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Sample records for hague reprocessing plant

  1. Atmospheric tritium concentrations under influence of AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant (France) and background levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, O; Hébert, D; Solier, L; Maro, D; Pellerin, G; Voiseux, C; Lamotte, M; Laguionie, P

    2017-10-01

    In-air tritium measurements were conducted around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant, as well as on other sites that are not impacted by the nuclear industry in northwest of France. The results indicate that the dominant tritium form around the AREVA site is HT (86%). HT and HTO levels are lower than 5 and 1 Bq. m-3 for hourly samples taken in the plume. No tritiated organic molecules (TOM) were detected. 26 measurement campaigns were performed and links were established between near-field 85Kr, HT and HTO activities. Environmental measurements are in line with those taken at the discharge stack, and tend to demonstrate that there are no rapid changes in the tritium forms released. Out of the influence of any nuclear activities, the levels measured were below 13 mBq.m-3 for HT and 5 mBq.m-3 for HTO (<0.5 Bq. L-1). HTO level in air seems to be influenced by HTO activities in surrounding seawater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Near-field krypton-85 measurements in stable meteorological conditions around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant: estimation of atmospheric transfer coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, O; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Maro, D; Lamotte, M; Voiseux, C; Laguionie, P; Cazimajou, O; Le Cavelier, S; Godinot, C; Morillon, M; Thomas, L; Percot, S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the near-field dispersion of (85)Kr around the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague (AREVA NC La Hague - France) under stable meteorological conditions. Twenty-two (85)Kr night-time experimental campaigns were carried out at distances of up to 4 km from the release source. Although the operational Gaussian models predict for these meteorological conditions a distance to plume touchdown of several kilometers, we almost systematically observed a marked ground signal at distances of 0.5-4 km. The calculated atmospheric transfer coefficients (ATC) show values (1) higher than those observed under neutral conditions, (2) much higher than those proposed by the operational models, and (3) higher than those used in the impact assessments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioactive wastes coming from La Hague reprocessing plant exploitation; Dechets nucleaires issus de l'exploitation de l'usine de traitement de La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva Roveda, G. [Cogema, Etablissement de la Hague, 50 - Beaumont Hague (France)

    2001-07-01

    The treatment of radioactive waste at the facility of Cogema la Hague is presented. At the different categories are associated different methods and processes. The different steps are primary waste, intermediary waste, conditioned waste and ultimate waste. (N.C.)

  4. Possible toxic effects from the nuclear reprocessing at Sellafield and Cap de la Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Coeytaux, X.; Faid, Y.B.; Marignac, Y.; Rouy, E. [Wise, 75 - Paris (France); Thompson, G. [IRSS, Cambridge (United States); Fairlie, I.; Lowry, D.; Sumner, D

    2001-11-15

    The principal aim of this report is to assist the Committee of Petitions of the European Parliament in its consideration of Petition 393/95 brought by Dr. W. Nachtwey. The Petition expresses concerns about radioactive discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France, and their possible adverse health effects. Six years after the Petition was introduced, the Petitioner main concerns remain relevant. This report concludes that reprocessing discharges are a valid matter for the Committee consideration. It also concludes that, on balance, the Petitioner's concerns over radioactive discharges from Sellafield and La Hague are justified. The report presents evidence and data on: 1) radioactive discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague sites; 2) resulting nuclide concentrations in environmental media including foodstuffs; 3) radiation doses from nuclide discharges to critical groups near the sites; 4) adverse health effects near the two sites; and 5) resulting collective doses from nuclide discharges. The report also examines a number of current issues in radiobiology concerning health effects from exposure to ionising radiation, in particular genetic and in utero effects. In addition, in accordance with contract specifications, the report examines other major factors that might influence future decision-making on reprocessing. It provides information on the legal framework, the operational history of the plants and the economic case for reprocessing compared with available alternatives for spent nuclear fuel management. The report also makes policy-related recommendations that take into account current knowledge and uncertainties in risk assessment and the availability of alternatives to reprocessing in spent fuel management. (authors)

  5. Study of the {sup 60}Co speciation in the aqueous radioactive waste of the la Hague nuclear reprocessing plant; environmental behaviour after discharges in the waters of the channel; Etude de la speciation du {sup 60}Co dans les effluents de l'usine de retraitement de combustibles irradies de la Hague; devenir apres rejet dans les eaux de la Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudaire, J.M

    1999-07-01

    {sup 60}Co is produced as an activation product and is present in the low-level aqueous radioactive waste released from the La Hague plant. At present, the concentration in the sea (non filtered at 0.45 {mu}m) at the Goury site are close to or even below, the detection limit: 0.2 mBq.l{sup -1}. The {sup 60}Co speciation depends on the type of effluent considered: in the effluent A ('active'), the cobalt is in the form of a stable trivalent complex; in the effluent V (to be checked), the cobalt is in majority (50% of the activity release) in the form of particles (>0.45 {mu}m), and then in the form of two soluble species: ionic divalent (Co{sup 2+}) and some stable complexes. The evolution of the reprocessing techniques used does not affect the speciation. So, since the nuclear reprocessing plant started at the La Hague plant in 1966, the chemical species discharged in the sea shows time variation related to the evolution of the type of effluent discharged. Thus, since 1994, the particles of cobalt are the main species discharged in the Channel (the V effluents represent more than 85% of the total {sup 60}Co activity released). The effect of instantaneous dilution into the marine conditions involving a variation of pH, oxido-reduction, ionic strength, a gradient of salinity, does not interfere with the evolution of the chemical species discharged. Nevertheless, during the discharge of the V effluent, the main constituents of the sea water (Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}) go through a precipitation. This comes with the coprecipitation of the ion Co{sup 2+} and with the particles of cobalt (complexes are not affected), and it can be responsible for an increase in the concentration in the particles. The chemical behaviour of the cobalt in the Channel is different from those of conservative element such as antimony. The ionic cobalt and the particles have a small dispersion in the water (cobalt has a very high particle/dissolved distribution factor, it is a non

  6. Preliminary study of the {sup 129}I distribution in environment of La Hague reprocessing plant with the help of a terrestrial moss: Homalotecium sericeum. Study report; Etude preliminaire de la repartition de {sup 129}I dans l'environnement de l'usine de retraitement de La Hague a l'aide d'une mousse terrestre: Homalotecium sericeum. Rapport d'etude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The preliminary study of the {sup 129}I distribution has allowed to underline the limits of use of a Homalotecium sericeum type terrestrial moss as biological indicator. However, this preliminary study allowed all the same to give a spatial distribution of this radioelement around La Hague reprocessing plant (source term) that underlines the existence of four geographic areas in function of collected activities. The levels are generally under 99 Bq/kg dry. It is recommended to improve the knowledge that we can have of transfers and quantity of iodine 129 from the marine environment to the terrestrial environment, but also, the one that we can have of factors able to modify the spatial distribution of this radionuclide. (N.C.)

  7. Marine discharges of {sup 129}I by the nuclear reprocessing facilities of La Hague and Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisbeck, G.M.; Yiou, F.; Zhou, Z.Q. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse; Kilius, L.R. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Iso Trace Lab.; Kershaw, P.J. [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), Lowestoft (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    Using measurements in archived seaweed samples, together with official discharge data, estimates were made of the marine discharge time profiles of {sup 129}I from Sellafield (1967-1974) and La Hague (1975-1995). Combined emissions to the end of 1995 are estimated to be {approx} 1.7 tons (11 TBq) and have increased rapidly since {approx} 1990. The current discharge rate is {approx} 250 kg/year, with {approx} 90% coming from La Hague. (author) 9 refs.

  8. International safeguards for reprocessing plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzer, M.; Scheinman, L.; Sievering, N.; Wonder, E.; Lipman, D.; Immerman, W.; Elliott, J.M.; Crane, F.

    1981-04-01

    Proliferation risks inherent in reprocessing show the need to employ technically effective safeguards which can detect, with a high degree of assurance and on a timely basis, the diversion of significant quantities of fissionable material. A balance must be struck between what is technically feasible and effective and what is institutionally acceptable. Purpose of this report is to examine the several technical approaches to safeguards in light of their prospective acceptability. This study defines the economic, political and institutional nature of the safeguards problem; surveys generically alternative technical approaches to international safeguards including their effectiveness and relative development; characterizes the institutional implications and uncertainties associated with the acceptance and implementation of each technical alternative; and integrates these assessments into a set of overall judgments on feasible directions for reprocessing plant safeguards systems.

  9. 10 years of transport of vitrified High Level Waste (HLW) from COGEMA La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancelot, J.; Martinotti, B. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); Tourneux, F. [COGEMA (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    COGEMA has been using, for decades, its large experience of Reprocessing in both Gas Cooled reactors (GCR) and LWR fuels with the following facilities: Marcoule UP1 plant started up in late 50's: La Hague UP2 plant started up in 1966 first with GCR fuels and from 1976 with LWR Fuel (including foreign fuels): La Hague UP3 plant started up in 1990 Foreign Utilities signed Reprocessing Contracts with COGEMA from 1970's, providing returns of residues to the country of origin where they will be managed in a safe storage facility. Therefore, for nearly 30 years Spent Fuel coming from Japan, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and the Netherlands are processed on La Hague site.

  10. Cost and availability of gadolinium for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepper, O.H.

    1985-06-01

    Gadolinium is currently planned for use as a soluble neutron poison in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants to prevent criticality of solutions of spent fuel. Gadolinium is relatively rare and expensive. The present study was undertaken therefore to estimate whether this material is likely to be available in quantities sufficient for fuel reprocessing and at reasonable prices. It was found that gadolinium, one of 16 rare earth elements, appears in the marketplace as a by-product and that its present supply is a function of the production rate of other more prevalent rare earths. The potential demand for gadolinium in a fuel reprocessing facility serving a future fast reactor industry amounts to only a small fraction of the supply. At the present rate of consumption, domestic supplies of rare earths containing gadolinium are adequate to meet national needs (including fuel reprocessing) for over 100 years. With access to foreign sources, US demands can be met well beyond the 21st century. It is concluded therefore that the supply of gadolinium will quite likely be more than adequate for reprocessing spent fuel for the early generation of fast reactors. The current price of 99.99% pure gadolinium oxide lies in the range $50/lb to $65/lb (1984 dollars). By the year 2020, in time for reprocessing spent fuel from an early generation of large fast reactors, the corresponding values are expected to lie in the $60/lb to $75/lb (1984 dollars) price range. This increase is modest and its economic impact on nuclear fuel reprocessing would be minor. The economic potential for recovering gadolinium from the wastes of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants (which use gadolinium neutron poison) was also investigated. The cost of recycled gadolinium was estimated at over twelve times the cost of fresh gadolinium, and thus recycle using current recovery technology is not economical. 15 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Equipment specifications for an electrochemical fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemphill, Kevin P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical reprocessing is a technique used to chemically separate and dissolve the components of spent nuclear fuel, in order to produce new metal fuel. There are several different variations to electrochemical reprocessing. These variations are accounted for by both the production of different types of spent nuclear fuel, as well as different states and organizations doing research in the field. For this electrochemical reprocessing plant, the spent fuel will be in the metallurgical form, a product of fast breeder reactors, which are used in many nuclear power plants. The equipment line for this process is divided into two main categories, the fuel refining equipment and the fuel fabrication equipment. The fuel refining equipment is responsible for separating out the plutonium and uranium together, while getting rid of the minor transuranic elements and fission products. The fuel fabrication equipment will then convert this plutonium and uranium mixture into readily usable metal fuel.

  12. Technical specifications on the welding in fuel reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karino, Motonobu; Uryu, Mitsuru; Matsui, N.; Nakazawa, Fumio; Imanishi, Makoto; Koizumi; Kazuhiko; Sugawara, Junichi; Tanaka, Hideo

    1999-04-01

    The past specifications SGN of the welding in JNC was reexamined for the reprocessing plants in order to further promote the quality control. The specification first concerns the quality of raw materials, items of the quality tests, material management, and qualification standards of the welders. It extends over details of the welding techniques, welding design, welding testings, inspection and the judgment standards. (H. Baba)

  13. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

  14. General Atomic reprocessing pilot plant: description and results of initial testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    In June 1976 General Atomic completed the construction of a reprocessing head-end cold pilot plant. In the year since then, each system within the head end has been used for experiments which have qualified the designs. This report describes the equipment in the plant and summarizes the results of the initial phase of reprocessing testing.

  15. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  16. Guide to the selection, training, and licensing or certification of reprocessing plant operators. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-06-01

    The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 55, establishes procedures and criteria for the licensing of operators, including senior operators, in ''Production and Utilization Facilities'', which includes plants for reprocessing irradiated fuel. A training guide is presented which will facilitate the licensing of operators for nuclear reprocessing plants by offering generalized descriptions of the basic principles (theory) and the unit operations (mechanics) employed in reprocessing spent fuels. In the present volume, details about the portions of a training program that are of major interest to management are presented. (JSR)

  17. Highly Active Liquid Waste concentration using the formaldehyde de-nitration process in the French reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretault, P.; Schneider, J. [AREVA-SGN, 1 Rue des Herons, Montigny le Bretonneux Cedex, 78182 (France); Huel, C.; Bosse, E. [AREVA-NC (France); Juvenelle, A.; Masson, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA (France)

    2009-06-15

    The Highly Active Liquid Waste generated by a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is mainly composed of the raffinate from the first stage of the uranium/plutonium extraction process. This stream contains the vast majority of the fission products and minor actinides which are finally vitrified. The HALW stream is concentrated in order to limit the volume of the interim storage between the extraction process and the vitrification and also to reduce the required evaporation duty of the vitrification process itself. The potential difficulties of this concentration step are the corrosion risk associated to the handling of acidic solution and the possible troubles linked to the formation and precipitation of solid particles. In addition, a highly robust design is a key demand for such high active processes since absolutely no direct maintenance operation will ever be possible after the active commissioning. In La Hague plant operated by AREVA NC the HALW are concentrated using the formaldehyde de-nitration process that was first used at the end of the 50's in the former Marcoule plant. The principle of the process is as follows: - The HALW are concentrated in a kettle type evaporator operated at constant level in a semi-continuous mode, - All along the evaporation sequence, the nitric acid contained in the waste is reduced into nitrous fumes by reaction with formaldehyde. This maintains the free acidity of the concentrate close to 2.5 N, a sufficiently low value to reduce the corrosion risk while minimizing the precipitation of solid compounds, - The nitrous fumes are recombined into nitric which is further purified, concentrated and eventually recycled into the highly active part of the main process. This paper describes with more details the chemical reactions involved, the equipment used and the operating mode of the de-nitration process. It also gives an overview of the 50-years-long operating experience in terms of equipment lifetime, process efficiency and

  18. Transfer of radiocarbon liquid releases from the AREVA La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant in the English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiévet, Bruno; Voiseux, Claire; Rozet, Marianne; Masson, Michel; Bailly du Bois, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The recent risk assessment by the North-Cotentin Radioecology Group (, 1999) outlined that (14)C has become one of the major sources of the low dose to man through seafood consumption. It was recommended that more data should be collected about (14)C in the local marine environment. The present study aims to respond to this recommendation. The estimation of (14)C activity in marine species is based on concentration factor values. The values reported here ranged from 1x10(3) to 5x10(3)Bqkg(-1)ww/BqL(-1). A comparison was made between the observed and predicted values. The accuracy of (14)C activity calculations was estimated between underestimation by a factor of 2 and over-estimation by 50% (95% confidence interval). However, the use of the concentration factor parameter is based on the biological and seawater compartments being in steady state. This assumption may not be met at short distances from the point of release of discharges, where rapid changes in seawater concentration may be smoothed out in living organisms due to transfer kinetics. The data processing technique, previously published by Fiévet and Plet (2003. Estimating biological half-lives of radionuclides in marine compartments from environmental time-series measurements. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 65, 91-107), was used to deal with (14)C transfer kinetics, and carbon half-lives between seawater and a few biological compartments were thus estimated.

  19. De plantengemeenschappen van de Wassenaarse duinen = (The plant communities of the Wassenaar dunes near The Hague)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerboom, J.H.A.

    1960-01-01

    The plant communities on about 1800 ha of dunes were studied before any consequences could be observed of percolation since 1955 of fresh water stored underground for mains supply. Classification was by the French-Swiss and sometimes the Scandinavian sociological system. Some difficulties of

  20. PAREX, a numerical code in the service of La Hague plant operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisson, J.; Huron, P.; Huel, C. [AREVA NC, La Hague Plant, Technical Direction, 50444, Beaumont-Hague (France); Dinh, B. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry and Process Department, F-30207, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2016-07-01

    The PAREX code developed by the CEA is able to simulate the PUREX process in steady or transient state. From an operator point of view, this numerical code for simulation of liquid-liquid extraction operations is an outstanding tool as an aid for plant operation through process flow sheet optimization, troubleshooting and safety analysis calculations. This paper focuses on two examples. The first concerns the evaluation of the available operating margin of the extraction zone of the first purification cycle flowsheet. The second example concerns a uranium-plutonium splitting operation where the code was used to explain a shift of plutonium concentration in the solvent outlet. (authors)

  1. Development of robot arm for automatic analytical operation in nuclear reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibayama, S.; Ohnishi, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Hayashibara, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago Research and Development Center, Takasago-shi, Hyogo-Ken (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The analytical work in the nuclear reprocessing plant is very important role to operate the plant in normal and safety. The new compact robot arm has been developed for the automatic analytical system installed in the analytical box with the heavy shielding and confirmed the availability for this system by results of several validation tests. (author)

  2. Selective absorption pilot plant for decontamination of fuel reprocessing plant off-gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, M.J.; Eby, R.S.; Huffstetler, V.C.

    1977-10-01

    A fluorocarbon-based selective absorption process for removing krypton-85, carbon-14, and radon-222 from the off-gas of conventional light water and advanced reactor fuel reprocessing plants is being developed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant in conjunction with fuel recycle work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the Savannah River Laboratory. The process is characterized by an especially high tolerance for many other reprocessing plant off-gas components. This report presents detailed drawings and descriptions of the second generation development pilot plant as it has evolved after three years of operation. The test facility is designed on the basis of removing 99% of the feed gas krypton and 99.9% of the carbon and radon, and can handle a nominal 15 scfm (425 slm) of contaminated gas at pressures from 100 to 600 psig (7.0 to 42.2 kg/cm/sup 2/) and temperatures from minus 45 to plus 25/sup 0/F (-43 to -4/sup 0/C). Part of the development program is devoted to identifying flowsheet options and simplifications that lead to an even more economical and reliable process. Two of these applicative flowsheets are discussed.

  3. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, W.S.; Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1982-05-20

    The Safety Technology Group is developing methodology that can be used to assess the risk of operating a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. As an early step in the methodology, a preliminary hazards analysis identifies safety-related incidents. In the absence of appropriate safety features, these incidents could lead to significant consequences and risk to onsite personnel or to the public. This report is a compilation of potential safety-related incidents that have been identified in studies at SRL and in safety analyses of various commercially designed reprocessing plants. It is an expanded revision of the version originally published as DP-1558, Published December 1980.

  4. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance. (DLC)

  5. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants B Appendix B to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC...: reactor physics, stress, thermal, hydraulic, and accident analyses; compatibility of materials...

  6. Designing and Operating for Safeguards: Lessons Learned From the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael

    2010-08-07

    This paper will address the lessons learned during the implementation of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) which are relevant to the issue of ‘safeguards by design’. However, those lessons are a result of a cumulative history of international safeguards experiences starting with the West Valley reprocessing plant in 1969, continuing with the Barnwell plant, and then with the implementation of international safeguards at WAK in Germany and TRP in Japan. The design and implementation of safeguards at RRP in Japan is the latest and most challenging that the IAEA has faced. This paper will discuss the work leading up to the development of a safeguards approach, the design and operating features that were introduced to improve or aid in implementing the safeguards approach, and the resulting recommendations for future facilities. It will provide an overview of how ‘safeguardability’ was introduced into RRP.

  7. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  8. Application of laser induced fluorescence analysis to nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashibara, Hirofumi; Miyake, Takafumi; Izumi, Jyun [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo (Japan). Takasago Research and Development Center; Taguchi, Syouzou; Watanabe, Ryuuichi

    1996-09-01

    In nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, to maintain the system integrity, many kinds of chemical analysis must be done. However, with chemical analysis performed under a high radiation field, to reduce the occupational radiation exposure, a new type of trace analysis technique is desirable, concerning the technique of trace analysis, a laser ray method enables us to achieve higher sensitivity and selectivity than the conventional methods, due to its higher energy and narrow spectral width. Then, we developed a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) method and performed an application study for fuel reprocessing plants by using the simulated samples. Main investigated analyzed elements are an impurities of uranium in nitric acid solution. As a result of this investigation, a pretreatment procedure of analysis was found to be simple compared with the conventional analysis method. (author)

  9. Decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley, New York, Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, L F; Nemec, J F; Koochi, A K

    1978-06-01

    The methodology and numerical values of NUREG-0278 were applied to four decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The cost and impacts of the following four alternatives for the process building, fuel receiving and storage, waste tank farm, and auxiliary facilities were assessed: (1) layaway, (2) protective storage, (3) preparation for alternate nuclear use, and (4) dismantlement. The estimated costs are 5.7, 11, 19, and 31 million dollars, respectively. (DLC)

  10. Lessons Learned in International Safeguards - Implementation of Safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehinger, Michael H [ORNL; Johnson, Shirley [Tucker Creek Consulting

    2010-02-01

    The focus of this report is lessons learned at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). However, the subject of lessons learned for application of international safeguards at reprocessing plants includes a cumulative history of inspections starting at the West Valley (New York, U.S.A.) reprocessing plant in 1969 and proceeding through all of the efforts over the years. The RRP is the latest and most challenging application the International Atomic Energy Agency has faced. In many ways the challenges have remained the same, timely inspection and evaluation with limited inspector resources, with the continuing realization that planning and preparations can never start early enough in the life cycle of a facility. Lessons learned over the years have involved the challenges of using ongoing advances in technology and dealing with facilities with increased throughput and continuous operation. This report will begin with a review of historical developments and lessons learned. This will provide a basis for a discussion of the experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of international safeguards at RRP.

  11. Nuclear fuel reprocessing deactivation plan for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, M.W.

    1994-10-01

    The decision was announced on April 28, 1992 to cease all United States Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels. This decision leads to the deactivation of all fuels dissolution, solvent extraction, krypton gas recovery operations, and product denitration at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The reprocessing facilities will be converted to a safe and stable shutdown condition awaiting future alternate uses or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This ICPP Deactivation Plan includes the scope of work, schedule, costs, and associated staffing levels necessary to achieve a safe and orderly deactivation of reprocessing activities and the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). Deactivation activities primarily involve shutdown of operating systems and buildings, fissile and hazardous material removal, and related activities. A minimum required level of continued surveillance and maintenance is planned for each facility/process system to ensure necessary environmental, health, and safety margins are maintained and to support ongoing operations for ICPP facilities that are not being deactivated. Management of the ICPP was transferred from Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) to Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on October 1, 1994 as part of the INEL consolidated contract. This revision of the deactivation plan (formerly the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Phaseout Plan for the ICPP) is being published during the consolidation of the INEL site-wide contract and the information presented here is current as of October 31, 1994. LITCO has adopted the existing plans for the deactivation of ICPP reprocessing facilities and the plans developed under WINCO are still being actively pursued, although the change in management may result in changes which have not yet been identified. Accordingly, the contents of this plan are subject to revision.

  12. Krypton-85 health risk assessment for a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-08-01

    The risks involved in the routine release of /sup 85/Kr from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations to the environment were compared to those resulting from the capture and storage of /sup 85/Kr. Instead of releasing the /sup 85/Kr to the environment when fuel is reprocessed, it can be captured, immobilized and stored. Two alternative methods of capturing /sup 85/Kr (cryogenic distillation and fluorocarbon absorption) and one method of immobilizing the captured gas (ion implantation/sputtering) were theoretically incorporated into a representative fuel reprocessing plant, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, even though there are no known plans to start up this facility. Given the uncertainties in the models used to generate lifetime risk numbers (0.02 to 0.027 radiation induced fatal cancers expected in the occupational workforce and 0.017 fatal cancers in the general population), the differences in total risks for the three situations, (i.e., no-capture and two-capture alternatives) cannot be considered meaningful. It is possible that no risks would occur from any of the three situations. There is certainly no reason to conclude that risks from /sup 85/Kr routinely released to the environment are greater than those that would result from the other two situations considered. Present regulations mandate recovery and disposal of /sup 85/Kr from the off gases of a facility reprocessing spent fuel from commercial sources. Because of the lack of a clear-cut indication that recovery woud be beneficial, it does not seem prudent to burden the facilities with a requirement for /sup 85/Kr recovery, at least until operating experience demonstrates the incentive. The probable high aging of the early fuel to be processed and the higher dose resulting from the release of the unregulated /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C also encourage delaying implementation of the /sup 85/Kr recovery in the early plants.

  13. Report on dynamic analysis of seismic isolated building of utility facility in Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Shinohara, Takaharu; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Sakaguchi, Shinobu; Kondo, Toshinari; Hosoya, Hisashi

    1998-03-01

    Building of utility facility in Tokai Reprocessing Plant is planned to adopt a seismic isolated structure using seismic isolators comprising of laminated rubber and lead damper. In this report, in addition to a reference earthquake motion for the conventional earthquake resistant structure (Osaki`s method) adapted to nuclear facilities with high importance in earthquake resistance, a dynamic analysis method of building for the reference earthquake motion (various long period earthquake motion estimation methods) for seismic isolated structure containing its own period (about 3 sec. by equalized own period) of the building was described. (G.K.)

  14. HTGR fuel reprocessing pilot plant: results of the sequential equipment operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.B.; Fields, D.E.; Kergis, C.A.

    1979-05-01

    The second sequential operation of the HTGR fuel reprocessing cold-dry head-end pilot plant equipment has been successfully completed. Twenty standard LHGTR fuel elements were crushed to a size suitable for combustion in a fluid bed burner. The graphite was combusted leaving a product of fissile and fertile fuel particles. These particles were separated in a pneumatic classifier. The fissile particles were fractured and reburned in a fluid bed to remove the inner carbon coatings. The remaining products are ready for dissolution and solvent extraction fuel recovery.

  15. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  16. Public investigations Cogema La Hague. Joint public investigations relative to the modification requests of the modified decrees of the 12. may 1981, investing irradiated fuels processing plants creation UP3-A(INB 116) and UP2-800 (INB 117), and liquid effluents and solid wastes processing plant STE3(INB 118), operated by Cogema on the La Hague site 2 february - 17 may 2000; Enquetes publiques Cogema La Hague. Enquetes publiques conjointes relatives aux demandes de modification des decrets du 12 mai 1981 modifies, autorisant la creation des usines de traitement de combustibles irradies UP3-A (INB 116) et UP2-800 (INB 117), et de la station de traitement des effluents liquides et des dechets solides STE3 (INB 118), exploitees par COGEMA sur le site de La Hague 2 fevrier - 17 mai 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommies, R

    2000-07-01

    This document presents the results of the investigation commission concerning three public investigations. These investigations have been done in order to modify the decrees investing the two irradiated fuels processing plants and one solid wastes processing plant creation at La Hague. The commission gave a favourable agreement for these requests of modification with two reserves concerning the environmental and public health impacts and the spent fuels type. (A.L.B.)

  17. Initiating events study of the first extraction cycle process in a model reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renze; Zhang, Jian Gang; Zhuang, Dajie; Feng, Zong Yang [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    2016-06-15

    Definition and grouping of initiating events (IEs) are important basics for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). An IE in a spent fuel reprocessing plant (SFRP) is an event that probably leads to the release of dangerous material to jeopardize workers, public and environment. The main difference between SFRPs and nuclear power plants (NPPs) is that hazard materials spread diffusely in a SFRP and radioactive material is just one kind of hazard material. Since the research on IEs for NPPs is in-depth around the world, there are several general methods to identify IEs: reference of lists in existence, review of experience feedback, qualitative analysis method, and deductive analysis method. While failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is an important qualitative analysis method, master logic diagram (MLD) method is the deductive analysis method. IE identification in SFRPs should be consulted with the experience of NPPs, however the differences between SFRPs and NPPs should be considered seriously. The plutonium uranium reduction extraction (Purex) process is adopted by the technics in a model reprocessing plant. The first extraction cycle (FEC) is the pivotal process in the Purex process. Whether the FEC can function safely and steadily would directly influence the production process of the whole plant-production quality. Important facilities of the FEC are installed in the equipment cells (ECs). In this work, IEs in the FEC process were identified and categorized by FMEA and MLD two methods, based on the fact that ECs are containments in the plant. The results show that only two ECs in the FEC do not need to be concerned particularly with safety problems, and criticality, fire and red oil explosion are IEs which should be emphatically analyzed. The results are accordant with the references.

  18. Control of radio-iodine at the German reprocessing plant WAK during operation and after shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Kuhn, K.D. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been determined. Most of the iodine is evolved into the dissolver off-gas in volatile form. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and especially gaseous process and waste streams. After shut down of the plant in January 1991, iodine measurements in the off-gas streams have been continued up to now. Whereas the iodine-129 concentration in the dissolver off-gas dropped during six months after shutdown by three orders of magnitude, the iodine concentrations in the vessel ventilation system of the PUREX process and the cell vent system decreased only by a factor of 10 during the same period. Iodine-129 releases of the liquid high active waste storage tanks did not decrease distinctly. The removal efficiencies of the silver impregnated iodine filters in the different off-gas streams of the WAK plant depend on the iodine concentration in the off-gas. The reason of the observed dependence of the DF on the iodine-129 concentration might be due to the presence of organic iodine compounds which are difficult to remove. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

    2013-09-01

    Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

  20. Waste treatment at the La Hague and Marcoule sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    In this report, an overview of waste treatment and solidification facilities located at the La Hague and Marcoule sites, which are owned and/or operated by Cogema, provided. The La Hague facilities described in this report include the following: The STE3 liquid effluent treatment facility (in operation); the AD2 solid waste processing facility (also in operation); and the UCD alpha waste treatment facility (under construction). The Marcoule facilities described in this report, both of which are in operation, include the following: The STEL-EVA liquid effluent treatment facilities for the entire site; and the alpha waste incinerator of the UPI plant. This report is organized into four sections: this introduction, low-level waste treatment at La Hague, low-level waste treatment at Marcoule, and new process development. including the solvent pyrolysis process currently in the development stage for Cogema`s plants.

  1. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Jenkins, C.E.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1977-09-01

    Safety and cost information were developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a fuel reprocessing plant with characteristics similar to the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. The main process building, spent fuel receiving and storage station, liquid radioactive waste storage tank system, and a conceptual high-level waste-solidification facility were postulated to be decommissioned. The plant was conceptually decommissioned to three decommissioning states or modes; layaway, protective storage, and dismantlement. Assuming favorable work performance, the elapsed time required to perform the decommissioning work in each mode following plant shutdown was estimated to be 2.4 years for layaway, 2.7 years for protective storage, and 5.2 years for dismantlement. In addition to these times, approximately 2 years of planning and preparation are required before plant shutdown. Costs, in constant 1975 dollars, for decommissioning were estimated to be $18 million for layaway, $19 million for protective storage and $58 million for dismantlement. Maintenance and surveillance costs were estimated to be $680,000 per year after layaway and $140,000 per year after protective storage. The combination mode of protective storage followed by dismantlement deferred for 10, 30, and 100 years was estimated to cost $64 million, $67 million and $77 million, respectively, in nondiscounted total 1975 dollars. Present values of these costs give reduced costs as dismantlement is deferred. Safety analyses indicate that radiological and nonradiological safety impacts from decommissioning activities should be small. The 50-year radiation dose commitment to the members of the public from airborne releases from normal decommissioning activities were estimated to be less than 11 man-rem.

  2. Silica-based waste form for immobilization of iodine from reprocessing plant off-gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyáš, Josef; Canfield, Nathan; Sulaiman, Sannoh; Zumhoff, Mac

    2016-08-01

    A high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine and a feasible consolidation to a durable SiO2-based waste form makes silver-functionalized silica aerogel (Ag0-aerogel) an attractive choice for the removal and sequestration of iodine compounds from the off-gas of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Hot uniaxial pressing of iodine-loaded Ag0-aerogel (20.2 mass% iodine) at 1200°C for 30 min under 29 MPa pressure provided a partially sintered product with residual open porosity of 16.9% that retained ~93% of sorbed iodine. Highly iodine-loaded Ag0-aerogel was successfully consolidated by hot isostatic pressing at 1200°C with a 30-min hold and under 207 MPa. The fully densified waste form had a bulk density of 3.3 g/cm3 and contained ~39 mass% iodine. The iodine was retained in the form of nano- and micro-particles of AgI that were uniformly distributed inside and along boundaries of fused silica grains.

  3. Silica-based waste form for immobilization of iodine from reprocessing plant off-gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyáš, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Matyas@pnnl.gov [Radiological Materials & Technology Development, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Canfield, Nathan [Electrochemical Materials and Systems, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Sulaiman, Sannoh; Zumhoff, Mac [Radiological Materials & Technology Development, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    A high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine and a feasible consolidation to a durable SiO{sub 2}-based waste form makes silver-functionalized silica aerogel (Ag{sup 0}-aerogel) an attractive choice for the removal and sequestration of iodine compounds from the off-gas of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Hot uniaxial pressing of iodine-loaded Ag{sup 0}-aerogel (20.2 mass% iodine) at 1200 °C for 30 min under 29 MPa pressure provided a partially sintered product with residual open porosity of 16.9% that retained ∼93% of sorbed iodine. Highly iodine-loaded Ag{sup 0}-aerogel was successfully consolidated by hot isostatic pressing at 1200 °C with a 30-min hold and under 207 MPa. The fully densified waste form had a bulk density of 3.3 × 10{sup 3} kg/m{sup 3} and contained ∼39 mass% iodine. The iodine was retained in the form of nano- and micro-particles of AgI that were uniformly distributed inside and along boundaries of fused silica grains. - Highlights: • Silver-functionalized silica aerogel is an effective sorbent and a viable waste form for iodine. • Simultaneous application of fast heating rates and high pressures produced a fully dense product. • HIPing produced a fully consolidated waste form with a bulk density of 3.3 × 10{sup 3} kg/m{sup 3} and containing ∼39 mass% of iodine.

  4. Component failure-rate data with potential applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, A.H.; Perkins, W.C.

    1982-07-01

    Approximately 1223 pieces of component failure-rate data, under 136 subject categories, have been compiled from published literature and computer searches of a number of data bases. Component selections were based on potential applicability to facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuels. The data will be useful in quantifying fault trees for probabilistic safety analyses and risk assessments.

  5. Modelling the transfer of 14C from the atmosphere to grass: a case study in a grass field near AREVA-NC La Hague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulagnier, C; Le Dizès, S; Maro, D; Hébert, D; Lardy, R; Martin, R; Gonze, M-A

    2012-10-01

    Radioactive (14)C is formed as a by-product of nuclear power generation and from operation of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants like AREVA-NC La Hague (North France), which releases about 15 TBq per year of (14)C into the atmosphere. Since the autumn of 2006, (14)C activity concentrations in samples from the terrestrial environment (air, grass and soil) have been monitored monthly on grassland 2 km downwind of the reprocessing plant. The monitoring data provides an opportunity to validate radioecology models used to assess (14)C transfer to grassland ecosystems. This article compares and discusses the ability of two different models to reproduce the observed temporal variability in grass (14)C activity in the vicinity of AREVA-NC La Hague. These two models are the TOCATTA model which is specifically designed for modelling transfer of (14)C and tritium in the terrestrial environment, and PaSim, a pasture model for simulating grassland carbon and nitrogen cycling. Both TOCATTA and PaSim tend to under-estimate the magnitude of observed peaks in grass (14)C activity, although they reproduce the general trends. PaSim simulates (14)C activities in substrate and structural pools of the plant. We define a mean turn-over time for (14)C within the plant, which is based on both experimental data and the frequency of cuts. An adapted PaSim result is presented using the 15 and 20 day moving average results for the (14)C activity in the substrate pool, which shows a good match to the observations. This model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by nearly 40% in comparison to TOCATTA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Hoeflich, V. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The La Hague pools; Les piscines de La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbib, Jean-Claude; Quetel, Ghislain; Guillemette, Andre

    2011-12-08

    As the Fukushima accident highlighted the possibility of an unforeseen event, and the difficulties to manage at the same time the cooling of the core cooling and of the pool in which used fuel is stored during one or two years, this report addresses the safety issues for storage pools such as those present on the AREVA site in La Hague. The authors recall and discuss some design aspects, notably those regarding seismic resistance and the existence of a breach. They describe and comment how these pools are managed as far as fuel assembly downloading, pool water contamination, thermal exchange between irradiated fuels and pool waters, and pool content evolution are concerned. Then, they focus on pool seismic resistance, on water supply capacities, on other safety criteria, and on risk management. They finally draw some lessons from the Fukushima accident

  8. Report on the NGS3 Working Group on Safeguards by Design For Aqueous Reprocessing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael; Schanfein, Mark

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the Working Group on SBD for Aqueous Reprocessing Facilities was to provide recommendations, for facility operators and designers, which would aid in the coordination and integration of nuclear material accountancy and the safeguards requirements of all concerned parties - operators, state/regional authorities, and the IAEA. The recommendations, which are to be provided to the IAEA, are intended to assist in optimizing facility design and operating parameters to ensure the safeguardability of the facility while minimizing impact on the operations. The one day Working Group session addressed a wide range of design and operating topics.

  9. Evaluation of methods for decladding LWR fuel for a pyroprocessing-based reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, W.D.; Mailen, J.C.; Michaels, G.E.

    1992-10-01

    The first step in reprocessing disassembled light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel is to separate the zirconium-based cladding from the UO{sub 2} fuel. A survey of decladding technologies has been performed to identify candidate decladding processes suitable for LWR fuel and compatible with downstream pyropr for separation of actinides and fission products. Technologies for the primary separation of Zircaloy cladding from oxide fuel and for secondary separations (in most cases, a further decontamination of the cladding) were reviewed. Because cutting of the fuel cladding is a necessary step in all flowsheet options, metal cutting technologies were also briefly evaluated. The assessment of decladding processes resulted in the identification of the three or four potentially attractive options that may warrant additional near-term evaluation. These options are summarized, and major strengths and issues of each option are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of methods for decladding LWR fuel for a pyroprocessing-based reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, W.D.; Mailen, J.C.; Michaels, G.E.

    1992-10-01

    The first step in reprocessing disassembled light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel is to separate the zirconium-based cladding from the UO[sub 2] fuel. A survey of decladding technologies has been performed to identify candidate decladding processes suitable for LWR fuel and compatible with downstream pyropr for separation of actinides and fission products. Technologies for the primary separation of Zircaloy cladding from oxide fuel and for secondary separations (in most cases, a further decontamination of the cladding) were reviewed. Because cutting of the fuel cladding is a necessary step in all flowsheet options, metal cutting technologies were also briefly evaluated. The assessment of decladding processes resulted in the identification of the three or four potentially attractive options that may warrant additional near-term evaluation. These options are summarized, and major strengths and issues of each option are discussed.

  11. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities 1. Public health... facilities for the temporary storage of highlevel radioactive wastes, may be located on privately owned...

  12. Report from the production and exchanges commission about the resolution proposal (no 2937) of Mr Noel Mamere which aims at creating an inquiry commission relative to the existence and storage of ultimate nuclear wastes at the Hague plant, in violation of the law from December 30, 1991, and under the liabilities of Cogema; Rapport fait au nom de la commission de la production et des echanges sur la proposition de resolution (no 2937) de M. Noel Mamere tendant a creer une commission d'enquete relative a l'existence et au stockage de dechets nucleaires non retraitables a l'usine de la Hague, en violation de la loi du 30 decembre 1991, et sur les responsabilites de la Cogema en la matiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bono, M. [Assemblee Nationale, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-04-01

    This document presents the motives of the French production and exchanges commission for the rejection of the proposal from the French 'green' deputy Noel Mamere about the creation of an inquiry commission which would aim at verifying the illegal storage of irradiated MOX fuels from German nuclear facilities at the Cogema La Hague plant. (J.S.)

  13. Tritium concentrations in the atmospheric environment at Rokkasho, Japan before the final testing of the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Shima, Nagayoshi; Iyogi, Takashi; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed at obtaining background tritium concentrations in precipitation and air at Rokkasho where the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan has been under construction. Tritium concentration in monthly precipitation during fiscal years 2001-2005 had a seasonal variation pattern which was high in spring and low in summer. The tritium concentration was higher than that observed at Chiba City as a whole. The seasonal peak concentration at Rokkasho was generally higher than that at Chiba City, while the baseline concentrations of both were similar. The reason for the difference may be the effect of air mass from the Asian continent which is considered to have high tritium concentration. Atmospheric tritium was operationally separated into HTO, HT and hydrocarbon (CH(3)T) fractions, and the samples collected every 3 d-14 d during fiscal year 2005 were analyzed for these fractions. The HTO concentration as radioactivity in water correlated well with that in the precipitation samples. The HT concentration was the highest among the chemical forms analyzed, followed by the HTO and CH(3)T concentrations. The HT and CH(3)T concentrations did not have clear seasonal variation patterns. The HT concentration followed the decline previously reported by Mason and Östlund with an apparent half-life of 4.8 y. The apparent and environmental half-lives of CH(3)T were estimated as 9.2 y and 36.5 y, respectively, by combining the present data with literature data. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change used the atmospheric lifetime of 12 y for CH(4) to estimate global warming in its 2007 report. The longer environmental half-life of CH(3)T suggested its supply from other sources than past nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of the CELVA-1D code to evaluate the safety of an air-ventilation system during postulated fire and explosion in the reprocessing plant. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Gunji; Watanabe, Kouji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kouno, Kouji; Yamazaki, Noboru; Mukaide, Shigeo; Yoshioka, Itsuo

    1998-03-01

    The CELVA-1D computer code was developed to evaluate the confinement of radioactive materials during postulated fire and explosion in a cell of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The CELVA-1D code calculates a response of temperature, pressure, flow velocity of fluid in an air-ventilation system of the plants by one-dimensional thermofluid analysis and calculates an ability to confine radioactive aerosol particles by transport, deposition, and HEPA filtration. The mathematical models in CELVA-1D were verified by comparison of the calculation with the result of JAERI`s demonstration tests simulating hypothetical fire and explosion accidents in the cell. (author)

  15. Standard model for the safety analysis report of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; Modelo padrao para relatorio de analise de seguranca de usinas de reprocessamento de combustiveis nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-15

    This norm establishes the Standard Model for the Safety Analysis Report of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants, comprehending the presentation format, the detailing level of the minimum information required by the CNEN for evaluation the requests of Construction License or Operation Authorization, in accordance with the legislation in force. This regulation applies to the following basic reports: Preliminary Safety Analysis Report - PSAR, integrating part of the requirement of Construction License; and Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) which is the integrating part of the requirement for Operation Authorization.

  16. Tritium enrichment for process flow streams of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant having a hot-cold system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, H.; Schindewolf, U.

    1988-07-01

    During the nuclear fuel reprocessing tritium is partially transferred into the aqueous process streams. At normal pressure, the most promising enrichment method appears to be an inverse current exchanger system using electrolysis at the bottom of the inverse current column apparatus and recombination in an oxyhydrogen gas flame at the top of the column apparatus. A hydrophobic catalyst is used which is made of a pulverized mix of platinized activated carbon and PTFE.

  17. Improving ATLAS reprocessing software

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    For my CERN Summer Student programme I have been working with ATLAS reprocessing group. Data taken at ATLAS experiment is not only processed after being taken, but is also reprocessed multiple times afterwards. This allows applying new alignments, calibration of detector and using improved or faster algorithms. Reprocessing is usually done in campaigns for different periods of data or for different interest groups. The idea of my project was to simplify the definition of tasks and monitoring of their progress. I created a LIST configuration files generator script in Python and a monitoring webpage for tracking current reprocessing tasks.

  18. Influence of releases of (129)I and (137)Cs from European reprocessing facilities in Fucus vesiculosus and seawater from the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; Holm, E; Niagolova, N; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Pinto-Gómez, A R; Abril, J A; García-León, M

    2014-08-01

    (129)I is a very long-lived radionuclide (T1/2=15.7×10(6) years) that is present in the environment because of natural and anthropogenic sources. Compared to the pre-nuclear era, large amounts of (129)I have been released to the marine environment, especially as liquid and gaseous discharges from two European reprocessing facilities located at Sellafield (England) and La Hague (France). The marine environment, i.e., the oceans, is the major source of iodine. Brown seaweed accumulates iodine at high levels up to 1.0% of dry weigh, and therefore they are ideal bioindicators for studying levels of (129)I. In this work, (129)I concentrations have been determined in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and seawater collected in the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas in July 2007. The resulting data were evaluated in terms of (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios. (129)I concentrations were found to be in the order of (44-575)×10(9) atoms g(-1) in seaweed and (5.4-51)×10(9) atoms g(-1) in seawater, with an enhancement in the Skagerrak area in comparison to the Kattegat area. Iodine-129 concentrations in both seaweed and seawater were used to determine the concentration factor of iodine in brown seaweed F. vesiculosus. The high levels of (129)I and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios in the Skagerrak area and their gradually decreasing trend to the Kattegat indicates that the most important contribution to the (129)I inventory in those areas comes from Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Toward an urban geography of diplomacy: lessons from The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.; Meijer, A.; Sidaway, J.; van der Wusten, H.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the microgeography of diplomacy, particularly its localized embodiment in a corps diplomatique and international governmental organizations. Drawing on the case of The Hague, we map embassies and consider the locations of organizations engaged with interstate and transnational

  20. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Nick R. Soelberg; Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law; Robert Jubin; Denis M. Strachan; Praveen K. Thallapally

    2013-01-01

    The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radio...

  1. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

  2. Geohydrologic conditions at the nuclear-fuels reprocessing plant and waste-management facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, M.P.; Kappel, W.M.; Yager, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant, a high-level radioactive liquid-waste tank complex, and related waste facilities occupy 100 hectares (ha) within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center near West Valley, N.Y. The facilities are underlain by glacial and postglacial deposits that fill an ancestrial bedrock valley. The main plant facilities are on an elevated plateau referred to as the north plateau. Groundwater on the north plateau moves laterally within a surficial sand and gravel from the main plant building to areas northeast, east, and southeast of the facilities. The sand and gravel ranges from 1 to 10 m thick and has a hydraulic conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 7.9 m/day. Two separate burial grounds, a 4-ha area for low-level radioactive waste disposal and a 2.9-ha area for disposal of higher-level waste are excavated into a clay-rich till that ranges from 22 to 28 m thick. Migration of an organic solvent from the area of higher level waste at shallow depth in the till suggests that a shallow, fractured, oxidized, and weathered till is a significant pathway for lateral movement of groundwater. Below this zone, groundwater moves vertically downward through the till to recharge a lacustrine silt and fine sand. Within the saturated parts of the lacustrine unit, groundwater moves laterally to the northeast toward Buttermilk Creek. Hydraulic conductivity of the till, based on field and laboratory analyses , ranges from 0.000018 to 0.000086 m/day. (USGS)

  3. Hot air in Kyoto, cold air in The Hague

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    Why did the climate negotiations in The Hague fail? Our contribution is to argue that the conflict between the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) stems mainly from disagreement on the cost issue. We argue that three main concerns promoted by the EU in The Hague. First, a 50% national....... The US will face considerably higher costs than foreseen at the negotiations in Kyoto and will have strong incentives to free ride. Our main hypothesis is that the EU proposal on supplementarity made the US turn to free riding. Thus, to make the US stay in an international GHG emission-trading scheme...

  4. Hot air in Kyoto, cold air in The Hague

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Urs; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    Summary: Why did the climate negotiations in The Hague fail? Our contribution is to argue that the conflict between the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) stems mainly from disagreement on the cost issue. We argue that three main concerns promoted by the EU in The Hague. First, a 50...... authority. The US will face considerably higher costs than foreseen at the negotiations in Kyoto and will have strong incentives to free ride. Our main hypothesis is that the EU proposal on supplementarity made the US turn to free riding. Thus, to make the US stay in an international GHG emission...

  5. 78 FR 71869 - Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... organizations by filing a single, standardized international design application in a single language. Title I of... International Bureau under the Hague Agreement in English. See Hague Agreement Article 10(3) and Rule 6(2). See..., 5, et al. Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of...

  6. Investigation of special resins for the extraction-chromatogaphic separation of Np and Pu from the process stream of a reprocessing plant for HTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.

    1977-03-15

    The effectiveness of several special resins for extraction chromatographic separation of plutonium and neptunium from the process streams of a reprocessing plant was investigated. These special resins consisted of polystyrol and were loaded with Tri-n-octylamine (TOA) during the polymerization process. A commercial structural body of polytrifluormonochlorethylene (Voltalef), subsequently wetted with TOA, served as reference material. Despite its good separation characteristics, this separation body has considerable disadvantages. The individual particles of separation body are only approximately spherical, the homogeneity of the separation bed is consequently only moderate. This size (85% less than 0.062 mm) and the shape of the separation body particles cause high pressure loss in the solution which streams through. Filling the column with the Voltalef separation body is very complicated and often not reproducible. A relatively high elution rate of the stationary phase and low radiation resistance are other disadvantages of this separation body. Because of the unfavorable characteristics of the Voltalef separation body, the above mentioned polystyrol resins have been developed by the Bayer firm. The individual separation body particles of these resins have ideal spherical shape. The diameter of the spheres is 0.4 to 0.6 mm, causing only slight pressure losses in a chromatographic column. A homogeneous and compact column fill is much simpler to achieve with these resins than with Voltalef. Radiation resistance and elution rate of the polystyrol resins correspond to the expectations which must be met during hot operation. The separation characteristics of the investigated polystyrol resins are not optimum, however. The relatively large separation body particles considerably delay the establishment of equilibrium, for two reasons. The rate-determining step during loading is diffusion through an aqueous film, which surrounds the separation body particles.

  7. Reprocessing weld and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killian, M.L.; Lewis, H.E.

    1993-08-03

    A process is described for improving the fatigue resistance of a small primary structural weld at a joint between structural members of a weldment, the weld having been made with the welding energy input of E[sub 1], the process comprising: applying a reprocessing weld on at least a portion of either one or both toes of the primary structural weld, thereby covering said toe portion, the reprocessing weld containing a filler metal and having a cross-sectional area which is less than the corresponding cross-sectional area of the primary structural weld, the reprocessing weld extending onto the face of the primary structural weld at one side of the toe portion covered and onto the structural member at the other side of the toe portion covered, and the total welding energy input, E[sub 2], used in said reprocessing the primary structural weld being less than the welding energy input E[sub 1] of the primary structural weld.

  8. The New Democratic Diplomacy: The Hague Appeal for Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Cora Weiss

    2000-01-01

    Cora Weiss describes how the Hague Appeal for Peace, a global coalition of civil society organizations, sponsored a world conference in May 1999 on the centennial of the world's first peace conference. The coalition used the new democratic diplomacy to bring together governments and inter-governmental organizations, especially the United Nations, with civil society. It sees this alliance as the formula for securing social and political change to achieve peace and justice and to promote univer...

  9. Case outsourcing medical device reprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Deborah

    2004-04-01

    IN THE INTEREST OF SAVING MONEY, many hospitals are considering extending the life of some single-use medical devices by using medical device reprocessing programs. FACILITIES OFTEN LACK the resources required to meet the US Food and Drug Administration's tough quality assurance standards. BY OUTSOURCING, hospitals can reap the benefits of medical device reprocessing without assuming additional staffing and compliance burdens. OUTSOURCING enables hospitals to implement a medical device reprocessing program quickly, with no capital investment and minimal effort.

  10. Integrated international safeguards concepts for fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Whitty, W.J.; Camp, A.L.; Cameron, C.P.; Bleck, M.E.; Ellwein, L.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of efforts by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to identify problems and propose solutions for international safeguarding of light-water reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plants. Problem areas for international safeguards were identified in a previous Problem Statement (LA-7551-MS/SAND79-0108). Accounting concepts that could be verified internationally were presented in a subsequent study (LA-8042). Concepts for containment/surveillance were presented, conceptual designs were developed, and the effectiveness of these designs was evaluated in a companion study (SAND80-0160). The report discusses the coordination of nuclear materials accounting and containment/surveillance concepts in an effort to define an effective integrated safeguards system. The Allied-General Nuclear Services fuels reprocessing plant at Barnwell, South Carolina, was used as the reference facility.

  11. Radioactive Semivolatiles in Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, B. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In nuclear fuel reprocessing, various radioactive elements enter the gas phase from the unit operations found in the reprocessing facility. In previous reports, the pathways and required removal were discussed for four radionuclides known to be volatile, 14C, 3H, 129I, and 85Kr. Other, less volatile isotopes can also report to the off-gas streams in a reprocessing facility. These were reported to be isotopes of Cs, Cd, Ru, Sb, Tc, and Te. In this report, an effort is made to determine which, if any, of 24 semivolatile radionuclides could be released from a reprocessing plant and, if so, what would be the likely quantities released. As part of this study of semivolatile elements, the amount of each generated during fission is included as part of the assessment for the need to control their emission. Also included in this study is the assessment of the cooling time (time out of reactor) before the fuel is processed. This aspect is important for the short-lived isotopes shown in the list, especially for cooling times approaching 10 y. The approach taken in this study was to determine if semivolatile radionuclides need to be included in a list of gas-phase radionuclides that might need to be removed to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. A list of possible elements was developed through a literature search and through knowledge and literature on the chemical processes in typical aqueous processing of nuclear fuels. A long list of possible radionuclides present in irradiated fuel was generated and then trimmed by considering isotope half-life and calculating the dose from each to a maximum exposed individual with the US EPA airborne radiological dispersion and risk assessment code CAP88 (Rosnick 1992) to yield a short list of elements that actually need to be considered for control because they require high decontamination factors to meet a reasonable fraction of the regulated release. Each of these elements is

  12. Data validation and security for reprocessing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolk, Keith Michael; Merkle, Peter Benedict; DurÔan, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2008-10-01

    Next generation nuclear fuel cycle facilities will face strict requirements on security and safeguards of nuclear material. These requirements can result in expensive facilities. The purpose of this project was to investigate how to incorporate safeguards and security into one plant monitoring system early in the design process to take better advantage of all plant process data, to improve confidence in the operation of the plant, and to optimize costs. An existing reprocessing plant materials accountancy model was examined for use in evaluating integration of safeguards (both domestic and international) and security. International safeguards require independent, secure, and authenticated measurements for materials accountability--it may be best to design stand-alone systems in addition to domestic safeguards instrumentation to minimize impact on operations. In some cases, joint-use equipment may be appropriate. Existing domestic materials accountancy instrumentation can be used in conjunction with other monitoring equipment for plant security as well as through the use of material assurance indicators, a new metric for material control that is under development. Future efforts will take the results of this work to demonstrate integration on the reprocessing plant model.

  13. Occupational hazard during hemodialyzers reprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Heloisa Helena Karnas Hoefel; Liana Lautert

    2014-01-01

    Backgound and Objectives: The observation of hazards during processing of hemodialyzers showed the need to study these events. The aim of the study was to identify occupational accidents and hazards recognized by nursing professionals in the reprocessing of hemodialyzers. Methods: It was performed an exploratory-descriptive study in a haemodialysis unit of a university hospital using recall. Six nurses and fifteen nursing technicians answered the questions about risks in re-processing dialyze...

