong; Kang, Jin-Soo; Kim, Do-Young; Oh, Sang Ho; Cho, Sung Bin

    2015-01-01

    Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) exerts positive therapeutic effects on hair thickness and density in patients with pattern hair loss. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-perifollicular autologous PRP and polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) injections in treating female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Twenty FPHL patients were treated with a single session of PRP injection, followed by 12 sessions of PDRN intra-perifollicular injection, along the scalp at weekly intervals. Additionally, another 20 FPHL patients were treated with 12 sessions of PDRN injection only. Meanwhile, one half of the backs of two rabbits was injected with the PRP preparation, while the other half was injected with phosphate buffered saline as a control. Tissue samples from the rabbits were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Compared with baseline values, patients treated with PRP and PDRN injections exhibited clinical improvement in mean hair counts (23.2 ± 15.5%; p hair thickness (16.8 ± 10.8%; p hair counts (17.9 ± 13.2%; p hair thickness (13.5 ± 10.7%; p hair thickness than treatment with PDRN therapy alone (p = 0.031), but not in hair counts (p > 0.05). The pilot animal study revealed significant up-regulation of WNT, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor expression in rabbit skin treated with the PRP preparation, compared with control skin. In conclusion, intra-perifollicular injections of autologous PRP and/or PDRN generate improvements in hair thickness and density in FPHL patients. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  12. Treatment of dyeing wastewater including reactive dyes (Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal growth was not observed at pH 2. Maximum fungal decolourisation ocurred at pH 3 for anionic reactive dyes (RR, RBB, RB) and pH 6 for cationic MB dye. The fungal dye bioremoval was associated with the surface charge of the fungus due to electrostatic interactions. Growing R. arrhizus strain decolourised 100% of ...

  13. New self-assembled material based on Ru nanoparticles and 4-sulfocalix[4]arene as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for reduction of brilliant yellow azo dye in water: a new model catalytic reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambabu, Darsi; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Dhir, Abhimanew, E-mail: abhimanew@iitmandi.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology (India)

    2016-12-15

    New self-assembled material (Ru@SC) with ruthenium nanoparticles (Ru NPs) and 4-sulfocalix[4]arene (SC) is synthesized in water at room temperature. Ru@SC is characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, FT-IR, powder x-ray diffraction, TEM and SEM analysis. The size of Ru nanoparticles in the self-assembly is approximately 5 nm. The self-assembled material Ru@SC shows an efficient catalytic reduction of toxic ‘brilliant yellow’ (BY) azo dye. The reduced amine products were successfully separated and confirmed by single-crystal XRD, NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Ru@SC showed a better catalytic activity in comparison with commercial catalysts Ru/C (ruthenium on charcoal 5 %) and Pd/C (palladium on charcoal 5 and 10 %). The catalyst also showed a promising recyclability and heterogeneous nature as a catalyst for reduction of ‘BY’ azo dye.

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation on the degradation of dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinini, N.; Ferrero, F.

    1975-01-01

    To investigate the degradation kinetics of aqueous solutions of dyes of several classes, we studied the effects of gamma irradiation versus the dose (up to 80 krad), the dye concentration, the pH and the oxygen content of these solutions. To study the influence of some of the above-mentioned parameters, anthraquinonic dyes have been irradiated in a wide range of doses (up to 5 Mrad). Furthermore these dyes were acted upon in order to investigate the complex reactions of molecular alteration through chromatographic separations and spectrophotometric analyses. Experimental results agreed with a first order kinetics for dye concentrations lower than 0.04 g/1, and with a zero order one for higher concentrations. The pH was found to have a different influence according to the type of dye; for example we found that the degradation efficiency for anthraquinonic dyes has higher values for basic ranges. The dissolved oxygen supports the degradation in comparison with de-aerated solutions, though its influence varies according to the dye type and the pH. The oxygen action is particularly evident with high doses; in fact, tests on anthraquinonic dyes with doses up to 5 Mrad showed a marked decrease in the kinetic constants caused by the oxygen disappearance. Radiochemical degradation yields (Gd), never greater than a few units, show that the radical reactions responsible for the decolorization effect, are limited to a few transfer sequences. COD decrease, on the other hand, confirms the presence of oxidation phenomena which correspond to computed radiochemical yields (Gsub(ox)) markedly higher than those spectrophotometrically measured; such a difference is enhanced in the case of irradiation with aeration of solutions. The theoretical considerations are also described that were developed for outlining a general scheme involving the experimental results of both the kinetics and the radiochemical yield. (author)

  15. Kinky hair syndrome - a case report -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, In One; Chi, Je G.; Moon, Hyung Ro

    1986-01-01

    Kinky hair syndrome is a sex-linked recessively inherited copper metabolic disorder with severe neuro degenerative change and infant death. In 1962, Menges and associates described five boys of a related pedigree with severe psychomotor retardation, seizures and widespread cerebral and cerebellar degeneration. In 1969, Weissenberg and associates specified the radiological characterization of the syndrome. Symmetrical metaphyseal spurring and diaphyseal periosteal reaction of the long bones, anterior rib flaring, a malformed cerebral arterial system and subdural effusion. In 1972, Danks and associates found the disease to be associated with a defect of copper metabolism, confirmed by studies with labelled Cu. Authors experienced a case with characteristic clinical picture, and report cerebral and abdominal arteriographic changes and plain radiographic findings with brain CT, DSA and post-mortem angiography.

  16. Diseases that turn African hair silky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2012-11-01

    African hair in its natural state poses tenacious grooming challenges; consequently a large portion of the African cosmetic industry is focused on means to relax the tight curls of African hair to make the hair more manageable. In malnourished and hypoproteinemic states, African hair straightens in an uncomplimentary manner. Recently, we observed that in certain diseases African hair changes to a desirable silky wavy texture. To identify the diseases that turn African hair silky and their parameters we examined 5612 dermatology patients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. We then studied the clinical and basic laboratory parameters of those patients whose diseases were accompanied by the silky hair change. Silky hair change similar to the hair of the African neonatal child was observed in five diseases, namely AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary tuberculosis with cachexia, and Behçet's disease. Our study identified retrogression of African hair to the neonatal structure in five diseases. Anemia of chronic illness, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mild hypocalcemia were significant laboratory parameters. This is an important observation, which should excite and advance research into the nature and structure of African hair. The causes of structural hair changes should include these five diseases. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Dye filled security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  18. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  19. Gamma Radiolysis Studies of Aqueous Solution of Brilliant Green Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Parwate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of γ–radiation on colour intensity of aqueous solution of Brilliant Green has been investigated at two different concentrations. The degradation of Brilliant Green (BG has also been investigated in presence of suspended ZnO, by adding different amounts of ZnO. Simultaneously the conductance and pH of each solution system were measured before and after γ-irradiation. All the γ–irradiations were performed at a dose rate of 0.60 kGyhr-1 in GC-900. The maximum dose required for the complete degradation of the dye was found to be 0.39 kGy. G(-dye values were found to decrease with increase in gamma dose and were in the range 4.26 - 12.81. The conductance (7.6 - 25.3 μS and pH values increased marginally with dose for both the concentrations. The rate of decolouration was found to be high at lower doses and the efficiency of dye removal was higher at low concentration of the dye. This may be attributed to the presence of reaction by-products from the destruction of parent compound build up and compete for reaction intermediate species. The rate of reaction and rate constants were calculated and it was found that the degradation reaction follows first order kinetics. It was found that the decolouration percentage was more in dye systems in absence of ZnO.

  20. Biomimetic aquatic hair sensors design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi, N.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2008-01-01

    “Touch in distance��? is a term that has been used to describe function of lateral line of the fish as well as other aquatic animals that use mechanoreceptor hairs to discern spatial information about their immediate environment. In this work we address the requirements for fabrication technology of

  1. Parietal scalp is another affected area in female pattern hair loss: an analysis of hair density and hair diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojhirunsakool S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinee Rojhirunsakool, Poonkiat Suchonwanit Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common hair disease. However, studies of the quantitative measurement of FPHL are still limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of hair density and hair diameter in normal women and FPHL patients, and further correlate the quantitative measurement with the clinical presentation of FPHL.Patients and methods: An evaluation of 471 FPHL patients and 236 normal women was carried out according to the Ludwig classification, and analysis was performed by using a computerized handheld USB camera with computer-assisted software. Various areas of the scalp, including frontal, parietal, midscalp, and occipital, were analyzed for hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair.Results: The hair density in normal women was the highest and the lowest in the midscalp and parietal areas, respectively. The FPHL group revealed the lowest hair density in the parietal area. Significant differences in hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair between the normal and FPHL groups were observed, especially in the midscalp and parietal areas.Conclusion: The parietal area is another important affected area in FPHL in addition to the midscalp area. This finding provides novel important information of FPHL and will be useful for hair transplant surgeons choosing the optimal donor sites for hair transplantation in women. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, alopecia, phototrichogram, miniaturization

  2. A precise automatic system for the hair assessment in hair-care diagnosis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, H

    2015-11-01

    One emerging subject in medical image processing is to quantitatively assess the health and the properties of cranial hairs, including density, diameter, length, level of oiliness, and others. This information helps hair specialists with making a more accurate diagnosis and the therapy required. We develop a practical hair counting algorithm. This analytic system calculates the number of hairs on a scalp using a digital microscope camera, providing accurate information for both the hair specialist and the patient. Our proposed hair counting algorithm is substantially more accurate than the Hough-based one, and is robust to curls, oily scalp, noise-corruption, and overlapping hairs, under various levels of illumination. Rather than manually counting the hairs on a person's scalp, the proposed system determines the density, diameter, length, and level of oiliness of the hairs. We propose an automated system for counting the amount of hairs in the microscopy images. To reduce the effect of bright spots, we develop a robust morphological algorithm for color to smooth out the color and preserve the fidelity of the hair. Then, we utilize a modified Hough transform algorithm to detect the different hair lengths and to reduce any false detection due to noise. Our proposed system enables us to look at curved hairs as multiple pieces of straight lines. To avoid missing hairs when the thinning process is applied, we use edge information to discover any hidden or overlapping hairs. Finally, we employ a mutually associative regression method to label a group of line segments into a meaningful 'hair'. We demonstrated a novel approach for accurately computing the number of hairs, and successfully solved the three main obstacles in automated hair counting, including (i) oily and moist hairs, (ii) wavy and curly hairs, and (iii) under-estimation of the number of hairs occurs when hairs cross and occlude each other. The framework of this paper can be seen as the first step toward

  3. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Rosen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF DYEING PARAMETERS TO DYE COTTON WITH CARROT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRALLES Verónica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes derived from flora and fauna are believed to be safe because of non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and biodegradable nature. Furthermore, natural dyes do not cause pollution and waste water problems. Natural dyes as well as synthetic dyes need the optimum parameters to get a good dyeing. On some occasions, It is necessary the use of mordants to increase the affinity between cellulose fiber and natural dye, but there are other conditions to optimize in the dyeing process, like time, temperature, auxiliary porducts, etc. In addition, the optimum conditions are different depends on the type of dye and the fiber nature. The aim of this work is the use of carrot extract to dye cotton fabric by exhaustion at diverse dyeing conditions. Diffferent dyeing processes were carried out to study the effect of pH condition and the temperature, using 7, 6 and 4 pH values and 95 ºC and 130ºC for an hour. As a result some images of dyed samples are shown. Moreover, to evaluate the colour of each sample CIELAB parameters are analysed obtained by reflexion spectrophotometre. The results showed that the temperature used has an important influence on the colour of the dyed sample.

  5. Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

    2011-12-01

    Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to

  6. Association between Leishmania infantum DNA in the hair of dogs and their infectiousness to Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Gonçalves, Rafaela; Franke, Carlos R; Magalhães-Junior, Jairo T; Souza, Bárbara M P S; Solcà, Manuela S; Larangeira, Daniela F; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria

    2016-12-15

    Diagnosis of infection with Leishmania infantum by DNA detection in the hair has been recently demonstrated in dogs and wild animals. Our objective was to investigate if polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in hair might be used to identify infectious dogs. Thus, we assessed the infectiousness to Lutzomyia longipalpis by xenodiagnosis in comparison with the detection of L. infantum DNA by PCR in the hair, and with serology for anti-Leishmania IgG by ELISA in 15 positive dogs for L. infantum infection. Eight healthy dogs were included as negative controls. Among the 15 infected dogs, 13 were found positive in the ELISA (87%), 12 were PCR positive in the hair (80%), and 10 were positive in xenodiagnosis (67%). Positivity in the hair was associated with positivity in spleen (p=0.0003), seropositivity for antibodies (p=0.0006) and parasite transmission to L. longipalpis (p=0.0028). Considering the benefits to animal welfare and feasibility of hair sampling method, studies in larger and more diverse populations of naturally infected dogs from endemic areas should be conducted to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of PCR using hair as a possible biomarker of infectiousness in dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanism of Cuticle Hole Development in Human Hair Due to UV-Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Maeda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hair is easily damaged by ultraviolet (UV radiation, bleaching agents or permanent wave treatments, and as damage progresses, hair loses its gloss, develops split ends and breaks. However, the causes of hair damage due to UV radiation have not yet been clarified. We discovered that in one mechanism facilitating damage to wet hair by UV radiation, the unsaturated fatty acids in wet hair produce hydroxy radicals upon exposure to UV radiation, and these radicals produce cuticle holes between the cuticle layers. In wet hair exposed to UV radiation, cuticle holes were produced only between the cuticle layers, whereas when human hair was immersed in a solution containing hydroxy radicals produced by Fenton’s reaction, a random production of cuticle holes was noted. It is thought that hydroxy radicals are produced only between the cuticle layers by exposure to UV radiation, and cuticle holes are formed only in this region because one of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, with a bis-allyl hydrogen, is found between the cuticle layers.

  8. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  9. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  10. Levitated droplet dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, H.; Alkafadiji, L.; Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating...

  11. Homogenous and heterogenous advanced oxidation of two commercial reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcioglu, I A; Arslan, I; Sacan, M T

    2001-07-01

    Two commercial reactive dyes, the azo dye Reactive Black 5 and the copper phythalocyanine dye Reactive Blue 21, have been treated at a concentration of 75 mg l(-1) by titanium dioxide mediated photocatalytic (TiO2/UV), dark and UV-light assisted Fenton (Fe2+/H2O2) and Fenton-like (Fe3+/H2O2) processes in acidic medium. For the treatment of Reactive Black 5, all investigated advanced oxidation processes were quite effective in terms of colour, COD as well as TOC removal. Moreover, the relative growth inhibition of the azo dye towards the marine algae Dunaliella tertiolecta that was initially 70%, did not exhibit an increase during the studied advanced oxidation reactions and complete detoxification at the end of the treatment period could be achieved for all investigated treatment processes. However, for Reactive Blue 21, abatement in COD and UV-VIS absorbance values was mainly due to the adsorption of the dye on the photocatalyst surface and/or the coagulative effect of Fe3+/Fe2+ ions. Although only a limited fraction of the copper phythalocyanine dye underwent oxidative degradation, 47% of the total copper in the dye was already released after 1 h photocatalytic treatment.

  12. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Q Dinh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Quan Q Dinh, Rodney SinclairDepartment of Dermatology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful.Keywords: female pattern hair loss, androgenetic alopecia

  14. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium, alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  15. Incorporation of trace elements into hair structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limic, N.; Valkovic, V.

    1985-01-01

    Examining blood and urine provides an immense insight into human diseases. It is natural to hope that the hair studies will be added routinely to the examinations. Human head hair is a recording filament which can reflect metabolic changes of many elements over a long period of time. The idea of hair analysis is very inviting, because hair is easily samples, shipped and analyzed. In this paper the authors propose a method for the determination of some diffusion parameters from experimental data on the distribution of trace element concentrations in hair and then a method for the determination of the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb. The authors' model of hair structure with respect to diffusion is based on the supposition of cross-sectional homogeneity as well as the longitudinal homogeneity of hair. This supposition implies nonisotropic diffusion in hair which is described by two diffusion constants. Diffusion constants can be determined by experiment on wetting hair in solvents or by measurements of natural contamination of hair in air. The first type of experiments can be arranged in various ways to separate radial diffusion from the longitudinal one and, consequently, to determine two diffusion constants from various sets of experiments. The authors' aim is to consider only radial diffusion in hair and to determine the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb

  16. Classifications of Patterned Hair Loss: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mysore, Venkataram

    2016-01-01

    Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles.

  17. Dye laser principles with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Frank J; Liao, Peter F; Kelley, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A tutorial introduction to the field of dye lasers, Dye Laser Principles also serves as an up-to-date overview for those using dye lasers as research and industrial tools. A number of the issues discussed in this book are pertinent not only to dye lasers but also to lasers in general. Most of the chapters in the book contain problem sets that expand on the material covered in the chapter.Key Features* Dye lasers are among the most versatile and successful laser sources currently available in use Offering both pulsed and continuous-wave operation and tunable from the near ultraviole

  18. Chromatographic separation and spectro-analytical characterization of a natural African mineral dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.B. Adebayo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic fractionation and spectroscopic characterization of a natural African mineral dye have been carried out. The chromatographic separation of the dyes made use of column and thin layer chromatographic techniques. Some physicochemical properties of the dye including solubility in polar and non-polar solvents, pH, ash and organic contents were determined. The spectro-analytical techniques used for characterization included energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, Optical microscopy, infrared (IR and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Four different fractions having colours yellow, grey, orange and purple were obtained from the chromatographic separation. All the fractions were found to contain aromatic nucleus based on IR and UV-VIS spectroscopic data. Other functional groups detected are Ar-NH2, -CONH2, C=C, C-C and metal-carbon chelate rings. The presence of aromatic amine in the dye provides strong evidence for its use as hair dye. The dye was found to be soluble in both aqueous and non-aqueous solvents. The pH of the dye's aqueous solution was found to be 8.6, and the ash and organic content of the raw dye were 49 % and 51 % respectively. The XRF revealed that the dye contains twenty elements with concentrations ranging from major to ultra-trace levels. The XRD also showed that the sample contains about forty-six mineral phases which include both inorganic and organic components. The maximum absorption wavelength (λmax in UV-VIS of the aqueous solution was found to be 464 nm. The optical microscopic investigation gave indication that the dyes are likely to be of the marine origin.

  19. Application of Electrocoagulation Process for Reactive Red 198 Dye Removal from the Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose:The main objectives of this research were to evaluating the application of electrocoagulation process for 198 dye from the aqueous phase and determining the optimum operating conditions to the dye removal using aluminum and iron electrodes. Materials and Methods:The present study was conducted in bench-scale. The spectrophotometer DR 5000 was used to determine the dye concentration. The effects of pH, retention time, voltage, dye concentration on the efficiency of electrocoagulation process were investigated. Data were analyzed in SPSS for Windows 16.0 using Pearson’scorrelation coefficient to analyze the relationship between these parameters. Results:The results showed that the optimal conditions for reactive red 198 (RR-198 dye removal from the aqueous solution are pH of 11, the voltage of 32 V, the initial dye concentration of 10 ppm, and the reaction time of 40 min. Pearson correlation analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between voltage and the reaction time with the removal efficiencies (P< 0.01. Conclusion:It was revealed that the removal efficiency of dye was directly proportional to the voltage and reaction time, but inversely proportional to the initial dye concentration. In conclusion, electrocoagulation process using two-fold iron and aluminum electrodes is an appropriate method for reducing the RR-198 dye in the aqueous phase.

  20. The impact of demographic factors, behaviors and environmental exposure to mercury content in the hair of the population living in the region of Lodz (central Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek-Jacel, Marta; Albińska, Jadwiga; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Szynkowska, Małgorzata Iwona

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to access the influence of different factors such as sex, age, fish consumption, hair dyeing or smoking habit on the content of mercury in human hair samples. The research was carried on 444 samples (102 males and 342 females) collected from the population of people living in the region of Lodz (central Poland). The content of mercury in human hair samples was determined using the Mercury Analyzer MA 3000 (Nippon Instruments, Japan). The obtained results were elaborated using Statistica ver. 10.0 software. The mean value of mercury in investigated human hair samples was found to be 0.174±0.137mg/kg. We observed the statistically significant correlations (p<0.05) between the content of Hg in hair of the studied population and factors such as gender, age, and fish consumption. However, no statistically significant differences were found in relation to cosmetic treatment such as hair dyeing or smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Comparative Study on the Rapid Decolorization of Azo, Anthraquinone and Triphenylmethane Dyes by Anaerobic Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daizong Cui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An anaerobic sludge (AS, capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N,N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N,N-dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes.

  2. The Comparative Study on the Rapid Decolorization of Azo, Anthraquinone and Triphenylmethane Dyes by Anaerobic Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Daizong; Zhang, Hao; He, Rubao; Zhao, Min

    2016-10-28

    An anaerobic sludge (AS), capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N , N -dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N , N -dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid) were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes.

  3. The use of human hair as biodosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe Çam, S.; Polat, M.; Seyhan, N.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5–50 Gy) and high doses (75–750 Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021–2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (ΔH pp : 0.522–0.744 mT). In all samples, the linear dose–response curves at low doses saturated after ∼300 Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44 h in black hair, 41 h in blonde and brown hairs, 35 h in dyed black hair and in 17 h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. - Highlights: • Applied electron spin resonance spectroscopy to human hair used in biodosimetry. • Showed the limitations of hair samples using as a biological dosimeter. • Provided more systematic information on radiation-induced radicals in hair. • Found at least 3 different contributions in the RIS. That is the major finding of this work

  4. A Study on Scalp Hair Health and Hair Care Practices among Malaysian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Satheesha; Ann, Chua Yuet; Azhar, Azeldeen Bin; Ling, Emily Chan Su; Yen, Wong Hui; Aithal, P Ashwini

    2017-01-01

    Scalp care is essential because it determines the health and condition of the hair and prevents the diseases of scalp and hair. The objectives of our study were to correlate race and hair types, to determine the awareness of hair care among Malaysian medical students, and to distinguish the factors that affect the health of hair and scalp. It was a cross-sectional study wherein validated questionnaires were given to 240 medical undergraduate students who belonged to three ethnic races of Malaysia, i.e., Chinese, Malay, and Malaysian Indians after their informed consent. The results were then analyzed using percentage statistics. Chinese students had comparatively healthier scalp without dandruff. Most Chinese and Indians had silky type of hair while Malay had dry, rough hair. Chinese and Indians colored their hair and used various styling methods; while among the Malays, this percentage was very less. Regarding hair care practices, males used only shampoo and females used shampoo and conditioner for hair wash. Students also faced dietary and examination-related stress. Results indicate that there exist morphological differences in hair among the studied population. Since most students color their hair and employ various hairstyling methods, they should be educated regarding best hair care practices to improve their scalp hair condition and health.

  5. Hair follicle stem cell proliferation, Akt and Wnt signaling activation in TPA-induced hair regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Zhou, Ling; Bai, Xiufeng; Lai, Xiangdong; Yu, Yu; Yang, Tian; Lian, Xiaohua

    2017-06-01

    Regeneration of hair follicles relies on activation of hair follicle stem cells during telogen to anagen transition process in hair cycle. This process is rigorously controlled by intrinsic and environmental factors. 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a tumor promoter, accelerates reentry of hair follicles into anagen phase. However, it is unclear that how TPA promotes the hair regeneration. In the present study, we topically applied TPA onto the dorsal skin of 2-month-old C57BL/6 female mice to examine the activity of hair follicle stem cells and alteration of signaling pathways during hair regeneration. We found that refractory telogen hair follicles entered anagen prematurely after TPA treatment, with the enhanced proliferation of CD34-positive hair follicle stem cells. Meanwhile, we observed Akt signaling was activated in epidermis, hair infundibulum, bulge and hair bulb, and Wnt signaling was also activated after hair follicle stem cells proliferation. Importantly, after overexpression of DKK1, a specific Wnt signaling inhibitor, the accelerated reentry of hair follicles into anagen induced by TPA was abolished. Our data indicated that TPA-induced hair follicle regeneration is associated with activation of Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  6. Synthesis and Fluorescence Spectra of Triazolylcoumarin Fluorescent Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xian-fu; LI Hong-qi

    2009-01-01

    Much attention is devoted to fluorescent dyes especially those with potential in versatile applications. Reactions under "click" conditions between nonfluorescent 3 - azidocoumarins and terminal alkynes produced 3 -(1, 2, 3- triazol- 1 - yl)cournarins, a novel type of fluorescent dyes with intense fluorescence. The structures of the new coumarins were characterized by 1H NMR, MS, and IR spectra. Fluorescence spectra measurement demonstrated excellent fluorescence performance of the triazolylcoumarins and this click reaction is a promising candidate for bioconjugation and bioimaging applications since both azide and alkynes are quite inert to biological systems.

