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Sample records for haemorrhagia post partum

  1. [Post-partum thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Celestino; Alves, Marta; Delgado, Luís; Medina, J Luís

    2009-01-01

    In the post-partum period the immune alterations are associated with the multiple autoimmune diseases relapse. After birth, immune-tolerance variation slowly disappear, and is observed a return to a normal state - after an exacerbation period - of autoimmune reactivity, during which a great increase in T cells and autoantibodies is observed. In this period - 3 to 9 months after birth - the thyroid autoimmune disease relapses or reappears. The reactivation of the immune system in the post-partum period unchains an acute phase of celular destruction which characterizes the post-partum thyroiditis.

  2. [Post partum depression: future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Martina; Zompo, Maria Del

    2012-01-01

    Post partum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric illness approximately affecting 10-20% of women after childbirth. The objective of this work is to update our knowledge of PPD giving particular emphasis to etiopathogenetic hypotheses. An accurate search of the literature on this topic was conducted using free dedicated websites such as PubMed. The most recent studies reveal that PPD is a complex disease, whose pathogenesis is not yet clarified, determined by a mix of genetic, biological and environmental factors. Genetic studies have shown a possible involvement of polymorphisms of genes coding for serotonin transporter, 5HT2A and 5HT2C receptors, HMCN1 and METTL13 genes, D2 receptor and GABAA receptor (GABAAR). The involvement of these systems might provide an explanation of the relations among genetic alterations, hormonal fluctuations in the post partum, changes in neurotransmission and mood fluctuations typical of PPD. The results obtained so far are not exhaustive. However, there is a substantial evidence showing that patients with PPD may have a high genetic vulnerability, although we have not been able yet to pinpoint a specific biological marker of the disease. Recent research is focusing on the δ subunit of GABAAR and the possible role of selective agonists of this subunit, such as gaboxadol, in the treatment of PPD.

  3. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Post Partum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, W.; Marth, C.; Bergant, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic birth experiences may lead to serious psychological impairment. Recent studies show that a considerable number of women can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in some cases in a subsyndromal form. Until now, the possibility that postpartum psychological symptoms might be a continuum of a pre-existing disorder in pregnancy has rarely been considered. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the proportion of women who develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. Materials and Methods: 56 multiparous women were recruited for the study. The diagnosis of PTSD was made according to the criteria for psychological disorders in the DSM-IV (Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). The data were collected in structured interviews in the 30th to 38th week of gestation and in the 6th week post partum. Results: Of the 56 women participating, 52 (93 %) completed the survey. Uncontrolled results showed that 21.15 % of the multiparous women met the full diagnostic PTSD criteria in the 6th week post partum. After the exclusion of all cases already characterised by all criteria or a subsyndromal form of PTSD caused by previous traumatisation, the PTSD rate was below 8 % at 6 weeks postpartum (= incidence rate of PTSD post partum). Conclusions: The present study is the first prospective longitudinal study to demonstrate the occurrence of full criteria PTSD in multiparous women as a result of childbirth after having excluded pre-existing PTSD. The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of PTSD during pregnancy. A number of women report all aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. PMID:25253905

  4. Post-partum acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Pahwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the risk factors, course of hospital stay and mortality rate among women with post-partum acute kidney injury (AKI, we studied (of 752 patients with AKI admitted to a tertiary care center during the study period between November 2009 and August 2012 27 (3.59% women with post-partum AKI. The data regarding age, parity, cause of renal failure, course of hospital stay and requirement of dialysis were recorded. Sepsis was the major cause (70.3% of post-partum AKI. Other causes included disseminated intravascular coagulation (55.5%, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (40.7%, ante- and post-partum hemorrhage (40.7% and 22.2% and hemolytic anemia and elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count syndrome (29.6%; most patients had more than one cause of AKI. We found a very high prevalence (18.5% of cortical necrosis in our study patients. A significant correlation was also found between the creatinine level on admission and the period of onset of disease after delivery. In conclusion, several factors are involved in causing post-partum AKI in our population, and sepsis was the most common of them.

  5. PRIMIPARA POST PARTUM DEPRESSION DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

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    Esha Pradnyana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and the first child birth is an influential complex event for a mother, which is where everything including phsycal and psyological aspects. This change can make mother psyological disorder, that can lead into depression after childbearing that call post childbearing depression or post partum depression. A wide review at 59 study make a result that 13% among primipara can suffer post partum depression 12 weeks after childbearing. Estabilishmet of this diagnosis, besides from history and symptoms, and can be supported through test Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale( EPDS . Patient with post partum depression, given treatment with antidepressant drug. Breastfeeding is not only to reduce stress for the mother, but also reduce the level of stress on a baby when his mother suffered depression

  6. the occurrence of post partum anoestrus in bonsmara cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    duration of post partum anoestrus than gain in body mass. Post pactum ... and Bos Taurus cattle to improve fertility and milk pro- duction in high .... The occurrence of post partum anoestrus in beef cows under ranching conditions. Proc.

  7. [Hypertension and pregnancy: Post-partum period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugon-Rodin, Justine; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    Post-partum period is associated with specific characteristics in women with gestational disorders or preeclampsia. For breastfeeding women, the choice of antihypertensive treatment should take into account the impact on child health. The impact of breastfeeding on health mother must be also discussed. Moreover, for lactation inhibition, bromocriptine should not be used, especially in the context of gestational disorders. In post-partum period, the best contraceptive strategy is only-progestin contraception or non-hormonal contraceptives use. However, this choice will depend on the stabilization or normalization of blood pressure in early post-partum period. Finally, several consultations should be suggested: an information and announcement to explain the consequences of these gestational disorders and organize their multidisciplinary management and follow-up. A preconceptional consultation takes its place to anticipate potential recurrent preeclampsia or gestational hypertension and to schedule a future pregnancy in optimal conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. [Risk factors in post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Monica; Battaglia, Eliana; Massimino, Marta; Aguglia, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    It is commonly believed that pregnancy is a time of good mental health. However it has been observed, until recently, that many pregnant women, above all in post partum period, manifest depressive symptoms like sadness, social withdrawal and lack of motivation. The consequences are enormous, for mother mental health and for the psychical development of the baby. It becomes therefore necessary to screening and to precociously intervene on these pathological conditions and thanks also to the suitable knowledge of the risk factors for the potential development of depression post partum.

  9. [Unusual leukoencephalopathy of post-partum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsaini, Y; Karouache, A; Bourazza, A

    2011-08-01

    Neurologic complications of post-partum are serious and usually secondary to eclampsia or stroke. We here report a 26-year-old female who presented with severe headaches, blurred vision, and repeated generalized seizures secondary to posterior reversible encephalopathy that occurred after a caesarean section for fetal death in utero. Outcome was favourable. Although uncommon, this neurologic complication of the post-partum should be discussed in the presence of any sign of encephalopathy occurring in the context of acute hypertension. Copyright © 2010 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    B. V. Triveni; Salman Mohammed Sheikh; Deepak Shedde

    2014-01-01

    Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinicopathological syndrome associated with various clinical conditions presenting with headache, encephalopathy, seizure and cortical visual disturbances. Radiological findings in PRES are thought to be due to vasogenic edema predominantly in posterior cerebral hemispheres and are reversible with appropriate management. We present a case of post partum PRES,A 29 year old primigravida of 33 weeks 3 days period of gestation who prese...

  11. Recurrent post-partum coronary artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resnic Frederic S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coronary artery dissection is a rare but well-described cause for myocardial infarction during the post-partum period. Dissection of multiple coronary arteries is even less frequent. Here we present a case of recurrent post-partum coronary artery dissections. This unusual presentation poses unique problems for management. A 35 year-old female, gravida 3 para 2, presented with myocardial infarction 9 weeks and 3 days post-partum. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated left anterior descending (LAD dissection but an otherwise normal coronary anatomy. The lesion was treated with four everolimus eluting stents. Initially the patient made an unremarkable recovery until ventricular fibrillation arrest occurred on the following day. Unsynchronized cardioversion restored a normal sinus rhythm and repeat catheterization revealed new right coronary artery (RCA dissection. A wire was passed distally, but it was unclear whether this was through the true or false lumen and no stents could be placed. However, improvement of distal RCA perfusion was noted on angiogram. Despite failure of interventional therapy the patient was therefore treated conservatively. Early operation after myocardial infarction has a significantly elevated risk of mortality and the initial dissection had occurred within 24 hours. This strategy proved successful as follow-up transthoracic echocardiography after four months demonstrated a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction of 55-60% without regional wall motion abnormalities. The patient remained asymptomatic from a cardiac point of view.