  14. Application of steric exclusion chromatography for the separation of degradation products of the solvent used for the reprocessing of the nuclear fuels; Application de la chromatographie d`exclusion sterique a la separation de produits de degradation du solvant du retraitement des combustibles nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo, C.

    1993-08-01

    The solvent, used in France in Purex reprocessing plants at La Hague is tributylphosphate (TBP) diluted to 30% with a mixture of branched alkanes, for which the main component is branched dodecane (70%). In order to minimize volumes of organic wastes, we have to maintain Purex solvent qualities and to get rid of degradation products. The subject of this memoir concerns among all the degradation products the heaviest molecules. The separation and the identification of these products have been carried out by preparative steric exclusion chromatography, followed by the analysis of the samples by various analytical methods. An inactive residue containing heavy degradation products was prepared according to the process used in the UP3 La Hague plant. The Analysis of this residue using steric exclusion chromatography and GPC/MS methods, shows the presence of three families of compounds heavier than TBP: the ``dimers of TBP`` (provided from the addition of two molecules of TBP), the ``TBP-alkanes`` (the main molecule is the result of the addition of dodecane with TBP), and ``the functionalized TBP`` (hydroxyled TBP, nitrous TBP, nitrated TBP). Plutonium (IV) retention tests were made on the various fractions generated by steric chromatography. They showed that ``the dimers of TBP`` and ``the functionalized TBP`` families are responsible for that retention. These results confirm the good efficiency of the solvent distillation system operated in UP3 plant which allow the elimination of heavy degradation products of the solvent with the residue and then restore excellent extracting properties for the recycled solvent. (author). 35 figs., 69 refs., 15 tabs.

  15. Thorium utilization program progress report for January 1, 1974--June 30, 1975. [Reprocessing; refabrication; recycle fuel irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Kasten, P.R.

    1976-05-01

    Work was carried out on the following: HTGR reprocessing development and pilot plant, refabrication development and pilot plant, recycle fuel irradiations, engineering and economic studies, and conceptual design of a commercial recycle plant. (DLC)

  16. OPCW-The Hague Award Presented at 19th Conference of States Parties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2015-01-01

    On 1 December 2014, the opening day of the Nineteenth Session of the Conference of the States Parties of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons at the headquaters of the OPCW in The Hague, Dr. Robert Mathews (Australia...

  17. From Nuremberg to the Hague: A Contrasting Study of War Crimes Tribunals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellenbecker, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    .... As the Hague Tribunal gathers evidence and hears cases, every aspect of its establishment, structure, and mode of operation is being compared to the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal (IMT...

  18. Science and Policy Collide at The Hague: Missing Links between Science and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, Catherine; Meeker, Kelly

    2001-01-01

    Points out the role of developing science and technology in politics, society, culture, and international affairs. Presents the example of climate change and The Hague negotiations to illustrate the relationship between science and public policy. (YDS)

  19. Capital and operating costs of irradiated natural uranium reprocessing plants; Couts d'investissement et d'exploitation des usines de retraitement de l'uranium naturel irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L.; Jouannaud, C.; Couture, J.; Duboz, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Oger, C. [Saint Gobain Nucleaire (France)

    1966-07-01

    This paper presents first a method of analysing natural uranium reprocessing plants investment costs (method similar to LANG and BACH well known in the fuel oil industry) and their operating costs (analysed according to their economic type). This method helps establishing standard cost structures for these plants, allowing thus comparisons between existing or planned industrial facilities. It also helps evaluating the foreseeable consequences of technical progress. Some results obtained are given, concerning: the investment costs sensitivity to the various technical parameters defining the fuel and their comparison according to the country or the economic area taken into account. Finally, the influence of the plants size on their investment costs is shown. (author) [French] La communication expose d'abord une methode d'analyse des couts d'investissement des usines de retraitement de l'uranium naturel irradie (inspiree de celles de LANG et de BACH, bien connues dans l'industrie petroliere) et de leurs couts d'exploitation (selon leur nature economique). Cette methode permet d'etablir des structures types de couts de ces usines et de comparer les realisations industrielles et les projets. Elle facilite l'exploration des consequences previsibles du progres technique. On indique un certain nombre de resultats obtenus, concernant la sensibilite des couts d'investissement de ces usines aux differents parametres techniques definissant le combustible et leur confrontation selon les pays ou aires economiques envisages. On montre enfin comment doit pouvoir s'exprimer l'influence de la taille des usines sur leur cout d'investissement. (auteur)

  20. Commercial Nuclear Reprocessing in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrill, Charles Leland [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    The short presentation outline: Reprocessing Overview; Events leading up to Carter’s Policy; Results of the decision; Policy since Nuclear Nonproliferation Act. Conclusions reached: Reprocessing ban has become an easy and visible fix to the public concern about proliferation, but has not completely stopped proliferation; and, Reprocessing needs to become detached from political considerations, so technical research can continue, regardless of the policy decisions we decide to take.

  1. Occupational hazard during hemodialyzers reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Karnas Hoefel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: The observation of hazards during processing of hemodialyzers showed the need to study these events. The aim of the study was to identify occupational accidents and hazards recognized by nursing professionals in the reprocessing of hemodialyzers. Methods: It was performed an exploratory-descriptive study in a haemodialysis unit of a university hospital using recall. Six nurses and fifteen nursing technicians answered the questions about risks in re-processing dialyzers. Results: 44 occupational hazards were reported: 30 (70% with the participant and 14 (30% with colleagues. Eleven (25% were touching clean surfaces with blood visible on gloves and ten (23% direct contact with blood. Disinfectants appeared in fifteen (34% cases: five contacts with the skin and mucous membranes, six to toxic fumes and three unspecified. Two reports about touching surfaces possibly contaminated but no visible blood. Conclusion: The risks reported were those that could be seen or felt, such as blood spatter and germicides, strong odors. Risks not visible were rare. KEYWORDS: Occupational risks. Occupational health. Renal Dialysi. Nursing.

  2. Reprocessing of PLA/Graphene Nanoplatelets Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Botta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study on the effect of multiple reprocessing on the properties of poly(lactic acid (PLA filled with graphene nanoplatelets (GnP compared to the melt reprocessed neat polymeric matrix. In particular, morphological, X-Ray Diffraction and Micro-Raman analyses, intrinsic viscosity measurements, thermal, rheological and mechanical tests were carried out on materials reprocessed up five times by means of a single screw extruder. The results indicated that the presence of GnP decreased the degradation rate as a function of the reprocessing cycles in comparison with the neat PLA that, on the contrary, showed a more drastic reduction of the molecular weight. Moreover, the reprocessing improved the particle dispersion and reduced the presence of GnP aggregates.

  3. Fluidity of bounderies : the stories of three Polish migrants in The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karijn Nijhoff

    In this booklet, the focus is on the stories of three Polish men in The Hague. The researcher, Karijn Nijhoff, has followed these men extensively and has recorded their migration stories in detail. We can read about their arrival, their experiences, their travels. We see a process of temporary

  4. Education for Public Policy and Management: Views from the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); J.W. Björkman (James Warner); V. Moharir (Vasant); M.E. Wuyts (Marc)

    2000-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction When the Institute of Social Studies, ISS, was founded in 1952 in The Hague as a postgraduate centre for teaching and research on social and economic development, it established the first Masters programme in public administration and the first professorial chair in

  5. How Faculty in The Hague University of Applied Sciences Uses the Scoring Rubric for Information Literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.J. (Jos) van Helvoort

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to gain evidence based arguments for the use of the scoring rubric for performance assessment of information literacy [1] in Dutch Universities of Applied Sciences. Faculty members from four different departments of The Hague University were interviewed on the ways in

  6. Working conference 'Globalizing Higher Education: The Hague in 2025' : 23 January 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.C. (Joris) Voorhoeve

    2013-01-01

    Foreword : Education is the key to widen people’s opportunities in our globalizing world. The Hague, city of Justice and Peace, is rapidly improving its position in higher education. New universities and academies have established themselves in recent years. They broaden the offer of courses,

  7. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nick R. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA; Garn, Troy G. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA; Greenhalgh, Mitchell R. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA; Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA; Jubin, Robert [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA; Strachan, Denis M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99252, USA; Thallapally, Praveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99252, USA

    2013-01-01

    The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radionuclide control and immobilization problems. In this paper, we focus on the control requirements and methodologies for85Kr and129I. Numerous candidate technologies have been studied and developed at laboratory and pilot-plant scales in an effort to meet the need for high iodine control efficiency and to advance alternatives to cryogenic separations for krypton control. Several of these show promising results. Iodine decontamination factors as high as 105, iodine loading capacities, and other adsorption parameters including adsorption rates have been demonstrated under some conditions for both silver zeolite (AgZ) and Ag-functionalized aerogel. Sorbents, including an engineered form of AgZ and selected metal organic framework materials (MOFs), have been successfully demonstrated to capture Kr and Xe without the need for separations at cryogenic temperatures.

  8. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radionuclide control and immobilization problems. In this paper, we focus on the control requirements and methodologies for 85Kr and 129I. Numerous candidate technologies have been studied and developed at laboratory and pilot-plant scales in an effort to meet the need for high iodine control efficiency and to advance alternatives to cryogenic separations for krypton control. Several of these show promising results. Iodine decontamination factors as high as 105, iodine loading capacities, and other adsorption parameters including adsorption rates have been demonstrated under some conditions for both silver zeolite (AgZ and Ag-functionalized aerogel. Sorbents, including an engineered form of AgZ and selected metal organic framework materials (MOFs, have been successfully demonstrated to capture Kr and Xe without the need for separations at cryogenic temperatures.

  9. Storage and Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    Addressing the problem of waste, especially high-level waste (HLW), is a requirement of the nuclear fuel cycle that cannot be ignored. We explore the two options employed currently, long-term storage and reprocessing.

  10. What parental characteristics can predict child maltreatment at the Emergency Department? Considering expansion of the Hague Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, H.M.; Dechesne, M.; Fekkes, M.; Verkerk, P.H.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Hague Protocol considers three parental characteristics of Emergency Department adult patients to identify child abuse: (a) domestic violence, (b) intoxication, and (c) suicide attempt or auto mutilation. This study investigated whether additional parental characteristics could be included to

  11. Nuclear fuel reprocessing and high level waste disposal: informational hearings. Volume V. Reprocessing. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-03-08

    Testimony was presented by a four member panel on the commercial future of reprocessing. Testimony was given on the status of nuclear fuel reprocessing in the United States. The supplemental testimony and materials submitted for the record are included in this report. (LK)

  12. Engineering study: Fast Flux Test Facility fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M.M.; Raab, G.J.; Reynolds, W.R. Jr.; Yoder, R.A.

    1974-01-07

    Several alternatives were studied for reprocessing FFTF fuels at Hanford. Alternative I would be to decontaminate and trim the fuel at T Plant and electrolytically dissolve the fuel at Purex. Alternative II would be to decontaminate and shear leach the fuels in a new facility near Purex. Alternative III would be to decontaminate and store fuel elements indefinitely at T Plant for subsequent offsite shipment. Alternative I, 8 to 10 M$ and 13 quarter-years; for Alternative II, 24 to 28 M$ and 20 quarter-years; for Alternative III, 3 to 4 M$ and 8 quarter-years. Unless there is considerable slippage in the FFTF shipping schedule, it would not be possible to build a new facility as described in Alternative II in time without building temporary storage facilities at T Plant, as described in Alternative III. (auth)

  13. Transition to reprocessing: one OR's success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Penny K

    2010-01-01

    This article tells the story of an OR staff that achieved a successful implementation of reprocessing 6 years ago, ultimately resulting in a culture change. The transition to the use of reprocessed Food and Drug Administration-approved single-use surgical devices is described as it occurred. Consideration of the human factors, change management, and culture change are included in this tale of transition. This change occurred organically within the team, rather than being forced by organizational hierarchy. The telling of this experience speaks to the effectiveness of change initiated at the bedside by motivated staff, which then evolved into a culture change for this OR.

  14. 76 FR 45268 - Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... patient exposure to inadequately reprocessed medical devices and subsequent health care- associated infections (HAIs). A definitive causal relationship between reusable device reprocessing and any patient... methodologies, validation methodologies, and health care facility best practices. This is part of an ongoing...

  15. Summary of nuclear fuel reprocessing activities around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.

    1984-11-01

    This review of international practices for nuclear fuel reprocessing was prepared to provide a nontechnical summary of the current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing activities around the world. The sources of information are widely varied.

  16. 21 CFR 211.115 - Reprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reprocessing. 211.115 Section 211.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.115...

  17. Effects of reprocessing on nanoalumina polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunchia

    The life cycle of reprocessed polymer nanocomposites is a critical factor associated with their growing use, but the limited work on reprocessing of nanocomposites has focused solely on the effects of organoclays. This research investigated of the structure and property changes during reprocessing of polypropylene (PP) and polycarbonate (PC) nanocomposites with 3 wt. % nanoalumina. Neat PP and PC were used as controls. Reprocessing of the neat polymers and nanocomposites produced no indication of oxidation (in FTIR), no changes in the glass transition temperature of PC and the melting temperatures of PP, and no changes in thermal stability (as measured using thermogravimetric analysis). Significant decreases, however, occurred in the melt viscosity of the materials. The introduction of nanoalumina during twin screw extrusion also produced a significant decrease in the viscosity and a 10°C decrease in the glass transition temperature of the PC nanocomposite. Color changes did not correspond to the chain scission in PP and PC; neat PP and PP composite yellowed, neat PC turned brown, and the PC nanocomposite did not change color. Dispersion of the nanoalumina in both PP and PC improved with repeated reprocessing, the crystallinity in the PP/nanoalumina composites remained constant. The Young's moduli of both the PP and PP/A12O3 nanocomposite were similar, whereas the Young's modulus values of the PC/A1 2O3 nanocomposite was slighted lower than that of the neat PC. In contrast, the elongations at break of the PP/A12O3 and PC/A12O3 nanocomposites were, respectively, 50% and 16% of the values measured for the neat resins. All modulus and elongation at break values, however, remained constant over five reprocessing cycles. This behavior suggests that the major degradation mechanism during reprocessing of neat PP and PP nanocomposites was thermal-mechanical polymer chain scission and that the nanoalumina enhanced this degradation in the PC/nanoalumina. This additional

  18. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co...

  19. Hydrometallurgical reprocessing of BREST-OD-300 mixed uranium-plutonium nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadrin, A.Y.; Dvoeglazov, K.N.; Kascheyev, V.A.; Vidanov, V.L. [Institution Innovation and Technology Center by ' PRORYV' Project, 2/8 Malaya Krasnoselskaya, 107140 Moscow (Russian Federation); Volk, V.I.; Veselo, S.N. [JSC A.A. Bochvar VNIINM, 5a Rogova, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zilberman, B.Y.; Ryabkov, D.V. [JSC ' VG Khlopin Radium Institute' , 28 2-oy Michurinskiy proezd, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    The duration of external fuel cycle of BREST-OD-300 reactor with mixed U-Pu nitride fuel (MNIT) including hydrometallurgical reprocessing should not exceed 3 years. An average burnup of the fuel should be 6% of heavy metal (HM) with the potential increase up to 10% HM. Therefore, the technology should provide the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) after less than 2 years cooling time and with fissile materials content of 10 - 15%. Pellets technology has been chosen for the MNIT fuel production. That means necessity to receive the recycled actinides oxides of high purification coefficient (∼ 10{sup 6}). Currently on a laboratory scale, the following process stages have been tested on the real products: actinide oxides production and rare-earth and trans-plutonium elements separation. Moreover, on a pilot scale the process of high level radioactive waste and intermediate level radioactive waste concentration by evaporation has been tested, as well as the Am-Cm separation. In 2015, the design of the MNIT SNF reprocessing facility has been started, placed at the JSC Siberian Chemical Plant site as a part of the pilot demonstration power complex with BREST-OD-300 reactor. MNIT SNF reprocessing plant should be put in operation after 2020. (authors)

  20. The implications of English-medium instruction on teaching practice and learning outcomes at The Hague University of Applied Sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joyce den Heijer

    2015-01-01

    In response to globalisation and internationalisation of both higher education and the job market, The Hague University of Applied Sciences (THUAS) has seen a considerable increase in English-medium courses, i.e. non-language subjects taught through English. Internationally, the rise of

  1. Generating Political Priority to Tackle Health Disparities: A Case Study in the Dutch City of The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Melanie; Joosen, Isabel; Kunst, Anton E.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Stronks, Karien

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to study the factors that determined the success of a recent initiative to generate political priority for the problem of health disparities in the city of The Hague, the Netherlands. Methods. Our study had a prospective design. The qualitative data collection included

  2. Detecting child abuse based on parental characteristics: Does The Hague Protocol cause parents to avoid the Emergency Department?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, H.M.; Fekkes, M.; Dechesne, M.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The Hague Protocol is used by professionals at the adult Emergency Departments (ED) in The Netherlands to detect child abuse based on three parental characteristics: (1) domestic violence, (2) substance abuse or (3) suicide attempt or self-harm. After detection, a referral is made to the

  3. THE PROTECTION OF CULTURAL GOODS FROM THE ROERICH PACT TO THE HAGUE CONVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN MIHĂILĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study premises and objectives: The idea found at the basis of the discovery of a real value of cultural goods is underlined by the knowledge of their origins and history and of an environmental frame in which these have been produced. This theory could also be applied in regulations provided with certain newly introduced elements as: the absolute interdiction of thefts; the interdiction of destruction and execution of enemy property; the warning of before a terrestrial bombing with naval forces of ports, cities, villages, buildings or houses which are not defended The purpose on this paper is based on the following question: “Which of the gaps of humanitarian international law regarding cultural goods are surfacing?” The research models used are: the interpretative method, the structuralist-systematic method necessary for the knowledge of rules of organization and functioning of law as a system of social organization; the epistemological method, with an important role in the verification of an authentic meaning, fully manifesting the exigency regarding the protection of cultural property. The result of the study is obtained by offering an answer which as argued in this paper, concluding on one side that the discrepancies appeared between provisions (or dispositions of the Hague Convention of 1907 and the events of the First World War have led to an improved idea and to a completion of these norms. Conclusions: The preoccupation for the protection of cultural goods, of the people’s cultural patrimony, thus continues, even if, despite all acts adopted, we observe that certain states destroy willingly the treasures of other peoples. We have thus reached the conclusion that more drastic measures must be adopted more severe sanctions must be applied to states that neglect the norms of humanitarian international law and the existent gaps must be eliminated. For this reason the Second Protocol of The Hague Convention of 1954 has been promoted

  4. Handbook on process and chemistry on nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki (ed.) [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Asakura, Toshihide; Adachi, Takeo (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-12-01

    'Wet-type' nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, based on PUREX technology, has wide applicability as the principal reprocessing technology of the first generation, and relating technologies, waste management for example, are highly developed, too. It is quite important to establish a database summarizing fundamental information about the process and the chemistry of 'wet-type' reprocessing, because it contributes to establish and develop fuel reprocessing process and nuclear fuel cycle treating high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuel and spent MOX fuel, and to utilize 'wet-type' reprocessing technology much widely. This handbook summarizes the fundamental data on process and chemistry, which was collected and examined by 'Editing Committee of Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing', from FY 1993 until FY 2000. (author)

  5. Plutonium behavior during the early diagenesis of marine sediments: applications to two marine environments labelled by radionuclides released from reprocessing plants; Etude du comportement du plutonium au cours de la diagenese precoce des sediments marins: applications a deux environnements marins marques par les rejets issus d'usines de retraitement de combustibles uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouzy, A

    2004-12-15

    The plutonium released into the English Channel and the Irish Sea by nuclear fuel reprocessing plants is mainly associated to sediments. Nevertheless, this association is partially reversible. This work combines a field study, carried out on the Cumbrian mud patch and the Esk estuary (Eastern Irish Sea), and laboratory experiments performed on carbonaceous coarse-grained sediments collected in the Central Channel. It presents new data on the plutonium solid partition in sediments and suggests realistic scenarios for describing its release from sediments to the water column. The role of reactive sulphides acting as temporary sink phases is shown in anoxic sediments; those sulphides are liable to release dissolved plutonium upon their oxidation. The plutonium is also bound to carbonates within the carbonaceous matrix and as carbonate surface complexes. Conceptual schemes of the behaviour of the plutonium in marine sediments are proposed; they highlight the strong remobilization potential of plutonium from marine sediments to the interstitial water. Its plutonium content can be injected into the overlying water column. (author)

  6. Generating Political Priority to Tackle Health Disparities: A Case Study in the Dutch City of The Hague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Isabel; Kunst, Anton E.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Stronks, Karien

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to study the factors that determined the success of a recent initiative to generate political priority for the problem of health disparities in the city of The Hague, the Netherlands. Methods. Our study had a prospective design. The qualitative data collection included interviews, document analyses, and observations. Results. Crucial for the success of this initiative was the presence of powerful and credible actors. These actors effectively presented scientific evidence on health disparities and framed the issue in the light of shared values, priorities, and policy principles. Finally, their actions were supported by the national context, including the availability of national scientific research on health disparities. Conclusions. The project in The Hague shows that political priority for tackling health disparities can be generated at a local level. Key factors included framing the issue in the light of shared values and framing the problem and the solution as in line with existing policy principles. PMID:20147684

  7. 9 CFR 114.18 - Reprocessing of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reprocessing of biological products..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.18 Reprocessing of biological products. The Administrator may...

  8. 76 FR 24495 - Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop; request for comments. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Reprocessing of Reusable...

  9. Properties of endotracheal tubes reprocessed by two procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Elisa

    2011-04-01

    component. SEM analysis detected some large particles and fissures. EDX analysis on the large particles detected sodium and calcium signals. Altogether, signs of contamination and material damage were very strong. Conclusion Both reprocessing methods of reused EITs gave comparable results on sterility and mechanical behavior, but reprocessing may cause decreased surface and matrix quality.

  10. Recent R/D towards aqueous reprocessing of FBR fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallika, C.; Pandey, N.K.; Kumar, S.; Kamachi Mudali, U. [Materials, Process and Equipment Development Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2016-07-01

    The mixed Pu-rich carbide spent fuel with a burn up of 155 GWd/t from the Fast Breeder Test Reactor is being reprocessed in a hot-cell facility by PUREX process. Based on the input from the operation of this facility, research and development activities were carried out to improve the recovery, decontamination factors, economy and to reduce the waste volumes. Reduction of uranyl ions in a continuous flow electrochemical reactor and electrolytic as well as chemical reduction of 4 M HNO{sub 3} from liquid waste could be performed in continuous mode. Using the optimized parameters, suitable electrolytic cells/experimental setups were designed for the plant capacity of 6 L/h. Studies on the extraction kinetics of Ru with 30% TBP (tributyl phosphate) in NPH revealed that better decontamination factor with respect to Ru can be achieved using fast contactors like centrifugal extractors (CEs). Towards developing a spent solvent recovery system to reduce organic waste volumes, a pilot plant was set up, which could recover diluent as top product of distillation column and 40% TBP as bottom product from inactive degraded solvent. A solvent recovery system using short path distillation was also developed for installation in hot cells. (authors)

  11. Estimation of heavy metal concentration in FBR reprocessing solvent streams by density measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.L.; Savage, D.J.

    1986-04-15

    The application of density measurement to heavy metal monitoring in the solvent phase is described, including practical experience gained during three fast reactor fuel reprocessing campaigns. An experimental algorithm relating heavy metal concentration and sample density was generated from laboratory-measured density data, for uranyl nitrate dissolved in nitric acid loaded tri-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene. Differences in odorless kerosene batch densities are mathematically interpolated, and the algorithm can be used to estimate heavy metal concentrations from the density to within +1.5 g/l. An Anton Paar calculating digital densimeter with remote cell operation was used for all density measurements, but the algorithm will give similar accuracy with any density measuring device capable of a precision of better than 0.0005 g/cm/sup 3/. For plant control purposes, the algorithm was simplified using a density referencing system, whereby the density of solvent not yet loaded with heavy metal is subtracted from the sample density. This simplified algorithm compares very favorably with empirical algorithms, derived from numerical analysis of density data and chemically measured uranium and plutonium data obtained during fuel reprocessing campaigns, particularly when differences in the acidity of the solvent are considered before and after loading with heavy metal. This simplified algorithm has been successfully used for plant control of heavy metal loaded solvent during four fast reactor fuel reprocessing campaigns.

  12. Research on PARC process for future reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakura, T.; Hotoku, S.; Ban, Y.; Matsumura, M.; Kim, S.Y.; Mineo, H.; Morita, Y

    2004-07-01

    In JAERI, PARC process based on Purex technique has been studied to as the basis of future reprocessing. The key of concept is to obtain the products, U and Pu, within only a single extraction cycle by separating Np and Tc from U and Pu before U/Pu partition. Two flow-sheet tests on the process were performed with 44 GWd/t PWR spent-fuel solutions. It was demonstrated that remaining Np in raffinate from co-extraction could be decreased to 13 % compared to the dissolver solution with increased solvent flow rate and with increased nitric acid concentration of FP scrubbing solution. It was demonstrated that Np separation (selective reduction by n-butyr-aldehyde) efficiency could be improved from 36 % to 78 % by flow-sheet modification; increasing reductant concentration and scrubbing solution flow rate. The feasibility of the Tc separation technique by high acid scrubbing was demonstrated. (authors)

  13. Reprocessing of research reactor fuel the Dounreay option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, P.

    1997-08-01

    Reprocessing is a proven process for the treatment of spent U/Al Research Reactor fuel. At Dounreay 12679 elements have been reprocessed during the past 30 years. For reactors converting to LEU fuel the uranium recovered in reprocessing can be blended down to less than 20% U{sub 235}, enrichment and be fabricated into new elements. For reactors already converted to LEU it is technically possible to reprocess spent silicide fuel to reduce the U{sub 235} burden and present to a repository only stable conditioned waste. The main waste stream from reprocessing which contains the Fission products is collected in underground storage tanks where it is kept for a period of at least five years before being converted to a stable solid form for return to the country of origin for subsequent storage/disposal. Discharges to the environment from reprocessing are low and are limited to the radioactive gases contained in the spent fuel and a low level liquid waste steam. Both of these discharges are independently monitored, and controlled within strict discharge limits set by the UK Government`s Scottish Office. Transportation of spent fuel to Dounreay has been undertaken using many routes from mainland Europe and has utilised over the past few years both chartered and scheduled vessel services. Several different transport containers have been handled and are currently licensed in the UK. This paper provides a short history of MTR reprocessing at Dounreay, and provides information to show reprocessing can satisfy the needs of MTR operators, showing that reprocessing is a valuable asset in non-proliferation terms, offers a complete solution and is environmentally acceptable.

  14. (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression Data detail Data name (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_exp... (hg38/mm10). Data file File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression (Homo sapiens) File URL: ftp://ftp.bio...sciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/hg38_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks_expression/ File size: 3.3 GB File name: (reprocess...tp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/mm10_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks_expression/ File size...f This Database Site Policy | Contact Us (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  15. (reprocessed)CAGE peaks - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)CAGE peaks Data detail Data name (reprocessed)CAGE peaks DOI 10.18908/l...g38/mm10). Data file File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks (Homo sapiens) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/...archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/hg38_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks/ File size: 11 MB File name: (reprocessed...)CAGE_peaks (Mus musculus) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocess...his Database Site Policy | Contact Us (reprocessed)CAGE peaks - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  16. Reliability Engineering Analysis of ATLAS Data Reprocessing Campaigns

    CERN Document Server

    Vaniachine, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Karpenko, D

    2013-01-01

    During three years of LHC data taking, the ATLAS collaboration completed three petascale data reprocessing campaigns on the Grid, with up to 2 PB of data being reprocessed every year. In reprocessing on the Grid, failures can occur for a variety of reasons, while Grid heterogeneity makes failures hard to diagnose and repair quickly. As a result, Big Data processing on the Grid must tolerate a continuous stream of failures, errors and faults. While ATLAS fault-tolerance mechanisms improve the reliability of Big Data processing in the Grid, their benefits come at costs and result in delays making the performance prediction difficult. Reliability Engineering provides a framework for fundamental understanding of the Big Data processing on the Grid, which is not a desirable enhancement but a necessary requirement. In ATLAS, cost monitoring and performance prediction became critical for the success of the reprocessing campaigns conducted in preparation for the major physics conferences. In addition, our Reliability...

  17. Reliability Engineering Analysis of ATLAS Data Reprocessing Campaigns

    CERN Document Server

    Vaniachine, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Karpenko, D

    2014-01-01

    During three years of LHC data taking, the ATLAS collaboration completed three petascale data reprocessing campaigns on the Grid, with up to 2 PB of data being reprocessed every year. In reprocessing on the Grid, failures can occur for a variety of reasons, while Grid heterogeneity makes failures hard to diagnose and repair quickly. As a result, Big Data processing on the Grid must tolerate a continuous stream of failures, errors and faults. While ATLAS fault-tolerance mechanisms improve the reliability of Big Data processing in the Grid, their benefits come at costs and result in delays making the performance prediction difficult. Reliability Engineering provides a framework for fundamental understanding of the Big Data processing on the Grid, which is not a desirable enhancement but a necessary requirement. In ATLAS, cost monitoring and performance prediction became critical for the success of the reprocessing campaigns conducted in preparation for the major physics conferences. In addition, our Reliability...

  18. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat Mapping Reprocessed DOQQ Aerial Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to reprocess existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  19. Review of NRC Commission Papers on Regulatory Basis for Licensing and Regulating Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Yeong; Shin, Hyeong Ki [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) accumulated in nuclear power plant has been a serious issue in most countries with operating nuclear power plants. Direct disposal of SNF could be a solution of the problem but many countries including the Republic of Korea have had a hard time selecting a site for high level waste repository because of low public acceptance. SNF recycling technologies consisting of reprocessing and transmutation have been developed so as to reduce the final volume of the disposed radioactive waste and to diminish the radiotoxicity of the waste. The Republic of Korea is now developing pyroprocessing and sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) technology to be used for the recycling of the wastes. KAERI has a plan to construct a pyroprocessing facility with a capacity of 30 tHM/y and a facility manufacturing TRU fuel for SFR by 2025. However, to license these facility and secure the safety, the current regulatory system related to SNF treatment needs to be improved and amended since the system has been developed focusing on facilities to examine irradiated nuclear materials. Status of reprocessing facility regulations developed by U.S.NRC was reviewed based on SECY papers. U.S.NRC has approved the development of a new rule referred to nationally as '10CFR Part 7x'. Existing 10CFR 50 and 70 has been evolved mainly for nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities whose radiological hazard is much lower than reprocessing plants respectively. U.S.NRC also derived many regulatory gaps including safety assessment methods, technical specification, general design criteria and waste classification and continue to develop the regulatory framework limited in scope to the resolution of Gap 5.

  20. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Richard; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-06-24

    U.S. efforts to promote the international expansion of nuclear energy through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will result in a dramatic expansion of nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the United States. New demonstration facilities, such as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF), the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), and the Consolidated Fuel Treatment Center (CFTC) will use advanced nuclear and chemical process technologies that must incorporate increased proliferation resistance to enhance nuclear safeguards. The ASA-100 Project, “Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities,” commissioned by the NA-243 Office of NNSA, has been tasked with reviewing and developing advanced safeguards approaches for these demonstration facilities. Because one goal of GNEP is developing and sharing proliferation-resistant nuclear technology and services with partner nations, the safeguards approaches considered are consistent with international safeguards as currently implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This first report reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new fuel reprocessing processes to be deployed at the AFCF and CFTC facilities. Similar analyses addressing the ABR and transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication lines at AFCF and CFTC will be presented in subsequent reports.

  1. Environmental Impacts on Nuclear Reprocessing Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillens, A. R.; Fessenden, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear tests have been employed ever since the first nuclear explosion in Alamogordo, NM during the mid-1940s. Nuclear weapons pose a threat to civil society and result in extensive biological (medical) damages. For this reason, treaties banning nuclear tests and weapons have been employed since the 1960s to cease proliferation of weapons. However, as nuclear tests continue in secrecy and actinides, such as plutonium and uranium, are eligible for theft, nuclear forensics is needed to prevent weapons proliferation. In this study, solvents [tributyl phosphate (TBP), dodecane, decanol] used in reprocessing spent nuclear fuel are analyzed using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer, which provides indisputable evidence in identifying the operation in which solvents were used. Solvent samples are observed under variable conditions in the laboratory for different time periods. It is assumed that their carbon isotope values (δ13C) will become more positive (shift heavy) with time. It is found that the solvents are hygroscopic. TBP leaves the most robust signature compared to the other solvents studied and the isotope values for all solvents under all conditions become more positive with time. This study serves as primary research in understanding how solvents behave under variable conditions in the laboratory and how this could be translated to the environment in fate and transport studies.

  2. Suomi NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands Operational Calibration Reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Blonski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric calibration coefficients for the VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite reflective solar bands have been reprocessed from the beginning of the Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership mission until present. An automated calibration procedure, implemented in the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System operational data production system, was applied to reprocess onboard solar calibration data and solar diffuser degradation measurements. The latest processing parameters from the operational system were used to include corrected solar vectors, optimized directional dependence of attenuation screens transmittance and solar diffuser reflectance, updated prelaunch calibration coefficients without an offset term, and optimized Robust Holt-Winters filter parameters. The parameters were consistently used to generate a complete set of the radiometric calibration coefficients for the entire duration of the Suomi NPP mission. The reprocessing has demonstrated that the automated calibration procedure can be successfully applied to all solar measurements acquired from the beginning of the mission until the full deployment of the automated procedure in the operational processing system. The reprocessed calibration coefficients can be further used to reprocess VIIRS SDR (Sensor Data Record and other data products. The reprocessing has also demonstrated how the automated calibration procedure can be used during activation of the VIIRS instruments on the future JPSS satellites.

  3. Pyrochemical reprocessing research activities in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarajan, K.; Subramanian, T.; Reddy, B. P.; Mohandas, K. S.; Mudali, U. K.; Kutty, K. V. G.; Rao, P. R. V.; Raj, B. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Tamilnadu (India)

    2008-08-15

    It is planned to introduce metallic fuels in the Indian Fast Breeder Reactors beyond 2020 to meet the increasing energy demands of the country. A well-defined road map for the development of all aspects of the metal fuel cycle has been drawn up and the activities have been taken up. Development of pyrochemical reprocessing for metallic fuels started with the commissioning of a laboratory scale argon atmosphere glove box facility. The status of pyroprocess development studies was described in the first IPRC 2006. An engineering scale demonstration facility for gaining experience with bulk processing is being set up which will be commissioned soon. Development of compatible materials, fabrication technology and coatings for use in various unit operations like salt preparation, electrorefining, cathode processing etc. is anther activity being pursued. Components made of type 316L SS, Ni-base alloys, Cr-Mo steels and high density graphite will be utilized for the molten chloride and cadmium environment. Attempts have been made to study the corrosion behaviour of type 316L SS in molten chloride (LiCl+KCl) for considering its application for salt preparation and other containers. For better service and life, zirconia based ceramic coatings with a bond coat of MCrAlY has been proposed over the components employed towards this purpose. The studies indicated that the partially stabilized zirconia coating on 316L SS worked without significant degradation up to 1000 h. An attempt was also made to study the consolidation of such coatings on type 316L SS through laser surface treatment.

  4. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Garn, Troy; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Law, Jack; Jubin, Robert T.; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2013-07-22

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing. These can evolve in volatile species in the reprocessing facility off-gas streams, depending on the separations and reprocessing technologies that are used. Radionuclides that have been identified as “volatile radionuclides” are noble gases (most notably isotopes of Kr and Xe); 3H; 14C; and 129I. Radionuclides that tend to form volatile species that evolve into reprocessing facility off-gas systems are more challenging to efficiently control compared to radionuclides that tend to stay in solid or liquid phases. Future used fuel reprocessing facilities in the United States can require efficient capture of some volatile radionuclides in their off-gas streams to meet regulatory emission requirements. In aqueous reprocessing, these radionuclides are most commonly expected to evolve into off-gas streams in tritiated water [3H2O (T2O) and 3HHO (THO)], radioactive CO2, noble gases, and gaseous HI, I2, or volatile organic iodides. The fate and speciation of these radionuclides from a non-aqueous fuel reprocessing facility is less well known at this time, but active investigations are in progress. An Off-Gas Sigma Team was formed in late FY 2009 to integrate and coordinate the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities directed towards the capture and sequestration of the these volatile radionuclides (Jubin 2012a). The Sigma Team concept was envisioned to bring together multidisciplinary teams from across the DOE complex that would work collaboratively to solve the technical challenges and to develop the scientific basis for the capture and immobilization technologies such that the sum of the efforts was greater than the individual parts. The Laboratories currently participating in this effort are Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific

  5. (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation Data detail Data name (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_ann...rence sequences (hg38/mm10). Data file File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation (Homo sapiens) File URL...: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/hg38_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks_annotation/ ...File size: 16 MB File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation (Mus musculus) Fil...e URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/mm10_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks_annotat

  6. “Bridging the Gap between International Investment Law and the Environment”, 4th and 5th November, The Hague, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, R.A.; Levashova, Y.; Lambooy, Tineke

    2014-01-01

    This contribution is based on the discussions that took place in the international conference “Bridging the Gap between International Investment Law and the Environment” which was held on 4-5 November 2013 in the Hague. The main goal of the conference was to answer the question of how the gap

  7. Design study on advanced reprocessing systems for FR fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Kawamura, F.; Nishimura, T.; Kamiya, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    A design study has been carried out for four advanced reprocessing technologies for the future fast rector (FR) recycle systems (advanced aqueous, and three non-aqueous systems based on oxide electrowinning, metal electrorefining, and fluoride volatility methods). The systems were evaluated mainly from the viewpoint of economics. It has been shown that, for MOX fuel reprocessing, all the systems with a capacity of 200 t/y attains the economical target, whereas for such a small capacity as 50 t/y, only the non-aqueous systems have potential to attain the target. For metallic and nitride fuel, a metal electrorefining system has been shown to be advantageous. (author)

  8. Effect of Reprocessing and Excipient Characteristics on Ibuprofen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Reprocessing and Excipient Characteristics on. Ibuprofen Tablet Properties. John Rojas*, Carlos Zuluaga and Andrés Cadavid. Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia. *For correspondence: Email: jrojasca@gmail.com; Tel: 574 219 5472.

  9. Effect of Reprocessing and Excipient Characteristics on Ibuprofen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The effect of excipient type, technology and reprocessing on flow, compressibility and compactibility was assessed using and 8x2x2 factorial design. Design Expert® v.8.01 software was employed for data analysis. Pure excipients were processed by direct compression, while the ibuprofen:excipient mixtures were ...

  10. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Terry McVannel

    Since Shapiro's introduction of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in 1989, it has been a highly controversial therapeutic technique. Critical reviews of Shapiro's initial study have highlighted many methodological shortcomings in her work. And early empirical research that followed Shapiro's original study has been criticized…

  11. Immediate supervision of the coastal site at the La Hague centre; Surveillance immediate du site marin du Centre de La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidhauer, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, La Hague (France)

    1968-07-01

    The disposal into the sea of the residual waters from a plant processing irradiated fuels means that a very close watch has to be kept on the corresponding coastal zone. The material organisation of such a supervision, and the sampling techniques, are described. These latter concern: flora, fauna, sediments and sea-water. Results obtained using various analytical and routine measurement methods are presented. (author) [French] L'elimination des eaux residuaires, d'un Centre de traitement de combustibles irradies, en mer, a pour consequence une surveillance particuliere de la zone cotiere correspondant a ces rejets. L'organisation materielle de cette surveillance et les techniques de prelevements sont decrites. Elles interessent la flore, la faune, les sediments et les eaux marines. Diverses methodes d'analyses et de mesures de routine ont fourni des resultats qui sont egalement exposes. (auteur)

  12. Symposium on the reprocessing of irradiated fuels. Book 3, Session V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1958-12-31

    Book three of this conference has a single-focused session V entitled Engineering and Economics, with 16 papers. The session is concerned with several phases of chemical reprocessing of fuels which are of a general nature. Hot labs, radiochemical analytical facilities, and high level development cells are described. Dissolution equipment, contactors, flow generation, measurement, and control equipment, samplers, connectors, carriers, valves, filters, and hydroclones are described and discussed. Papers are included on: radiation safety, chemical safety, radiochemical plant operating experience in the U.S., and heavy element isotopic buildup. The general economics of solvent extraction processing is discussed, and capital and operating costs for several U. S. plants given. The Atomic Energy Commission's chemical processing programs and administration are evaluated and the services offered and charges therefore are listed.

  13. Combination and long term stability of the IGS Reprocessing campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, David; Clarke, Peter J.; Lavallée, David A.

    2010-05-01

    During the relatively short life of the Global Positioning System (GPS) there have been several changes to the analysis procedure, leading to inhomogeneous coordinate time series. Although they have reduced systematic errors in more recent solutions, these changes have modified the apparent periodic signals observed and led to spurious discontinuities. The International GNSS Service (IGS) reprocessing campaign uses the latest operational models and techniques to reprocess the back catalogue of GPS data to produce remove inconsistencies caused by the various model changes, thus producing a homogeneous time series of station coordinates and Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs). Weekly coordinate and ERP solutions from up to 11 reprocessing analysis centres (ACs) have been aligned to the ITRF and combined using the TANYA software in a rigorous weighted least-squares solution. Analysis of the time series of station coordinates and Helmert transformation parameters between the combined solution and the ITRF shows a at least a 50 percent improvement in the stability of the reprocessed weekly solutions compared with earlier operational products. There is a gradual decrease in the weighted root mean square coordinate difference, both between the combined weekly solutions and the ITRF and between the individual AC solutions and their weekly combination, which reaches a minimum around the end of 2005 with a slight increase thereafter. We observe clear differences in the periodicity of Helmert transformation parameters between the individual AC solutions and the combined solution, which presumably result from variations in AC processing strategy. There is a clear annual or near annual periodic variation in the scale difference between the combined solution and the ITRF05 and some less clear variation between the translation parameters, which needs further analysis as to its cause. Keywords: GPS, ITRF, IGS reprocessing campaign, periodic errors

  14. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  15. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-05-26

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  16. Inspiration fra New York - udforskende læreprocesser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lone Tang

    2017-01-01

    Udforskende læreprocesser er inspireret af John Deweys filosofi og pædagogik og bygger på en didaktisk tilrettelæggelse, der vægter den demokratiske dannelse og børnenes medindflydelse på det, der arbejdes med i klasserummet. Børnenes erfaringer, interesser og engagement er selve afsættet...... for tilrettelæggelse af læreprocesserne. Med udgangspunkt i Deweys ideer om skolen, baseret på den eksperimentelle metode, præsenteres Paula Rogovins arbejde på Manhattan New School i New York som et eksempel på, hvordan arbejdet med udforskende læreprocesser kan tilrettelægges....

  17. Reprocessing seismic data: better results below diabase sills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makler, Marisa [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pellizzon, Marcela

    2008-07-01

    The effect of the diabase sills in the seismic data processing has been studied in the last twenty years. These rocks strongly influence the exploratory activities in a basin, because the diabase disturbs the sign and generates multiple and spherical divergence, increasing the exploratory risk in these areas. In the present work a method of 2D seismic reprocessing will be presented using Prestack Kirchhoff Time Migration in an older seismic data of Solimoes basin. The objective of this paper is to show the high results on the reprocessing seismic data below the diabase sills. The 2D lines processed give relevant improvement of the quality of signal, showing better the faults zones and preserving the geological structures than the older data. (author)

  18. The sterilization efficacy of reprocessed single use diathermy pencils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Neto, Simone; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Kawagoe, Júlia Yaeko

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil, single use diathermy pencils (SUDP) are among the most common reused devices. This study assesses the sterilization efficacy of reprocessing SUDP using two cleansing methods (manual or automated), followed by one of three of the low-temperature sterilization methods: Hydrogen Peroxide Plasma (HPP), Ethylene Oxide (ETO) or Low-Temperature Steam Formaldehyde (LTSF). The sample was composed of 360 SUDP after their first use. The probability of sterilization failure was estimated considering the number of positive microbiological results obtained by cultures of the studied devices. The overall sterilization failure probability for SUDP was 0.26. The sterilization method, which presented the lowest failure probability was the LTSF (0.01), followed by ETO (0.21) and HPP (0.56). Automated cleansing obtained a better result than manual cleansing. This trial demonstrated that the probability of sterilization in reprocessed SUDP is highly dependent on both the type of cleansing and the sterilization method applied.

  19. Noble Gas Measurement and Analysis Technique for Monitoring Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, William S [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An environmental monitoring technique using analysis of stable noble gas isotopic ratios on-stack at a reprocessing facility was developed. This technique integrates existing technologies to strengthen safeguards at reprocessing facilities. The isotopic ratios are measured using a mass spectrometry system and are compared to a database of calculated isotopic ratios using a Bayesian data analysis method to determine specific fuel parameters (e.g., burnup, fuel type, fuel age, etc.). These inferred parameters can be used by investigators to verify operator declarations. A user-friendly software application (named NOVA) was developed for the application of this technique. NOVA included a Visual Basic user interface coupling a Bayesian data analysis procedure to a reactor physics database (calculated using the Monteburns 3.01 code system). The integrated system (mass spectrometry, reactor modeling, and data analysis) was validated using on-stack measurements during the reprocessing of target fuel from a U.S. production reactor and gas samples from the processing of EBR-II fast breeder reactor driver fuel. These measurements led to an inferred burnup that matched the declared burnup with sufficient accuracy and consistency for most safeguards applications. The NOVA code was also tested using numerous light water reactor measurements from the literature. NOVA was capable of accurately determining spent fuel type, burnup, and fuel age for these experimental results. Work should continue to demonstrate the robustness of this system for production, power, and research reactor fuels.

  20. Detecting child abuse based on parental characteristics: does the Hague Protocol cause parents to avoid the emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diderich, Hester M; Fekkes, Minne; Dechesne, Mark; Buitendijk, Simone E; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2015-04-01

    The Hague Protocol is used by professionals at the adult Emergency Departments (ED) in The Netherlands to detect child abuse based on three parental characteristics: (1) domestic violence, (2) substance abuse or (3) suicide attempt or self-harm. After detection, a referral is made to the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN). This study investigates whether implementing this Protocol will lead parents to avoid medical care. We compared the number of patients (for whom the Protocol applied) who attended the ED prior to implementation with those attending after implementation. We conducted telephone interviews (n = 14) with parents whose children were referred to the RCCAN to investigate their experience with the procedure. We found no decline in the number of patients, included in the Protocol, visiting the ED during the 4 year implementation period (2008-2011). Most parents (n = 10 of the 14 interviewed) were positive and stated that they would, if necessary, re-attend the ED with the same complaints in the future. ED nurses and doctors referring children based on parental characteristics do not have to fear losing these families as patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative analysis of residual protein contamination of podiatry instruments reprocessed through local and central decontamination units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramage Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cleaning stage of the instrument decontamination process has come under increased scrutiny due to the increasing complexity of surgical instruments and the adverse affects of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments. Instruments used in the podiatry field have a complex surface topography and are exposed to a wide range of biological contamination. Currently, podiatry instruments are reprocessed locally within surgeries while national strategies are favouring a move toward reprocessing in central facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of local and central reprocessing on podiatry instruments by measuring residual protein contamination of instruments reprocessed by both methods. Methods The residual protein of 189 instruments reprocessed centrally and 189 instruments reprocessed locally was determined using a fluorescent assay based on the reaction of proteins with o-phthaldialdehyde/sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. Results Residual protein was detected on 72% (n = 136 of instruments reprocessed centrally and 90% (n = 170 of instruments reprocessed locally. Significantly less protein (p Conclusions Overall, the results show the superiority of central reprocessing for complex podiatry instruments when protein contamination is considered, though no significant difference was found in residual protein between local decontamination unit and central decontamination unit processes for Blacks files. Further research is needed to undertake qualitative identification of protein contamination to identify any cross contamination risks and a standard for acceptable residual protein contamination applicable to different instruments and specialities should be considered as a matter of urgency.

  2. Sexual violence: psychiatric healing with eye movement reprocessing and desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posmontier, Bobbie; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Lipman, Kenneth

    2010-08-01

    Sexual violence, which affects one in three women worldwide, can result in significant psychiatric morbidity and suicide. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) offers health care providers the option of a brief psychiatric intervention that can result in psychiatric healing in as few as four sessions. Because health care providers often hear stories of sexual violence from their patients, they are in an ideal position to make recommendations for treatment. The purpose of this article is to introduce health care providers to the technique of EMDR, review safety and appropriateness, and discuss clinical and research implications.

  3. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sukanya B; Jayan, C

    2010-07-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a method which was initially used for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. But it is now being used in different therapeutic situations. EMDR is an eight-phase treatment method. History taking, client preparation, assessment, desensitization, installation, body scan, closure and reevaluation of treatment effect are the eight phases of this treatment which are briefly described. A case report is also depicted which indicates the efficacy of EMDR. The areas where EMDR is used and the possible ways through which it is working are also described.

  4. Extending Spent Fuel Storage until Transport for Reprocessing or Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Brett; Chiguer, Mustapha; Grahn, Per; Sampson, Michele; Wolff, Dietmar; Bevilaqua, Arturo; Wasinger, Karl; Saegusa, Toshiari; Seelev, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Spent fuel (SF) must be stored until an end point such as reprocessing or geologic disposal is imple-mented. Selection and implementation of an end point for SF depends upon future funding, legisla-tion, licensing and other factors that cannot be predicted with certainty. Past presumptions related to the availability of an end point have often been wrong and resulted in missed opportunities for properly informing spent fuel management policies and strategies. For example, dry cask storage systems were originally conceived to free up needed space in reactor spent fuel pools and also to provide SFS of up to 20 years until reprocessing and/or deep geological disposal became available. Hundreds of dry cask storage systems are now employed throughout the world and will be relied upon well beyond the originally envisioned design life. Given present and projected rates for the use of nuclear power coupled with projections for SF repro-cessing and disposal capacities, one concludes that SF storage will be prolonged, potentially for several decades. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently considered 300 years of storage to be appropriate for the characterization and prediction of ageing effects and ageing management issues associated with extending SF storage and subsequent transport. This paper encourages addressing the uncertainty associated with the duration of SF storage by de-sign – rather than by default. It suggests ways that this uncertainty may be considered in design, li-censing, policy, and strategy decisions and proposes a framework for safely extending spent fuel storage until SF can be transported for reprocessing or disposal – regardless of how long that may be. The paper however is not intended to either encourage or facilitate needlessly extending spent fuel storage durations. Its intent is to ensure a design and safety basis with sufficient margin to accommodate the full range of potential future scenarios. Although the focus is primarily on

  5. “[…] Non urbs, tamen urbibus ipsa major.” The Image of The Hague in the Dutch Literature and Art of the 17th and 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polkowski Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although in the early-modern period The Hague was not officially a city, its identity was based on specifically urban features. During the 17th and 18th century, its ambiguous status was explored by the authors of verse urban encomia and prose descriptiones urbium. In this article, the presentation of The Hague will be first discussed on the example of Caspar Barlaeus’ Latin poem “Haga”, and Constantijn Huygens’ Dutch encomium “’s Gravenhage” from the Dorpen [Villages] cycle of epigrams. Then, the image of The Hague will be examined in the context of an allegorical representation by Jan Caspar Philips in Jacob de Riemer’s Beschryving van ‘s Graven-hage [Description of The Hague, 1730]. The concluding remarks address the question of how the transformation of the status of The Hague undertaken by these writers and artists may be understood in the context of the literary-historical geography of the Northern Renaissance which has been a special subject of research by Professor Andrzej Borowski.

  6. Quantitative analysis of residual protein contamination of podiatry instruments reprocessed through local and central decontamination units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The cleaning stage of the instrument decontamination process has come under increased scrutiny due to the increasing complexity of surgical instruments and the adverse affects of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments. Instruments used in the podiatry field have a complex surface topography and are exposed to a wide range of biological contamination. Currently, podiatry instruments are reprocessed locally within surgeries while national strategies are favouring a move toward reprocessing in central facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of local and central reprocessing on podiatry instruments by measuring residual protein contamination of instruments reprocessed by both methods. Methods The residual protein of 189 instruments reprocessed centrally and 189 instruments reprocessed locally was determined using a fluorescent assay based on the reaction of proteins with o-phthaldialdehyde/sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. Results Residual protein was detected on 72% (n = 136) of instruments reprocessed centrally and 90% (n = 170) of instruments reprocessed locally. Significantly less protein (p decontamination unit and central decontamination unit processes for Blacks files. Further research is needed to undertake qualitative identification of protein contamination to identify any cross contamination risks and a standard for acceptable residual protein contamination applicable to different instruments and specialities should be considered as a matter of urgency. PMID:21219613

  7. Using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing To Enhance Treatment of Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protinsky, Howard; Sparks, Jennifer; Flemke, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a clinical technique may enhance treatment effectiveness when applied in couple therapy that is emotionally and experientially oriented. Clinical experience indicates EMDR-based interventions are useful for accessing and reprocessing intense emotions in couple interactions. EMDR can amplify…

  8. Quantitative analysis of residual protein contamination of podiatry instruments reprocessed through local and central decontamination units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon Wg; Goldie, Frank; Long, Steven; Lappin, David F; Ramage, Gordon; Smith, Andrew J

    2011-01-10

    The cleaning stage of the instrument decontamination process has come under increased scrutiny due to the increasing complexity of surgical instruments and the adverse affects of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments. Instruments used in the podiatry field have a complex surface topography and are exposed to a wide range of biological contamination. Currently, podiatry instruments are reprocessed locally within surgeries while national strategies are favouring a move toward reprocessing in central facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of local and central reprocessing on podiatry instruments by measuring residual protein contamination of instruments reprocessed by both methods. The residual protein of 189 instruments reprocessed centrally and 189 instruments reprocessed locally was determined using a fluorescent assay based on the reaction of proteins with o-phthaldialdehyde/sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. Residual protein was detected on 72% (n = 136) of instruments reprocessed centrally and 90% (n = 170) of instruments reprocessed locally. Significantly less protein (p podiatry instruments when protein contamination is considered, though no significant difference was found in residual protein between local decontamination unit and central decontamination unit processes for Blacks files. Further research is needed to undertake qualitative identification of protein contamination to identify any cross contamination risks and a standard for acceptable residual protein contamination applicable to different instruments and specialities should be considered as a matter of urgency.

  9. Defining the Costs of Reusable Flexible Ureteroscope Reprocessing Using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Dylan; Ahmad, Tessnim; Metzler, Ian; Tzou, David T; Taguchi, Kazumi; Usawachintachit, Manint; Zetumer, Samuel; Sherer, Benjamin; Stoller, Marshall; Chi, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Careful decontamination and sterilization of reusable flexible ureteroscopes used in ureterorenoscopy cases prevent the spread of infectious pathogens to patients and technicians. However, inefficient reprocessing and unavailability of ureteroscopes sent out for repair can contribute to expensive operating room (OR) delays. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) was applied to describe the time and costs involved in reprocessing. Direct observation and timing were performed for all steps in reprocessing of reusable flexible ureteroscopes following operative procedures. Estimated times needed for each step by which damaged ureteroscopes identified during reprocessing are sent for repair were characterized through interviews with purchasing analyst staff. Process maps were created for reprocessing and repair detailing individual step times and their variances. Cost data for labor and disposables used were applied to calculate per minute and average step costs. Ten ureteroscopes were followed through reprocessing. Process mapping for ureteroscope reprocessing averaged 229.0 ± 74.4 minutes, whereas sending a ureteroscope for repair required an estimated 143 minutes per repair. Most steps demonstrated low variance between timed observations. Ureteroscope drying was the longest and highest variance step at 126.5 ± 55.7 minutes and was highly dependent on manual air flushing through the ureteroscope working channel and ureteroscope positioning in the drying cabinet. Total costs for reprocessing totaled $96.13 per episode, including the cost of labor and disposable items. Utilizing TDABC delineates the full spectrum of costs associated with ureteroscope reprocessing and identifies areas for process improvement to drive value-based care. At our institution, ureteroscope drying was one clearly identified target area. Implementing training in ureteroscope drying technique could save up to 2 hours per reprocessing event, potentially preventing expensive OR delays.