  7. Tartrazine: a potentially hazardous dye in Canadian drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCara, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The literature was reviewed to determine the incidence of idiosyncratic reactions to tartrazine. From 4% to 14% of individuals with asthma or allergies or both and from 7% to 20% of persons who are sensitive to acetylsalicylic acid may react to this dye. The mechanism of such reactions is unknown. Pharmaceutical manufacturers and distributors were surveyed and a list was prepared of approximately 450 Canadian pharmaceuticals that contain tartrazine. The 53 pharmaceutical and manufacturers and distributors whose drug products do not contain this dye were also listed. It is recommended that information concerning the tartrazine content of drugs be included on package labels. PMID:7074487

  8. Biophysics of Human Hair Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the biophysics of hair. It deals with the structure of hair, its mechanical properties, the nanomechanical characterization, tensile deformation, tribological characterization, the thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair surface. Another important topic of the book is the health of hair, human hair and skin, hair care, cleaning and conditioning treatments and damaging processes. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

  9. Characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Shoji, E-mail: furukawa@cse.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan); Iino, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Tomohisa; Kukita, Koudai; Yamauchi, Shoji [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are expected to be used for future clean energy. Recently, most of the researchers in this field use Ruthenium complex as dye in the dye-sensitized solar cells. However, Ruthenium is a rare metal, so the cost of the Ruthenium complex is very high. In this paper, various dye-sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using natural dye, such as the dye of red-cabbage, curcumin, and red-perilla. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the solar cell fabricated using the mixture of red-cabbage and curcumin was about 0.6% (light source: halogen lamp), which was larger than that of the solar cells using one kind of dye. It was also found that the conversion efficiency was about 1.0% for the solar cell with the oxide semiconductor film fabricated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) whose molecular weight was 2,000,000 and red-cabbage dye. This indicates that the cost performance (defined by [conversion efficiency]/[cost of dye]) of the latter solar cell (dye: red-cabbage) is larger by more than 50 times than that of the solar cell using Ruthenium complex, even if the effect of the difference between the halogen lamp and the standard light source is taken into account.

  10. Pulse radiolysis of rhodamine dye solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherenko, E.A.; Kartasheva, L.I.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    Applying the method of pulse radiolysis (5 MeV electrons) a study was made on intermediate products of rhodamine B radiolytic transformations in neutral aqueous and ethanol solutions. Rate constants of reactions of esub(aq) and OH with the dye (they are equal to (2.2+-0.3)x10 10 and (2.1+-0.3)x10 10 e/molxs, accordingly) as well as optical and kinetic characteristics of esub(aq), OH and H interaction products were measured. The nature of these products is concluded. It was found that in ethanol solutions the semirecovered form - electroneutral radical of rhodamine B - was the only intermediate product. It arises during the interaction of the dye with esub(s) (k=(9.2+-1.2)x10 9 e/molxs) and α-et hananol radical (k=(1.1+-0.1)x10 8 l/molxs). Properties of this product were investigated

  11. Interferon alfa and ribavirin induced hair changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, S.; Taj, A.; Muhamud, T.H.; Iqbal, Z.; Yaqub, F.

    2007-01-01

    Combination therapy of Interferon alfa and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C has well documented cutaneous adverse effects. Most interesting of these has been reported on hair physiology. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and pattern of adverse effects involving hair in patients receiving combination of interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. The study was conducted in Department of Dermatology, Division of Medicine Shaikh Zayed Hospital. Thirty Eight patients who completed treatment with interferon alfa (3 MIU subcutaneously thrice weekly) and 1200 mg ribavirin daily for 24 weeks were enrolled in this single-center study. The patient's response and examination finding particularly regarding involvement of hair was noted on a Proforma. Thirty Two out of thirty eight (84%) patients noted adverse effects involving hair. The most frequent was diffuse hair loss and occurred in 27 patients (71%). Hypertrichosis of eyelashes (trichomegaly) and eyebrows (synophyrs) was observed in 18 (47%) and 16 (42%) patients respectively. Graying of hair was noted in 4 patients (11%), while discoloration of moustache hair was seen in 2 patients (5%). Epilation at the site of subcutaneous injection was noted in 10 patients (26%). Alopecia areata was reported in 2 patients (5%). It is concluded that adverse effects involving hair are frequent and varied (hair loss to excess hair growth) during combination therapy with Interferon alfa-2a and Ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. (author)

  12. Possible biological dosimeters in skin and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The hair follicle, when producing hair, contains rapidly proliferating cells, some of which are very sensitive to radiation. These can be detected by studying the incidence of dead or dying (apoptotic) cells which reach peak yields 12 h after irradiation. The yield of apoptotic cells in the follicle has been studied after various doses. The response is dose-dependent and sensitive down to levels of a few cGy. Any reduction in cell production resulting from mitotic delay or cell death might be expressed as a reduction in the width of the hair. This has been studied and the abnormality referred to as dysplasia of the hair. The fraction of dysplastic hairs is strongly dose dependent over the range 2-10 Gy. More detailed studies using higher magnification and numerous measurements of hair width should make this end-point an even more sensitive assay for radiation exposure. Preliminary measurements on the average width at a critical point along the length of the hair illustrate that doses between 1.0 and 1.5 Gy can be detected. The width of the hair is dose dependent. The length of the affected region of the hair is also probably dose dependent. Estimates for the full reduction in volume of hair should increase the sensitivity further. (orig./MG)

  13. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spilde

    Full Text Available Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios, which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  14. Immunocosmeceuticals: An emerging trend in repairing human hair damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthika Selvan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is one of the most important portions for beauty care and in recent years grooming and cosmetic treatment of hair has drastically risen. Substantially, it may deteriorate and weaken the hair by modification of keratin protein. This makes the hair dry, brittle and split vend occurs due to loss of hair strength and the damage further increases with cosmetic treatments. The various poor ingredients are being used for repairing which have extremely poor compatibility with hair. Now the hair care products can be introduced with an active ingredient comprising a yolk derived anti-hair antibody immunoglobin obtained from egg of chickens immunized with damaged hair as antigen. This immuno-cosmeceuticals can repair the hair damage and imparts flexibility and smoothness to the hair. These effects are not lost by the ordinary shampooing. This article focuses on the characteristic of human hair, its damaging processes and the effects of immuno-cosmeceuticals for repairing the hair damage.

  15. New Treatments for Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vañó-Galván, S; Camacho, F

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy. b) For alopecia areata, Janus kinase inhibitors are reviewed. c) For frontal fibrosing alopecia, we discuss the use of antiandrogens and, for some patients, pioglitazone. d) Finally, we mention new robotic devices for hair transplant procedures and techniques for optimal follicular unit extraction. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Hair transplantation: Standard guidelines of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan Narendra

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Hair transplantation is a surgical method of hair restoration. Physician qualification : The physician performing hair transplantation should have completed post graduation training in dermatology; he should have adequate background training in dermatosurgery at a centre that provides education training in cutaneous surgery. In addition, he should obtain specific hair transplantation training or experience at the surgical table(hands on under the supervision of an appropriately trained and experienced hair transplant surgeon. In addition to the surgical technique, training should include instruction in local anesthesia and emergency resuscitation and care. Facility : Hair transplantation can be performed safely in an outpatient day case dermatosurgical facility. The day case theatre should be equipped with facilities for monitoring and handling emergencies. A plan for handling emergencies should be in place and all nursing staff should be familiar with the emergency plan. It is preferable, but not mandatory to have a standby anesthetist. Indication for hair transplantation is pattern hair loss in males and also in females. In female pattern hair loss, investigations to rule out any underlying cause for hair loss such as anemia and thyroid deficiency should be carried out. Hair transplantation can also be performed in selected cases of scarring alopecia, eyebrows and eye lashes, by experienced surgeons. Preoperative counseling and informed consent :Detailed consent form listing details about the procedure and possible complications should be signed by the patient. The consent form should specifically state the limitations of the procedure and if more procedures are needed for proper results, it should be clearly mentioned. Patient should be provided with adequate opportunity to seek information through brochures, computer presentations, and personal discussions. Need for concomitant medical therapy should be emphasized. Patients should understand

  17. Degradation chemistry of N719 and Z-907 dyes at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben; Nguyen, Hoang Thai; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet

    2009-01-01

    Degradation chemistry of N719 and Z-907 dyes at elevated temperatures.   Torben Lunda, Phuong Tuyet Nguyena and Hoang Thai Nguyenb aDepartment of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000, Denmark bDepartment of Chemistry, University of Sciences, HoChiMinh City, Vietnam......      The popular dye sensitized solar cell dyes N719 and Z-907 are in general accepted to be very stable under solar cell conditions below 45 ºC.1 The dyes, however, may undergo thiocyanate ligand substitution reactions with the DSC solvent and additive molecules at elevated temperatures (80-100 º...

  18. Matting of Hair Due to Halo-egg Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Mani

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of hair matting in an 18 year old female is reported. The hair got densely entangled immediately after washing the hair with ′Halo Egg′ shampoo. The hair was disentangled completely after prolonged dipping of the hair in arachis oil frr 5 days.

  19. Photostability of the solar cell dye sensitizer N719

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz

    intensities. This light intensity dependency of the quantum yield was attributed to the back electron transfer reaction rate between the titanium dioxide conduction band electrons and the oxidized dye cation. Photoinduced absorption spectroscopy (PIA) was used to measure the back electron transfer reaction...... rate, kback at the same light intensities as used in the model experiments. The PIA measurements showed that kback increased with increasing light intensities. By applying the equation kdeg = Φdeg × kback to the experimentally obtained total quantum yields and back electron transfer rates......The photostability of the sensitizer dye [Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2] (Bu4N)2 (referred to as N719) was investigated in a simple model system instead of a complete nanocrystaline dye sensitized titanium dioxide solar cells (nc-DSSC). The applied model system consisted of N719 dyed titanium dioxide...

  20. Diagnosis of Hair Loss: Clinical features of common causes of hair loss

    OpenAIRE

    Coupe, Robert L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Common causes of hair loss include androgenic hair loss, alopecia areata, trichotillomania, tinea capitis, telogen effluvium, and traction alopecia. The author discusses their distinguishing clinical features and those of less common alopecias.

  1. LSD in pubic hair in a fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulier, Jean-michel; Maublanc, Julie; Lamballais, Florence; Bargel, Sophie; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2012-05-10

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogen, active at very low dosage and its determination in body fluids in a forensic context may present some difficulties, even more so in hair. A dedicated liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) assay in hair was used to document the case of a 24-year-old man found dead after a party. Briefly, after a decontamination step, a 50mg sample of the victim's pubic hair was cut into small pieces (LSD. A LSD concentration of 0.66pg/mg of pubic hair was observed. However, this result remains difficult to interpret owing to the concomitant LSD presence in the victim's post mortem blood and urine, the lack of previously reported LSD concentrations in hair, and the absence of data about LSD incorporation and stability in pubic hair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [New discoveries in forensic medicine. Hair analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaempe, B

    1999-03-29

    A review of forensic chemical drug testing in hair is given. Applications for analysis of hair are described. The special problems linked to the determination of drugs in hair such as contamination, differences in sex and ethnic groups and cosmetic pretreatment of the hair are outlined. It is concluded that greater knowledge of hair analysis is needed before the results can be used for toxicological evaluation at the same level as blood. On the other hand, a chemical hair analysis might expose a (mis)use of drugs and follow it step by step up to half a year back in time. In this way, it may supplement a systematic toxicological analysis (STA) for 'a general unknown' for use by police and forensic pathologists.

  3. Hormonal therapy in female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Brough

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss in women and one of the most common problems seen by dermatologists. This hair loss is a nonscarring alopecia in which loss occurs on the vertex scalp, generally sparing the frontal hairline. Hair loss can have significant psychosocial effects on patients, and treatment can be long and difficult. The influence of hormones on the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss is not entirely known. The purpose of this paper is to review physiology and potential hormonal mechanisms for the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss. We also discuss the current hormonal and hormone-modifying therapies that are available to providers as they partner with patients to treat this frustrating issue.

  4. Genomic DNA extraction protocols from ovine hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Nonato da Silva Prate

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA extracted from animal cells can be used for several purposes, for example, to know genetic variability and genetic relationships between individuals, breeds and/or species, paternity tests, to describe the genetic profile for registration of the animal at association of breeders, detect genetic polymorphisms (SNP related to characteristics of commercial interest, disease diagnose, assess resistance or susceptibility to pathogens, etc. For such evaluations, in general, DNA is amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction, and then subjected to various techniques as RFLP (restriction fragments length polymorphism, SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism, and sequencing. The DNA may be obtained from blood, buccal swabs, meat, cartilage or hair bulb. Among all, the last biological material has been preferred by farmers for its ease acquisition. Several methods for extracting DNA from hair bulb were reported without any consensus for its implementation. This study aimed to optimize a protocol for efficient DNA extraction for use in PCR-RFLP analysis of the Prion gene. For this study, were collected hair samples containing hair bulb from 131 Santa Inês sheep belonging to the Institute of Zootechny, Nova Odessa - SP. Two DNA extraction protocols were evaluated. The first, called phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCIA has long been used by Animal Genetic Laboratories, whose procedures are described below: in each microtube (1.5 mL containing 500 µL of TE-Tween solution (Tris-HCl 50 mM, EDTA 1 mM and 0.5% Tween 20 were added to approximately 30 hair bulb per animal which was incubated at 65°C with shaking at 170 rpm for 2 hours. Then was added 15 µL of proteinase K [10 mg mL-1] and incubated at 55°C at 170 rpm for 6-12 hours. At the end of digestion was added 1 volume of solution phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1 followed by vigorous shaking for 10 seconds and centrifuged at 8000 rpm and 4°C for 10 minutes. The upper phase

  5. Loose anagen hair syndrome with diffuse woolly hair phenotype: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshdeep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Loose anagen hair syndrome (LAHS is an underestimated cause of noncicatricial alopecia among children, manifesting as thin, sparse or fine hair. We report a case of LAHS clinically presenting as diffuse woolly hair, an association rarely described in the literature. In addition, we review the clinical as well as genetic link between these two enigmatic hair disorders and hypothesize that both may be associated in a yet unknown manner.

  6. Expression and localization of VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during induced hair growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-Jie; Jing, Jing; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zheng, Min

    2018-06-16

    Recently, VEGFR-2 has been detected not only in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells but also in some non-vascular endothelial cells, particularly human hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. In addition, VEGFR-2 has been confirmed to play direct roles in hair follicle keratinocyte regulation beyond simply angiogenesis. To elucidate whether VEGFR-2 activation plays a role in hair follicle cycling regulation, immunofluorescence of VEGFR-2 expression was performed during hair cycling of the dorsum of the mouse induced by hair plucking. We observed that staining for VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during anagen II and IV was much stronger than during anagen VI, catagen and telogen. During anagen II, intense staining for VEGFR-2 was observed on the keratinocyte strands of the hair follicle. Subsequently, we detected intense staining for VEGFR-2 in the ORS, IRS and hair bulb during anagen IV. Moderate staining for VEGFR-2 was detected in the ORS and hair bulb, but staining was most intense in IRS during anagen VI. During catagen, staining for VEGFR-2 in the IRS remained intense, while staining in the ORS and hair bulb was significantly weakened and was negative in the dermal papilla. During telogen, we detected VEGFR-2 in germ cells, cap, and club hair adjoining the epidermis. In conclusion, VEGFR-2 was expressed on the hair follicles of the dorsum of the mouse and varied in expression on the mouse hair follicles during hair cycling, suggesting that VEGFR-2 may exert roles in hair cycle regulation in hair follicles on the dorsum of mice.

  7. [When hair starts to fall out].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzi, Caroline; Quenan, Sandrine

    2018-03-28

    Hair loss causes physical and psychological distress and represents a common motive of consultation both in general practice and dermatology. Causes of hair loss are highly diverse and can lead to a challenging diagnosis, which can delay its management. Knowledge of the main causes and their different mechanisms are thus necessary in order to optimize both the diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main causes of hair loss in order to improve its diagnosis and management.

  8. A curious case of the necklace hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Samipa Samir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monilethrix is a rare autosomal dominant inheritable hair shaft defect with variable penetrance. The diagnosis is confirmed by the characteristic beaded appearance of the hair under light microscopy which occurs due to defective keratinization. We hereby describe a case of monilethrix syndrome with keratotic follicular papules, moniliform hair, and koilonychias in an 8-year-old Indian female child. A rare association of trichorrhexis nodosa was also noted in our case.

  9. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-07-01

    non-dyed hair showed that element adsorption or desorption occurs due to the dye. Analysis of hair samples collected from different regions of the head presented significant differences for the elements Fe, Sc, Se and Cr, indicating the importance of defining head regions for hair sample collection. Results of hair analysis from individuals residing in Sao Paulo metropolitan area showed individual differences for age, gender and natural hair color. Results obtained in this population also showed, that the mean element concentrations found are within the literature values. (author)

  10. Hollow Palladium Nanoparticles Facilitated Biodegradation of an Azo Dye by Electrically Active Biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Chaudhuri, Rajib Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Dye wastewater severely threatens the environment due to its hazardous and toxic effects. Although many methods are available to degrade dyes, most of them are far from satisfactory. The proposed research provides a green and sustainable approach to degrade an azo dye, methyl orange, by electrically active biofilms (EABs) in the presence of solid and hollow palladium (Pd) nanoparticles. The EABs acted as the electron generator while nanoparticles functioned as the electron carrier agents to enhance degradation rate of the dye by breaking the kinetic barrier. The hollow Pd nanoparticles showed better performance than the solid Pd nanoparticles on the dye degradation, possibly due to high specific surface area and cage effect. The hollow cavities provided by the nanoparticles acted as the reaction centers for the dye degradation.

  11. Hollow Palladium Nanoparticles Facilitated Biodegradation of an Azo Dye by Electrically Active Biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Kalathil, Shafeer

    2016-08-04

    Dye wastewater severely threatens the environment due to its hazardous and toxic effects. Although many methods are available to degrade dyes, most of them are far from satisfactory. The proposed research provides a green and sustainable approach to degrade an azo dye, methyl orange, by electrically active biofilms (EABs) in the presence of solid and hollow palladium (Pd) nanoparticles. The EABs acted as the electron generator while nanoparticles functioned as the electron carrier agents to enhance degradation rate of the dye by breaking the kinetic barrier. The hollow Pd nanoparticles showed better performance than the solid Pd nanoparticles on the dye degradation, possibly due to high specific surface area and cage effect. The hollow cavities provided by the nanoparticles acted as the reaction centers for the dye degradation.

  12. Hollow Palladium Nanoparticles Facilitated Biodegradation of an Azo Dye by Electrically Active Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafeer Kalathil

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dye wastewater severely threatens the environment due to its hazardous and toxic effects. Although many methods are available to degrade dyes, most of them are far from satisfactory. The proposed research provides a green and sustainable approach to degrade an azo dye, methyl orange, by electrically active biofilms (EABs in the presence of solid and hollow palladium (Pd nanoparticles. The EABs acted as the electron generator while nanoparticles functioned as the electron carrier agents to enhance degradation rate of the dye by breaking the kinetic barrier. The hollow Pd nanoparticles showed better performance than the solid Pd nanoparticles on the dye degradation, possibly due to high specific surface area and cage effect. The hollow cavities provided by the nanoparticles acted as the reaction centers for the dye degradation.

  13. The adverse reaction of chitooligosaccharides in rats | Liu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adverse reaction of chitooligosaccharides in rats. A Liu, K Sun, C Si, Z Zhu, W Zhang. Abstract. In this study, hair removal effect after subcutaneous injection of chitooligosaccharides in mice was investigated. Different methods of observation of hair removal, tissue slices and detection of hematological parameters, like ...

  14. Hair Loss: Common Causes and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T Grant; Slomiany, W Paul; Allison, Robert

    2017-09-15

    Hair loss is often distressing and can have a significant effect on the patient's quality of life. Patients may present to their family physician first with diffuse or patchy hair loss. Scarring alopecia is best evaluated by a dermatologist. Nonscarring alopecias can be readily diagnosed and treated in the family physician's office. Androgenetic alopecia can be diagnosed clinically and treated with minoxidil. Alopecia areata is diagnosed by typical patches of hair loss and is self-limited. Tinea capitis causes patches of alopecia that may be erythematous and scaly and must be treated systemically. Telogen effluvium is a nonscarring, noninflammatory alopecia of relatively sudden onset caused by physiologic or emotional stress. Once the precipitating cause is removed, the hair typically will regrow. Trichotillomania is an impulse-control disorder; treatment is aimed at controlling the underlying psychiatric condition. Trichorrhexis nodosa occurs when hairs break secondary to trauma and is often a result of hair styling or overuse of hair products. Anagen effluvium is the abnormal diffuse loss of hair during the growth phase caused by an event that impairs the mitotic activity of the hair follicle, most commonly chemotherapy. Physician support is especially important for patients in this situation.

  15. Improved biolistic transfection of hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhao

    Full Text Available Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca(2+-ATPase isoform 2 to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells.

  16. Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wołowiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Topical Valproate Solution for Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kakunje

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Valproate is used regularly in the treatment of various seizure disorders, bipolar disorder, migraine prophylaxis and off label in many other conditions. Alopecia or hair loss is cosmetic side effect of oral valproate administration. Hair loss with valproate is diffused, non-scarring and dose related. A large number of drugs may interfere with the hair cycle and produce hair loss. We have only a few drugs like Minoxidil, Finasteride used for hair regeneration and both have its own side effects and limitations. In contrast to oral ingestions of valproate causing hair loss, early experiments with topical Valproic acid cream showed hair regeneration. Valproic acid cream is currently unavailable in the market, alternatively, we do have valproate and divalproex solutions available in various strengths which have a potential to be used topically for hair regeneration. The side effects and cost of topical valproate solution could be much less than the available options in the market. Valproate solution topically has the potential to be used for hair growth.

  18. Dye lasers in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Luther, J.; Steudel, A.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of dye lasers which are relevant to atomic spectroscopy are discussed. Several experiments made possible by tunable dye lasers are discussed. Applications of high spectral density dye lasers are covered in areas such as absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, photoionization and photodetachment, and two- and multi-photon processes. Applications which take advantage of the narrow bandwidth of tunable dye lasers are discussed, including saturation spectroscopy, fluorescence line narrowing, classic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, nonoptical detection of optical resonances, heterodyne spectroscopy, and nonlinear coherent resonant phenomena. (26 figures, 180 references) (U.S.)