  12. Bacteria Isolated from Post-Partum Infections

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    Nahid Arianpour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken with an aim to determine bacterial species involved in post partum infections and also their abundance in patients admitted to at Khanevadeh hospital. In this study out of three different kinds of postpartum infections (i.e. genital, breast and urinary tract, only genital infection is considered.Materials and Methods: Post partum infection among 6077 patients (inpatients and re-admitted patients of Khanevadeh hospital from 2003 till 2008 was studied in this descriptive study. Samples were collected from patients for laboratory diagnosis to find out the causative organisms.Results: Follow up of mothers after delivery revealed 7.59% (461 patients had post partum infection, out of which 1.03% (63 patients were re-hospitalized. Infection was more often among younger mothers. Bacteria isolated and identified were both aerobic and anaerobic cocci and bacilli, majority of which were normal flora of the site of infection. Though, some pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis,were also the causative agents. The commonest infection was infection at the site of episiotomy. Conclusion: Puerperal infection was detected in of 7.59% mothers. Bacteria isolated were both aerobic and anaerobic cocci and bacilli, majority of which were normal flora. However; some pathogenic bacteria were isolated.

  13. Limbic encephalitis presenting as a post-partum psychiatric condition.

    OpenAIRE

    Gotkine, Marc; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Vincent, Angela; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe a woman who presented with a psychiatric disorder post-partum and subsequently developed seizures and cognitive dysfunction prompting further investigation. A diagnosis of limbic encephalitis (LE) was made and antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) detected. These antibodies are found in many non-paraneoplastic patients with LE. Although antibody-mediated conditions tend to present or relapse post-partum, VGKC-LE in the post-partum period has not b...

  14. Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder

    2015-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis...... and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood...

  15. Post partum posteriort reversibeltencefalopati-syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder

    2015-01-01

    and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood......Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis...

  16. Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder

    2015-01-01

    and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood......Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis...

  17. [Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder; Bülow, Hans Henrik

    2015-11-23

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood pressure test.

  18. Limbic encephalitis presenting as a post-partum psychiatric condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotkine, Marc; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Vincent, Angela; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi

    2011-09-15

    We describe a woman who presented with a psychiatric disorder post-partum and subsequently developed seizures and cognitive dysfunction prompting further investigation. A diagnosis of limbic encephalitis (LE) was made and antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) detected. These antibodies are found in many non-paraneoplastic patients with LE. Although antibody-mediated conditions tend to present or relapse post-partum, VGKC-LE in the post-partum period has not been described. Case report. Clinical and imaging data were consistent with limbic encephalitis. High titres of anti-VGKC-complex antibodies confirmed the diagnosis of VGKC-LE. The similarities between the psychiatric symptomatology of VGKC-LE and post-partum psychiatric disorders raise the possibility that some instances of post-partum psychiatric conditions are manifestations of immune-mediated, non-paraneoplastic LE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Post partum occlusion of the hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buecheler, E.; Hagemann, J.; Remmecke, J.; Hamburg Univ.

    1980-01-01

    A case of post partum acute thrombosis of the hepatic artery with infarction of the liver is reported. The prognosis depends on the areas of obstruction, on the early development of a collateral circulation and on the contribution to the blood supply from the portal vein. The diagnosis of liver infarction was made by computed tomography. This was characterised by sharply demarkated hypodense areas, which did not enhance with contrast. An important clue is the lack of increase in density in the liver after intravenous injection of contrast when compared with the increased contrast of the spleen. This finding provided the indication for angiography. This confirmed the diagnosis of acute occlusion and made appropriate treatment possible. (orig.) [de

  20. Perbandingan Kejadian Post Partum Blues pada Ibu Post Partum dengan Persalinan Normal dan Sectio Caesarea

    OpenAIRE

    Miyansaski, Andrew Umaya; -, Misrawati -; Sabrian, Febriana -

    2014-01-01

    Childbirth and section caesarea. This research used comparative study design with cross sectional. Research has been done in outpatient of obstetric of mother and child hospital Andini in Pekanbaru on 56 post partum mothers which was chosen by using purposive sampling technique by considering inclusion criteria. Measurement tools that has been used is questionnaire of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) that has been tested with validity and reliability test. Analysis that was used is...

  1. Studies on post-partum anoestrus in Alentejano beef cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horta, A.E.M.; Vasques, M.I.; Leitao, R.M.; Robalo Silva, J.

    1990-01-01

    Post-partum ovarian activity in Alentejano beef cows maintained on natural pastures was monitored by measuring plasma progesterone levels using the radioimmunoassay method. Post-partum anoestrus was compared in cows calving in two different seasons (winter and summer). Differences between primiparous and multiparous cows, the effect of short term nursing interruption (72 hours by the 20th day post-partum) and the dam's body weight at calving (BWC) were also considered with respect to their influence on the onset of post-partum ovarian activity. Fertility after two breeding seasons of natural mating (April-May) and November-December) was also studied. Post-partum anoestrus was significantly longer in winter calving cows than in those calving in summer, in both multiparous and primiparous cows (73.9 versus 33.1 and 111.1 versus 35.6 days, respectively; P 2 =0.41; P<0.03). Because of a longer post-partum anoestrus, fertility was reduced in cows calving during the winter season compared with those calving in summer in all three years of the study (63.9 versus 76.9%, 57.8 versus 62.9% and 36.5 versus 60.6%, for 1984, 1985 and 1986, respectively). The results presented show that the winter period in Portugal impairs the return to ovarian activity post-partum in this breed. 19 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Prevalence and treatment of post partum urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Mørkved

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SUMMARYChildbirth is often considered the main etiological factor in the development of female urinary incontinence(UI. For that reason women in the western countries have been encouraged to engage in post partumpelvic floor muscle (PFM exercise in order to strengthen the pelvic floor. However, the effect of post partumPFM exercise has been sparsely documented. The aim of this article is to review and discuss literaturerelated to prevalence of post partum UI and effect of post partum PFM exercise in the treatment of UI. Thereported prevalence of UI post partum varies from 0.7% to 44%. The variation may be explained bydifferent definitions of UI used in the questionnaires and that the registration of incontinence was done atdifferent intervals after delivery. A few studies have tried to evaluate the effect of post natal PFM exercise.Some have evaluated PFM strength, others the frequency of UI. PFM strength is difficult to measure andthe reliability and validity of the methods used is open to question. Another flaw in some of the previousstudies is the training protocol applied to improve PFM strength. Mørkved and Bø tried to take intoaccount the above mentioned methodological considerations, in a study aiming to evaluate the effect ofpost partum PFM exercise. The results demonstrate that post partum PFM exercise is effective instrengthening the PFM and in the treatment of UI. However, success of PFM exercise is dependent uponboth the training frequency and intensity. This requires a closer follow up of the post partum women, thanthe written information that usually serves this purpose at the present time.Key words  : physiotherapy, pelvic floor muscles, urinary incontinence, post partum exercise, prevalence

  3. Post Partum Depression and Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Keshavarzi MD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risk of depression is particularly high for women during the prenatal period. Various investigators have attempted to establish a link between thyroid function and post partum depression. This study aimed to investigate whether thyroid function differs in women with postpartum depression compared to a control group.Methods: In this case-control study, subjects were selected from Obstetrics & Gynecology and Psychiatric clinics of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Forty eight patients suffering from postpartum depression according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition totally revised (DSM-IV-TR, and 65 normal controls underwent diagnostic evaluation by one trained psychiatrist using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. Then, the demographic questionnaire and the Persian version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS were completed by the participants. Finally, their thyroid functions were assessed. Data analyses were done using the SPSS program 13.Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between thyroid function tests and postpartum depression. According to multiple regression analysis with stepwise method, subjects with lower serum TSH, T3RU, T3 levels, younger age and longer period after delivery tended to have higher EPDS scores (P-value=0.008. Conclusion:The present study reports that those women with postpartum depression had a no greater prevalence of thyroid dysfunction than the control subjects. It seems that thyroid dysfunction should be considered in women with postpartum depression individually, but the role of thyroid as an important cause of this condition is not yet established. This suggests that future studies should concentrate on this concept in postpartum depression.

  4. [Parental care and post partum depression: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Franca; Carluccio, Giuseppe Mattia; Meuti, Valentina; Piperno, Francesca; Sogos, Carla; Straniero Sergio, Bianca; Nicolis, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The post partum depression (PPD) is a severe risk factor for the emotional and cognitive development of offspring. The Authors describe the relationship between mother with PPD and her two-year old child. The mother repeats patterns of parental care experienced during her own childhood.