  10. LWR Fuel Reprocessing and Recycle Program quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    This quarterly report is the second in a series to be issued on the LWR Fuel Reprocessing and Recycle Program at ORNL as part of the national program administered by Savannah River Operations-Savannah River Laboratory. Several more dissolutions were made using irradiated fuel from the H. B. Robinson II reactor. Characterization of the solids and the resulting solutions is in progress and will be reported in the next quarterly. Requests for bids have been issued for the design and fabrication of a model 1/2 ton-per-day voloxidizer. Two mixer-settler units have been installed in the laboratory, and reference flowsheet studies using synthetic solutions have been initiated. The Fluorocarbon Absorption Studies program was expanded during this quarter to include acceleration of the pilot-plant development, the initiation of plant engineering design criteria, continuance of a system reliability analysis, and a study of the chemical effects of impurities in the fluorocarbon solvent on the process and equipment. Calculations have been made to provide mass balance data for a three-region PWR through successive recycle of self-generated plutonium.

  11. Evaluation of single-use reprocessed laparoscopic instrument sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Cristiane de Lion Botero Couto; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli

    2011-01-01

    This experimental, comparative, laboratory study evaluated the effectiveness of the sterilization of single-use laparoscopic instruments--SULIs (grasper, dissector, scissors, Veress needle and electrosurgical probe system), after contamination-challenge with bacterial spores and sheep blood, and compared the results of the sterilization tests with those of the equivalent reusable instruments. The cleaning methods used were; ultrasonic washer with pulsatile water jet and enzymatic detergent, manual cleaning, cleaning with pressurized water and rinsing. The SULIs were sterilized with ethylene oxide and the reusable instruments in an autoclave. Sterility tests showed 100% negative results for recovery of contaminate microorganisms in both groups. It was concluded that, regarding the sterilization, that it is possible to reprocess SULIs.

  12. Survey of Dynamic Simulation Programs for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy J. Tranter; Daryl R. Haefner

    2008-06-01

    The absence of any industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other industries. Modeling programs to simulate the dynamic behavior of nuclear fuel separations and processing were originally developed to support the US government’s mission of weapons production and defense fuel recovery. Consequently there has been little effort is the US devoted towards improving this specific process simulation capability during the last two or three decades. More recent work has been focused on elucidating chemical thermodynamics and developing better models of predicting equilibrium in actinide solvent extraction systems. These equilibrium models have been used to augment flowsheet development and testing primarily at laboratory scales. The development of more robust and complete process models has not kept pace with the vast improvements in computational power and user interface and is significantly behind simulation capability in other chemical processing and separation fields.

  13. Origin, development, and evolution of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR has led to a great number of studies since its appearance in 1989. The aim of this article is to describe EMDR development and evolution to the present day. With this purpose a search was carried out on MEDLINE and PsycINFO with the entry "eye movement desensitization". After revising the resulting 797 articles, those that because of their relevance explained best the development and evolution of the technique were chosen and shaped into a lifeline graphically representing the history of EMDR. Despite the fact that during the first years the focus of research was on the validation of the technique for post-traumatic disorder (PTSD, it was soon applied to other areas. Only 14% of the articles found account for controlled studies. Up to date, in spite of the effectiveness of EMDR for the treatment of PTSD that has been proven, many different explanatory hypotheses are still up for discussion.

  14. Analysis of nuclear proliferation resistance reprocessing and recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Gary Cerefice; Marcela Stacey; Steven Bakhtiar

    2011-05-01

    The PUREX process has been progressively and continuously improved during the past three decades, and these improvements account for successful commercialization of reprocessing in a few countries. The renewed interest in nuclear energy and the international growth of nuclear electricity generation do not equate – and should not be equated -with increasing proliferation risks. Indeed, the nuclear renaissance presents a unique opportunity to enhance the culture of non-proliferation. With the recent revival of interest in nuclear technology, technical methods for prevention of nuclear proliferation are being revisited. Robust strategies to develop new advanced separation technologies are emerging worldwide for sustainability and advancement of nuclear energy with enhanced proliferation resistance. On the other hand, at this moment, there are no proliferation resistance advanced technologies. . Until now proliferation resistance as it applies to reprocessing has been focused on not separating a pure stream of weapons-usable plutonium. France, as an example, has proposed a variant of the PUREX process, the COEX TM process, which does not result on a pure plutonium product stream. A further step is to implement a process based on group extraction of actinides and fission products associated with a homogeneous recycling strategy (UNEX process in the US, GANEX process in France). Such scheme will most likely not be deployable on an industrial scale before 2030 or so because it requires intensive R&D and robust flowsheets. Finally, future generation recycling schemes will handle the used nuclear fuel in fast neutron reactors. This means that the plutonium throughput of the recycling process may increase. The need is obvious for advanced aqueous recycling technologies that are intrinsically more proliferation resistant than the commercial PUREX process. In this paper, we review the actual PUREX process along with the advanced recycling technologies that will enhance

  15. When Should We Change Drill Bits? A Mechanical Comparison of New, Reprocessed, and Damaged Bits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Richard; Kim, Hyunchul; Hsieh, Adam H; OʼToole, Robert V; Sciadini, Marcus F

    2017-05-01

    We assessed how reprocessed and damaged drill bits perform relative-to-new drill bits in terms of drilling force required, heat generated at near and far cortices, and number of usable passes. Nine pairs of nonosteoporotic human cadaveric femora were tested using 3 types of 3.2-mm drill bits (new, reprocessed, and damaged) in 3 investigations (force, temperature, and multiple usable passes). Operating room conditions were simulated. Force and temperature data were collected for each type. The multiple pass investigation measured only force. New and reprocessed drill bits performed similarly regarding force required and heat generated; both outperformed damaged bits. New and reprocessed bits had a similar number of usable passes in ideal conditions. Damaged bits required nearly 2.6 times as much force to maintain drilling rate. Reprocessed drill bits seem to be a viable alternative to new drill bits for fracture treatment surgery in terms of force required, heat generated, and number of usable passes. Drill bits that are damaged intraoperatively should be replaced. In ideal conditions, new and reprocessed drill bits can be used for multiple consecutive cases. Reprocessed drill bits may be as effective as new drill bits, representing potential cost savings for institutions. Both types can be considered for reuse.

  16. Study on the technique of spent fuel reprocessing with supercritical fluid direct extraction method (Super-DIREX method)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Takashi; Ogumo, Shinya [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Ishihara, Nobuo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo (Japan); Kosaka, Yuji [Nuclear Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Yukihide [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    The spent fuel reprocessing method with supercritical fluid has been developed. Uranium and plutonium elements can be extracted directly from spent fuel oxides by supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) containing nitric acid and tributylphosphate (HNO{sub 3}-TBP) complex at 313-333K and 10-20 MPa. It is called Super-DIREX method which stands for Supercritical fluid Direct Extraction method. In Super-DIREX method, the process from dissolution to extraction(co-decontamination) in PUREX is consolidated to one component of direct extraction column', so that the cost of the spent fuel reprocessing plant is expected to be reduced from purex process. In order to evaluate the ability of extraction, basic tests have been carried out using unirradiated uranium oxide with artificial fission products (FPs) oxide. The concentration of uranium extracted in supercritical fluid and the decontamination factor (DF) of the FPs were evaluated. The test results revealed that it would be possible to extract U selectively from the U-oxide. The DFs of almost all FPs were more than 10{sup 2}. The concentration of uranium extracted is approx. 4.5 g/L-scCO{sub 2} under 313K of temperature and 12 MPa of pressure. An increase of pressure may improve the concentration of uranium extracted. (author)

  17. On-line reprocessing of a molten salt reactor: a simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Nicole; Gastaldi, Olivier; Penit, Thomas; Cohin, Olivier; Campion, Pierre-Yves [DEN/CADDTN/STPA/LPC-CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2008-07-01

    The molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of the concepts studied in the frame of GEN IV road-map. Due to the specific features of its liquid fuel, the reprocessing unit may be directly connected to the reactor. A modelling of this unit is presented. The final objective is to create a flexible computer reprocessing code which can use data from neutron calculations and can be coupled to a neutron code. Such a code allows the description of the whole behaviour of MSR, including, in a coupled manner, both the design of the core and the optimised reprocessing scheme effects. (authors)

  18. Needs and wishes of alumni and employers : Research into the requirements of the labour market for international competencies in the Bachelor programme HBO ICT of The Hague University of Applied Sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anneke Wieman

    2015-01-01

    The Hague University of Applied Sciences has high ambitions in the field of internationalisation. Two out of four priorities in the institutional policy touch this theme: global citizenship and internationalisation. In order to ensure that the curriculum of the new degree programme HBO ICT meets

  19. How Faculty in The Hague University of Applied Sciences Uses the Scoring Rubric for Information Literacy : First European Conference on Information Literacy (ECIL), Istanbul Turkey, 22-25 october 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.J. (Jos) van Helvoort

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to gain evidence based arguments for the use of the scoring rubric for performance assessment of information literacy [1] in Dutch Universities of Applied Sciences. Faculty members from four different departments of The Hague University were interviewed on the ways in

  20. Transmutation Strategy Using Thorium-Reprocessed Fuel ADS for Future Reactors in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Mai Vu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power is believed to be a key to the energy security for a developing country like Vietnam where the power demanding increases rapidly every year. Nevertheless, spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants is the source of radiotoxic and proliferation risk. A conceptual design of ADS utilizing thorium fuel as a based fuel and reprocessed fuel as a seed for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production is proposed as one of the clean, safe, and economical solutions for the problem. In the design, 96 seed assemblies and 84 blanket assemblies were inserted into the core to make a heterogeneous subcritical core configuration. Introducing thorium fuel into the core offers an effective way to transmute plutonium and minor actinide (MA and gain energy from this process. Transmutation rate as a function of burnup is estimated using MCNPX 2.7.0 code. Results show that by using the seed-blanket designed ADS, at 40 GWd/t burnup, 192 kg of plutonium and 156 kg of MA can be eliminated. Equivalently, 1  ADS can be able to transmute the transuranic (TRU waste from 2  LWRs. 14 units of ADS would be required to eliminate TRUs from the future reactors to be constructed in Vietnam.

  1. TOCATTA: a dynamic transfer model of ¹⁴C from the atmosphere to soil-plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizès, S Le; Maro, D; Hébert, D; Gonze, M-A; Aulagnier, C

    2012-02-01

    Many nuclear facilities release ¹⁴C into the environment, mostly as ¹⁴CO₂, which mixes readily with stable CO₂. This complete isotopic mixing (equilibrium) is often used as the basis for dose assessment models. In this paper, a dynamic compartment model (TOCATTA) has been investigated to describe ¹⁴C transfer in agricultural systems exposed to atmospheric ¹⁴C releases from nuclear facilities under normal operating or accidental conditions. The TOCATTA model belongs to the larger framework of the SYMBIOSE modelling and simulation platform that aims to assess the fate and transport of a wide range of radionuclides in various environmental systems. In this context, the conceptual and mathematical models of TOCATTA have been designed to be relatively simple, minimizing the number of compartments and input parameters required, appropriate to its use in an operational mode. This paper describes in detail ¹⁴C transfer in agricultural plants exposed to time-varying concentrations of atmospheric ¹⁴C, with a consideration also of the transfer pathways of ¹⁴C in soil. The model was tested against in situ data for ¹⁴C activity concentration measured over two years on a grass field plot located 2 km downwind of the AREVA NC La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant. The first results showed that the model roughly reproduced the observed month-to-month variability in grass ¹⁴C activity, but under-estimated (by about 33%) most of the observed peaks in the ¹⁴C activity concentration of grass. This tends to prove that it is not suitable to simulate intra-monthly variability, and a fortiori, the response of vegetation to accidental releases that may occur during the day. The need to increase the temporal resolution of the model has been identified in order to simulate the impact of intermittent ¹⁴C releases occurring either the day or night, such as those recorded by the AREVA NC plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat Mapping Reprocessed DOQQ Aerial Imagery (NODC Accession 0086051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Coastal Services Center purchased services to reprocess existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic habitat...

  3. Radioecological surveillance 2001-2003 of marine environment of the dismantling workings of the old pipe of releases in sea Cogema la Hague (Anse des Moulinets); Surveillance radioecologique 2001-2003 de l'environnement marin du chantier de demantelement de l'ancienne conduite de rejets en mer Cogema-La Hague (Anse des Moulinets)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    In order to watch the environment of the construction site of dismantling of the former pipe of releases in sea of Cogema-La Hague, the special and permanent commission of Information near the establishment Cogema of La Hague (C.S.P.I.) asked the association for the radiation monitoring in the West (A.C.R.O.) to realize a specific campaign of measures, on the basis of a protocol accepted by the C.S.P.I.. During the three years of the building work, two significant increases of the concentration in {sup 137}Cs in the marine flora with at most, 9.3 Bq/kg dry, are noticed so be it ten times the concentration that could be measured before the building work begins. We note a net improvement of the situation after the works. The {sup 137}Cs tends finally to disappear. For the sedimentary masses and the sands of beaches, it is outlined no increase of the contamination in {sup 137}Cs (during the works and in posteriori) which translates in a irrefutable way contributions of the construction site. Let us remind this subject that the level of contamination of sands of the Moulinets cove by the named radionuclides is the most important of the coasts of La Hague and that a such report supposes that local events are behind. In conclusion, the campaign of measures of the ambient gamma radiation realized in August, 2004, that is three months after works, consolidates the hypothesis that the works did not generate particular radiological situation susceptible to increase the external risk of irradiation in the Moulinets cove. (N.C.)

  4. Cost estimation for advanced wet MOX plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Masahito; Kojima, Hisao [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1997-12-01

    PNC proposes a design concept of an advanced wet MOX plant based on low-level decontamination reprocessing plant and a simple fuel fabrication method. It significantly changes the boundary condition for design of reprocessing, fuel fabrication and reactor to alter the wet MOX cycle into a convenient form as simple as that of metal fuel cycle. According to the concept, the reprocessing process is substantially simplified by holding the decontamination level low, so that both reprocessing and fabrication processes can be installed in a single facility utilizing common utilities including a liquid waste processing facility. This report summarizes the results of the conceptual design of the plant and cost evaluation. Construction costs were estimated for the current plant constructed by means of the current technology, for the standard plant based on the improved technology of high-level decontamination cycle, and for the advanced plant based on the wet MOX cycle concept. It was concluded then that the construction costs in unit of the cost of the current plant were evaluated to be 0.60 for the standard plant (handling capacity 50 t/y) and 0.66 or 0.50 for the advanced plant (handling capacity 100 t/y or 50 t/y). (H. Baba)

  5. Aplikasi eye moving desensitization dan reprocessing dalam konseling post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hengki Satrianta

    2017-01-01

    Akhir-akhir ini banyak peristiwa yang berpotensi memunculkan efek traumatik yang jika tidak ditangani akan menimbulkan gangguan stres pascatrauma. Olehnya itu, dibutuhkan upaya-upaya untu menangani masalah ini. Salah satu upaya yang dimaksud adalah penggunaan eye moving desensitization and reprocessing. Artikel ini ditulis dengan fokus pada penanganan gangguan stres pascatrauma melalui eye moving desensitization and reprocessing. Tujuan penulisan artikel ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran u...

  6. Reprocessability of molybdenum and magnesia based inert matrix fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert Elena L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the reprocessability of metallic 92Mo and ceramic MgO, which is under investigation for (Pu,MA-oxide (MA = minor actinide fuel within a metallic 92Mo matrix (CERMET and a ceramic MgO matrix (CERCER. Magnesium oxide and molybdenum reference samples have been fabricated by powder metallurgy. The dissolution of the matrices was studied as a function of HNO3 concentration (1-7 mol/L and temperature (25-90°C. The rate of dissolution of magnesium oxide and metallic molybdenum increased with temperature. While the MgO rate was independent of the acid concentration (1-7 mol/L, the rate of dissolution of Mo increased with acid concentration. However, the dissolution of Mo at high temperatures and nitric acid concentrations was accompanied by precipitation of MoO3. The extraction of uranium, americium, and europium in the presence of macro amounts of Mo and Mg was studied by three different extraction agents: tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP, N,Nʹ-dimethyl-N,Nʹ-dioctylhexylethoxymalonamide (DMDOHEMA, and N,N,N’,N’- -tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA. With TBP no extraction of Mo and Mg occurred. Both matrix materials are partly extracted by DMDOHEMA. Magnesium is not extracted by TODGA (D < 0.1, but a weak extraction of Mo is observed at low Mo concentration.

  7. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR as a Neurorehabilitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Zarghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes’ spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, flexibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system.

  8. Needs and opportunities of adequate interpretation of the Hague convention on the civil aspects of international child abduction in the case of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the time when the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction was passed, that was a very logical step and a goal that this Conventionis set before it, and that is prompt return of children wrongfully removed or retained children, was a necessary consequence of the circumstances of that time. Namely, in most cases, men, that is fathers, were those, who illegally took or kept the children. More than thirty years later, the situation in that field has changed in the sense that mothers are now abductors in most cases, mostly seeing that this is the only way to escape from the violence they, or their children, are facing with. In that sense, the question is whether the achievement of the objective of this Convention is still justified, that is would it be justified any other interpretation of the Convention in situations where the unlawful removal or retention of children is a result of domestic violence.

  9. High-quality endoscope reprocessing decreases endoscope contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decristoforo, Petra; Kaltseis, Josef; Fritz, Andreas; Edlinger, Michael; Posch, Wilfried; Wilflingseder, Doris; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Orth-Höller, Dorothea

    2018-02-02

    Several outbreaks of severe infections due to contamination of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes, mainly duodenoscopes have been described previously. The rate of microbial endoscope contamination is varying dramatically in literature. Thus, the aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the hygiene quality of endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) in Tyrol/Austria. In 2015 and 2016, a total of 463 GI endoscopes and 105 AERs from 29 endoscopy centres were analysed by a routine (R) and a combined routine and advanced (CRA) sampling procedure and investigated for microbial contamination by culture- and molecular-based analyses. The contamination rate of GI endoscopes was 1.3-4.6% according to national guideline, suggesting that 1.3-4.6 patients out of 100 could have had contacts with hygiene relevant microorganisms through an endoscopic intervention. Comparison of R and CRA sampling showed 1.8% of R versus 4.6% of CRA failing the acceptance criteria in phase I and 1.3% of R versus 3.0% of CRA samples in phase II. The most commonly identified indicator organism was Pseudomonas spp., mainly P. oleovorans. None of the tested viruses were detected in 40 samples. While AERs in phase I failed (n=9, 17.6%) mainly due to technical faults, phase II revealed lapses (n=6, 11.5%) only on account to microbial contamination of the last rinsing water, mainly with Pseudomonas spp. In the present study the contamination rate of endoscopes was low compared to results from other European countries, possibly due to high quality of endoscope reprocessing, drying and storage. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes to GPM Core Data Products as a Result of the V05 Reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Chou, Joyce; Ji, Yimin; Kelley, Owen; Kwiatkowski, John; Stout, John; Woltz, Lawrence

    2017-04-01

    Ongoing reprocessing is key to the improvement of GPM mission data products and is part of the mission requirements. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission will be undertaking its second major reprocessing of mission data in Spring of 2017. The initial processing (V03) started in February 2014 with the launch of the GPM core satellite. This first processing required the use of pre-launch measurement and databases constructed from non-GPM measurements. In Spring of 2016, the first major reprocessed (V04) mission data suite was released. The calibrations, changes and improvements during this reprocessing cycle were based on on-orbit measurements and databases built using actual GPM measurements. The past year has provided the opportunity to study the impact of these V04 changes and determine what calibration changes were still necessary and how the retrievals were to be improved based on analysis of the new reprocessed datasets. The second major reprocessing (V05) is the result of additional analysis of the V04 calibrations and retrievals. The V04 step was vital as it ensured that data products analyzed for improvements were those that were actually based on GPM observations. This paper will present an early assessment of anticipated V05 changes. The paper will provide a summary of the following categories of V05 data products: 1) GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) level 1 calibration 2) Ku/Ka radar level 1 calibration 3) GPROF GMI and GPROF constellation [??] precipitation retrievals and format changes 4) High level radar Level 2 precipitation retrieval changes 5) Combined GMI+Radar product modifications 6) Level 3 gridded product changes The paper will also provide comparisons between V04 and V05 products. Additionally it will provide a high level discussion of the plans for the V05 reprocessing of the merged radiometer gridded products (IMERG) The presentation an effective summary for potential users of what they can expect from the GPM V05 products especially

  11. (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation Data d...etail Data name (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation DOI 10.18908/l...m5_rp_exp_details#en Data acquisition method HeliScopeCAGE ( http://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/protocols/heliscop...icy | Contact Us (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  12. First results of the 2nd IGS Data Reprocessing Campaign at GFZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhiguo; Uhlemann, Maik; Nischan, Thomas; Gendt, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    The Analysis Centers (ACs) of the International GNSS Service (IGS) are preparing for the 2nd eprocessing campaign of the full history of GPS data collected by the IGS global network since 1994 in a fully consistent way using the latest models and methodology. The first IGS reprocessing was successful finished in 2010, the homogeneous products contributed to ITRF2008. The German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) will contribute as to the first also to the 2nd IGS Reprocessing Campaign. Some improvements were implemented into the latest GFZ software version EPOS.P8 : reference frame IGb08 based on ITRF2008, antenna calibration igs08.atx, geopotential model (IERS2010), higher-order ionospheric effects, new a priori meteorological model (GPT2) and VMF mapping function etc. GPS data of the globally distributed IGS tracking network of 281 stations for the time span from 1994 until 2012 were reprocessed. Since the Repro2 combination solutions are not available, this poster shows some selected results from our 2nd IGS Reprocessing efforts. The data from 1994 until 2012 were twice reprocessed to study the effect of the improvements and models . In addition the internal consistency is checked, e.g. orbit overlap, station residuals.

  13. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Catherine Riddle; Keri Campbell; Edward Mausolf

    2013-10-01

    promises as a replacement for AHA. FHA undergoes hydrolysis to formic acid which is volatile, thus allowing the recycling of nitric acid. Unfortunately, FHA powder was not stable in the experiments we ran in our laboratory. In addition, AHA and FHA also decompose to hydroxylamine which may undergo an autocatalytic reaction. Other reductants are available and could be extremely useful for actinides separation. The review presents the current plutonium reductants used in used nuclear fuel reprocessing and will introduce innovative and novel reductants that could become reducers for future research on UNF separation.

  14. Monitoring of endoscope reprocessing with an adenosine triphosphate (ATP bioluminescence method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parohl, Nina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The arising challenges over endoscope reprocessing quality proposes to look for possibilities to measure and control the process of endoscope reprocessing.Aim: The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring endoscope reprocessing with an adenosine triphosphate (ATP based bioluminescence system.Methods: 60 samples of eight gastroscopes have been assessed from routine clinical use in a major university hospital in Germany. Endoscopes have been assessed with an ATP system and microbial cultures at different timepoints during the reprocessing. Findings: After the bedside flush the mean ATP level in relative light units (RLU was 19,437 RLU, after the manual cleaning 667 RLU and after the automated endoscope reprocessor (AER 227 RLU. After the manual cleaning the mean total viable count (TVC per endoscope was 15.3 CFU/10 ml, and after the AER 5.7 CFU/10 ml. Our results show that there are reprocessing cycles which are not able to clean a patient used endoscope.Conclusion: Our data suggest that monitoring of flexible endoscope with ATP can identify a number of different influence factors, like the endoscope condition and the endoscopic procedure, or especially the quality of the bedside flush and manual cleaning before the AER. More process control is one option to identify and improve influence factors to finally increase the overall reprocessing quality, best of all by different methods. ATP measurement seems to be a valid technique that allows an immediate repeat of the manual cleaning if the ATP results after manual cleaning exceed the established cutoff of 200 RLU.

  15. Processes for the control of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ during reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notz, K.J.; Holladay, D.W.; Forsberg, C.W.; Haag, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The fixation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ may be required at some future time because of the significant fractional contribution of /sup 14/C, via the ingestion pathway, to the total population dose from the nuclear fuel cycle, even though the actual quantity of this dose is very small when compared to natural background. The work described here was done in support of fuel reprocessing development, of both graphite fuel (HTGRs) and metal-clad fuel (LWRs and LMFBRs), and was directed to the control of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ released during reprocessing operations. However, portions of this work are also applicable to the control of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ released during reactor operation. The work described falls in three major areas: (1) The application of liquid-slurry fixation with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, which converts the CO/sub 2/ to CaCO/sub 3/, carried out after treatment of the CO/sub 2/-containing stream to remove other gaseous radioactive components, mainly /sup 85/Kr. This approach is primarily for application to HTGR fuel reprocessing. (2) The above process for CO/sub 2/ fixation, but used ahead of Kr removal, and followed by a molecular sieve process to take out the /sup 85/Kr. This approach was developed for use with HTGR reprocessing, but certain aspects also have application to metal-clad fuel reprocessing and to reactor operation. (3) The use of solid Ba(OH)/sub 2/ hydrate reacting directly with the gaseous phase. This process is generally applicable to both reprocessing and to reactor operation.

  16. Processes for the control of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ during reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notz, K.J.; Holladay, D.W.; Forsberg, C.W.; Haag, G.L.

    1980-07-01

    The fixation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ may be required at some future time because of the significant fractional contribution of /sup 14/C, via the ingestion pathway, to the total population dose from the nuclear fuel cycle, even though the actual quantity of this dose is very small when compared to natural background. The work described here was done in support of fuel reprocessing development of both graphite fuel (HTGRs) and metal-clad fuel (LWRs and LMFBRs), and was directed to the control of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ released during reprocessing operations. However, portions of this work are also applicable to the control of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ released during reactor operation. The work described falls in three major areas: (1) the application of liquid-slurry fixation with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, which converts the CO/sub 2/ to CaCO/sub 3/, carried out after treatment of the CO/sub 2/-containing stream to remove other gaseous radioactive components, mainly /sup 85/Kr. This approach is primarily for application to HTGR fuel reprocessing; (2) the above process for CO/sub 2/ fixation, but used ahead of krypton removal, and followed by a molecular sieve process to take out the /sup 85/Kr. This approach was developed for use with HTGR reprocessing, but certain aspects also have application to metal-clad fuel reprocessing and to reactor operation; (3) the use of solid Ba(OH)/sub 2/ hydrate, reacting directly with the gaseous phase. This process is generally applicable to both reprocessing and reactor operation.

  17. Economics and resources analysis of the potential use of reprocessing options by the current Spanish nuclear reactor park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Merino Rodriguez, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.

    2014-07-01

    Reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel serves multiple purposes, from Pu separation and recovery for MOX fuel fabrication to reduction of high level waste volume, and is nowadays being implemented in several countries like France, Japan, Russia or United Kingdom. This work is aimed at exploring the possibility (in resources and economic terms) of implementing reprocessing for MOX fabrication in Spain. (Author)

  18. “Bridging the Gap between International Investment Law and the Environment”, 4th and 5th November, The Hague, The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalien Diepeveen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is based on the discussions that took place in the international conference “Bridging the Gap between International Investment Law and the Environment” which was held on 4-5 November 2013 in the Hague. The main goal of the conference was to answer the question of how the gap between international investment law and the environment can be bridged. Different perspectives were presented, helping to shed light on this issue. The emphasis of the first day of the conference was the academic debate in the field of international investment law and the environment. Four main perspectives were discussed: general principles of international investment law and the environment, various legal regimes, specific legal regimes and case studies. Furthermore, also the topics of sustainable development, the right to access to water and climate change were elaborated upon by the experts. The second day of the conference focussed on the perspective of policy-makers. Most of the topics were presented in the form of panel discussions. Issues that were discussed included: the perspective of various intergovernmental organisations, concerns and dilemmas of non-European capital-importing countries, and the European Investment Policy. This contribution elaborates upon the most important themes and issues debated at the conference, providing academic and policy perspectives.

  19. Reprocessing the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) Database for Long-Term Trend Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Coetzee, G.; Fujiwara, M.; Johnson, B. J.; Sterling, C. W.; Cullis, P.; Ashburn, C. E.; Jordan, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    SHADOZ is a large archive of tropical balloon-bone ozonesonde data at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center with data from 14 tropical and subtropical stations provided by collaborators in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa . The SHADOZ time series began in 1998, using electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. Like many long-term sounding stations, SHADOZ is characterized by variations in operating procedures, launch protocols, and data processing such that biases within a data record and among sites appear. In addition, over time, the radiosonde and ozonesonde instruments and data processing protocols have changed, adding to the measurement uncertainties at individual stations and limiting the reliability of ozone profile trends and continuous satellite validation. Currently, the ozonesonde community is engaged in reprocessing ECC data, with an emphasis on homogenization of the records to compensate for the variations in instrumentation and technique. The goals are to improve the information and integrity of each measurement record and to support calculation of more reliable trends. We illustrate the reprocessing activity of SHADOZ with selected stations. We will (1) show reprocessing steps based on the recent WMO report that provides post-processing guidelines for ozonesondes; (2) characterize uncertainties in various parts of the ECC conditioning process; and (3) compare original and reprocessed data to co-located ground and satellite measurements of column ozone.

  20. Mechanical, Thermomechanical and Reprocessing Behavior of Green Composites from Biodegradable Polymer and Wood Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, Marco; Liga, Antonio; Mistretta, Maria Chiara; Ascione, Laura; Mantia, Francesco Paolo La

    2015-11-11

    The rising concerns in terms of environmental protection and the search for more versatile polymer-based materials have led to an increasing interest in the use of polymer composites filled with natural organic fillers (biodegradable and/or coming from renewable resources) as a replacement for traditional mineral inorganic fillers. At the same time, the recycling of polymers is still of fundamental importance in order to optimize the utilization of available resources, reducing the environmental impact related to the life cycle of polymer-based items. Green composites from biopolymer matrix and wood flour were prepared and the investigation focused on several issues, such as the effect of reprocessing on the matrix properties, wood flour loading effects on virgin and reprocessed biopolymer, and wood flour effects on material reprocessability. Tensile, Dynamic-mechanical thermal (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and creep tests were performed, pointing out that wood flour leads to an improvement of rigidity and creep resistance in comparison to the pristine polymer, without compromising other properties such as the tensile strength. The biopolymer also showed a good resistance to multiple reprocessing; the latter even allowed for improving some properties of the obtained green composites.

  1. A study of visual and blood contamination on reprocessed endodontic files from general dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letters, S; Smith, A J; McHugh, S; Bagg, J

    2005-10-22

    This study examined methods used for reprocessing endodontic instruments in general dental practice and determined the degree of residual visual contamination and blood contamination on 250 reprocessed files collected from 25 general dental practices. A questionnaire was administered to 25 general dental practitioners to obtain information on the re-processing of used endodontic files. Ten files which had been used and reprocessed were also collected from each practice. These were examined visually under a dissecting light microscope for residual contamination and then tested for blood deposits using the Kastle-Meyer test. Nineteen of the 25 practices used stainless steel hand files. No practitioners used endodontic files as single use devices. Ninety-two per cent of the practitioners discarded and replaced files when they were bent or damaged. Several decontamination methods were reported. The two combinations employed most frequently were manual cleaning and autoclaving or manual cleaning, followed by ultrasonic cleaning and autoclaving. Of the 250 files, 75% showed some degree of visual contamination and seven percent tested positive for residual blood. Blood contaminated files were significantly more heavily contaminated when examined visually. Large variations were found in residual contamination of files collected from practices using the same methods of decontamination. While all practitioners re-used endodontic files, the variations in decontamination methods reported indicate a lack of clarity on best practice. This study demonstrates that endodontic files are not reliably decontaminated by methods currently employed in dental practice.

  2. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Status and trends; Upparbetning av anvaent kaernbraensle. Laege och trender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultgren, Aa.

    1993-01-01

    The report gives a short review of the status for industrial reprocessing and recycling of Uranium/Plutonium. The following countries are covered: Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Japan, Russia, USA. Different fuel cycle strategies are accounted for, and new developments outlined. 116 refs, 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  3. A Review of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): Research Findings and Implications for Counsellors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCluskie, Kathryn C.

    1998-01-01

    States that within the last six years a new therapeutic technique for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), has emerged. Examines the strengths and weaknesses of published studies concerning EMDR, describes the nature of the debate about the efficacy of EMDR, and reviews implications…

  4. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Treatment for Psychologically Traumatized Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sandra A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies the effects of 3 90-minute Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) treatment sessions on traumatic memories of 80 participants. Participants receiving EMDR showed decreases in complaints and anxiety, and increases in positive cognition. Participants in the delayed-treatment condition showed no improvement in any measures in…

  5. Effects of reprocessing on chemical and morphological properties of guide wires used in angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Valentim Gelamo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the reprocessing technique of enzymatic bath with ultrasonic cleaning and ethylene oxide sterilization on the chemical properties and morphological structure of polymeric coatings of guide wire for regular guiding catheter. METHODS: These techniques simulated the routine of guide wire reprocessing in many hemodynamic services in Brazil and other countries. Samples from three different manufacturers were verified by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. RESULTS: A single or double sterilization of the catheters with ethylene oxide was not associated with morphological or chemical changes. However, scanning electron microscopy images showed that the washing method was associated with rough morphological changes, including superficial holes and bubbles, in addition to chemical changes of external atomic layers of polymeric coating surfaces, as detected by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method, which is compatible with extended chemical changes on catheter surfaces. CONCLUSION: The reprocessing of the catheters with ethylene oxide was not associated with morphological or chemical changes, and it seemed appropriate to maintain guide wire coating integrity. However, the method combining chemical cleaning with mechanical vibration resulted in rough anatomical and chemical surface deterioration, suggesting that this reprocessing method should be discouraged.

  6. 77 FR 38789 - Notice of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Concentrator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Concentrator Feed Makeup... concentrator feed makeup tank and melter feed hold tank (the vessels) which were used in conjunction with... waste packages in accordance with applicable waste acceptance criteria using specific waste profile...

  7. Mechanical, Thermomechanical and Reprocessing Behavior of Green Composites from Biodegradable Polymer and Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Morreale

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rising concerns in terms of environmental protection and the search for more versatile polymer-based materials have led to an increasing interest in the use of polymer composites filled with natural organic fillers (biodegradable and/or coming from renewable resources as a replacement for traditional mineral inorganic fillers. At the same time, the recycling of polymers is still of fundamental importance in order to optimize the utilization of available resources, reducing the environmental impact related to the life cycle of polymer-based items. Green composites from biopolymer matrix and wood flour were prepared and the investigation focused on several issues, such as the effect of reprocessing on the matrix properties, wood flour loading effects on virgin and reprocessed biopolymer, and wood flour effects on material reprocessability. Tensile, Dynamic-mechanical thermal (DMTA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and creep tests were performed, pointing out that wood flour leads to an improvement of rigidity and creep resistance in comparison to the pristine polymer, without compromising other properties such as the tensile strength. The biopolymer also showed a good resistance to multiple reprocessing; the latter even allowed for improving some properties of the obtained green composites.

  8. Advances in Endoscope Reprocessing Technology and Its Impact on Pathogen Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, Cathleen

    Pathogen transmissions via flexible endoscopes have been documented in the literature and have been historically related to human error or omission of steps in the reprocessing cycle. The 2008 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report challenged manufacturers of automated endoscope reprocessors to improve and advance technology to automate more of the reprocessing steps. A review and synthesis of the literature following the 2008 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report was performed to evaluate whether advances in reprocessing technology have occurred and whether these have had an impact on pathogen transmission via flexible endoscopes. The Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Quality Care was used to guide the project. The literature search regarding pathogen transmission related to flexible endoscopes yielded 10 documents citing infections from 2008 to 2015. A total of 353 patients were identified as having been infected with a contaminated gastroscope, bronchoscope, or duodenoscope. An evaluation of reprocessing technology identified 3 automated endoscope reprocessors with enhanced capabilities and flushing devices intended to automate portions of the manual cleaning step.

  9. Assessment of the NOAA S-NPP VIIRS Geolocation Reprocessing Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term time series analysis requires consistent data records from satellites. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar orbiting Partner (S-NPP satellite launched in 2011 requires a major effort to produce consistently calibrated sensor data records (SDR. Accurate VIIRS geolocation products are critical to other VIIRS products and products from other instruments on the S-NPP satellite. This paper presents methods for assessing major improvements to the VIIRS geolocation products in the ongoing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR reprocessing that incorporates all corrections in calibration parameters and SDR algorithms since launch to present. In this study, we analyzed the history of VIIRS geometric calibration parameter updates to identify optimal parameters to account for geolocation errors in the early days of the mission. A sample area located in North Western Africa was selected for validation purposes after analyzing global VIIRS and Landsat control point matching results. Geolocation products over the study region were reprocessed and I-bands/M-bands geolocation improvements were characterized by comparing geolocation errors before and after the reprocessing. Our results indicate that all short-term geolocation anomalies before the latest operational geometric calibration parameter update on 22 August 2013 were effectively minimized after reprocessing, with geolocation errors reduced from −47.1 ± 83.8 m to −23.3 ± 51.1 m (along scan and from −15.6 ± 43.6 m to −5.9 ± 37.7 m (along track. Terrain correction for the VIIRS Day-Night-Band (DNB was not implemented in the NOAA operational processing until 22 May 2015. In the reprocessing, it will be implemented to the entire DNB geolocation data record. DNB reprocessing improvement due to this implementation was evaluated using nighttime observations over point

  10. Duodenoscope reprocessing surveillance with adenosine triphosphate testing and terminal cultures: a clinical pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visrodia, Kavel; Hanada, Yuri; Pennington, Kelly M; Tosh, Pritish K; Topazian, Mark D; Petersen, Bret T

    2017-07-01

    Recent reports of infectious outbreaks linked to duodenoscopes have led to proposals for duodenoscope surveillance culturing, which has inherent limitations. We aimed to assess the feasibility of real-time adenosine triphosphate (ATP) testing after manual cleaning and its ability to predict reprocessing adequacy, as determined by terminal duodenoscope cultures. Clinically used duodenoscopes underwent reprocessing per current guidelines. After manual cleaning, ATP samples were obtained from the elevator, within the proximal biopsy port, and by flushing of the biopsy channel. After high-level disinfection (HLD), aerobic cultures of the elevator and biopsy channel were obtained using sterile technique. Duodenoscopes with any ATP sample ≥200 relative light units underwent repeated cycles of cleaning, ATP testing, HLD, and terminal culturing. Twenty clinically used duodenoscopes were included; 18 underwent a second reprocessing cycle, and 6 underwent a third reprocessing cycle because of detection of high ATP. After the initial reprocessing cycle, 12 of 20 (60%) duodenoscopes had positive culture results, most commonly yielding gram-negative bacilli (GNB, n = 11 from 9 duodenoscopes), and catalase-positive gram-positive cocci (CP-GPC, n = 7 from 7 duodenoscopes), suggesting staphylococcal organisms. Ambient environmental controls also showed GNB and CP-GPC growth. The overall sensitivity and specificity of ATP testing compared with terminal cultures were 30% and 53%, respectively. ATP sampling appears to correlate poorly with terminal culture results and cannot be recommended as a surrogate for terminal cultures. The performance and interpretation of cultures remains complicated by the potential recovery of environmental contaminants. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. OSI SAF Sea Surface Temperature reprocessing of MSG/SEVIRI archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saux Picart, Stéphane; Legendre, Gerard; Marsouin, Anne; Péré, Sonia; Roquet, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    The Ocean and Sea-Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF) of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) is planning to deliver a reprocessing of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager/Meteosat Second Generation (SEVIRI/MSG) archive (2004-2012) by the end of 2016. This reprocessing is drawing from experiences of the OSI SAF team in near real time processing of MSG/SEVIRI data. The retrieval method consist in a non-linear split-window algorithm including the algorithm correction scheme developed by Le Borgne et al. (2011). The bias correction relies on simulations of infrared brightness temperatures performed using Numerical Weather Prediction model atmospheric profiles of water vapour and temperature, and RTTOV radiative transfer model. The cloud mask used is the Climate SAF reprocessing of the MSG/SEVIRI archive. It is consistent over the period in consideration. Atmospheric Saharan dusts have a strong impact on the retrieved SST, they are taken into consideration through the computation of the Saharan Dust Index (Merchant et al., 2006) which is then used to determine an empirical correction applied to SST. The MSG/SEVIRI SST reprocessing dataset consist in hourly level 3 composite of sub-skin temperature projected onto a regular 0.05° grid over the region delimited by 60N,60S and 60W,60E. This presentation gives an overview of the data and methods used for the reprocessing, the products and validation results against drifting buoys measurements extracted from the ERA Clim dataset.

  12. Analysis of long time series of GPS precipitable water vapour from IGS reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, O.; Willis, P.; Bar-Sever, Y.; Wang, J.; Garayt, B.

    2012-12-01

    Humidity is an essential climate variable, which needs to be monitored continuously and accurately. Few observational datasets are available, and most of them suffer from biases, uncertainties and discontinuities (e.g. radiosonde data records or satellite products). To date, precipitable water vapour (PWV) estimates from the International GNSS Service (IGS) network have not been used extensively in the climate monitoring. A reprocessed version of zenith tropospheric delays (ZTDs) has been made available recently for the International GNSS Service (IGS) network. It covers period 1995-2007 and has been updated until 2011 using the same data processing software. This work aims at evaluating the quality of these ZTD solutions and corresponding PWV estimates and assessing their potential for climate monitoring and atmospheric model validation. As a first step, the continuity of IGS reprocessed (repro1) and operational (trop-new) ZTD solution is assessed. Both segments before and after 2007 are compared to a third GPS solution for 160 common stations and to a DORIS solution for more than 50 stations. Both these GPS and DORIS solutions were homogenously reprocessed over the study period. The comparison did not show any significant discontinuity between the two IGS segments. However, the differences are found between the three independent datasets which are explained by the differences in data processing procedures (e.g. antenna models, mapping functions) and techniques (GPS vs. DORIS). But the magnitude of the differences is less than a few millimeters. The reprocessed GPS ZTD estimates were converted into PWV and analysed globally and for different regions. The PWV time series reveal significant variability on inter-annual, seasonal, intra-seasonal and synoptic timescales. The GPS results are overall fairly consistent with ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-Interim). The impact of changes in GPS equipment on PWV trend estimates needs further investigation. Reprocessed GPS PWV

  13. PuO/sub 2/ dissolution problem for LWR plutonium recycle and LMFBR fuels: fabrication and reprocessing problems and their resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, Jr., E. L.

    1977-07-01

    A survey was made of the information reported to date for laboratory-scale dissolution experiments on PuO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ fuels, of reprocessing plant problems that might be encountered with these fuels, and of the fabrication methods for producing these fuels. The possibility of producing fuels that will be highly soluble in pure nitric acid without resorting to the use of corrosive fluorides for complete dissolution is examined. The report concludes that production of highly soluble fuel is possible, that it is probably economically justifiable, and that fluorides are not necessary for dissolution. Highly soluble fuel would likely have minimal impact on reprocessing criticality and waste disposal problems. Reactor specifications for PuO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ fuels seemingly permit a greater degree of nonhomogeneity than is desirable for achieving high solubility. A fuel solubility criteria is therefore proposed that would limit the amount of insoluble PuO/sub 2/ in irradiated fuels to less than or equal to 0.01 percent of the total amount of plutonium present.

  14. Environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle: a task force report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, W.P.; Miraglia, F.J. Jr. (eds.)

    1976-10-01

    This Supplement deals with the reprocessing and waste management portions of the nuclear fuel cycle for uranium-fueled reactors. The scope of the report is limited to the illumination of fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, and examination of the environmental impacts caused by these activities on a per-reactor basis. The approach is to select one realistic reprocessing and waste management system and to treat it in enough depth to illuminate the issues involved, the technology available, and the relationships of these to the nuclear fuel cycle in general and its environmental impacts.

  15. Modelling of the nitric acid reduction process: Application to materials behavior in reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicsic, D.; Balbaud-Celerier, F. [CEA, DEN SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tribollet, B. [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, UPR15 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2012-07-01

    In France, the recycling process of nuclear waste fuels involves the use of hot concentrated nitric acid. The understanding and the prediction of the structural materials (mainly austenitic stainless steels) behaviour requires the determination of the nitric acid reduction process. Nitric acid is indirectly reduced by an autocatalytic mechanism depending on the cathodic overpotential and the acid concentration. This mechanism has been widely studied. All the authors agree on its autocatalytic nature, characterized by the predominant role of the reduction products. It is also generally admitted that nitric acid or the nitrate ion are not the electro-active species. However, uncertainties remain concerning the nature of the electro-active species, the place where the catalytic species regenerates and the thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the reaction intermediates. The aim of this study is to clarify some of these uncertainties by performing an electrochemical investigation of the 4 mol.L -1 nitric acid reduction process at 40 deg. C occurring on an inert electrode (platinum or gold). An inert electrode was chosen as a working electrode in a first step in order to avoid its oxidation and focus the research on the reduction mechanism. This experimental work enabled to suggest a coherent sequence of electrochemical and chemical reactions. Then, a kinetic modelling of this sequence was carried out for a gold rotating disk system. In this objective, a thermodynamic study at 25 deg. C led to the evaluation of the composition of liquid and gaseous phases for nitric acid solutions from 0.5 to 22 mol.L -1. The kinetics of the reduction process of nitric acid 4 mol.L -1 was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chrono-amperometry on an inert electrode at 40 deg. C. A coupling of chrono-amperometry and FTIR in gaseous phase led to the identification of the gaseous reduction products as a function of the cathodic overpotential. These different results showed that for potentials between 0.6 V/NHE and 1.15 V/NHE, the reduction process is autocatalytic. The regeneration of the electro-active species may take place at the surface of the electrode for lower over-potentials, and otherwise in solution. When the potential is lower than 0.6 V/ENH, the fast reduction of nitrogen oxide may lead to the rupture of the autocatalytic cycle. (authors)

  16. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. [Appendices only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Jenkins, C.E.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1977-09-01

    Volume 2 comprises six appendices on: facility description; residual radioactivity inventory estimates; description and contamination levels of reference site; derivation of residual contamination levels; decommissioning mode detail; and decommissioning safety assessment details.

  17. Metal-Organic Frameworks for Removal of Xe and Kr from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2012-08-07

    Removal of Xenon (Xe) and Krypton (Kr) from in parts per million (ppm) levels were demonstrated for the first time using two well known metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), HKUST-1 and Ni/DOBDC. Results of an activated carbon were also included for comparison. Ni/DOBDC has higher Xe/Kr selectivities than those of the activated carbon. Moreover, results show that the Ni/DOBDC and HKUST-1 can selectively adsorb Xe and Kr from air even at 1000 ppm concentration. This shows a promising future for MOFs in a radioactive nuclides separation from spent fuel.

  18. Noble gas isotope measurements for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. IAEA Task 90/0A211 interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, G.B.

    1993-02-17

    The nuclear fission of actinides in reactor fuel produces large quantities of Kr and Xe as fission products. Because of the high levels of fission Kr and Xe, sample collection and analysis of noble gases for spent fuel diagnostic measurements is a simple, straight-forward technique. In modern reprocessing plants with continuous dissolvers, it will not be possible to use traditional methods for isolating input batches of fuel. This study investigates the feasibility of using noble gas isotope abundance measurements (isotope correlation techniques - ICT) to solve safeguards requirements. Noble gas measurements might be able to provide an independent analysis of Pu contained within dissolves fuel, on an individual fuel assembly basis. The isotopic composition of Kr and Xe in spent fuel reflects both the composition (isotope abundance ratios) of the fission products and the effects of neutron capture on those fission products. We have reviewed the available literature for noble gas analyses of spent reactor fuel. While references are made to noble gas isotope correlations over the last 20 years, we have found little if any detailed analysis of large data sets. The literature search did find several useful reports. Of these papers, one is particularly useful for evaluating noble gas isotopic compositions. The ``Benchmark-paper`` (1) contains 54 Kr and 56 Xe isotopic composition analyses for 4 different reactors with a variety of fuel enrichment factors. Burnup ranges from 8000 to 37000 MWd/tU. Besides the noble gas measurements, a variety of other measurements are reported (actinides and fission products).

  19. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) graphite pebble fuel: Review of technologies for reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcwilliams, A. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-08

    This report reviews literature on reprocessing high temperature gas-cooled reactor graphite fuel components. A basic review of the various fuel components used in the pebble bed type reactors is provided along with a survey of synthesis methods for the fabrication of the fuel components. Several disposal options are considered for the graphite pebble fuel elements including the storage of intact pebbles, volume reduction by separating the graphite from fuel kernels, and complete processing of the pebbles for waste storage. Existing methods for graphite removal are presented and generally consist of mechanical separation techniques such as crushing and grinding chemical techniques through the use of acid digestion and oxidation. Potential methods for reprocessing the graphite pebbles include improvements to existing methods and novel technologies that have not previously been investigated for nuclear graphite waste applications. The best overall method will be dependent on the desired final waste form and needs to factor in the technical efficiency, political concerns, cost, and implementation.

  20. Available reprocessing and recycling services for research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozser, Sandor; Marshall, Frances M.; Adelfang, Pablo; Bradley, Edward [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Budu, Madalina Elena [SOSNY Research and Development Company, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chiguer, Mustapha [AREVA, Paris La Defense (France)

    2016-03-15

    International activities in the back end of the research reactor (RR) fuel cycle have so far been dominated by the programmes of acceptance of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by the country where it was originally enriched. In the future inventories of LEU SNF will continue to be created and the back end solution of RR SNF remains a critical issue. The IAEA, based on the experience gained during the decade of international cooperation in supporting the objectives of the HEU take-back programmes, drew up a report presenting available reprocessing and recycling services for RR SNF. This paper gives an overview of the report, which will address all aspects of reprocessing and recycling services for RR SNF.

  1. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Steven M; Rogers, Susan; Russell, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Recent practice guidelines and meta-analyses have designated eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as a first-line treatment for trauma. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is an eight-phase therapeutic approach guided by an information-processing model that addresses the combat veteran's critical incidents, current triggers, and behaviors likely to prove useful in his or her future. Two case examples of combat veterans illustrate the ability of EMDR to achieve symptom reduction in a variety of clinical domains (e.g., anxiety, depression, anger, physical pain) simultaneously without requiring the patient to carry out homework assignments or discuss the details of the event. The treatment of phantom limb pain and other somatic presentations is also reviewed. The ability of EMDR to achieve positive effects without homework indicates that it can be effectively employed on consecutive days, making it especially useful during combat situations. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Patient Observer : Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress following Childbirth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramrood, Claire A. I.; van der Velde, Janneke; Doornbos, Bennard; Paarlberg, K. Marieke; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C. M.; van Pampus, Maria G.

    Background: No standard intervention with proved effectiveness is available for women with posttraumatic stress following childbirth because of insufficient research. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the possibility of using eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment for

  3. Lanthanides extraction processes in molten fluoride media. Application to nuclear spent fuel reprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Taxil, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Nourry, Christophe; Gibilaro, Mathieu; Chamelot, Pierre; Cassayre, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes four techniques of extraction of lanthanides elements (Ln) from molten salts in the general frame of reprocessing nuclear wastes; One of them is chemical: the precipitation of Ln ions in insoluble compounds (oxides or oxifluorides); the others use electrochemical methodology in molten fluorides for extraction and measurement of the progress of the processes: first electrodeposition of pure Ln metals on an inert cathode material was proved to be incomplete and cause probl...

  4. Post-traumatic stress disorder: neurobiology and effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Högberg, Göran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new psychotherapy method, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to study the biological reactions in PTSD during a script-driven symptom provocation. PTSD is a disorder that may occur after a major psychological trauma. It is characterised by the phenomenon of reliving, bringing the person back to the sensations and reactions that prevailed during the traumat...

  5. An Integrative Model for the Neural Mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

    OpenAIRE

    Coubard, Olivier A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, twenty-six years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in anxiety disorders, particularly in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the ...

  6. Treatment of dysfunctionally stored experiences with the method Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing – EMDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cvetek

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new therapeutic method called EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is described. The method was formed mainly for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, but there are also some reports about success with other mental disorders. The theoretical base of EMDR and especially the accelerated information processing model, the concept of memory networks and the explanations of effects of eye movements are presented. The process of EMDR is also described.

  7. The reclamation and reprocessing of cotton wastes produced during yarn preparation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bathie, LA

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available reprocessing such as: - waste from cotton gins; - blowroom waste; - carding waste (licker-in, grids), and - card flat strips and filter waste. (i) Clean waste: waste which requires no further cleaning, e.g. - comber waste; - card, drawframe and combed... waste slivers; - opened rovings, and - filter waste from drawframes, speed frames, ring spinning frames and rotor spinning machines. (i) Hard waste: waste which requires opening on special machines, such as: - twisted rovings; - yams...

  8. THE ECONOMICS OF REPROCESSING vs DIRECT DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Bunn; Steve Fetter; John P. Holdren; Bob van der Zwaan

    2003-07-01

    This report assesses the economics of reprocessing versus direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The breakeven uranium price at which reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and recycling the resulting plutonium and uranium in LWRs would become economic is assessed, using central estimates of the costs of different elements of the nuclear fuel cycle (and other fuel cycle input parameters), for a wide range of range of potential reprocessing prices. Sensitivity analysis is performed, showing that the conclusions reached are robust across a wide range of input parameters. The contribution of direct disposal or reprocessing and recycling to electricity cost is also assessed. The choice of particular central estimates and ranges for the input parameters of the fuel cycle model is justified through a review of the relevant literature. The impact of different fuel cycle approaches on the volume needed for geologic repositories is briefly discussed, as are the issues surrounding the possibility of performing separations and transmutation on spent nuclear fuel to reduce the need for additional repositories. A similar analysis is then performed of the breakeven uranium price at which deploying fast neutron breeder reactors would become competitive compared with a once-through fuel cycle in LWRs, for a range of possible differences in capital cost between LWRs and fast neutron reactors. Sensitivity analysis is again provided, as are an analysis of the contribution to electricity cost, and a justification of the choices of central estimates and ranges for the input parameters. The equations used in the economic model are derived and explained in an appendix. Another appendix assesses the quantities of uranium likely to be recoverable worldwide in the future at a range of different possible future prices.