  19. Functional anatomy of the hair follicle: The Secondary Hair Germ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleyev, Andrey A

    2018-07-01

    The secondary hair germ (SHG)-a transitory structure in the lower portion of the mouse telogen hair follicle (HF)-is directly involved in anagen induction and eventual HF regrowth. Some crucial aspects of SHG functioning and ontogenetic relations with other HF parts, however, remain undefined. According to recent evidence (in contrast to previous bulge-centric views), the SHG is the primary target of anagen-inducing signalling and a source of both the outer root sheath (ORS) and ascending HF layers during the initial (morphogenetic) anagen subphase. The SHG is comprised of two functionally distinct cell populations. Its lower portion (originating from lower HF cells that survived catagen) forms all ascending HF layers, while the upper SHG (formed by bulge-derived cells) builds up the ORS. The predetermination of SHG cells to a specific morphogenetic fate contradicts their attribution to the "stem cell" category and supports SHG designation as a "germinative" or a "founder" cell population. The mechanisms of this predetermination driving transition of the SHG from "refractory" to the "competent" state during the telogen remain unknown. Functionally, the SHG serves as a barrier, protecting the quiescent bulge stem cell niche from the extensive follicular papilla/SHG signalling milieu. The formation of the SHG is a prerequisite for efficient "precommitment" of these cells and provides for easier sensing and a faster response to anagen-inducing signals. In general, the formation of the SHG is an evolutionary adaptation, which allowed the ancestors of modern Muridae to acquire a specific, highly synchronized pattern of hair cycling. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Biological decolorization of xanthene dyes by anaerobic granular biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Laura Carmen; Pereira, Luciana; Pereira, Raquel; Gavrilescu, Maria; Alves, Maria Madalena

    2012-09-01

    Biodegradation of a xanthene dyes was investigated for the first time using anaerobic granular sludge. On a first screening, biomass was able to decolorize, at different extents, six azo dye solutions: acid orange 7, direct black 19, direct blue 71, mordant yellow 10, reactive red 2 and reactive red 120 and two xanthene dyes--Erythrosine B and Eosin Y. Biomass concentration, type of electron donor, induction of biomass with dye and mediation with activated carbon (AC) were variables studied for Erythrosine B (Ery) as model dye. Maximum color removal efficiency was achieved with 4.71 g VSS L⁻¹, while the process rates were independent of the biomass concentration above 1.89 g VSS L⁻¹. No considerable effects were observed when different substrates were used as electron donors (VFA, glucose or lactose). Addition of Ery in the incubation period of biomass led to a fivefold increase of the decolorization rate. The rate of Ery decolorization almost duplicated in the presence of commercial AC (0.1 g L⁻¹ AC₀). Using different modified AC samples (from the treatment of AC₀), a threefold higher rate was obtained with the most basic one, AC(H₂), as compared with non-mediated reaction. Higher rates were obtained at pH 6.0. Chemical reduction using Na₂S confirmed the recalcitrant nature of this dye. The results attest that decolorization of Ery is essentially due to enzymatic and adsorption phenomena.

  1. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. "Castor Oil" - The Culprit of Acute Hair Felting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduri, V Ramya; Vedachalam, Ahalya; Kiruthika, S

    2017-01-01

    Acute hair felting is a rare disorder of scalp hair. In this condition, the hair becomes twisted, entangled as a hard stony mass resembling a bird's nest. Sudden hair matting has been reported earlier in the literature after vigorous use of chemical and herbal shampoos. Plica polonica is a patchy area of hair matting occurring in due course of time in neglected hair or underlying psychiatric illness. This case is interesting as the whole scalp hair matted immediately after using coconut oil and castor oil following washing. Growing long hair and taking oil bath are cultural and religious customs in South India. The high viscosity of castor oil and long hair had contributed to sudden felting of hair. This disorder of hair is irreversible and the hair should be cut off. Acute nature of this disorder will result in a serious psychological impact on the patient and the family.

  3. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  4. Association Between Human Hair Loss and the Expression Levels of Nucleolin, Nucleophosmin, and UBTF Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Sener; Eroz, Recep; Dogan, Hasan; Erdem, Haktan Bagis; Sahin, Ibrahim; Kara, Murat; Engin, Ragip Ismail; Turkez, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Nucleolar organizer regions, also known as argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions, are associated with ribosomal genes. The main function of the nucleolus is the rapid production of ribosomal subunits, a process that must be highly regulated to provide the appropriate levels for cellular proliferation and cell growth. There are no studies in the literature addressing the expression and function of nucleolar component proteins, including nucleophosmin, nucleolin and the upstream binding transcription factor (UBTF), in human follicular hair cells. Nineteen healthy males who had normal and sufficient hair follicles on the back of the head, but exhibited hair loss on the frontal/vertex portions of the head and 14 healthy males without hair loss were included in the current study. Gene expression levels were measured by relative quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. In the individuals suffering from alopecia, the total expression levels of nucleolin, nucleophosmin, and UBTF were lower in normal sites than in hair loss sites. Strong expression level correlations were detected between: nucleophosmin and nucleolin; nucleophosmin and UBTF, and nucleolin and UBTF for both groups. There was an association between human hair loss and the expression levels of nucleolin, nucleophosmin, and UBTF genes.

  5. Hair curvature: a natural dialectic and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissimov, Joseph N; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran

    2014-08-01

    Although hair forms (straight, curly, wavy, etc.) are present in apparently infinite variations, each fibre can be reduced to a finite sequence of tandem segments of just three types: straight, bent/curly, or twisted. Hair forms can thus be regarded as resulting from genetic pathways that induce, reverse or modulate these basic curvature modes. However, physical interconversions between twists and curls demonstrate that strict one-to-one correspondences between them and their genetic causes do not exist. Current hair-curvature theories do not distinguish between bending and twisting mechanisms. We here introduce a multiple papillary centres (MPC) model which is particularly suitable to explain twisting. The model combines previously known features of hair cross-sectional morphology with partially/completely separated dermal papillae within single follicles, and requires such papillae to induce differential growth rates of hair cortical material in their immediate neighbourhoods. The MPC model can further help to explain other, poorly understood, aspects of hair growth and morphology. Separate bending and twisting mechanisms would be preferentially affected at the major or minor ellipsoidal sides of fibres, respectively, and together they exhaust the possibilities for influencing hair-form phenotypes. As such they suggest dialectic for hair-curvature development. We define a natural-dialectic (ND) which could take advantage of speculative aspects of dialectic, but would verify its input data and results by experimental methods. We use this as a top-down approach to first define routes by which hair bending or twisting may be brought about and then review evidence in support of such routes. In particular we consider the wingless (Wnt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as paradigm pathways for molecular hair bending and twisting mechanisms, respectively. In addition to the Wnt canonical pathway, the Wnt/Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways

  6. Repeated Microneedle Stimulation Induces Enhanced Hair Growth in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Seob; Jeong, Kwan Ho; Kim, Jung Eun; Woo, Young Jun; Kim, Beom Joon; Kang, Hoon

    2016-10-01

    Microneedle is a method that creates transdermal microchannels across the stratum corneum barrier layer of skin. No previous study showed a therapeutic effect of microneedle itself on hair growth by wounding. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of repeated microwound formed by microneedle on hair growth and hair growth-related genes in a murine model. A disk microneedle roller was applied to each group of mice five times a week for three weeks. First, to identify the optimal length and cycle, microneedles of lengths of 0.15 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm, and 1 mm and cycles of 3, 6, 10, and 13 cycles were applied. Second, the effect of hair growth and hair-growth-related genes such as Wnt3a, β-catenin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Wnt10b was observed using optimized microneedle. Outcomes were observed using visual inspection, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. We found that the optimal length and cycle of microneedle treatment on hair growth was 0.25 mm/10 cycles and 0.5 mm/10 cycles. Repeated microneedle stimulation promoted hair growth, and it also induced the enhanced expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin, VEGF, and Wnt10b. Our study provides evidence that microneedle stimulation can induce hair growth via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and VEGF. Combined with the drug delivery effect, we believe that microneedle stimulation could lead to new approaches for alopecia.

  7. microRNA-183 is Essential for Hair Cell Regeneration after Neomycin Injury in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Woo; Han, Ji Hyuk; Wu, Ling; Choi, Jae Young

    2018-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs composed of 20 to 22 nucleotides that regulate development and differentiation in various organs by silencing specific RNAs and regulating gene expression. In the present study, we show that the microRNA (miR)-183 cluster is upregulated during hair cell regeneration and that its inhibition reduces hair cell regeneration following neomycin-induced ototoxicity in zebrafish. miRNA expression patterns after neomycin exposure were analyzed using microarray chips. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to validate miR-183 cluster expression patterns following neomycin exposure (500 μM for 2 h). After injection of an antisense morpholino (MO) to miR-183 (MO-183) immediately after fertilization, hair cell regeneration after neomycin exposure in neuromast cells was evaluated by fluorescent staining (YO-PRO1). The MO-183 effect also was assessed in transgenic zebrafish larvae expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in inner ear hair cells. Microarray analysis clearly showed that the miR-183 cluster (miR-96, miR-182, and miR-183) was upregulated after neomycin treatment. We also confirmed upregulated expression of the miR-183 cluster during hair cell regeneration after neomycin-induced ototoxicity. miR-183 inhibition using MO-183 reduced hair cell regeneration in both wild-type and GFP transgenic zebrafish larvae. Our work demonstrates that the miR-183 cluster is essential for the regeneration of hair cells following ototoxic injury in zebrafish larvae. Therefore, regulation of the miR-183 cluster can be a novel target for stimulation of hair cell regeneration. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  8. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  9. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2... rightCollaborations and Links © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za head2rightAcknowledgements BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average of 860 mm head2rightOn upside, we have some...

  10. CW organic dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuccio, S.A.; Peterson, O.G.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing continuous emission from a lasing medium comprising organic dye molecules in solution are described. Continuous emission is accomplished by flowing the medium through a focused optical cavity while simultaneously producing a population inversion in that portion of the medium flowing in close proximity to the focal point of the cavity. The population inversion is produced by pumping the medium longitudinally, along the optical axis of the cavity, preferably by the focused output of a continuous-wave argon laser. Sufficient thermal energy is continuously dissipated from the medium to maintain the optical homogeneity thereof at or above the quality required for continuous emission

  11. Hair: what is new in diagnosis and management? Female pattern hair loss update: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanaskova Mesinkovska, Natasha; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women. FPHL is characterized histologically with increased numbers of miniaturized, velluslike hair follicles. The goal of treatment of FPHL is to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate hair regrowth. The treatments for FPHL can be divided into androgen-dependent and androgen-independent. There is an important adjuvant role for nutritional supplements, light therapy, and hair transplants. All treatments work best when initiated early. Combinations of treatments tend to be more efficacious. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hair Shaft Abnormality in Children: a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rahmatpour Rokni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hair is an ectodermal structure, and its formation is regulated by master genes important in embryology. Hair shaft consists of three major regions: the medulla, cortex and cuticle. Hair shaft abnormality will divide structural hair abnormalities into two broad categories - those associated with increased hair fragility and those not associated with increased hair fragility. We conducted a review study to assess hair shaft abnormality in children. Materials and Methods We conducted a review of all papers published on hair shaft abnormalities. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar on papers publish from 1990 to 2016. The search terms were: hair shaft abnormality, Hair loss, Hair fragility. All abstracts and full text English-language articles were studied. Results While common developmental and structural features are shared in hair follicles and hair shafts. Anomalies of the hair shaft are separated into those with and those without increased hair fragility. Conclusion Although hair has no vital function, it may serve as an indicator for human health. Clinical and morphological hair abnormalities can be clues to specific complex disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities can be inherited or acquired, can reflect a local problem or a systemic disease.

  13. The oxidation of acid azo dye AY 36 by a manganese oxide containing mine waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Catherine E.; Kielar, Filip; Johnson, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study looks at the oxidative breakdown of the amine containing dye acid yellow 36 by a Mn oxide containing mine waste. ► The oxidation proceeds by successive one electron transfers between the dye molecule and the Mn oxide minerals. ► The initial decolorization of the dye is rapid, but does not involve the cleavage of the azo bond. -- Abstract: The oxidative breakdown of acid azo dye acid yellow 36 (AY 36) by a Mn oxide containing mine tailings is demonstrated. The oxidation reaction is pH dependent with the rate of decolorization increasing with decreasing pH. The oxidation reaction mechanism is initiated at the amino moiety and proceeds via successive, one electron transfers from the dye to the Mn oxide minerals. The reaction pathway involves the formation of a number of colorless intermediate products, some of which hydrolyze in a Mn oxide-independent step. Decolorization of the dye is rapid and is observed before the cleavage of the azo-bond, which is a slower process. The terminal oxidation products were observed to be p-benzoquinone and 3-hydroxybenzenesulfonate. The reaction order of the initial decolorization was determined to be pseudo fractional order with respect to pH and pseudo first order with respect to dye concentration and Mn tailings’ surface area

  14. Hair bleaching and skin burning

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  15. Comparison of multiple DNA dyes for real-time PCR: effects of dye concentration and sequence composition on DNA amplification and melting temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðnason, Haukur; Dufva, Hans Martin; Bang, Dang Duong

    2007-01-01

    investigate 15 different intercalating DNA dyes for their inhibitory effects on PCR, effects on DNA melting temperature and possible preferential binding to GC-rich sequences. Our results demonstrated that in contrast to the results of SYBR Green I, two intercalating dyes SYTO-13 and SYTO-82 do not inhibit......The importance of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has increased steadily in clinical applications over the last decade. Many applications utilize SYBR Green I dye to follow the accumulation of amplicons in real time. SYBR Green I has, however, a number of limitations that include...... the inhibition of PCR, preferential binding to GC-rich sequences and effects on melting curve analysis. Although a few alternative dyes without some of these limitations have been recently proposed, no large-scale investigation into the properties of intercalating dyes has been performed. In this study, we...

  16. Use of dyes in cariology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Rijke, J W

    1991-04-01

    The property of dyes to enhance contrast by their colour can be used in clinical dentistry and in investigations in vitro or in vivo. They have been used for indication of affected dental tissues, improvement of diagnostic methods, enhancement of patient awareness and information about specific processes. The development of particular dye systems, aimed at clinical application, is often laborious because of toxic effects, lack of specificity, irreversible staining or difficulties with removal of the dye. Clinically used dyes are often visually observed, which means a qualitative assessment of the staining, while quantification of the staining, if performed at all, is confined mostly to laboratory experiments. In this paper the application of dyes, arranged according to their specific purpose in cariology, is discussed, and a brief historical overview is given of the development of two particular dye applications for which commercial dye systems are now available. If certain requirements are met, dyes can be of great help in detection and quantification when used with several diagnostic methods.

  17. Changing trends in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia is an important and common cause for baldness. Despite recent advances, the drug therapy of this condition remains unsatisfactory. Surgical hair restoration is the only permanent method of treating this condition. Introduction of recent techniques such as follicular unit transplantation have improved the cosmetic results and patient satisfaction. This article discusses the latest trends in hair restoration surgery.

  18. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  19. Fractal analysis of polar bear hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qing-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus are of superior properties such as the excellent thermal protection. Why do polar bears can resist such cold environment? The paper concludes that its fractal porosity plays an important role, and its fractal dimensions are very close to the golden mean, 1.618, revealing the possible optimal structure of polar bear hair.

  20. Sorption of radiocalcium on human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovic, M.; Pilecka, N.

    1987-01-01

    The sorption of 45 Ca on hair from a 45 CaCl 2 solution (2.5x10 -3 mol l -1 ) was studied. The calcium amounts sorbed in 1 min to 5 h range between 0.8 and 7.2% with respect to the originally present calcium in hair. (author) 3 refs

  1. Live cell imaging of Arabidopsis root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Root hairs are tubular extensions from the root surface that expand by tip growth. This highly focused type of cell expansion, combined with position of root hairs on the surface of the root, makes them ideal cells for microscopic observation. This chapter describes the method that is routinely used

  2. Biophysics of Hair Cell Sensory Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, Hendrikus; Horst, Johannes; van Dijk, Pim; van Netten, Sietse

    1993-01-01

    The last decade revealed to auditory researchers that hair cells can not only detect and process mechanical energy, but are also able to produce it. Thanks to the active hair cell, ears can produce otoacoustic emissions. This book gives the newest insights into the biophysics and physiology of

  3. Hair Loss Following The Topiramate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ghafoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Genetics, hormone profiles and other physiologic factors can cause hair loss. Medication induced hair loss is an occasional side effect of many psychopharmaceuticals. It can reduce medication compliance if not discovered and treated. We present a 18 year old female with migraine headache who developed hair loss after 3 months of receiving topiramate treatment. CASE REPORT: 18 year old female had been suffering from headache visited in psychiatric clinic. She agreed to a treatment with topiramate (50mg per day for Migraine headache. 3 months later, the patient complained of significant hair loss. Topiramate tapered to 25 mg/day and stopped. Hair loss stopped after topiramate withdrawal. Two weeks after reintroduction of topiramate, hair loss developed again. The medication was stopped and hair loss stopped again. CONCLUSION: Topiramate can cause hair loss. Although the condition is not life-threatening, a decrease in medication compliance can cause recurrence of the underlying disease. It is necessary to ask the patient at visits about it.

  4. Improved radiocarbon analyses of modern human hair to determine the year-of-death by cross-flow nanofiltered amino acids: common contaminants, implications for isotopic analysis, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Guaciara M; De La Torre, Hector A Martinez; Boudin, Mathieu; Bonafini, Marco; Saverwyns, Steven

    2015-10-15

    In forensic investigation, radiocarbon ((14)C) measurements of human tissues (i.e., nails and hair) can help determine the year-of-death. However, the frequent use of cosmetics can bias hair (14)C results as well as stable isotope values. Evidence shows that hair exogenous impurities percolate beyond the cuticle layer, and therefore conventional pretreatments are ineffective in removing them. We conducted isotopic analysis ((14)C, δ(13)C, δ(15)N and C/N) of conventionally treated and cross-flow nanofiltered amino acid (CFNAA)-treated samples (scalp- and body-hair) from a single female subject using fingernails as a reference. The subject studied frequently applies a permanent dark-brown dye kit to her scalp-hair and uses other care products for daily cleansing. We also performed pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) analyses of CFNAA-treated scalp-hair to identify contaminant remnants that could possibly interfere with isotopic analyses. The conventionally treated scalp- and body-hair showed (14)C offsets of ~21‰ and ~9‰, respectively. These offsets confirm the contamination by petrochemicals in modern human hair. A single CFNAA extraction reduced those offsets by ~34%. No significant improvement was observed when sequential extractions were performed, as it appears that the procedure introduced some foreign contaminants. A chromatogram of the CFNAA scalp-hair pyrolysis products showed the presence of petroleum and plant/animal compound residues, which can bias isotopic analyses. We have demonstrated that CFNAA extractions can partially remove cosmetic contaminants embedded in human hair. We conclude that fingernails are still the best source of keratin protein for year-of-death determinations and isotopic analysis, with body-hair and/or scalp-hair coupled with CFNAA extraction a close second. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Hair as an alternative matrix in bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joana; Faria, Juliana; Carvalho, Félix; Pedro, Madalena; Queirós, Odília; Moreira, Roxana; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Alternative matrices are steadily gaining recognition as biological samples for toxicological analyses. Hair presents many advantages over traditional matrices, such as urine and blood, since it provides retrospective information regarding drug exposure, can distinguish between chronic and acute or recent drug use by segmental analysis, is easy to obtain, and has considerable stability for long periods of time. For this reason, it has been employed in a wide variety of contexts, namely to evaluate workplace drug exposure, drug-facilitated sexual assault, pre-natal drug exposure, anti-doping control, pharmacological monitoring and alcohol abuse. In this article, issues concerning hair structure, collection, storage and analysis are reviewed. The mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair are briefly discussed. Analytical techniques for simultaneous drug quantification in hair are addressed. Finally, representative examples of drug quantification using hair are summarized, emphasizing its potentialities and limitations as an alternative biological matrix for toxicological analyses.

  6. Mechanism of radiation destruction of dyes in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belichenko, A.S.; Dyumaev, K.M.; Maslyukov, A.P.; Matyushin, G.A.; Nechitailo, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    Considering the experimental results, it might be expected that the mechanism of radiation destruction of dyed polymers by UV-and γ-irradiation should also be associated with a chemical reaction between dye molecules and oxyradicals which appear either on destruction of polymer macromolecules or on oxidation of macroradicals by the oxygen dissolved in the matrix. Thus, the radiation stability of dyes should depend on the rate of formation of primary radicals in the polymer under the action of UV- and γ-irradiation. As has been demostrated, this rate can be influenced by 'resonant' low-molecular additives which perform oscillative cross-relaxation. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs

  7. Noncovalent Labeling of Biomolecules with Red and Near- Infrared Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Strekowski

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids can be labeled with a fluorescent marker to allow for their detection. Covalent labeling is achieved by the reaction of an appropriately functionalized dye marker with a reactive group on a biomolecule. The recent trend, however, is the use of noncovalent labeling that results from strong hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions between the marker and biomolecule of interest. The main advantage of noncovalent labeling is that it affects the functional activity of the biomolecule to a lesser extent. The applications of luminescent cyanine and squarylium dyes are reviewed.

  8. DYE-SENSITIZED PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE INITIATED BY COUMARIN DYE/IODONIUM SALT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Gao; Yong-yuan Yang

    1999-01-01

    The photosensitive initiating system composed of 7-diethylamino-3-(2'-benzimidazolyl)coumarin dye (DEDC) and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (DIHP) which act as the sensitizer and the initiator respectively, can be used to initiate the polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). The results showed that when exposed to visible light, coumarin dye/iodonium salt undergoes quick electron transfer from DEDC to DIHP and free radicals are produced. The visible light photoinduced reaction between DEDC and DIHP is mainly through the excited singlet state of DEDC and thus it is a little sensitive to O2. The influence of concentration of DEDC, DIHP and MMA on the rate of photopolymerization of MMA was also investigated.

  9. What is the use of elephant hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own.

  10. Dye shift: a neglected source of genotyping error in molecular ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jolene T; Robertson, Bruce C; Jamieson, Ian G

    2011-05-01

    Molecular ecologists must be vigilant in detecting and accounting for genotyping error, yet potential errors stemming from dye-induced mobility shift (dye shift) may be frequently neglected and largely unknown to researchers who employ 3-primer systems with automated genotyping. When left uncorrected, dye shift can lead to mis-scoring alleles and even to falsely calling new alleles if different dyes are used to genotype the same locus in subsequent reactions. When we used four different fluorophore labels from a standard dye set to genotype the same set of loci, differences in the resulting size estimates for a single allele ranged from 2.07 bp to 3.68 bp. The strongest effects were associated with the fluorophore PET, and relative degree of dye shift was inversely related to locus size. We found little evidence in the literature that dye shift is regularly accounted for in 3-primer studies, despite knowledge of this phenomenon existing for over a decade. However, we did find some references to erroneous standard correction factors for the same set of dyes that we tested. We thus reiterate the need for strict quality control when attempting to reduce possible sources of genotyping error, and in cases where different dyes are applied to a single locus, perhaps mistakenly, we strongly discourage researchers from assuming generic correction patterns. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Tattersall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruption (FDE is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecuador who had no medication exposure over the course of her illness. Through an exhaustive patient history and literature review, we were able to hypothesize that her presentation was caused by a dietary change of the natural achiote dye used in the preparation of yellow rice to a locally available commercial dye mix containing tartrazine, or Yellow 5, which has previously been implicated in both systemic hypersensitivity reactions and specifically in FDE. This report adds to the small body of available literature on non-pharmacological fixed hypersensitivity eruptions and illustrates an effective approach to the management of such a presentation when history is not immediately revealing.