  5. Using animal models to study post-partum psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, C V; Slattery, D A

    2014-10-01

    The post-partum period represents a time during which all maternal organisms undergo substantial plasticity in a wide variety of systems in order to ensure the well-being of the offspring. Although this time is generally associated with increased calmness and decreased stress responses, for a substantial subset of mothers, this period represents a time of particular risk for the onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, post-partum anxiety, depression and, to a lesser extent, psychosis may develop, and not only affect the well-being of the mother but also place at risk the long-term health of the infant. Although the risk factors for these disorders, as well as normal peripartum-associated adaptations, are well known, the underlying aetiology of post-partum psychiatric disorders remains poorly understood. However, there have been a number of attempts to model these disorders in basic research, which aim to reveal their underlying mechanisms. In the following review, we first discuss known peripartum adaptations and then describe post-partum mood and anxiety disorders, including their risk factors, prevalence and symptoms. Thereafter, we discuss the animal models that have been designed in order to study them and what they have revealed about their aetiology to date. Overall, these studies show that it is feasible to study such complex disorders in animal models, but that more needs to be done in order to increase our knowledge of these severe and debilitating mood and anxiety disorders. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Effective strategies for weight loss in post-partum women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, S.; O'Reilly, S.; Behrens, H.

    2015-01-01

    Post-partum weight loss is critical to preventing and managing obesity in women, but the results from lifestyle interventions are variable and the components associated with successful outcomes are not yet clearly identified. This study aimed to identify lifestyle intervention strategies associated...

  7. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Post-partum Risk and Follow Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poola-Kella, Silpa; Steinman, Rachel A; Mesmar, Bayan; Malek, Rana

    2018-01-31

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at an increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we will discuss postpartum cardiovascular and diabetes risk in women with a history of GDM and different ways to improve postpartum screening. This review involves a comprehensive literature review on gestational diabetes and postpartum risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus as well as post-partum screening methods. Cardiovascular risk post-partum is potentiated by increased inflammatory markers leading to worsening atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events downstream. Decreased insulin sensitivity and β cell compensation, recurrent GDM, maternal factors such as pre and post-partum weight gain and lactation may contribute to T2DM risk. Postpartum glucose testing is essential in screening women as hyperglycemia in pregnancy has long term effects on both cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk on the mother. Long and short term improvement to post-partum glucose testing is essential to decreasing cardiometabolic and diabetes risk in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Experimental gingivitis during pregnancy and post-partum: immunohistochemical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J. E.; Leene, W.; Palmer-Bouva, C. C.; Abraham-Inpijn, L.

    1993-01-01

    The histoimmunological response of 8 individuals was studied longitudinally in relation to the development of experimental gingivitis during pregnancy and post-partum. At day 0 as well as at day 14 of experimental gingivitis the mean periodontal pocket bleeding index (PPBI) was higher during

  9. Short term post-partum heat stress in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuquay, J. W.; Chapin, L. T.; Brown, W. H.

    1980-06-01

    Since many dairy cows calve during late summer, the objective was to determine if heat stress immediately post-partum would (1) alter metabolism, thus, increasing susceptibility to metabolic disorders, (2) affect lactation and/or (3) affect reproduction. Forty four cows, calving during late summer, were paired with one member of each pair stressed (HS) for the first 10 post-partum days in a hot barn. Controls (CC) were kept in a cooled section of the barn. Plasma drawn weekly for 7 weeks was analyzed in an autoanalyzer for calcium, inor. phosphorus, protein, glucose and cholesterol and by radioimmunoassay for cortisol and progesterone. Ovaries and uteri were palpated weekly. Rectal temperatures were significant higher for HS during the first 10 post-partum days. No significant effects on plasma constituents were observed during the 10-day treatment period. For the 7-week period, glucose and cholesterol were lower in HS, as were cyclic peaks of progesterone and cortisol. Both calcium and inorganic phosphorus remained clinically low for the 7 weeks, but no treatment effects were seen. Uteri of HS involuted more rapidly than the CC. Treatment did not affect reproductive efficiency. Lactation milk yields did not differ, but milk fat percent was lower in HS. Heat stress immediately post-partum altered lipid metabolism, but the animal's compensatory mechanisms prevented reduction in milk production or reproductive efficiency.

  10. Post-partum reproductive performance of the Icelandic dairy cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldon, J.; Olafsson, T.; Thorsteinsson, T.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to monitor the reproductive performance of Icelandic dairy cow herds with and without histories of fertility problems under normal farming conditions. Artificial inseminations and calvings were recorded, pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation, and progesterone concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in sequential samples of milk. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals and the concentrations of glucose, urea, calcium and magnesium were determined. Clinical ketosis and low glucose were found in one third of the cows on problem farms. The mean time of first post-partum ovulation was 49 days for cows with ketosis, compared with 34 days for cows free of ketosis. Cows in the normal herds ovulated considerably later than is reported for many other breeds of dairy cows; however, the time of first post-partum AI, the time of conception and the conception rate were similar to those reported for other breeds. The effects of season and herd were statistically significant for the time of first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception; the effect of area was highly significant for the time of ovulation. Progesterone profiles showed that over 50% of the first post-partum ovarian cycles were short and had low progesterone concentrations. Season had significant effects on the length of the interval from calving to first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception, on the conception rate to first AI and consequently on the number of AIs per conception, and on the blood levels of glucose, urea and calcium. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Stability of depressive symptoms over 3 months post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Zarghami, Mehran; Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Lye, Munn-Sann

    2017-02-01

    Prolonged depression during the post-partum period is associated with maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Less attention has been given to factors that predict the persistence of depression beyond the first 3 months post-partum. From a longitudinal cohort of 2279 women who attended Mazandaran's primary health centres in 2009, 478 women with an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of 12 or greater in the third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Persistently depressed women (depressed at all three occasions: during pregnancy, and at 2 and 12 weeks post-partum) were compared with those without depression to determine demographic, cultural, obstetric and biopsychosocial predictors for persistence of depression. Data were analysed using chi-square test, t-test and logistic regression models. The stability of depression was found in 193 (46.2 %) of 418 depressed cases who were followed up over the study period. Of those mothers who scored more than the threshold of 12 during the third trimester of pregnancy, 277 (66.3%) and 221 (52.9%) had high EPDS at 2 and 12 weeks post-partum. Psychological distress (based upon the General Health Questionnaire), low maternal parental self-efficacy (based upon the Parental Expectation Survey) and perceived social isolation (based upon the Network Orientation Scale) were independent predictors of persistent depression. Fewer depressed mothers in this study were found to recover during the first 3 months after giving birth. Psychosocial factors predicted sustained depression from pregnancy to 3 months post-partum. The findings highlight the significance of support in enhancing maternal mental health. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Hormonal profile and body condition scoring in dairy cows during pre partum and post partum periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Vargová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of selected indicators of energy, hormonal profile, body condition score (BCS and their relationships in dairy cows of the Slovak Pied Cattle from 3 weeks before parturition to 9 weeks after. Significant differences were found in the mean values of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA (P P post partum (P P P P P P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that the variations in the concentrations of leptin, ghrelin, and insulin are related to variations in the BCS. Negative correlation between leptin and ghrelin contributes to the argument that leptin negatively regulates ghrelin.

  13. EFEKTIVITAS AROMATERAPI BITTER ORANGE TERHADAP NYERI POST PARTUM SECTIO CAESAREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Utami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgery that causes severe pain physiological response as compared to a normal delivery was called sectio caesarea. The alternative to reduce pain with bitter orange aroma therapy. Bitter orange aroma therapy is to give the effect of reducing the muscle tensions and stress the body as a whole with the goal of keeping the body and mind into a relaxed. This research was aimed to explore the effectiveness of bitter orange aroma therapy for reduction pain in post partum sectio caesarea. The method used this research was quasi experimental with pre test and post test design with control group. The instruments used numeric rating scale to measure pain intensity. The sampling technique used purposive sampling where the quantity of research sample 34 respondents which are divided into 2 groups, namely intervention group and control group. bitter orange aroma therapy carried out for 15 minutes each day for 2 days. The univariate analysis was conducted to show pain distribution and bivariate analysis was conducted by Wicoxon and Mann Whitney. The result show that after bitter orange aroma therapy was applied towards intervered group, it was obtained that mean of respondents category pain was reducing at 3,44 (low pain with the reduction was 1,47 and mean of post partum sectio caesarea pain without given bitter orange aroma therapy in control group was 4,82 (moderate pain with the reduction was 0. The statistic showed up p value (0,000< 0,05 which mean that kneading techniques effective to reduce pain of post partum sectio caesarea. Based on the result, bitter orange aroma therapy can be recommended as nursing intervention of post partum sectio caesarea.