  9. Effect of reprocessing cycles on the degradation of polypropylene copolymer filled with talc or montmorillonite during injection molding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demori, R.; Mauler, R. S., E-mail: raquel.mauler@ufrgs.br [Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 (Brazil); Ashton, E.; Weschenfelder, V. F.; Cândido, L. H. A.; Kindlein, W. [Laboratory of Design LDSM, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS (Brazil)

    2015-05-22

    Mechanical recycling of polymeric materials is a favorable technique resulting in economic and environmental benefits, especially in the case of polymers with a high production volume as the polypropylene copolymer (PP). However, recycling by reprocessing techniques can lead to thermal, mechanical or thermo-oxidative degradation that can affect the structure of the polymer and subsequently the material properties. PP filled with montmorillonite (MMT) or talc are widely produced and studied, however, its degradation reactions by reprocessing cycles are poorly studied so far. In this study, the effects of reprocessing cycles in the structure and in the properties of the PP/MMT and PP/Talc were evaluated. The samples were mixed with 5% talc or MMT Cloisite C15A in a twin-screw extrusion. After extrusion, this filled material was submitted to five reprocessing cycles through an injection molding process. In order to evaluate the changes induced by reprocessing techniques, the samples were characterized by DSC, FT-IR, Izod impact and tensile strength tests. The study showed that Young modulus, elongation at brake and Izod impact were not affected by reprocessing cycles, except when using talc. In this case, the elongation at brake reduced until the fourth cycle, showing rigidity increase. The DSC results showed that melting and crystallization temperature were not affected. A comparison of FT-IR spectra of the reprocessed indicated that in both samples, between the first and the fifth cycle, no noticeable change has occurred. Thus, there is no evidence of thermo oxidative degradation. In general, these results suggest that PP reprocessing cycles using MMT or talc does not change the material properties until the fifth cycle.

  10. Effect of compatibilization and reprocessing on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arieny Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have focused on polymer mixtures aimed at the potential applications of these materials. This work analyzed the effect of polymer reprocessing and the type and concentration of compatibilizer on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites. The composites, which were polypropylene grafted with acrylic acid (PP-g-AA and maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA, were processed in a twin screw extruder with and without compatibilizer. Reprocessed polypropylene reached complete crystallization in less time than the composites with virgin polypropylene. The addition of wood flour to the composites did not change the kinetics significantly compared to that of the pure polymers, but the compatibilizers did, particularly PP-g-AA. The nucleation exponent (n and crystallization rate (K were calculated from Avrami plots. The values of n ranged from 2 to 3, indicating instantaneous to sporadic nucleation. The crystallization half-time of reprocessed polypropylene was shorter than that of virgin polypropylene and of the compositions containing PP-g-AA compatibilizer. The activation energy of crystallization and the equilibrium melting temperature were calculated, respectively, from Arrhenius and Hoffman-Weeks plots. Both of these parameters showed lower values in the composites, particularly in the ones containing compatibilizers.

  11. Basic research on separation control of long life nuclides in fuel reprocessing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Usami, Go [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Maeda, Mitsuru; Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide; Hotoku, Shinobu

    1996-01-01

    The behavior of technetium (Tc) in nuclear fuel reprocessing processes has become the subject to be elucidated in the transition to distribution process by coextraction and the catalytic action in distribution process. In order to forecast or control the behavior of Tc in reprocessing processes, it is necessary to understand that at which valence Tc exists stably in respective processes. Tc is stable at 7 valence in nitric acid solution expected in reprocessing. In this research, the reaction speed of the oxidation and reduction reactions of rhenium (Re) which simulates Tc was measured by laser Raman spectroscopy which can do high speed analysis of valence. The experimental method is explained. The Raman spectra of Re in the experimental system of this research were measured in perchloric acid solution and nitric acid solution, and compared with the values in literatures. As the result, the validity of this research was assured. It was confirmed that Re(7) was not reduced by sulfamic acid and ascorbic acid. Re(7) was reduced by thiocyanic acid once, but was oxidized again by the reaction of thiocyanic acid and nitric acid. (K.I.)

  12. Influence of Reprocessing in the formation of functional groups during low density polyethylene aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício M. Selonke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in polymer recycling has increased. However, in every reprocessing step the material undergoes shear stress and is affected by temperature and oxygen. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of multiple extrusion in the generation of functional groups, namely hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and transvinylene. Low density polyethylene was reprocessed three times in a single screw extruder. In each recycling step hot pressed films were prepared. These films were submitted to a heat treatment in an oven with air circulation and renovation to proceed with aging tests at different times and temperatures. The results obtained showed that all functional groups had their concentration increased with the increase in number of reprocessing, the aging time and temperature of the heat treatment. The factorial design was applied to verify the influence of these parameters. All the parameters had significant effects, since their regression coefficients had the same order of magnitude, with the most influential parameter being the aging temperature, followed by the aging time and number of extrusions. Most of the interactions were influential, indicating that the formation of functional groups depends upon their interaction, and not only on their isolated effects.

  13. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy on Public Speaking Anxiety of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Aslani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public speaking anxiety is a prominent problem in the college student population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on public speaking anxiety of college students. Materials and Methods: The design of research was quasi-experimental with pre-post test type, and control group. The sample consistent of 30 students with speech anxiety that selected base on available sampling and assigned randomly in experimental (N=15 and control (N=15 groups. The experimental group was treated with EMDR therapy for 7 sessions. In order to collect the data, Paul’s personal report of confidence as a speaker, S-R inventory of anxiousness was used. To analyze the data, SPSS-19 software and covariance analysis were used. Results: The multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing reducing public speaking anxiety. The one-way analysis of covariance for each variable shows there are significant differences in confidence of speaker (p=0.001 and physiological symptoms of speech anxiety (p=0.001 at the two groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that treatment of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is effective on reducing physiological symptoms of speech anxiety and increasing the speaker’s confidence.

  14. The use of nuclear data in the field of nuclear fuel recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona; Launay, Agnès; Grassi, Gabriele; Binet, Christophe; Lelandais, Jacques; Lecampion, Erick

    2017-09-01

    AREVA NC La Hague facility is the first step of the nuclear fuel recycling process implemented in France. The processing of the used fuel is governed by high standards of criticality-safety, and strong expectations on the quality of end-products. From the received used fuel assemblies, the plutonium and the uranium are extracted for further energy production purposes within the years following the reprocessing. Furthermore, the ultimate waste - fission products and minor actinides on the one hand, and hulls and end-pieces on the other hand - is adequately packaged for long term disposal. The used fuel is therefore separated into very different materials, and time scales which come into account may be longer than in some other nuclear fields of activity. Given the variety of the handled nuclear materials, as well as the time scales at stake, the importance given to some radionuclides, and hence to the associated nuclear data, can also be specific to the AREVA NC La Hague plant. A study has thus been led to identify a list of the most important radionuclides for the AREVA NC La Hague plant applications, relying on the running constraints of the facility, and the end-products expectations. The activities at the AREVA NC La Hague plant are presented, and the methodology to extract the most important radionuclides for the reprocessing process is detailed.

  15. The use of nuclear data in the field of nuclear fuel recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Julie-Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AREVA NC La Hague facility is the first step of the nuclear fuel recycling process implemented in France. The processing of the used fuel is governed by high standards of criticality-safety, and strong expectations on the quality of end-products. From the received used fuel assemblies, the plutonium and the uranium are extracted for further energy production purposes within the years following the reprocessing. Furthermore, the ultimate waste – fission products and minor actinides on the one hand, and hulls and end-pieces on the other hand – is adequately packaged for long term disposal. The used fuel is therefore separated into very different materials, and time scales which come into account may be longer than in some other nuclear fields of activity. Given the variety of the handled nuclear materials, as well as the time scales at stake, the importance given to some radionuclides, and hence to the associated nuclear data, can also be specific to the AREVA NC La Hague plant. A study has thus been led to identify a list of the most important radionuclides for the AREVA NC La Hague plant applications, relying on the running constraints of the facility, and the end-products expectations. The activities at the AREVA NC La Hague plant are presented, and the methodology to extract the most important radionuclides for the reprocessing process is detailed.

  16. The reprocessing of advanced mixed lithium orthosilicate/metatitanate tritium breeder pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leys, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.leys@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany); Bergfeldt, Thomas; Kolb, Matthias H.H.; Knitter, Regina [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany); Goraieb, Aniceto A. [Karlsruhe Beryllium Handling Facility, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • The recycling of advanced breeder pebbles without a deterioration of the material properties is possible using a melt-based process. • The only accumulation of impurities upon reprocessing, results from the platinum crucible alloy used for processing. • It is possible to replenish burnt-up lithium by additions of LiOH·H{sub 2}O to the melt during reprocessing. - Abstract: The recycling of tritium breeding materials will be necessary for any future use of nuclear fusion energy due to economical as well as ecological considerations. In the case of the solid breeder blanket concept, the ceramic pebble beds that are intended for the generation of tritium will eventually need to be restored due to depleted lithium levels as well as due to fractured pebbles, which will cause a deterioration of the pebble bed properties. It is proposed that the pebbles, which are fabricated using a melt-based process, are recycled using the same initial process, by replenishing the lithium levels and reforming the pebbles at the same time. To prove this recycling scheme, advanced ceramic pebbles were fabricated and then re-melted multiple times to prove that the reprocessing did not have any negative effect on the pebble properties and secondly, pebbles were produced with a simulated lithium burn-up and subsequently replenished by additions of LiOH to the melt. It was shown that the re-melting and lithium re-enrichment had no effect on the pebble properties, demonstrating that a melt-based process is suitable for recycling used breeder pebbles.

  17. Usefulness of Adenosinetriphosphate Bioluminescence Assay (ATPmetry) for Monitoring the Reprocessing of Endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batailler, Pierre; Saviuc, Philippe; Picot-Gueraud, Romain; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Mallaret, Marie-Reine

    2015-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of an adenosinetriphosphate bioluminescence assay (ATPmetry) to monitor the effectiveness of the reprocessing of endoscopes compared with microbiologic sampling. Diagnostic study. A 2,200-bed teaching hospital performing 5,000 to 6,000 endoscopic procedures annually. All samples from bronchial or gastrointestinal endoscopes whatever the context. Samples for microbiologic analysis and ATPmetry measurements were taken when each endoscope was inspected following reprocessing. Sampling was performed by flushing each endoscope with 300 mL Neutralizing Pharmacopeia Diluent thiosulfate rinsing solution divided equally between the endoscope channels. For each endoscope a series of 3 ATPmetry measurements were made on a vial containing the first jet from each channel and a second series on the whole sample. Of 165 samples from endoscopes, 11 exceeded the acceptability threshold of 25 colony-forming units/endoscope. In the first jet collected, the median (interquartile range) level of ATPmetry was 30.5 (15.3-37.7) relative light units (RLU) for samples with 25 or fewer colony-forming units compared with 37.0 (34.7-39.3) RLU for samples with more than 25 colony-forming units (P=.008). For the whole sample, the median (interquartile range) level of ATPmetry was 24.8 (14.3-36.3) RLU and 36.3 (36.0-38.3) RLU (P=.006), respectively. After adjusting on the batch of cleansing solution used, no difference in ATPmetry values was found between microbiologically acceptable and unacceptable samples. ATPmetry cannot be used as an alternative or complementary approach to microbiologic tests for monitoring the reprocessing of endoscopes in France.

  18. Container for reprocessing and permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    A single canister process container for reprocessing and permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies comprising zirconium-based cladding and fuel, which process container comprises a collapsible container, having side walls that are made of a high temperature alloy and an array of collapsible support means wherein the container is capable of withstanding temperature necessary to oxidize the zirconium-based cladding and having sufficient ductility to maintain integrity when collapsed under pressure. The support means is also capable of maintaining their integrity at temperature necessary to oxide the zirconium-based cladding. The process container also has means to introduce and remove fluids to and from the container.

  19. Prolonged Exposure versus Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Astin, Millie C; Marsteller, Fred

    2005-12-01

    This controlled study evaluated the relative efficacy of Prolonged Exposure (PE) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) compared to a no-treatment wait-list control (WAIT) in the treatment of PTSD in adult female rape victims (n = 74). Improvement in PTSD as assessed by blind independent assessors, depression, dissociation, and state anxiety was significantly greater in both the PE and EMDR group than the WAIT group (n = 20 completers per group). PE and EMDR did not differ significantly for change from baseline to either posttreatment or 6-month follow-up measurement for any quantitative scale.

  20. Research on advanced aqueous reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel: literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hecke, K.; Goethals, P.

    2006-07-15

    The goal of the partitioning and transmutation strategy is to reduce the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel to the level of natural uranium in a short period of time (about 1000 years) and thus the required containment period of radioactive material in a repository. Furthermore, it aims to reduce the volume of waste requiring deep geological disposal and hence the associated space requirements and costs. Several aqueous as well as pyrochemical separation processes have been developed for the partitioning of the long-lived radionuclides from the remaining of the spent fuel. This report aims to describe and compare advanced aqueous reprocessing methods.

  1. The Development of a Quality Management Framework for Evaluating Medical Device Reprocessing Practice in Healthcare Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorv, Bailey; Horodyski, Robin; Welton, Cynthia; Vail, John; Simonetto, Luca; Jokanovic, Danilo; Sharma, Richa; Mahoney, Angela Rea; Savoy-Bird, Shay; Bains, Shalu

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of the importance of medical device reprocessing (MDR) for the provision of safe patient care. Although industry service standards are available to guide MDR practices, there remains a lack of published key performance indicators (KPIs) and targets that are necessary to evaluate MDR quality for feedback and improvement. This article outlines the development of an initial framework that builds on established guidelines and includes service standards, KPIs and targets for evaluating MDR operations. This framework can support healthcare facilities in strengthening existing practices and enables a platform for collaboration towards better MDR performance management.

  2. XMM-Newton On-demand Reprocessing Using SaaS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, A.; Fajersztejn, N.; Loiseau, N.; Gabriel, C.

    2014-05-01

    We present here the architectural design of the new on-the-fly reprocessing capabilities that will be soon developed and implemented in the new XMM-Newton Science Operation Centre. The inclusion of processing capabilities into the archive, as we plan, will be possible thanks to the recent refurbishment of the XMM-Newton science archive, its alignment with the latest web technologies and the XMM-Newton Remote Interface for Science Analysis (RISA), a revolutionary idea of providing processing capabilities through internet services.

  3. Available reprocessing and recycling services for research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozser, Sandor Miklos; Adelfang, Pablo; Bradley, Ed [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Budu, Madalina [SOSNY Research and Development Company, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chiguer, Mustapha [AREVA, Paris (France)

    2015-05-15

    International activities in the back-end of the research reactor (RR) fuel cycle have so far been dominated by the programmes of acceptance of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by the country where it was originally enriched. These programmes will soon have achieved their goals and the SNF take-back programmes will cease. However, the needs of the nuclear community dictate that the majority of the research reactors continue to operate using low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in order to meet the varied mission objectives. As a result, inventories of LEU SNF will continue to be created and the back-end solution of RR SNF remains a critical issue. In view of this fact, the IAEA, based on the experience gained during the decade of international cooperation in supporting the objectives of the HEU take-back programmes, will draw up a report presenting available reprocessing and recycling services for research reactor spent nuclear fuel. This paper gives an overview of the guiding document which will address all aspects of Reprocessing and Recycling Services for RR SNF, including an overview of solutions, decision making support, service suppliers, conditions (prerequisites, options, etc.), services offered by the managerial and logistics support providers with a focus on available transport packages and applicable transport modes.

  4. Reassessment of protective design of Rokkasho reprocessing facility against aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, S.; Fujinaga, H.; Takebe, K. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Aomori-shi, Aomori-ken (Japan); Shirasaka, Y.; Nukui, Y.; Endoh, M. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    About 10 km south of the Rokkasho reprocessing site, there is a field where Japan Air Self-Defense Force and US Air Force fighters carry out gunnery and bombing practice around 40,000 times a year. Although an aircraft crash accident into the reprocessing facility seems extremely unlikely, the facility is designed to be protected by outermost walls and roofs. In the original protective design we took into account F-16 fighter's excessive weight of 20 tons and striking velocity of 150 m/s, anticipating a future change in the model of fighter. In fact last year the Self-Defense Force introduced F-4EJ as a substitute for overage F-1, which is heavier (and larger) than F-16. In response to the Science and Technology Agency's instructions, we conducted the reassessment to verify the safety of the original design with respect to a postulated F-4EJ crash. The total weight of 22 tons was used on the basis of our observation of outer equipment during practices, with best gliding velocity of 155 m/s. The reassessment confirmed that, even under the postulated F-4EJ crash conditions, safety is secured. A report of this reassessment was submitted to the Science and Technology Agency and the Agency accepted the appropriateness of the result. (author)

  5. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy v. stabilisation as usual for refugees: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Heide, F Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M; van de Schoot, Rens; de Jongh, Ad; Kleber, Rolf J

    2016-10-01

    Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is a first-line treatment for adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Some clinicians argue that with refugees, directly targeting traumatic memories through EMDR may be harmful or ineffective. To determine the safety and efficacy of EMDR in adult refugees with PTSD (trial registration: ISRCTN20310201). In total, 72 refugees referred for specialised treatment were randomly assigned to 12 h of EMDR (3×60 min planning/preparation followed by 6×90 min desensitisation/reprocessing) or 12 h (12×60 min) of stabilisation. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) were primary outcome measures. Intention-to-treat analyses found no differences in safety (one severe adverse event in the stabilisation condition only) or efficacy (effect sizes: CAPS -0.04 and HTQ 0.20) between the two conditions. Directly targeting traumatic memories through 12 h of EMDR in refugee patients needing specialised treatment is safe, but is only of limited efficacy. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  6. Contaminants of the bismuth phosphate process as signifiers of nuclear reprocessing history.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Sweet, Lucas E.

    2012-10-01

    Reagents used in spent nuclear fuel recycling impart unique contaminant patterns into the product stream of the process. Efforts are underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to characterize and understand the relationship between these patterns and the process that created them. A main challenge to this effort, recycling processes that were employed at the Hanford site from 1944-1989 have been retired for decades. This precludes direct measurements of the contaminant patterns that propagate within product streams of these facilities. In the absence of any operating recycling facilities at Hanford, we have taken a multipronged approach to cataloging contaminants of U.S. reprocessing activities using: (1) historical records summarizing contaminants within the final Pu metal button product of these facilities; (2) samples of opportunity that represent intermediate products of these processes; and (3) lab-scale experiments and model simulations designed to replicate contaminant patterns at each stage of nuclear fuel reprocessing. This report provides a summary of the progress and results from Fiscal Year (April 1, 2010-September 30) 2011.

  7. Reprogrammable, Reprocessible, and Self-Healable Liquid Crystal Elastomer with Exchangeable Disulfide Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijian; Tian, Hongmiao; He, Qiguang; Cai, Shengqiang

    2017-09-27

    A liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) can be regarded as an integration of mesogenic molecules into a polymer network. The LCE can generate large mechanical actuation when subjected to various external stimuli. Recently, it has been extensively explored to make artificial muscle and multifunctional devices. However, in the commonly adopted two-step crosslinking method for synthesizing monodomain LCEs, the LCE needs to be well-cross-linked in the first step before stretching, which increases the disorder of mesogenic molecules in the final state of the LCE and makes it very challenging to fabricate the LCE of complex shapes. In this article, we developed a new LCE with disulfide bonds, which can be reprogrammed from the polydomain state to the monodomain state either through heating or UV illumination, owing to the rearrangement of the polymer network induced by the metathesis reaction of disulfide bonds. In addition, the newly developed LCE can be easily reprocessed and self-healed by heating. Because of the excellent reprogrammability as well as reprocessability of the LCE, we further fabricated LCE-based active micropillar arrays through robust imprint lithography, which can be hardly achieved using the LCE prepared previously. Finally, we showed an excellent long-term durability of the newly developed LCE.

  8. Plant planting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes planting activities on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1995 and 2009.

  9. Tropospheric products of the second GOP European GNSS reprocessing (1996–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dousa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present results of the second reprocessing of all data from 1996 to 2014 from all stations in International Association of Geodesy (IAG Reference Frame Sub-Commission for Europe (EUREF Permanent Network (EPN as performed at the Geodetic Observatory Pecný (GOP. While the original goal of this research was to ultimately contribute to the realization of a new European Terrestrial Reference System (ETRS, we also aim to provide a new set of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System tropospheric parameter time series with possible applications to climate research. To achieve these goals, we improved a strategy to guarantee the continuity of these tropospheric parameters and we prepared several variants of troposphere modelling. We then assessed all solutions in terms of the repeatability of coordinates as an internal evaluation of applied models and strategies and in terms of zenith tropospheric delays (ZTDs and horizontal gradients with those of the ERA-Interim numerical weather model (NWM reanalysis. When compared to the GOP Repro1 (first EUREF reprocessing solution, the results of the GOP Repro2 (second EUREF reprocessing yielded improvements of approximately 50 and 25 % in the repeatability of the horizontal and vertical components, respectively, and of approximately 9 % in tropospheric parameters. Vertical repeatability was reduced from 4.14 to 3.73 mm when using the VMF1 mapping function, a priori ZHD (zenith hydrostatic delay, and non-tidal atmospheric loading corrections from actual weather data. Raising the elevation cut-off angle from 3 to 7° and then to 10° increased RMS from coordinates' repeatability, which was then confirmed by independently comparing GNSS tropospheric parameters with the NWM reanalysis. The assessment of tropospheric horizontal gradients with respect to the ERA-Interim revealed a strong sensitivity of estimated gradients to the quality of GNSS antenna tracking performance. This impact was

  10. Tropospheric products of the second GOP European GNSS reprocessing (1996-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousa, Jan; Vaclavovic, Pavel; Elias, Michal

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present results of the second reprocessing of all data from 1996 to 2014 from all stations in International Association of Geodesy (IAG) Reference Frame Sub-Commission for Europe (EUREF) Permanent Network (EPN) as performed at the Geodetic Observatory Pecný (GOP). While the original goal of this research was to ultimately contribute to the realization of a new European Terrestrial Reference System (ETRS), we also aim to provide a new set of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) tropospheric parameter time series with possible applications to climate research. To achieve these goals, we improved a strategy to guarantee the continuity of these tropospheric parameters and we prepared several variants of troposphere modelling. We then assessed all solutions in terms of the repeatability of coordinates as an internal evaluation of applied models and strategies and in terms of zenith tropospheric delays (ZTDs) and horizontal gradients with those of the ERA-Interim numerical weather model (NWM) reanalysis. When compared to the GOP Repro1 (first EUREF reprocessing) solution, the results of the GOP Repro2 (second EUREF reprocessing) yielded improvements of approximately 50 and 25 % in the repeatability of the horizontal and vertical components, respectively, and of approximately 9 % in tropospheric parameters. Vertical repeatability was reduced from 4.14 to 3.73 mm when using the VMF1 mapping function, a priori ZHD (zenith hydrostatic delay), and non-tidal atmospheric loading corrections from actual weather data. Raising the elevation cut-off angle from 3 to 7° and then to 10° increased RMS from coordinates' repeatability, which was then confirmed by independently comparing GNSS tropospheric parameters with the NWM reanalysis. The assessment of tropospheric horizontal gradients with respect to the ERA-Interim revealed a strong sensitivity of estimated gradients to the quality of GNSS antenna tracking performance. This impact was demonstrated at the

  11. Translational reprocessing of spent fuel elements in the light of European Community law. Grenzueberschreitende atomare Wiederaufarbeitung im Lichte des europaeischen Gemeinschaftsrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuing, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    Objections are being raised against the current reprocessing of fuel elements from German nuclear power plants in France and Great Britain on the grounds that, measured by German protection requirements, it cannot be regarded as 'inncuous utilization' of radioactive waste material; this brings a momentous intervention of the German authorities against the operators of German nuclear power plants into consideration. Yet would not such a 'national solo attempt' conflict with European Community law . This question is illuminated in its different aspects. First the issue is examined from the point of view of radiation protection law under the Euratom Treaty and of the aim of the EC to establish the single market. Subsequent focal points are an inquiry into compatibility with the freedom of merchandise traffic and commercial services as provided by European Community law. The outcome is that European Community law does not oppose the German authorities intervencing. Rather such self-discipline practised by member states for the benefit of the European environment is admissible so long as the other EC member states do not establish equally stringent standards on their own accord or European Community law itself does not provide protection on a high level. (orig.).

  12. The Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy Technique in the Treatment of Test Anxiety of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Matthew; Baldo, Tracy D.; Wykes, Scott D.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of test anxiety. Thirty-five college students with test anxiety were assigned to either a treatment or delayed treatment control group. EMDR was shown to be effective in reducing overall test anxiety as well as "emotionality" and…

  13. Longitudinal assessment of reprocessing effectiveness for colonoscopes and gastroscopes: Results of visual inspections, biochemical markers, and microbial cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofstead, Cori L; Wetzler, Harry P; Heymann, Otis L; Johnson, Ellen A; Eiland, John E; Shaw, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    Flexible endoscopes are currently reused following cleaning and high-level disinfection. Contamination has been found on endoscopes, and infections have been linked to gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urologic endoscopes. This longitudinal study involved visual inspections with a borescope, microbial cultures, and biochemical tests for protein and adenosine triphosphate to identify endoscopes in need of further cleaning or maintenance. Three assessments were conducted over a 7-month period. Control group endoscopes reprocessed using customary practices were compared with intervention group endoscopes subjected to more rigorous reprocessing. At final assessment, all endoscopes (N = 20) had visible irregularities. Researchers observed fluid (95%), discoloration, and debris in channels. Of 12 (60%) endoscopes with microbial growth, 4 had no growth until after 48 hours. There were no significant differences in culture results by study group, assessment period, or endoscope type. Similar proportions of control and intervention endoscopes (~20%) exceeded postcleaning biochemical test benchmarks. Adenosine triphosphate levels were higher for gastroscopes than colonoscopes (P = .014). Eighty-five percent of endoscopes required repair due to findings. More rigorous reprocessing was not consistently effective. Seven-day incubation allowed identification of slow-growing microbes. These findings bolster the need for routine visual inspection and cleaning verification tests recommended in new reprocessing guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reprocessing of Shallow Seismic Reflection Data to Image Faults Near a Hazardous Waste Site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, W.E.

    1997-12-31

    Shallow seismic reflection data from Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation demonstrates that spectral balancing and tomographic refraction statics can be important processing tools for shallow seismic data. At this site, reprocessing of data which had previously yielded no usable CMP stacked sections was successful after application of these processing techniques.

  15. REPROCESSING OF SHALLOW SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA TO IMAGE FAULTS NEAR A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE ON THE OAK RIDGE RESERVATION, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOLL, W.E.

    1997-12-30

    Shallow seismic reflection data from Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation demonstrates that spectral balancing and tomographic refraction statics can be important processing tools for shallow seismic data. At this site, reprocessing of data which had previously yielded no useable CMP stacked sections was successful after application of these processing techniques.

  16. Brief eclectic psychotherapy v. eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, M.J.; Gersons, B.P.R.; Reitsma, J.B.; de Jongh, A.; Ollf, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy (EMDR) are efficacious treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have directly compared them using well-powered designs and few have investigated

  17. Reprocessing of Lunar occultations observations carried out in Uzbekistan during 1882-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muminov, M. M.; Kazantseva, L. V.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Kahhorov, B. B.; Andruk, V. M.

    A unified database of ILOC and Kyiv Observatory by selected locations on the territory of Uzbekistan was presented. Reprocessing of observations using the semi-analytical ephemeris of lunar motion VSOP87A with obtained correction for the relief of the marginal zone according to Watts’s map was carried out. Observation of ocultations was carried out by the staff of Tashkent Observatory in Uzbekistan from the end of the XIX century. The observations are planned to be continued with 48 cm telescope of Maidanak Observatory. Selected database (1145 results of observations) was obtained during a long period (1882-1993 AD), but distribution of observation over that period is not uniform. 4 periods of an active observation 1882-1890, 1927-1938, 1948-1972 and 1993 can be noted.

  18. Development of spent fuel reprocessing by super-critical fluid (Development of super DIREX method)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Takashi; Ogumo, Shin-ya; Mori, Yukihide; Ishihara, Nobuo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosaka, Yuji; Ito, Kunihiro [Nuclear Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Supercritical fluid DIRect EXtraction (Super-DIREX) Method has been developed, and it is the technique of extracting Uranium and Plutonium elements directly from spent fuel oxides by supercritical CO{sub 2} containing HNO{sub 3}-tributylphosphate (TBP) complex (at 313K-333K and 10-20MPa). From this study, it is concluded that the reprocessing system adopting Super-DIREX Method is more simple and unexpensive than PUREX system. The experiment was carried out by using test piece of unirradiated Uranium oxide included imitative fission product (FP) elements oxides, and the results showed that Uranium could be extracted in separating from FP elements at 313K and 12MPa and that one step extraction by Super DIREX Method could get more than 100 of decontamination factor (DE) of the FP elements. (author)

  19. Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Emory D; Delcul, Guillermo D; Hunt, Rodney D; Johnson, Jared A; Spencer, Barry B

    2013-11-05

    A method for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from a light water reactor includes the step of reacting spent nuclear fuel in a voloxidation vessel with an oxidizing gas having nitrogen dioxide and oxygen for a period sufficient to generate a solid oxidation product of the spent nuclear fuel. The reacting step includes the step of reacting, in a first zone of the voloxidation vessel, spent nuclear fuel with the oxidizing gas at a temperature ranging from 200-450.degree. C. to form an oxidized reaction product, and regenerating nitrogen dioxide, in a second zone of the voloxidation vessel, by reacting oxidizing gas comprising nitrogen monoxide and oxygen at a temperature ranging from 0-80.degree. C. The first zone and the second zone can be separate. A voloxidation system is also disclosed.

  20. Experience with the custom-developed ATLAS Offline Trigger Monitoring Framework and Reprocessing Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, V

    2012-01-01

    After about two years of data taking with the ATLAS detector manifold experience with the custom-developed trigger monitoring and reprocessing infrastructure could be collected. The trigger monitoring can be roughly divided into online and offline monitoring. The online monitoring calculates and displays all rates at every level of the trigger and evaluates up to 3000 data quality histograms. The physics analysis relevant data quality information is being checked and recorded automatically. The offline trigger monitoring provides information depending of the physics motivated different trigger streams after a run has finished. Experts are checking the information being guided by the assessment of algorithms checking the current histograms with a reference. The experts are recording their assessment in a so-called data quality defects which are used to select data for physics analysis. In the first half of 2011 about three percent of all data had an intolerable defect resulting from the ATLAS trigger system. T...

  1. Assessment of lead tellurite glass for immobilizing electrochemical salt wastes from used nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Kroll, Jared O.; Peterson, Jacob A.; Pierce, David A.; Ebert, William L.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Snyder, Michelle M. V.; Frank, Steven M.; George, Jaime L.; Kruska, Karen

    2017-11-01

    This paper provides an overview of research evaluating the use of lead tellurite glass as a waste form for salt wastes from electrochemical reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. The efficacy of using lead tellurite glass to immobilize three different salt compositions was evaluated: a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt containing fission products from oxide fuel, a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt containing fission products from metallic fuel, and SrCl2. Physical and chemical properties of glasses made with these salts were characterized with X-ray diffraction, bulk density measurements, differential thermal analysis, chemical durability tests, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. These glasses were found to accommodate high salt concentrations and have high densities, but further development is needed to improve chemical durability. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Reprocessing of Soft X-ray Emission Lines in Black Hole Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauche, C W; Liedahl, D A; Mathiesen, B F; Jimenez-Garate, M A; Raymond, J C

    2003-10-17

    By means of a Monte Carlo code that accounts for Compton scattering and photoabsorption followed by recombination, we have investigated the radiation transfer of Ly{alpha}, He{alpha}, and recombination continua photons of H- and He-like C, N, O, and Ne produced in the photoionized atmosphere of a relativistic black hole accretion disk. We find that photoelectric opacity causes significant attenuation of photons with energies above the O VIII K-edge; that the conversion efficiencies of these photons into lower-energy lines and recombination continua are high; and that accounting for this reprocessing significantly (by factors of 21% to 105%) increases the flux of the Ly{alpha} and He{alpha} emission lines of H- and He-like C and O escaping the disk atmosphere.

  3. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy for personality disorders in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielkens, E M J; Sobczak, S; Van Alphen, S P J

    2016-10-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a kind of psychotherapy, which is growing in popularity, particularly for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When Shapiro first introduced EMDR in 1989, it was approached as a controversial treatment because of lack of evidence. However, nowadays there is growing evidence for EMDR efficacy in PTSD (Mc Guire et al., 2014) and EMDR is recommended by international and national treatment guidelines for PTSD. Moreover, EMDR is also used for the treatment of other anxiety disorders, such as panic disorders (De Jongh et al., 2002). Furthermore, research continues on effects of EMDR in addiction, somatoform disorders and psychosis. So far, there is no empirical research on the efficacy of EMDR treatment in older adults.

  4. Thoria-based nuclear fuels thermophysical and thermodynamic properties, fabrication, reprocessing, and waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, S R

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art on thermophysical and thermochemical properties, fabrication methodologies, irradiation behaviours, fuel reprocessing procedures, and aspects of waste management for oxide fuels in general and for thoria-based fuels in particular. The book covers all the essential features involved in the development of and working with nuclear technology. With the help of key databases, many of which were created by the authors, information is presented in the form of tables, figures, schematic diagrams and flow sheets, and photographs. This information will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the nuclear field, particularly for design and simulation, and for establishing the technology. One special feature is the inclusion of the latest information on thoria-based fuels, especially on the use of thorium in power generation, as it has less proliferation potential for nuclear weapons. Given its natural abundance, thorium offers a future alternative to uranium fuels in nuc...

  5. [The role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in substance use disorders: A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, René; Hartleb, Riccarda; Konrad, Gabriela; Reininghaus, Eva; Unterrainer, Human Friedrich

    2017-10-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a therapeutic method that has been shown to be especially effective in traumatic disorders. Since the concept of an addiction memory has become widely accepted, the use of EMDR also in substance use disorders (SUD) treatment might count as a separate field. This review summarizes the current state of research on treatment effects EMDR in SUD. The literature search included the databases of PubMed and PsychInfo; four studies met the inclusion criteria. EMDR was found to be related to a decreased amount of craving, fear and depression and to an improvement of emotion regulation and management and self-esteem. Initial findings indicate a high therapeutic potential of EMDR in SUD treatment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Ýzci

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR are from the most common treatment methods that have begun to be used in trauma patients in recent years. With the increased applicability of these treatment models in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and on other trauma patients success of treatment rate in trauma patients is increasing steadily. In this article, it is tried to review the application forms and effects of EMDR and CBT methods among patients with PTSD which is a commonly seen trauma disorder. It is aimed in this article to emphasize the importance of CBT and a newly treatment EMDR in post-traumatic acute and chronic disorders with multiple psychiatric symptoms. [JCBPR 2017; 6(1.000: 31-38

  7. Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing as Treatment for Chronic Pain Syndromes: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Angela J; Jordan, Irma O

    2016-04-05

    Chronic pain is public health problem in the United States, costing upwards of $560 to $635 billion annually. Guidelines consistently recommend psychological treatment for chronic pain. Eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) psychotherapy may provide an alternate approach to treating chronic pain. Review of literature to evaluate the effectiveness of EMDR in the treatment of chronic pain. A literature search of seven databases was conducted to find relevant studies addressing the use of EMDR for chronic pain. Most studies reported improvement in pain and psychological indices with EMDR. Because most literature reported case studies, the results have limited generalizability. However, for clients who suffer from chronic pain, EMDR is a reasonable treatment alternative. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Science and pseudoscience in the development of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: implications for clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, J D; Lilienfeld, S O; Lohr, J M; Montgomery, R W; O'Donohue, W T; Rosen, G M; Tolin, D F

    2000-11-01

    The enormous popularity recently achieved by Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment for anxiety disorders appears to have greatly outstripped the evidence for its efficacy from controlled research studies. The disparity raises disturbing questions concerning EMDR's aggressive commercial promotion and its rapid acceptance among practitioners. In this article, we: (1) summarize the evidence concerning EMDR's efficacy; (2) describe the dissemination and promotion of EMDR; (3) delineate the features of pseudoscience and explicate their relevance to EMDR; (4) describe the pseudoscientific marketing practices used to promote EMDR; (5) analyze factors contributing to the acceptance of EMDR by professional psychologists; and (6) discuss practical considerations for professional psychologists regarding the adoption of EMDR into professional practice. We argue that EMDR provides an excellent vehicle for illustrating the differences between scientific and pseudoscientific therapeutic techniques. Such distinctions are of critical importance for clinical psychologists who intend to base their practice on the best available research.

  9. Cleaning of outgoing air at companies reprocessing residual material; Abluftreinigung fuer Reststoffverwertungsbetriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafflenbeul, R. [Rafflenbeul und Partner, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1996-05-01

    With the extension of the federal act for the protection against nuisances to companies reprocessing residual material and, concomitantly, their obligation from 1997 to obtain a licence, outgoing-air cleaning systems for the removal of odorous nuisances will become indispensable. Because of want of information on the part of many operators, scrubbers, and in part even air cleaning systems with after-burning, are still frequently used. The article gives an overview of the different techniques for cleaning outgoing air such as scrubbers, biological methods as well as plasma and bioplasma techniques. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Mit der Neueingliederung der Reststoffverwertungsbetriebe in das Bundesimmissionschutz-Gesetz, und hiermit verknuepft der ab 1997 erforderlichen Genehmigungspflicht, werden Abluftreinigungsverfahren zur Geruchsbeseitigung unumgehbar. Aus Unkenntnis der Betreiber gelangen immer noch Waschverfahren, zum Teil sogar nachverbrennend wirkende Abluftreinigungssysteme, zur Anwendung. Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die verschiedenen Abluftreinigungsverfahren wie Waescher, biologische Verfahren sowie Plasma- und Bioplasmaverfahren gegeben. (orig./SR)

  10. The Role and Reprocessing of Attitudes in Fostering Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L.; Waters, Lea

    2017-01-01

    This intervention study examines the iterative reprocessing of explicit and implicit attitudes as the process underlying associations between positive employee attitudes (PsyCap), perception of positive organization culture (organizational virtuousness, OV), and work happiness. Using a quasi-experimental design, a group of school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, the treatment group (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results suggest that employee PsyCap, OV, and work happiness are associated with one another through both implicit and explicit attitudes. Further, the Iterative-Reprocessing Model of attitudes (IRM) provides some insights into the processes underlying these associations. By examining the role and processes through which explicit and implicit attitudes relate to wellbeing at work, the study integrates theories on attitudes, positive organizational scholarship, positive organizational behavior and positive education. It is one of the first studies to apply the theory of the IRM to explain associations amongst PsyCap, OV and work happiness, and to test the IRM theory in a field-based setting. In applying attitude theory to wellbeing research, this study provides insights to mechanisms underlying workplace wellbeing that have not been previously examined and in doing so responds to calls for researchers to learn more about the mechanisms underlying wellbeing interventions. Further, it highlights the need to understand subconscious processes in future wellbeing research and to include implicit measures in positive psychology interventions measurement programs. Practically, this research calls attention to the importance of developing both the positive attitudes of employees and the organizational culture in developing employee work happiness. PMID:28154546

  11. Analysis of the Reuse of Uranium Recovered from the Reprocessing of Commercial LWR Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DelCul, Guillermo Daniel [ORNL; Trowbridge, Lee D [ORNL; Renier, John-Paul [ORNL; Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL; Williams, Kent Alan [ORNL; Spencer, Barry B [ORNL; Collins, Emory D [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    This report provides an analysis of the factors involved in the reuse of uranium recovered from commercial light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels (1) by reenrichment and recycling as fuel to LWRs and/or (2) by recycling directly as fuel to heavy-water-reactors (HWRs), such as the CANDU (registered trade name for the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor). Reuse is an attractive alternative to the current Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) baseline plan, which stores the reprocessed uranium (RU) for an uncertain future or attempts to dispose of it as 'greater-than-Class C' waste. Considering that the open fuel cycle currently deployed in the United States already creates a huge excess quantity of depleted uranium, the closed fuel cycle should enable the recycle of the major components of spent fuel, such as the uranium and the hazardous, long-lived transuranic (TRU) actinides, as well as the managed disposal of fission product wastes. Compared with the GNEP baseline scenario, the reuse of RU in the uranium fuel cycle has a number of potential advantages: (1) avoidance of purchase costs of 11-20% of the natural uranium feed; (2) avoidance of disposal costs for a large majority of the volume of spent fuel that is reprocessed; (3) avoidance of disposal costs for a portion of the depleted uranium from the enrichment step; (4) depending on the {sup 235}U assay of the RU, possible avoidance of separative work costs; and (5) a significant increase in the production of {sup 238}Pu due to the presence of {sup 236}U, which benefits somewhat the transmutation value of the plutonium and also provides some proliferation resistance.

  12. The Role and Reprocessing of Attitudes in Fostering Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L; Waters, Lea

    2017-01-01

    This intervention study examines the iterative reprocessing of explicit and implicit attitudes as the process underlying associations between positive employee attitudes (PsyCap), perception of positive organization culture (organizational virtuousness, OV), and work happiness. Using a quasi-experimental design, a group of school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, the treatment group (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results suggest that employee PsyCap, OV, and work happiness are associated with one another through both implicit and explicit attitudes. Further, the Iterative-Reprocessing Model of attitudes (IRM) provides some insights into the processes underlying these associations. By examining the role and processes through which explicit and implicit attitudes relate to wellbeing at work, the study integrates theories on attitudes, positive organizational scholarship, positive organizational behavior and positive education. It is one of the first studies to apply the theory of the IRM to explain associations amongst PsyCap, OV and work happiness, and to test the IRM theory in a field-based setting. In applying attitude theory to wellbeing research, this study provides insights to mechanisms underlying workplace wellbeing that have not been previously examined and in doing so responds to calls for researchers to learn more about the mechanisms underlying wellbeing interventions. Further, it highlights the need to understand subconscious processes in future wellbeing research and to include implicit measures in positive psychology interventions measurement programs. Practically, this research calls attention to the importance of developing both the positive attitudes of employees and the organizational culture in developing employee work happiness.

  13. Numerical simulations of waste forms from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel; Numerische Simulationen von Abfallgebinden aus der Wiederaufarbeitung von Kernbrennstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Stephan

    2014-07-01

    development of the software system the construction and implementation of a computer cluster was promoted. The design of this system was optimized on the requirements of the simulation programs. This system is used as a platform for future extensions and use cases. To verify the accurateness of the developed software-components several comparative calculations with international benchmarks were performed. The performed calculations and the additional analysis with the created software system show that the results of the benchmarks and the calculations match. These calculations were used to verify the basic quality of the software system. To verify that the software system is capable to be used as a tool for the inspection of radioactive waste products the product properties of the high level glass products from the vitrification plant in Karlsruhe (VEK) were calculated from the available compound documentations. The thermal power as well as the dose-rate for the compounds were calculated using different models. This analysis showed that the calculated and declared product properties are in a good agreement. It was concluded from this benchmark that the created software system is reliable to be used as a tool for the evaluation of radioactive waste products. The software is used for scenario analysis of waste products. This feature is used for the super-compacted metallic waste stream from the reprocessing plants to forcast their product properties. Therefore the basic functionalities of the developed software system were used to create a scenario analysis of the reprocessing plant. This virtual plant contains all necessary processing steps with their material flow and mass balance. The process parameters which affect the material flow were collected from pubic resources. The expected product properties depending on the approved raw waste are valid within the current approved waste product properties. Finally the scenario analysis was extended to test the validity of the

  14. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing U-233 and thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W. Jr.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-05-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel reprocessing plant and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in defining the term as low as reasonably achievable as it applies to this nuclear facility. The base case is representative of conceptual, developing technology of head-end graphite-burning operations and of extensions of solvent-extraction technology of current designs for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing plants. The model plant has an annual capacity of 450 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM, where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed.

  15. Influence of reprocessing on fibre length distribution, tensile strength and impact strength of injection moulded cellulose fibre-reinforced polylactide (PLA composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Graupner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the reprocessing behaviour of recycled injection moulded polylactide (PLA composites. The composites are reinforced with regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell of variable fineness and a fibre mass content of 30%. They were reprocessed up to three times. The influence of reprocessing on the fibre length distribution and the resulting composite mechanical properties (tensile and impact strength was analysed. While the first reprocessing cycle does not affect the mechanical characteristics of the neat PLA matrix, the strength of the composites decreases significantly due to a decreasing fibre aspect ratio. It was shown that fibres having a larger cross-sectional area display a lower aspect ratio than finer fibres, after reprocessing. This phenomenon leads to a larger decrease in tensile strength of composites reinforced with coarser fibres when compared to composites reinforced with finer fibres. A comparison of virgin composites and threefold reprocessed composites with a similar fibre length distribution resulted in a significantly higher tensile strength compared to the virgin sample. This result leads to the conclusion that not only the fibre length is drastically reduced by reprocessing but also that the fibres and the matrix were damaged.

  16. Investigating the effect of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) on postoperative pain intensity in adolescents undergoing surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroufi, Mohsen; Zamani, Shahla; Izadikhah, Zahra; Marofi, Maryam; O'Connor, Peter

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for postoperative pain management in adolescents. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is an inexpensive, non-pharmacological intervention that has successfully been used to treat chronic pain. It holds promise in the treatment of acute, postsurgical pain based on its purported effects on the brain and nervous system. A randomized controlled trial was used. Fifty-six adolescent surgical patients aged between 12-18 years were allocated to gender-balanced Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (treatment) or non-Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (control) groups. Pain was measured using the Wong-Baker FACES(®) Pain Rating Scale (WBFS) before and after the intervention (or non-intervention for the control group). A Wilcoxon signed-rank test demonstrated that the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing group experienced a significant reduction in pain intensity after treatment intervention, whereas the control group did not. Additionally, a Mann-Whitney U-test showed that, while there was no significant difference between the two groups at time 1, there was a significant difference in pain intensity between the two groups at time 2, with the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing group experiencing lower levels of pain. These results suggest that Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing may be an effective treatment modality for postoperative pain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Fuel salt reprocessing influence on the MSFR behavior and on its associated reprocessing unit; Influence du retraitement physico-chimique du sel combustible sur le comportement du MSFR et sur le dimensionnement de son unite de retraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doligez, X.

    2010-10-15

    In order to face with the growing of the energy demand, the nuclear industry has to reach the fourth generation technology. Among those concept, molten salt reactor, and especially the fast neutron spectrum configuration, seems very promising: indeed breeding is achievable while the feedback coefficient are still negative. However, the reprocessing salt scheme is not totally set down yet. A lot of uncertainties remain on chemical properties of the salt. Thanks to numerical simulation we studied the behavior of the molten Salt Fast Reactor coupled to a nominal reprocessing unit. We are now able to determine heat transfer and radiation in each elementary step of the unit and, by this way determine those that need special study for radioprotection. We also studied which elements are fundamental to extract for the reactor operation. Finally, we present a sensibility analysis of the chemical uncertainties to few relevant properties of the reactor behavior. (author)

  18. Interactions of the IGS reprocessing and the IGS antenna phase center model (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, R.; Steigenberger, P.; Dach, R.; Schmitz, M.; Dilssner, F.; Hugentobler, U.

    2009-12-01

    Since November 2006 an absolute phase center correction model for GNSS satellite and receiver antennas has been used within the International GNSS Service (IGS). This model, called igs05.atx, comprises consistent phase center offset (PCO) and variation (PCV) values given in ANTEX format. Generally, these correction values have not been changed in the meantime.For most of the receiver antenna types dominating the IGS network, absolute robot calibrations provided by Geo++ GmbH are available. Those comprise azimuth- and zenith-dependent PCVs down to the horizon. For the remaining antenna types converted field calibrations from the National Geodetic Survey are applied that are purely zenith-dependent. The impact of radomes is taken into account, if calibration results are available. So far, igs05.atx only contains calibrations for the GPS frequencies.The GPS satellite antenna corrections contained in igs05.atx were estimated by Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum and by TUM by reprocessing more than ten years of IGS data. The corresponding GLONASS corrections were provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) after processing more than one year of data. Although azimuth-dependent PCVs are present, the igs05.atx model is limited to block-specific purely nadir-dependent PCVs. In contrast, satellite-specific z-offsets are given.At the time the satellite antenna corrections were estimated, the solutions could only be aligned to IGb00, the IGS realization of ITRF2000, that was based on relative receiver antenna corrections. Moreover, the impact of radomes had to be ignored, as calibration results were not available. So, the IGS reprocessing campaign is an excellent possibility to improve the consistency between both satellite and receiver antenna corrections and the terrestrial reference frame.Several analysis centers (ACs) of the IGS provide z-offset estimates within their weekly SINEX files. By back-solving those files with selected station coordinates fixed

  19. Simulation of atmospheric krypton-85 transport to assess the detectability of clandestine nuclear reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Jens Ole

    2010-02-02

    The radioactive noble gas krypton-85 is released into the atmosphere during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel or irradiated breeding targets. This is a necessary step for plutonium separation. Therefore the {sup 85}Kr signature of reprocessing could possibly be used for the detection of undeclared nuclear facilities producing nuclear weaponusable material. The {sup 85}Kr content of the atmosphere has grown over the last decades as the emissions from military and civilian nuclear industry could not be compensated by the decay with a half-life of 10.76 years. In this study, the global {sup 85}Kr background distribution due to emissions of known reprocessing facilities for the period from 1971 until 2006 was simulated using the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5 applying the newest available annual emission data. The convective tracer transport scheme and the operator splitting for the physical calculations in the model were modified in order to guarantee physically correct results for tracer point sources, in particular non negative concentrations. An on-line routine controlling the {sup 85}Kr -budget in the model enforced exact mass conservation. The results of the simulation were evaluated by extensive comparison with measurements performed by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection with very good agreement at most observation sites except those in the direct vicinity of {sup 85}Kr sources. Of particular interest for the {sup 85}Kr detection potential was the variability of {sup 85}Kr background concentrations which was evaluated for the first time in a global model. In addition, the interhemispheric transport as simulated by ECHAM5 was analyzed using a two-box model providing a mean exchange time of τ {sub ex} = 10.5 months. The analysis of τ{sub ex} over simulated 35 years indicates that in years with strong South Asian or African Monsoon the interhemispheric transport is faster during the monsoon season. A correlation analysis of

  20. Estimates of Zenith Total Delay trends from GPS reprocessing with autoregressive process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Anna; Hunegnaw, Addisu; Teferle, Felix Norman; Ebuy Abraha, Kibrom; Ahmed, Furqan; Bogusz, Janusz

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, near real-time Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) estimates from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations are routinely assimilated into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to improve the reliability of forecasts. On the other hand, ZTD time series derived from homogeneously re-processed GPS observations over long periods have the potential to improve our understanding of climate change on various temporal and spatial scales. With such time series only recently reaching somewhat adequate time spans, the application of GPS-derived ZTD estimates to climate monitoring is still to be developed further. In this research, we examine the character of noise in ZTD time series for 1995-2015 in order to estimate more realistic magnitudes of trend and its uncertainty than would be the case if the stochastic properties are not taken into account. Furthermore, the hourly sampled, homogeneously re-processed and carefully homogenized ZTD time series from over 700 globally distributed stations were classified into five major climate zones. We found that the amplitudes of annual signals reach values of 10-150 mm with minimum values for the polar and Alpine zones. The amplitudes of daily signals were estimated to be 0-12 mm with maximum values found for the dry zone. We examined seven different noise models for the residual ZTD time series after modelling all known periodicities. This identified a combination of white plus autoregressive process of fourth order to be optimal to match all changes in power of the ZTD data. When the stochastic properties are neglected, ie. a pure white noise model is employed, only 11 from 120 trends were insignificant. Using the optimum noise model more than half of the 120 examined trends became insignificant. We show that the uncertainty of ZTD trends is underestimated by a factor of 3-12 when the stochastic properties of the ZTD time series are ignored and we conclude that it is essential to properly model the noise characteristics of

  1. NASADEM Overview and First Results: Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Reprocessing and Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, S.; Agram, P. S.; Belz, J. E.; Crippen, R. E.; Gurrola, E. M.; Hensley, S.; Kobrick, M.; Lavalle, M.; Martin, J. M.; Neumann, M.; Nguyen, Q.; Rosen, P. A.; Shimada, J.; Simard, M.; Tung, W.

    2015-12-01

    NASADEM is a significant modernization of SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) data supported by the NASA MEaSUREs program. We are reprocessing the raw radar signal data using improved algorithms and incorporating ICESat and ASTER-derived DEM data unavailable during the original processing. The NASADEM products will be freely-available through the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) at 1-arcsecond spacing. The most significant processing improvements involve void reduction through improved phase unwrapping and using ICESat data for control. The updated unwrapping strategy now includes the use of SNAPHU for data processing patches where the unwrapped coverage from the original residue-based unwrapper falls below a coverage threshold. In North America continental processing, first experiments show the strip void area is reduced by more than 50% and the number of strip void patches is reduced by 40%. Patch boundary voids are mitigated by reprocessing with a different starting burst and merging the unwrapping results. We also updated a low-resolution elevation database to aid with unwrapping bootstrapping, retaining isolated component of unwrapped phase, and assessing the quality of the strip DEMs. We introduce a height ripple error correction to reduce artifacts in the strip elevation data. These ripples are a few meters in size with along-track spatial scales of tens of kilometers and are due to uncompensated mast motion most pronounced after Shuttle roll angle adjustment maneuvers. We developed an along-track filter utilizing differences between the SRTM heights and ICESat lidar elevation data. For a test using all data over North America, the algorithm reduced the ICESat-SRTM bias from 80 cm to 3 cm and the RMS from 5m to 4m. After merging and regridding the SRTM strip DEMs into 1x1-degree tiles, remaining voids are primarily filled with the ASTER-derived Global DEM. We use a Delta Surface Fill method to rubbersheet fill data across the void for

  2. Costs of head-end incineration with respect to Kr separation in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnert-Wiemer, H.; Boehnert, R.

    1976-07-15

    The C-incinerations and the Kr-separations during head-end incineration in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements are described. The costs for constructing an operating a head-end incineration of reprocessing capacities with 5,000 to 50,000 MW(e)-HTR power have been determined. The cost estimates are divided into investment and operating costs, further after the fraction of the N/sub 2/-content in the incineration exhaust gas, which strongly affects costs. It appears that, in the case of Kr-separation from the incineration exhaust gas, the investment costs as well as the operating costs of the head-end for N/sub 2/-containing exhaust gas are considerably greater than those for gas without N/sub 2/. The C-incineration of the graphite of the HTR fuel elements should therefore only be performed with influx gas that is free of N/sub 2/.

  3. Global Daily Sea Ice Concentration Reprocessing Data Set for 1978-2007 from the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (NCEI Accession 0068294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data constitute the reprocessed sea ice concentration data set from the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF), covering the...

  4. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program: Criticality experiments with fast test reactor fuel pins in an organic moderator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    The results obtained in a series of criticality experiments performed as part of a joint program on criticality data development between the United States Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved lattices of Fast Test Reactor (FTR) fuel pins in an organic moderator mixture similar to that used in the solvent extraction stage of fuel reprocessing. The experiments are designed to provide data for direct comparison with previously performed experimental measurements with water moderated lattices of FTR fuel pins. The same lattice arrangements and FTR fuel pin types are used in these organic moderated experimental assemblies as were used in the water moderated experiments. The organic moderator is a mixture of 38 wt % tributylphosphate in a normal paraffin hydrocarbon mixture of C{sub 11}H{sub 24} to C{sub 15}H{sub 32} molecules. Critical sizes of 1054.8, 599.2, 301.8, 199.5 and 165.3 fuel pins were obtained respectively for organic moderated lattices having 0.761 cm, 0.968 cm, 1.242 cm, 1.537 cm and 1.935 cm square lattice pitches as compared to 1046.9, 571.9, 293.9, 199.7 and 165.1 fuel pins for the same lattices water moderated.