  12. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Reddy, Bobby Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecuador who had no medication exposure over the course of her illness. Through an exhaustive patient history and literature review, we were able to hypothesize that her presentation was caused by a dietary change of the natural achiote dye used in the preparation of yellow rice to a locally available commercial dye mix containing tartrazine, or Yellow 5, which has previously been implicated in both systemic hypersensitivity reactions and specifically in FDE. This report adds to the small body of available literature on non-pharmacological fixed hypersensitivity eruptions and illustrates an effective approach to the management of such a presentation when history is not immediately revealing. PMID:26933409

  13. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  14. Hair cycle in dogs with different hair types in a tropical region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarato, Evandro S; Conceição, Lissandro Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Hair cycle activity has been extensively studied in humans, sheep and laboratory animals, but there is a lack of information in dogs. Besides varying according to species, breed, sex and general health, hair growth is mainly affected by climatic variations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the follicle activity in three breeds of dogs with different hair types, in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais (latitude 20 degrees 45'S), Brazil. Twenty-one male dogs of boxer, labrador and schnauzer breeds were trichographically analysed monthly over 12 consecutive months. Hair percentage of telogen and anagen hairs at the different stages of the hair cycle in boxers and labradors was not significantly different, but both differed from the schnauzers. A significant correlation between hair follicle cycle and environmental temperature and photoperiod was noted in the boxers and labradors. In these breeds, a larger number of telogen hairs were observed during the hottest months of the year, and an increase in anagen hairs during the coldest months. The mean percentage of telogen hairs was 93, 90 and 55.3% for boxer, labrador and schnauzer, respectively.

  15. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Zebrafish hair cell mechanics and physiology through the lens of noise-induced hair cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Allison B.; Xu, Jie; Uribe, Phillip M.

    2018-05-01

    Hair cells are exquisitely sensitive to auditory stimuli, but also to damage from a variety of sources including noise trauma and ototoxic drugs. Mammals cannot regenerate cochlear hair cells, while non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit robust regenerative capacity. Our research group uses the lateral line system of larval zebrafish to explore the mechanisms underlying hair cell damage, identify protective therapies, and determine molecular drivers of innate regeneration. The lateral line system contains externally located sensory organs called neuromasts, each composed of ˜8-20 hair cells. Lateral line hair cells are homologous to vertebrate inner ear hair cells and share similar susceptibility to ototoxic damage. In the last decade, the lateral line has emerged as a powerful model system for understanding hair cell death mechanisms and for identifying novel protective compounds. Here we demonstrate that the lateral line is a tractable model for noise-induced hair cell death. We have developed a novel noise damage system capable of inducing over 50% loss of lateral line hair cells, with hair cell death occurring in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell death is greatest 72 hours post-exposure. However, early signs of hair cell damage, including changes in membrane integrity and reduced mechanotransduction, are apparent within hours of noise exposure. These features, early signs of damage followed by delayed hair cell death, are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting that noise acts similarly on zebrafish and mammalian hair cells. In our future work we will use our new model system to investigate noise damage events in real time, and to develop protective therapies for future translational research.

  17. Minocycline attenuates streptomycin-induced cochlear hair cell death by inhibiting protein nitration and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Li, Haonan; Yu, Shuyuan; Jin, Peng; Hassan, Abdurahman; Du, Bo

    2017-08-24

    This study aimed to elucidate the protective effect of minocycline against streptomycin-induced damage of cochlear hair cells and its mechanism. Cochlear membranes were isolated from newborn Wistar rats and randomly divided into control, 500μmol/L streptomycin, 100μmol/L minocycline, and streptomycin and minocycline treatment groups. Hair cell survival was analyzed by detecting the expression of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in cochlear hair cells by immunofluorescence and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of 3-NT and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 activation were evaluated by western blotting. The results demonstrated hair cell loss at 24h after streptomycin treatment. No change was found in supporting cells of the cochleae. Minocycline pretreatment improved hair cell survival and significantly reduced the expression of iNOS and 3-NT in cochlear tissues compared with the streptomycin treatment group. PARP and caspase-3 activation was increased in the streptomycin treatment group compared with the control group, and pretreatment with minocycline decreased cleaved PARP and activated caspase-3 expression. Minocycline protected cochlear hair cells from injury caused by streptomycin in vitro. The mechanism underlying the protective effect may be associated with the inhibition of excessive formation of nitric oxide, reduction of the nitration stress reaction, and inhibition of PARP and caspase-3 activation in cochlear hair cells. Combined minocycline therapy can be applied to patients requiring streptomycin treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. An overview of unwanted female hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, U

    2011-12-01

    Unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important but often overlooked issue, with over 40% of women experiencing some degree of UFH. In the female population a wide spectrum of unwanted hair concerns is represented - from biologically normal but undesirable to excessive unwanted hair with an underlying pathology. While women may seek to manage unwanted hair across their bodies, UFH is a particular concern, due to its negative impact on perceived femininity. There may not always be a direct correlation between degree of severity diagnosed objectively by the physician and level of concern and impact upon the patient. This review discusses the spectrum of facial hair experience and outlines the clinical approach to unwanted hair management including UFH. It highlights the importance of a treatment regimen which should respond to the causation factors and needs of the individual. This will lead to a holistic treatment approach including evaluation of the implementation of emotional coping strategies and on-going support, lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions (to address underlying pathologies) and the use of cosmetic hair removal methods as either a stand-alone or adjunct treatment as appropriate to the individual. © 2011 The Author. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Classifications of patterned hair loss: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles.

  1. Development of AVLIS dye laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Masaaki; Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    CVL pumped single mode dye laser was performed. It was found that pressure tuning has some excellent feature in comparison to mechanical tuning in dye laser frequency control. For evaluation of dye laser amplifier, two-dimensional rate equation was proposed. Calculated data by this equation agreed with experimental data in large diameter input dye laser beam condition. (author)

  2. Nodules on the Hair: A Rare Case of Mixed Piedra

    OpenAIRE

    Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

    2013-01-01

    Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair.

  3. Nodules on the hair: a rare case of mixed piedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

    2013-10-01

    Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair.

  4. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  5. Treatment of dye house effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Ashraf, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental considerations play an increasingly important role in processing of textiles. For textile, limits on particular substances have been and are being laid down either by law or as a result of the demands of clothing manufactures. One of the most complex areas in textile processing is textile printing and dyeing. Here, virtually all dye classes are used. In some printing processes such as reactive printing, many of products used end up in the wastewater. A study of the optimisation of wastewater treatment systems and the systematic management of water and the problems of dyeing are reviewed in this article. (author)

  6. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Gao

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed Tβ4 in the epidermis, as well as Tβ4 global knockout mice, to study the role of Tβ4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of Tβ4 on hair growth. To study Tβ4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. To explore the effect of Tβ4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of Tβ4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased Tβ4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, Tβ4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts.

  7. Arsenic in hair by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.

    1993-01-01

    In the fall of 1990, Blanche Kiser Moore was tried in the state of North Carolina for the murder, by arsenic poisoning, of a former boyfriend of hers (RCR), found guilty of first-degree murder by the jury, and sentenced to death. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), with gamma-ray spectrometry, was carried out on sectioned hair samples from six possible poisoning victims of hers, by the authors, and the results presented at the trial by VPG. Details of the sample preparations, the numerical results obtained, and their interpretation are presented. Also presented are difficulties involved involved in such analysis, and discussion of the fast-neutron interferences caused by Se and Br. (author) 6 refs.; 6 figs

  8. Survery on Actual Conditions of Food Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, ひろみ

    1981-01-01

    Many food dyes are widely used as food additives in Japan, and many investigations have been pointed the problems of safety of these food dyes used in Japanese food. There are two types of commercial food dyes, one is synthetic dyes and the other is natural dyes.Recently Japanese food is not stained so colourfully, but it is stained faintly in colour near to natural food by using of mixed synthetic dyes. On their hand, many consumers have a tendency to prefer natural food dyes because they ha...

  9. Photo- and chemocatalytic oxidation of dyes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei-Ning; Chen, Shyi-Tien

    2018-01-15

    Three commonly used dyes, Acid Red-114 (AR-114), Reactive Black-5 (RB-5), and Disperse Black EX-SF (DB-EX-SF), were treated in a pH-neutral liquid with ultraviolet (UV) light by two reactive methods: photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), and/or chemocatalysis with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as the oxidant and various ferrous-based electron mediators as catalysts. Important factors for dye oxidation were determined through bifactorial experiments. The optimum combinations and doses of the three key reagents, namely TiO 2 , H 2 O 2 , and EDTA-Fe, were also determined. The degradation kinetics of the studied dyes at their optimum doses reveal that the oxidation reactions are pseudo-first-order in nature, and that certain dyes are selectively degraded more by one method than the other. The overall results suggest that co-treatment using more than one oxidative method is beneficial for the treatment of wastewater from dyeing processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.; Castro Faria, L.V. de; Paschoa, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of the energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and X-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle. (orig.)

  11. Polar lipid composition of mammalian hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wix, M A; Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

    1987-01-01

    The types and amounts of polar lipids from the hair of monkey (Macacca fascicularis), dog (Canis familiaris), pig (Sus scrofa) and porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) have been determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. The polar lipid content of the hair samples ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 wt%. Lipid compositions included ceramides (57-63% of the polar lipid by weight), glycosphingolipids (7-9%) and cholesteryl sulfate (22-29%). Several minor components (4-7%) remain unidentified. The results suggest that cholesteryl sulfate may be an important determinant of the cohesiveness of hair.

  12. Penile hair tourniquet resulting in hypospadias failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisieux E Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile hair tourniquet (PHT is a painless form of penile ischemia, typically seen in toddlers with long-haired mothers, caused by entanglement of hair on the balano-prepucial sulcus, normally associated with circumcision. Its association with hypospadias has been reported only once. A school-aged boy admitted for surgery to treat hypospadias failure was incidentally detected to have PHT and severe hourglass deformity of the penis. Urethral anastomosis and glanuloplasty were done after removal of the constricting ring, without complications. Normal erections were reported during follow up. Treatment may involve urethral reconstruction and penile reimplantation in extreme cases.

  13. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.; Castro Faria, L.V. de; Paschoa, A.S.

    1979-06-01

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and x-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle.(Author) [pt

  14. Global ecology and the human hair composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, L.I.; Kist, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    As an example of the mapping of human hair composition, the territory of Uzbekistan was chosen. The data and the maps obtained were compared with the environmental situation and medical statistics. World maps were drawn on the basis of various authors' data. The possibility of using human hair for radioactivity studies is discussed on the basis of data obtained in the Chernobyl area. The proposed scheme of human hair analysis may be used for world mapping for chemical elements, radionuclides, pesticides, dioxides, PCBs, etc., either to picture the global situation or as a health status on the level of populations. (author) 27 refs. 8 figs; 1 tab

  15. Mutations in Three Genes Encoding Proteins Involved in Hair Shaft Formation Cause Uncombable Hair Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ü Basmanav, F Buket; Cau, Laura; Tafazzoli, Aylar

    2016-01-01

    Uncombable hair syndrome (UHS), also known as "spun glass hair syndrome," "pili trianguli et canaliculi," or "cheveux incoiffables" is a rare anomaly of the hair shaft that occurs in children and improves with age. UHS is characterized by dry, frizzy, spangly, and often fair hair that is resistant...... in the majority of UHS case subjects. The two enzymes PADI3 and TGM3, responsible for posttranslational protein modifications, and their target structural protein TCHH are all involved in hair shaft formation. Elucidation of the molecular outcomes of the disease-causing mutations by cell culture experiments...... and tridimensional protein models demonstrated clear differences in the structural organization and activity of mutant and wild-type proteins. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed morphological alterations in hair coat of Padi3 knockout mice. All together, these findings elucidate the molecular genetic...

  16. Body to scalp: Evolving trends in body hair transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Saxena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is becoming an increasingly popular method for hair restoration. As FUE leaves behind no linear scars, it is more suitable to harvest from various body areas including beard, chest, and extremities in hirsute individuals. Body hair characteristics such as thickness, length, and hair cycle may not completely match to that of the scalp hair. The techniques of harvesting body hairs are more time consuming, requiring higher degree of skill than regular scalp FUE. Body hair transplantation can be successfully used either alone or in combination with scalp hair in advanced grades of baldness, for improving the cosmetic appearance of hairlines and in scarring alopecia when there is paucity of donor scalp hair. Harvesting of body hairs opens up a new viable donor source for hair restoration surgeons, especially in cases of advanced Norwood grades five and above of androgenetic alopecia.

  17. Sample preparation method for the combined extraction of ethyl glucuronide and drugs of abuse in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ulf; Briellmann, Thomas; Scheurer, Eva; Dussy, Franz

    2018-04-01

    Often in hair analysis, a small hair sample is available while the analysis of a multitude of structurally diverse substances with different concentration ranges is demanded. The analysis of the different substances often requires different sample preparation methods, increasing the amount of required hair sample. When segmental hair analysis is necessary, the amount of hair sample needed is further increased. Therefore, the required sample amount for a full analysis can quickly exceed what is available. To combat this problem, a method for the combined hair sample preparation using a single extraction procedure for analysis of ethyl glucuronide with liquid chromatography-multistage fragmentation mass spectrometry/multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MS 3 /MRM) and common drugs of abuse with LC-MRM was developed. The combined sample preparation is achieved by separating ethyl glucuronide from the drugs of abuse into separate extracts by fractionation in the solid-phase extraction step during sample clean-up. A full validation for all substances for the parameters selectivity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, matrix effects, and recovery was successfully completed. The following drugs of abuse were included in the method: Amphetamine; methamphetamine; 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA); 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA); 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDE); morphine; 6-monoacetylmorphine; codeine; acetylcodeine; cocaine; benzoylecgonine; norcocaine; cocaethylene; methadone; 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and methylphenidate. In conclusion, as only 1 sample preparation is needed with 1 aliquot of hair, the presented sample preparation allows an optimal analysis of both ethyl glucuronide and of the drugs of abuse, even when the sample amount is a limiting factor. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Hair regrowth through wound healing process after ablative fractional laser treatment in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung Min; Jung, Han Mi; Goo, Boncheol; Park, Young Min

    2015-07-01

    Alopecia is one of the most common dermatological problems in the elderly; however, current therapies for it are limited by low efficacy and undesirable side effects. Although clinical reports on fractional laser treatment for various alopecia types are increasing, the exact mechanism remains to be clarified. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the effect of ablative fractional laser treatment on hair follicle regrowth in vivo and investigate the molecular mechanism after laser treatment. Ablative CO2 fractional laser was applied to the shaved dorsal skin of 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice whose hair was in the telogen stage. After 12 mice were treated at various energy (10-40 mJ/spot) and density (100-400 spots/cm(2) ) settings to determine the proper dosage for maximal effect. Six mice were then treated at the decided dosage and skin specimens were sequentially obtained by excision biopsy from the dorsal aspect of each mouse. Tissue samples were used for the immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to examine hair follicle status and their related molecules. The most effective dosage was the 10 mJ/spot and 300 spots/cm(2) setting. The anagen conversion of hair was observed in the histopathological examination, while Wnt/β-catenin expression was associated with hair regrowth in the immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. Ablative fractional lasers appear to be effective for inducing hair regrowth via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in vivo. Our findings indicate that fractional laser treatment can potentially be developed as new treatment options for stimulating hair regrowth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Root hair defective4 encodes a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate phosphatase required for proper root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thole, J.M.; Vermeer, J.E.M.; Zhang, Y.; Gadella, Th.W.J.; Nielsen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Polarized expansion of root hair cells in Arabidopsis thaliana is improperly controlled in root hair-defective rhd4-1 mutant plants, resulting in root hairs that are shorter and randomly form bulges along their length. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in rhd4-1 root hairs, we analyzed

  20. A review of surgical methods (excluding hair transplantation and their role in hair loss management today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S Sattur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today.

  1. The radiation-induced degradation of a diazo dye in aqueous solution Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Assy, N.B.; Abdel-Rehim, F.; Abdel-Gawad, A.S.; Abdel-Fattah, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of γ-radiation on the color intensity of aerated, deaerated and oxygenated aqueous solutions of a diazo dye (Helion Red 8B) has been investigated. The decoloration yields of Helion Red 8B neutral aqueous solution, G(-Dye), for the nitrogen-, oxygen- and aerated-saturated solutions were found to be 0.77, 0.46 and 0.36 in the respective early stage. The rate constant for the reaction of the OH radical with the HR8B dye, obtained from competition kinetics using ethanol, was found to be 1.3*10 10 M -1 *s -1 . In aerated solutions (pH 3), the G(-Dye) decreased markedly upon the addition of a very small amount of ethanol. Suggestions are made for possible use of the dye as a radiation dosimeter in the dose range of 0.1 to 2 kGy. (author) 16 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of azo dye destruction in advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojnarovits, L.; Palfi, T.; Takacs, E.

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of dye destruction in advanced oxidation processes is discussed on the example of Apollofix Red (Ar-28) radiolysis in aqueous solution. When the reactive intermediate reacts with the color bearing part of the molecule causing with nearly 100% efficiency destruction of the conjugation, the dose dependence, or time dependence of color disappearance is linear. In this case, spectrophotometry can be used to follow-up dye decomposition. Linear dependence was observed when hydrated electrons or hydrogen atoms reacted with the dye. In hydroxyl radical reactions some colored products form with spectra similar to those of the starting dye molecules. For that reason, spectrophotometry gives false result about the intact dye molecule concentration. Analysis by the HPLC reveals logarithmic time dependence in agreement with a theoretical model developed

  3. Amphetamines and cannabinoids testing in hair: Evaluation of results from a two-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgueño, María José; Alonso, Amaya; Sánchez, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The test results were interpreted according to the confirmation cut-offs proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) to identify chronic drug use. The ratios of positive results were studied in relation to gender, age, hair colour, dyeing and length of the tested samples to assess the independence from these variables or the association with them. Low, medium and high ranges of concentration were also estimated for each drug. 21.94% of the 2954 hair samples tested for phenylalkylamine derivatives were positive for one or more substances. 16.38% of the samples were positive for AP, 12.09% for MDMA and only 0.44% for MA. 6.60% of the tested samples were positive for AP/MDMA combination. A total of 3178 samples were tested for cannabinoids, resulting in 53.40% positive for THC and CBN. Simultaneous tests for phenylalkylamine derivatives and cannabinoids were performed in 2931 of the samples; 14.94% of them were positive for THC, CBN, and one or more amphetamines. According to the results from the statistical analysis, the use of THC and MDMA vary with age and gender among the Medico-Legal sector in an extended area of Spain, while the use of AP appears to be independent of these variables. On the other hand, the results of THC in

  4. Study of inner ear and lateral line hair cell regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Piqué Borràs, Maria Riera

    2013-01-01

    Death of sensory hair cells in the inner ear results in two global health problems that millions of people around the world suffer: hearing loss and balance disorders. Hair cells convert sound vibrations and head movements into electrical signals that are conveyed to the brain, and as a result of aging, exposure to noise, modern drugs or genetic predisposition, hair cells die. In mammals, the great majority of hair cells are produced during embryogenesis, and hair cells that ar...

  5. Artificial Hair: By the Dawn to Automatic Biofibre® Hair Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Roccia

    2017-12-01

    In 1995 the European Union (UE recognised the artificial hair implant as a legitimate medical treatment and outlined the rules related to that procedure. In 1996, biocompatible fibres (Biofibre® produced by Medicap® Italy were approved by the UE Authorities and by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA as medical devices for hair implant. An effective medical protocol was developed during the following years to provide correct guidelines for appropriate treatment, and to reduce possible related complications. Automatic Biofibre® hair implant represents the last achievement in this hair restoration technique with significant advantages for the patients.

  6. Ultrasound for low temperature dyeing of wool with acid dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2012-05-01

    The possibility of reducing the temperature of conventional wool dyeing with an acid levelling dye using ultrasound was studied in order to reach exhaustion values comparable to those obtained with the standard procedure at 98 °C, obtaining dyed samples of good quality. The aim was to develop a laboratory method that could be transferred at industrial level, reducing both the energy consumption and fiber damage caused by the prolonged exposure to high temperature without the use of polluting auxiliary agents. Dyeings of wool fabrics were carried out in the temperature range between 60 °C and 80 °C using either mechanical or ultrasound agitation of the bath and coupling the two methods to compare the results. For each dyeing, the exhaustion curves of the dye bath were determined and the better results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical stirring. Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasonic efficiency were calculated in comparison with mechanical stirring alone. In the presence of ultrasound the absorption rate constants increased by at least 50%, at each temperature, confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound was ascribed to the pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation. It was also shown that the effect of ultrasound at 60 °C was just on the dye bath, practically unaffecting the wool fiber surface, as confirmed by the results of SEM analysis. Finally, fastness tests to rubbing and domestic laundering yielded good values for samples dyed in ultrasound assisted process even at the lower temperature. These results suggest the possibility, thanks to the use of ultrasound, to obtain a well equalized dyeing on wool working yet at 60°C, a temperature process strongly lower than 98°C, currently used in industry

  7. Hair Mesotherapy in Treatment of Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Ozdogan

    2011-01-01

    mesotherapy in any form. Material and Methods: In this study, we evaluate the clinical changes of mesotherapy formulation on 15 men and 8 women patients, which consists of minoxidil, biotin, dexpantenol, herbal complex and procain and which is applied for androgenetic alopecia in our clinic every week. Results: In the analysis done before and after the mesotherapy, when the hair quantity, hair thickness, scalp state and hair loss are compared, the difference between them was statistically meaningful (p<0,05. There was no side effect during and after the application. Conclusion: In the hair mesotherapy, there is lack of mixture and application scheme whose effectiveness has been proved scientifically. We approve this study to be published that it supports the few  issues.

  8. Unravelling hair follicle-adipocyte communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Horsley, Valerie

    2012-11-01

    Here, we explore the established and potential roles for intradermal adipose tissue in communication with hair follicle biology. The hair follicle delves deep into the rich dermal macroenvironment as it grows to maturity where it is surrounded by large lipid-filled adipocytes. Intradermal adipocytes regenerate with faster kinetics than other adipose tissue depots and in parallel with the hair cycle, suggesting an interplay exists between hair follicle cells and adipocytes. While adipocytes have well-established roles in metabolism and energy storage, until recently, they were overlooked as niche cells that provide important growth signals to neighbouring skin cells. We discuss recent data supporting adipocytes as niche cells for the skin and skin pathologies that may be related to alterations in skin adipose tissue defects. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Tarantula Hairs as Corneal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Stagg

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of tarantula hairs found in the cornea and discuss treatment. Case Report: A 16-year-old male presented with a 6-week history of right ocular irritation that began after letting his pet tarantula crawl on his face. Slit-lamp examination of the right eye revealed the presence of approximately 16 dark foreign bodies that had the appearance of small hairs. The foreign bodies were removed from the nasal region of the right cornea using Jewelers forceps, and the patient was prescribed a combination neomycin, polymyxin B, and dexamethasone ointment (Maxitrol®, given 4 times per day. Results: The patient presented for follow-up 2 weeks later, with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion: Effective treatment of keratitis caused by tarantula hairs includes taking a detailed history, conducting a careful slit-lamp examination, removal of any accessible hairs, and initiation of treatment with a topical steroid as determined by the clinical picture.