  14. High resolution computed tomography of the post partum pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshaw, D.B.; Hasso, A.N.; Thompson, J.R.; Davidson, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eight volunteer post partum female patients were examined with high resolution computed tomography during the week immediately after delivery. All patients received high dose (40-70 gm) intravenous iodine contrast administration. The scans were examined for pituitary gland height, shape and homogeneity. All of the patients had enlarged glands by the traditional standards (i.e. gland height of 8 mm or greater). The diaphragma sellae in every call bulged upward with a convex domed appearance. The glands were generally inhomogeneous. One gland had a 4 mm focal well defined area of decreased attenuation. Two patients who were studied again months later had glands which had returned to ''normal'' size. The enlarged, upwardly convex pituitary gland appears to be typical and normal for the recently post partum period. (orig.)

  15. Cranial neuroimaging in pregnancy and the post-partum period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, A.M.; Bradley, M.D.; Likeman, M.; Stoodley, N.G.; Renowden, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Several diverse neurological conditions may be seen during pregnancy and the post partum period. These usually require neuroimaging for definitive diagnosis and range from a predisposition to neurovascular abnormalities, such as acute ischaemic stroke and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, through to more specific pregnancy-related conditions, such as eclampsia/posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy and post-partum angiopathy. Additionally, the pregnant patient is predisposed to pituitary disease. It is necessary that the radiologist has an awareness of these conditions to allow swift specific diagnoses or suggest the most appropriate diagnosis when imaging findings are non-specific. We describe epidemiological and radiological features to allow the radiologist to guide the clinician in management, and review guidelines for safe cranial imaging of the pregnant patient

  16. The enhanced reproduction of cow parent brahman cross post partum with feed supplement multinutrient block medicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nursyam Andi Syarifuddin; Anis Wahdi

    2011-01-01

    One of the problems in breeding Brahman Cross cattle reproduction efficiency is low due to the length of postpartum anestrus and the high number of services per conception is partly due to the low nutrient content of rations. This study aims to improve the performance of reproductive cows parent Brahman Cross post partum through feeding strategy supplement Multi nutrient Block plus Medicated (MBPM) which starts with the correct parent condition score so that it can accelerate the process appear oestrus post partum then increasing conception rate to minimize the number of service per conception as well as to improve the growth calf produced. This research uses 16 cows parent Brahman Cross post partum not exceeding 90 days comprising 9 tails were given feed supplements MBPM compared with 7 tail not given feed supplements MBPM as control. Research results show that feeding supplements MBPM can enhanced reproductive cow parent Brahman Cross post partum i.e. : maintain parent condition score in early post partum until the occurrence of pregnant, accelerating day 24,8 appear oestrus post partum, number service per conception = 1 and conception rate can reach 60%, maintaining the levels of urea plasma of blood and blood glucose levels within normal limits either at the time of post partum and oestrus post partum. Feeding supplements MBPM on cows parent Brahman Cross post partum can give added daily gain 0,51 kg on calf is suckling. (author)

  17. Demographic, maternal, and infant health correlates of post-partum depression in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Reema R; Abushaikha, Lubna A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional correlational study examined post-partum depression and its relationship with demographic, maternal, and infant health problems in urban Jordanian women. Participants (n = 315) were selected from five maternal child healthcare centers and one major hospital in Amman, Jordan. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to measure post-partum depression within 12 weeks of birth. A number of socio-demographic and health problems were examined for an association with post-partum depression. Results showed that 25% of post-partum women suffered moderate to severe depression and 50% of the sample had mild depression. None of the socio-demographic variables (age, education, employment, income) were significantly related to post-partum depression; however, two obstetric/infant variables (mode of birth and breastfeeding), were significantly associated with post-partum depression. There was a significant association between post-partum depression and 15 health problems of obstetric, gynecologic (i.e. episiotomy pain, infection), and general health conditions (i.e. fatigue, headache). Nurses and midwives need to emphasize post-partum depression screening, follow-up, and proper management of maternal and infant health factors predisposing to post-partum depression rather than merely focusing on women's inherent demographic factors. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Post-partum depression in the community: a qualitative study from rural South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarimuthu, R J S; Ezhilarasu, P; Charles, H; Antonisamy, B; Kurian, S; Jacob, K S

    2010-01-01

    Post-partum depression, although heterogeneous, is often considered a medical disease when viewed from the biomedical perspective. However, recent reports from the Indian subcontinent have documented psychosocial causal factors. This study employed qualitative methodology in a representative sample of women in rural South India. Women in the post-partum period were assessed using the Tamil versions of the Short Explanatory Model Interview, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a semi-structured interview to diagnose ICD 10 depression. Socio-demographic and clinical details were also recorded. Some 137 women were recruited and assessed, of these, 26.3% were diagnosed to have post-partum depression. The following factors were associated with post-partum depression after adjusting for age and education: age less than 20 or over 30 years, schooling less than five years, thoughts of aborting current pregnancy, unhappy marriage, physical abuse during current pregnancy and after childbirth, husband's use of alcohol, girl child delivered in the absence of living boys and a preference for a boy, low birth weight, and a family history of depression. Post-partum depression was also associated with an increased number of causal models of illness, a number of non-medical models, treatment models and non-medical treatment models. Many social and cultural factors have a major impact on post-partum depression. Post-partum depression, when viewed from a biomedical framework, fails to acknowledge the role of context in the production of emotional distress in the post-partum period.

  19. Post-partum anaphylaxis: universal but successful management protocol should not deter appreciation of underlying etio-pathogenesis plethora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Rubens, Andrew; Marjanovic, Milos

    2012-03-30

    Post-partum Anaphylaxis in mothers is extremely rare and has been reported secondary to initiation of the breast-feeding. However, we hereby report the occurrence of post-partum anaphylaxis in a post-partum patient in the absence of the initiated breast-feeding.

  20. Spontaneous parasitic leiomyoma in a post-partum woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Mana; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Shozu, Makio

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of spontaneous parasitic leiomyoma in a 30-year-old post-partum woman. A subserosal leiomyoma had been noted at the first trimester screening, and she had experienced persistent abdominal pain during her previous pregnancy. She was referred to hospital with severe abdominal pain at 7 months after delivery. We detected a homogenous solid tumor that resembled the subserosal leiomyoma but was completely detached from the uterus. On laparoscopy the vascularization of the tumor was supplied from the omentum, which was tightly adherent to the tumor. Histopathologically, the tumor was surrounded by a fibrous vascular capsule, and broadly hyalinized and partially calcified, consistent with a degenerated uterine leiomyoma. Detachment of a pedunculated subserosal leiomyoma from the uterus following adhesion to other pelvic structures throughout pregnancy may result in a parasitic leiomyoma, a rare subtype of uterine leiomyoma. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Low back pain post partum - A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-23

    Sacral stress fracture is an unusual source of low back pain and can be easily confused with a number of other clinical conditions seen in physiotherapy clinics. The purpose of this case report is to describe the case of a patient presenting with low back pain post partum illustrating pertinent aspects of differential diagnosis and issues of management. A 31 year old female presented complaining of low back pain since the birth of her second child 11 months earlier. Subjective and objective examination led the Therapist to consider a diagnosis of sacral stress fracture. This diagnosis was confirmed by MRI. Three months after presenting to physiotherapy the patient was pain free and had returned to all aspects of her daily life without any difficulties. Clinicians must be aware of the less common pathologies in any hypotheses development. A careful history and physical examination and broad hypotheses generation will ensure that patients are accurately diagnosed and receive appropriate and effective treatments.

  2. Changes of progesterone levels in the milk of dairy cows in post-partum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongpeng, Li

    1985-06-01

    Progesterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in the last milk of seven dairy cows in 5-75 days post-partum. The progesterone levels were from 0.1 to 1.5 ng/ml and averaged 0.4 +- 0.2 ng/ml for the last milk of the seven cows. A range of 0.3 to 0.7 ng/ml for average progesterone levels of the seven cows can be estimated. Two ovarian cycle activities in post-partum of cow No. 43 were observed and a ovulation on 15-20 days post-partum was revealed. The peak value after 20 days post-partum was 3.0 ng/ml. The progesterone level after peak value was declined, and reached to about 0.2 ng/ml on 35 days post-partum. The changes of ovarian activities were exhibited again in 35-55 days post-partum. The progesterone levels of cow No. 43 were lower in luteal phase oestrous cycles post-partum than that from the other cows in normal luteal phase oestrous cycles.