  5. Self-Healable and Reprocessable Polysulfide Sealants Prepared from Liquid Polysulfide Oligomer and Epoxy Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wentong; Bie, Mengyao; Liu, Fu; Chang, Pengshan; Quan, Yiwu

    2017-05-10

    Polysulfide sealants have been commercially applied in many industrial fields. In this article, we study the self-healing property of the epoxy resin-cured polysulfide sealants for the first time. The obtained sealants showed a flexible range of ultimate elongation of 157-478% and a tensile strength of 1.02-0.75 MPa corresponding to different polysulfide oligomers. By taking advantage of the dynamic reversible exchange of disulfide bonds, polysulfide sealants exhibited good self-healing ability under a moderate thermal stimulus. A higher molecular weight and a lower degree of cross-linking of polysulfide oligomer were helpful in improving the ultimate elongation and healing efficiency of the polysulfide sealants. After subjecting to a temperature of 75 °C for 60 min, both the tensile strength and ultimate elongation of a fully cut sample, LP55-F, were restored to 91% of the original values, without affecting the sealing property. Furthermore, the sample exhibited excellent reshaping and reprocessing abilities. These outcomes offer a paradigm toward sustainable industrial applications of the polysulfide-based sealants.

  6. Supercritical Water Oxidation: A Solution for the Elimination of Back-End Organic Reprocessing Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leybros, A.; Roubaud, A.; Turc, H.A.; Fournel, B. [Supercritical fluids and membranes Laboratory, CEA Valrho, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a very efficient technique for total elimination of organic wastes from reprocessing activities on the way of 'zero wastes' facilities. This technology uses the properties of supercritical water (P > 221 bars and T > 647 K) to obtain a good mixing between oxygen (the oxidant) and the organic waste. Thereby, the oxidation reaction is fast and complete. Using the SCWO process, contamination contained in organic materials like spent solvents can be confined in a closed space, like a reactor in a glovebox. A new application is tested for the treatment of solid organic wastes like ion exchange resins (IER). Experiments are made with suspensions of IER in water and isopropyl-alcohol. A nuclear version of the process with the double shell reactor has been constructed and is being tested. The aim of this work is to obtain a treatment capacity of 1 kg/h for the nuclear version with the same global set-up, concept of process and security as well as contamination management as for a 200 g/h pilot. (authors)

  7. Reprocessing the Elliptical Orbiting Galileo Satellites E14 and E18: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männel, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In August 2014, the two Galileo satellites FOC-1 (E18) and FOC-2 (E14) were - due to a technical problem - launched into a wrong, elliptic orbit. In a recovery mission a series of orbit maneuvers were performed to raise the perigee to an altitude where both spacecrafts could be introduced to the Galileo navigation service. After this period of orbit maintenance both satellites started to transmit navigation signals at November 29, 2014 (E18) and March 17, 2015 (E14). However, as it was not possible to recover the nominal orbits due to propellant limitations, both spacecrafts orbit the Earth with a numerical eccentricity of 0.16 and an inclination of 50.2°. Very soon, it was assumed that both satellites could be highly useful for studies on general relativity, especially as the Galileo spacecrafts are equipped with very stable passive hydrogen masers. A prerequisite for dedicated studies in this field are highly accurate satellite orbits and clock corrections. Preliminary results for orbit and satellite clock determination will be presented based on an initial reprocessing over the past 2.5 years. The presentation focuses firstly on orbit modeling aspects with respect to the elliptically orbits. Secondly the derived clock corrections for the on-board passive clocks are assessed with respect to the reference clock at ground stations. The results will be discussed also with respect to the proposed Galileo-based studies on the gravitational redshift.

  8. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  9. Methodological Aspects of Cognitive Rehabilitation with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Zarghi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes’ spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, .exibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system.

  10. Hemodynamic responses of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Ohta ni, Toshiyuki; Matsuo, Koji; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kato, Tadafumi; Kato, Nobumasa

    2009-12-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective psychological intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma-related recall (Recall) with eye movements (EMs) is thought to reduce distress. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. Thirteen patients with PTSD received EMDR treatment over the course of 2-10 weeks. We assessed the change in hemoglobin concentration in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during Recall with and without EM using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Clinical diagnosis and improvement were evaluated using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Recall with EM was associated with a significant decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]) in the lateral PFC as compared with Recall without EM. Longitudinally, [oxy-Hb] during Recall significantly decreased and the amount of decrease was significantly correlated with clinical improvement when the post-treatment data was compared with that of the pre-treatment. Our results suggest that performing EM during Recall reduces the over-activity of the lateral PFC, which may be part of the biological basis for the efficacy of EMDR in PTSD. NIRS may be a useful tool for objective assessment of psychological intervention in PTSD.

  11. Methodological Aspects of Cognitive Rehabilitation with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghi, Afsaneh; Zali, Alireza; Tehranidost, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes' spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, flexibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system.

  12. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Slow Wave Sleep: A Putative Mechanism of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Marco; Amann, Benedikt L; Landin-Romero, Ramon; Carletto, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is considered highly efficacious for the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and has proved to be a valid treatment approach with a wide range of applications. However, EMDR's mechanisms of action is not yet fully understood. This is an active area of clinical and neurophysiological research, and several different hypotheses have been proposed. This paper discusses a conjecture which focuses on the similarity between the delta waves recorded by electroencephalography during Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) and those registered upon typical EMDR bilateral stimulation (eye movements or alternate tapping) during recurrent distressing memories of an emotionally traumatic event. SWS appears to have a key role in memory consolidation and in the reorganization of distant functional networks, as well as Eye Movements seem to reduce traumatic episodic memory and favor the reconsolidation of new associated information. The SWS hypothesis may put forward an explanation of how EMDR works, and is discussed also in light of other theories and neurobiological findings.

  13. An Integrative Model for the Neural Mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coubard, Olivier A

    2016-01-01

    Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, 26 years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in anxiety disorders, particularly in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the reasons why the scientific community is still divided about EMDR. I then slide from psychology to physiology describing eye movements/emotion interaction from the physiological viewpoint, and introduce theoretical and technical tools used in movement research to re-examine EMDR neural mechanism. Using a recent physiological model for the neuropsychological architecture of motor and cognitive control, the Threshold Interval Modulation with Early Release-Rate of rIse Deviation with Early Release (TIMER-RIDER)-model, I explore how attentional control and bilateral stimulation may participate to EMDR effects. These effects may be obtained by two processes acting in parallel: (i) activity level enhancement of attentional control component; and (ii) bilateral stimulation in any sensorimotor modality, both resulting in lower inhibition enabling dysfunctional information to be processed and anxiety to be reduced. The TIMER-RIDER model offers quantitative predictions about EMDR effects for future research about its underlying physiological mechanisms.

  14. The eye movement desensitization and reprocessing procedure prevents defensive processing in health persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Arie; van Asten, Regine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is studied to understand and prevent defensive reactions with regard to a negatively framed message advocating fruit and vegetable consumption. EMDR has been shown to tax the working memory. Participants from a university sample (n = 124) listened to the persuasive message in a randomized laboratory experiment. In the EMDR condition, they were also instructed to follow with their eyes a dot on the computer screen. The dot constantly moved from one side of the screen to the other in 2 seconds. In addition, a self-affirmation procedure was applied in half of the participants. EMDR led to a significant increase in persuasion, only in recipients in whom the persuasive message could be expected to activate defensive self-regulation (in participants with a moderate health value and in participants with low self-esteem). In those with a moderate health value, EMDR increased persuasion, but only when recipients were not affirmed. In addition, EMDR increased persuasion only in recipients with low self-esteem, not in those with high self-esteem. These results showed that EMDR influenced persuasion and in some way lowered defensive reactions. The similarities and differences in effects of EMDR and self-affirmation further increased our insight into the psychology of defensiveness.

  15. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for treating psychological disturbances in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tze-Chun; Yang, Pinchen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Tai-Ling

    2015-07-01

    In this case-control study, we aimed to assess the intervention effects of four-session eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot. A total of 83 adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder related to Typhoon Morakot, major depressive disorder, or current moderate or high suicide risk after experiencing Typhoon Morakot were allocated to a four-session course of EMDR (N = 41) or to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 42). A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effects of EMDR in reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents by using preintervention severity values as covariates. The multivariate analysis of covariance results indicated that the EMDR group exhibited significantly lower preintervention severity values of general anxiety and depression than did the TAU group. In addition, the preintervention severity value of disaster-related anxiety in the EMDR group was lower than that in the TAU group (p = 0.05). The results of this study support that EMDR could alleviate general anxiety and depressive symptoms and reduce disaster-related anxiety in adolescents experiencing major traumatic disasters. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  16. Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing with citalopram in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Hedayat; Momeni, Nahid; Jariani, Mojgan; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad

    2011-11-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the chronic anxiety disorders that interfere with routine individual life, occupational and social functions. There is controversy about the first choice of treatment for OCD between medication and psychotherapy. the aim was to investigate the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) compared with medication by citalopram in treatment of OCD. This randomized controlled trial was carried out on 90 OCD patients that randomly were assigned into two groups. They either received therapeutic sessions of EMDR or citalopram during 12 weeks. Both groups blindly were evaluated by the Yale-Brown scale before and after the trial period. Pretreatment average Yale-Brown score of citalopram group was about 25.26 as well as 24.83 in EMDR group. The after treatment scores were 19.06 and 13.6, respectively. There was significant difference between the mean Yale-Brown scores of the two groups after treatment and EMDR was more effective than citalopram in improvement of OCD signs. It is concluded that although both therapeutic methods (EMDR and Citalopram) had significant effect in improving obsessive signs but it seems that in short term EMRD has better effect in improvement of final outcome of OCD.

  17. Dissociation predicts treatment response in eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2016-01-01

    Using clinical data from a specialized trauma clinic, this study investigated pretreatment clinical factors predicting response to eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) among adult patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants were evaluated using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale before treatment and were reassessed using the CAPS after treatment and at 6-month follow-up. A total of 69 patients underwent an average of 4 sessions of EMDR, and 60 (87%) completed the posttreatment evaluation, including 8 participants who terminated treatment prematurely. Intent-to-treat analysis revealed that 39 (65%) of the 60 patients were classified as responders and 21 (35%) as nonresponders when response was defined as more than a 30% decrease in total CAPS score. The nonresponders had higher levels of dissociation (depersonalization and derealization) and numbing symptoms, but other PTSD symptoms, such as avoidance, hyperarousal, and intrusion, were not significantly different. The number of psychiatric comorbidities was also associated with treatment nonresponse. The final logistic regression model yielded 2 significant variables: dissociation (p < .001) and more than 2 comorbidities compared to none (p < .05). These results indicate that complex symptom patterns in PTSD may predict treatment response and support the inclusion of the dissociative subtype of PTSD in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.

  18. An integrative model for the neural mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier A. Coubard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, twenty-six years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR in anxiety disorders, particularly in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the reasons why the scientific community is still divided about EMDR. I then slide from psychology to physiology describing eye movements/emotion interaction from the physiological viewpoint, and introduce theoretical and technical tools used in movement research to re-examine EMDR neural mechanism. Using a recent physiological model for the neuropsychological architecture of motor and cognitive control, the Threshold Interval Modulation with Early Release-Rate of rIse Deviation with Early Release – TIMER-RIDER – model, I explore how attentional control and bilateral stimulation may participate to EMDR effects. These effects may be obtained by two processes acting in parallel: (i activity level enhancement of attentional control component; and (ii bilateral stimulation in any sensorimotor modality, both resulting in lower inhibition enabling dysfunctional information to be processed and anxiety to be reduced. The TIMER-RIDER model offers quantitative predictions about EMDR effects for future research about its underlying physiological mechanisms.

  19. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in addiction continuing care: a phenomenological study of women in recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marich, Jamie

    2010-09-01

    Traditional models of addiction treatment and relapse prevention fail to consider the role that unresolved trauma plays in an addicted woman's recovery experience. Implementing Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) into the treatment process offers a potential solution to this problem. Ten women (alumnae of an extended-care treatment facility) participated in a semistandardized interview to share their experiences with active addiction, treatment, EMDR therapy, and recovery. With the use of A. P. Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological psychological method for analysis, four major thematic areas emerged from the interview data: the existence of safety as an essential crucible of the EMDR experience, the importance of accessing the emotional core as vital to the recovery experience, the role of perspective shift in lifestyle change, and the use of a combination of factors for successful treatment. All 10 women, to some degree, credited EMDR treatment as a crucial component of their addiction continuing-care processes, especially in helping with emotional core access and perspective shift. Implications emerge from the data on how to best implement EMDR into a comprehensive addiction treatment program.

  20. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for treating psychological disturbances in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze-Chun Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this case–control study, we aimed to assess the intervention effects of four-session eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR on reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot. A total of 83 adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder related to Typhoon Morakot, major depressive disorder, or current moderate or high suicide risk after experiencing Typhoon Morakot were allocated to a four-session course of EMDR (N = 41 or to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 42. A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effects of EMDR in reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents by using preintervention severity values as covariates. The multivariate analysis of covariance results indicated that the EMDR group exhibited significantly lower preintervention severity values of general anxiety and depression than did the TAU group. In addition, the preintervention severity value of disaster-related anxiety in the EMDR group was lower than that in the TAU group (p = 0.05. The results of this study support that EMDR could alleviate general anxiety and depressive symptoms and reduce disaster-related anxiety in adolescents experiencing major traumatic disasters.

  1. Adjustments to the MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration and Polarization Sensitivity in the 2010 Reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan A.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra provides global coverage of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances that have been successfully used for terrestrial and atmospheric research. The MODIS Terra ocean color products, however, have been compromised by an inadequate radiometric calibration at the short wavelengths. The Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) at NASA has derived radiometric corrections using ocean color products from the SeaWiFS sensor as truth fields. In the R2010.0 reprocessing, these corrections have been applied to the whole mission life span of 10 years. This paper presents the corrections to the radiometric gains and to the instrument polarization sensitivity, demonstrates the improvement to the Terra ocean color products, and discusses issues that need further investigation. Although the global averages of MODIS Terra ocean color products are now in excellent agreement with those of SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua, and image quality has been significantly improved, the large corrections applied to the radiometric calibration and polarization sensitivity require additional caution when using the data.

  2. Motion-based equilibrium reprocessing therapy a novel treatment method for chronic peripheral vestibulopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondebrink, Mirke S.; Mert, Agali; van der Lint, Roos; de Ru, J. Alexander; van der Wurff, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rehabilitation for vestibular disease is a safe method to partially alleviate symptoms of vertigo. It was hypothesized that principles of military aviation vestibular desensitization procedures that have a success rate of more than 80% can be extrapolated to chronic vestibular disease as well. The virtual reality motion base computer-assisted rehabilitation environment was used as treatment modality in 17 patients. They were exposed to sinusoidal vertical passive whole body motion in increasing intensity for a maximum of 12 sessions. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) was used for assessment of the subjective complaints of vertigo. The median DHI scores of 50 points at baseline dropped to 22 points (P <.001) at follow-up. Post hoc analysis showed significant differences in outcome between measurements at baseline and at the end of the treatment, between baseline and follow-up, but not between end of treatment and follow-up. This pilot study concerning motion-based equilibrium reprocessing therapy (MERT) shows that it is a simple, quick, and well-tolerated treatment option to alleviate symptoms in patients with chronic peripheral vestibulopathies. PMID:28614234

  3. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Slow Wave Sleep: A Putative Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pagani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is considered highly efficacious for the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and has proved to be a valid treatment approach with a wide range of applications. However, EMDR’s mechanisms of action is not yet fully understood. This is an active area of clinical and neurophysiological research, and several different hypotheses have been proposed. This paper discusses a conjecture which focuses on the similarity between the delta waves recorded by electroencephalography during Slow Wave Sleep (SWS and those registered upon typical EMDR bilateral stimulation (eye movements or alternate tapping during recurrent distressing memories of an emotionally traumatic event. SWS appears to have a key role in memory consolidation and in the reorganization of distant functional networks, as well as Eye Movements seem to reduce traumatic episodic memory and favor the reconsolidation of new associated information. The SWS hypothesis may put forward an explanation of how EMDR works, and is discussed also in light of other theories and neurobiological findings.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of reprocessing on the structure and properties of low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Anderson M; Pires, Ruthe R; Oréfice, Rodrigo L

    2016-01-20

    The great quantity of synthetic plastic discarded inappropriately in the environment is forcing the search for materials that can be reprocessable and biodegradable. Blends between synthetic polymers and natural and biodegradable polymers can be good candidates of such novel materials because they can combine processability with biodegradation and the use of renewable raw materials. However, traditional polymers usually present high levels of recyclability and use the well-established recycling infrastructure that can eventually be affected by the introduction of systems containing natural polymers. Thus, this work aims to evaluate the effect of reprocessing (simulated here by multiple extrusions) on the structure and properties of a low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (LDPE/TPS) blend compared to LDPE. The results indicated that multiple extrusion steps led to a reduction in the average size of the starch-rich phases of LDPE/TPS blends and minor changes in the mechanical and rheological properties of the materials. Such results suggest that the LDPE/TPS blend presents similar reprocessability to the LDPE for the experimental conditions used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy on the Emotion Regulation and Emotion Recognition of Addicted Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheyla Meysami-Bonab

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy on the emotion regulation and emotion recognition of addicts with traumatic experience. Materials and Methods: This research is an experimental study with pre and post-test design and a control group. The subjects of this study were selected using random sampling method on drug addicts of Ardebil Addiction Treatment Camp who have successfully completed the detoxification period and they were evaluated in two different experimental (15 individuals and control (15 individuals groups. The experimental group was treated with EMDR therapy for 8 sessions (each one for 60 minutes and the control group received no special treatment. All participants filled a questionnaire of Emotion Regulation and Emotion Recognition at the onset of the research and 2 months after termination of treatment. For the data analysis, SPSS-17 software and covariance analysis were used.Results: The results of covariance analysis test indicated that the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy intervention increased the average of positive emotion regulation and emotion recognition scores in the post-test phase and significantly reduced the average of negative emotion regulation scores.Conclusion: These results suggest that the treatment of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is effective in improving regulation and recognition of emotions in addicts with traumatic experience.

  6. REPROCESSING CLOSE RANGE TERRESTRIAL AND UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRIC PROJECTS WITH THE DBAT TOOLBOX FOR INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION AND QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Murtiyoso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetry has recently seen a rapid increase in many applications, thanks to developments in computing power and algorithms. Furthermore with the democratisation of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, close range photogrammetry has seen more and more use due to the easier capability to acquire aerial close range images. In terms of photogrammetric processing, many commercial software solutions exist in the market that offer results from user-friendly environments. However, in most commercial solutions, a black-box approach to photogrammetric calculations is often used. This is understandable in light of the proprietary nature of the algorithms, but it may pose a problem if the results need to be validated in an independent manner. In this paper, the Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox (DBAT developed for Matlab was used to reprocess some photogrammetric projects that were processed using the commercial software Agisoft Photoscan. Several scenarios were experimented on in order to see the performance of DBAT in reprocessing terrestrial and UAV close range photogrammetric projects in several configurations of self-calibration setting. Results show that DBAT managed to reprocess PS projects and generate metrics which can be useful for project verification.

  7. Reprocessing Close Range Terrestrial and Uav Photogrammetric Projects with the Dbat Toolbox for Independent Verification and Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Börlin, N.

    2017-11-01

    Photogrammetry has recently seen a rapid increase in many applications, thanks to developments in computing power and algorithms. Furthermore with the democratisation of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), close range photogrammetry has seen more and more use due to the easier capability to acquire aerial close range images. In terms of photogrammetric processing, many commercial software solutions exist in the market that offer results from user-friendly environments. However, in most commercial solutions, a black-box approach to photogrammetric calculations is often used. This is understandable in light of the proprietary nature of the algorithms, but it may pose a problem if the results need to be validated in an independent manner. In this paper, the Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox (DBAT) developed for Matlab was used to reprocess some photogrammetric projects that were processed using the commercial software Agisoft Photoscan. Several scenarios were experimented on in order to see the performance of DBAT in reprocessing terrestrial and UAV close range photogrammetric projects in several configurations of self-calibration setting. Results show that DBAT managed to reprocess PS projects and generate metrics which can be useful for project verification.

  8. Contributions to a shallow aquifer study by reprocessed seismic sections from petroleum exploration surveys, eastern Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.

    1994-01-01

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Drilling Company of Abu Dhabi, is conducting a 4-year study of the fresh and slightly saline groundwater resources of the eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate. Most of this water occurs in a shallow aquifer, generally less than 150 m deep, in the Al Ain area. A critical part of the Al Ain area coincides with a former petroleum concession area where about 2780 km of vibroseis data were collected along 94 seismic lines during 1981-1983. Field methods, acquistion parameters, and section processing were originally designed to enhance reflections expected at depths ranging from 5000 to 6000 m, and subsurface features directly associated with the shallow aquifer system were deleted from the original seismic sections. The original field tapes from the vibroseis survey were reprocessed in an attempt to extract shallow subsurface information (depths less than 550 m) for investigating the shallow aquifer. A unique sequence of reproccessing parameters was established after reviewing the results from many experimental tests. Many enhancements to the resolution of shallow seismic reflections resulted from: (1) application of a 20-Hz, low-cut filter; (2) recomputation of static corrections to a datum nearer the land surface; (3) intensive velocity analyses; and (4) near-trace muting analyses. The number, resolution, and lateral continuity of shallow reflections were greatly enhanced on the reprocessed sections, as was the delineation of shallow, major faults. Reflections on a synthetic seismogram, created from a borehole drilled to a depth of 786 m on seismic line IQS-11, matcheddprecisely with shallow reflections on the reprocessed section. The 33 reprocessed sections were instrumental in preparing a map showing the major structural features that affect the shallow aquifer system. Analysis of the map provides a better understanding of the effect of these shallow features on the regional occurrence, movement, and quality of

  9. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Reprocessing Plant Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... features for control of nuclear criticality: (i) Walls or internal structures with a boron equivalent of at... and to minimize toxicity hazards. (6) Plutonium metal production systems. Complete systems especially... criticality and radiation effects and to minimize toxicity hazards. (7) Process control instrumentation...

  10. Assessment of Endoscope Reprocessing Using Peer-to-Peer Assessment Through a Clinical Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Jonathan; Zenilman, Michael E; Wachter, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    Cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization (CDS) of medical devices are intended to help prevent health care-associated infections (HAIs), a significant cause of mortality and morbidity. In February 2013 the Johns Hopkins Health System (JHHS; Baltimore) formed a clinical community of experts and stakeholders--physicians, nurses, administrators, infection control practitioners, risk managers, and regulatory staff--to assess CDS practices across facilities. A survey administered to leadership indicated endoscopy areas of risk. An endoscopy tracer tool with eight major performance areas was then created from best practices identified in the literature, regulatory requirements, and national guidelines for endoscope reprocessing. Peer-to-peer (P2P) assessments using the tracer tool were performed at five Johns Hopkins Medicine gastrointestinal endoscopy sites (three hospital-based; two freestanding ambulatory surgery centers) selected on the basis of their large procedural volumes and their operational ability to participate in further areas of the project. The P2P assessments revealed that 20 (42%) of the 48 possible criteria had a noted deficiency at one or more sites. Three of the eight major performance areas on the tracer tool had no deficiencies identified at any of the five sites. Deficiencies were mostly minor process improvements, and only one critical process required immediate alteration of practice. Because the assessments were nonpunitive, horizontal communication enabled feedback on process improvements, alternate methods to achieve outcomes, and solutions to common issues. A nonpunitive and collaborative peer methodology was successful in capturing and sharing best practices in endoscopy areas. Successful replication in other clinical areas can be an effective way to assess CDS processes and facilitate dialogue for improvements.

  11. Glass ceramics containment matrix for insoluble residues coming from spent fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinet, O., E-mail: olivier.pinet@cea.fr; Boën, R.

    2014-04-01

    Spent fuel reprocessing by hydrometallurgical process generates insoluble residues waste streams called fines solution. Considering their radioactivity, fines solution could be considered as Intermediate Level Waste. This waste stream is usually mixed with fission products stream before vitrification. Thus fines are incorporated in glass matrix designed for High Level Waste. The withdrawal of fines from high level glass could decrease the volume of high level waste after conditioning. It could also decrease the reaction time between high level waste and additives to obtain a homogeneous melt and then increase the vitrification process capacity. Separated conditioning of fines in glass matrices has been tested. The fines content targeted value is 16 wt%. To achieve this objective, two types of glass ceramic formulations have been tested. 700 g of the two selected glass ceramics have been prepared using simulated fines. Additives used were ground glass. Melting is achieved at 1100 °C. According to the type of glass ceramic, reducing or oxidizing conditions have been performed during melting. Due to their composition and the melting redox conditions, different phases have been observed. These crystalline phases are typically RuO{sub 2}, metallic Ru, metallic Pd, MoO{sub 2} and CaMoO{sub 4}. In view of melting these matrices in an in can process the corrosiveness of one of the most oxidizing borosilicate glass ceramic formulation has been tested. This one has been remelted at 1100 °C in inconel 601 pot for 3 days. The oxygen fugacity measurement performed in the remelted glass leads to an oxidizing value, indicating that no significant reaction occurred between the inconel pot and the glass melt had occurred.

  12. NASADEM Initial Production Processing Results: Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Reprocessing with Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, S.; Agram, P. S.; Belz, J. E.; Crippen, R. E.; Gurrola, E. M.; Hensley, S.; Kobrick, M.; Lavalle, M.; Martin, J. M.; Neumann, M.; Nguyen, Q.; Rosen, P. A.; Shimada, J.; Simard, M.; Tung, W.

    2016-12-01

    NASADEM is a significant modernization of SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) data supported by the NASA MEaSUREs program. We are reprocessing the raw radar signal data using improved algorithms and incorporating ICESat and DEM data unavailable during the original processing. The NASADEM products will be freely-available through the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) at one-arcsecond spacing and delivered by continent: North America, South America, Australia, Eurasia, Africa, and Island Groups. We are in the production phase of the project. This involves radar interferometry (InSAR) processing on thousands of radar datatakes. New phase unwrapping and height ripple error correction (HREC) procedures are applied to the data. The resulting strip DEMs and ancillary information are passed to a back-end processor to create DEM mosaics and new geocoded single-swath products. Manual data quality assessment (QA) and fixes are performed at several steps in the processing chain. Post-production DEM void-filling is described in a companion AGU Fall Meeting presentation. The team completed the InSAR processing for all continents and the manual QA of the strip DEMs for more than half the world. North America strip DEM void areas are reduced by more than 50%. The ICESat data is used for height ripple error correction and as control for continent-scale adjustment of the strip DEMs. These ripples are due to uncompensated mast motion most pronounced after Shuttle roll angle adjustment maneuvers. After an initial assessment of the NASADEM production processing for the Americas, we further refined the selection of ICESat data for control by excluded data over glaciers, snow cover, forest clear cuts, and sloped areas. The HREC algorithm reduces the North America ICESat-SRTM bias from 80 cm to 3 cm and the RMS from 5m to 4m.

  13. Application of the pyrochemical DOS, developed by the CEA, within reprocessing of CERCER transmutation fuel targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, E.; Ducasse, T.; Bertrand, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry and Processes Department, SMCS, LDPS, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Miguirditchian, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry and Processes Department, SMCS, LCPE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2016-07-01

    Pyrochemical technology using high-temperature molten salts and molten metal media presents a potential interest for an overall separation and transmutation strategy for long-lived radionuclides. Within the frame of the two French acts on radioactive waste management, a pyrochemical research/development program was launched at the CEA Marcoule in the late 90's. The second step is the actinides back-extraction, which consists in a liquid/liquid oxidative stripping of the An from aluminium matrix into molten chloride media. The DOS process has been successfully demonstrated for treatment of oxide type fuels within the last years: the core of the process has been already assessed and the studies have shown high selectivity and a quantitative recovery of actinides. Within the framework of the SACSESS European research program, the pyrochemical activities focused on applications of the DOS process to reprocess CERCER transmutation targets. These particular types of fuels consist of a mixture of minor actinides (MA) oxides diluted in an inert (oxide MgO) matrices. The behaviour of matrices material was first investigated regarding the solubility in the fluoride salt, starting from both oxide powders or sintered pellets. The saturation of Mg in the salt could be estimated at ∼ 3 wt%. Regarding the reductive extraction, as expected no Mg was reduced by the metallic phase. The present work also highlights that Mg has low impact on the extraction efficiency of U as long as the salt is not saturated. Once the saturation occurs, the efficiency starts to decrease. So we recommend recycling the salt when Mg saturation is reached.

  14. Neurophysiological correlates of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing sessions: preliminary evidence for traumatic memories integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Benedetto; Imperatori, Claudio; Quintiliani, Maria I; Castelli Gattinara, Paola; Onofri, Antonio; Lepore, Marta; Brunetti, Riccardo; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated the potential role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in enhancing the integration of traumatic memories by measuring EEG coherence, power spectra and autonomic variables before (pre-EMDR) and after (post-EMDR) EMDR sessions during the recall of patient's traumatic memory. Thirteen EMDR sessions of six patients with post-traumatic stress disorder were recorded. EEG analyses were conducted by means of the standardized Low Resolution Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. Power spectra, EEG coherence and heart rate variability (HRV) were compared between pre- and post-EMDR sessions. After EMDR, we observed a significant increase of alpha power in the left inferior temporal gyrus (T = 3.879; P = 0.041) and an increased EEG coherence in beta band between C3 and T5 electrodes (T = 6.358; P < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant increase of HRV in the post-EMDR sessions was also observed (pre-EMDR: 6.38 ± 6.83; post-EMDR: 2.46 ± 2.95; U-Test = 45, P = 0.043). Finally, the values of lagged coherence were negatively associated with subjective units of disturbance (r(24) = -0.44, P < 0.05) and positively associated with parasympathetic activity (r(24) = 0.40, P < 0.05). Our results suggest that EMDR leads to an integration of dissociated aspects of traumatic memories and, consequently, a decrease of hyperarousal symptoms [Correction made here after initial publication]. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An X-Ray Reprocessing Model of Disk Thermal Emission in Type 1 Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, James; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Using a geometry consisting of a hot central Comptonizing plasma surrounded by a thin accretion disk, we model the optical through hard X-ray spectral energy distributions of the type 1 Seyfert. galaxies NGC 3516 and NGC 7469. As in the model proposed by Poutanen, Krolik, and Ryde for the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 and later applied to Seyfert galaxies by Zdziarski, Lubifiski, and Smith, feedback between the radiation reprocessed by the disk and the thermal Comptonization emission from the hot central plasma plays a pivotal role in determining the X-ray spectrum, and as we show, the optical and ultraviolet spectra as well. Seemingly uncorrelated optical/UV and X-ray light curves, similar to those which have been observed from these objects can, in principle, be explained by variations in the size, shape, and temperature of the Comptonizing plasma. Furthermore, by positing a disk mass accretion rate which satisfies a condition for global energy balance between the thermal Comptonization luminosity and the power available from accretion, one can predict the spectral properties of the heretofore poorly measured hard X-ray continuum above approximately 50 keV in type 1 Seyfert galaxies. Conversely, forthcoming measurements of the hard X-ray continuum by more sensitive hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray telescopes, such as those aboard the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) in conjunction with simultaneous optical, UV, and soft X-ray monitoring, will allow the mass accretion rates to be directly constrained for these sources in the context of this model.

  16. A Green Approach to SNF Reprocessing: Are Common Household Reagents the Answer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peper, Shane M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Douglas, Matthew

    2008-04-03

    It has been discovered that UO2, the principal component of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), can efficiently be dissolved at room temperature using a combination of common household reagents, namely hydrogen peroxide, baking soda, and ammonia. This rather serendipitous discovery opens up the possibility, for the first time, of considering a non-acidic process for recycling U from SNF. Albeit at the early stages of development, our unconventional dissolution approach possesses many attractive features that could make it a reality in the future. With dissolution byproducts of water and oxygen, our approach poses a minimal threat to the environment. Moreover, the use of common household reagents to afford actinide oxide dissolution suggests a certain degree of economic favorability. With the use of a “closed” digestion vessel as a reaction chamber, our approach has substantial versatility with the option of using either aqueous or gaseous reactant feeds or a combination of both. Our approach distinguishes itself from all existing reprocessing technologies in two important ways. First and foremost, it is an alkaline rather than an acidic process, using mild non-corrosive chemicals under ambient conditions to effect actinide separations. Secondly, it does not dissolve the entire SNF matrix, but rather selectively solubilizes U and other light actinides for subsequent separation, resulting in potentially faster head-end dissolution and fewer downstream separation steps. From a safeguards perspective, the use of oxidizing alkaline solutions to effect actinide separations also potentially offers a degree of inherent proliferation resistance, by allowing the U to be selectively removed from the remaining dissolver solution while keeping Pu grouped with the other minor actinides and fission products. This paper will describe the design and general experimental setup of a “closed” digestion vessel for performing uranium oxide dissolutions under alkaline conditions using

  17. MOX fuel characterization for burnup credit application: Extension of nondestructive method qualified for LEU fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riffard, C.; Vidal, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA/DEN/CAD, Building 230 Centre d tudes de Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Toubon, H. [COGEMA, 78 141 Velizy cedex (France); Pelletter, S. [Canberra-Eurisys, 78067 St. Quentin en Yvelines cedex (France); Batifol, M. [COGEMA La Hague, 50444 Beaumont Hague cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    Before the reprocessing of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels at La. Hague plant, the assemblies are characterized with a nondestructive assay based on neutron emission (NE) and gamma-ray emission combined with the CESAR depletion code, giving the burnup (BU) with a good accuracy ({+-} 5% within a batch of fuels from one of COGEMA-La Hague's clients). The measurements confirm the hypothesis of the safety-criticality analysis of the process, in the context of the BU credit allowance. There is a need to extend the allowance of the reprocessing plants to the case of more highly enriched LEU fuels and to the case of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels. The aim is to propose an upgraded method, valid for both LEU and MOX fuels, giving the average BU with an uncertainty lower than {+-} 15% for MOX fuels (without any modification of the current acceptance criteria for UO{sub 2} fuel, i.e. {+-} 15%), with a complementary module checking the operator data using the gamma-ray emission and the CESAR depletion code. In particular, the NE was interpreted with depletion calculations in the case of MOX fuels, which is the principal aim of this paper. This allows the BU determination of MOX fuels, which has been qualified during a measurement campaign in La Hague with 20 MOX assemblies. The mean BU of pressurized water reactor MOX assemblies has been determined for the first time with a maximum discrepancy of {+-} 5% compared to the declared value. (authors)

  18. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing on Anxiety in Children with Thalassemia in a 12-month follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shahnavazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and  Objective: Thalassemia is the most common genetic diseases in the world and especially in our country. For many reasons, including chronic disease, health care costs, the expected mortality Ray disease states such as anxiety, psychological and social problems in thalassemia. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR on anxiety of children with thalassemia in a 12-month follow up..  Methods: It was a clinical trial study, which was performed on 60 patients with Thalassemia in 2013-2014. A total of 60 thalassemic patients based on Beck anxiety inventory, selected using sampling and were randomly divided into experimental and Control groups. in experimental group, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy was perfomed in five sessions and The control group received no intervention. In order to collect information on demographic questionnaire and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used. data were gathered on anxiety symptoms at pretreatment, posttreatment and 12 month follow up and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, repeated measures and chi square. Results: The average age of the participants was 15.22±1.93  years old. This study shows that the mean or average level of anxiety children with thalassemia in the experimental group before and after intervention and in a 12-month follow up group 34.73 ± 5.62, 19.90 ± 2.48 and 19.23 ± 2.48 respectively; repeated measures ANOVA showed significant statistical difference (p.05 Conclusion: This study shows that Method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing as an alternative method to treat or reduce anxiety, aggressive children with thalassemia .Trained Nurses can use this new method is effective in the treatment of anxiety.

  19. Study of the potential uses of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-25

    The purpose of this study is to provide an evaluation of possible international and domestic uses for the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, located in South Carolina, at the conclusion of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. Four generic categories of use options for the Barnwell plant have been considered: storage of spent LWR fuel; reprocessing of LWR spent fuel; safeguards development and training; and non-use. Chapters are devoted to institutional options and integrated institutional-use options.

  20. The safety of fuel cycle: the position of the safety authority; La surete du cycle du combustible: la position de l`autorite de surete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible; Lagarde, D. [Ministere de l`Industrie, des Postes et Telecommunications et du Commerce Exterieur, 75-Paris (France). Direction de la Surete des Installations Nucleaires

    1997-04-01

    The safety analysis of the whole of fuel cycle centers depends on the characteristics of the nuclear matters at the beginning of the proceedings, whatever they can be, conversion, enrichment, making or reprocessing. These characteristics have an importance for the proceedings and their safety evaluation, the workers radiation protection, the waste management, the evaluation of release impacts, and source term in case of accidental situation. Every change in the characteristics of used nuclear matter leads to a change in the safety evaluation. Some examples are given here with their impact on the safety: use of contaminated uranium (coming from reprocessing, impact on radiation protection), fabrication of MOX ( uranium and plutonium mixed oxides, impact on safety with the management of waste of this production), the increasing of the combustion time in reactor (impact on the fuel assemblies behaviour), the evolutions of La Hague reprocessing plant(the different kinds of wastes to treat leads to a revision of the agreements). (N.C.)

  1. Treatment of PTSD by eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) improves sleep quality, quality of life, and perception of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboni, Mara Regina; Tufik, Sergio; Suchecki, Deborah

    2006-07-01

    The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the sleep of patients is widely reported. However, the parameters that can be altered are not the same for all patients. Some studies report an impairment of sleep maintenance and recurrent nightmares, while others failed to find such alterations. Among the many treatments, the eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) is a therapy used specifically to treat PTSD and general trauma. The purpose of this study was to examine whether EMDR treatment can improve PTSD symptoms, such as sleep, depression, anxiety, and poor quality of life.

  2. Reprocessing COCORP Seismic Reflection Data to Image Deep Crustal Structure in the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressers, C. A.; Plescia, S. M.; Sheehan, A. F.; Cook, S. W.; Whitney, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Characterizing deformation in the basement-cored uplifts that occurred during rapid exhumation in the Laramide orogeny (65-50Ma) is critical to understanding the formation of the Cordilleran foreland thrust and fold belt of Wyoming and Colorado. The Wind River Thrust (WRT) fault in west-central Wyoming has been studied as a model for Laramide basement-cored uplifts. We reprocessed two lines of active source seismic reflection data that cross-cut the WRT to determine the shape of the thrust at depth and the shape of the Moho and midcrustal reflectors beneath the fault. The Vibroseis seismic survey, collected in 1976 and 1977 by the Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP), spans 106 km and runs perpendicular to the WRT, across the Wind River Mountains and flanking basins. The COCORP field gathers were recorded to 20-second two-way travel time with maximum offsets of 6.8 km for Line 1 and 9.9 km for Line 1A. The data was processed to 24-fold common-depth-point (CDP) correlated gathers. We used modern industry-standard processing software suites by Paradigm and XtremeGeo. The processing flow included: CDP stacking, normal moveout (NMO) correction with applied stretch mute, refraction velocity analysis and statics, multiple passes of reflection velocity analysis surface-consistent deconvolution and finite-difference post-stack time migration. We focused on generating statics to handle the effects of significant lateral heterogeneity in the velocity. We found that a tomographic solution for the refraction velocity model produced the best results for producing statics to remove the effects of the weathering layer. Additionally, careful selection of a reflection velocity model greatly improved the resolution, especially along the fault and the basin-fault boundary. Using a post-stack time migration at 80% of the reflection velocity model corrected an artefact of overcorrection in an earlier migration. Our migration has reconfirmed the shallow dip of the

  3. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Marra, J.

    2010-09-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a series of ceramic waste forms for the immobilization of Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) and Cesium/Lanthanide/Transition Metal (CS/LN/TM) waste streams anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores, zirconolite, and other minor metal titanate phases. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. XRD and SEM/EDS results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD, and had phase assemblages that were closer to the initial targets. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms. Initial studies of radiation damage tolerance using ion beam irradiation at Los

  4. Estimation of GPS satellite antenna z-offsets from reprocessed SINEX files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ralf; Collilieux, Xavier; Steigenberger, Peter; Hugentobler, Urs

    2010-05-01

    Since November 2006 an absolute phase center correction model for GNSS satellite and receiver antennas has been used within the International GNSS Service (IGS). This model, called igs05.atx, comprises consistent phase center offset and variation values given in ANTEX format. Generally, these correction values have not been changed in the meantime. Solely values for new receiver antenna types or newly launched satellites have been added. With view to the upcoming transition to ITRF2008, a general update of the IGS antenna phase center model is in progress that will be called igs08.atx. Therefore, reprocessed weekly SINEX files of several IGS analysis centers (ACs) will be analyzed to derive new GPS satellite antenna z-offsets. These values will be based on more data (16 instead of 11 years) and more ACs than the values currently used, and they will also cover the latest satellites launched in recent years. As selected station coordinates will be fixed to ITRF2008 when back-solving the SINEX files, the antenna model will be fully consistent with the corresponding terrestrial reference frame. For the z-offsets contained in igs05.atx this is not the case. At the time those were estimated, the solutions could only be aligned to IGb00, an IGS realization of ITRF2000, but not to ITRF2005. Whereas absolute receiver antenna corrections were applied for these computations, the underlying reference frame was based on relative corrections, and the effect of radomes could not be considered. Moreover, an error in the mean vertical velocity of IGb00 caused a significant trend in the z-offset time series of all satellites. Thus, they could only be given for a specific epoch. We will compare z-offset time series from the computations for igs05.atx and igs08.atx to demonstrate the reduction of trends and the improvement of the overall consistency. Resulting biases between individual ACs will highlight scale-related discrepancies, and the general agreement between the two phase

  5. Reprocessing and clearance as ways for reducing radioactive waste from fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocco, P.; Zucchetti, M. [Energetics Dept., Polytechnic of Turin (Italy); Zucchetti, M. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Advanced Material, Ispra, Vatican City State, Holy See (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    The irradiated material chosen to investigate this concept is V-4Cr-4Ti, used as in-vessel structural material of PM-1, one of the three reactor models of SEAFP-2 assessments. The analysis performed deserves the following comments: in general, the modified concentrations of the parent isotopes have been assumed equal to the actual detection limits of the concerned elements. The nuclides investigated are those having the higher activities in the irradiated alloy (dominant nuclides). The contribution to the clearance index of other nuclides, present in the irradiated alloy and not yet examined should also be assessed. Even having reduced the concentrations of the impurities to the very low levels hypothesized, the ratios (A/L{sub c}){sub m} of some nuclides are too great. Beside K-42 and Ar-42, deriving from titanium, this happens for nuclides deriving from niobium, silver, nickel, copper, strontium. Hence the clearance index of the modified alloy is greater than the unity and clearance conditions are not achieved. Additional purification process have to be envisaged after the irradiation, with an elemental dilution of the noxious nuclides and then performing a purification process. As an example, it is found from table 2 that the sum of the ratios (A/L{sub c}){sub m} of Nb-93m, Nb-91 and Nb-94, nuclides deriving from a concentration of 2 x 10{sup -2} ppm of niobium, is 7.75. An addition of 5/10 ppm of natural niobium to the molten irradiated material and a further purification of niobium to levels near to the initial one could achieve a 100-fold reduction of the ratios (A/L{sub c}){sub m}. 10000 t of V-4Cr4Ti, representing the total amount (maintenance + decommissioning) arising from the in vessel structures of a power reactor should be reprocessed with 100 kg of niobium, in the highly conservative hypothesis that all material is irradiated in first wall conditions. The secondary waste arising from the purification processes would not exceed a few ton which could be

  6. Effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment in chronic pain patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarz, Jonas; Leisner, Sabine; Gerhardt, Andreas; Janke, Susanne; Seidler, Günter H; Eich, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Mechthild

    2014-02-01

    This study systematically reviewed the evidence regarding the effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for treating chronic pain. Systematic review. We screened MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINHAL Plus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, the Francine Shapiro Library, and citations of original studies and reviews. All studies using EMDR for treating chronic pain were eligible for inclusion in the present study. The main outcomes were pain intensity, disability, and negative mood (depression and anxiety). The effects were described as standardized mean differences. Two controlled trials with a total of 80 subjects and 10 observational studies with 116 subjects met the inclusion criteria. All of these studies assessed pain intensity. In addition, five studies measured disability, eight studies depression, and five studies anxiety. Controlled trials demonstrated significant improvements in pain intensity with high effect sizes (Hedges' g: -6.87 [95% confidence interval (CI95 ): -8.51, -5.23] and -1.12 [CI95 : -1.82, -0.42]). The pretreatment/posttreatment effect size calculations of the observational studies revealed that the effect sizes varied considerably, ranging from Hedges' g values of -0.24 (CI95 : -0.88, 0.40) to -5.86 (CI95 : -10.12, -1.60) for reductions in pain intensity, -0.34 (CI95 : -1.27, 0.59) to -3.69 (CI95 : -24.66, 17.28) for improvements in disability, -0.57 (CI95 : -1.47, 0.32) to -1.47 (CI95 : -3.18, 0.25) for improvements in depressive symptoms, and -0.59 (CI95 : -1.05, 0.13) to -1.10 (CI95 : -2.68, 0.48) for anxiety. Follow-up assessments showed maintained improvements. No adverse events were reported. Although the results of our study suggest that EMDR may be a safe and promising treatment option in chronic pain conditions, the small number of high-quality studies leads to insufficient evidence for definite treatment recommendations. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Process Description and Operating History for the CPP-601/-640/-627 Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. P. Wagner

    1999-06-01

    The Fuel Reprocessing Complex (FRC) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was used for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from the early 1950's until 1992. The reprocessing facilities are now scheduled to be deactivated. As part of the deactivation process, three Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status units located in the complex must be closed. This document gathers the historical information necessary to provide a rational basis for the preparation of a comprehensive closure plan. Included are descriptions of process operations and the operating history of the FRC. A set of detailed tables record the service history and present status of the process vessels and transfer lines.

  8. Effect of Extrusion on the Mechanical and Rheological Properties of a Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid): Reprocessing and Recycling of Biobased Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Víctor; Castell, Pere; García, Lidia; Fernández, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to study the behaviour of a common used biopolymer (Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA)) after several reprocesses and how two different types of additives (a melt strength enhancer and a nanoadditive) affect its mechanical and rheological properties. Systematic extraction of extrudate samples from a twin-screw compounder was done in order to study the effect in the properties of the reprocessed material. Detailed rheological tests on a capillary rheometer as well as mechanical studies on a universal tensile machine after preparation of injected specimens were carried out. Results evidenced that PLA and reinforced PLA materials can be reprocessed and recycled without a remarkable loss in their mechanical properties. Several processing restrictions and specific phenomena were identified and are explained in the present manuscript. PMID:28793622

  9. Synthesis and properties of reprocessable sulfonated polyimides cross-linked via acid stimulation for use as proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boping; Ni, Jiangpeng; Xiang, Xiongzhi; Wang, Lei; Chen, Yongming

    2017-01-01

    Cross-linked sulfonated polyimides are one of the most promising materials for proton exchange membrane (PEM) applications. However, these cross-linked membranes are difficult to reprocess because they are insoluble. In this study, a series of cross-linkable sulfonated polyimides with flexible pendant alkyl side chains containing trimethoxysilyl groups is successfully synthesized. The cross-linkable polymers are highly soluble in common solvents and can be used to prepare tough and smooth films. Before the cross-linking reaction is complete, the membranes can be reprocessed, and the recovery rate of the prepared films falls within an acceptable range. The cross-linked membranes are obtained rapidly when the cross-linkable membranes are immersed in an acid solution, yielding a cross-linking density of the gel fraction of greater than 90%. The cross-linked membranes exhibit high proton conductivities and tensile strengths under hydrous conditions. Compared with those of pristine membranes, the oxidative and hydrolytic stabilities of the cross-linked membranes are significantly higher. The CSPI-70 membrane shows considerable power density in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) test. All of these results suggest that the prepared cross-linked membranes have great potential for applications in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  10. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in the treatment of depression: a matched pairs study in an inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Michael; Balmaceda, Ute Mirian; Hase, Adrian; Lehnung, Maria; Tumani, Visal; Huchzermeier, Christian; Hofmann, Arne

    2015-06-01

    Depression is a severe mental disorder that challenges mental health systems worldwide as the success rates of all established treatments are limited. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is a scientifically acknowledged psychotherapeutic treatment for PTSD. Given the recent research indicating that trauma and other adverse life experiences can be the basis of depression, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of EMDR therapy with this disorder. In this study, we recruited a group of 16 patients with depressive episodes in an inpatient setting. These 16 patients were treated with EMDR therapy by reprocessing of memories related to stressful life events in addition to treatment as usual (TAU). They were compared to a group of 16 controls matched regarding diagnosis, degree of depression, sex, age and time of admission to hospital, which were receiving TAU only. Sixty-eight percent of the patients in the EMDR group showed full remission at end of treatment. The EMDR group showed a greater reduction in depressive symptoms as measured by the SCL-90-R depression subscale. This difference was significant even when adjusted for duration of treatment. In a follow-up period of more than 1 year the EMDR group reported less problems related to depression and less relapses than the control group. EMDR therapy shows promise as an effective treatment for depressive disorders. Larger controlled studies are necessary to replicate our findings.

  11. Improvement of mood and sleep alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder patients by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboni, Mara R; Alonso, Fabiana F D; Tufik, Sergio; Suchecki, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms, in addition to nightmares, which interfere with sleep continuity. Pharmacologic treatment of these sleep problems improves PTSD symptoms, but very few studies have used psychotherapeutic interventions to treat PTSD and examined their effects on sleep quality. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing therapy on indices of mood, anxiety, subjective, and objective sleep. The sample was composed of 11 healthy controls and 13 PTSD patients that were victims of assault and/or kidnapping. All participants were assessed before, and 1 day after, the end of treatment for depressive and anxiety profile, general well-being and subjective sleep by filling out specific questionnaires. In addition, objective sleep patterns were evaluated by polysomnographic recording. Healthy volunteers were submitted to the therapy for three weekly sessions, whereas PTSD patients underwent five sessions, on average. Before treatment, PTSD patients exhibited high levels of anxiety and depression, poor quality of life and poor sleep, assessed both subjectively and objectively; the latter was reflected by increased time of waking after sleep onset. After completion of treatment, patients exhibited improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms, and in quality of life; with indices that were no longer different from control volunteers. Moreover, these patients showed more consolidated sleep, with reduction of time spent awake after sleep onset. In conclusion, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing was an effective treatment of PTSD patients and improved the associated sleep and psychological symptoms.

  12. Improvement of mood and sleep alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder patients by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Regina Raboni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms, in addition to nightmares, which interfere with sleep continuity. Pharmacologic treatment of these sleep problems improves PTSD symptoms, but very few studies have used psychotherapeutic interventions to treat PTSD and examined their effects on sleep quality. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing therapy on indices of mood, anxiety, subjective and objective sleep. The sample was composed of 11 healthy controls and 13 PTSD patients that were victims of assault and/or kidnapping. All participants were assessed before, and one day after, the end of treatment for depressive and anxiety profile, general well-being and subjective sleep by filling out specific questionnaires. In addition, objective sleep patterns were evaluated by polysomnographic recording. Healthy volunteers were submitted to the therapy for three weekly sessions, whereas PTSD patients underwent five sessions, on average. Before treatment, PTSD patients exhibited high levels of anxiety and depression, poor quality of life and poor sleep, assessed both subjectively and objectively; the latter was reflected by increased time of waking after sleep onset. After completion of treatment, patients exhibited improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms, and in quality of life; with indices that were no longer different from control volunteers. Moreover, these patients showed more consolidated sleep, with reduction of time spent awake after sleep onset. In conclusion, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing was an effective treatment of PTSD patients and improved the associated sleep and psychological symptoms.

  13. Development of the scientific concept of the phosphate methods for actinide-containing waste handling (pyrochemical fuel reprocessing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlova, A.I.; Orlova, V.A. [Department of Chemistry, Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23, Gagarin Ave., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Skiba, O.V.; Bychkov, A.V.; Volkov, Yu.F.; Lukinykh, A.N.; Tomilin, S.V.; Lizin, A.A. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise State Scientific Center, Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad, Ulyanovsk region, 433510 (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The crystallochemical phosphate concept in question is developed successfully in the new pyro-electrochemical reprocessing technology of irradiated fuel in molten chlorides of alkaline elements at one of the leading scientific nuclear centers - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors. Irradiated fuel is dissolved in molten chlorides of alkaline elements by mean of treating by chlorine. Then uranium and plutonium dioxides are removed electrochemically. The melt, when used many times, is contaminated by the residual actinide and contains fission products and the so called 'process' elements. This melt is unacceptable for future use. Phosphate methods can be applied for the solution of the following tasks: a) reprocessing (purification) of molten chloride salt solvents; b) conversion of the spent chloride melts to the insoluble stable crystalline product for safe storage and disposal. Within the framework of task 'a' phosphate methods may be realized by the several ways: 1) phosphate concentrating of impurities and their extraction from molten chlorides into solid phase by mean of chemical precipitation, co-precipitation, ion exchange and other chemical interactions, 2) conversion of precipitated waste phosphates to stable crystalline phosphate powders or ceramics for safe storage and disposal. (authors)

  14. Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2013-10-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

  15. Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2013-09-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

  16. Public comments and Task Force responses regarding the environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    This document contains responses by the NRC Task Force to comments received on the report ''Environmental Survey of the Reprocessing and Waste Management Portions of the LWR Fuel Cycle'' (NUREG-0116). These responses are directed at all comments, inclding those received after the close of the comment period. Additional information on the environmental impacts of reprocessing and waste management which has either become available since the publication of NUREG-0116 or which adds requested clarification to the information in that document.