  10. Management of advanced hair loss patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehner, Michael L

    2013-08-01

    This article covers how to manage patients with extensive hair loss in whom complete, dense coverage is not possible. In addition to discussing planning a transplant pattern for already bald men, I discuss a conservative approach for recognizing and transplanting younger patients who have telltale warning signs that may evolve to extensive hair loss. For both groups, a variant of a frontal forelock-type pattern is usually the best course to follow. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Medical application of laser hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, Alwalled Hussein Ataalmannan

    2015-12-01

    The use of laser in medical treatment has become of paramount importance proportional to what has high therapeutic privileges such as speed and accuracy in penetrating tissues and high quality especially when used in hair removal which is the subject of our study, this laser operates cards may cause some change in the color of the skin when used in a manner that is correct ratio of the thermal impact force in the laser hair removal process, or if it is exposed directly to his eye. This study is a comparison between the physical properties of laser of lasers used in hair removal, according to previous studies to be the basis for the benefit of doctors who use lasers for hair removal. The aim of this study was to study the effect of laser hair removal using the Nd: YAG laser with a wavelength 1064 nm as well as the risks airing from the assessment. The aim of this study was to identify the appropriate laser energy that absorbed in the hair follicle with a dark color and the appropriate thermal effect occurs to vaporize the follicle cell, a 40 J/cm"2 is to be significant without side effects for healthy tissue. In this study doses for a few laser beam is considered when compared to previous studies. Laser danger to the patient during the operation increases with increasing laser energy emitted during treatment. Laser hair removal by the user and energy emitted by wavelength of the laser device also depends on the hair color and roughness as well as skin color. (Author)

  12. Trace elements determination in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, Jose

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Cd and Al, in human hair sampled from 23 young men during 24 months were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additional determination of mercury and volatile elements were made by using accessory MHS-10. Statistical treatment of data is presented for each person and element. The pre-treatment of hair carried out with an organic solvent to remove the superficial pollutants is explained. (The author)

  13. Body esteem in adolescent hair pullers

    OpenAIRE

    ALTENBURGER, ERIN M.; TUNG, ESTHER S.; KEUTHEN, NANCY J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Trichotillomania (TTM) often first presents in adolescence, a developmental period marked by vulnerability in body image. To date, no one has studied the relationship between this disorder and body esteem. Methods: 49 adolescents with DSM-IV TTM or chronic hair pulling (HP) and 23 control adolescents were administered diagnostic assessments and self-report measures of hair pulling and body esteem. Results: HP youth vs. controls reported lower levels of body esteem on all ...

  14. Signal detection by active, noisy hair bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid; Salvi, Joshua D.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Vertebrate ears employ hair bundles to transduce mechanical movements into electrical signals, but their performance is limited by noise. Hair bundles are substantially more sensitive to periodic stimulation when they are mechanically active, however, than when they are passive. We developed a model of active hair-bundle mechanics that predicts the conditions under which a bundle is most sensitive to periodic stimulation. The model relies only on the existence of mechanotransduction channels and an active adaptation mechanism that recloses the channels. For a frequency-detuned stimulus, a noisy hair bundle's phase-locked response and degree of entrainment as well as its detection bandwidth are maximized when the bundle exhibits low-amplitude spontaneous oscillations. The phase-locked response and entrainment of a bundle are predicted to peak as functions of the noise level. We confirmed several of these predictions experimentally by periodically forcing hair bundles held near the onset of self-oscillation. A hair bundle's active process amplifies the stimulus preferentially over the noise, allowing the bundle to detect periodic forces less than 1 pN in amplitude. Moreover, the addition of noise can improve a bundle's ability to detect the stimulus. Although, mechanical activity has not yet been observed in mammalian hair bundles, a related model predicts that active but quiescent bundles can oscillate spontaneously when they are loaded by a sufficiently massive object such as the tectorial membrane. Overall, this work indicates that auditory systems rely on active elements, composed of hair cells and their mechanical environment, that operate on the brink of self-oscillation.

  15. The pluripotency of hair follicle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2006-02-01

    The hair follicle bulge area is an abundant, easily accessible source of actively growing, pluripotent adult stem cells. Nestin, a protein marker for neural stem cells, is also expressed in follicle stem cells as well as their immediate differentiated progeny. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells differentiated into neurons, glial cells, keratinocytes and smooth muscle cells in vitro. Hair-follicle stem cells were implanted into the gap region of a severed sciatic nerve. The hair follicle stem cells greatly enhanced the rate of nerve regeneration and the restoration of nerve function. The follicle stem cells transdifferentiated largely into Schwann cells which are known to support neuron regrowth. Function of the rejoined sciatic nerve was measured by contraction of the gastrocnemius muscle upon electrical stimulation. After severing the tibial nerve and subsequent transplantation of hair-follicle stem cells, the transplanted mice recovered the ability to walk normally. These results suggest that hair-follicle stem cells provide an important accessible, autologous source of adult stem cells for regenerative medicine.

  16. Hair analysis as evidence in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, M R; Fey, P; Sachs, H

    1993-12-01

    Because hair analysis can be used for the determination of drug use months after drug consumption, hair analysis data can often act as important and even decisive evidence in the courtroom. More recently developed GC/MS methods offer excellent sensitivity and can make the distinction between chronic heroin and codeine use, which was not possible earlier with radioimmunoassay techniques. From more than a thousand hair analyses, the morphine/codeine ratios necessary to determine heroin use were set at 5:1 for low morphine concentrations (< 1 ng/mg hair) and 2:1 for concentrations above 1 ng/mg hair. The distinction can be further focused with the additional analysis of the metabolite monoacetylmorphine (MAM). As can be seen from several case examples, hair analysis cannot pinpoint an exact date of opiate use, but it can be used to validate or invalidate a subject's statement concerning his/her drug consumption. Interpretations should always be made cautiously. Ranges, means and medians are also listed for amphetamine, cocaine and cannabis and work is under way to draw similar safety guidelines for these drugs.

  17. Dye stability and performances of dye-sensitized solar cells with different nitrogen additives at elevated temperatures - Can sterically hindered pyridines prevent dye degradation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyet Nguyen, Phuong; Lund, Torben [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Rand Andersen, Anders [University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Sensors, Signals and Electrotechnics (SENSE), Niels Bohrs Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark); Danish Technological Institute, Plastics Technology, Gregersensvej 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Morten Skou, Eivind [University of Southern Denmark, Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Enviromental Technology, Niels Bohrs Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2010-10-15

    The homogeneous kinetics of the nucleophilic substitution reactions between the ruthenium dye N719 and eight pyridines and 1-methylbenzimidazole have been investigated in 3-methoxypropionitrile at 100 C. The half lives of N719 with the additives 4-tert-butylpyridine (0.5 M) and 1-methylbenzimidazole (0.5 M) were 57 and 160 h, respectively. Sterically hindered pyridines like 2,6-lutidine did not react with N719. The efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC, area=8.0 cm{sup 2}) prepared with 1-methylbenzimidazole (MBI), 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP), 2,6-lutidine and without any additive were 7.1%, 6.2%, 6.0% and 4.8%, respectively. The cells were stored in dark at 85 C and their I-V curves and impedance spectra were measured at regular time intervals. The N719 dye degradation in the cells were monitored by a new dye extraction protocol combined with analysis of the dye extract by HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. After 300 h storage in dark at 85 C 40% of the initial amount of N719 dye was degraded in DSC cells prepared with MBI and the efficiency was decreased to 40% of its initial value. DSC cells prepared with 2,6-lutidine or no additives showed smaller thermal dye and efficiency stability at elevated temperatures than DSC cells prepared with the none sterically hindered additives MBI and 4-TBP. In the cells prepared with 2,6-lutidine or no additive higher contents of the iodo products [RuL{sub 2}(NCS)(iodide)]{sup +} and [RuL{sub 2}(3-MPN)(iodide)]{sup +} were found than in cells prepared with 4-TBP and MBI. It is suggested that sterically hindered pyridines have smaller complexation constants with I{sub 3}{sup -} than unsterically hindered additives. This may explain the observed faster nucleophilic substitution rates of uncomplexed I{sub 3}{sup -} with N719 in DSC cells prepared with sterically hindered pyridines. The EIS analysis showed that the lifetime of the injected electrons in the TiO{sub 2}{tau}{sub eff} is reduced by a thermally induced change

  18. Dye-Sensitized Approaches to Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2008-03-01

    reaction of such a hole is the photocorrosion of the semiconductor itself. However, only relatively narrow band-gap materials have an effective optical absorption through the visible spectrum, towards and into the infra-red. Materials with an optimal band-gap match to the solar spectrum, of the order of 1.5eV, are therefore electrochemically unstable. A stable photoelectrochemical cell, without some process of optical sensitization, and necessarily using a wide-gap semiconductor is sensitive only to the ultra-violet limit of the visible spectrum. Over recent years a suitable combination of semiconductor and sensitizer has been identified and optimized, so that now a solar spectrum conversion efficiency of over 11% has been verified in a sensitized photoelectrochemical device. One key to such an efficient system is the suppression of recombination losses. When the excited dye relaxes by electron loss, the separated charge carriers find themselves on opposite sides of a phase barrier -- the electron within the solid-state semiconductor, the positive charge externally, in association with the dye molecule. There is no valence---band involvement in the process, so the system represents a majority-carrier device, avoiding one of the major loss mechanisms in conventional photovoltaics. In consequence also a highly-disordered, even porous, semiconductor structure is acceptable, enabling surface adsorption of a sufficient concentration of the dye to permit total optical absorption of incident light of photon energy greater than the HOMO-LUMO gap of the dye molecule. The accepted wide-band semiconductor for photoelectrochemical applications is titanium dioxide in the anatase crystal structure. The size of the nanocrystals making up the semiconductor photoanode can be determined by hydrothermal processing of a precursor sol, and the film can be deposited on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate by any convenient thin-film process such as screen printing or tape casting. The

  19. Synthesis, Characterization, and Use of Novel Bimetal Oxide Catalyst for Photoassisted Degradation of Malachite Green Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Ameta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a simple, novel, and cost effective synthesis of nanobimetal oxide catalyst using cerium and cadmium nitrates as metal precursors. The cerium-cadmium oxide nanophotocatalyst was synthesized by coprecipitation method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction method to analyze the particle size. XRD study reveals a high degree of crystallinity and 28.43 nm particle size. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized nanobimetal catalyst was examined by using it for the photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of various parameters, such as the pH of the dye solution, concentration of dye, amount of catalyst, and light intensity on the rate of dye degradation. The progress of the dye degradation was monitored spectrophotometrically by taking the optical density of the dye solution at regular intervals. Experimental results indicate that the dye degrades best at pH 8.0 with light intensity 600 Wm−2 and catalyst loading 0.03 g/50 mL of dye solution. The rate constant for the reaction was 7.67 × 10−4 s−1.

  20. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  1. Kinetics of the decoloration of reactive dyes over visible light-irradiated TiO2 semiconductor photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Debabrata; Patnam, Vidya Rupini; Sikdar, Anindita; Joshi, Priyanka; Misra, Rohit; Rao, Nageswara N.

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytic decoloration kinetics of triazine (Reactive Red 11, Reactive Red 2, and Reactive Orange 84) and vinylsulfone type (Reactive Orange 16 and Reactive Black 5) of reactive dyes have been studied spectrophotometrically by following the decrease in dye concentration with time. At ambient conditions, over 90-95% decoloration of above dyes have been observed upon prolonged illumination (15 h) of the reacting system with a 150 W xenon lamp. It was found that the decoloration reaction followed first-order kinetics. The values of observed rate constants were found to be dependent of the structure of dyes at low dye concentration, but independent at higher concentration. It also reports for the first time the decoloration of two different dyes together in a binary dye mixture using visible light-irradiated TiO 2 photocatalyst. Rate of decoloration of two different dyes together in a binary dye mixture using visible light-irradiated TiO 2 photocatalyst is governed by the adsorptivity of the particular dye onto the surface of the TiO 2 photocatalyst

  2. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Drugs of Abuse in Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Bryn; Cuypers, Eva; Porta, Tiffany; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Heeren, Ron M A

    2017-01-01

    Hair testing is a powerful tool routinely used for the detection of drugs of abuse. The analysis of hair is highly advantageous as it can provide prolonged drug detectability versus that in biological fluids and chronological information about drug intake based on the average growth of hair. However, current methodology requires large amounts of hair samples and involves complex time-consuming sample preparation followed by gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry imaging is increasingly being used for the analysis of single hair samples, as it provides more accurate and visual chronological information in single hair samples.Here, two methods for the preparation of single hair samples for mass spectrometry imaging are presented.The first uses an in-house built cutting apparatus to prepare longitudinal sections, the second is a method for embedding and cryo-sectioning hair samples in order to prepare cross-sections all along the hair sample.

  3. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  4. On the degradability of printing and dyeing wastewater by wet air oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Lei, L; Chen, G; Yue, P L

    2001-06-01

    A modified first-order kinetics model was used to study the wet air oxidation of printing and dyeing wastewater. The model simulations are in good agreement with experimental data. The results indicate that a certain fraction of organic pollutants in the printing and dyeing wastewater could not be removed even at elevated temperature and prolonged reaction time. The ratio of degradable organic matter is found independent of temperature and can be improved by using a catalyst.

  5. Effect of a nutritional supplement on hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floc'h, Caroline; Cheniti, Ahsène; Connétable, Sophie; Piccardi, Nathalie; Vincenzi, Colombina; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss is a frequent and distressing condition. To evaluate vs. control, the effects on hair loss of a 6-month supplementation with specific omega 3&6 and antioxidants. One hundred and twenty healthy female subjects participated in this 6-month, randomized, comparative study. The primary endpoint was the change in hair density evaluated on standardized photographs. Secondary endpoints included changes in telogen hair percentage and diameter distribution of anagen hair (>40 µm vs. ≤40 µm) measured by trichogram. Overall changes in hair density and diameter were also measured by trichometer and by subjects' self-assessment. After 6 months of treatment, photograph assessment demonstrated a superior improvement in the supplemented group (P hair percentage was significantly (P hair (>40 µm) increased compared to the control group. The trichometer index increased in the supplemented group, while it decreased in the control group. A large majority of supplemented subjects reported a reduction in hair loss (89.9% of subjects at 6 months), as well as an improvement in hair diameter (86.1%) and hair density (87.3%). A 6-month supplementation with omega 3&6 and antioxidants acts efficiently against hair loss in improving hair density and reducing the telogen percentage and the proportion of miniaturized anagen hair. Objectively measured improvements were confirmed by the subjects' perception of efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. PELE'S HAIR: case studies from Kilauea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, C. B.

    2010-12-01

    Pele’s hair are long, thin strands of basaltic volcanic glass formed when small drops of magma are spun or drawn out by the wind or streams of volcanic gas into long hair-like strands. Named for Pele, the Hawaiian goddess of fire, they are basically found in Hawaiian eruption deposits. Pele’s hair is deep yellow or gold and is commonly found downwind from active vents concentrated in hollows or other low energy ‘traps’. In literature the origin of these thin strands of glass have been linked to fountains from Hawaiian eruptions. Beside the high fountaining, Pele’s hair are actually found in other environments. In this work we investigated in detail the dimensions, surface textures and the nature of Pele’s hair, from four typical environment of formation at Hawaiian volcanoes: high fountaining, weak explosive activity, lava ocean entry and a lava skylight. Samples has been characterized in terms of textural and morphological features, in thin section and under the SEM. Pele’s hair consists of long strands of gold sideromelane, showing variable length, from an half mm to tens of mm, often without surface vesicles and sometimes including Pele’s tears inside or at the end. They are often found incomplete, since they are easily broken on landing or even during transport. Their surfaces are mostly rough, with ‘ploughs’ of different sizes and large cavities. Vesicles are visible in the cross sections of Pele’s hair. There are two mostly size population of bubbles: one elongated and central and parallel to the axis of elongation and the other one smaller, and rounded and dispersed across the cross section of the fibers. Pele’s hair often shows, in thin section, a single inner elongate vesicle in the middle of the fragment linked to bubble coalescence phenomena, along the entire length of the hair. Samples from the four volcanic environments show different features in terms of their shape, surface textures and micro-textures, pointing out that

  7. Perception of Hair Transplant for Androgenetic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bater, Kristin L; Ishii, Masaru; Joseph, Andrew; Su, Peiyi; Nellis, Jason; Ishii, Lisa E

    2016-12-01

    Hair transplant is among the most common cosmetic services sought by men, with more than 11 000 procedures performed in 2014. Despite its growing popularity, the effect of hair transplant on societal perceptions of youth, attractiveness, or facets of workplace and social success is unknown. To determine whether hair transplant improves observer ratings of age, attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability in men treated for androgenetic alopecia and to quantify the effect of hair transplant on each of these domains. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted from November 10 to December 6, 2015, using web-based surveys featuring photographs of men before and after hair transplant. One hundred twenty-two participants recruited through various social media platforms successfully completed the survey. Observers were shown 2 side-by-side images of each man and asked to compare the image on the left with the one on the right. Of 13 pairs of images displayed, 7 men had undergone a hair transplant procedure and 6 had served as controls. Observers evaluated each photograph using various metrics, including age, attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed to understand the effect of hair transplant on observer perceptions. Planned posthypothesis testing was used to identify which variables changed significantly as a result of the transplant. Observer ratings of age (in number of years younger) and attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability (on a scale of 0 to 100; scores higher than 50 indicate a positive change). Of the 122 participants in the survey, 58 were men (47.5%); mean (range) age was 27.1 (18-52) years. The initial multivariate analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant multivariate effect for transplant (Wilks λ = 0.9646; P hair transplant on observers' perceptions of age (mean [SD] number of years younger, 3.6 [2.9] years; P hair transplant. Participants also

  8. Hair loss and hair-pulling in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Corrine K; Coleman, Kristine; Worlein, Julie; Novak, Melinda A

    2013-07-01

    Alopecia is a common problem in rhesus macaque colonies. A possible cause of this condition is hair-pulling; however the true relationship between hair-pulling and alopecia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hair loss and hair-pulling in 1258 rhesus macaques housed in 4 primate colonies across the United States. Alopecia levels ranged from 34.3% to 86.5% (mean, 49.3%) at the primate facilities. At facilities reporting a sex-associated difference, more female macaques were reported to exhibit alopecia than were males. In contrast, more males were reported to hair-pull. Animals reported to hair-pull were significantly more likely to have some amount of alopecia, but rates of hair-pulling were substantially lower than rates of alopecia, ranging from 0.6% to 20.5% (mean, 7.7%) of the populations. These results further demonstrate that hair-pulling plays only a small role in alopecia in rhesus macaques.

  9. Hair and bare skin discrimination for laser-assisted hair removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayir, Sercan; Yetik, Imam Samil

    2017-07-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal devices aim to remove body hair permanently. In most cases, these devices irradiate the whole area of the skin with a homogenous power density. Thus, a significant portion of the skin, where hair is not present, is burnt unnecessarily causing health risks. Therefore, methods that can distinguish hair regions automatically would be very helpful avoiding these unnecessary applications of laser. This study proposes a new system of algorithms to detect hair regions with the help of a digital camera. Unlike previous limited number of studies, our methods are very fast allowing for real-time application. Proposed methods are based on certain features derived from histograms of hair and skin regions. We compare our algorithm with competing methods in terms of localization performance and computation time and show that a much faster real-time accurate localization of hair regions is possible with the proposed method. Our results show that the algorithm we have developed is extremely fast (around 45 milliseconds) allowing for real-time application with high accuracy hair localization ( 96.48 %).

  10. Hair root characteristics of the human scalp hair in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.R. Peereboom-Wynia

    1982-01-01

    textabstractMorphological data on hair follicles have been available for over a hundred years, but only in recent years has a substantial advance been made in our knowledge of types and distribution of hair, its structure, metabolism, biochemistry and clinical patterns, and hormonal influences on

  11. Radiation and photo chemical studies on triphenyl methane dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasikuttan, A.C.; Sapre, A.V.; Shastri, L.V.; Mittal, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Electron transfer and H atom abstraction reactions undergone by TPM dyes with suitable photoexcited substrates are being widely studied. Excited state and radical processes have been studied using the techniques of laser flash photolysis and electron pulse radiolysis. In these studies exciplexes of CV with aromatic hydrocarbons like biphenyl have been identified and characterized. Interesting behaviour has been seen during energy transfer between 3 CV and fullerene C 6 0 by monitoring changes in the near IR region

  12. Hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the literature of the past 30 years there are only some publications concerned with hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women. Therefore, the relevance of hyperprolactinemia was evaluated in 40 women with diffuse alopecia. Hair loss was assessed by clinical appearance and the pluck trichogram. 82.5% of the female patients had diffuse hair loss and 17.5% had androgenetic alopecia. The highest prolactin values measured were 1390 ng/ml and 255 ng/ml. Six patients had values between 150–80.4 ng/ml and 10 between 79.1–51.7 ng/ml. All others had prolactin values below 50 ng/ml. Fifteen untreated patients with elevated prolactin levels could be followed up. Without any prolactin-inhibiting drugs, reductions and normalizations beside moderate fluctuations could be detected. Thyroid-specific diagnostics showed in 95% of the patients a normal thyroid function. 2.5% had a slight hyperthyreoidism and 2.5% had a slight hypothyreoidism. No female patient had clinical signs of androgenization and the determined androgens testosterone, androstendione and dihydroepiandrostendione were in the normal range. According to these results, moderate elevated prolactin levels in association with diffuse or androgenetic hair loss can be neglected as causative for the hair loss, because there is no evidence that they have an influence to the pattern, the extent or the duration of the hair loss. These results are supported by investigations of other authors who described only in high doses of prolactin an inhibiting effect on human hair follicles in vitro. Nevertheless, moderate constantly elevated prolactin levels should induce further diagnostics to exclude a prolactin-producing tumor of the pituitary gland. PMID:22870355

  13. Trace-element content of human scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordus, A.A.; Wysocki, C.M.; Maher, C.C. III; Wieland, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of some of the factors that could affect the measured trace-element content of human scalp hair have been evaluated. Included are frequency of hair washing and swimming, shampoos used, gross differences in diet, and the variation in content along the strands of hair. The data for length-content variation suggest that, for some elements, eccrine sweat may contribute significantly to the measured trace-element content of hair and that such variation must be taken into account in assessing data for historical hair samples, many of which represent clippings of distal segments of hair

  14. Human Scalp Hair Follicles Are Both a Target and a Source of Prolactin, which Serves as an Autocrine and/or Paracrine Promoter of Apoptosis-Driven Hair Follicle Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foitzik, Kerstin; Krause, Karoline; Conrad, Franziska; Nakamura, Motonobu; Funk, Wolfang; Paus, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    The prototypic pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) exerts a wide variety of bioregulatory effects in mammals and is also found in extrapituitary sites, including murine skin. Here, we show by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistology that, contrary to a previous report, human skin and normal human scalp hair follicles (HFs), in particular, express both PRL and PRL receptors (PRL-R) at the mRNA and protein level. PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity can be detected in the epithelium of human anagen VI HFs, while the HF mesenchyme is negative. During the HF transformation from growth (anagen) to apoptosis-driven regression (catagen), PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity appear up-regulated. Treatment of organ-cultured human scalp HFs with high-dose PRL (400 ng/ml) results in a significant inhibition of hair shaft elongation and premature catagen development, along with reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of hair bulb keratinocytes (Ki-67/terminal dUTP nick-end labeling immunohistomorphometry). This shows that PRL receptors, expressed in HFs, are functional and that human skin and human scalp HFs are both direct targets and sources of PRL. Our data suggest that PRL acts as an autocrine hair growth modulator with catagen-promoting functions and that the hair growth-inhibitory effects of PRL demonstrated here may underlie the as yet ill-understood hair loss in patients with hyperprolactinemia. PMID:16507890

  15. Human scalp hair follicles are both a target and a source of prolactin, which serves as an autocrine and/or paracrine promoter of apoptosis-driven hair follicle regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foitzik, Kerstin; Krause, Karoline; Conrad, Franziska; Nakamura, Motonobu; Funk, Wolfang; Paus, Ralf

    2006-03-01

    The prototypic pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) exerts a wide variety of bioregulatory effects in mammals and is also found in extrapituitary sites, including murine skin. Here, we show by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistology that, contrary to a previous report, human skin and normal human scalp hair follicles (HFs), in particular, express both PRL and PRL receptors (PRL-R) at the mRNA and protein level. PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity can be detected in the epithelium of human anagen VI HFs, while the HF mesenchyme is negative. During the HF transformation from growth (anagen) to apoptosis-driven regression (catagen), PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity appear up-regulated. Treatment of organ-cultured human scalp HFs with high-dose PRL (400 ng/ml) results in a significant inhibition of hair shaft elongation and premature catagen development, along with reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of hair bulb keratinocytes (Ki-67/terminal dUTP nick-end labeling immunohistomorphometry). This shows that PRL receptors, expressed in HFs, are functional and that human skin and human scalp HFs are both direct targets and sources of PRL. Our data suggest that PRL acts as an autocrine hair growth modulator with catagen-promoting functions and that the hair growth-inhibitory effects of PRL demonstrated here may underlie the as yet ill-understood hair loss in patients with hyper-prolactinemia.