  3. Predictors of post-partum stress in Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Chun; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

    2016-01-01

    The post-partum period is a stressful time of change, particularly for immigrant women, but, to the best of the present authors' knowledge, the subject has not been explored. This study aimed to examine immigrant women's post-partum stress, depression, and levels of social support, and to determine the predictors of post-partum stress for Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used. In this descriptive survey, 208 Vietnamese immigrant women were telephone interviewed by a trained Vietnamese research assistant during one of their 6 weeks post-partum. Data were collected through telephone interviews using three questionnaires, including the Hung Postpartum Stress Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Social Support Scale. The result shows that Vietnamese women had low level post-partum stress scores. Participants' family support rated higher than friend support. The incidence of depression was 0.5%. Social support, number of post-partum days, and family income were found to be predictors for post-partum stress, accounting for 26.6% of the variance. The Vietnamese immigrant women experienced significant stress regarding their maternal roles and received most of their support from their families rather than from friends. Nurses caring for this cohort should therefore consider these factors in order to help them cope with their post-partum stress. Healthcare providers should offer available resources to these immigrant women and their spouses during this critical period in their lives. For instance, antenatal education classes could be provided to help immigrant women manage and overcome post-partum issues. © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  4. The role of melatonin in post-partum psychosis and depression associated with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George

    2010-11-01

    Recent data has highlighted the association of a bipolar disorder (BD) with an increased risk of post-partum psychosis and depression. It is suggested that genetic- and environmental-induced decrease in the levels of melatonin in BD contributes to post-partum disorders. Melatonin may also have some efficacy in the treatment of BD, especially in decreasing the side-effects associated with lithium and the neuroleptics. It is proposed that the optimization of melatonin levels, perhaps in conjunction with optimized vitamin D3 level, would decrease post-partum psychosis and depression associated with BD.

  5. Urinary incontinence and weight changes during pregnancy and post partum: a pending challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Viñaspre Hernández, Regina; Rubio Aranda, Encarnación; Tomás Aznar, Concepción

    2013-12-01

    to analyse the association between urinary incontinence and maternal weight, and its variations in pregnancy and post partum. observational study of a cohort of women from the start of pregnancy until six months post partum. Hospital San Pedro in La Rioja, Spain. 402 pregnant women without urinary incontinence at the start of pregnancy. the dependent variable was urinary incontinence, assessed using the Urogenital Distress Inventory-Short Form questionnaire. The main independent variables were body mass index (BMI) at the first antenatal visit and six months post partum, weight gain during pregnancy, postpartum weight loss, and weight retained from the start of pregnancy to six months post partum. The association between urinary incontinence and the main independent variables was measured using Student's t-test. Three simple logistic regression models were used to assess the strength of this association, one for each of the independent variables that showed a significant association with urinary incontinence (p<0.05), and three multiple regression models that included the possible variable effect modifiers were also used. At the start of pregnancy, 20.1% of the women were overweight and 8.7% were obese. Six months post partum, 30.3% of the women were overweight and 11.4% were obese. The mean (±standard deviation) retained weight was 2 (±3.1) kg. Postpartum urinary incontinence was associated with BMI at six months post partum, postpartum weight loss and retained weight at six months post partum (p<0.05). The association of urinary incontinence with these variables was significant, and remained stable in both simple and multiple regression analyses with BMI at six months post partum [odds ratio (OR) 1.09 versus 1.08], weight loss from delivery to six months post partum (OR 0.88 versus 0.88), and retained weight from the beginning of pregnancy until six months post partum (OR 1.23 versus 1.19). high BMI and weight retention at six months post partum increase the

  6. [Maternal attachment patterns and personality in post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Franca; Baglioni, Valentina; Ciolli, Paola; De Bei, Francesco; Di Lorenzo, Flavia; Ferracuti, Stefano; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Marini, Isabella; Meuti, Valentina; Motta, Paola; Roma, Paolo; Zaccagni, Michela; Williams, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of post partum depression (PPD) in a sample of Roman women, and the role of socio-demographic variables, personality structure and maternal attachment patterns, in order to identify primary and secondary prevention strategies. Data were collected in two phases. During the third trimester of pregnancy, a sample of 453 women completed a socio-demographic data sheet and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Among the patients scoring 12 or more at EPDS, 15 entered the second phase of the study and completed SCID-II and Adult Attachment Interview. PPD diagnosis was confirmed by the SCID-I. The study group was compared with a control group. Among the 453 women who were evaluated, 92 (20.3%) scored ≥12 at EPDS, 39 has been enrolled and 15 entered the study. Presence of depressive symptoms was associated with: complications in pregnancy, previous psychiatric disorders, family and marital conflicts. 66.6% of depressed mothers showed more than one diagnosis on Axis II (particularly avoidant/dependent + borderline or histrionic + dependent). The AAI showed a prevalence of insecure (33.3%) and unresolved/disorganized (46.6%) attachment pattern in the clinical group. Our results suggest that psychological factors such as personality structure and attachment patterns are not only involved in post natal affective disorders, but have a key role in the onset and development of PPD.

  7. Post-partum hemorrhage in women with rare bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvandi, Flora; Menegatti, Marzia; Siboni, Simona Maria

    2011-02-01

    Post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) accounts for a substantial fraction of maternal deaths in the general population. Among all women, however, those affected with rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) represent a particular group since to usual bleeding symptoms, they are likely to experience bleedings associated to obstetrical and gynaecological problems. Pregnancy and childbirth, two important stages in the life of a woman, pose a special clinical challenge in women with RBDs, since information about these issues are really scarce and limited to few case reports. These data show that all women with RBDs, except for FXI deficiency, have to be considered potentially at risk for developing PPH, therefore they should be monitored carefully during and immediately after pregnancy. The implication is that women with bleeding disorders may require prophylaxis and/or close observation for several weeks and should be followed by a multidisciplinary team including expertises such as laboratory haematologist, obstetrician-gynaecologist, anaesthesiologist, family physician, and laboratory technician. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Early post-partum discharges: benefits, disadvantages and implementation methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkane, N

    2015-02-01

    Early post-partum discharges (EPD) are a hot topic. Already widely practised in many European countries this procedure, was promoted by the government for a decade, requested by representatives of Midwive organisations, desired by some patients, but also criticized by the Academy of Medicine. Well organized and with an obligatory control and follow-up, EPD could help with the management of the shortage of maternity beds and hence increase the satisfaction of the patients. The procedure could even be a way to effectively implement a town-hospital network, something, which has many other benefits. However this procedure is not without potential dangers: lower quality of care, financial risks for the department, and especially a significant increase of the workload of the hospital staff. The main objective of this paper is to detail the benefits and disadvantages of EPD for maternities and to propose an organizational basis if EPD is the procedure of choice. A participatory methodology is essential when using this procedure, due to the important participation of different categories of staff involved in hospital discharge (administrative, medical and paramedical staff) and to exclude complications when certain specifications are not followed or misunderstood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Bakri balloon as a uterus preserving treatment of uncontrollable haemorrhage one month post-partum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnici, Mia; Markauskas, Algirdas; Munk, Torben

    2014-01-01

    In this case Bakri balloon was used to stop haemorrhage one month post-partum. The case introduces the use of this device outside usual indications. A 27-year-old woman was admitted several times with vaginal bleeding after caesarean section. She was treated pharmacologically and with curettage. ....... One month post-partum hysteroscopic removal of placental tissue was done. During this uncontrollable haemorrhage occurred and hysterectomy was considered. An attempt to save the uterus with Bakri balloon was made succesfully....

  10. Dukungan Social dan Kecenderungan Depresi Post Partum pada Ibu Primipara di Daerah Gempa Bantul

    OpenAIRE

    Urbayatun, Siti

    2010-01-01

    This research examined a correlation between Social Support and Post Partum Depression. Quantitatif analytical test was done by application of SPSS 15.00 for Windows software. The subject of this research were 60 primipara mother at RB Bina Sehat and RSKIA Ummi Khasanah, Bantul, Yogyakarta. The result of this research indicates that: There was significantly negative correlation between Social Support and Post Partum Depression. (r = -0.545, p= 0.00, p

  11. Effectiveness of rectal misoprostol in cessation of Post Partum Haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreen, S.; Baqai, S.; Iftikhar, S.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of rectal misoprostol in management of Post Partum Haemorrhage in third stage of labour. Study Design: Interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynaecology and obstetrics department at PNS Shifa Hospital Karachi, from Sep 2012 to Mar 2013. Material and Methods: All singleton and multiple pregnancies of gestation 37-42 weeks, who presented in labour room to deliver and had prolonged second stage of labour (n=112) were enrolled in the study. Patients, who were having coagulopathy, abruption, placenta previa, and allergy to prostaglandins were excluded from the study. Third stage was managed actively according to hospital standard routine. Hemoglobin was measured at the time of admission and repeated after delivery in patients having PPH. Blood was estimated by weighing all gauzes and packs. If blood loss more than 500ml one hour after delivery and all traumatic causes and retained placenta were excluded, 600 mu g (3 tablets) of misoprostol were given per rectally, which were inserted up to a digit depth. After one hour total amount of blood loss was calculated. The data were then entered in a proforma and analyzed. Results: Majority (44.6%) of the women were 26-33 years of age, 8.9% had PPH with fall in hemoglobin by 1.5-2 gms/dl. Ninety percent of the patients responded to rectal misoprostol. Conclusion: Active management of third stage of labour has a definite role in the preventive of PPH. Rectal administration of misoprostol should be considered for control of PPH in low resource settings like ours as it was found effective in the study. (author)