  17. Principles of Product Quality Control of German Radioactive Waste Forms from the Reprocessing of Spent Fuel: Vitrification, Compaction and Numerical Simulation - 12529

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze-Jaensch, Holger; Schneider, Stephan; Aksyutina, Yuliya; Bosbach, Dirk [Product Quality Control Office for Radioactive Waste (PKS) at the Institute of Energy- and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Research, IEK-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Gauthier, Rene; Eissler, Alexander [WAK Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, Post Box 1263, 76339 Eggenstein- Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The German product quality control is inter alia responsible for control of two radioactive waste forms of heat generating waste: a) homogeneous vitrified HLW and b) heterogeneous compacted hulls, end-pieces and technological metallic waste. In either case, significantly different metrology is employed at the site of the conditioning plant for the obligatory nuclide inventory declaration. To facilitate an independent evaluation and checking of the accompanying documentation numerical simulations are carried out. The physical and chemical properties of radioactive waste residues are used to assess the data consistency and uncertainty margins, as well as to predict the long-term behavior of the radioactive waste. This is relevant for repository acceptance and safety considerations. Our new numerical approach follows a bottom-up simulation starting from the burn-up behavior of the fuel elements in the reactor core. The output of these burn-up calculations is then coupled with a program that simulates the material separation in the subsequent dissolution and extraction processes normalized to the mass balance. Follow-up simulations of the separated reprocessing lines of a) the vitrification of highly-active liquid and b) the compaction of residual intermediate-active metallic hulls remaining after fuel pellets dissolution, end-pieces and technological waste, allows calculating expectation values for the various repository relevant properties of either waste stream. The principles of the German product quality control of radioactive waste residues from the spent fuel reprocessing have been introduced and explained. Namely, heat generating homogeneous vitrified HLW and heterogeneous compacted metallic MLW have been discussed. The advantages of a complementary numerical property simulation have been made clear and examples of benefits are presented. We have compiled a new program suite to calculate the physical and radio-chemical properties of common nuclear waste

  18. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in a child and an adolescent with mild to borderline intellectual disability: A multiple baseline across subjects study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevissen, E.H.M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Jongh, A. de

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explored the effectiveness of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in persons with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) using a multiple baseline across subjects design. METHODS: One child and one

  19. A high quality reprocessed ground-based GPS dataset for atmospheric process studies, radiosonde and model evaluation, and reanalysis of HYMEX Special Observing Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOCK, Olivier; Bosser, Pierre; Pacione, Rosa; Nuret, Mathieu; Fourrié, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    Data from more than 1000 ground-based GPS receivers in the north-western Mediterranean area have been reprocessed in a consistent way using GIPSY-OASIS II software for the period from 1st September 2012 to 31 March 2013 which encompasses the Special Observation Periods (SOPs) 1 and 2 of the HYMEX project. The reprocessed GPS ZTD data were screened converted to IWV. The ZTD data were used to assess the accuracy of the near real time ZTD data assimilated for operational weather forecasting. The mean of delay differences between the operational and reprocessed solutions is about 0 +/- 3 mm (mean +/- standard deviation of bias over all stations) and the standard deviation of delay differences ranges between 4 and 8 mm. Significant bias reduction is thus expected from a reanalysis ingesting the reprocessed delay data. Various methods and auxiliary data (surface pressure and weighted mean temperature) are investigated for the conversion of ZTD data into IWV. The final IWV dataset is used to evaluate radiosonde humidity observations and operational analyses produced with the AROME model. The spatial and temporal distribution of IWV is also studied with a focus on heavy precipitation events in the north-western Mediterranean area during the HYMEX SOP1.

  20. Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Child and an Adolescent with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability: A Multiple Baseline across Subjects Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevissen, Liesbeth; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; de Jongh, Ad

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study explored the effectiveness of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in persons with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) using a multiple baseline across subjects design. Methods: One child and one adolescent with MBID, who met diagnostic criteria…

  1. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in subsyndromal bipolar patients with a history of traumatic events: a randomized, controlled pilot-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Patricia; Landin-Romero, Ramon; Radua, Joaquim; Vicens, Victor; Fernandez, Isabel; Garcia, Francisca; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; McKenna, Peter J; Shapiro, Francine; Amann, Benedikt L

    2014-09-30

    Traumatic events are frequent in bipolar patients and can worsen the course of the disease. Psychotherapeutic interventions for these events have not been studied so far. Twenty DSM-IV bipolar I and II patients with subsyndromal mood symptoms and a history of traumatic events were randomly assigned to Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy (n=10) or treatment as usual (n=10). The treatment group received between 14 and 18 Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing sessions during 12 weeks. Evaluations of affective symptoms, symptoms of trauma and trauma impact were carried out by a blind rater at baseline, 2 weeks, 5 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks and at 24 weeks follow-up. Patients in the treatment group showed a statistically significant improvement in depressive and hypomanic symptoms, symptoms of trauma and trauma impact compared to the treatment as usual group after intervention. This effect was only partly maintained in trauma impact at the 24 weeks follow-up visit. One patient dropped from Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing group whereas four from the treatment as usual group. This pilot study suggests that Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy may be an effective and safe intervention to treat subsyndromal mood and trauma symptoms in traumatized bipolar patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety : A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A. B. P.; van den Berg, D. P. G.; Cath, D. C.; Schoorl, M.; Engelhard, I. M.; Korrelboom, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to

  3. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety : A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A B P; van den Berg, D P G; Cath, D C; Schoorl, M; Engelhard, I M; Korrelboom, C W

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to

  4. Comparing the Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy with Prolonged Exposure Therapy on the Trauma impact symptoms in Veterans Suffering from Chronic PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maredpour

    2013-09-01

    Background and aim: Post-traumatic stress disorder is considered as set of symptoms developed afterward an individual witness, hear or involved. The current research was purposed to compare the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy with prolonged exposure therapy on the trauma impact symptoms in veterans suffering from chronic PTSD. Methods: in this clinical trail research randomly sampled 48 veterans diagnosed with PTSD who had psychiatric records in Salman City Hospital of Yasuj. The subjects devoted in three equal groups: two experimental and one control groups. As intervention procedures the two experimental groups were exposed to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy (5 sessions and prolonged exposure therapy (10 sessions respectively. The control group received none. Subsequent to the treatment period the triple groups were post-tested by the prior pre test scales. The data were analyzed by implementing univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. Results: Both treatment procedures significantly reduced the trauma impact symptoms (p ≤0/001.The results also indicated that prolonged exposure therapy was more effective concerning the trauma impact symptoms improvement. Conclusion: Intervention treatment procedures such as eye movement desensitization, reprocessing therapy, and prolonged exposure therapy sustain sufficient efficacy in trauma impact symptoms improvement while prolonged exposure therapy exceeded significantly. Key words: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Eye Movement, Desensitization, Reprocessing, Prolonged Exposure Therapy

  5. Treatment of specific phobias with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): protocol, empirical status, and conceptual issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jongh, A; Ten Broeke, E; Renssen, M R

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the current empirical status of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment method for specific phobias, along with some conceptual and practical issues in relation to its use. Both uncontrolled and controlled studies on the application of EMDR with specific phobias demonstrate that EMDR can produce significant improvements within a limited number of sessions. With regard to the treatment of childhood spider phobia, EMDR has been found to be more effective than a placebo control condition, but less effective than exposure in vivo. The empirical support for EMDR with specific phobias is still meagre, therefore, one should remain cautious. However, given that there is insufficient research to validate any method for complex or trauma related phobias, that EMDR is a time-limited procedure, and that it can be used in cases for which an exposure in vivo approach is difficult to administer, the application of EMDR with specific phobias merits further clinical and research attention.

  6. Corrosion resistance of ceramic materials in pyrochemical reprocessing condition by using molten salt for spent nuclear oxide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, M.; Kato, T.; Hanada, K.; Koizumi, T.; Aose, S.

    2005-02-01

    The corrosion resistance of ceramic materials in pyrochemical reprocessing using molten salts was discussed through the thermodynamic calculation and corrosion test. The corrosion test was basically carried out in alkali molten salt under chlorine gas. In addition, the effects of oxygen, carbon and main fission product's chlorides on ceramics corrosion were evaluated in that condition. Most of ceramic oxides showed good chemical stability on chlorine, oxygen and uranyl chloride from thermodynamic calculation results. On the other hand, from corrosion test result, silicon nitride, mullite (Al6Si2O13) and cordierite (Mg2Al3(AlSi5O18)) have a good corrosion resistance which is corresponding to 0.1 mm/y or less. No cracks on the materials were observed and flexural strength did not drop remarkably after 480 h corrosion testing in molten salt under Cl2 O2 atmosphere.

  7. Potential of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Tracy M; Lee, Christopher W; Drummond, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) continues to attract both empirical and clinical interest due to its complex symptom profile and the underlying processes involved. Recently, research attention has been focused on the types of memory processes involved in PTSD and hypothesized neurobiological processes. Complicating this exploration, and the treatment of PTSD, are underlying comorbid disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Treatment of PTSD has undergone further reviews with the introduction of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). EMDR has been empirically demonstrated to be as efficacious as other specific PTSD treatments, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. There is emerging evidence that there are different processes underlying these two types of trauma treatment and some evidence that EMDR might have an efficiency advantage. Current research and understanding regarding the processes of EMDR and the future direction of EMDR is presented.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROGEN MORDENITE SORBENT FOR THE CAPTURE OF KRYPTON FROM USED NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING OFF-GAS STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell Greenhalgh; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law

    2014-04-01

    A novel new sorbent for the separation of krypton from off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A hydrogen mordenite powder was successfully incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder and formed into spherical beads. The engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area and microporosity indicative of mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for krypton adsorption capacities utilizing thermal swing operations achieving capacities of 100 mmol of krypton per kilogram of sorbent at a temperature of 191 K. A krypton adsorption isotherm was also obtained at 191 K with varying krypton feed gas concentrations. Adsorption/desorption cycling effects were also evaluated with results indicating that the sorbent experienced no decrease in krypton capacity throughout testing.

  9. Spectroscopic On-Line Monitoring for Process Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams in Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Casella, Amanda J.; Peterson, James M.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; Lines, Amanda M.; Thomas, Elizabeth M.

    2011-03-01

    The current book chapter presents preliminary work toward the use of spectroscopic on-line monitoring for process control and safeguarding of radiochemical streams. Raman spectroscopy was demonstrated as a method for determining U(VI), nitrate, and nitric acid, while visible-near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy was demonstrated as a method for determining Pu(IV), Np(V), U(VI) and Nd(III). This method has been established using fuel reprocessing solution stimulants under dynamic flow conditions and on commercial spent nuclear fuel samples. Partial least squares (PLS) models for each analyte were prepared, and the fits of the data presented. A brief review of literature relevant to the use of vibrational spectroscopy and physicochemical measurements for process monitoring of nuclear fuel solutions is reported.

  10. Successful treatment of methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing - treatment protocol and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfel, Lea; Eppler, Bruno; Storf, Magdalena; Schnöbel-Müller, Elizabeth; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Hügle, Boris

    2018-02-13

    Methotrexate (MTX), commonly used in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), frequently has to be discontinued due to intolerance with anticipatory and associative gastrointestinal adverse effects. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychological method where dysfunctional experiences and memories are reprocessed by recall combined with bilateral eye movements. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of EMDR for treatment of MTX intolerance in JIA patients. We performed an open prospective study on consecutive JIA patients with MTX intolerance. Intolerance was determined using the Methotrexate Intolerance Severity Score (MISS) questionnaire prior to treatment, directly after treatment and after four months. Health-related quality of life was determined using the PedsQL prior to and four months after treatment. Patients were treated according to an institutional EMDR protocol with 8 sessions over two weeks. Changes in MISS and PedsQL were analyzed using non-parametric statistics. Eighteen patients with MTX intolerance (median MISS at inclusion 16.5, IQR = 11.75-20.25) were included. Directly after treatment, MTX intolerance symptoms were significantly improved (median MISS 1 (IQR = 0-2). After four months, median MISS score was at 6.5 (IQR = 2.75-12.25, p = 0.001), with 9/18 patients showing MISS scores ≥6. Median PedsQL after 4 months improved significantly from 77.6% to 85.3% (p = 0.008). MTX intolerance in children with JIA was effectively treated using an EMDR protocol, with lasting effect over a period of 4 months. EMDR treatment can potentially increase quality of life of affected patients and enable continued MTX treatment.

  11. The Cairo concepts work. The Hague Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfkens, E

    1999-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) has helped to provide people, especially women, with more choices than ever before. Much has been accomplished toward the full implementation of the conference's program of action. For example, progress has been made in making reproductive health services more available, a few countries have introduced legislation to ban female genital mutilation, more girls are attending school, the level of illegal abortion has fallen, and several countries have moved to legalize abortion. However, much remains to be done in order to realize the goals of the ICPD. Young people urgently need reproductive health information and services. Other areas of concern include coercion and violence against women, unwanted children, the trafficking of young girls for prostitution, and maternal mortality. Commitment, hard work, and the necessary funds are needed to effectively address these concerns.

  12. 'Going to The Hague' as Coercive Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack, Marc

    2017-01-01

    (ICC) as leverage. This was the first time in history that an international actor used a possible recourse to the Court in such an explicitly coercive manner. Hence, this case enables us to conduct some preliminary analyses of this strategy’s effectiveness. Specifically, Palestine tried first to stop...

  13. Time Series of I-129 and I-127 Speciation in Precipitation from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2009-01-01

    Environmental 129I mainly released from reprocessing plants at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) provides a unique atmospheric and environmental tracer. This study deals with 129I and 127I speciation in precipitation collected in Denmark during 2001−2006 that indicates many new findings......, is evidently the major source of 129I in the precipitation, while stable 127I in the precipitation has multiple sources, i.e., marine, as well as terrestrial emission. This work shows that data on speciation of iodine isotopes can provide thorough indications about the sources and geochemical cycle despite...

  14. 1974 conceptual design description of a bedded salt pilot plant in southeast New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    The policy of the United States Atomic Energy Commission is to take custody of all commercial high-level radioactive wastes and maintain control of them in perpetuity. This policy (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Appendix F) requires that the high-level wastes from nuclear fuels reprocessing plants be solidified within five years after reprocessing and then shipped to a federal repository within ten years after reprocessing. Ultimate disposal sites and/or methods have not yet been selected and are not expected to be ready when waste deliveries begin about 1983. Therefore, the AEC plans to build an interim storage facility, called Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF), to store and isolate the waste from man and his environment until the suitability of the permanent repository is demonstrated and public acceptance has been established. Meantime, the AEC is proceeding with the study and development of an ultimate disposal method. Bedded salt is being considered for ultimate waste disposal, and work is in progress to develop a Bedded Salt Pilot Plant to demonstrate its acceptability. The pilot plant will permit in situ verification of laboratory work on the interaction of heat and radioactivity of the waste with the salt and surroundings. One concept of such a pilot facility is described.

  15. INCREASING OIL RECOVERY THROUGH ADVANCED REPROCESSING OF 3D SEISMIC, GRANT CANYON AND BACON FLAT FIELDS, NYE COUNTY, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric H. Johnson; Don E. French

    2001-06-01

    Makoil, Inc., of Orange, California, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy has reprocessed and reinterpreted the 3D seismic survey of the Grant Canyon area, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada. The project was supported by Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG26-00BC15257. The Grant Canyon survey covers an area of 11 square miles, and includes Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields. These fields have produced over 20 million barrels of oil since 1981, from debris slides of Devonian rocks that are beneath 3,500 to 5,000 ft of Tertiary syntectonic deposits that fill the basin of Railroad Valley. High-angle and low-angle normal faults complicate the trap geometry of the fields, and there is great variability in the acoustic characteristics of the overlying valley fill. These factors combine to create an area that is challenging to interpret from seismic reflection data. A 3D seismic survey acquired in 1992-93 by the operator of the fields has been used to identify development and wildcat locations with mixed success. Makoil believed that improved techniques of processing seismic data and additional well control could enhance the interpretation enough to improve the chances of success in the survey area. The project involved the acquisition of hardware and software for survey interpretation, survey reprocessing, and reinterpretation of the survey. SeisX, published by Paradigm Geophysical Ltd., was chosen as the interpretation software, and it was installed on a Dell Precision 610 computer work station with the Windows NT operating system. The hardware and software were selected based on cost, possible addition of compatible modeling software in the future, and the experience of consulting geophysicists in the Billings area. Installation of the software and integration of the hardware into the local office network was difficult at times but was accomplished with some technical support from Paradigm and Hewlett Packard, manufacturer of some of the network equipment. A

  16. Improved images of crustal structures in the Bergslagen, central Sweden, through seismic reprocessing of BABEL lines 1, 6 and 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntin, Sebastian; Malehmir, Alireza; Malinowski, Michał; Högdahl, Karin; Juhlin, Christopher; Buske, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    In a joint effort through the BABEL project, geoscientists from five countries acquired marine seismic data in the Baltic Sea with a total length of 2268 km in the year 1989. These consisted of near-vertical reflection and wide-angle refraction seismic data, providing insights into the subsurface down to the Moho and suggesting the existence of plate tectonics already during the Paleoproterozoic. The seismic data were acquired using a receiver group interval of 50 m and a total cable length of 3 km. In total, 60 groups of 64 hydrophones at 15 m depth were used. An airgun array consisting of six equal subarrays towed at 7.5 m depth was used to generate the seismic signal. The shot interval and the corresponding record lengths were different among the lines. A record length of 25 s and 75 m shot spacing for lines 1 and 7, respectively and 23 s and 62.5 m for line 6, respectively was used. The sampling rate was 4 ms for all three profiles. Lines 1, 6 and 7 are located at the boundary to the world-class and historical Bergslagen mineral district, and are being revisited in this study. Improved images can be used to refine previous interpretations, particularly at shallower depths (< 5 km). About 27 years after the acquisition, these data have been processed again in our study. Aside from the original processing steps, like spherical divergence correction, deconvolution and NMO corrections, additional processing steps such as DMO corrections or pre- and post-stack deconvolutions and coherency enhancements were applied. The reprocessing revealed reflections in the shallow part of the profiles, likely from major deformation (multi-phase) zones extending down to the lower crust, which were not present in the previous images. Also the images of the reflections in the deeper parts are remarkably improved. This also includes a few sub-Moho reflections. The three reprocessed profiles help constrain the nature of the northern boundary of Bergslagen and associated crustal

  17. Report on design and technical standard planning of vibration controlling structure on the buildings, in the Tokai Reprocessing Facility, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Terada, Shuji; Shinohara, Takaharu; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Kondo, Toshinari; Hosoya, Hisashi

    1997-10-01

    The Tokai reprocessing facility buildings are constituted by a lower foundation, vibration controlling layers, and upper structure. At the vibration controlling layer, a laminated rubber aiming support of the building load and extension of the eigenfrequency and a damper aiming absorption of earthquake energy are provided. Of course, the facility buildings are directly supported at the arenaceous shale (Taga Layer) of the Miocene in the Neogene confirmed to the stablest ground, as well the buildings with high vibration resistant importance in Japan. This report shows that when the vibration controlling structure is adopted for the reprocessing facility buildings where such high vibration resistance is required, reduction of input acceleration for equipments and pipings can be achieved and the earthquake resistant safety can also be maintained with sufficient tolerance and reliability. (G.K.)

  18. Gas-Cooled Reactor Programs annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1973. [HTGR fuel reprocessing, fuel fabrication, fuel irradiation, core materials, and fission product distribution; GCFR fuel irradiation and steam generator modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Coobs, J.H.; Lotts, A.L.

    1976-04-01

    Progress is summarized in studies relating to HTGR fuel reprocessing, refabrication, and recycle; HTGR fuel materials development and performance testing; HTGR PCRV development; HTGR materials investigations; HTGR fuel chemistry; HTGR safety studies; and GCFR irradiation experiments and steam generator modeling.

  19. Reprocessed 3D seismic-reflection data and neural-network fault cube of field activity P-04-11-CC, offshore Point Sal, central California, 2012-08-12 to 2012-10-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes reprocessed boomer 3D seismic data collected by the Fugro Consultants Inc. in 2012, offshore Point Sal, central California.

  20. The reprocessing - recycling and the transport of nuclear matters in France; Le retraitement - recyclage et le transport des matieres nucleaires en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In terms of radioactive wastes management two possibilities are considered: direct storage or reprocessing-recycling. The second possibility is presented with its sanitary impacts as also the energetic, environmental and economic advantages. Three other parts are devoted to the irradiated fuels transportation, the return of foreign wastes in their country of origin and the nuclear material transport between France and Germany. (A.L.B.)

  1. A novel method for recovery of acidic sludge of used-motor oil reprocessing industries to bitumen using bentonite and SBS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Jonidi Jafari; malek hassanpour; Mitra Gholam; Mehdi Farzadkia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acidic sludge is a by-product from used motor oil reprocessing industries, which thousand tons of this sludge are disposed into the environment as a hazardous waste material daily. The acidic sludge contains unsaturated compounds that are polar and asphaltene. The bitumen under certain conditions is produced from mixing of bentonite, polymer styrene – butadiene – styrene (SBS), and acidic sludge. Context and purpose: The objective of this study was the recovery of acidic sludge...

  2. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and the anxiety disorders: clinical and research implications of an integrated psychotherapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, F

    1999-01-01

    Four recent, independent, rigorously controlled studies of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) have reported that 84 to 100% of single-trauma victims no longer maintain the posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis after the equivalent of three 90-minute sessions. The rapidity of EMDR treatment effects makes many ancillary research opportunities available. Specifically, the increased number of cases resolved in a relatively short period of time allows investigation of neurophysiological phenomena, patterns of cognitive and emotional processing, component analyses of a large range of procedural factors, and evaluation of the efficacy of application to diverse clinical populations. Unfortunately, some research has been conducted that has been severely hampered by insufficient treatment fidelity and lack of clinical validity. Consequently, this article will attempt to describe the procedures and protocols that are believed to contribute to EMDR's clinical effects and are, therefore, suggested for the EMDR treatment and research of the anxiety disorders. This is particularly relevant given the misconceptions that have abounded due to the unfortunate naming of the procedure after the eye movements, which have proved to be only one of many useful types of stimulation, and only one of many components of this complex, integrated treatment.

  3. Di-n-amyl-n-amylphosphonate and tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate as potential extractants for reprocessing Th-U fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, H.; Sabau, C.S.; Horwitz, E.P.; Vandergrift, G.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1979-09-01

    Both 2F di-n-amyl-n-amylphosphonate in n-dodecane (DA(AP)-DD) and 0.77F tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in Aromatic 100 (TCMA.NO/sub 3/-AR100) extract uranium and thorium into relatively concentrated organic solutions. Countercurrent-flow tests with each extractant have demonstrated effective uranium-thorium separations by selective stripping from the organic phase. Both extractants offer advantageous alternatives to tributylphosphate (Thorex) in reprocessing irradiated mixed ThO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ fuels. Formic acid is used for removing thorium from DA(AP)-DD; dilute HNO/sub 3/ removes uranium from TCMA.NO/sub 3/-AR100. Spectra of plutonium in formic acid are shown. The use of concentrated TCMA.NO/sub 3/-AR100 at 50 to 65/sup 0/C avoids viscosity problems and suppresses third-phase formation. Thorium extracts into concentrated TCMA.NO/sub 3/-AR100 in greater amounts than would be predicted from stoichiometric assumptions.

  4. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Protocol with Adolescent Survivors of the Central Italy Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslovaric, Giada; Zaccagnino, Maria; Mezzaluna, Clarice; Perilli, Sava; Trivellato, Denis; Longo, Vittorio; Civilotti, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes, which can cause widespread territorial and socio-economic destruction, are life-threatening, unexpected, unpredictable, and uncontrollable events caused by the shaking of the surface of the earth. The psychological consequences, such as PTSD, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation, are well-known to clinicians and researchers. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the use of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Integrative Group Treatment Protocol on a sample of adolescents, after the earthquake in Central Italy on 24 August 2016. The objective of the EMDR intervention was to reduce PTSD symptoms. Before and after EMDR, specific assessment to find changes in PTSD symptoms was made using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and through the analyses of the Subjective Units of Disturbance. The EMDR treatment was given in three sessions (T1, T2, and T3), each lasting 90 min, and the results at follow-up phase (T4) were also monitored. The results are very encouraging, showing significantly reduced PTSD symptoms in the majority of the subjects. The clinical implications and limitations will be discussed.

  5. Brief eclectic psychotherapy v. eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijdam, Mirjam J; Gersons, Berthold P R; Reitsma, Johannes B; de Jongh, Ad; Olff, Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy (EMDR) are efficacious treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have directly compared them using well-powered designs and few have investigated response patterns. To compare the efficacy and response pattern of a trauma-focused CBT modality, brief eclectic psychotherapy for PTSD, with EMDR (trial registration: ISRCTN64872147). Out-patients with PTSD were randomly assigned to brief eclectic psychotherapy (n = 70) or EMDR (n = 70) and assessed at all sessions on self-reported PTSD (Impact of Event Scale - Revised). Other outcomes were clinician-rated PTSD, anxiety and depression. Both treatments were equally effective in reducing PTSD symptom severity, but the response pattern indicated that EMDR led to a significantly sharper decline in PTSD symptoms than brief eclectic psychotherapy, with similar drop-out rates (EMDR: n = 20 (29%), brief eclectic psychotherapy: n = 25 (36%)). Other outcome measures confirmed this pattern of results. Although both treatments are effective, EMDR results in a faster recovery compared with the more gradual improvement with brief eclectic psychotherapy.

  6. Outcomes from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in active-duty service members with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLay, Robert N; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; Fesperman, Susan F; Delaney, Eileen M; Gerard, Steven K; Roesch, Scott C; Nebeker, Bonnie J; Pandzic, Ines; Vishnyak, Elizabeth A; Johnston, Scott L

    2016-11-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is one of the therapy interventions recommended by the Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense Clinical Practice Guidelines. However, the literature concerning the effectiveness of this treatment modality in military service members is sparse. This study investigated the efficacy of EMDR in active-duty service members. We conducted an effectiveness study with a record review from active-duty military mental health clinics where clinical outcomes had been monitored over a 10-week period using self-report measures of posttraumatic stress and disability. Symptom scores were examined over time in 331 service members who met presumptive criteria for the disorder on the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M), who were in psychotherapy, and who received (n = 46) or didn't receive (n = 285) EMDR. Results indicated that patients receiving EMDR had significantly fewer therapy sessions over 10 weeks but had significantly greater gains in their PCL-M scores than did individuals not receiving EMDR. Randomized, controlled trials are still needed, but these findings provide further support for the use of EMDR in service members with PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy to Treat Symptoms Following Trauma in Timor Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Sarah J; Lee, Christopher W; de Araujo, Guilhermina; Butler, Susan R; Taylor, Graham; Drummond, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for treating trauma symptoms was examined in a postwar/conflict, developing nation, Timor Leste. Participants were 21 Timorese adults with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), assessed as those who scored ≥2 on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Participants were treated with EMDR therapy. Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Symptom changes post-EMDR treatment were compared to a stabilization control intervention period in which participants served as their own waitlist control. Sessions were 60-90 mins. The average number of sessions was 4.15 (SD = 2.06). Despite difficulties providing treatment cross-culturally (i.e., language barriers), EMDR therapy was followed by significant and large reductions in trauma symptoms (Cohen's d = 2.48), depression (d = 2.09), and anxiety (d = 1.77). At posttreatment, 20 (95.2%) participants scored below the HTQ PTSD cutoff of 2. Reliable reductions in trauma symptoms were reported by 18 participants (85.7%) posttreatment and 16 (76.2%) at 3-month follow-up. Symptoms did not improve during the control period. Findings support the use of EMDR therapy for treatment of adults with PTSD in a cross-cultural, postwar/conflict setting, and suggest that structured trauma treatments can be applied in Timor Leste. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. Metacognitive therapy vs. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for posttraumatic stress disorder: study protocol for a randomized superiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Hans M; Halvorsen, Joar Øveraas; Hjemdal, Odin; Ternava, Mimoza Rrusta; Wells, Adrian

    2018-01-08

    The psychological treatment of choice for patients with severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is cognitive behavioural exposure therapy or Eye Movement Desensitisation Reprocessing (EMDR). Whilst these are the most effective treatments, approximately 30-45% of the patients show no significant improvements and follow-up data are sparse. Furthermore, a proportion of patients with severe trauma does not benefit or avoid exposure therapy due to the potential to overwhelm them. Therefore, it is necessary to search for effective methods that do not require exposure. Metacognitive therapy (MCT), a recent treatment approach to PTSD that does not require exposure, has potential strong treatment effects but so far a comparison with EMDR has not been made. This study is a two-arm, parallel, randomized, superiority trial comparing the effectiveness of MCT with EMDR. One hundred patients with a primary diagnosis of chronic PTSD will be included and will receive 12 sessions of one of the treatments. The primary outcome is severity of PTSD symptoms assessed with the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) measured post-treatment (3 months). Secondary outcomes include symptom severity (PDS) and measures of anxiety, depression, metacognitive beliefs at 3-month and 12-month follow up. This randomized study is the first to compare MCT with EMDR with 12-month follow-up. The study will indicate the comparative effectiveness of MCT against EMDR and the stability of effects when delivered in an outpatient clinical setting. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01955590 . Registered on 24 September 2013.

  9. Neural processing of emotions in traumatized children treated with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy: a hdEEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentini, Cristina; Pagani, Marco; Fania, Piercarlo; Speranza, Anna Maria; Nicolais, Giampaolo; Sibilia, Alessandra; Inguscio, Lucio; Verardo, Anna Rita; Fernandez, Isabel; Ammaniti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has been proven efficacious in restoring affective regulation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. However, its effectiveness on emotion processing in children with complex trauma has yet to be explored. High density electroencephalography (hdEEG) was used to investigate the effects of EMDR on brain responses to adults' emotions on children with histories of early maltreatment. Ten school-aged children were examined before (T0) and within one month after the conclusion of EMDR (T1). hdEEGs were recorded while children passively viewed angry, afraid, happy, and neutral faces. Clinical scales were administered at the same time. Correlation analyses were performed to detect brain regions whose activity was linked to children's traumatic symptom-related and emotional-adaptive problem scores. In all four conditions, hdEEG showed similar significantly higher activity on the right medial prefrontal and fronto-temporal limbic regions at T0, shifting toward the left medial and superior temporal regions at T1. Moreover, significant correlations were found between clinical scales and the same regions whose activity significantly differed between pre- and post-treatment. These preliminary results demonstrate that, after EMDR, children suffering from complex trauma show increased activity in areas implicated in high-order cognitive processing when passively viewing pictures of emotional expressions. These changes are associated with the decrease of depressive and traumatic symptoms, and with the improvement of emotional-adaptive functioning over time.

  10. The efficacy and psychophysiological correlates of dual-attention tasks in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Sarah J; Lee, Christopher W; Drummond, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the psychophysiological correlates and the effectiveness of different dual-attention tasks used during eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Sixty-two non-clinical participants with negative autobiographical memories received a single session of EMDR without eye movements, or EMDR that included eye movements of either varied or fixed rate of speed. Subjective units of distress and vividness of the memory were recorded at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 1 week follow-up. EMDR-with eye movements led to greater reduction in distress than EMDR-without eye movements. Heart rate decreased significantly when eye movements began; skin conductance decreased during eye movement sets; heart rate variability and respiration rate increased significantly as eye movements continued; and orienting responses were more frequent in the eye movement than no-eye movement condition at the start of exposure. Findings indicate that the eye movement component in EMDR is beneficial, and is coupled with distinct psychophysiological changes that may aid in processing negative memories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Protocol with Adolescent Survivors of the Central Italy Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Maslovaric

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, which can cause widespread territorial and socio-economic destruction, are life-threatening, unexpected, unpredictable, and uncontrollable events caused by the shaking of the surface of the earth. The psychological consequences, such as PTSD, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation, are well-known to clinicians and researchers. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the use of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol on a sample of adolescents, after the earthquake in Central Italy on 24 August 2016. The objective of the EMDR intervention was to reduce PTSD symptoms. Before and after EMDR, specific assessment to find changes in PTSD symptoms was made using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and through the analyses of the Subjective Units of Disturbance. The EMDR treatment was given in three sessions (T1, T2, and T3, each lasting 90 min, and the results at follow-up phase (T4 were also monitored. The results are very encouraging, showing significantly reduced PTSD symptoms in the majority of the subjects. The clinical implications and limitations will be discussed.

  12. Neural processing of emotions in traumatized children treated with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy: A hdEEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eTrentini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR therapy has been proven efficacious in restoring affective regulation in Post–Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD patients. However, its effectiveness on emotion processing in children with complex trauma has yet to be explored. High density Electroencephalography (hdEEG was used to investigate the effects of EMDR on brain responses to adults’ emotions on children with histories of early maltreatment. Ten school–aged children were examined before (T0 and within one month after the conclusion of EMDR (T1. hdEEGs were recorded while children passively viewed angry, afraid, happy, and neutral faces. Clinical scales were administered at the same time. Correlation analyses were performed to detect brain regions whose activity was linked to children’s traumatic symptom–related and emotional–adaptive problem scores. In all four conditions, hdEEG showed similar significantly higher activity on the right medial prefrontal and fronto–temporal limbic regions at T0, shifting towards the left medial and superior temporal regions at T1. Moreover, significant correlations were found between clinical scales and the same regions whose activity significantly differed between pre– and post–treatment. These preliminary results demonstrate that, after EMDR, children suffering from complex trauma show increased activity in areas implicated in high–order cognitive processing when passively viewing pictures of emotional expressions. These changes are associated with the decrease of depressive and traumatic symptoms, and with the improvement of emotional–adaptive functioning over time.

  13. Potential of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire TM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tracy M McGuire, Christopher W Lee, Peter D Drummond School of Psychology, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD continues to attract both empirical and clinical interest due to its complex symptom profile and the underlying processes involved. Recently, research attention has been focused on the types of memory processes involved in PTSD and hypothesized neurobiological processes. Complicating this exploration, and the treatment of PTSD, are underlying comorbid disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Treatment of PTSD has undergone further reviews with the introduction of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR. EMDR has been empirically demonstrated to be as efficacious as other specific PTSD treatments, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. There is emerging evidence that there are different processes underlying these two types of trauma treatment and some evidence that EMDR might have an efficiency advantage. Current research and understanding regarding the processes of EMDR and the future direction of EMDR is presented. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, eye movement desensitization, neurobiological, symptoms, treatment, comorbid

  14. Motion-based equilibrium reprocessing therapy a novel treatment method for chronic peripheral vestibulopathies: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondebrink, Mirke S; Mert, Agali; van der Lint, Roos; de Ru, J Alexander; van der Wurff, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Rehabilitation for vestibular disease is a safe method to partially alleviate symptoms of vertigo. It was hypothesized that principles of military aviation vestibular desensitization procedures that have a success rate of more than 80% can be extrapolated to chronic vestibular disease as well.The virtual reality motion base computer-assisted rehabilitation environment was used as treatment modality in 17 patients. They were exposed to sinusoidal vertical passive whole body motion in increasing intensity for a maximum of 12 sessions. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) was used for assessment of the subjective complaints of vertigo.The median DHI scores of 50 points at baseline dropped to 22 points (P <.001) at follow-up. Post hoc analysis showed significant differences in outcome between measurements at baseline and at the end of the treatment, between baseline and follow-up, but not between end of treatment and follow-up.This pilot study concerning motion-based equilibrium reprocessing therapy (MERT) shows that it is a simple, quick, and well-tolerated treatment option to alleviate symptoms in patients with chronic peripheral vestibulopathies.

  15. A randomised comparison of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) in disaster-exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Carlijn; Greenwald, Ricky; den Hollander-Gijsman, Margien; Noorthoorn, Eric; van Buuren, Stef; de Jongh, Ad

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous research with disaster-exposed children and adolescents, a randomised clinical trial was performed in the treatment of trauma-related symptoms. In the current study two active treatments were compared among children in a broad age range and from a wide diversity of ethnic populations. The primary aim was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR). Children (n=52, aged 4-18) were randomly allocated to either CBT (n=26) or EMDR (n=26) in a disaster mental health after-care setting after an explosion of a fireworks factory. All children received up to four individual treatment sessions over a 4-8 week period along with up to four sessions of parent guidance. Blind assessment took place pre- and post-treatment and at 3 months follow-up on a variety of parent-rated and self-report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology, depression, anxiety, and behaviour problems. Analyses of variance (general linear model repeated measures) were conducted on the intention-to-treat sample and the completers. Both treatment approaches produced significant reductions on all measures and results were maintained at follow-up. Treatment gains of EMDR were reached in fewer sessions. Standardised CBT and EMDR interventions can significantly improve functioning of disaster-exposed children.

  16. Plasma-based sterilization: effect on surface and bulk properties and hydrolytic stability of reprocessed polyurethane electrophysiology catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerouge, S; Guignot, C; Tabrizian, M; Ferrier, D; Yagoubi, N; Yahia, L

    2000-12-15

    Plasma-based sterilization is a promising alternative to ethylene oxide (EO) for reprocessing of electrophysiology catheters. To assess its safety in terms of material damage, modifications of surface and bulk properties as well as hydrolytic stability of sterilized catheters were evaluated. Polyurethane (PU) single-use electrophysiology catheters were subjected to one, five, and ten sterilization cycles by Sterrad-100S and Plazlyte, as well as by pure EO for comparison. Surface analysis techniques (ATR-FTIR, XPS, DCA) showed oxidation limited to the near-surface layer induced by both plasma-based sterilizers, whereas EO induced slight but deeper alkylation. Using bulk analysis techniques (RP-HPLC, SEC), oligomer alteration was observed after all three sterilization techniques, without modification of molecular weights. Hydrolytic stability of catheters was slightly changed by plasma-based sterilization, with a small increase in released oligomers. Finally, although Plazlyte and Sterrad are both plasma-based techniques, they induced different impacts on catheters, such as the degradation of an additive with Sterrad, and a clear difference in coloration with Plazlyte.

  17. Symposium on the reprocessing of irradiated fuels. Book 2, Session IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1958-12-31

    Book two of this conference has a single-focused session IV entitled Nonaqueous Processing, with 8 papers. The session deals with fluoride volatility processes and pyrometallurgical or pyrochemical processes. The latter involves either an oxide drossing or molten metal extraction or fused salt extraction technique and results in only partial decontamination. Fluoride volatility processes appear to be especially favorable for recovery of enriched uranium and decontamination factors of 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ would be achieved by simpler means than those employed in solvent extraction. Data from lab research on the BrF/sub 3/ process and the ClF/sub 3/ process are given and discussed and pilot plant experience is described, all in connection with natural uranium or slightly enriched uranium processing. Fluoride volatility processes for enriched or high alloy fuels are described step by step. The economic and engineering considerations of both types of nonaqueous processing are treated separately and as fully as present knowledge allows. A comprehensive review of the chemistry of pyrometallurgical processes is included.

  18. Citizen surveillance of the radioactivity in Normandy. Synthesis of gamma analysis results of the first semester 2004 from the Citizen network of watching, information and radioecological evaluation (R.I.V.I.E.R.E.); Surveillance citoyenne de la radioactivite en Normandie. Synthese des resultats d'analyse gamma du premier semestre 2004 du Reseau Citoyen de Veille, d'Information et d'Evaluation RadioEcologique (RIVIERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    Around nuclear installations of La Hague, it is principally cesium{sup 137} that is found. The concentration is a few becquerels by kilogram of dry matter and comes from the fallout of nuclear tests before Chernobylsk accident. An excess of cesium is visible in the Sainte-Helene river where the levels go over the usual levels of a factor 10 then, in the presence of others elements such cobalt 60 (Co{sup 60}) or ruthenium-rhodium 106 (RuRh{sup 106}), iodine 129 (I{sup 129}) is also found. These pollutants find their origin in the gaseous releases of reprocessing plants. Between Granville and Saint Valery-en-Caux, along 500 kilometers of coast, four radioelements are systematically detected: cobalt 60, iodine 129, cesium 137, americium 214. Near the reprocessing plant of La Hague, the artificial radioactivity level increases with the presence of ruthenium-rhodium 106. The radiological situation is near this one of previous semesters, we can speak of stationary state, which improved with the years. It emphasize that the impact of nuclear power plants releases near the coast is not discernible. (N.C.)

  19. Erroneous cardiac ECG-gated PET list-mode trigger events can be retrospectively identified and replaced by an offline reprocessing approach: first results in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, Guido; Todica, Andrei; Vai, Alessandro; Lehner, Sebastian; Xiong, Guoming; Mille, Erik; Ilhan, Harun; la Fougère, Christian; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus

    2013-11-01

    The assessment of left ventricular function, wall motion and myocardial viability using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated [18F]-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) is widely accepted in human and in preclinical small animal studies. The nonterminal and noninvasive approach permits repeated in vivo evaluations of the same animal, facilitating the assessment of temporal changes in disease or therapy response. Although well established, gated small animal PET studies can contain erroneous gating information, which may yield to blurred images and false estimation of functional parameters. In this work, we present quantitative and visual quality control (QC) methods to evaluate the accuracy of trigger events in PET list-mode and physiological data. Left ventricular functional analysis is performed to quantify the effect of gating errors on the end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes, and on the ejection fraction (EF). We aim to recover the cardiac functional parameters by the application of the commonly established heart rate filter approach using fixed ranges based on a standardized population. In addition, we propose a fully reprocessing approach which retrospectively replaces the gating information of the PET list-mode file with appropriate list-mode decoding and encoding software. The signal of a simultaneously acquired ECG is processed using standard MATLAB vector functions, which can be individually adapted to reliably detect the R-peaks. Finally, the new trigger events are inserted into the PET list-mode file. A population of 30 mice with various health statuses was analyzed and standard cardiac parameters such as mean heart rate (119 ms ± 11.8 ms) and mean heart rate variability (1.7 ms ± 3.4 ms) derived. These standard parameter ranges were taken into account in the QC methods to select a group of nine optimal gated and a group of eight sub-optimal gated [18F]-FDG PET scans of mice from our archive. From the list-mode files of the optimal gated group, we

  20. Surgical instrument biocontaminant fluorescence detection in ambient lighting conditions for hospital reprocessing and sterilization department (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baribeau, François; Bubel, Annie; Dumont, Guillaume; Vachon, Carl; Lépine, André; Rochefort, Stéphane; Massicotte, Martin; Buteau-Vaillancourt, Louis; Gallant, Pascal; Mermut, Ozzy

    2017-03-01

    Hospitals currently rely on simple human visual inspection for assessing cleanliness of surgical instruments. Studies showed that surgical site infections are in part attributed to inadequate cleaning of medical devices. Standards groups recognize the need to objectively quantify the amount of residues on surgical instruments and establish guidelines. We developed a portable technology for the detection of contaminants on surgical instruments through fluorescence following cleaning. Weak fluorescence signals are usually detected in the obscurity only with the lighting of the excitation source. The key element of this system is that it works in ambient lighting conditions, a requirement to not disturb the normal workflow of hospital reprocessing facilities. A biocompatible fluorescent dye is added to the detergent and labels the proteins of organic residues. It is resistant to the harsh environment in a washer-disinfector. Two inspection devices have been developed with a 488nm laser as the excitation source: a handheld scanner and a tabletop station using spectral-domain and time-domain ambient light cancellation schemes. The systems are eye safe and equipped with image processing and interfacing software to provide visual or audible warnings to the operator based on a set of adjustable signal thresholds. Micron-scale residues are detected by the system which can also evaluate soil size and mass. Unlike swabbing, it can inspect whole tools in real-time. The technology has been validated in an independent hospital decontamination research laboratory. It also has potential applications in the forensics, agro-food, and space fields. Technical aspects and results will be presented and discussed.

  1. Reprocessing and Interpretation of Vintage Seismic Reflection Data: Evidence for the Tectonic History of the Rocky Mountain Trench, Northwest Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M.; Speece, M. A.; Rutherford, B. S.; Constenius, K. N.

    2014-12-01

    In 1983 Techno, Inc. collected five seismic reflection profiles in the region between Whitefish, Montana and the United States-Canada border. The poulter method was used to gather four of these profiles and one profile was collected using a vibroseis source. We are currently reprocessing these data in order to construct a regional geological interpretation. The profiles cover a key position in the hinterland of the Cordillera in the lee of the Lewis thrust salient where the east-northeast verging Lewis thrust fault system translated (horizontal displacement >100 km) and inverted a thick, strong slab of primarily Belt-Purcell rocks out of a deep Precambrian depositional basin onto a cratonic platform. In this event, Belt-Purcell rocks were thrust over complexly imbricated Phanerozoic strata in the foreland. Late Mesozoic compressional deformation was followed by Cenozoic extensional collapse of the over-thickened Cordillera and subsequent basin and range style deformation that produced an array of northwest trending grabens. Three of the seismic profiles cross the Rocky Mountain Trench; the Trench is a linear structure of regional dimension that is an expression of the extensional fragmentation of the Cordillera. Strong reflections, interpreted as sills encased within Lower Belt rocks (encountered in the Arco-Marathon 1 Paul Gibbs borehole), outline the complexly folded and faulted structure of the eastern limb of the Purcell anticlinorium. East of the Rocky Mountain Trench stratified reflections within Belt rocks clearly outline the Wigwam Thrust. Beneath the Whitefish Range, an apparent inflection in the strongly reflective basal Cambrian veneer marks the westerly increase in dip of the Rocky Mountain Basal Detachment. The dip contrast between the foreland and hinterland might be a manifestation of the tectonic loading of the Belt basin margin and the loading might have localized extension across the Rocky Mountain Trench.

  2. The 1946 Unimak Tsunami Earthquake Area: revised tectonic structure in reprocessed seismic images and a suspect near field tsunami source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John J.; von Huene, Roland E.; Ryan, Holly F.

    2014-01-01

    In 1946 at Unimak Pass, Alaska, a tsunami destroyed the lighthouse at Scotch Cap, Unimak Island, took 159 lives on the Hawaiian Islands, damaged island coastal facilities across the south Pacific, and destroyed a hut in Antarctica. The tsunami magnitude of 9.3 is comparable to the magnitude 9.1 tsunami that devastated the Tohoku coast of Japan in 2011. Both causative earthquake epicenters occurred in shallow reaches of the subduction zone. Contractile tectonism along the Alaska margin presumably generated the far-field tsunami by producing a seafloor elevation change. However, the Scotch Cap lighthouse was destroyed by a near-field tsunami that was probably generated by a coeval large undersea landslide, yet bathymetric surveys showed no fresh large landslide scar. We investigated this problem by reprocessing five seismic lines, presented here as high-resolution graphic images, both uninterpreted and interpreted, and available for the reader to download. In addition, the processed seismic data for each line are available for download as seismic industry-standard SEG-Y files. One line, processed through prestack depth migration, crosses a 10 × 15 kilometer and 800-meter-high hill presumed previously to be basement, but that instead is composed of stratified rock superimposed on the slope sediment. This image and multibeam bathymetry illustrate a slide block that could have sourced the 1946 near-field tsunami because it is positioned within a distance determined by the time between earthquake shaking and the tsunami arrival at Scotch Cap and is consistent with the local extent of high runup of 42 meters along the adjacent Alaskan coast. The Unimak/Scotch Cap margin is structurally similar to the 2011 Tohoku tsunamigenic margin where a large landslide at the trench, coeval with the Tohoku earthquake, has been documented. Further study can improve our understanding of tsunami sources along Alaska’s erosional margins.

  3. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing to Facilitate Posttraumatic Growth: A Prospective Clinical Pilot Study on Ferry Disaster Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Won; Han, Changsu; Choi, Joonho; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2017-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on post-traumatic growth (PTG). This study was conducted using a sample of ten survivors of a large-scale maritime disaster that occurred in the Yellow Sea, South Korea, in April 2014. A total of eight EMDR sessions were administered by a psychiatrist at two-week intervals over a period of five months, starting two or three months after the accident. Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), Stress-Related Growth Scale (SRGS), Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) were measured before treatment, after sessions 4 and 8, and at three months after treatment completion. After three months from treatment completion, significant increases were observed in PTG (PTGI: Z(8)=-2.380, p=0.017; SRGS: Z(8)=-2.380, p=0.017) and resilience (CD-RISC: Z(8)=-2.386, p=0.017). A decrease in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) level was also significant (CAPS: Z(8)=-2.176, p=0.030). The reduction of CAPS scores was correlated with increases of PTGI (rho=0.78, p=0.023) and SRGS (rho=0.79, p=0.020) scores. The changes in CAPS, PTGI, and SRGS scores between time point of end 8-session and three months follow-up was not significant (all p〉0.05). Subjects with higher pre-treatment CD-RISC scores showed more significant improvements in PTGI (rho=0.88, p=0.004) and SRGS (rho=0.83, p=0.010) scores after treatment than did those with lower pre-treatment CD-RISC scores. EMDR therapy using standard protocol for trauma processing helped facilitating PTG in disaster survivors. To generalize these findings, further controlled studies comparing with other treatment modalities for PTSD are needed.

  4. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Treating Panic Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Horst

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT is an effective intervention for patients with panic disorder (PD. From a theoretical perspective, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR therapy could also be useful in the treatment of PD because: (1 panic attacks can be experienced as life threatening; (2 panic memories specific to PD resemble traumatic memories as seen in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; and (3 PD often develops following a distressing life event. The primary objective of this Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT, was to compare EMDR therapy with CBT for PD and determine whether EMDR is not worse than CBT in reducing panic symptoms and improving Quality Of Life (QOL.Methods: Two-arm (CBT and EMDR parallel RCT in patients with PD (N = 84. Patients were measured at baseline (T1, directly after the last therapy session (T2, and 3 months after ending therapy (T3. Non-inferiority testing (linear mixed model with intention-to-treat analysis was applied. Patients were randomly assigned to 13 weekly 60-min sessions of CBT (N = 42 or EMDR therapy (N = 42. Standard protocols were used. The primary outcome measure was severity of PD at T3, as measured with the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ, the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ, and the Mobility Inventory (MI. The secondary outcome measure was QOL, as measured with the World Health Organization Quality of Life short version (WHOQOL-Bref, at T3.Results: The severity of PD variables ACQ and BSQ showed non-inferiority of EMDR to CBT, while MI was inconclusive (adjusted analyses. Overall QOL and general health, Psychological health, Social relationships, and Environment showed non-inferiority of EMDR to CBT, while Physical health was inconclusive.Conclusion: EMDR therapy proved to be as effective as CBT for treating PD patients.Trial Registration: Dutch Trial Register, Nr. 3134 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=3134

  5. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Treating Panic Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Ferdinand; Den Oudsten, Brenda; Zijlstra, Wobbe; de Jongh, Ad; Lobbestael, Jill; De Vries, Jolanda

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an effective intervention for patients with panic disorder (PD). From a theoretical perspective, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy could also be useful in the treatment of PD because: (1) panic attacks can be experienced as life threatening; (2) panic memories specific to PD resemble traumatic memories as seen in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and (3) PD often develops following a distressing life event. The primary objective of this Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT), was to compare EMDR therapy with CBT for PD and determine whether EMDR is not worse than CBT in reducing panic symptoms and improving Quality Of Life (QOL). Methods: Two-arm (CBT and EMDR) parallel RCT in patients with PD (N = 84). Patients were measured at baseline (T1), directly after the last therapy session (T2), and 3 months after ending therapy (T3). Non-inferiority testing (linear mixed model with intention-to-treat analysis) was applied. Patients were randomly assigned to 13 weekly 60-min sessions of CBT (N = 42) or EMDR therapy (N = 42). Standard protocols were used. The primary outcome measure was severity of PD at T3, as measured with the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ), the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ), and the Mobility Inventory (MI). The secondary outcome measure was QOL, as measured with the World Health Organization Quality of Life short version (WHOQOL-Bref), at T3. Results: The severity of PD variables ACQ and BSQ showed non-inferiority of EMDR to CBT, while MI was inconclusive (adjusted analyses). Overall QOL and general health, Psychological health, Social relationships, and Environment showed non-inferiority of EMDR to CBT, while Physical health was inconclusive. Conclusion: EMDR therapy proved to be as effective as CBT for treating PD patients. Trial Registration: Dutch Trial Register, Nr. 3134 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=3134.

  6. Potential sites suitable for relocation and/or reprocessing of the Grand Junction and Rifle uranium-mill-tailings piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The procedure and results of a regional search for sites that appear to be suitable for the relocation and/or reprocessing of the Grand Junction and Rifle uranium mill tailings piles are described. This search identified nine potential sites within the study area that are offered to the Candidate Site Review Committee for further consideration. All nine sites can be used for joint disposal of the uranium tailings in both Grand Junction and Rifle. Disposal of any individual pile at any of the nine sites may also be considered by the Committee. It is the responsibility of the Committee to determine which of these sites should be recommended to the US Department of Energy for detailed evaluation of their suitability for uranium tailings disposal. This should include consideration of sites for joint disposal as well as disposal in separate sites. All sites are entirely on federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. The sites fall within five general geographic locations. Two Road, McDonald Creek, and 6 and 50 Reservoir sites lie west of Mack near the Utah-Colorado border. East Salt Creek and Camp Gulch sites are north of Mack near the Mesa-Garfield County Line. Halls Basin and Cheney Reservoir sites are found southeast of Grand Junction west of and below Grand Mesa. Lucas Mesa site lies east of DeBeque across the Colorado River. Flatiron Mesa site is south of Rifle on the northeast flank of Battlement Mesa. A comprehensive site selection process was used to identify the recommended potential sites. None of the sites are completely ideal when all relevant factors are considered. The Committee must compare and weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each site to determine which sites are the most favorable for continued evaluation for long-term containment of the uranium tailings. It must be emphasized that this investigation is of a regional nature and therefore is preliminary.

  7. The potentialities of the complexation ultrafiltration technique for the decontamination of fission product contaminated aqueous effluents; Potentialites de la complexation - ultrafiltration a la decontamination d`effluents radioactifs en produits de fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibert, V.

    1995-07-01

    Many nuclear researchers and industrial operators lay emphasis on improving the back end of the fuel cycle. A major problem concerns the liquid wastes generated by the reprocessing plant at La Hague, discharged into the sea after treatment in the Effluent Treatment Station (STE) (3), and which have become crucial matter. The activity of these wastes is well below the current legal limits, and is constantly decreasing these last years. To bring it close to zero, and ambitious goal, entails innovative new reprocessing techniques. We accordingly investigated the possibilities of complexation-ultrafiltration, a technique that uses water-soluble macromolecules to complex the target elements to be separated. We first achieved the strontium (II) separation with poly-acrylic and poly-sulfonic acids. The effects of pH and NaNO{sub 3} concentration influence on Sr (II) complexation were studied. The Sr (II) complexation and concentration phases, followed by cation de-complexation to recover the polymer, were also taken into account. This research, combined with a potentiometric study of the polymers, offered a close understanding of the chemical systems involved, and of the operating conditions and limits of complexation-ultrafiltration. The laboratory results were also validated on a tangential ultrafiltration pilot plant. We then used complexation-ultrafiltration to treat a real effluent generated bu La Hague`s STE 3 plant. This experiment demonstrated minimum 90 % decontamination of Sr (II) (with polyacrylate complexing agent), and also for {sup 134-137}Cs (with simple ultrafiltration). The use of two polyamides allowed partial decontamination of the effluent for {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru. This work therefore offers a global approach to complexation-ultrafiltration, from laboratory to pilot scale, on real and simulated effluents. The future of this technique relies chiefly on the ability to solve the problem of polymer recovery. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Attachments for fire modeling for Building 221-T, T Plant canyon deck and railroad tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oar, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this attachment is to provide historical information and documentation for Document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-008 Rev 0, ``Fire Modeling for Building 221-T--T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel``, dated September 29, 1994. This data compilation contains the following: Resumes of the Technical Director, Senior Engineer and Junior Engineer; Review and Comment Record; Software Files; CFAST Input and Output Files; Calculation Control Sheets; and Estimating Sprinkler Actuation Time in the Canyon and Railroad Tunnel. The T Plant was originally a fuel reprocessing facility. It was modified later to decontaminate and repair PuRex process equipment.