  16. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of substituted arylazo pyridone dyes in photocatalytic system: Experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dostanić, J., E-mail: jasmina@nanosys.ihtm.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Lončarević, D. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zlatar, M. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Chemistry, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vlahović, F. [University of Belgrade, Innovation center of the Faculty of Chemistry, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanović, D.M. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Electronic effects of para substituted arylazo pyridone dyes. • Linear relationship between Hammett σ{sub p} constants and dyes photoreactivity. • The photocatalytic reactions facilitated by el.-acceptors and retarded by el.-donors. • Fukui functions to analyze the reactivity on concurrent sites within a molecule. • Hydroxyl radicals sustain attack from two reaction sites, depending on a substituent type. - Abstract: A series of arylazo pyridone dyes was synthesized by changing the type of the substituent group in the diazo moiety, ranging from strong electron-donating to strong electron-withdrawing groups. The structural and electronic properties of the investigated dyes was calculated at the M062X/6-31 + G(d,p) level of theory. The observed good linear correlations between atomic charges and Hammett σ{sub p} constants provided a basis to discuss the transmission of electronic substituent effects through a dye framework. The reactivity of synthesized dyes was tested through their decolorization efficiency in TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic system (Degussa P-25). Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis revealed a strong correlation between reactivity of investigated dyes and Hammett substituent constants. The reaction was facilitated by electron-withdrawing groups, and retarded by electron-donating ones. Quantum mechanical calculations was used in order to describe the mechanism of the photocatalytic oxidation reactions of investigated dyes and interpret their reactivities within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). According to DFT based reactivity descriptors, i.e. Fukui functions and local softness, the active site moves from azo nitrogen atom linked to benzene ring to pyridone carbon atom linked to azo bond, going from dyes with electron-donating groups to dyes with electron-withdrawing groups.

  17. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of substituted arylazo pyridone dyes in photocatalytic system: Experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostanić, J.; Lončarević, D.; Zlatar, M.; Vlahović, F.; Jovanović, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic effects of para substituted arylazo pyridone dyes. • Linear relationship between Hammett σ_p constants and dyes photoreactivity. • The photocatalytic reactions facilitated by el.-acceptors and retarded by el.-donors. • Fukui functions to analyze the reactivity on concurrent sites within a molecule. • Hydroxyl radicals sustain attack from two reaction sites, depending on a substituent type. - Abstract: A series of arylazo pyridone dyes was synthesized by changing the type of the substituent group in the diazo moiety, ranging from strong electron-donating to strong electron-withdrawing groups. The structural and electronic properties of the investigated dyes was calculated at the M062X/6-31 + G(d,p) level of theory. The observed good linear correlations between atomic charges and Hammett σ_p constants provided a basis to discuss the transmission of electronic substituent effects through a dye framework. The reactivity of synthesized dyes was tested through their decolorization efficiency in TiO_2 photocatalytic system (Degussa P-25). Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis revealed a strong correlation between reactivity of investigated dyes and Hammett substituent constants. The reaction was facilitated by electron-withdrawing groups, and retarded by electron-donating ones. Quantum mechanical calculations was used in order to describe the mechanism of the photocatalytic oxidation reactions of investigated dyes and interpret their reactivities within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). According to DFT based reactivity descriptors, i.e. Fukui functions and local softness, the active site moves from azo nitrogen atom linked to benzene ring to pyridone carbon atom linked to azo bond, going from dyes with electron-donating groups to dyes with electron-withdrawing groups.

  18. The destructive degradation of some organic textile dye compounds using gamma ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gawad Emara, A.S.; Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; Ebraheem, S.E.; Ali, Z.I.; Gad, H.

    2001-01-01

    The destructive degradation of 8 coloured reactive and direct dye compounds currently used in the textile industry has been investigated. These dyes are: Levafix Blue ERA (LB), Levafix Brilliant Red E4BA (LBR), Levafix Brilliant Yellow EGA (LBY), Drimarene Scarlet F3G (DS), Drimarene Brilliant Green X3G (DBG), Fast Yellow RL (FY), Fast Violet 2RL (FV) and Fast Orange 3R (FO). The process of degradation of the respective dye has been followed spectrophotometrically at the characteristic lmax. The variation of the colour intensity of aerated aqueous solution of the investigated dyes has been measured as a function of gamma irradiation dose. In all cases, the amplitude of the absorption bands of the dye compound was found to decrease with the increase of the gamma dose. Irradiation was carried out for actual waste and distilled water. By comparing the heights of the absorption maxima in both the visible and ultraviolet ranges, it was found that complete decolouration is attained at lower doses than that needed for the process of degradation of the dye. The kinetics of the degradation process has been traced and the kinetic constant, k 1 , was calculated and found to be concentration dependent indicating a first order reaction in all cases. The radiation-chemical yield (G-value) as a measure of the efficiency of gamma ray to degrade the respective dye was calculated for all dye compounds and it was found that the G-value in all cases increases exponentially for low radiation doses and changes linearly for high radiation doses. Also the K* value (the efficiency coefficient of dye radiolysis) was calculated and compared for the different dye compounds e.g. for FO, FY and FV dyes, the K* values were found to range from 5.5x10 9 to 1.92x10 -7 mol·L -1 '·cm -1 . In addition to the study of a single dye compound in solution, mixtures of different dyes (3 dyes) were also subjected to g-ray irradiation simulating more closely actual waste effluents. Also the effect of some

  19. Hair {sup 32}P measurement for body dose mapping in non-fatal exposures to fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mianji, Fereidoun A. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iran Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Sheyda; Zaryouni, Saiedeh [Bu-Ali Sina University, Faculty of Science, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajizadeh, Bardia [Iran Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Dosimetry bioassay methods are the backbone of a personal dosimetry in criticality accidents. Although methods like hair dosimetry and the use of activation foils (e.g., {sup 32}S) have been employed for decades, capabilities of different techniques, effects of hair type and neutron spectrum on the dose response, sensitivity and uncertainties of different techniques, etc., need more investigations. For this reason, the use of the {sup 32}S(n,p){sup 32}P reaction and hair samples for estimating non-fatal doses from fast neutrons was studied. The experiments were carried out with the hair samples attached on a RANDO phantom in a Cf-252 neutron field, in the dose range of about 0.05-1.15 Gy. In addition, the adequate post-accident preparation for hair samples including optimum conditioning and timing were investigated. Experimental results prove the good sensitivity and merit of the method for neutron quantification in the mentioned dose range for which other bioassay methods are of poor resolution and sensitivity. A rough estimation of the dose-response curve for Iranian hair was also derived. (orig.)

  20. [Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, I; Pasian, N; Maréchal, C; Salanne, S; Debuisson, C; Grouteau, E

    2010-05-01

    Describe the epidemiology of tourniquet syndromes and a cohort of such children admitted to the pediatric emergency department (PED), analyze the family's social situation to detect neglect behaviors, and analyze subsequent hospital admissions. From 1st January 2003 to 31st May 2009 in the PED, all patients admitted for tourniquet syndrome were included in the study. The data collected were day and time of admission, age, sex, length of stay, medical coverage, type and location of the constrictive agent, therapeutic management, progression, and complications. PED social workers in relation with child protective services (CPS) recovered information on the family's social situation. During the study period, 57 children were registered. The mean number of admissions per year was 8 (range: 2-15). The mean age was 5.5+/-4 months. The toe was the most frequent location (95%). The penis was injured in 2 cases and labia majora in 1 case. The constrictive agent was often a hair (95%). One case of abuse was detected. The analysis of family social situations showed that 53% had no or incomplete medical coverage, 67% were already followed by CPS with extreme poverty or lived in dilapidated housing. Insufficient hygiene or neglect was found in 67% of the families with incomplete or no social coverage. The analysis of 2003-2007 period for later admissions identified that 15 accidents in the home occurred in 12 children. Among these families, 58% were already known by CPS for neglect behavior. Although most tourniquet syndromes seem accidental, this entity is often associated with a lack of hygiene. Several and distant locations (e.g., toes and genitals), multiple and/or separated knots, constrictive agents inconsistent with a safe environment for the child, and penile location in an infant require meticulous investigation because of a higher incidence of child neglect. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, B T

    2010-01-01

    Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application.

  2. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2009-01-01

    Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a major role in the ageing process. Reactive oxygen species are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage cellular structural membranes, lipids, proteins, and DNA. The body possesses endogenous defence mechanisms, such as antioxidative enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidative molecules, protecting it from free radicals by reducing and neutralizing them. With age, the production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defence mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to the progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the ageing phenotype. Ageing of hair manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production or alopecia. There is circumstantial evidence that oxidative stress may be a pivotal mechanism contributing to hair graying and hair loss. New insights into the role and prevention of oxidative stress could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process and age-dependent alopecia.

  3. Rapid detection of dermatophytes from skin and hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulati Anil

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dermatophytes are a group of closely related keratinophilic fungi that can invade keratinized humans and animals tissues such as skin, hair and nails causing dermatophytosis. They are an important cause of superficial fungal infection. Findings Conventional methods like potassium hydroxide (KOH microscopy and fungal culture lacks the ability to make an early and specific diagnosis. In this study we have evaluated nested Polymerase chain reaction (PCR using primers targeting dermatophyte specific sequence of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1 gene and compared with conventional test. A total of 155 patients clinically suspected with dermatophytosis were included in the study. Of which 105 specimens were skin scrapings and 50 were hair. KOH microscopy, fungal culture and first round and nested PCR were done on clinical specimens, and results compared. Nested PCR for dermatophytes was positive in 83.8% specimens, followed by KOH microscopy (70%, first round PCR (50.8 and fungal culture (25.8. Conclusion Results indicate that nested PCR may be considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of dermatophytosis and can aid the clinician in initiating prompt and appropriate antifungal therapy.

  4. Module-based complexity formation: periodic patterning in feathers and hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Patterns describe order which emerges from homogeneity. Complex patterns on the integument are striking because of their visibility throughout an organism’s lifespan. Periodic patterning is an effective design because the ensemble of hair or feather follicles (modules) allows the generation of complexity, including regional variations and cyclic regeneration, giving the skin appendages a new lease on life. Spatial patterns include the arrangements of feathers and hairs in specific number, size, and spacing.We explorehowa field of equivalent progenitor cells can generate periodically arranged modules based on genetic information, physical–chemical rules and developmental timing. Reconstitution experiments suggest a competitive equilibrium regulated by activators/inhibitors involving Turing reaction-diffusion. Temporal patterns result from oscillating stem cell activities within each module (microenvironment regulation), reflected as growth (anagen) and resting (telogen) phases during the cycling of feather and hair follicles. Stimulating modules with activators initiates the spread of regenerative hair waves, while global inhibitors outside each module (macroenvironment) prevent this. Different wave patterns can be simulated by cellular automata principles. Hormonal status and seasonal changes can modulate appendage phenotypes, leading to ‘organ metamorphosis’, with multiple ectodermal organ phenotypes generated from the same precursors. We discuss potential novel evolutionary steps using this module-based complexity in several amniote integument organs, exemplified by the spectacular peacock feather pattern. We thus explore the application of the acquired knowledge of patterning in tissue engineering. New hair follicles can be generated after wounding. Hairs and feathers can be reconstituted through self-organization of dissociated progenitor cells. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Frontier in hair loss and trichoscopy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtisam Elghblawi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin surfaces have always been examined using dermoscopy, a familiar tool which is useful to magnify and examine skin especially in cases of pigmented skin lesions. However, to examine the hair and scalp, a practical tool called trichoscopy has surfaced recently and has proven to be handy and functional in diagnosing most hair-related diseases. It is also referred to as dermoscopy of the hair and the scalp. It can aid in assessing active diseases in the scalp and hair, such as yellow dots, dystrophic hairs, cadaverized black dots, white dots, and exclamation mark hairs – all of which denote specific criteria for hair diseases. Trichoscopy is a very newly developed non-invasive technique for hair image analysis. It permits non-invasive visualization of hair shafts at higher intensification (about ×70 and ×100 and enables measurement of hair shaft width without the need for removing hair for diagnostic reasons. Moreover, it helps in vivo visualization of the epidermal portion of hair follicles and perifollicular epidermis (orifices. Consequently, it is valuable as it permits the inspection of structures that are otherwise not seen by the naked eye. Trichoscopy is the new frontier for the diagnosis of hair and scalp disease. Nowadays, a trichoscope is considered a must for dermatologists and it is a hot topic in the treatment of hair diseases. There is pooled evidence that the utilization of trichoscopy in the clinical setting for evaluating hair disorders can improve its diagnostic capability beyond simple clinical scrutiny. Trichoscopy can identify both hair shaft and hair opening abnormalities without the need for hair sampling, as well as distinguish between different scalp and hair diseases. Furthermore, it can give easy and quick evaluation of the hair with a follow-up to determine progress and prognosis of the disease with photos. It can also aid in some genetic hair shaft dystrophies such as trichorrhexis nodosa, trichorrhexis

  6. Adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions by fly ash: Kinetic and equilibrium studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizge, N.; Aydiner, C.; Demirbas, E.; Kobya, M.; Kara, S.

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies of three reactive dyes namely, Remazol Brillant Blue (RB), Remazol Red 133 (RR) and Rifacion Yellow HED (RY) from aqueous solutions at various initial dye concentration (100-500 mg/l), pH (2-8), particle size (45-112.5 μm) and temperature (293-323 K) on fly ash (FA) were studied in a batch mode operation. The adsorbent was characterized with using several methods such as SEM, XRD and FTIR. Adsorption of RB reactive dye was found to be pH dependent but both RR and RY reactive dyes were not. The result showed that the amount adsorbed of the reactive dyes increased with increasing initial dye concentration and contact time. Batch kinetic data from experimental investigations on the removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions using FA have been well described by external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion had rate limiting affects on the removal process. This was attributed to the relatively simple macropore structure of FA particles. The adsorption data fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The optimum conditions for removal of the reactive dyes were 100 mg/l initial dye concentration, 0.6 g/100 ml adsorbent dose, temperature of 293 K, 45 μm particle size, pH 6 and agitation speed of 250 rpm, respectively. The values of Langmuir and Freundlich constants were found to increase with increasing temperature in the range 135-180 and 15-34 mg/g for RB, 47-86 and 1.9-3.7 mg/g for RR and 37-61 and 3.0-3.6 mg/g for RY reactive dyes, respectively. Different thermodynamic parameters viz., changes in standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy were evaluated and it was found that the reaction was spontaneous and endothermic in nature

  7. Skin reactions and quality of life after x-ray therapy of Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, Jette; Mikkelsen, Maria Rudkjaer; Daugbjerg, Helle

    2012-01-01

    controls (P = 0.819). Three months after X-ray therapy eight patients had no skin reactions, 11 had slight atrophy, pigmentation change, and/or some hair loss, four had patch atrophy, moderate telangiectasia, and/or total hair loss. Conclusions. BCC has a negative effect on patients' quality of life...

  8. "I think gorilla-like back effusions of hair are rather a turn-off": 'Excessive hair' and male body hair (removal) discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Gareth; Braun, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Men's hair removal practices are becoming mainstream, seen as a consequence of changing masculine norms and men's relationships to their bodies. This is often presented as a straightforward 'shift' from men's ideal bodies as naturally hairy, to increased hairlessness, and the consequence on men's body concerns as inevitable. This paper analyses qualitative survey data from Aotearoa/New Zealand using critical thematic analysis, and describes three themes. Two themes capture contradictory ideas: that men's body hair is natural, and that men's body hair is unpleasant. A third theme introduces the concept of 'excess' hair, which allowed sense-making of this contradiction, mandating men's grooming of 'excessive' hair. However its vagueness as a concept may provoke anxiety for men resulting in hair removal. This paper adds to a body of research demonstrating a cultural transition: the ways changing masculinities, increased commodification of male bodies, and shifting gender roles impact on men's hair removal practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1987-01-01

    Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

  10. Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Brave, V R; Khanna, Shally

    2010-01-01

    Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women) and indigo dye (fabric whitener) are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+), fair (+), and poor (-) and statistically evaluated. The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints.

  11. Effect of dye structure and redox mediators on anaerobic azo and anthraquinone dye reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Carantino Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biological decolourisation of dyes with different molecular structures. The kinetic constant values (k1 achieved with azo dye Reactive Red 120 were 7.6 and 10.1 times higher in the presence of RM (redox mediators AQDS and riboflavin, respectively, than the assays lacking RM. The kinetic constant achieved with the azo dye Congo Red was 42 times higher than that obtained with the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 4. The effect of RM on dye reduction was more evident for azo dyes resistant to reductive processes, and ineffective for anthraquinone dyes because of the structural stability of the latter.

  12. Abatement of Azo Dye from Wastewater Using Bimetal-Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorban Asgari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new adsorbent, bimetallic chitosan particle (BCP that is successfully synthesized and applied to remove the orange II dye from wastewater. The effects of pH, BCP quantity, and contact time are initially verified on the basis of the percentage of orange II removed from the wastewater. Experimental data reveal that the Cu/Mg bimetal and chitosan have a synergistic effect on the adsorption process of the adsorbate, where the dye adsorption by Cu/Mg bimetal, chitosan alone, and bimetal-chitosan is 10, 49, and 99.5%, respectively. The time required for the complete decolorization of orange II by 1 mg/L of BCP is 10 min. The Langmuir model is the best fit for the experimental data, which attains a maximum adsorption capacity of 384.6 mg/g. The consideration of the kinetic behavior indicates that the adsorption of orange II onto the BCP fits best with the pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. Further, the simulated azo dye wastewater can be effectively treated using a relatively low quantity of the adsorbent, 1 mg/L, within a short reaction time of 20 min. Overall, the use of BCP can be considered a promising method for eliminating the azo dye from wastewater effectively.

  13. Can an "Aesthetic" Intervention (Braided Hair Coil) Cause Hair Loss After an Aesthetic Operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionyssopoulos, Alexander; Papaconstantinou, Antony; Stoltidou, Alexandra; Spyropoulou, Georgia-Alexandra

    2014-07-01

    Postoperative pressure alopecia (PPA), defined as hair loss caused by prolonged pressure on the patient's scalp during surgery, is an uncommon condition after aesthetic surgery. Originally, it was described for patients who underwent lengthy cardiovascular and gynecologic operations. The authors present a rare case, in which hair loss occurred after secondary breast augmentation (replacement of breast implants). The PPA appeared in the occipitoparietal region of the patient's scalp approximately 2 weeks after surgery. The operation was completed in less than 3 hours, without any fluctuations in the patient's blood pressure or any unusual blood loss. There were no other precipitating factors such as anemia or coagulopathies. The probable cause of this unexpected result was the patient's braided hair coil, which had not been noted before the operation. The patient habitually, and on the day of her operation, combed her hair into a braided coil, which placed extra pressure on the occipitoparietal region. The hair loss was temporary, and hair regrowth was complete within 2 months. This incident may have been avoided if the braided hair coil had been noted by nursing or other medical staff preoperatively. Repositioning the head every 30 minutes and providing adequate head padding during surgery are advised to protect the patient and prevent such incidents. 5. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  14. Hair-on-hair static friction coefficient can be determined by tying a knot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicolas R

    2017-11-01

    Characterizing the tribological properties of the hair-hair interface is important to quantify the manageability of hair and to assess the performance of hair care products. Audoly et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164301, 2007) derived an equation relating the self-friction coefficient of an elastic fiber to the dimensions of a simple, relaxed overhand knot made from this fiber. I experimentally tested and validated their equation using nylon thread and an independent measurement of its self-friction coefficient. I show that this methodology can be applied to provide high-throughput data on the static self-friction coefficient of single hair fibers in various conditions and to quantitatively assess how hair care treatments (conditioner, relaxant) alter frictional properties. I find that treatment of hair with 1M sodium hydroxide leads to a quick, irreversible self-friction coefficient increase; the resulting fine frictional fibers can be used to form very small knots for microsurgical vessel and organ ligature in medicine or embryology. The relaxed overhand knot method can more generally be used to measure the self-friction coefficients of a wide range of elastic fibers from the nano- (e.g. proteins, nanotubes) to the macro-scale (e.g. textile fiber, fiberglass). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Eps8 regulates hair bundle length and functional maturation of mammalian auditory hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Zampini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated with hair bundle development and function and are known to cause deafness in mice and humans when mutated. The growth of the stereociliar actin core is dynamically regulated at the actin filament barbed ends in the stereociliary tip. We show that Eps8, a protein with actin binding, bundling, and barbed-end capping activities in other systems, is a novel component of the hair bundle. Eps8 is localized predominantly at the tip of the stereocilia and is essential for their normal elongation and function. Moreover, we have found that Eps8 knockout mice are profoundly deaf and that IHCs, but not OHCs, fail to mature into fully functional sensory receptors. We propose that Eps8 directly regulates stereocilia growth in hair cells and also plays a crucial role in the physiological maturation of mammalian cochlear IHCs. Together, our results indicate that Eps8 is critical in coordinating the development and functionality of mammalian auditory hair cells.

  16. Eps8 regulates hair bundle length and functional maturation of mammalian auditory hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Rüttiger, Lukas; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Furness, David N; Waldhaus, Jörg; Xiong, Hao; Hackney, Carole M; Holley, Matthew C; Offenhauser, Nina; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Knipper, Marlies; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-04-01

    Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated with hair bundle development and function and are known to cause deafness in mice and humans when mutated. The growth of the stereociliar actin core is dynamically regulated at the actin filament barbed ends in the stereociliary tip. We show that Eps8, a protein with actin binding, bundling, and barbed-end capping activities in other systems, is a novel component of the hair bundle. Eps8 is localized predominantly at the tip of the stereocilia and is essential for their normal elongation and function. Moreover, we have found that Eps8 knockout mice are profoundly deaf and that IHCs, but not OHCs, fail to mature into fully functional sensory receptors. We propose that Eps8 directly regulates stereocilia growth in hair cells and also plays a crucial role in the physiological maturation of mammalian cochlear IHCs. Together, our results indicate that Eps8 is critical in coordinating the development and functionality of mammalian auditory hair cells.

  17. Chemotherapy and Hair Loss: What to Expect during Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemotherapy and hair loss: What to expect during treatment Your doctor can tell you whether your particular chemotherapy treatment is likely to cause hair loss. This allows you to plan ahead for head ...

  18. Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... to it. Former Alabama lead singer Randy Owen sings his new song, "Braid My Hair." Photo courtesy ...

  19. Trichogram To Monitor Therapeutic Benefit In Hair Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Monica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichogram is a method of quantifying hair. We report 3 cases of diffuse hair loss of varying etiology in whom the improvement after therapeutic intervention could be objectively documented using trichogram.

  20. Hair treatment device for providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, Bruce E.; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2016-01-26

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  1. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2013-12-17

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  2. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanusi Umar, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks. Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair.

  3. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name.