  12. Post-Partum Depression Effect on Child Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Rezai Abhari, Farideh; Zarghami, Mehran

    2017-02-01

    While studies have shown the disastrous effects of post-partum depression (PPD) on children's behaviors, there is relatively lack of reliable data in Asian countries. This study examined the relative significance of maternal PPD in children's developmental disabilities at age four. In a longitudinal study design (2009), 1801 pregnant women attending in primary health centers of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran provided self-reports of depression from two to twelve postpartum weeks using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Approximately four years later, the women experiencing PPD and twice as the ones who did not experience this disorder were considered as case (N=204) and control (N=467) groups. The association between maternal depression at different times and childhood developmental disabilities based on Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and other health problems reported by the child were analyzed using two-sample t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression models. The presence of PPD only was not a predictor of child's developmental disabilities at age four. Childhood developmental disabilities in communication, gross motor and personal-social domains of ASQ were associated with the current and concurrent maternal depressive symptoms (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.16-5.78; OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.10-8.96; OR=5.66, 95% CI=1.94-16.54 and OR=3.35, 95% CI=1.31-8.58; OR=4.15, 95% CI=2.72-13.87; OR=6.17, 95% CI=1.95-19.53 respectively). PPD, the current depressive symptoms, and depression at both occasions were associated with more health problems in children. Childhood developmental disabilities in some domains of ASQ were significantly related to the maternal depression chronicity or recurrence. Also, child's difficulties were more prevalent in association with maternal depression regardless of onset time.

  13. Post-Partum Depression Effect on Child Health and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abdollahi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While studies have shown the disastrous effects of post-partum depression (PPD on children's behaviors, there is relatively lack of reliable data in Asian countries. This study examined the relative significance of maternal PPD in children's developmental disabilities at age four. In a longitudinal study design (2009, 1801 pregnant women attending in primary health centers of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran provided self-reports of depression from two to twelve postpartum weeks using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Approximately four years later, the women experiencing PPD and twice as the ones who did not experience this disorder were considered as case (N=204 and control (N=467 groups. The association between maternal depression at different times and childhood developmental disabilities based on Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ and other health problems reported by the child were analyzed using two-sample t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression models. The presence of PPD only was not a predictor of child's developmental disabilities at age four. Childhood developmental disabilities in communication, gross motor and personal-social domains of ASQ were associated with the current and concurrent maternal depressive symptoms (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.16-5.78; OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.10-8.96; OR=5.66, 95% CI=1.94-16.54 and OR=3.35, 95% CI=1.31-8.58; OR=4.15, 95% CI=2.72-13.87; OR=6.17, 95% CI=1.95-19.53 respectively. PPD, the current depressive symptoms, and depression at both occasions were associated with more health problems in children. Childhood developmental disabilities in some domains of ASQ were significantly related to the maternal depression chronicity or recurrence. Also, child's difficulties were more prevalent in association with maternal depression regardless of onset time.

  14. The influence of psychological factors on post-partum weight retention at 9 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Joanne; King, Ross; Skouteris, Helen

    2014-11-01

    Post-partum weight retention (PWR) has been identified as a critical pathway for long-term overweight and obesity. In recent years, psychological factors have been demonstrated to play a key role in contributing to and maintaining PWR. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between post-partum psychological distress and PWR at 9 months, after controlling for maternal weight factors, sleep quality, sociocontextual influences, and maternal behaviours. Pregnant women (N = 126) completed a series of questionnaires at multiple time points from early pregnancy until 9 months post-partum. Hierarchical regression indicated that gestational weight gain, shorter duration (6 months or less) of breastfeeding, and post-partum body dissatisfaction at 3 and 6 months are associated with higher PWR at 9 months; stress, depression, and anxiety had minimal influence. Interventions aimed at preventing excessive PWR should specifically target the prevention of body dissatisfaction and excessive weight gain during pregnancy. What is already known on this subject? Post-partum weight retention (PWR) is a critical pathway for long-term overweight and obesity. Causes of PWR are complex and multifactorial. There is increasing evidence that psychological factors play a key role in predicting high PWR. What does this study add? Post-partum body dissatisfaction at 3 and 6 months is associated with PWR at 9 months post-birth. Post-partum depression, stress and anxiety have less influence on PWR at 9 months. Interventions aimed at preventing excessive PWR should target body dissatisfaction. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among post-partum mothers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Rajendra Kumar; Khatri, Resham Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Vishnu; Sharma, Vidya Dev; Gartoula, Ritu Prasad

    2015-03-31

    Post-partum depression is a common complication of women after childbirth. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptoms among post-partum mothers attending a child immunization clinic at a maternity hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 346 post-partum mothers at six to ten weeks after delivery using systematic random sampling. Mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to screen for depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the association of post-partum depressive symptoms with socio-demographic and maternal factors. The prevalence of post-partum depressive symptoms among mothers was 30%. Mothers aged 20 to 29 years were less likely to have depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.21-0.76) compared to older mothers. Similarly, mothers with a history of pregnancy-induced health problems were more likely to have depressive symptoms (aOR = 2.16; CI: 1.00-4.66) and subjective feelings of stress (aOR = 3.86; CI: 1.84-4.66) than mothers who did not. The number of post-partum mothers experiencing depressive symptoms was high; almost one-third of the participants reported having them. Pregnancy-induced health problems and subjective feelings of stress during pregnancy in the post-partum period were found to be associated with depressive symptoms among these women. Screening of depressive symptoms should be included in routine antenatal and postnatal care services for early identification and prevention.

  16. Dextroamphetamine sulfate provided quick relief of severe post-partum depression that was recalcitrant to standard antidepressants and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Jaffe, A

    2017-01-01

    To determine if dextroamphetamine sulfate could improve symptoms of post-partum depression. A woman with severe post-partum depression that was resistant to standard antidepressant therapy and psychotherapy was treated with dextroamphetamine sulfate extended release capsules 15 mg/day. A quick and complete abrogation of the depression ensued along with improvement of migraine headaches, insomnia, and chronic fatigue. Dextr6amphetamine sulfate should be considered as a treatment modality for post-partum depression.

  17. Prevalence rates and socioeconomic characteristics of post-partum depression in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Emese; Molnar, Peter; Pal, Attila; Orvos, Hajnalka

    2011-01-30

    The rapid socioeconomic transition in post-communist Hungary adversely affected the overall morbidity and mortality rates in the 1990s. Prevalence data on depressive disorders from the region are still scarce, however. This study reports the findings of the first epidemiological survey, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), on the prevalence of post-partum depression and the associated risk factors in Hungary. A total of 1030 mothers who delivered their babies between May and July 1999 in 16 counties in Hungary were screened for depressive symptoms 3-26 weeks post-partum. The survey found that 10.81% of the sample was above the cut-off score of 13, and the EPDS detected post-partum depressive symptoms with 76% (95% confidence interval (CI)=60.5-87.1) sensitivity and 92% (95% CI=90.5-94.1) specificity. In addition, 24 socio-demographic, socio-psychiatric data and personal and obstetric variables were surveyed. Results of a hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that depression of the mother during pregnancy was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms post-partum. Depression before pregnancy, housing conditions, marital relationship status and family history of alcohol problems were also identified as predictors for post-partum depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Endocrine Cause of Acute Post-partum Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Bretherton, Ingrid; Pattison, David; Pattison, Sarah; Varadarajan, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    This is a case of acute peri-partum hypertension secondary to Conn's syndrome. The timing of presentation offers a rare insight into the hormonal physiology of pregnancy and its impact on blood pressure regulation. This case highlights the challenges of diagnosing primary hyperaldosteronism in the peripartum period and the high index of suspicion required by the obstetric physician.

  19. An Endocrine Cause of Acute Post-partum Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Ingrid; Pattison, David; Pattison, Sarah; Varadarajan, Suresh

    2013-03-01

    This is a case of acute peri-partum hypertension secondary to Conn's syndrome. The timing of presentation offers a rare insight into the hormonal physiology of pregnancy and its impact on blood pressure regulation. This case highlights the challenges of diagnosing primary hyperaldosteronism in the peripartum period and the high index of suspicion required by the obstetric physician.