  9. Behavior of silicon in nitric media. Application to uranium silicides fuels reprocessing; Comportement du silicium en milieu nitrique. Application au retraitement des combustibles siliciures d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheroux, L

    2001-07-01

    Uranium silicides are used in some research reactors. Reprocessing them is a solution for their cycle end. A list of reprocessing scenarios has been set the most realistic being a nitric dissolution close to the classic spent fuel reprocessing. This uranium silicide fuel contains a lot of silicon and few things are known about polymerization of silicic acid in concentrated nitric acid. The study of this polymerization allows to point out the main parameters: acidity, temperature, silicon concentration. The presence of aluminum seems to speed up heavily the polymerization. It has been impossible to find an analytical technique smart and fast enough to characterize the first steps of silicic acid polymerization. However the action of silicic species on emulsions stabilization formed by mixing them with an organic phase containing TBP has been studied, Silicon slows down the phase separation by means of oligomeric species forming complex with TBP. The existence of these intermediate species is short and heating can avoid any stabilization. When non irradiated uranium silicide fuel is attacked by a nitric solution, aluminum and uranium are quickly dissolved whereas silicon mainly stands in solid state. That builds a gangue of hydrated silica around the uranium silicide particulates without preventing uranium dissolution. A small part of silicon passes into the solution and polymerize towards the highly poly-condensed forms, just 2% of initial silicon is still in molecular form at the end of the dissolution. A thermal treatment of the fuel element, by forming inter-metallic phases U-Al-Si, allows the whole silicon to pass into the solution and next to precipitate. The behavior of silicon in spent fuels should be between these two situations. (author)

  10. Reflexões sobre segurança sanitária em reprocessamento de produtos para saúde / Thoughts regarding sanitary safety in medical device reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Auxiliadora Magalhães Costa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um artigo de revisão bibliográfica sobre a segurança sanitária do repro-cessamento de produtos para saúde. Aborda a complexidade da assistência hospitalar possibilitada pelo avanço das tecnologias de saúde, especificamente dos produtos para saúde, que trazem benefícios e riscos, principalmente quando na condição de reúso e de reprocessamento. Ressalta a responsabilidade crescente do Estado, especificamente da Vigilância Sanitária e dos serviços de saúde, para prevenir danos aos pacientes usuários desses dispositivos. Introduz o conceito de risco residual, como elemento sinalizador da possibilidade da ocorrência de eventos adversos relacionados com o reprocessamento de produtos. Finaliza com as possíveis perspectivas futuras para o reprocessamento de produtos para saúde. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Medical products used in health services are highly complex. Despite their contribution to hospital assistance, those products are also the bearers of several risk factors, and give rise to concerns regarding safety and effectiveness of the processes related to their reprocessing and re-utilization. This descriptive-reflexive study was performed with ob-jective to present thoughts regarding sanitary safety in medical device reprocessing, and point out that there is immediate need to implement a risk management system in these hospitals, and need for greater sanitary control by the State in order to protect the health of patients. This study finish with possibles perspectives about the medical devices reprocessing.

  11. Reprocessing single-use cardiac catheters for interventional cardiology. A cost-minimization model for estimating potential saving at departmental scale and national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tessarolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The utilization of single-use percutaneous catheters (SUDs is a common practice in interventional cardiology, but the increasing of cardiac interventions and the consequent economic load demand for assessing SUDs’ reuse. The study aimed at estimating the potential saving for Italian cardiology departments in the hypothesis that reprocessing and reuse of SUD is performed by guaranteeing safety and efficiency of the reconditioned device as high as the new marketed one.

    Methods: A cost-minimization model was applied from the perspective of the health national service. Input parameters for the model were settled by reviewing published data on technical, hygiene and functional properties of reprocessed electrophysiology (EP and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA catheters. Potential saving at department level was calculated as percentage of the actual expenditure for purchasing single-use devices. Two-ways sensitivity analysis was conducted on main cost drivers. Finally, saving at national level was estimated.

    Results: The revision of technical and safety data showed the feasibility of reprocessing and reuse of EP and PTCA catheters under determined constrains. Potential savings of 39%, and 12% were calculated at department level for EP and PTCA catheters, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed saving was dependent primarily on departmental workload. Major variations in saving occurred in the range between one and 200 catheters per year. The cut-off between benefit and charges was also related to regeneration rate and maximum number of uses. The estimate of potential saving at national level ranged in the interval from €19.85M to €24.24M.

    Conclusions:When safety and efficiency is assured by certified reuse processing, substantial saving could be achieved both at departmental and national level contributing to optimize budget

  12. Selected legal questions concerning reprocessing in an integrated European waste management concept. Ausgewaehlte Rechtsfragen der Wiederaufarbeitung bei einem integrierten europaeischen Entsorgungskonzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassburg, W. (Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Wiederaufarbeitung von Kernbrennstoffen mbH (DWK), Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-12-01

    The change from a national to an integrated European radioactive waste management concept, especially concerning the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, raises questions as to safety, technology and industrial policy, but also problems of law and European politics. Three selected relevant legal questions connected with this matter are treated here in an exemplary manner. They are: Contents and significance of national provisions for the management of spent fuel and radioactive wastes, legal problems of fair competition in Europe, and questions concerning the constitutionality of the use of plutonium. (orig.).

  13. Integrated Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Post-traumatic Stress and Psychotic Symptoms: A Case-Series Study Using Imaginal Reprocessing Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Nadine; Hunter, Elaine C M; Peters, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    Despite high rates of trauma in individuals with psychotic symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms are frequently overlooked in clinical practice. There is also reluctance to treat post-traumatic symptoms in case the therapeutic procedure of reprocessing the trauma exacerbates psychotic symptoms. Recent evidence demonstrates that it is safe to use reprocessing strategies in this population. However, most published studies have been based on treating post-traumatic symptoms in isolation from psychotic symptoms. The aims of the current case series were to assess the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary effectiveness of integrating cognitive-behavioural approaches for post-traumatic stress and psychotic symptoms into a single protocol. Nine participants reporting distressing psychotic and post-traumatic symptoms were recruited from a specialist psychological therapies service for psychosis. Clients were assessed at five time points (baseline, pre, mid, end of therapy, and at 6+ months of follow-up) by an independent assessor on measures of current symptoms of psychosis, post-traumatic stress, emotional problems, and well-being. Therapy was formulation based and individualised, depending on presenting symptoms and trauma type. It consisted of five broad, flexible phases, and included imaginal reprocessing strategies (reliving and/or rescripting). The intervention was well received, with positive post-therapy feedback and satisfaction ratings. Unusually for this population, no-one dropped out of therapy. Post therapy, all but one (88% of participants) achieved a reliable improvement compared to pre-therapy on at least one outcome measure: post-traumatic symptoms (63%), voices (25%), delusions (50%), depression (50%), anxiety (36%), and well-being (40%). Follow-up assessments were completed by 78% (n = 7) of whom 86% (n = 6) maintained at least one reliable improvement. Rates of improvements following therapy (average of 44% across measures post therapy

  14. Re-Processing of ERS-1/-2 SAR data for derivation of glaciological parameters on the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Peter; Höppner, Kathrin; Braun, Matthias; Lorenz, Rainer; Diedrich, Erhard

    2015-04-01

    conditions in order to do first parameter adjustments for the processing. The subsequent aim of the entire project is to re-process the entire 20 years' ERS SAR archive for the Antarctic Peninsula.

  15. Effect of Ocular Movements during Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR Therapy: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rimini

    Full Text Available Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is a psychotherapeutic treatment resolving emotional distress caused by traumatic events. With EMDR, information processing is facilitated by eye movements (EM during the recall of a traumatic memory (RECALL. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ocular movements of EMDR on the hemodynamics of the prefrontal cortex (PFC.Two groups were recruited: a trial group (wEM received a complete EMDR treatment, whereas a control group (woEM received a therapy without EM. PFC hemodynamics was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy during RECALL and during focusing on the worst image of the trauma (pre-RECALL. The parameters of oxy- (oxy-Hb, and deoxy-hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb were acquired and analyzed in time domain, by calculating the slope within pre-RECALL and RECALL periods, and in the frequency domain, by calculating the mean power of oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb in the very-low frequency (VLF, 20-40 mHz and low frequency (LF, 40-140 mHz bandwidths. We compared pre-RECALL with RECALL periods within subjects, and pre-RECALL and RECALL parameters of wEM with the corresponding of woEM.An effect of group on mean slope of oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb in pre-RECALL and oxy-Hb in RECALL periods was observed. wEM showed a lower percentage of positive angular coefficients during pre-RECALL with respect to RECALL, on the opposite of woEM. In the frequency domain, wEM had significant difference in oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb LF of left hemisphere, whereas woEM showed no difference.We observed the effect of EM on PFC oxygenation during EMDR, since wEM subjects showed a mean increase of oxy-Hb during RECALL and a decrease during pre-RECALL, as opposed to woEM. Frequency analysis evidenced a reduction of activity of sympathetic nervous system in wEM group during pre-RECALL. Our outcomes revealed a different hemodynamics induced by eye movements in wEM with respect to woEM group.

  16. Effect of Ocular Movements during Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimini, Daniele; Molinari, Filippo; Liboni, William; Balbo, Marina; Darò, Roberta; Viotti, Erika; Fernandez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapeutic treatment resolving emotional distress caused by traumatic events. With EMDR, information processing is facilitated by eye movements (EM) during the recall of a traumatic memory (RECALL). The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ocular movements of EMDR on the hemodynamics of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Two groups were recruited: a trial group (wEM) received a complete EMDR treatment, whereas a control group (woEM) received a therapy without EM. PFC hemodynamics was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy during RECALL and during focusing on the worst image of the trauma (pre-RECALL). The parameters of oxy- (oxy-Hb), and deoxy-hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) were acquired and analyzed in time domain, by calculating the slope within pre-RECALL and RECALL periods, and in the frequency domain, by calculating the mean power of oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb in the very-low frequency (VLF, 20-40 mHz) and low frequency (LF, 40-140 mHz) bandwidths. We compared pre-RECALL with RECALL periods within subjects, and pre-RECALL and RECALL parameters of wEM with the corresponding of woEM. An effect of group on mean slope of oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb in pre-RECALL and oxy-Hb in RECALL periods was observed. wEM showed a lower percentage of positive angular coefficients during pre-RECALL with respect to RECALL, on the opposite of woEM. In the frequency domain, wEM had significant difference in oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb LF of left hemisphere, whereas woEM showed no difference. We observed the effect of EM on PFC oxygenation during EMDR, since wEM subjects showed a mean increase of oxy-Hb during RECALL and a decrease during pre-RECALL, as opposed to woEM. Frequency analysis evidenced a reduction of activity of sympathetic nervous system in wEM group during pre-RECALL. Our outcomes revealed a different hemodynamics induced by eye movements in wEM with respect to woEM group.

  17. Disposal of defense spent fuel and HLW from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermold, L.F.; Loo, H.H.; Klingler, R.D.; Herzog, J.D.; Knecht, D.A.

    1992-12-01

    Acid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) resulting from fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage ate the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE announced that spent fuel would no longer be reprocessed to recover enriched uranium and called for a shutdown of the reprocessing facilities at the ICPP. A new Spent Fuel and HLW Technology Development program was subsequently initiated to develop technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels and HLW for disposal, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The Program elements include Systems Analysis, Graphite Fuel Disposal, Other Spent Fuel Disposal, Sodium-Bearing Liquid Waste Processing, Calcine Immobilization, and Metal Recycle/Waste Minimization. This paper presents an overview of the ICPP radioactive wastes and current spent fuels, with an emphasis on the description of HLW and spent fuels requiring repository disposal.

  18. The spent fuel and waste management concept of German nuclear power plants. Konzept der Entsorgung deutscher Kernkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, H. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorwerkstoffe Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorwerkstoffe und Brennelemente)

    1992-07-01

    The spent fuel and waste management concept of German nuclear power plants comprises the basic legal preconditions and responsibilities, the spent fuel and radioactive waste arisings, their reprocessing and direct disposal, and the status of the Konrad, Gorleben and Morsleben repositories. Spent fuel and waste arisings also include the contaminated and activated components originating from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. In order to close the nuclear fuel cycle, the German electricity utilities have entered into reprocessing contracts with firms in France and the United Kingdom, thereby ensuring spent fuel management up to the year 2005. All German final storage concepts provide for the emplacement of all waste, i.e. waste generating only negligible amounts of heat, in underground geologic formations. (orig.).

  19. Considering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

  20. Return of vitrified residues from France to Japan; Retour de France au Japon des residus vitrifies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    For more than 15 years now, COGEMA facilities in La Hague have received, stored and reprocessed spent fuel from France, Japan and other countries: Germany, Switzerland, Belgium and the Netherlands. According to contracts, COGEMA ensures the reprocessing service, consisting in separating the recyclable products (uranium and plutonium) from the wastes which are then duly conditioned and returned to their owners for final disposal. The transportation aspects of returning the reprocessed residues to Japan is presented. (K.A.)

  1. Efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of specific phobias: Four single-case studies on dental phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jongh, A; van den Oord, H J M; ten Broeke, E

    2002-12-01

    A series of single-case experiments was used to evaluate the application of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) to traumatically induced dental phobia. Following two to three sessions of EMDR treatment, three of the four patients demonstrated substantially reduced self-reported and observer-rated anxiety, reduced credibility of dysfunctional beliefs concerning dental treatment, and significant behavior changes. These gains were maintained at six weeks follow-up. In all four cases, the clinical diagnosis present at pretreatment was not present at posttreatment at a clinical level. All patients actually underwent the dental treatment they feared most within three weeks following EMDR treatment. The findings support the notion that EMDR can be an effective treatment alternative for phobic conditions with a trauma-related etiology. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A controlled comparison of the effectiveness and efficiency of two psychological therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs. emotional freedom techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Power, Kevin; Brown, Keith; McGoldrick, Theresa; Begum, Millia; Young, Jenny; Loughran, Paul; Chouliara, Zoë; Adams, Sally

    2011-06-01

    The present study reports on the first ever controlled comparison between eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and emotional freedom techniques (EFT) for posttraumatic stress disorder. A total of 46 participants were randomized to either EMDR (n = 23) or EFT (n = 23). The participants were assessed at baseline and then reassessed after an 8-week waiting period. Two further blind assessments were conducted at posttreatment and 3-months follow-up. Overall, the results indicated that both interventions produced significant therapeutic gains at posttreatment and follow-up in an equal number of sessions. Similar treatment effect sizes were observed in both treatment groups. Regarding clinical significant changes, a slightly higher proportion of patients in the EMDR group produced substantial clinical changes compared with the EFT group. Given the speculative nature of the theoretical basis of EFT, a dismantling study on the active ingredients of EFT should be subject to future research.

  3. Insight into “Changing-look” AGN Mrk 1018 from the Fe Kα Line: The Reprocessing Gas Has Yet to Fully Respond to the Fading of the AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Yaqoob, Tahir; Kilgard, Roy

    2017-05-01

    Mrk 1018 is a “changing-look” active galactic nucleus (AGN) whose optical spectrum transitioned from a Type 1.9 to a Type 1 between 1979 and 1984, and then back to a Type 1.9 in 2015. This latest transition was accompanied by a decrease in X-ray flux. We analyze the Chandra spectra from 2010 and 2016 and NuSTAR spectra from 2016, with a careful treatment of pileup in the Chandra spectrum from 2010, and self-consistently model absorption, reflection, and Fe Kα line emission in the X-ray spectra from 2016. We demonstrate that while the 2-10 keV X-ray flux decreased by an order of magnitude (1.46{}-0.13+0.10× {10}-11-{1.31}-0.04+0.09× {10}-12 erg s-1 cm-2), the Fe Kα equivalent width (EW) increased from {0.18}-0.12+0.17 to {0.61}-0.25+0.27 keV due to a depressed AGN continuum. We jointly fit the Chandra and NuSTAR spectra from 2016 using the physically motivated MYTorus model, and find that the torus orientation is consistent with a face-on geometry and that lines of sight intersecting the torus are ruled out. While we measure no line-of-sight absorption, we do measure a column density of {N}{{H}}={5.38}-4.0+14× {10}22 cm-2 for gas out of the line of sight that reprocesses the X-ray emission. We find a high relative normalization between the Compton-scattered emission and transmitted continuum, which is indicative of time lags between the primary X-ray source and reprocessing gas. We predict that the Fe Kα line will respond to the decrease in AGN flux, which would manifest as a decrease in the Fe Kα EW.

  4. Toward mechanistic understanding of nuclear reprocessing chemistries by quantifying lanthanide solvent extraction kinetics via microfluidics with constant interfacial area and rapid mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kevin P; Pompano, Rebecca R; Li, Liang; Gelis, Artem V; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2011-10-05

    The closing of the nuclear fuel cycle is an unsolved problem of great importance. Separating radionuclides produced in a nuclear reactor is useful both for the storage of nuclear waste and for recycling of nuclear fuel. These separations can be performed by designing appropriate chelation chemistries and liquid-liquid extraction schemes, such as in the TALSPEAK process (Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes). However, there are no approved methods for the industrial scale reprocessing of civilian nuclear fuel in the United States. One bottleneck in the design of next-generation solvent extraction-based nuclear fuel reprocessing schemes is a lack of interfacial mass transfer rate constants obtained under well-controlled conditions for lanthanide and actinide ligand complexes; such rate constants are a prerequisite for mechanistic understanding of the extraction chemistries involved and are of great assistance in the design of new chemistries. In addition, rate constants obtained under conditions of known interfacial area have immediate, practical utility in models required for the scaling-up of laboratory-scale demonstrations to industrial-scale solutions. Existing experimental techniques for determining these rate constants suffer from two key drawbacks: either slow mixing or unknown interfacial area. The volume of waste produced by traditional methods is an additional, practical concern in experiments involving radioactive elements, both from disposal cost and experimenter safety standpoints. In this paper, we test a plug-based microfluidic system that uses flowing plugs (droplets) in microfluidic channels to determine absolute interfacial mass transfer rate constants under conditions of both rapid mixing and controlled interfacial area. We utilize this system to determine, for the first time, the rate constants for interfacial transfer of all lanthanides, minus promethium, plus yttrium, under TALSPEAK

  5. Technological study of electrochemical uranium fuel reprocessing in fused chloride bath; Estudo tecnologico do reprocessamento eletroquimico de combustiveis de uranio em meio de cloretos fundidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Damaris

    2002-07-01

    This study is applied to metallic fuels recycling, concerning advanced reactor concept, which was proposed and tested in LMR type reactors. Conditions for electrochemical non-irradiated uranium fuel reprocessing in fused chloride bath in laboratory scale were established. Experimental procedures and parameters for dehydration treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic mixture and for electrochemical study of U{sup 3+}/U system in LiCl-KCl were developed and optimized. In the voltammetric studies many working electrodes were tested. As auxiliary electrodes, graphite and stainless steels crucibles were verified, with no significant impurities inclusions in the system. Ag/AgCl in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with 1 w% in AgCl were used as reference electrode. The experimental set up developed for electrolyte treatment as well as for the study of the system U{sup 3+}/U in LiCl-KCl showed to be adequate and efficient. Thermogravimetric Techniques, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and cyclic voltametry showed an efficient dehydration method by using HCl gas and than argon flux for 12 h. Scanning Electron Microscopy, with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry and DC Arc Emission Spectrometry detected the presence of uranium in the cadmium phase. X-ray Diffraction and also Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry and DC Arc Emission Spectrometry were used for uranium detection in the salt phase. The obtained results for the system U{sup 3+}/U in LiCl-KCl showed the viability of the electrochemical reprocessing process based on the IFR advanced fuel cycle. (author)

  6. Investigation report on the facilities and disposed materials related to the abolished Tokai refinement plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Present situations were surveyed on the slay accumulation site, raw material ore, and demolished facilities. The survey revealed demolished materials buried in a restricted area of the Institute yard, and the result of investigation was published together with further investigation plan. As a result of the investigation, the area of buried slag and ore was pinpointed. At the same time, the situation of disposal of non-radioactive equipment materials and burnt ash generated from the fuel reprocessing plant was investigated. It was confirmed then that the waste storage did not effect the neighboring environment. (H. Baba)

  7. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Lorenzo, D.S.; Vejvoda, E.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (US); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)

    1993-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site`s defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site`s N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX`s physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail.

  8. Plant Cytokinesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smertenko, Andrei; Assaad, Farhah; Baluška, František; Bezanilla, Magdalena; Buschmann, Henrik; Drakakaki, Georgia; Hauser, Marie Theres; Janson, Marcel; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu; Moore, Ian; Müller, Sabine; Murata, Takashi; Otegui, Marisa S.; Panteris, Emmanuel; Rasmussen, Carolyn; Schmit, Anne Catherine; Šamaj, Jozef; Samuels, Lacey; Staehelin, L.A.; Damme, Van Daniel; Wasteneys, Geoffrey; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Plant cytokinesis is orchestrated by a specialized structure, the phragmoplast. The phragmoplast first occurred in representatives of Charophyte algae and then became the main division apparatus in land plants. Major cellular activities, including cytoskeletal dynamics, vesicle trafficking,

  9. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  10. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  11. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  12. Poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenga, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    A large number of plants can cause adverse effects when ingested by animals or people. Plant toxicity is due to a wide diversity of chemical toxins that include alkaloids, glycosides, proteins and amino acids. There are several notable toxic plants for which a specific chemical responsible for toxicity has not been determined. There are many examples of species differences in terms of their sensitivity to intoxication from plants. Pets, such as dogs and cats, and people, especially children, are frequently exposed to the same toxic plants due to their shared environments. On the other hand, livestock are exposed to toxic plants that are rarely involved in human intoxications due to the unique environments in which they are kept. Fortunately, adverse effects often do not occur or are generally mild following most toxic plant ingestions and no therapeutic intervention is necessary. However, some plants are extremely toxic and ingestion of small amounts can cause rapid death. The diagnosis of plant intoxication can be challenging, especially in veterinary medicine where a history of exposure to a toxic plant is often lacking. Analytical tests are available to detect some plant toxins, although their diagnostic utility is often limited by test availability and timeliness of results. With a few notable exceptions, antidotes for plant toxins are not available. However, general supportive and symptomatic care often is sufficient to successfully treat a symptomatic patient.

  13. Autoluminescent plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krichevsky

    Full Text Available Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstrates that complex metabolic pathways of prokaryotes can be reconstructed and function in plant chloroplasts and that transplastomic plants can emit light that is visible by naked eye.

  14. Autoluminescent plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichevsky, Alexander; Meyers, Benjamin; Vainstein, Alexander; Maliga, Pal; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2010-11-12

    Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstrates that complex metabolic pathways of prokaryotes can be reconstructed and function in plant chloroplasts and that transplastomic plants can emit light that is visible by naked eye.

  15. Experience gained with the Synroc demonstration plant at ANSTO and its relevance to plutonium immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jostsons, A.; Ridal, A.; Mercer, D.J.; Vance, E.R.L. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1996-05-01

    The Synroc Demonstration Plant (SDP) was designed and constructed at Lucas Heights to demonstrate the feasibility of Synroc production on a commercial scale (10 kg/hr) with simulated Purex liquid HLW. Since commissioning of the SDP in 1987, over 6000 kg of Synroc has been fabricated with a range of feeds and waste loadings. The SDP utilises uniaxial hot-pressing to consolidate Synroc. Pressureless sintering and hot-isostatic pressing have also been studied at smaller scales. The results of this extensive process development have been incorporated in a conceptual design for a radioactive plant to condition HLW from a reprocessing plant with a capacity to treat 800 tpa of spent LWR fuel. Synroic containing TRU, including Pu, and fission products has been fabricated and characterised in a glove-box facility and hot cells, respectively. The extensive experience in processing of Synroc over the past 15 years is summarised and its relevance to immobilization of surplus plutonium is discussed.

  16. Electronic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-11-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants' "circuitry" has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization.

  17. Nuclear safety in France after Fukushima - Critical analysis of complementary safety assessments (CSA) carried out on French nuclear installations after Fukushima; Surete nucleaire en France post-Fukushima: Analyse critique des evaluations complementaires de surete (ECS) menees sur les installations nucleaires francaises apres Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhijani, Arjun [Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, 6935 Laurel Avenue, Suite 201 Takoma Park, MD 20912-4413 (United States); Marignac, Yves [World Information Service on Energy - WISE, 31-33 rue de la Colonie, 75013 Paris (France)

    2012-02-15

    This report proposes a critical analysis of the approach carried out on the basis of the CSA (complementary safety assessment), from their specifications to the IRSN conclusions. It is notably based on the analysis performed by EDF on three nuclear sites (Gravelines, Civaux and Flamanville) which encompass the different levels of the nuclear power plants in France and the EPR project under construction, and on the analysis performed by Areva for La Hague reprocessing plants. Due to the short delay, only some sites and some problems have been considered. The CSA methodology is described. The EDF approach is discussed as well as the IRSN analysis of reports made by EDF, and then the different case studies. Beyond the conclusions of these reports, the authors highlight several major possible accidents which must be taken into account. They also outline that this CSA approach is a good starting point for the strengthening of nuclear safety

  18. Palladium behavior in the presence of irradiated diluent in the PUREX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sio, S. de; Vigier, N. [AREVA NC/DOR/RDP, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Klur, I. [AREVA NC/DT/EP/P, La Hague (France); Tison, E. [AREVA NC/DT/EP/EL, La Hague (France); Bouyer, C.; Eysseric, C. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, /DEN/DRCP, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Lebeau, D.; Goutelard, F. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, /DEN/DPC, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sejourne, L. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, /DEN/DMN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-07-01

    AREVA La Hague plants UP3 and UP2-800 started operations to reprocess spent nuclear fuel in 1990 and 1994 respectively. Aging equipment in these plants is a cause for concern as it could lead to process dysfunctions or production rate decrease. A few years ago, several columns had to be replaced in UP3-T4 plutonium purification facility because of clogging. Analyses revealed that TPH degradation products could be responsible for precipitating palladium compounds. 1 M NaOH solutions proved to be efficient to dissolve most of the precipitate. Therefore, several columns in both UP3 and UP2-800 are from now on washed periodically with 1 M NaOH solutions to avoid further clogging and to dissolve current precipitates. (authors)

  19. The cobalt radioactive isotopes in environment; Les isotopes radioactifs du cobalt dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    For the year 1993 the total activity released in cobalt is 69 GBq for the whole of nuclear power plants. The part of activity in cobalt for La Hague in 1993 is 8 GBq of {sup 58}Co and 2 GBq of {sup 60}Co. The radioactive isotopes released by nuclear power plants or the reprocessing plant of La Hague under liquid effluents are shared by half between {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co. The exposure to sealed sources is the most important risk for the cobalt. The risk of acute exposure can associate a local irradiation of several decades of grays inducing a radiological burns, deep burn to treat in surgery by resection or graft even amputation. A global irradiation of organism for several grays induces an acute irradiation syndrome, often serious. At long term the stochastic effects are represented by leukemia and radio-induced cancers. The increase of probability of their occurrence is 1% by sievert. We must remind that the natural spontaneous probability is 25%. (N.C.)

  20. Methodological approach of the North-Cotentin radioecological group in charge of the evaluation of doses and risks due to the radiations exposure of the North-Cotentin population; Approche methodologique du groupe radioecologie nord-cotentin charge de l'evaluation des doses et des risques dus aux expositions aux rayonnements de la population du nord-contentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugierr, A. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), 92 (France)

    1999-07-01

    The group has evaluated and validated the list and quantities of radioelements release(source term) for each of the four nuclear installations of the North Cotentin since their beginning of operation (the reprocessing plant of Cogema la Hague, the Flamanville nuclear power plant, the Manche storage plant and the arsenal of the Cherbourg harbour). The gathering of data relative to radionuclides in environment of the north Cotentin has allowed from one hand the publication of samples inventory and types of radioactivity measurements and in an other hand an analysis of the results. The intercomparison of transfer models in environment and the confrontation of their results with the measures have been used for the doses calculations to the references groups and to the children troop from the Beaumont-Hague district. Finally, the elements necessary to the doses and risks estimation have been itemized and validated. One of the questions that stands out of these works is this one of the aims of the surveillance and measurements in environment according to the different organisms that realize them. It is important to make the distinction between the routine measurements ( to be sure of the correct operation of the facility and that the authorized release limits are well respected) and the measurements that allow to reconstitute the dose to population groups. (N.C.)

  1. Method for reprocessing and recycling of aqueous rinsing liquids from car painting with water-based paints in automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Walter; Dinglreiter, Udo

    2011-08-01

    In the paint processes of modern car plants the paint to be applied on the car bodies change after every few numbers. In order to avoid intermixtures of different lacquers the application systems has to be cleaned before every change by means of a rinsing liquid. Water based lacquers require water based cleaning agents. For these rinsing waters a new recycling process based on an evaporation process, a fractionated condensation and an after treatment of the condensates is described. The compatibility of the recycled system for lacquers is investigated. After a test with ten recycling loops no accumulation of harmful substances occurs. In comparison to original agents the recycled rinsing liquids show comparable or better cleaning abilities. The comparison of the energy consumption and the disposal of CO2 and of volatile organic compounds between the application of fresh rinsing liquid with disposal after usage and recycled rinsing liquid show major advantages of the recycling process.

  2. A hierarchical causal modeling for large industrial plants supervision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziopa, P.; Leyval, L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement; Gentil, S. [ENSIEG, 38 -Saint-Martin-d`Heres (France)

    1994-12-31

    A supervision system has to analyse the process current state and the way it will evolve after a modification of the inputs or disturbance. It is proposed to base this analysis on a hierarchy of models, witch differ by the number of involved variables and the abstraction level used to describe their temporal evolution. In a first step, special attention is paid to causal models building, from the most abstract one. Once the hierarchy of models has been build, the most detailed model parameters are estimated. Several models of different abstraction levels can be used for on line prediction. These methods have been applied to a nuclear reprocessing plant. The abstraction level could be chosen on line by the operator. Moreover when an abnormal process behaviour is detected a more detailed model is automatically triggered in order to focus the operator attention on the suspected subsystem. (authors). 11 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Criticality and safeguards at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodman, G.P.; Wilson, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Reprocessing of high enriched irradiated reactor fuel at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) presents significant potential problems to the Criticality Safety (CS) and Safeguards and Security (S and S) Sections. Two major interactions between these sections occurs when irradiated fuel is stored and fuel is dissolved. S and S is assigned the responsibility of maintaining a centralized records and reporting system which provides detailed, timely knowledge of the location, quantity and measurement uncertainties associated with accountable nuclear material, including uranium and plutonium. The Criticality Safety Section uses this information in providing criticality safety evaluations with support analyses, inspection, field surveillance and audits to ensure criticality safety implementation. The interactions of these sections has minimized operational constraints and maximized criticality safeguards controls.

  4. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  5. Quality Assurance in Nuclear Power Plants; La garantia de calidad en la Centrales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamarron Casinello, J. M. (CC.AA. Almaraz-Trillo); Gasca Pinilla, R. (Asociacion Nuclear Asco-Vandellos II); Sala Candela, A. (IBERDROLA); Valle Pena (NUCLENOR); Ruiz Rodriguez, C. (UNION FENOSA)

    2000-07-01

    In 1970, 10CFR50 Appendix B. Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants & Fuel Reprocessing Plants, was approved in USA. This is based on 18 criteria and requires American nuclear power plants to establish as quickly as possible a Quality Assurance Program (QAP) specifying how to comply with the criteria contained in this Appendix. The Ministry of Industry required that this standard be observed in Spanish plants. In The first-generation plants (Jose Cabrera, Santa Maria de Garona and Vandellos 1), which were built before this new standard was developed, the concept of Quality Assurance has only been applied to the operating phase, whereas in second-generation plants (Almaraz, Asco3 and Cofrentes) and third-generation plants (Vandellos 2 and Trillo), the concept was applied from the very beginning of the project: design phases, construction and finally plant operation. In 1979, the IAEA publihed practical code 50-C-QA as an international reference document. It contains 13 criteria that coincide with and complement those established in Appendex B of 10CFR50. As a result, the nuclear power plants in all neighboring countries will be enforcing similar Quality Assurance criteria. (Author)

  6. Reprocessing of seismic reflection data using a macro velocity model independent imaging method - New insight into the crustal structure of northern Germany from Common Reflection Surface stack (CRS) sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, M.; Baykulov, M.; Duemmong, S.; Brink, H. J.; Gajewski, D.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper we present new seismic images of the North German Basin that resulted from intensive reprocessing of industrial seismic reflection data. The data sets were already acquired and processed in the early 80ies. The main focus was set on the sedimentary fill of the basin. During reprocessing the focus was moved to lower crustal structures in order to investigate the influence of old deep rooted processes on the evolution of the Central European Basin System (CEBS). During reprocessing the Common Reflection Surface (CRS) stack method was applied. This method is an entirely data-oriented approach which is macro velocity model independent (Mueller et al., 1998; Mueller, 1998). It has already been successfully applied to reflection data from sedimentary basins (Trappe et al., 2001; Menyoli, 2004), but yet it was not used to investigate the crystalline crust and deeper structures. In the reprocessed time sections the image quality of the lower and middle crust as well as the visibility of the Moho could be significantly improved. The latter appears as a flat reflection band contrary to former results where an east dipping Moho was observed. The flat Moho is in conflict with the currently supported extension model of the Glueckstadt Graben. However, the flat Moho topography would be in good agreement with other observations from the CEBS, e.g. DEKORP profiles (DEKORP-BASIN Research Group, 1999) or the Dniepr-Donets basin, Ukraine (Maystrenko et al., 2003). Furthermore, multiples could be succesfully suppressed using a macro velocity model as apriori information during iterative CRS stack procedure. The presented real data examples show that the CRS stack method provides a promising tool for imaging crustal and subcrustal features as well as for multiple suppression.

  7. Autoluminescent Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Krichevsky, Alexander; Meyers, Benjamin; Vainstein, Alexander; Maliga, Pal; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstra...

  8. Internet-delivered eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (iEMDR: an open trial [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/8l

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Spence

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT can reduce symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. This study examined the efficacy of an internet-delivered treatment protocol that combined iCBT and internet-delivered eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (iEMDR, in an uncontrolled trial. Eleven of the 15 participants completed post-treatment questionnaires. Large effect sizes were found from pre-treatment to 3-month follow-up (d = 1.03 – 1.61 on clinician-assessed and self-reported measures of PTSD, anxiety and distress, with moderate effect sizes (d = 0.59 – 0.70 found on measures of depression and disability. At post-treatment, 55% of the participants no longer met criteria for PTSD and this was sustained at follow-up. Symptom worsening occurred in 3 of 15 (20% of the sample from pre- to post-treatment; however, these participants reported overall symptom improvement by follow-up. Future research directions for iEMDR are discussed.

  9. Comparative Case Study of Diffusion of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Two Clinical Settings: Empirically Supported Treatment Status Is Not Enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Joan M; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth comparative case study was conducted of two attempts at diffusion of an empirically supported, but controversial, psychotherapy: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). One Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) treatment setting in which there was substantial uptake was compared with a second VA setting in which it was not adopted. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 mental health clinicians at the first site, and 19 at the second. Critical selling points for EMDR were a highly regarded champion, the observability of effects with patients, and personally experiencing its effects during a role training session. Compatibility with existing psychotherapist practices and values further allowed the therapy to become embedded in the organizational culture. At the second site, a sense that EMDR was not theoretically coherent or compelling overwhelmed other considerations, including its empirical status. Comparative studies contrasting settings in which innovative therapies are implemented versus those in which they were rejected may aid in refining theories of and strategies for dissemination.

  10. AN X-RAY SPECTRAL MODEL OF REPROCESSING BY SMOOTH AND CLUMPY MOLECULAR TORI IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE MONACO FRAMEWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furui, Shun’ya; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ohno, Masanori; Hayashi, Kazuma [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Odaka, Hirokazu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kawaguchi, Toshihiro, E-mail: fukazawa@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Sapporo Medical University, S1W17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan)

    2016-02-20

    We construct an X-ray spectral model of reprocessing by a torus in an active galactic nucleus (AGN) with the Monte Carlo simulation framework MONACO. Two torus geometries of smooth and clumpy cases are considered and compared. In order to reproduce a Compton shoulder accurately, MONACO includes not only free electron scattering but also bound electron scattering. Raman and Rayleigh scattering are also treated, and scattering cross sections dependent on chemical states of hydrogen and helium are included. Doppler broadening by turbulence velocity can be implemented. Our model gives results consistent with other available models, such as MYTorus, except for differences due to different physical parameters and assumptions. We studied the dependence on torus parameters for a Compton shoulder, and found that a intensity ratio of a Compton shoulder to the line core mainly depends on column density, inclination angle, and metal abundance. For instance, an increase of metal abundance makes a Compton shoulder relatively weak. Also, the shape of a Compton shoulder depends on the column density. Furthermore, these dependences become different between smooth and clumpy cases. Then, we discuss the possibility of ASTRO-H/SXS spectroscopy of Compton shoulders in AGN reflection spectra.

  11. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety: A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staring, A B P; van den Berg, D P G; Cath, D C; Schoorl, M; Engelhard, I M; Korrelboom, C W

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to maintain low self-esteem; and (2) Competitive Memory Training (COMET), which aims to activate positive representations for enhancing self-esteem. A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was used with a crossover design. Group 1 received six sessions EMDR first and then six sessions COMET; group 2 vice versa. Assessments were made at baseline (T0), end of first treatment (T1), and end of second treatment (T2). Main outcome was self-esteem. We included 47 patients and performed Linear Mixed Models. COMET showed more improvements in self-esteem than EMDR: effect-sizes 1.25 versus 0.46 post-treatment. Unexpectedly, when EMDR was given first, subsequent effects of COMET were significantly reduced in comparison to COMET as the first intervention. For EMDR, sequence made no difference. Reductions in anxiety and depression were mediated by better self-esteem. COMET was associated with significantly greater improvements in self-esteem than EMDR in patients with anxiety disorders. EMDR treatment reduced the effectiveness of subsequent COMET. Improved self-esteem mediated reductions in anxiety and depression symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in a child and an adolescent with mild to borderline intellectual disability: A multiple baseline across subjects study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevissen, Liesbeth; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; de Jongh, Ad

    2017-12-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in persons with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) using a multiple baseline across subjects design. One child and one adolescent with MBID, who met diagnostic criteria for PTSD according to a PTSD clinical interview (i.e., ADIS-C PTSD section), adapted and validated for this target group, were offered four sessions of EMDR. PTSD symptoms were measured before, during and after EMDR, and at six weeks follow-up. For both participants, number of PTSD symptoms decreased in response to treatment and both no longer met PTSD criteria at post-treatment. This result was maintained at 6-week follow-up. The results of this study add further support to the notion that EMDR can be an effective treatment for PTSD in children and adolescents with MBID. Replication of this study in larger samples and using a randomized controlled design is warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults with intellectual disabilities: A case study review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, Sally; Karatzias, Thanos; Brown, Michael; Grieve, Alan; Paterson, Douglas; Walley, Robert

    2016-11-01

    People with intellectual disabilities may be at a greater risk for exposure to traumatic events and consequently develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an established treatment for PTSD in the general population, research on people with intellectual disabilities is limited. This review aims to critically appraise for the 1st time case studies published in this area, because no controlled investigations are available at present. An in-depth literature review was conducted, and 6 case studies were identified from peer-reviewed journals describing EMDR therapy for psychological trauma in 14 adults with a mild to severe intellectual disability. These case studies were reviewed in terms of methods of assessing PTSD and trauma histories and delivery of EMDR therapy in order to establish the usefulness and acceptability of this intervention for people with intellectual disabilities. All cases demonstrated improvement in symptoms following EMDR therapy, with around half of the cases stating no disturbance at posttreatment and at follow-up assessments. No adverse effects were reported, demonstrating that EMDR is well tolerated by people with intellectual disabilities. EMDR is a safe and acceptable intervention for people with intellectual disabilities, and there is now sufficient evidence to conduct a randomized control trial to establish its effectiveness for DSM-5 PTSD in this population group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in German Armed Forces Soldiers With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Under Routine Inpatient Care Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Kai; Eggert, Patrick; Lorenz, Sebastian; Herr, Kerstin; Willmund, Gerd; Zimmermann, Peter; Alliger-Horn, Christina

    2017-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the more commonly occurring mental disorders following potentially traumatizing events soldiers may encounter when deployed abroad. One of the first-line recommended treatment options is eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The number of studies assessing the effectiveness of EMDR in German soldiers under routine conditions is currently almost nil. A retrospective, quasi-experimental effectiveness study on EMDR in an inpatient setting is presented using a prepost design. The study compares symptom reduction in soldiers (N = 78) with a wait-list (N = 18). Effect sizes of EMDR were measured for PTSD, symptoms of depression, and general mental health. Effect size for EMDR treatment of PTSD was d = 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51 to 1.36, for symptoms of depression d = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.31 to 1.36, and for general psychiatric symptoms d = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.17 to 1.21. The effects resulting from EMDR treatment were somewhat weaker than those reported in comparable studies in civilians. EMDR therapy is an effective treatment to reduce symptoms of PTSD and depression. However, in the military context it needs to be complemented by treatment options that specifically address further conditions perpetuating the disorders. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult posttraumatic stress disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Zhang, Guiqing; Hu, Min; Liang, Xia

    2015-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a relatively common mental disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of ∼5.7%. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are the most often studied and most effective psychotherapies for PTSD. However, evidence is inadequate to conclude which treatment is superior. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to confirm the effectiveness of EMDR compared to CBT for adult PTSD. We searched Medline, PubMed, Ebsco, Proquest, and Cochrane (1989-2013) to identify relevant randomized control trials comparing EMDR and CBT for PTSD. We included 11 studies (N = 424). Although all the studies had methodological limitations, meta-analyses for total PTSD scores revealed that EMDR was slightly superior to CBT. Cumulative meta-analysis confirmed this and a meta-analysis for subscale scores of PTSD symptoms indicated that EMDR was better for decreased intrusion and arousal severity compared to CBT. Avoidance was not significantly different between groups. EMDR may be more suitable than CBT for PTSD patients with prominent intrusion or arousal symptoms. However, the limited number and poor quality of the original studies included suggest caution when drawing final conclusions.

  16. Grey matter density changes of structures involved in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after recovery following Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukezzi, Sarah; El Khoury-Malhame, Myriam; Auzias, Guillaume; Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Rousseau, Pierre-François; Richard, Emmanuel; Zendjidjian, Xavier; Roques, Jacques; Castelli, Nathalie; Correard, Nadia; Guyon, Valérie; Gellato, Caroline; Samuelian, Jean-Claude; Cancel, Aida; Comte, Magali; Latinus, Marianne; Guedj, Eric; Khalfa, Stéphanie

    2017-08-30

    Recovery of stress-induced structural alterations in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to determine whether symptoms improvement is associated with grey matter (GM) density changes of brain structures involved in PTSD. Two groups of PTSD patients were involved in this study. The first group was treated with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and recovered from their symptoms (recovery group) (n = 11); Patients were scanned prior to therapy (T1), one week (T2) and five months after the end of therapy (T3). The second group included patients which followed a supportive therapy and remained symptomatic (wait-list group) (n = 7). They were scanned at three time-steps mimicking the same inter-scan intervals. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to characterize GM density evolution. GM density values showed a significant group-by-time interaction effect between T1 and T3 in prefrontal cortex areas. These interaction effects were driven by a GM density increase in the recovery group with respect to the wait-list group. Symptoms removal goes hand-in-hand with GM density enhancement of structures involved in emotional regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Treating Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Relaxation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletto, Sara; Borghi, Martina; Bertino, Gabriella; Oliva, Francesco; Cavallo, Marco; Hofmann, Arne; Zennaro, Alessandro; Malucchi, Simona; Ostacoli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease that imposes a significant emotional burden with heavy psychosocial consequences. Several studies have investigated the association between MS and mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, and recently researchers have focused also on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This is the first study that investigates the usefulness of proposing a treatment for PTSD to patients with MS. A randomized controlled trial with patients with MS diagnosed with PTSD comparing Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR; n = 20) and Relaxation Therapy (RT; n = 22). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants that no longer meet PTSD diagnosis as measured with Clinician Administered PTSD Scale 6-months after the treatment. The majority of patients were able to overcome their PTSD diagnosis after only 10 therapy sessions. EMDR treatment appears to be more effective than RT in reducing the proportion of patients with MS suffering from PTSD. Both treatments are effective in reducing PTSD severity, anxiety and depression symptoms, and to improve Quality of Life. Although our results can only be considered preliminary, this study suggests that it is essential that PTSD symptoms are detected and that brief and cost-effective interventions to reduce PTSD and associated psychological symptoms are offered to patients, in order to help them to reduce the psychological burden associated with their neurological condition. NCT01743664, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01743664.

  18. Efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on the phantom limb pain of patients with amputations within a 24-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostaminejad, Akbar; Behnammoghadam, Mohammad; Rostaminejad, Marzieh; Behnammoghadam, Zargham; Bashti, Somaye

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on the phantom limb pain (PLP) of patients with amputations within a 24-month follow-up. This study was a randomized-controlled trial. A total of 60 patients with amputations were selected by a purposive sampling and patients were divided randomly into two experimental and control groups. Samples were assigned through randomized allocation. EMDR therapy was administered individually to the experimental group participants in 12 one-hour sessions over a 1-month period In each session, the patient completed the Subjective Units of Distress Scale and a pain-rating scale before and after the intervention. Follow-up measures were obtained 24 months later for the experimental group. The participants in the control group were measured on the two scales at an initial session and again after 1- and 24-month follow-up. The mean PLP decreased in the experimental group between the first and last sessions and remained so at a 24-month follow-up. No decrease occurred for the control group over the 1- and 24-month period. The differences were statistically significant (PEMDR therapy proved to be a successful treatment for PLP. Because of its efficacy and the fact that the positive effects were maintained at the 24-month follow-up, this therapy is recommended for the treatment of PLP.

  19. The role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in medicine: addressing the psychological and physical symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Francine

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of research shows that adverse life experiences contribute to both psychological and biomedical pathology. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an empirically validated treatment for trauma, including such negative life experiences as commonly present in medical practice. The positive therapeutic outcomes rapidly achieved without homework or detailed description of the disturbing event offer the medical community an efficient treatment approach with a wide range of applications. All randomized studies and significant clinical reports related to EMDR therapy for treating the experiential basis of both psychological and somatic disorders are reviewed. Also reviewed are the recent studies evaluating the eye movement component of the therapy, which has been posited to contribute to the rapid improvement attributable to EMDR treatment. Twenty-four randomized controlled trials support the positive effects of EMDR therapy in the treatment of emotional trauma and other adverse life experiences relevant to clinical practice. Seven of 10 studies reported EMDR therapy to be more rapid and/or more effective than trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. Twelve randomized studies of the eye movement component noted rapid decreases in negative emotions and/or vividness of disturbing images, with an additional 8 reporting a variety of other memory effects. Numerous other evaluations document that EMDR therapy provides relief from a variety of somatic complaints. EMDR therapy provides physicians and other clinicians with an efficient approach to address psychological and physiologic symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. Clinicians should therefore evaluate patients for experiential contributors to clinical manifestations.

  20. Brainspotting – the efficacy of a new therapy approach for the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in comparison to Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hildebrand

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims at determining the efficacy of the new therapy approach Brainspotting (BSP in comparison to the established Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR approach for the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Method: The sample consisted of 76 adult seeking professional help after they have been affected by a traumatic event. Clients were either treated with three 60-minute sessions of EMDR (n=23 or BSP (n=53 according to a standard protocol. Primary outcomes assessed were self-reports of the severity of PTSD symptoms. Secondary outcomes included self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Assessments were conducted at pretreatment, posttreatment and 6 month after the treatment. Results: Participants in both conditions showed significant reductions in PTSD symptoms. Effect sizes (Cohen’s d from baseline to posttreatment concerning PTSD related symptoms were between 1.19 - 1.76 for clients treated with EMDR and 0.74 - 1.04 for clients treated with BSP. Conclusion: Our results indicate that Brainspotting seems to be an effective alternative therapeutic approach for clients who experienced a traumatic event and/or with PTSD.

  1. Comparative Case Study of Diffusion of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Two Clinical Settings: Empirically Supported Treatment Status Is Not Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Joan M.; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C.

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth comparative case study was conducted of two attempts at diffusion of an empirically supported, but controversial, psychotherapy: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). One Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) treatment setting in which there was substantial uptake was compared with a second VA setting in which it was not adopted. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 mental health clinicians at the first site, and 19 at the second. Critical selling points for EMDR were a highly regarded champion, the observability of effects with patients, and personally experiencing its effects during a role training session. Compatibility with existing psychotherapist practices and values further allowed the therapy to become embedded in the organizational culture. At the second site, a sense that EMDR was not theoretically coherent or compelling overwhelmed other considerations, including its empirical status. Comparative studies contrasting settings in which innovative therapies are implemented versus those in which they were rejected may aid in refining theories of and strategies for dissemination. PMID:25360060

  2. Treating Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in patients with Multiple Sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Relaxation Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eCarletto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating autoimmune disease that imposes a significant emotional burden with heavy psychosocial consequences. Several studies have investigated the association between MS and mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, and recently researchers have focused also on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. This is the first study that investigates the usefulness of proposing a treatment for PTSD to patients with MS. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with patients with MS diagnosed with PTSD comparing Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR; n = 20 and Relaxation Therapy (RT; n = 22. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants that no longer meet PTSD diagnosis as measured with Clinician Administered PTSD Scale six-months after the treatment.Results: The majority of patients were able to overcome their PTSD diagnosis after only 10 therapy sessions. EMDR treatment appears to be more effective than RT in reducing the proportion of patients with MS suffering from PTSD. Both treatments are effective in reducing PTSD severity, anxiety symptoms and to improve Quality of Life (QoL. Conclusions: Although our results can only be considered preliminary, this study suggests that it is essential that PTSD symptoms are detected and that brief and cost-effective interventions to reduce PTSD and associated psychological symptoms are offered to patients, in order to help them to reduce the psychological burden associated with their neurological condition.Trail registration: NCT01743664, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01743664

  3. A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

    2007-03-01

    Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

  4. Development of a glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide and halide containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, S.K. [AWE, Aldermaston, Berkshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: shirley.fong@awe.co.uk; Donald, I.W.; Metcalfe, B.L. [AWE, Aldermaston, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-11

    Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not viable due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative wasteforms, including zeolites and direct vitrification in phosphate glasses, were therefore studied. However, the preferred option was to immobilize the waste in calcium phosphate ceramics, forming a number of stable mineral phases including chlorapatite, chloride-substituted fluorapatite and spodiosite. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and host powders are reacted in air at temperatures in the range of 700-800 deg. C. The ceramic products obtained by this process are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that require encapsulation in glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal. A suitable relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass was identified. Durability trials of both the ceramic powder and sintered glass-ceramic hybrid wasteform indicate that both the halides and actinide surrogate ions are satisfactorily immobilized.

  5. Theoretical study of trivalent element complexes for the nuclear waste reprocessing; Etude theorique de complexes d'elements f trivalents pour le retraitement des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, L

    2007-10-15

    Current energetic and environmental concerns have made the nuclear waste reprocessing to be a major issue in numerous countries. One avenue to treat nuclear spent fuel requires separating selectively trivalent minor actinides An (Am{sup 3+}, Cm{sup 3+}) from lanthanides Ln. In this regard, nitrogen extractants are under study. Their selectivity toward actinides is still unclear, but could be the result of enhanced covalency effects with trivalent minor actinides with respect to lanthanides (III). In this thesis, we have performed DFT calculations (Density Functional Theory) to study covalency effects within the actinide-ligand bond, following three main axes of research: advanced study of the nature of the chemical bonding, spectroscopic characterization of covalency, and preliminary tests of ab initio molecular dynamics for future calculations in solvent. Methods that are not regularly applied to trivalent actinides complexes have been used: topological methods, TDDFT, LDDFT, ab initio molecular dynamics. We have managed to show that the selectivity of the BTP ligand - the most effective An/Ln extractant to date - comes at least for a part from stronger covalency effects within the An-BTP bond with respect to the Ln-BTP bond, which has never been proved before. (author)

  6. Plant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  7. A.C.R.O. activity report 1999; A.C.R.O. rapport d'activite scientifique 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The work of this association is cut according to 6 axes. Three publications: radiological quality of marine and continental waters of the Normandy coast (synthesis 1997 and 1998); preliminary study of the iodine 129 distribution in the environment of the reprocessing plant of La Hague with terrestrial moss (Homalotecium sericeum); radiological surveillance of the aquatic environment of the nuclear facilities on the area of La Hague (1997 and 1998). The second axis concerns the radiation protection with a campaign of radon measures in a school of the Vire rural district (june 1999). The third part is devoted to the radioecology with the surveillance of radioactivity in the aquatic continental environment of nuclear facilities and the radioecological surveillance (1999) of the building site of Cogema la Hague in the area of tidal range of the Moulinets cove. The fourth part concerns the radioactive waste and environment, with the study of the distribution of the artificial gamma emitters radioisotopes between a cleanup facility and its surrounding environment (case of the water treatment plant of the Grand Caen district), with the radiological characterization of special industrial waste before put in dump, with a technical assistance for the evacuation of special industrial waste contaminated by radioelements of the family of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th. The fifth part concerns the nuclear metrology with a campaign of an annual intercomparison organised by O.P.R.I., implementation and optimization of the radon measurements ({sup 222}Rn) in air and improvement of existing analysis techniques (measure of gamma radioactivity and tritium in seawater, measure of {sup 129}I and interlaboratory cooperation. The last part is an information work with the North Cotentin radioecology group that included three members of the association in its ranks. (N.C.)

  8. Dental prevention among Turkish and Moroccan parents in The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, E.; Verrips, G.H.; Danz, M.J.; Kalsbeek, H.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which dental prevention among Turkish parents differs from that among Moroccan parents in one of the large cities in the Netherlands. Design: Turkish and Moroccan mothers with a child of approximately six months old, who visited the

  9. Hydroceramics, a ''new'' cementitious waste form material for U.S. defense-type reprocessing waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemer, Darryl D.

    2002-09-01

    A ''hydroceramic'' (HC) is a concrete which possesses mineralogy similar to the zeolitized rock indigenous to the USA's current ''basis'' high level radioactive waste (HLW) repository site, Yucca Mountain (YM). It is made by curing a mixture of inorganic waste, calcined clay, vermiculite, Na{sub 2}S, NaOH, plus water under hydrothermal conditions. The product differs from conventional Portland cement and/or slag-based concretes (''grouts'') in that it is primarily comprised of alkali aluminosilicate ''cage minerals'' (cancrinites, sodalites, and zeolites)rather than hydrated calcium silicates (C-S-H in cement-chemistry shorthand). Consequently it microencapsulates individual salt molecules thereby rendering them less leachable than they are from conventional grouts. A fundamental difference between the formulations of HCs and radwaste-type glasses is that the latter contain insufficient aluminum to form insoluble minerals with all of the alkali metals in them. This means that the imposition of worst-case ''repository failure'' (hydrothermal) conditions would cause a substantial fraction of such glasses to alter to water-soluble forms. Since the same conditions tend to reduce the solubility of HC concretes, they constitute a more rugged immobilization sub-system. This paper compares leach characteristics of HCs with those of radwaste-type glasses and points out why hydroceramic solidification makes more sense than vitrification for US defense-type reprocessing waste. (orig.)

  10. Recovery and reprocessing of legacy geophysical data from the archives of the State Company of Geology and Mining (GEOSURV) of Iraq and Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.V.; Drenth, B.R.; Fairhead, J.D.; Lei, K.; Dark, J.A.; Al-Bassam, K.