  4. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Telek, A.; Biro, T.; Debrecen Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Hair follicle (HF) is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on the composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, no data are available concerning the distribution of elements in human hair follicle with various growth and cycling phases. In this study [1] we provided detailed quantitative elemental distribution of organ-cultured hair follicle in anagen and catagen growth phases using ion microscopy in order to reach a better understanding of the function, development, and cyclic activity of the hair follicle. The microprobe analysis was carried out at the scanning ion microprobe facilities at the ATOMKI Debrecen, and at the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia, using combined STIM and PIXE ion beam analytical techniques. Human anagen hair follicles were isolated from skin obtained from females undergoing face-lift surgery. Cultured anagen HFs were treated by either vehicle or by 10 μM capsaicin for 5 days. Elemental distributions and absolute concentrations were determined along 5 capsaicin treated (catagen), and 4 control (anagen) hair follicles. The investigated length varied between 1.5 and 2 mm. Average elemental concentration values of the whole sample and the different morphological parts were also determined. Concentrations for most of the elements were found to be the same in the corresponding parts of the anagen and the catagen hair follicles. However, significant differences were observed in the Ca concentration between the anagen and catagen HFs. With respect to the distribution of Ca, in anagen (control) HFs, the following concentrations were measured (given in μg/g dry weight): dermal papilla, ∼500; matrix of the bulb, 1000-1500; outer/ inner

  5. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the use of the color additive, such as “for food use only”; “for food, drug, and cosmetic use... limitations for a general or specific use of a straight color, the amount of each such straight color in terms... or specific use of a color additive, the label shall in addition provide directions for use of the...

  6. Exogenous and endogenous lipids of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderch, L; Oliver, M A; Martínez, V; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Martí, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the external and internal lipids of Caucasian hair and their influence in different hair properties such as moisture content, hydrophobic character, and mechanical properties. Lipid extraction and their analysis by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detector were carried out. Lipid rearrangement and water sorption and desorption evaluation of these fibers with and without lipids will also be determined using different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic vapor sorption, mainly to evaluate permeation changes of these hair fibers possibly related to the fluidity of the lipids extracted. Caucasian fibers were found to be well hydrated, and moisture diminution was observed mainly for the external lipid extracted fibers. Unexpectedly, the lipid extraction promoted an increase in the break tenacity of the Caucasian fibers. The hydrophobic character of the fiber surfaces indicates the marked hydrophobicity of all fibers. Delipidization promotes only a slight diminution of their hydrophobic properties. Water uptake and desorption studies indicate an important water regain for Caucasian fibers. The external extracted hair fibers presented a diminution of maximum water regain, which surprisingly increases with the following internal lipid extraction. This can be due to a higher water desorption found only for external extracted fibers. The relationship between fluidity of lipids extracted and hair fiber water diffusion were established. Extraction of internal lipids of Caucasian fibers, which have a higher unsaturated lipid content than external lipids of the same hair fiber, leads to a lower water permeability of the fiber. On the capillar formulations should be considered the importance of lipid fluidity to modify the permeability of the fiber. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Decolorization of the azo dye reactive red X-3B by an Al-Cu bimetallic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin-hong; Ma, Lu-ming; Wang, Hong-wu; Wu, De-li

    2008-06-01

    The decoloration mechanism and kinetics of the azo dye reactive red X-3B by an Al-Cu bimetallic system were investigated by measuring the dye removal, the TOC removal and the aniline concentration, and by adding EDTA as control experiments. The results showed the colority removal rate of X-3B reached 83% in the near neutral pH medium for 30 min and 96.4% for 120 min, in which, about 34% was due to the X-3B reduced to aniline, and about 20% and 30% was due to the flocculating of aluminum ions and surface adsorption of aluminum-fillings respectively. The decolorization of dyeing wastewater is a gradual reaction process, which first adsorbs a large number of dyeing ingredients and then carries out inner electrolysis reduction, improved effectively by the flocculating action of aluminum ions. The decolorization reaction appears to be a pseudo first-order reaction and increases with rising temperature.

  8. A New Nano Silica Gel Supported by Thionyl Chloride as a Solid Acid for the Efficient Diazotization of Aniline Derivatives: Application and Synthesis of Azo Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirjalili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new nano silicagel supported by thionyl chloride as a solid acid was synthesized and used as a increasing the production yield of dye to affect the efficient diazotization of arylamines. The diazonium salts thus obtained were coupled, using standard experimental procedures, to anilines and naphthols to afford the requisite azo dyes in good yield. The diazotization and subsequent azo-coupling generated the related azo dyes at low temperature in short reaction times with a simple experimental procedure.

  9. The treatment of female pattern hair loss and other applications of surgical hair restoration in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffrey S

    2004-05-01

    In the specialty of surgical hair restoration, men comprise more than 90% of the patients treated; however, in the last few years the number of women undergoing the procedure has increased significantly. The reasons for this growth are many and include the increase in public awareness of the efficacy of hair transplantation from such sources as the media,the Internet, advertising and word of mouth. More importantly, advances in technique have significantly improved results, increasing the confidence level in women to undergo the procedure and in hair transplant specialists to offer it.

  10. The very large G-protein-coupled receptor VLGR1: a component of the ankle link complex required for the normal development of auditory hair bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Joann; Goodyear, Richard J; McMillan, D Randy; Stauffer, Eric A; Holt, Jeffrey R; Locke, Kirsten G; Birch, David G; Legan, P Kevin; White, Perrin C; Walsh, Edward J; Richardson, Guy P

    2006-06-14

    Sensory hair bundles in the inner ear are composed of stereocilia that can be interconnected by a variety of different link types, including tip links, horizontal top connectors, shaft connectors, and ankle links. The ankle link antigen is an epitope specifically associated with ankle links and the calycal processes of photoreceptors in chicks. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting were used to identify this antigen as the avian ortholog of the very large G-protein-coupled receptor VLGR1, the product of the Usher syndrome USH2C (Mass1) locus. Like ankle links, Vlgr1 is expressed transiently around the base of developing hair bundles in mice. Ankle links fail to form in the cochleae of mice carrying a targeted mutation in Vlgr1 (Vlgr1/del7TM), and the bundles become disorganized just after birth. FM1-43 [N-(3-triethylammonium)propyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide] dye loading and whole-cell recordings indicate mechanotransduction is impaired in cochlear, but not vestibular, hair cells of early postnatal Vlgr1/del7TM mutant mice. Auditory brainstem recordings and distortion product measurements indicate that these mice are severely deaf by the third week of life. Hair cells from the basal half of the cochlea are lost in 2-month-old Vlgr1/del7TM mice, and retinal function is mildly abnormal in aged mutants. Our results indicate that Vlgr1 is required for formation of the ankle link complex and the normal development of cochlear hair bundles.

  11. Despite the hair failing, nails thrive…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samipa Samir Mukherjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasias are defined as a group of congenital, nonprogressive, developmental syndromes with primary disorders in at least two ectoderm-derived structures namely eccrine glands, hair, nail and teeth. Pure hair and nail affecting ectodemal dysplasias are exceedingly rare in occurance and have been known to be associated with multiple abnormalities, such as keratoderma or ichthyosis, skeletal and hematological abnormalities, cardiac irregularities, mental or psychomotor retardation and cataracts. We herein report a case of hypotrichosis with trichorrhexis nodosa and twenty nail dystrophy- a hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia variant.

  12. Why neutron stars have three hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Leo; Yagi, Kent; Pappas, George; Yunes, Nicolas; Apostolatos, Theocharis

    2015-04-01

    Neutron stars have recently been found to enjoy a certain `baldness' in their multipolar structure which is independent of the equation of state (EoS) of dense nuclear matter. This is reminiscent of the black hole no-hair relations, and in stark contrast to regular stars. Why is this? Is it because realistic EoSs are sufficiently similar, or because GR effects are especially important, or because the nuclear matter is `cold'? We explore the physics behind these and more hypotheses, and give a convincing explanation for the true origin of the three-hair relations.

  13. Analysis of standard substance human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shuyun; Zhang Yongbao

    2005-01-01

    The human hair samples as standard substances were analyzed by the neutron activation analysis (NAA) on the miniature neutron source reactor. 19 elements, i.e. Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Na, S, Se, V and Zn, were measured. The average content, standard deviation, relative standard deviation and the detection limit under the present research conditions were given for each element, and the results showed that the measured values of the samples were in agreement with the recommended values, which indicated that NAA can be used to analyze standard substance human hair with a relatively high accuracy. (authors)

  14. Fabrication of a Microneedle Using Human Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Takei, Tamotsu

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we developed a novel microneedle design to inject medication into the skin and to remove blood from a blood vessel. A drilling machine and chemicals were used to drill a hollow needle bore into the center of a strand of human hair. Our results demonstrate that a pen-shaped microneedle has been fabricated at a length of 1.1 mm, a base diameter of 80 µm, and a tip diameter of 40 µm. The hair microneedle was sufficiently strong to insert into the meat of a chicken leg.

  15. [Acute blue urticaria following subcutaneous injection of patent blue dye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, A; Vial-Dupuy, A; Lebrun-Vignes, B; Francès, C; Soria, A; Barete, S

    2015-11-01

    Patent blue (PB) is a lymphatic vessel dye commonly used in France for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer, and less frequently in melanoma, and which may induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of acute blue urticaria occurring within minutes of PB injection. Ten minutes after PB injection for sentinel lymph node detection during breast cancer surgery, a 49-year-old woman developed generalised acute blue urticaria and eyelid angioedema without bronchospasm or haemodynamic disturbance, but requiring discontinuation of surgery. Skin testing using PB and the anaesthetics given were run 6 weeks after the episode and confirmed PB allergy. PB was formally contra-indicated. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to PB have been reported for between 0.24 and 2.2% of procedures. Such reactions are on occasion severe, chiefly involving anaphylactic shock. Two mechanisms are probably associated: non-specific histamine release and/or an IgE-mediated mechanism. Skin tests are helpful in confirming the diagnosis of PB allergy. Blue acute urticaria is one of the clinical manifestations of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to patent blue dye. Skin tests must be performed 6 weeks after the reaction in order to confirm the diagnosis and formally contra-indicate this substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies on Dyeing Performance of Novel Acid Azo Dyes and Mordent Acid Azo Dyes Based on 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat C. Dixit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel acid azo and mordent acid azo dyes have been prepared by the coupling of diazo solution of different aminonaphthol sulphonic acids and aromatic amino acids with 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone. The resultant dyes were characterized by elemental analysis as well as IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The UV-visible spectral data have also been discussed in terms of structure property relationship. The dyeing assessments of all the dyes were evaluated on wool and silk textile fibers. The dyeing of chrome pretreated wool and silk have also been monitored. The result shows that better hue was obtained on mordented fiber. Results of bactericidal studies of chrome pretreated fibers revealed that the toxicity of mordented dyes against bacteria is fairly good. Dyeing on wool and silk fibers resulted in yellowish pink to reddish brown colourations having excellent light fastness and washing fastness.

  17. Grey Hair Evlsion Technique For Evaluating the Effect of Drugs For the Treatment of Premature Grey Hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved method for evaluating the effect of treatment for premature grey hairs is described. The method consists of pulling out all the grey hairs in a patient and counting the number removed. Simultaneously, the converted hairs are also snipped at the grey-black junction and counted. After a gap of 3 months, the survey is repeated to count the number of hairs which have regrowing as grey hairs, the hairs which have become grey and also the hairs which have got converted into black during this period. Such surveys are repeated at 3 months intervals over a period of several years to see the progress of greying of hair in an individual and to evaluate the effect of various therapeutic procedures.

  18. Focal Atrichia: A Diagnostic Clue in Female Pattern Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Elise A; Whiting, David A

    2017-10-07

    Focal atrichia is a common clinical finding in female pattern hair loss whose specificity and histologic findings need further clarification. To determine the frequency of focal atrichia in various types of hair loss and its histologic characteristics in female pattern hair loss. Part 1: Review of 250 consecutive female patients seen with hair loss for the presence of focal atrichia and Part 2: paired biopsies of haired areas vs focal atrichia in 18 subjects with female pattern hair loss RESULTS: Focal atrichia was seen in 46/104 (44%) of women with female pattern hair loss, including 67% of late onset vs 15% of early onset, compared to 3/146 (2%) of those with other hair disorders Biopsy findings of focal atrichia in female pattern hair loss showed primarily a more progressive miniaturization process than that of haired areas of the scalp. Some women with female pattern hair loss may have had concomitant chronic telogen effluvium CONCLUSIONS: When present, focal atrichia is a clinical clue to the diagnosis of female pattern hair loss, particularly late onset subtype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Hair Growth Promotant Activity of Petroleum Ether Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract on hair growth in female Wistar rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were used for the hair growth promotion studies. They were divided into three groups(n = 6) and their dorsal skin was completely denuded to completely remove hair. Paraffin oil (control), 2 ...

  20. Matting Of Hair Due To ′Sunsilk′ Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Mohd

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Matting of hair been reported from time to time due to treatment of hair with detergent, shampoos, waving lotions, setting lotions and bleaches. A case of matting of hairs in a young girl due to a change in the brand of shampoo is reported.

  1. A close shave: The taboo on female body hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades body hair has fast become a taboo for women. The empirical data of sociological and medical research reveal that the vast majority of women remove most of their body hair since the beginning of this century. Body hair is typically a marker that polices significant boundaries:

  2. The abundance of some elements in hair from Tanzanian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abundance of some elements in hair from Tanzanian children. NK Mohammed. Abstract. Reference values for elements in human hair of people from different countries have been published in literature. However, the data did not include the hair elemental concentrations of the Tanzanian population. Therefore, this ...

  3. A case report and clinical approach to silver blonde hair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sana Durrani

    2015-09-29

    Sep 29, 2015 ... Abstract Griscelli syndrome type 2 is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the. RAB27A gene. It is characterized by pigmentary dilution of the skin and hair causing silvery gray hair, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and characteristic light microscopy findings in scalp hair.

  4. Biomimetic Hair Sensor Arrays: From Inspiration To Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Bruinink, C.M.; Kolster, M.L.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report on the successful implementation of highly sensitive artificial hair-based flow-sensor arrays for sensing low-frequency air flows. Artificial hair sensors are bio-inspired from crickets’ cercal filiform hairs, one of nature’s best in sensing small air flows. The presented

  5. Learning from Crickets: Artificial Hair-Sensor Array Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2010-01-01

    We have successfully developed biomimetic flowsensitive hair-sensor arrays taking inspiration from mechanosensory hairs of crickets. Our current generation of sensors achieves sub mm/s threshold air-flow sensitivity for single hairs operating in a bandwidth of a few hundred Hz and is the result of a

  6. Premature graying of hair: An independent risk marker for coronary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of premature graying of hair was associated with 3.24 times the risk of CAD on multiple logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The presence of premature graying of hair was associated with an increased risk of CAD in young smokers. Premature graying of hair can be used as preliminary evidence by ...

  7. Organic components in hair-ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Disko, Ulrich; Wagner, Gerhard; Mätzler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hair-ice is a rather unknown phenomenon. In contrast to generally known frost needles, originating from atmospheric water and expanding e.g. from plant surfaces in all directions, hair ice grows from the basis of wet, rotten hardwood. The hair-like, flexible, linear structures may reach up to 10 cm in length without any ramifications. Hair-ice appears to be related to the biological activity of a fungus mycelium within the wood. Hair-ice can attract winter-active Collemboles (snow flea, Isotoma nivalis). At the onset of hair-ice melt a very thin fibre becomes apparent, which carries brownish pearl-like water drops. Therefore, it is supposed that organic substances are inherent, which could possibly act as freezing catalyst as well as recrystallization inhibitor. The aim of this work was the chemical characterization of organic substances contained in hair-ice. First analyses of melted hair-ice show a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 235 mg/l in contrast to 11 mg/l total nitrogen. Most of inherent nitrogen (70 %) exists thereby as ammonium. Screened by different (mass spectrometric) methods, no evidence could be found for the initially expected organic substances like proteins, lipids, small volatile substances or carboxylic acids. By coupling of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a triple quadrupol mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) a non-resolved chromatogram from a melted hair-ice sample was received. Averaged spectra from different regions are similar among themselves with a broad peak spreading over the mass range 100-650 Da with favored intense, odd-numbered peaks. Such spectra are similar to dissolved organic matter (DOM), known e.g. from terrestrial and marine waters, soil extracts or aerosols. In the next step, samples were desalted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T

  8. Photoelectrochemical studies of dye-sensitized solar cells using organic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinado, Tannia

    2009-10-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) is a promising efficient low-cost molecular photovoltaic device. One of the key components in DSCs is the dye, as it is responsible for the capture of sunlight. State-of-the-art DSC devices, based on ruthenium dyes, show record efficiencies of 10-12 %. During the last decade, metal-free organic dyes have been extensively explored as sensitizers for DSC application. The use of organic dyes is particularly attractive as it enables easy structural modifications, due to fairly short synthetic routes and reduced material cost. Novel dye should in addition to the light-harvesting properties also be compatible with the DSC components. In this thesis, a series of new organic dyes are investigated, both when integrated in the DSC device and as individual components. The evaluation methods consisted of different electrochemical and photoelectrochemical techniques. Whereas the light-harvesting properties of the dyes were fairly easily improved, the behavior of the dye integrated in the DSC showed less predictable photovoltaic results. The dye series studied in Papers II and IV revealed that their dye energetics limited vital electron-transfer processes, the dye regeneration (Paper II) and injection quantum yield (Paper IV). Further, in Papers III-VI, it was observed that different dye structures seemed to alter the interfacial electron recombination with the electrolyte. In addition to the dye structure sterics, some organic dyes appear to enhance the interfacial recombination, possibly due to specific dye-redox acceptor interaction (Paper V). The impact of dye sterical modifications versus the use of coadsorbent was explored in Paper VI. The dye layer properties in the presence and absence of various coadsorbents were further investigated in Paper VII. The core of this thesis is the identification of the processes and properties limiting the performance of the DSC device, aiming at an overall understanding of the compatibility between the

  9. Insights into the Mechanism of a Covalently Linked Organic Dye-Cobaloxime Catalyst System for Dye-Sensitized Solar Fuel Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Palas Baran; Zhang, Lei; Philippe, Bertrand; Fernández-Terán, Ricardo; Ahmadi, Sareh; Tian, Lei; Rensmo, Håkan; Hammarström, Leif; Tian, Haining

    2017-06-09

    A covalently linked organic dye-cobaloxime catalyst system based on mesoporous NiO is synthesized by a facile click reaction for mechanistic studies and application in a dye-sensitized solar fuel device. The system is systematically investigated by photoelectrochemical measurements, density functional theory, time-resolved fluorescence, transient absorption spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that irradiation of the dye-catalyst on NiO leads to ultrafast hole injection into NiO from the excited dye, followed by a fast electron transfer process to reduce the catalyst. Moreover, the dye adopts different structures with different excited state energies, and excitation energy transfer occurs between neighboring molecules on the semiconductor surface. The photoelectrochemical experiments also show hydrogen production by this system. The axial chloride ligands of the catalyst are released during photocatalysis to create the active sites for proton reduction. A working mechanism of the dye-catalyst system on the photocathode is proposed on the basis of this study. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Human platelet lysate versus minoxidil stimulates hair growth by activating anagen promoting signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastan, Maryam; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Abedelahi, Ali; Sarvi, Mohammadreza; Niapour, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Minoxidil and human platelet lysate (HPL) are commonly used to treat patients with hair loss. However, the roles of HPL versus minoxidil in hair follicle biology largely remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that bulge and dermal papilla (DP) cells may express specific genes, including Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin after exposure to minoxidil or HPL. The mouse hair follicles were isolated on day 10 after depilation and bulge or DP regions were dissected. The bulge and DP cells were cultured for 14days in DMEM/F12 medium. Then, the cells were treated with 100μM minoxidil and 10% HPL for 10 days. Nuclear morphology was identified using DAPi staining. Reverse transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were also performed to examine the expression of Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels in the treated bulge and DP regions after organ culture. Here, we found that minoxidil influences bulge and DP cell survival (Pminoxidil treatment in both bulge and DP cells. HPL mediated Erk upregulation in both bulge and DP cells (Pminoxidil-treated bulge cells. In contrast, the expression of β-cateinin and Shh in the DP cells was not meaningfully increased after treatment with HPL. Our results suggest that minoxidil and HPL can promote hair growth by activating the main anagen inducing signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Pretreatment of textile dyeing wastewater using an anoxic baffled reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Huoliang; Wu, Huifang

    2008-11-01

    A study on pretreatment of textile dyeing wastewater was carried out using an anoxic baffled reactor (ABR) at wastewater temperatures of 5-31.1 degrees C. When hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 8h, the color of outflow of ABR was only 40 times at 5 degrees C and it could satisfy the professional discharge standard (grade-1) of textile and dyeing industry of China (GB4287-92). The total COD removal efficiency of ABR was 34.6%, 47.5%, 50.0%, 53.3%, 54.7% and 58.1% at 5, 9.7, 14.9, 19.7, 23.5 and 31.1 degrees C, respectively. Besides, after the wastewater being pre-treated by ABR when HRT was 6h and 8h, the BOD5/COD value rose from 0.30 of inflow to 0.46 of outflow and from 0.30 of inflow to 0.40 of outflow, respectively. Experimental results indicated that ABR was a very feasible process to decolorize and pre-treat the textile dyeing wastewater at ambient temperature. Moreover, a kinetic simulation of organic matter degradation in ABR at six different wastewater temperatures was carried through. The kinetic analysis showed the organic matter degradation was a first-order reaction. The reaction activation energy was 19.593 kJ mol(-1) and the temperature coefficient at 5-31.1 degrees C was 1.028.

  12. Photoassisted Electrochemical Treatment of Azo and Phtalocyanine Reactive Dyes in the Presence of Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Mireia; López-Grimau, Víctor; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    An electrochemical treatment (EC) was applied at different intensities to degrade the chromophoric groups of dyes C.I. Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and C.I. Reactive Blue 7 (Rb7) until uncolored species were obtained. Decolorization rate constants of the azo dye RB5 were higher than the phtalocyanine Rb7 ones. In addition, the EC treatment was more efficient at higher intensities, but these conditions significantly increased the generation of undesirable by-products such as chloroform. The combination of EC with UV irradiation (UVEC) drastically minimized the generation of chloroform. The photo-assisted electrochemical treatment was also able to achieve decolorization values of 99%. Finally, mixtures of dyes and surfactants were treated by EC and UVEC. In the presence of surfactants, the decolorization kinetic of dyes was slowed due to the competitive reactions of surfactants degradation. Both methods achieved total decolorization and in both cases, the generation of haloforms was negligible. PMID:28773335

  13. Removal of methyl violet dye by adsorption onto N-benzyltriazole derivatized dextran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Eunae; Tahir, Muhammad Nazir; Kim, Hwanhee

    2015-01-01

    In this work, N-benzyltriazole derivatized dextran was evaluated for its potential as a novel carbohydrate-based adsorbent for the removal of methyl violet dye from water. The modified dextran was synthesized by a click reaction of pentynyl dextran and benzyl azide, and the structure...... was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Dextran was substituted with a triazole-linked benzyl group. For decolorization of the dye effluent, adsorption is a very effective treatment; here, the driving force is based on hydrogen bonding, pi...... stacking, and electrostatic interaction between the methyl violet dye and the N-benzyltriazole derivatized dextran. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the required contact time and the effects of pH, initial dye concentrations, and temperature. The experimental data were analyzed...

  14. Radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Uichi; Ishiguro, Takahide

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes the radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser. It is compared YAG-SH (530 nm) with CVL (511, 578 nm) and CVL (511 nm) for pumping source. Influence of solvent in dye laser power was examined. The present experimental results show that efficiency of CVL (511 nm) pumped dye laser was most high. When the dye solution is at a standstill, the efficiency of dye laser with water and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (S.L.S., 2 %wt.) was most high among the four kinds of solvent. In the condition of dye solution flow, the water and S.L.S. or ethylene glycol was useful solvent for dye laser.