  20. Post-partum depression, anxiety and marital satisfaction: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... 1Department of Psychology, ... The first weeks and months postpartum may be associated with emotional upheaval.2 The nursing ... partum depressive symptoms,14,15,16,17 and marital problems ... reported a significant positive association ... satisfaction, and the importance of mental health promotion.

  1. Exogenous estradiol enhances apoptosis in regressing post-partum rat corpora lutea possibly mediated by prolactin

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    Telleria Carlos M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pregnant rats, structural luteal regression takes place after parturition and is associated with cell death by apoptosis. We have recently shown that the hormonal environment is responsible for the fate of the corpora lutea (CL. Changing the levels of circulating hormones in post-partum rats, either by injecting androgen, progesterone, or by allowing dams to suckle, was coupled with a delay in the onset of apoptosis in the CL. The objectives of the present investigation were: i to examine the effect of exogenous estradiol on apoptosis of the rat CL during post-partum luteal regression; and ii to evaluate the post-partum luteal expression of the estrogen receptor (ER genes. Methods In a first experiment, rats after parturition were separated from their pups and injected daily with vehicle or estradiol benzoate for 4 days. On day 4 post-partum, animals were sacrificed, blood samples were taken to determine serum concentrations of hormones, and the ovaries were isolated to study apoptosis in situ. In a second experiment, non-lactating rats after parturition received vehicle, estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate plus bromoergocryptine for 4 days, and their CL were isolated and used to study apoptosis ex vivo. In a third experiment, we obtained CL from rats on day 15 of pregnancy and from non-lactating rats on day 4 post-partum, and studied the expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs encoding the ERalpha and ERbeta genes. Results Exogenous administration of estradiol benzoate induced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells within the CL on day 4 post-partum when compared with animals receiving vehicle alone. Animals treated with the estrogen had higher serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, with no changes in serum androstenedione. Administration of bromoergocryptine blocked the increase in serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, and DNA fragmentation induced by the estrogen treatment. ERalpha and

  2. [Post-partum: Guidelines for clinical practice--Short text].

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    Sénat, M-V; Sentilhes, L; Battut, A; Benhamou, D; Bydlowski, S; Chantry, A; Deffieux, X; Diers, F; Doret, M; Ducroux-Schouwey, C; Fuchs, F; Gascoin, G; Lebot, C; Marcellin, L; Plu-Bureau, G; Raccah-Tebeka, B; Simon, E; Bréart, G; Marpeau, L

    2015-12-01

    To determine the post-partum management of women and their newborn whatever the mode of delivery. The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. Because breastfeeding is associated with a decrease in neonatal morbidity (lower frequency of cardiovascular diseases, infectious, atopic or infantile obesity) (EL2) and an improvement in the cognitive development of children (EL2), exclusive and extended breastfeeding is recommended (grade B) between 4 to 6 months (Professional consensus). In order to increase the rate of breastfeeding initiation and its duration, it is recommended that health professionals work closely with mothers in their project (grade A) and to promote breastfeeding on demand (grade B). There is no scientific evidence to recommend non-pharmacological measures of inhibition of lactation (Professional consensus). Pharmacological treatments for inhibition of lactation should not be given routinely to women who do not wish to breastfeed (Professional consensus). Because of potentially serious adverse effects, bromocriptin is contraindicated in inhibiting lactation (Professional consensus). For women aware of the risks of pharmacological treatment of inhibition of lactation, lisuride and cabergolin are the preferred drugs (Professional consensus). Whatever the mode of delivery, numeration blood count is not systematically recommended in a general population (Professional consensus). Anemia must be sought only in women with bleeding or symptoms of anemia (Professional consensus). The only treatment of post-dural puncture headache is the blood patch (EL2), it must not be carried out before 48 h (Professional consensus). Women vaccination status and their family is to be assessed in the early post-partum (Professional consensus). Immediate postoperative monitoring after caesarean delivery should be performed in the recovery room, but in exceptional

  3. Catatonic features noted in patients with post-partum mental illness.

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    Lai, Jiun-Yang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, distribution of psychiatric diagnoses, and treatment responses of patients with post-partum mental illness at an emergency unit at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung in Taiwan. During a 1 year period a total of 636 Taiwanese women received psychiatric consultation on their visits to the emergency room. Fifteen of these were noted to have post-partum mental illnesses. All subjects were followed up for a minimum of 3-6 months. The prevalence of patients with post-partum mental illness at an emergency unit at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung was 2.4% (15/636). The distribution of psychiatric diagnoses according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria included eight cases of major depressive disorders (53.3%), three cases of bipolar I disorder (20%), three cases of schizophrenia (20%), and one case of psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition (6.7%). Four subjects manifested catatonic features. Of these four, three had complete remission in catatonic symptoms after receiving intramuscular injection of lorazepam. The fourth subject died of multiple medical diseases. The treatment results suggest that most of the clinical presentations in patients with post-partum mental illness could be relieved by antipsychotics, mood stabilizers or antidepressants. In addition, it was found that intramuscular injection of lorazepam was also effective in patients with catatonic features and post-partum depression or psychosis.

  4. The role of steroids in the development of post-partum mental disorders.

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    Paskova, Andrea; Jirak, Roman; Mikesova, Michaela; Adamcova, Karolina; Fartakova, Zdenka; Horakova, Vladimira; Koucky, Michal; Hill, Martin; Hruskovicova, Hana; Starka, Luboslav; Duskova, Michaela; Parizek, Antonin

    2014-09-01

    Unfavorable post-partum changes to mental well-being affect more than half of all women, and are a risk to the health of both mother and baby. Their effects place strains on health and social systems. Currently, no generally accepted theory exists of the causes and mechanisms of post-partum mental disorders. Literature search up to 2012, using PubMed and search words: neuroactive steroids, post-partum mental disorders, depression, corticotropin-releasing hormone and estrogens. There are several theories for post-partum depression. One is that autoimmune diseases are involved. Others revolve around genes responsible or that lead to increased disposition to the disorder. It is likely however that the process is associated with the separation of the placenta and the fetal zone of fetal adrenal gland, the main sources of corticotropin-releasing hormone and sexual and neuroactive steroids during pregnancy, and the ability of the receptor system to adapt to these changes. The central nervous system is able to produce neurosteroids, but the drop in levels of peripheral steroids likely leads to a sudden deficit in neuroinhibitory steroids modulating ionotropic receptors in the brain. Post-partum depression is a multifactorial disease with unknown etiology. It is probably associated with sudden changes in the production of hormones influencing the nervous system, and on the other hand the ability of the receptor system to adapt to these changes. When the relative changes in concentrations of hormones, rather than their absolute levels, is likely more important.

  5. Dry period management and optimization of post-partum reproductive management in dairy cattle.

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    Gumen, A; Keskin, A; Yilmazbas-Mecitoglu, G; Karakaya, E; Wiltbank, Mc

    2011-09-01

    Dry period and early post-partum management are decisive factors for fertility in lactating dairy cows. Previous studies have shown that decreased dry matter intake (DMI) and increased non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) negatively affect fertility and subsequent milk production. The traditional dry period decreases DMI prior to parturition, resulting in a decrease in energy intake. A negative energy balance increases NEFA concentration, and increased NEFA may impair the immune system, especially by decreasing neutrophil function prior to parturition. Earlier studies have shown that post-partum health disorders, including retained placenta and metritis, were correlated with periparturient neutrophil function. In addition, decreased DMI is also linked to a reduced body condition score (BCS) in dairy cows. These events in the periparturient period negatively affect fertility. Some manipulation, such as shortening the dry period, may be a solution to increased DMI in the periparturient period, preventing post-partum disorders and subsequent fertility issues. This article aims to explain the effects of shortening the dry period on reproduction and early post-partum treatments to improve fertility. In addition, timed artificial insemination protocols will be discussed for use during the post-partum period to improve fertility in dairy cows. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. [Severe post-partum hemorrhage: descriptive study at the Robert-Debré Hospital maternity ward].