    2011-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data belonging to the State Company of Geology and Mining of Iraq (GEOSURV) have been recovered from magnetic tapes and early paper maps. In 1974 a national airborne survey was flown by the French firm Compagnie General de Geophysique (CGG). Following the survey the magnetic data were stored on magnetic tapes within an air conditioned archive run by GEOSURV. In 1990, the power supply to the archive was cut resulting in the present-day poor condition of the tapes. Frontier Processing Company and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been able to recover over 99 percent of the original digital data from the CGG tapes. Preliminary reprocessing of the data yielded a total magnetic field anomaly map that reveals fine structures not evident in available published maps. Successful restoration of these comprehensive, high quality digital datasets obviates the need to resurvey the entire country, thereby saving considerable time and money. These data were delivered to GEOSURV in a standard format for further analysis and interpretation. A parallel effort by GETECH concentrated on recovering the legacy gravity data from the original field data sheets archived by IPC (Iraq Petroleum Company). These data have been compiled with more recent GEOSURV sponsored surveys thus allowing for the first time a comprehensive digital and unified national gravity database to be constructed with full principal facts. Figure 1 shows the final aeromagnetic and gravity data coverage of Iraq. The only part of Iraq lacking gravity and aeromagnetic data coverage is the mountainous areas of the Kurdish region of northeastern Iraq. Joint interpretation of the magnetic and gravity data will help guide future geophysical investigations by GEOSURV, whose ultimate aim is to discover economical mineral and energy resources. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  11. NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget: Integrated Data Product With Reprocessed Radiance, Cloud, and Meteorology Inputs, and New Surface Albedo Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen J.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Zhang, Taiping

    2016-01-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The current release 3.0 (available at gewex-srb.larc.nasa.gov) uses the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX product for pixel level radiance and cloud information. This product is subsampled to 30 km. ISCCP is currently recalibrating and recomputing their entire data series, to be released as the H product, at 10km resolution. The ninefold increase in pixel number will allow SRB a higher resolution gridded product (e.g. 0.5 degree), as well as the production of pixel-level fluxes. In addition to the input data improvements, several important algorithm improvements have been made. Most notable has been the adaptation of Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) from CERES to improve the initial calculation of shortwave TOA fluxes, from which the surface flux calculations follow. Other key input improvements include a detailed aerosol history using the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC), temperature and moisture profiles from HIRS, and new topography, surface type, and snow/ice. Here we present results for the improved GEWEX Shortwave and Longwave algorithm (GSW and GLW) with new ISCCP data, the various other improved input data sets and the incorporation of many additional internal SRB model improvements. As of the time of abstract submission, results from 2007 have been produced with ISCCP H availability the limiting factor. More SRB data will be produced as ISCCP reprocessing continues. The SRB data produced will be released as part of the Release 4.0 Integrated Product, recognizing the interdependence of the radiative fluxes with other GEWEX products providing estimates of the Earth's global water and energy cycle (I.e., ISCCP, SeaFlux, LandFlux, NVAP, etc.).

  12. Biodegradation of radioactive organic liquid waste from spent fuel reprocessing; Biodegradacao de rejeitos radioativos liquidos organicos provenientes do reprocessamento do combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua

    2008-07-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab-scale hot cell, known as Celeste located at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's, and the laboratory was closed down. Part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored waiting for treatment at the Waste Management Laboratory, and it is constituted by mixture of aqueous and organic phases. The most widely used technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes is the solidification in cement matrix, due to the low processing costs and compatibility with a wide variety of wastes. However, organics are generally incompatible with cement, interfering with the hydration and setting processes, and requiring pre -treatment with special additives to stabilize or destroy them. The objective of this work can be divided in three parts: organic compounds characterization in the radioactive liquid waste; the occurrence of bacterial consortia from Pocos de Caldas uranium mine soil and Sao Sebastiao estuary sediments that are able to degrade organic compounds; and the development of a methodology to biodegrade organic compounds from the radioactive liquid waste aiming the cementation. From the characterization analysis, TBP and ethyl acetate were chosen to be degraded. The results showed that selected bacterial consortia were efficient for the organic liquid wastes degradation. At the end of the experiments the biodegradation level were 66% for ethyl acetate and 70% for the TBP. (author)

  13. A novel method for recovery of acidic sludge of used-motor oil reprocessing industries to bitumen using bentonite and SBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jonidi Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acidic sludge is a by-product from used motor oil reprocessing industries, which thousand tons of this sludge are disposed into the environment as a hazardous waste material daily. The acidic sludge contains unsaturated compounds that are polar and asphaltene. The bitumen under certain conditions is produced from mixing of bentonite, polymer styrene – butadiene – styrene (SBS, and acidic sludge. Context and purpose: The objective of this study was the recovery of acidic sludge to bitumen using additives such as bentonite and SBS. Also, the effect of additives with different weight percentages (wt%(on the performance parameters of bitumen was evaluated. At first, spilled oil was separated from the acidic sludge by a centrifugal concentrator. Then, concentrated acidic sludge and additives were mixed in together. Finally, the performance tests were carried out to compare the quality of acidic sludge with the obtained products.The results indicated that performance parameters such as softening point (SP, weight loss, penetration degree, PI, Frass breaking point, and temperature susceptibility (TS were promoted from 37°C, 1.3%, 230 dmm, -0.07854, -5°C and 0.0451 to 54°C, 1%, 130 dmm, 2.7094, -11°C , 0.02721, respectively. According to the paired sample t-test analysis, a significant difference was found between the bentonite dosage and the improved performance parameters from concentrated acidic sludge and obtained products (pvalue ≤.001. The bentonite and SBS with 2 and 4 wt%, respectively were determined as the suitable additives in the recovery of acidic sludge to bitumen.

  14. New Evidence of Regional Geological Structures Inferred from Reprocessing and Resistivity Data Interpretation in the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi Area of Southwestern Ilan County, NE Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-Ruei Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain is located at the southwestern tip of the back arc basin of the Okinawa Trough, which propagates westward into the Taiwan orogen. A long discussed issue concerns whether the opening normal-fault system of the Okinawa Trough propagates and transforms into the thrust-fault system of the Taiwan orogen. We have reprocessed and inverted resistivity measurements from a series of surveys conducted in the 1970s around the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi area of southwestern Ilan County. The 2D and 3D inverted resistivity images reveal the regional structures. A major conductive structure dipping toward the northwest at an angle of 30° - 40° is located at the expected site of the Niudou Fault separating the Early Miocene Szeleng and Kangkou Formations from the Lushan Formation in the Sanshing area, which dip direction of two conductive structures with a dipping angle of 50° - 70° were coinciding with the dip direction of normal faults identified from the field surveys. In addition three high-angle discontinuity structures, dipping toward the north with an angle of 60° - 80° can be identified in the resistivity profile along Hanchi. We tend to suggest these structures as the extended portions of the normal faults that have been identified under the unconsolidated sediments in the Ilan Plain. Resistivity profiles from the Chingshuichi area reveal the existence of the vertical Chingshuichi, the Dachi, and the Xiaonanauo Fault. Hot springs were found in the junction area of the Chingshuichi and the Xiaonanauo Fault. The junction region of these two fault systems is the potential Chingshui geothermal field that provides fluid geothermals from the deep.

  15. Studying the properties and behaviour of high-level radioactive wastes from the BOR-60 reactor U-Pu and U spent fuel experimental gas-fluoride reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillovich, A.P.; Lavrinovich, Yu.G.; Vorobej, M.P.; Pimonov, Yu.I.

    1982-07-01

    The results of investigations of physical-chemical and radiation properties of fluoride radioactive wastes produced during experimental reprocessing of spent oxide uranium-plutonium fuel as well as high-level radioactive waste behaviour in the process of their six-year controlled storage are presented. Radioactive gas release from solid wastes, gaseous phase composition, radionuclide leaching rate are determined. Investigations are performed at a special bench. Energy release of the spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes is determined by means of heat-conducting type calorimeter. Gas mixture composition in containers with wastes is determined by mass-spectrometric method at equilibrium temperature of high-level radioactive product self-heating and at external container heating up to 700 deg C. Thermal-physical characteristics of solid fluoride wastes are found by the differential thermography method under quasistationary heating. The results obtained show that about a half (44.8-60.9%) of fission product radioactivity is concentrated in fluorination wastes, specific heat release of which constitutes 50-52 W/kg, while ..beta..-activity exceeds 550 TBq/kg. Main contribution into ..beta..-activity is made by Ce, /sup 144/Pr, Ru, /sup 106/Rh, Zr, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 137/Cs. With waste storage time increase their thermal stability increases. It is concluded that the investigation results can be used for calculating the conditions of safe storage of high-level radiactive solid fluoride wastes and optimization of the technological process of spent fuel gas-fluoride reprossing.

  16. The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among Syrian refugees: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarturk, C; Konuk, E; Cetinkaya, M; Senay, I; Sijbrandij, M; Gulen, B; Cuijpers, P

    2016-09-01

    Previous research indicates a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among refugees. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for PTSD for victims of natural disasters, car accidents or other traumatic events. The current study examined the effect of EMDR on symptoms of PTSD and depression by comparing the treatment with a wait-list control condition in Syrian refugees. Adult refugees located in Kilis Refugee Camp at the Turkish-Syrian border with a PTSD diagnosis were randomly allocated to either EMDR (n = 37) or wait-list control (n = 33) conditions. All participants were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus at pre-intervention, at 1 week after finishing the intervention and at 5 weeks after finishing the intervention. The main outcome measures were the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 were included as secondary outcome measures. The Trial Registration no. is NCT01847742. Mixed-model analyses adjusted for the baseline scores indicated a significant effect of group at post-treatment indicating that the EMDR therapy group showed a significantly larger reduction of PTSD symptoms as assessed with the HTQ. Similar findings were found on the other outcome measures. There was no effect of time or group × time interaction on any measure, showing that the difference between the groups at the post-treatment was maintained to the 5-week follow-up. EMDR may be effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms among Syrian refugees with PTSD located in a refugee camp.

  17. Efficacy of eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing for patients with posttraumatic-stress disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ren; Hung, Kuo-Wei; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Chu, Hsin; Chung, Min-Huey; Chen, Su-Ru; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Yue-Cune; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2014-01-01

    We performed the first meta-analysis of clinical studies by investigating the effects of eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy on the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and subjective distress in PTSD patients treated during the past 2 decades. We performed a quantitative meta-analysis on the findings of 26 randomized controlled trials of EMDR therapy for PTSD published between 1991 and 2013, which were identified through the ISI Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature electronic databases, among which 22, 20, 16, and 11 of the studies assessed the effects of EMDR on the symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress, respectively, as the primary clinical outcome. The meta-analysis revealed that the EMDR treatments significantly reduced the symptoms of PTSD (g = -0.662; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.887 to -0.436), depression (g = -0.643; 95% CI: -0.864 to -0.422), anxiety (g = -0.640; 95% CI: -0.890 to -0.390), and subjective distress (g = -0.956; 95% CI: -1.388 to -0.525) in PTSD patients. This study confirmed that EMDR therapy significantly reduces the symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress in PTSD patients. The subgroup analysis indicated that a treatment duration of more than 60 min per session was a major contributing factor in the amelioration of anxiety and depression, and that a therapist with experience in conducting PTSD group therapy was a major contributing factor in the reduction of PTSD symptoms.

  18. Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Children and Adolescent with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moreno-Alcázar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD can occur in both adults and children/adolescents. Untreated PTSD can lead to negative long-term mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, low self-concept, disruptive behaviors, and/or substance use disorders. To prevent these adverse effects, treatment of PTSD is essential, especially in young population due to their greater vulnerability. The principal aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR therapy for PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents. Secondary objectives were to assess whether EMDR therapy was effective to improve depressive or anxious comorbid symptoms.Methods: We conducted a thorough systematic search of studies published until January 2017, using PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and ScienceDirect as databases. All randomized controlled trials with an EMDR group condition compared to a control group, such as treatment as usual or another psychological treatment, were included. Meta-analysis was conducted with MetaNSUE to avoid biases related to missing information.Results: Eight studies (n = 295 met our inclusion criteria. EMDR therapy was superior to waitlist/placebo conditions and showed comparable efficacy to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT in reducing post-traumatic and anxiety symptoms. A similar but non-statistically significant trend was observed for depressive symptoms. Exploratory subgroup analyses showed that effects might be smaller in studies that included more males and in more recent studies.Conclusion: Despite the small number of publications, the obtained results suggest that EMDR therapy could be a promising psychotherapeutic approach for the treatment of PTSD and comorbid symptoms in young individuals. However, further research with larger samples is needed to confirm these preliminary results as well as to analyze differences in the efficacy of EMDR therapy versus CBT.

  19. Cognitive therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for reducing psychopathology among disaster-bereaved individuals: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenferink, Lonneke I M; Piersma, Eline; de Keijser, Jos; Smid, Geert E; Boelen, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Confrontation with a traumatic (e.g. disaster-related) loss is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, including symptoms of prolonged grief (PG), posttraumatic stress (PTS), and depression. Although interventions have been developed for reducing post-loss psychopathology, more research into the effectiveness of treatment is needed to improve care for bereaved persons. Cognitive therapy (CT) and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) have been shown to be effective in trauma-exposed populations. We hypothesize that CT and EMDR are also effective in reducing symptoms among people exposed to traumatic loss. Objective: In this article we describe the rationale of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to examine (1) treatment effects of CT and EMDR for reducing PG, PTS, and depression among traumatically bereaved people, and (2) the associations between improvements in PG, PTS, and depression symptoms on the one hand and tentative mechanisms of change, including a sense of unrealness, negative cognitions, avoidance behaviour, and intrusive memories, on the other hand. Method: A two-armed (intervention versus waiting list controls) RCT will be conducted. Participants will be asked to fill in questionnaires prior to treatment, during treatment, and one, 12, and 24 weeks post-treatment. Potential participants are people who have lost one or multiple significant other(s) in the Ukrainian plane disaster in 2014 with clinically significant levels of self-rated PG, PTS, and/or depression. Multiple regression, including analysis of covariance, and multilevel regression analyses will be used. Discussion: There is a need for treatment for psychopathology following traumatic loss. Strengths of this study are the development of a treatment that targets grief and trauma-related complaints and the examination of potential mechanisms of change in CT and EMDR. Bereaved people, clinicians, and researchers could benefit from the results of this

  20. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy versus supportive therapy in affective relapse prevention in bipolar patients with a history of trauma: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Radua, Joaquim; Landín-Romero, Ramon; Blanco, Laura; Madre, Mercè; Reinares, Maria; Comes, Mercè; Jiménez, Esther; Crespo, Jose Manuel; Vieta, Eduard; Pérez, Victor; Novo, Patricia; Doñate, Marta; Cortizo, Romina; Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Lupo, Walter; McKenna, Peter J; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Amann, Benedikt L

    2017-04-04

    Up to 60% of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have a history of traumatic events, which is associated with greater episode severity, higher risk of comorbidity and higher relapse rates. Trauma-focused treatment strategies for BD are thus necessary but studies are currently scarce. The aim of this study is to examine whether Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy focusing on adherence, insight, de-idealisation of manic symptoms, prodromal symptoms and mood stabilization can reduce episode severity and relapse rates and increase cognitive performance and functioning in patients with BD. This is a single-blind, randomized controlled, multicentre trial in which 82 patients with BD and a history of traumatic events will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two treatment arms: EMDR therapy or supportive therapy. Patients in both groups will receive 20 psychotherapeutic sessions, 60 min each, during 6 months. The primary outcome is a reduction of affective episodes after 12 and 24 months in favour of the EMDR group. As secondary outcome we postulate a greater reduction in affective symptoms in the EMDR group (as measured by the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale modified for BD), and a better performance in cognitive state, social cognition and functioning (as measured by the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry, The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and the Functioning Assessment Short Test, respectively). Traumatic events will be evaluated by The Holmes-Rahe Life Stress Inventory, the Clinician-administered PTSD Scale and the Impact of Event Scale. The results of this study will provide evidence whether a specific EMDR protocol for patients with BD is effective in reducing affective episodes, affective symptoms and functional, cognitive and trauma symptoms. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02634372 . Registered on

  1. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: what works in children with posttraumatic stress symptoms? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehle, Julia; Opmeer, Brent C; Boer, Frits; Mannarino, Anthony P; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-02-01

    To prevent adverse long-term effects, children who suffer from posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) need treatment. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is an established treatment for children with PTSS. However, alternatives are important for non-responders or if TF-CBT trained therapists are unavailable. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a promising treatment for which sound comparative evidence is lacking. The current randomized controlled trial investigates the effectiveness and efficiency of both treatments. Forty-eight children (8-18 years) were randomly assigned to eight sessions of TF-CBT or EMDR. The primary outcome was PTSS as measured with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA). Secondary outcomes included parental report of child PTSD diagnosis status and questionnaires on comorbid problems. The Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale was administered during the course of treatment. TF-CBT and EMDR showed large reductions from pre- to post-treatment on the CAPS-CA (-20.2; 95% CI -12.2 to -28.1 and -20.9; 95% CI -32.7 to -9.1). The difference in reduction was small and not statistically significant (mean difference of 0.69, 95% CI -13.4 to 14.8). Treatment duration was not significantly shorter for EMDR (p = 0.09). Mixed model analysis of monitored PTSS during treatment showed a significant effect for time (p EMDR are effective and efficient in reducing PTSS in children.

  2. A Comparison of Dual Attention, Eye Movements, and Exposure Only during Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Martin; Zehl, Stefanie; Otti, Alexander; Lahmann, Claas; Henningsen, Peter; Kruse, Johannes; Stingl, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is controversy on the possible benefits of dual-attention tasks during eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A total of 139 consecutive patients (including 85 females) suffering from PTSD were allocated randomly among 3 different treatment conditions: exposure with eyes moving while fixating on the therapist's moving hand (EM), exposure with eyes fixating on the therapist's nonmoving hand (EF), and exposure without explicit visual focus of attention as control condition (EC). Except for the variation in stimulation, treatment strictly followed the standard EMDR manual. Symptom changes from pre- to posttreatment were measured with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) by an investigator blinded to treatment allocation. In total, 116 patients completed the treatment, with an average of 4.6 sessions applied. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed a significant improvement in PTSD symptoms with a high overall effect size (Cohen's d = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.67-2.24) and a high remission rate of PTSD diagnosis (79.8%). In comparison to the control condition, EM and EF were associated with significantly larger pre-post symptom decrease (ΔCAPS: EM = 35.8, EF = 40.5, EC = 31.0) and significantly larger effect sizes (EM: d = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.55-2.57, EF: d = 2.58, 95% CI: 2.01-3.11, EC: d = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.97-1.91). No significant differences in symptom decrease and effect size were found between EM and EF. Exposure in combination with an explicit external focus of attention leads to larger PTSD symptom reduction than exposure alone. Eye movements have no advantage compared to visually fixating on a nonmoving hand. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Children and Adolescent with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Treen, Devi; Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Sio-Eroles, Albert; Pérez, Víctor; Amann, Benedikt L; Radua, Joaquim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur in both adults and children/adolescents. Untreated PTSD can lead to negative long-term mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, low self-concept, disruptive behaviors, and/or substance use disorders. To prevent these adverse effects, treatment of PTSD is essential, especially in young population due to their greater vulnerability. The principal aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents. Secondary objectives were to assess whether EMDR therapy was effective to improve depressive or anxious comorbid symptoms. Methods: We conducted a thorough systematic search of studies published until January 2017, using PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and ScienceDirect as databases. All randomized controlled trials with an EMDR group condition compared to a control group, such as treatment as usual or another psychological treatment, were included. Meta-analysis was conducted with MetaNSUE to avoid biases related to missing information. Results: Eight studies (n = 295) met our inclusion criteria. EMDR therapy was superior to waitlist/placebo conditions and showed comparable efficacy to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in reducing post-traumatic and anxiety symptoms. A similar but non-statistically significant trend was observed for depressive symptoms. Exploratory subgroup analyses showed that effects might be smaller in studies that included more males and in more recent studies. Conclusion: Despite the small number of publications, the obtained results suggest that EMDR therapy could be a promising psychotherapeutic approach for the treatment of PTSD and comorbid symptoms in young individuals. However, further research with larger samples is needed to confirm these preliminary results as well as to analyze differences in the efficacy of EMDR therapy versus CBT.

  4. Efficacy of eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing for patients with posttraumatic-stress disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ren Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We performed the first meta-analysis of clinical studies by investigating the effects of eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR therapy on the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress in PTSD patients treated during the past 2 decades. METHODS: We performed a quantitative meta-analysis on the findings of 26 randomized controlled trials of EMDR therapy for PTSD published between 1991 and 2013, which were identified through the ISI Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature electronic databases, among which 22, 20, 16, and 11 of the studies assessed the effects of EMDR on the symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress, respectively, as the primary clinical outcome. RESULTS: The meta-analysis revealed that the EMDR treatments significantly reduced the symptoms of PTSD (g = -0.662; 95% confidence interval (CI: -0.887 to -0.436, depression (g = -0.643; 95% CI: -0.864 to -0.422, anxiety (g = -0.640; 95% CI: -0.890 to -0.390, and subjective distress (g = -0.956; 95% CI: -1.388 to -0.525 in PTSD patients. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that EMDR therapy significantly reduces the symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress in PTSD patients. The subgroup analysis indicated that a treatment duration of more than 60 min per session was a major contributing factor in the amelioration of anxiety and depression, and that a therapist with experience in conducting PTSD group therapy was a major contributing factor in the reduction of PTSD symptoms.

  5. Radiocaesium in soil, grass and lamb at Ribe[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-12-01

    The {sup 137}Cs concentrations found in soil, grass and lamb during 1998-2000 follow the declining tren seen from previous years. The values have been compared with the corresponding levels predicted from model calculation. The results observed during 1998-2000 of {sup 137}Cs in soil, grass and lamb in Denmark at the Ribe site are in good agreement with values predicted by model calculations. The {sup 129}I results from the Ribe site show an average concentration of 1.3 Bg kg{sup -1} in lamb's thyroids and 1.3 mBq kg{sup -1} in grass. Studies in Nordic and North European countries indicate that environmental {sup 129}I is due to atmospheric emissions and discharges to sea from the reprocessing plants Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. (au)

  6. Plant Macrofossils

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  7. T Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Arguably the second most historic building at Hanford is the T Plant.This facility is historic in that it's the oldest remaining nuclear facility in the country that...

  8. Plant Allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Predny, Mary Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Allergic reactions are caused by an overactive immune system response to a foreign substance such as pollen, dust, or molds. This publication goes over the common plants that cause allergies and ways to prevent allergies while gardening.

  9. Estimate of European 129I releases supported by 129I analysis in an Alpine ice core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reithmeier, Herbert; Lazarev, Vitali; Rühm, Werner; Schwikowski, Ti Margit; Gäggeler, Heinz W; Nolte, Eckehart

    2006-10-01

    129I in the European environment originates predominantly from the industrial nuclear fuel reprocessing plants Sellafield (Great Britain), Marcoule, and La Hague (both France). While reliable data on 129I releases from La Hague exist for the whole period of operation, less is known about the contributions from Sellafield and Marcoule. For those periods where no data are available, i.e., for the first 16 years of the Sellafield operation and for the first 3 decades of the Marcoule operation, we estimated releases into the atmosphere of 118 GBq and 825 GBq, respectively. Hence, Marcoule was the major European source of airborne 129I, contributing about 45% to the total airborne 129I releases from all the European reprocessing facilities, until it was decommissioned in 1997. The estimated total emissions were compared with 129I deposition fluxes for the time period 1970-2002, obtained from the analysis of an ice core from Fiescherhorn glacier, Swiss Alps (46 degrees 33'N, 08 degrees 04'E; 3900 m asl). The temporal evolution of the 129I deposition agrees well with the total 129I releases into the atmosphere from the European reprocessing facilities and from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, supporting our estimated release rates. However,the 129I concentrations and deposition fluxes at Fiescherhorn glacier were a factor of 6 lower than values obtained from the analysis of rainwater collected near Zurich (408 m asl) in Switzerland in the years 1994-97. This suggests a strong vertical concentration gradient of 129I, typical for water-soluble atmospheric trace species which are removed from the atmosphere in the course of days by precipitation scavenging, and must be taken into account if glaciers are used as an archive for a retrospective quantification of 129I deposition fluxes. In addition, the temporal evolution of the contribution of 129I re-emitted from the ocean's surface for the 129I inventory in the atmosphere was quantified for the first time. Although the

  10. Spatio-temporal variations in the technetium-99 content of Fucus serratus in the English Channel during 1982-1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, D.; Patti, F.; Charmasson, S.

    1987-01-01

    Spatio-temporal variations in the technetium-99 content of Fucus serratus samples from the French coast of the English Channel were studied between 1982 and 1984 using various sampling strategies. The lack of constancy in measurements from within the seaweed zone of the same station is revealed by a variation of 18% in the mean contents of samples collected from different sampling levels, a variation which reaches 41% if the extreme values of all results are taken into account. Regional variations over the Channel as a whole show an asymmetric diminution of the /sup 99/Tc content of the seaweed on the two sides of the liquid effluent discharge outlet from the reprocessing plant at La Hague and this confirms a predominant drift of Channel waters towards the North Sea. A periodic component observed at the Roscoff and Wimereux stations, where the /sup 99/Tc content of the seaweed varies by a factor of 2-3 between winter and summer periods, could be correlated with seasonal changes both in the metabolic state of F.serratus and in the currents to the south-west of Cap de La Hague. /sup 99/Tc, which here has no radiological impact on man, would thus appear to be a radioactive label for sea waters and one which is particularly sensitive to variations in environmental conditions.

  11. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR Versus Treatment as Usual for Non-Specific Chronic Back Pain Patients with Psychological Trauma: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Gerhardt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eye-Movement-Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR – an evidence-based approach to eliminate emotional distress from traumatic experiences – was recently suggested for the treatment of chronic pain. Aim of this study was to estimate preliminary efficacy of a pain-focused EMDR intervention for the treatment of non-specific chronic back pain.Design: Randomized controlled pilot study.Methods: Forty non-specific chronic back pain patients reporting previous experiences of psychological trauma were consecutively recruited from outpatient tertiary-care pain centers. After baseline assessment, patients were randomized to intervention or control group (1:1. The intervention group received ten sessions standardized pain-focused EMDR in addition to treatment-as-usual. The control group received treatment-as-usual alone.The primary outcome was preliminary efficacy, measured by pain intensity, disability, and treatment satisfaction from the patients' perspective. Clinical relevance of changes was determined according to established recommendations. Assessments were conducted at the baseline, post-treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat-analysis with last-observation-carried-forward method was used. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01850875.Results: Estimated effect sizes (between-group, pooled standard deviation for pain intensity and disability were d=0.79 (CI95%: 0.13, 1.42 and d=0.39 (CI95%: -0.24, 1.01 post-treatment, and d=0.50 (CI95%: 0.14, 1.12 and d=0.14 (CI95%: -0.48, 0.76 at 6-month follow-up. Evaluation on individual patient basis showed that about 50% of the patients in the intervention group improved clinically relevant and also rated their situation as clinically satisfactory improved, compared to zero patients in the control group.Conclusions: There is preliminary evidence that pain-focused EMDR might be useful for non-specific chronic back pain patients with previous experiences of psychological trauma

  12. Imagery rescripting and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing for treatment of adults with childhood trauma-related post-traumatic stress disorder: IREM study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boterhoven de Haan, Katrina L; Lee, Christopher W; Fassbinder, Eva; Voncken, Marisol J; Meewisse, Mariel; Van Es, Saskia M; Menninga, Simone; Kousemaker, Margriet; Arntz, Arnoud

    2017-05-04

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that originates from childhood trauma experiences can develop into a chronic condition that has lasting effects on an individual's functioning and quality of life. While there are evidence-based guidelines for treating adult onset PTSD, treatments for adults with childhood trauma-related PTSD (Ch-PTSD) are varied and subject to ongoing debate. This study will test the effectiveness of two trauma-focused treatments, imagery rescripting (ImRs) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) in participants with Ch-PTSD. Both have been found effective in treatment of adult PTSD or mixed onset PTSD and previous research indicates they are well-tolerated treatments. However, we know less about their effectiveness for treating Ch-PTSD or their underlying working mechanisms. IREM is an international multicentre randomised controlled trial involving seven sites across Australia, Germany and the Netherlands. We aim to recruit 142 participants (minimum of n = 20 per site), who will be randomly assigned to treatment condition. Assessments will be conducted before treatment until 1-year follow-up. Assessments before and after the waitlist will assess change in time only. The primary outcome measure is change in PTSD symptom severity from pre-treatment to 8-weeks post-treatment. Secondary outcome measures include change in severity of depression, anger, trauma-related cognitions, guilt, shame, dissociation and quality of life. Underlying mechanisms of treatment will be assessed on changes in vividness, valence and encapsulated belief of a worst trauma memory. Additional sub-studies will include qualitative investigation of treatment experiences from the participant and therapists' perspective, changes in memory and the impact of treatment fidelity on outcome measures. The primary aims of this study are to compare the effectiveness of EMDR and ImRs in treating Ch-PTSD and to investigate the underlying working mechanisms of the two

  13. Prolonged exposure vs eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs waiting list for posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with a psychotic disorder: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, David P G; de Bont, Paul A J M; van der Vleugel, Berber M; de Roos, Carlijn; de Jongh, Ad; Van Minnen, Agnes; van der Gaag, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The efficacy of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments in psychosis has not been examined in a randomized clinical trial to our knowledge. Psychosis is an exclusion criterion in most PTSD trials. To examine the efficacy and safety of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in patients with psychotic disorders and comorbid PTSD. A single-blind randomized clinical trial with 3 arms (N = 155), including PE therapy, EMDR therapy, and waiting list (WL) of 13 outpatient mental health services among patients with a lifetime psychotic disorder and current chronic PTSD. Baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up assessments were made. Participants were randomized to receive 8 weekly 90-minute sessions of PE (n = 53), EMDR (n = 55), or WL (n = 47). Standard protocols were used, and treatment was not preceded by stabilizing psychotherapeutic interventions. Clinician-rated severity of PTSD symptoms, PTSD diagnosis, and full remission (on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) were primary outcomes. Self-reported PTSD symptoms and posttraumatic cognitions were secondary outcomes. Data were analyzed as intent to treat with linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations. Participants in the PE and EMDR conditions showed a greater reduction of PTSD symptoms than those in the WL condition. Between-group effect sizes were 0.78 (P EMDR. Participants in the PE condition (56.6%; odds ratio [OR], 3.41; P = .006) or the EMDR condition (60.0%; OR, 3.92; P EMDR condition (16.4%; OR, 2.87; P = .10), were more likely to gain full remission than those in the WL condition (6.4%). Treatment effects were maintained at the 6-month follow-up in PE and EMDR. Similar results were obtained regarding secondary outcomes. There were no differences in severe adverse events between conditions (2 in PE, 1 in EMDR, and 4 in WL). The PE therapy and EMDR therapy showed no difference in any of the

  14. Effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on non-specific chronic back pain: a randomized controlled trial with additional exploration of the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Hartmann, Mechthild; Seidler, Günther H; Eich, Wolfgang

    2013-08-30

    Non-specific chronic back pain (CBP) is often accompanied by psychological trauma, but treatment for this associated condition is often insufficient.Nevertheless, despite the common co-occurrence of pain and psychological trauma, a specific trauma-focused approach for treating CBP has been neglected to date. Accordingly, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), originally developed as a treatment approach for posttraumatic stress disorders, is a promising approach for treating CBP in patients who have experienced psychological trauma.Thus, the aim of this study is to determine whether a standardized, short-term EMDR intervention added to treatment as usual (TAU) reduces pain intensity in CBP patients with psychological trauma vs. TAU alone. The study will recruit 40 non-specific CBP patients who have experienced psychological trauma. After a baseline assessment, the patients will be randomized to either an intervention group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). Individuals in the EMDR group will receive ten 90-minute sessions of EMDR fortnightly in addition to TAU. The control group will receive TAU alone. The post-treatment assessments will take place two weeks after the last EMDR session and six months later.The primary outcome will be the change in the intensity of CBP within the last four weeks (numeric rating scale 0-10) from the pre-treatment assessment to the post-treatment assessment two weeks after the completion of treatment.In addition, the patients will undergo a thorough assessment of the change in the experience of pain, disability, trauma-associated distress, mental co-morbidities, resilience, and quality of life to explore distinct treatment effects. To explore the mechanisms of action that are involved, changes in pain perception and pain processing (quantitative sensory testing, conditioned pain modulation) will also be assessed.The statistical analysis of the primary outcome will be performed on an intention-to-treat basis

  15. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing vs. Treatment-as-Usual for Non-Specific Chronic Back Pain Patients with Psychological Trauma: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Hartmann, Mechthild; Janke, Susanne; Seidler, Günter H; Eich, Wolfgang; Tesarz, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)-an evidence-based approach to eliminate emotional distress from traumatic experiences-was recently suggested for the treatment of chronic pain. The aim of this study was to estimate preliminary efficacy of a pain-focused EMDR intervention for the treatment of non-specific chronic back pain (CBP). Randomized controlled pilot study. 40 non-specific CBP (nsCBP) patients reporting previous experiences of psychological trauma were consecutively recruited from outpatient tertiary care pain centers. After baseline assessment, patients were randomized to intervention or control group (1:1). The intervention group received 10 sessions standardized pain-focused EMDR in addition to treatment-as-usual (TAU). The control group received TAU alone. The primary outcome was preliminary efficacy, measured by pain intensity, disability, and treatment satisfaction from the patients' perspective. Clinical relevance of changes was determined according to the established recommendations. Assessments were conducted at the baseline, posttreatment, and at a 6-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis with last observation carried forward method was used. Registered with http://ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01850875). Estimated effect sizes (between-group, pooled SD) for pain intensity and disability were d = 0.79 (CI95%: 0.13, 1.42) and d = 0.39 (CI95%: -0.24, 1.01) posttreatment, and d = 0.50 (CI95%: 0.14, 1.12) and d = 0.14 (CI95%: -0.48, 0.76) at 6-month follow-up. Evaluation on individual patient basis showed that about 50% of the patients in the intervention group improved clinically relevant and also rated their situation as clinically satisfactory improved, compared to 0 patients in the control group. There is preliminary evidence that pain-focused EMDR might be useful for nsCBP patients with previous experiences of psychological trauma, with benefits for pain intensity maintained over 6 months.

  16. Comparative evaluation of glasses reprocessing and reversible conditioning of calcinates; Evaluation comparative de la reprise des verres et du conditionnement reversible des calcinats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boen, R

    2000-01-15

    Fission products and minor actinides separated during the spent fuel reprocessing treatment are industrially vitrified on-line and thus confined inside a glass matrix with admittedly durability properties. In the framework of the feasibility of a reversible conditioning, this document examines first the possible alternative ways of conditioning and storage of calcinates before vitrification, which may simplify the reversibility aspect. Such a conditioning must be compatible with the storage process, with a possible extraction of actinides and long-lived fission products, and with the vitrification process if no extraction is performed. Calcinates are pulverulent and comprise an important soluble fraction, a proportion of nitrates of about 30%, and release a high thermal power (17 kW/m{sup 3}) combined to a low thermal conductivity (0.1 to 0.15 W.m{sup -1} k{sup -1}). Among the different foreseeable solutions (denitration, mixing with another material, with or without compacting, dissolution inside another material..), the dissolution inside a borate seems to be the most acceptable with respect to the safety, feasibility and vitrification aspects. The thermal aspect of the storage remains complex as a specific container is necessary. In a second part, this report analyzes the possibility to re-extract back the long-lived radionuclides from vitrified wastes. The different possible ways to destroy the glass structure and to transfer the fission products and minor actinides in an aqueous solution compatible with an hydrometallurgical separation process are explored. Two processes are foreseeable: a low temperature dissolution process which requires a preliminary crushing and the handling of huge amounts of acids, and a both high and low temperature process which comprises the following steps: melting, fractionation by water tempering, addition of Na{sub 2}O or sodium tetraborate to make it sensible to hot leaching, separation of fission products and minor actinides

  17. transgenic plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    been initiated in this area by the Global Pest. Resistance Management Programme located at. MSU. Through effective resistance management training, pesticide use patterns change, and the effective lift: span of pesticides and host plant resistance technology increases. Effective resistance management can mean reduced.

  18. Poisonous plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decontamination using activated charcoal within the first 2 hours of ingestion and with supportive measures (see Table 1). Antidotes are only of potential value in the treatment of plants containing cardiac glycosides and those that present with cholinergic and anticholinergic toxidromes. The authors of this article identified ...

  19. What more can plant scientists do to help save the green stuff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) was the first such effort under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and had gone through a 3-year process to reach the level of maturity that enabled it to be approved by consensus by all Governments present at the key session in The Hague in April 2002. It provided a model for subsequent CBD workplans, with targets, and undoubtedly contributed to the 2010 target of reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. In the event, few of the targets were achieved, because of numerous constraints at both policy and implementation levels. Even so, the GSPC stands as an important milestone in the global effort to conserve biodiversity. However, few plant scientists can be satisfied that the essential steps are being taken to ensure the conservation of plants, although, of course, plant scientists are only one part of the complex effort that will be required. This paper offers some suggestions that might be worth consideration, building on the basic principle in politics that a strong constituency is necessary to victory. In other words, although plant scientists play a crucial role, plant conservation is too important to leave in their hands alone; far broader support is required, including from the private sector, agriculture, forestry, trade, economics, tourism and even the military. Although botanical science provides a solid foundation, other branches of science are also important, ranging from anthropology to zoology. The legal profession also has important contributions to make (as well as the ability to hamper progress – for example through using issues such as access and benefit sharing to limit the exchange of genetic materials for even noncommercial use). 2010 was the United Nations Year of Biodiversity, and the GSPC targets reached their due date. It therefore seems timely to add some additional perspectives to the effort to update the GSPC. This paper suggests ways to reach a far broader constituency

  20. AKUT-II: an experimental plant for purifying the HTR loop of combustion waste gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaujean, H.; Vygen, H.

    1976-02-15

    A plant for the separation of aerosols, krypton and tritium (AKUT) used for purifying the head end of the reprocessing of thorium-containing fuel elements from combustion waste gases is described. Data are to be collected to enable a process engineer to plan and construct a large-scale plant, and the correctness and practicability of the concept adopted is to be proved in conjunction with the JUPITER plant. It is true that the tests on the AKUT I plant confirmed that the flow scheme was basically correct, but the actual experimental operation was considerably limited by a fixed and rigid coupling to the combustion furnace. Some operational conditions were encountered which did not meet the design values. Part of the plant (krypton separation) is being tested in the USA. The German concept was taken over in the early stages of tests and adapted to existing apparatuses, the result inevitably being different experimental conditions. The AKUT II plant can now be used for consideration of the economic and safety conditions, and comparisons can be made.

  1. Recent trends of environmental radioactivity in Greenland and the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Joensen, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    -range transport by air and water mainly due to fallout from nuclear weapons testing, from the Chernobyl accident and discharges from European reprocessing facilities, Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides in environment and food are low, however, and present...

  2. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D'Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization.

  3. 25 years of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): The EMDR therapy protocol, hypotheses of its mechanism of action and a systematic review of its efficacy in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo Navarro, Patricia; Landin-Romero, Ramón; Guardiola-Wanden-Berghe, Rocio; Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Lupo, Walter; García, Francisca; Fernández, Isabel; Pérez, Víctor; Amann, Benedikt L

    2016-02-11

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a relatively new psychotherapy that has gradually gained popularity for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. In the present work, the standardised EMDR protocol is introduced, along with current hypotheses of its mechanism of action, as well as a critical review of the available literature on its clinical effectiveness in adult post-traumatic stress disorder. A systematic review of the published literature was performed using PubMed and PsycINFO databases with the keywords «eye movement desensitization and reprocessing» and «post-traumatic stress disorder» and its abbreviations «EMDR» and «PTSD». Fifteen randomised controlled trials of good methodological quality were selected. These studies compared EMDR with unspecific interventions, waiting lists, or specific therapies. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that EMDR is a useful, evidence-based tool for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, in line with recent recommendations from different international health organisations. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Life sciences and space research XXIV(1) - Gravitational biology; Proceedings of Symposia 10 and 13 of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission F (Meetings F1 and F2) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S. (Editor); Cogoli, A. (Editor); Planel, H. (Editor); Ubbels, G. A. (Editor); Sievers, A. (Editor); Oser, H. (Editor); Horneck, G. (Editor); Wagner, H. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Topics presented include an introduction to theories and models of biological response to gravity, gravity effects on biological systems, the function of calcium in plant graviperception, developmental biology on unmanned spacecraft, and the effect of microgravity on the development of plant protoplasts flown on Biocosmos 9. Also presented are the mechanism by which an asymmetric distribution of plant growth hormone is attained, the perception of gravity by plants, an animal research facility for Space Station Freedom, the long-term effects of microgravity and possible countermeasures, and an experimental system for determining the influence of microgravity on B lymphocyte activation and cell fusion.

  5. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Vicente; Iniesto Sánchez, Elisa; Irigoyen Miguel, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  6. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  7. Trends in the spatial and temporal distribution of {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc in coastal waters surrounding Ireland using Fucus vesiculosus as a bio-indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keogh, S.M. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Aldahan, A. [Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Possnert, G. [Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Finegan, P. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Leon Vintro, L. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Mitchell, P.I. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)]. E-mail: peter.mitchell@ucd.ie

    2007-06-15

    Spatial and temporal trends in {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc concentrations around the Irish coastline have been evaluated using Fucus vesiculosus as a bio-indicator. {sup 129}I concentrations in a recent set of seawater samples have also been recorded and reveal an identical spatial pattern. Concentrations of {sup 129}I in Fucus from the northeast coast of Ireland proved to be at least two orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in Fucus from the west coast. The {sup 129}I content of Fucus increased significantly between 1985 and 2003, in line with increases in discharges of {sup 129}I from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Similar trends were observed in the case of {sup 99}Tc. {sup 129}I/{sup 99}Tc ratios in Irish seawater were deduced from the Fucus data, and compared to ratios in discharges from Sellafield and from the French reprocessing plant at Cap de la Hague. Levels of {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc in Fucus from the west coast were found to be enhanced with respect to levels in seaweeds from other regions in the Northern Hemisphere unaffected by discharges from nuclear installations such as those referred to.

  8. Trends in the spatial and temporal distribution of 129I and 99Tc in coastal waters surrounding Ireland using Fucus vesiculosus as a bio-indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, S M; Aldahan, A; Possnert, G; Finegan, P; León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I

    2007-01-01

    Spatial and temporal trends in (129)I and (99)Tc concentrations around the Irish coastline have been evaluated using Fucus vesiculosus as a bio-indicator. (129)I concentrations in a recent set of seawater samples have also been recorded and reveal an identical spatial pattern. Concentrations of (129)I in Fucus from the northeast coast of Ireland proved to be at least two orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in Fucus from the west coast. The (129)I content of Fucus increased significantly between 1985 and 2003, in line with increases in discharges of (129)I from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Similar trends were observed in the case of (99)Tc. (129)I/(99)Tc ratios in Irish seawater were deduced from the Fucus data, and compared to ratios in discharges from Sellafield and from the French reprocessing plant at Cap de la Hague. Levels of (129)I and (99)Tc in Fucus from the west coast were found to be enhanced with respect to levels in seaweeds from other regions in the Northern Hemisphere unaffected by discharges from nuclear installations such as those referred to.

  9. Simultaneous Imbalance Reduction and Peak Shaving using a Field Operational Virtual Power Plant with Pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruissen, O.P. van; Kok, J.K.; Eisma, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch electricity infrastructure is challenged by the deployment of large numbers of heat pumps in newly-built domestic residences. An example is the apartment complex of Couperus in The Hague where 300 apartments are heated by individual heat pumps. This building was operated as a Virtual Power

  10. Comparison of Efficacy of Eye Movement, Desensitization and Reprocessing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Therapeutic Methods for Reducing Anxiety and Depression of Iranian Combatant Afflicted by Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimani, M.; Sadeghieh Ahari, S.; Rajabi, S.

    This research aims to determine efficacy of two therapeutic methods and compare them; Eye Movement, Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for reduction of anxiety and depression of Iranian combatant afflicted with Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after imposed war. Statistical population of current study includes combatants afflicted with PTSD that were hospitalized in Isar Hospital of Ardabil province or were inhabited in Ardabil. These persons were selected through simple random sampling and were randomly located in three groups. The method was extended test method and study design was multi-group test-retest. Used tools include hospital anxiety and depression scale. This survey showed that exercise of EMDR and CBT has caused significant reduction of anxiety and depression.

  11. [EMDR as a psychotherapeutic approach in the treatment of chronic pain : Is Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing an effective therapy for patients with chronic pain who do not suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicking, M; Maier, C; Tesarz, J; Bernardy, K

    2017-10-01

    The efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) has been demonstrated for posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite promising research, it is still not clear if EMDR is a similarly effective treatment for chronic pain. Controlled trials are lacking and whether specific mechanisms underlie the effects remains unknown. The treatment of chronic pain aims at a reduction of subjective pain sensations. To achieve this goal without the usage of pain medications, i. e. through psychotherapy, is desirable for many reasons (e. g. reduction of treatment costs and side effects). Whether or not EMDR is an effective intervention for all chronic pain patients (or just a specific subgroup) constitutes an important question for psychological pain research.

  12. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: A new perspective on plant to plant communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Mescher; Justin B. Runyon; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-...

  13. Engineering the plant rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Plant natural products are low molecular weight compounds playing important roles in plant survival under biotic and abiotic stresses. In the rhizosphere, several groups of plant natural products function as semiochemicals that mediate the interactions of plants with other plants, animals and

  14. 21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... decision, reprocessing, or are awaiting disposal after rejection; (3) Separating the manufacturing... and other foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products; (4) Performing laboratory analyses and...

  15. Poinsettia plant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  16. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  17. Students' Ideas about Plants and Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.; Stein, Mary; McNair, Shannan; Barman, Natalie S.

    2006-01-01

    Because the National Science Education Standards (1996) outline specific things K-8 students should know about plants, and previous data indicated that elementary students had difficulty understanding some major ideas about plants and plant growth, the authors of this article thought it appropriate to initiate an investigation to determine the…

  18. Literature survey: methods for the removal of iodine species from off-gases and liquid waste streams of nuclear power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, with emphasis on solid sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis was focused on the operating parameters that most strongly affected the optimization of the processes used to treat actual process or feed streams which simulated actual compositions occurring at nuclear facilities. These parameters included gas superficial velocity, temperature, types of organic and inorganic contaminants, relative humidity, iodine feed-gas concentration, iodine species, column design (for both acid-scrub and solid sorbent-based processes), sorbent particle size, run time, intense radiation (solid sorbents only), and scrub-acid concentration. The most promising acid-scrub process for removal of iodine species from off-gases appears to be Iodox. The most promising solid sorbent for removal of iodine species from off-gases is the West German Ag-KTB--AgNO/sub 3/-impregnated amorphous silicic acid. The tandem silver mordenite--lead mordenite sorbent system is also quite attractive. Only a limited number of processes have thus far been studied for removal of iodine species from low-level liquid waste streams. The most extensive successful operating experience has been obtained with anion exchange resins utilized at nuclear power reactors. Bench-scale engineering tests have indicated that the best process for removal of all types of iodine species from liquid waste streams may be treatment on a packed bed containing a mixture of sorbents with affinity for both elemental and anionic species of iodine. 154 references, 7 figures, 21 tables.

  19. Life sciences and space research XXIV(4) - Natural and artificial ecosystems; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission F (Meetings F10, F11, F1 and F12) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Averner, M. M. (Editor); Tibbits, T. W. (Editor); Bugbee, B. B. (Editor); Horneck, G. (Editor); Dunlop, E. H. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present conference on natural and artificial ecosystems and their application to space research encompasses both in-flight and ground-based issues of recycling and control in regenerative life support, the relationships of productivity and facility design in higher plant growth, life-support systems for manned missions to Mars, and biochemical engineering applications in space. Specific issues addressed include interface problems between material recycling systems and plants, temperature and humidity control on a lunar base, the CELSS Test-Facility Project, achieving closure in plant-growth facilities, and life-support systems for Mars transit. Also addressed are a closed equilibrated biological aquatic system, a simulated Mars outpost in the Antarctica dry valleys, analyses of human kidney-cell populations separated on the space shuttle, and the evolution of a phase-separated gravity-independent bioreactor.

  20. Nuclear power plants and childhood leukaemia: lessons from the past and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, C; Spycher, B D

    2014-01-01

    In the 1980s, leukaemia clusters were discovered around nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in Sellafield and Dounreay in the United Kingdom. This raised public concern about the risk of childhood leukaemia near nuclear power plants (NPPs). Since then, the topic has been well-studied, but methodological limitations make results difficult to interpret. Our review aims to: (1.) summarise current evidence on the relationship between NPPs and risk of childhood leukaemia, with a focus on the Swiss CANUPIS (Childhood cancer and nuclear power plants in Switzerland) study; (2.) discuss the limitations of previous research; and (3.) suggest directions for future research. There are various reasons that previous studies produced inconclusive results. These include: inadequate study designs and limited statistical power due to the low prevalence of exposure (living near a NPP) and outcome (leukaemia); lack of accurate exposure estimates; limited knowledge of the aetiology of childhood leukaemia, particularly of vulnerable time windows and latent periods; use of residential location at time of diagnosis only and lack of data on address histories; and inability to adjust for potential confounders. We conclude that risk of childhood leukaemia around NPPs should continue to be monitored and that study designs should be improved and standardised. Data should be pooled internationally to increase the statistical power. More research needs to be done on other putative risk factors for childhood cancer such as low-dose ionizing radiation, exposure to certain chemicals and exposure to infections. Studies should be designed to allow examining multiple exposures.

  1. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srienc, Friedrich (Lake Elmo, MN); Somers, David A. (Roseville, MN); Hahn, J. J. (New Brighton, MN); Eschenlauer, Arthur C. (Circle Pines, MN)

    2000-01-01

    Novel transgenic plants and plant cells are capable of biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Heterologous enzymes involved in PHA biosynthesis, particularly PHA polymerase, are targeted to the peroxisome of a transgenic plant. Transgenic plant materials that biosynthesize short chain length monomer PHAs in the absence of heterologous .beta.-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase are also disclosed.

  2. Plant Growth Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  3. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  4. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  5. Plant dermatitis: Asian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Teik Jin Goon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational and recreational plant exposure on the skin is fairly common. Plant products and extracts are commonly used and found extensively in the environment. Adverse reactions to plants and their products are also fairly common. However, making the diagnosis of contact dermatitis from plants and plant extracts is not always simple and straightforward. Phytodermatitis refers to inflammation of the skin caused by a plant. The clinical patterns may be allergic phytodermatitis, photophytodermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, pharmacological injury, and mechanical injury. In this article, we will focus mainly on allergy contact dermatitis from plants or allergic phytodermatitis occurring in Asia.

  6. Plant Research '75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

  7. PLANT BIOPRINTING: NOVEL PERSPECTIVE FOR PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhityo WICAKSONO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioprinting is a technical innovation that has revolutionized tissue engineering. Using conventional printer cartridges filled with cells as well as a suitable scaffold, major advances have been made in the biomedical field, and it is now possible to print skin, bones, blood vessels, and even organs. Unlike animal systems, the application of bioprinting in simple plant tissue cells is still in a nascent phase and has yet to be studied. One major advantage of plants is that all living parts are reprogrammable in the form of totipotent cells. Plant bioprinting may improve scientists’understanding of plant shape and morphogenesis, and could serve for the mass production of desired tissues or plants, or even the production of plant-based biomaterial for industrial uses. This perspectives paper explores these possibilities using knowledge on what is known about bioprinting in other biosystems.

  8. The effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Cognitive Reprocessing Intervention (EMDR on Improving the Quality of Life and Reducing the Guilt Feeling in Parents of Children with Low-Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سعید رضایی

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to evaluate the effects of eye movement desensitization and cognitive reprocessing intervention (EMDR on improving the quality of life and reducing the guilt feelings in parents of children with low-functioning autism. The research was set up in an experimental pretest-posttest design with a control group and follow up. As sample of study, 16 pairs of parents (mother and father of children with low-functioning autism who had referred to autism rehabilitation centers, were departed randomly to two experimental (8 couples and control (8 couples groups. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHO-QOL and the Guilt Questionnaire (Kugler and Jones, 1998 were used for data collection. The EMDR intervention program was implemented in 10 two-hour sessions during one month for the experimental group. After 45 days, the follow-up test was conducted on the experimental group. Data were gathered and analyzed using a mixed-design analysis of variance model. The results showed a statistically signifycant (P = 0/5 effectiveness of the EMDR intervention in improving the quality of life and reducing the guilt feelings of parents of children with low- functioning autism.

  9. LWR fuel reprocessing and recycle program. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1976. [Shear; voloxidation; dissolution; Purex; off-gas adsorption; MOX fuel fabrication; environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondra, B.L.

    1976-11-01

    Two additional dissolutions were made using irradiated fuel for the H.B. Robinson II reactor; the solids are being characterized. An extension of time was given for bid proposals for a model /sup 1///sub 2/-ton/day voloxidizer. Preliminary heat transfer tests of a rotary kiln voloxidizer were completed. Residence times were measured in a 6-in. dia. tube; results were in agreement with those obtained in a previous test with a commercial kiln. The remaining fluorocarbon adsorption process pilot-plant tests scheduled under campaign 3 were completed; more than 99.99% of the carbon dioxide and xenon impurities were removed. Studies of stainless steel corrosion by R-12 solutions in presence of iodine and water are continuing. Methyl iodide was found to be miscible in R-12. An ORNL/SRL survey study was made of commercial and potential spent LWR fuel reprocessors to identify unresolved shearing and related head-end problems. Areas of difficulty were categorized as: (A) mechanical technology, (B) safety technology, (C) waste disposal, and (D) a pressing need for an LWR fuel Reference Information Center. A new hot-cell domestic shearing system must be developed, and remote operability and maintenance must be demonstrated at high throughputs. 22 tables, 10 fig. (DLC)

  10. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  11. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react...

  12. Classification of cultivated plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based

  13. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  14. Plant growth and cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Dorina

    2013-01-01

    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory.

  15. Plant Pathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehlemann, Gunther; Ökmen, Bilal; Zhu, Wenjun; Sharon, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are among the dominant causal agents of plant diseases. To colonize plants and cause disease, pathogenic fungi use diverse strategies. Some fungi kill their hosts and feed on dead material (necrotrophs), while others colonize the living tissue (biotrophs). For successful invasion of plant organs, pathogenic development is tightly regulated and specialized infection structures are formed. To further colonize hosts and establish disease, fungal pathogens deploy a plethora of virulence factors. Depending on the infection strategy, virulence factors perform different functions. While basically all pathogens interfere with primary plant defense, necrotrophs secrete toxins to kill plant tissue. In contrast, biotrophs utilize effector molecules to suppress plant cell death and manipulate plant metabolism in favor of the pathogen. This article provides an overview of plant pathogenic fungal species and the strategies they use to cause disease.

  16. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  17. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  18. Plant aquaporins: roles in plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Santoni, Véronique; Maurel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. Here, we present comprehensive insights made on plant aquaporins in recent years, pointing to their molecular and physiological specificities with respect to animal or microbial counterparts. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations and various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport by aquaporins of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide or metalloids such as boric or silicic acid. The mechanisms that determine the gating and subcellular localization of plant aquaporins are extensively studied. They allow aquaporin regulation in response to multiple environmental and hormonal stimuli. Thus, aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation and nutrient transport in roots and leaves. They contribute to several plant growth and developmental processes such as seed germination or emergence of lateral roots. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant resistance to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Statistically Valid Planting Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1961-01-01

    More than 100 million tree seedlings are planted each year in Latin America, and at least ten time'that many should be planted Rational control and development of a program of such magnitude require establishing and interpreting carefully planned trial plantings which will yield statistically valid answers to real and important questions. Unfortunately, many...

  20. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…