  15. Radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Uichi; Ishiguro, Takahide.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser. It is compared YAG-SH (530 nm) with CVL (511, 578 nm) and CVL (511 nm) for pumping source. Influence of solvent in dye laser power was examined. The present experimental results show that efficiency of CVL (511 nm) pumped dye laser was most high. When the dye solution is at a standstill, the efficiency of dye laser with water and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (S.L.S., 2 %wt.) was most high among the four kinds of solvent. In the condition of dye solution flow, the water and S.L.S. or Ethylene Glycol was useful solvent for dye laser. (author)

  16. BODIPYs for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klfout, Hafsah; Stewart, Adam; Elkhalifa, Mahmoud; He, Hongshan

    2017-11-22

    BODIPY, abbreviation of boron-dipyrromethene, is one class of robust organic molecules that has been used widely in bioimaging, sensing, and logic gate design. Recently, BODIPY dyes have been explored for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Studies demonstrate their potential as light absorbers for the conversion of solar energy to electricity. However, their photovoltaic performance is inferior to many other dyes, including porphyrin dyes. In this review, several synthetic strategies of BODIPY dyes for DSCs and their further functionalization are described. The photophysical properties of dye molecules and their photovoltaic performances in DSCs are summarized. We aim to provide readers a clear picture of the field and expect to shed light on the next generation of BODIPY dyes for their applications in solar energy conversion.

  17. Influence of styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizomov, Negmat; Barakaeva, Mubaro; Kurtaliev, Eldar N.; Rahimov, Sherzod I.; Khakimova, Dilorom P.; Khodjayev, Gayrat; Yashchuk, Valeriy N.

    2008-08-01

    It was studied the influence of F, Sbt, Sil, Sbo monomer and homodimer Dst-5, Dst-10, Dbt-5, Dbt-10, Dil-10, Dbo-10 styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes of white rats. It was shown that the homodimer styryl dyes Dst-5, Dbt-5 and Dbo-10 decrease the erythrocytes quantity by 1.5-2 times more as compared with monomer dyes Sbt and Sbo. The main cause of dyes different action is the different oxidation degree of intracellular hemoglobin evoked by these dyes. It was established that the observed effects was connected with different penetration of these dyes through membrane of erythrocytes and with interaction of these dyes with albumin localized in membranes of cells.

  18. The design, calibration, and use of a water microjet for stimulating hair cell sensory hair bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J C; Szymko, Y M

    1989-11-01

    The design, calibration, and use of a noninvasive, noncontact device for stimulating hair cell hair bundles in vitro are described. This device employed a piezoelectric crystal, driven at high frequencies, to generate sinusoidal pressure in a contained fluid volume. The pressure was propagated to the tip of a glass micropipette and the oscillating water jet stimulus produced at the tip was used to stimulate sensory hair bundles. The movements of glass microbeads, caught in the oscillating pressure field of the water jet, provided a means of calibrating this stimulus. The linearity of the jet, its waveform and frequency response, the influence of pipette shape and tip diameter, as well as models to explain the operation of the water jet, are described. The use of this stimulus for measuring hair bundle micromechanics at high frequencies is then demonstrated.

  19. Hair shedding score may affect body temperature more than hair coat color during heat stress in weaned beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hair shedding score and hair coat color on the vaginal temperature (VT) of calves during heat stress. Weaned Bos taurus beef heifers (n = 32; BW = 282 ± 6.4 kg) were assigned to a hair coat color class (BLACK; RED; or LIGHT, where LIGHT = yel...

  20. Enhancing chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of enhancing selected chemical reactions. The population of a selected high vibrational energy state of a reactant molecule is increased substantially above its population at thermal equilibrium by directing onto the molecule a beam of radiant energy from a laser having a combination of frequency and intensity selected to pump the selected energy state, and the reaction is carried out with the temperature, pressure, and concentrations of reactants maintained at a combination of values selected to optimize the reaction in preference to thermal degradation by transforming the absorbed energy into translational motion. The reaction temperature is selected to optimize the reaction. Typically a laser and a frequency doubler emit radiant energy at frequencies of .nu. and 2.nu. into an optical dye within an optical cavity capable of being tuned to a wanted frequency .delta. or a parametric oscillator comprising a non-centrosymmetric crystal having two indices of refraction, to emit radiant energy at the frequencies of .nu., 2.nu., and .delta. (and, with a parametric oscillator, also at 2.nu.-.delta.). Each unwanted frequency is filtered out, and each desired frequency is focused to the desired radiation flux within a reaction chamber and is reflected repeatedly through the chamber while reactants are fed into the chamber and reaction products are removed therefrom.

  1. Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

  2. Inside black holes with synchronized hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brihaye, Yves, E-mail: yves.brihaye@umons.ac.be [Physique-Mathématique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Mons (Belgium); Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and Centre for Research and Development in Mathematics and Applications (CIDMA), Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-09-10

    Recently, various examples of asymptotically flat, rotating black holes (BHs) with synchronized hair have been explicitly constructed, including Kerr BHs with scalar or Proca hair, and Myers–Perry BHs with scalar hair and a mass gap, showing there is a general mechanism at work. All these solutions have been found numerically, integrating the fully non-linear field equations of motion from the event horizon outwards. Here, we address the spacetime geometry of these solutions inside the event horizon. Firstly, we provide arguments, within linear theory, that there is no regular inner horizon for these solutions. Then, we address this question fully non-linearly, using as a tractable model five dimensional, equal spinning, Myers–Perry hairy BHs. We find that, for non-extremal solutions: (1) the inside spacetime geometry in the vicinity of the event horizon is smooth and the equations of motion can be integrated inwards; (2) before an inner horizon is reached, the spacetime curvature grows (apparently) without bound. In all cases, our results suggest the absence of a smooth Cauchy horizon, beyond which the metric can be extended, for hairy BHs with synchronized hair.

  3. The Egyptian Hair Pin: practical, sacred, fatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann Fletcher

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally regarded as little more than a mundane tool employed in daily life, the humble hairpin occasionally played a rather more prominent role in history than has perhaps been appreciated. As the most ancient implements associated with hair styling, simple pins of bone and ivory were commonly employed in Egypt by c.4000 BC as a means of securing long hair in an upswept style (e.g. Petrie and Mace 1901, 21, 34. Although their occasional use by men undermines the assumption that hairpins are 'a relatively certain example of a “gendered” artefact' (Wilfong 1997, 67, the vast majority have been found in female burials. They can be made of bone and ivory, wood, steatite, glass, gold, silver and bronze, and two 12cm long bronze examples were found within the hair of Princess Ahmosi c.1550 BC (Fletcher 1995, 376, 441 while the hair of an anonymous woman at Gurob c.AD 110 had been secured in a bun with pins of bone, tortoiseshell and silver (Walker and Bierbrier 1997, 209.

  4. Inside black holes with synchronized hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Brihaye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various examples of asymptotically flat, rotating black holes (BHs with synchronized hair have been explicitly constructed, including Kerr BHs with scalar or Proca hair, and Myers–Perry BHs with scalar hair and a mass gap, showing there is a general mechanism at work. All these solutions have been found numerically, integrating the fully non-linear field equations of motion from the event horizon outwards. Here, we address the spacetime geometry of these solutions inside the event horizon. Firstly, we provide arguments, within linear theory, that there is no regular inner horizon for these solutions. Then, we address this question fully non-linearly, using as a tractable model five dimensional, equal spinning, Myers–Perry hairy BHs. We find that, for non-extremal solutions: (1 the inside spacetime geometry in the vicinity of the event horizon is smooth and the equations of motion can be integrated inwards; (2 before an inner horizon is reached, the spacetime curvature grows (apparently without bound. In all cases, our results suggest the absence of a smooth Cauchy horizon, beyond which the metric can be extended, for hairy BHs with synchronized hair.

  5. Mybs in mouse hair follicle development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselá, Barbora; Švandová, Eva; Šmarda, J.; Matalová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2014), s. 352-355 ISSN 0040-8166 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP302/12/J059 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : hair follicle * stem cells * c-Myb * B-Myb * development Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.252, year: 2014

  6. Inside black holes with synchronized hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brihaye, Yves; Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, various examples of asymptotically flat, rotating black holes (BHs) with synchronized hair have been explicitly constructed, including Kerr BHs with scalar or Proca hair, and Myers–Perry BHs with scalar hair and a mass gap, showing there is a general mechanism at work. All these solutions have been found numerically, integrating the fully non-linear field equations of motion from the event horizon outwards. Here, we address the spacetime geometry of these solutions inside the event horizon. Firstly, we provide arguments, within linear theory, that there is no regular inner horizon for these solutions. Then, we address this question fully non-linearly, using as a tractable model five dimensional, equal spinning, Myers–Perry hairy BHs. We find that, for non-extremal solutions: (1) the inside spacetime geometry in the vicinity of the event horizon is smooth and the equations of motion can be integrated inwards; (2) before an inner horizon is reached, the spacetime curvature grows (apparently) without bound. In all cases, our results suggest the absence of a smooth Cauchy horizon, beyond which the metric can be extended, for hairy BHs with synchronized hair.

  7. Imitating cricket mechanosensory hairs: dream or reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Casas, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    MEMS offers exciting possibilities for bio-inspired mechanosensors. Over the last years we have been working on cricket inspired hair-sensors for flow observations. In stimulating interactions within EU consortia important insights have surfaced and MEMS sensors with demonstrated acoustic

  8. DETERMINATION OF MERCURY IN HAIR OF CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, A; Bocca, B; Forte, G; Majorani, C; Petrucci, F; Senofonte, O; Alimonti, A

    2018-06-25

    Although high or repeated exposure to different forms of Hg can have serious health consequences, the most important toxicity risk for humans is as methylmercury (MeHg) which exposure is mainly through consumption of fish. Generally, more than the 80% of Hg in hair is as MeHg, which is taken up by hair follicles as MeHg-cysteine complexes. In this context, hair samples were collected from 200 children (7 years) living in a site in the North East (A) and from 299 children (6-11 years) living in a urban area of South Italy (B) to determine the levels of MeHg. Considering the neurotoxicity of MeHg, children were subjected to cognitive and neuropsychological tests. The hair values of Hg in the children population groups were comparable with data reported in other international surveys. On the other hand, combining results of the neurological tests with Hg levels, a possible relationship between Hg and an increase of the errors average reported in some neurological has been noted. Although the Hg levels were not elevated, a possible neurological influence in children, a population more susceptible than adults, might not be excluded. But the influence on neurological performances of the children could be also due to the family environment (socio economic status, educational level, etc.). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Octane-Assisted Reverse Micellar Dyeing of Cotton with Reactive Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Yiu-lun Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the computer colour matching (CCM of cotton fabrics dyed with reactive dye using the octane-assisted reverse micellar approach. The aim of this study is to evaluate the colour quality and compare the accuracy between CCM forecasting and simulated dyeing produced by conventional water-based dyeing and octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing. First, the calibration of dyeing databases for both dyeing methods was established. Standard samples were dyed with known dye concentrations. Computer colour matching was conducted by using the colour difference formula of International Commission on Illumination (CIE L*a*b*. Experimental results revealed that the predicted concentrations were nearly the same as the expected known concentrations for both dyeing methods. This indicates that octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing system can achieve colour matching as good as the conventional water-based dyeing system. In addition, when comparing the colour produced by the conventional water-based dyeing system and the octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing system, the colour difference (ΔE is ≤1, which indicates that the reverse micellar dyeing system could be applied for industrial dyeing with CCM.

  10. [Monilethrix--rare syndrome of structural hair abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, L; Bogdanowski, T; Szeremeta-Bazylewicz, G; Pierzchała, E

    1999-11-01

    Monilethrix is a rare structural disorder of hair. Characteristic abnormalities in the form of alternating thinning and fusiform thickening are observed in most of hair shafts that we call beaded hair. Macroscopic estimation shows lustreless, dry, rough, fragile hair. Trichological examination usually reveals a considerable percentage of anagenic hair. According to our own experiences and literature data systemic therapy (vitamins) and topical treatment (desquamative ointments) are not effective sufficiently. Spontaneous regression of symptoms often appears with time. Five cases of familial occurrence of monilethrix have been presented.

  11. Ratchet effect for nanoparticle transport in hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Matthias; Patzelt, Alexa; Knorr, Fanny; Lademann, Jürgen; Netz, Roland R

    2017-07-01

    The motion of a single rigid nanoparticle inside a hair follicle is investigated by means of Brownian dynamics simulations. The cuticular hair structure is modeled as a periodic asymmetric ratchet-shaped surface. Induced by oscillating radial hair motion we find directed nanoparticle transport into the hair follicle with maximal velocity at a specific optimal frequency and an optimal particle size. We observe flow reversal when switching from radial to axial oscillatory hair motion. We also study the diffusion behavior and find strongly enhanced diffusion for axial motion with a diffusivity significantly larger than for free diffusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adsorption of Reactive Red Dye from Wastewater Using Modified Citrulluscolosynthis Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Rezaei Kahkha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dye-bearing wastes pose serious risks to and leave harmful effects on the environment. Increasing wastewater color intensity leads to reduced light reaching the aquatic environment, which adversely affects the life and growth of aquatic plants and invertebrates. Among the many methods available for dye removal from wastewater, membrane separation, oxidation, coagulation, and anaerobic treatment are more common but they are all costly and involve complex processes. Biosorption, in contrast, enjoys both ease of application and simple design so that it is widely used for removing dyes, heavy metals, and phenolic compounds from both water and wastewater. In this paper, the ability of citrulluscolosynthis ash as a bioadsorbent for the removal of reactive red dye is investigated for the first time. Sodium hydroxide is also used to modify the plant ash surface which expectedly enhances its dye removal efficiency. Measurements and removal levels are determined using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. Finally, the effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, and reaction time on dye removal efficiency are also explored. Results show that the optimum conditions to achieve maximum dye removal are as follows: A pH level of 2, an adsorbant dosage of 1.75 g l-1, an initial concentration equal to 90 mg L-1, and A reaction time of 70 min. Adsorption isotherm is found to obey the Ferundlich isotherm. Also, an adsorption capacity of 36 mg g‒1 is achieved under the best conditions. It may thus be concluded that modified citrulluscolosynthis ash can be used as an effective adsorbent to treat colored wastewaters.

  13. The impact of UV irradiation on the radical initiating capacity of dissolved dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, A.; Czilik, M.; Rusznak, I.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Kinetics of photodecomposition of three model dyes dissolved in isopropanol-water mixture has been determined after exposure to UV radiation in the range from 360 through 400 nm and from 220 through 400 nm, respectively. It has been disclosed earlier that photodecomposition of the dissolved dyes was decelerated initially by the presence of the dissolved oxygen in the system. The presence of a radical initiator, AIBN was indispensable for arriving at the decomposition of the irradiated dye solution in the range from 360 through 400 nm. The equation of W i D = [O 2 ]/τ D was used for the calculation of radical initiating rate of the irradiated dye molecule on the isopropanol (W i D (mol/l x s)), where [O 2 ] (mol/l) is the dissolved oxygen concentration in the system and τ D (s) is duration of the induction period of the photodestruction of the dissolved dye. The equation is valid only for photodecomposition which are not chain reaction. The photodegradation of dissolved dyes was also other then chain reaction, consequently the above equation could be applied in the study too. The average radical initiating rate of the dyes applied in this study was in the order of magnitude equal to that of AIBN. The number of cycles between the first radical formation and the last regeneration of the dye molecule could be calculated in bath systems (in the presence and absence of oxygen, respectively): K = W i D /W D , where K is the number of cycles, W D (mol/l x s) is the initial rate of the decomposition of the dissolved dyed. The number of cycles in the oxygen containing systems significantly exceeded those obtained in the oxygen systems because W D was markedly higher in the latter system than in the former one

  14. Hair Transplantation in Migraine Headache Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ors, Safvet

    2017-09-01

    Migraine headache is a primary neurologic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. As a consequence, quality of life is diminished, productivity suffers (through loss of work force), and treatment costs are substantial. The occurrence rate in the general population is quite high, with women accounting for 3 of every 4 cases. Between January 2011 and May 2012, a total of 221 patients received hair transplants. Another 590 patients underwent hair transplantation between June 2012 and December 2016. Initially (first interval), patients were not questioned on migraine headaches in preoperative visits, but questioning was regularly done thereafter. Overall, 150 patients given transplants in the first period were surveyed by phone regarding preoperative migraine headaches. Aside from the 1 incidental discovery, no other instances of migraine emerged. Headache origins were occipital-frontal in 2 patients, occipital-temporal in 2 patients, and occipital-temporal-frontal in the 2 others. Donor/receiver areas in hair transplantation and migraine trigger zones shared locations. Headache frequencies ranged from 4 to 8 days per month (average, 6 days), and pain scores were 5-8 (10 being highest). Duration of pain was 3-5 hours (average, 4 hours). All six patients had used various medications, such as triptans, ergot, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, before hair transplantation. The 1 female patient was a 32-year-old seeking treatment for alopecia, with a 6-year history of migraine headaches. The male patients presenting with androgenetic alopecia (grade 4-5 by Norwood classification) had 6- to 20-year migrainous histories. After hair transplantation, each migraine sufferer was checked once in the first month and then once every 3 months. Those who could not appear in person after the first year were evaluated by phone every 3 months. Migraine headaches had ceased in all 6 patients, none of whom used medical treatments for migraines thereafter. The postoperative

  15. Photo-oxidative degradation of Chicago Sky Blue azo dye on transition metal oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slote, J.; Luo, J.; Hepel, M. [State Univ. of New York at Potsdam, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Zhong, C.-J. [State Univ. of New York at Binghamton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Every day, an average of 128 tons of dye staffs are discharged into waste water, causing environmental harm. The authors discussed the photo-electrical method for separating the semiconductor catalyst particles from the solution and direct control of the interfacial potential as an efficient and convenient method for degrading organic dyes. Photocurrent-potential measurements were made using a standard photoelectrochemical setup. It involved a microcomputer-controlled potentiostat and a 500 watts (W) quartz halogen lamp as the illumination source. The measurement of the photocurrent represented the difference between the current under illumination and current in the dark. Three-electrode electrochemical cells were used for all experiments. The best results concerning the degradation of dyes were obtained with tungsten oxides (WO3) and molybdenum oxides (MoO3) electrodes. Confirmation that the dyes had been fully degraded was obtained by performing absorbance measurements and a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the samples after degradation. The effect on the rate of decolorisation process of Chicago Sky Blue, a diazo dye, and other dyes, of pH, potential, concentration, and type of supporting electrolyte was examined. The supporting electrolyte was found to have a strong influence on the degradation of diazo dye. Illumination with visible light yielded lower degradation rates than that with ultraviolet-visible light. It appears that Chicago Sky Blue dye sensitizes the semiconductor to expand the absorption of light energy well into visible range, despite the photoelectrochemical degradation of the dye being mainly induced by the ultraviolet light. The authors proposed the mechanisms of the reactions occurring during the photodegradation process. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-11-07

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO DYEING METHODS USING REACTIVE DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HINOJOSA Belén

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environment preservation is a common worry not only for people but for companies as well. Industry is more and more concern about the necessity of developing new and more respectful processes. Dye is one of the most important processes in the textile industry but it is also considered as no too safe regarding environment issues. This process uses large amounts of water and generates big volumes of wastewater. Following this issue, new regulations and laws emerge to control the waste generated. This leads to the companies and increased costs in terms of wastewater treatments and high water consumption. In this research we compare two systems on garment finishing application, the conventional bath process and the new Ecofinish system that is able to save water and product. To compare these processes, we carried out a reactive dyeing using both systems in order to determine the quality differences in the final product. For this purpose, the samples have been tested to washing and rubbing fastness, according to UNE EN ISO 105 C10 and UNE- EN ISO 105 X12 standards, respectively. This study confirms that this system achieves water savings and reduces the wastewater produced, getting a good dyeing. This process can be considered as an alternative to the conventional one.

  18. Loss of normal anagen hair in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshpazhooh, M; Mahmoudi, H R; Rezakhani, S; Valikhani, M; Naraghi, Z S; Mohammadi, Y; Habibi, A; Chams-Davatchi, C

    2015-07-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a known cause of loss of 'normal' anagen hair; that is, shedding of intact anagen hairs covered by root sheaths. However, studies on this subject are limited. To investigate anagen hair shedding in patients with PV, and ascertain its association with disease severity. In total, 96 consecutive patients with PV (new patients or patients in relapse) who were admitted to the dermatology wards of a tertiary hospital were enrolled in this study. Demographic data, PV phenotype, disease severity and presence of scalp lesions were recorded. A group of 10-20 hairs were pulled gently from different areas of the scalp (lesional and nonlesional skin) in all patients, and anagen hairs were counted. Disease severity was graded according to Harman score. Anagen hair was obtained by pull test in 59 of the 96 patients (61.5%), of whom 2 had normal scalp. The mean ± SD anagen hair count was 5.9 ± 7.6 (range 0-31). In univariate analysis, anagen hair loss (P hair count was significantly higher in the severe (mean 6.83 ± 7.89) than the moderate (mean 1.06 ± 1.94) subgroup (P hair loss (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.05-1.28, P hair loss was an independent predictor of the disease severity. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Tiger hair morphology and its variations for wildlife forensic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitika Kitpipit

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tiger population has dramatically decreased due to illegal consumption and commercialisation of their body parts. Frequently, hair samples are the only evidence found in the crime scene. Thus, they play an important role in species identification for wildlife forensic investigation. In this study, we provide the first in-depth report on a variety of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of tiger guard hairs (24 hairs per individual from four individuals. The proposed method could reduce subjectivity of expert opinions on species identification based on hair morphology. Variations in 23 hair morphological characteristics were quantified at three levels: hair section, body region, and intra-species. The results indicate statistically significant variations in most morphological characteristics in all levels. Intra-species variations of four variables, namely hair length, hair index, scale separation and scale pattern, were low. Therefore, identification of tiger hairs using these multiple features in combination with other characteristics with high inter-species variations (e.g. medulla type should bring about objective and accurate tiger hair identification. The method used should serve as a guideline and be further applied to other species to establish a wildlife hair morphology database. Statistical models could then be constructed to distinguish species and provide evidential values in terms of likelihood ratios.

  20. Laccase/mediator assisted degradation of triarylmethane dyes in a continuous membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Meenu; Mishra, Saroj; Sreekrishnan, Trichur Ramaswamy

    2009-08-10

    Laccase/mediator systems are important bioremediation agents as the rates of reactions can be enhanced in the presence of the mediators. The decolorization mechanism of two triarylmethane dyes, namely, Basic Green 4 and Acid Violet 17 is reported using Cyathus bulleri laccase. Basic Green 4 was decolorized through N-demethylation by laccase alone, while in mediator assisted reactions, dye breakdown was initiated from oxidation of carbinol form of the dye. Benzaldehyde and N,N-dimethyl aniline were the major end products. With Acid Violet 17, laccase carried out N-deethylation and in mediator assisted reactions, oxidation of the carbinol form of the dye occurred resulting in formation of formyl benzene sulfonic acid, carboxy benzene sulfonic acid and benzene sulfonic acid. Toxicity analysis revealed that Basic Green 4 was toxic and treatment with laccase/mediators resulted in 80-100% detoxification. The treatment of the textile dye solution using laccase and 2,2'-azino-di-(-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was demonstrated in an enzyme membrane reactor. At a hydraulic retention time of 6h, the process was operated for a period of 15 days with nearly 95% decolorization, 10% reduction in flux and 70% recovery of active ABTS.