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    Reyal, F; Deffarges, J; Luton, D; Blot, P; Oury, J F; Sibony, O

    2002-06-01

    To analyze the prevalence, cause, treatment, and risk factors of severe post-partum hemorrhage (transfusion, surgery, radiology) observed at the maternity ward of the Robert-Debré Hospital, Paris. Method. This retrospective cohort was collected from a database including 19182 deliveries from 1992 to 1998. The entire medical file was reviewed in cases of severe hemorrhage. The prevalence of severe post-partum hemorrhage was 23 per 10,000 deliveries (44 patients). Transfusion was performed in 44/44 and hysterectomy in 3/44. Three patients were transferred to the intensive care unit. There were no deaths. At multivariate analysis, risk factors for severe post-partum hemorrhage were: abnormal placental insertion (OR=7.2; 95CI: 2.18-18.3), cesarean (OR=5.8; 95CI: 2.9-11.6), multiple pregnancy (OR=3.2; 95CI: 1.3-7.8), prematurity (OR=3, 95CI: 1.5-6.2), hypertension (OR=2.9; 95CI: 1.3-6.3). Twenty-six percent of the patients had no risk factors. The prevalence of severe pot-partum hemorrhage is low in our experience. The methodology used for this retrospective cohort does not enable an explanation. Intensive obstetrical care is necessary in case of abnormal placenta insertion. In 10 out of 44 cases, severe post-partum hemorrhage occurred in a context of insufficient monitoring, late or erroneous diagnosis, or incorrect treatment.

  7. Does prenatal care benefit maternal health? A study of post-partum maternal care use.

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    Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Bradley; Chan, Yun-Shan; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on prenatal care focus on its effects on infant health, while studying less about the effects on maternal health. Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance claims data in Taiwan in a recursive bivariate probit model, this study examines the impact of adequate prenatal care on the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization during the first 6 months after birth. The results show that adequate prenatal care significantly reduces the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization among women who have had vaginal delivery by 43.8%. This finding suggests that the benefits of prenatal care may have been underestimated among women with vaginal delivery. Timely and adequate prenatal care not only creates a positive impact on infant health, but also yields significant benefits for post-partum maternal health. However, we do not find similar benefits of prenatal care for women undergoing a cesarean section. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determinants of Post - partum contraception practices in urban slums of central Karnataka, India

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    Shubha Davalagi B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The largest proportion of women with an unmet need for contraception is found among those in their first year after childbirth; concentrating efforts to reduce unmet need among these women could have additionally bigger impact on increasing contraceptive use than concentrating on any other group. Aims & Objectives: To know the knowledge & practices of postpartum contraception among mothers in urban slums. Material & Methods: Cross sectional study conducted in urban slums for duration of six months. Study population included mothers in extended postpartum period residing in urban slums. Mothers were interviewed using pre – tested, semi – structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS v 22.0 and, chi square test and logistic regression analysis was employed. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of the mothers in our study were in the age group of 20-24 years (46%. Mean age was 21.6 ± 3.1years. Majority of the mothers (56% were Hindus. Mean age of marriage observed was 18.2±2.1years. In the present study, majority (76% had knowledge of postpartum contraceptive methods, but only 17% of the mothers were using contraception. Unmet need for postpartum contraception was found among 49% of mothers. Conclusions: Inspite of being aware, the practice of family planning was very low among post-partum mothers. The study highlights the impact of socio cultural factors like religion, caste, number of living children, duration of marriage and ANC service utilization on postpartum contraception usage among mothers.

  9. Role of Some Hormones and Blood Components during Pregnancy and Post Partum Periods in Baladi Cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessim, M.Z.

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on seven native Baladi pregnant cows similar in age and on the second parity during last stage of pregnancy as detected by rectal palpation test, during December (mild climate) and continued until calving during January and February (postpartum). Blood sample from each cow was taken at three weeks before calving and three weeks after calving to determine blood plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol, total T 3 , cortisol and parathormone hormone and other biochemical parameters, such calcium phosphorus, triglycerides, ALT and AST. The maximum temperature humidity index (THI) during December and January was 70 THI and 73 THI, respectively. A comparison was done between pre-partum and post-partum of the same group to estimate biological changes after calving. Results indicated an increase (p 3 , Phosphorus, AST and triglycerides (p<0.05) post-partum. While, it induced a decrease (p<0.01) in progesterone, cortisol , parathormone hormones, calcium and ALT level. Negative correlation was observed between calcium and phosphorus in both pre-partum and post-partum

  10. One year follow-up of post-partum-onset depression: the role of depressive symptom severity and personality disorders.

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    Uguz, Faruk; Akman, Cemal; Sahingoz, Mine; Kaya, Nazmiye; Kucur, Rahim

    2009-06-01

    Long-term follow-up and risk factors of persistent post-partum depression (PPD) are fairly unknown compared with its prevalence in the developing countries. In this study, we did a follow-up measure of PPD and examined the factors, which were associated with PPD 1-year post-partum. Our sample comprised of 34 women. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh post-natal depression scale (EPDS) 6 weeks post-partum, and women with scores >12 on this scale was categorised as depressed. Personality disorders were determined at the same occasion by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R personality disorders (SCID-II). One year post-partum EPDS was completed. The rate of PPD 1-year post-partum was 32.4%, and it was unrelated to age at assessment, primiparity, number of children, employment status, economical status and educational level. Women depressed 1-year post-partum had significantly higher basal scores of EPDS and more often also a diagnosis of any axis II disorder; and specifically dependent and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. In our sample, the predictors of 1-year post-partum PPD were having higher basal score of EPDS and the existence of a personality disorder. This study suggests that women with PPD, scoring high in the EPDS scale 6 weeks post-partum and having a personality disorder, run a higher risk for depression at 1-year follow-up.

  11. Changing the risky beliefs of post-partum women about therapeutic sun-exposure.

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    Harrison, Simone L; Devine, Susan G; Saunders, Vicki L; Smith, Annika D; Buettner, Petra G; Nowak, Madeleine J

    2013-09-01

    Many post-partum women hold risky beliefs about perceived therapeutic benefits of sun-exposure in the post-partum period and infancy. Can a maternity hospital based educational intervention reduce the prevalence of such beliefs among post-partum women? In this outcome evaluation of an interventional study, two groups of healthy post-partum women (hospital inpatients) were interviewed, 1-4 days following delivery. The first cross-section (106 women) was recruited prior to in-services for maternity staff; the second (203 women) was recruited after completion of the in-services. Data were compared between the groups. More pre-intervention than post-intervention women reported they would expose their baby to sunlight to treat suspected jaundice (28.8% vs. 13.3%; p<0.001) or help his/her skin adapt to the sun (10.5% vs. 2.5%; p=0.003); or use sunlight to manage breastfeeding-associated sore/cracked nipples (7.6% vs. 2%; p=0.026). This simple, effective educational intervention could be implemented in programmes for parents, health professionals and students. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efektifitas Skala Edinburgh dan Skala Beck dalam Mendeteksi Risiko Depresi Post Partum di Rumah Sakit Umum Prof. DR. Margono Soekarjo Purwokerto

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    Latifah, Lutfatul; Hartati

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Edinburgh post partum depression scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale to detect risk of post partum depression. This study utilized survey with quantitative approach. Of 25 patients were chosen with purposive sampling method. The criteria of sample was post partum mother who admitted at Margono Soekardjo hospital in the sixth days. The assessment of post partum mother was evaluated directly to the target population ...

  13. Cognitive factors and post-partum depression: What is the influence of general personality traits, rumination, maternal self-esteem, and alexithymia?

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Anne; Luminet, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to assess the impact of cognitive factors on post-partum depression (PPD) symptoms. Because most of the literature data concern the immediate post-partum period or the first year post-partum, we notably sought to assess the longer term impact of cognitive factors on the symptoms of PPD. METHODS: Two studies were performed. In a pilot study, 1-month post-partum, 63 women filled out a sociodemographic information sheet and completed the abbreviated, revised Eysenck...

  14. Effectiveness of home visits by mental health nurses for Japanese women with post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Atsuko

    2008-12-01

    Post-partum depression affects 10-13% of Japanese women, but many do not receive appropriate treatment or support. This intervention study evaluated the effectiveness of home visits by mental health nurses for Japanese women with post-partum depression. Eighteen post-partum women met the inclusion criteria and were randomly allocated into the intervention (n = 9) or control (n = 9) group at 1-2 months after giving birth. The intervention group received four weekly home visits by a mental health nurse. Control group participants received usual care. Two women in the intervention group did not complete the study. Depressive symptoms and quality of life were measured at 1 and 6 weeks' postintervention. In addition, participants completed an open-ended questionnaire on satisfaction and meaning derived from the home visits. Women in the intervention group had significant amelioration of depressive symptoms over time and reported positive benefits from the home visits, but there were no statistically significant differences between groups. Significant differences (P post-partum depression. A larger trial is warranted to test this approach to care.

  15. [Post-partum depressive symptoms: Prevalence, risk factors and relationship with quality of life].

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    Cherif, R; Feki, I; Gassara, H; Baati, I; Sellami, R; Feki, H; Chaabene, K; Masmoudi, J

    2017-10-01

    The objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of the post-partum depressive symptomatology in a sample of Tunisian women, to study associated factors and to assess its relationship to quality of life. This is a prospective study carried out in two stages: during the first week (T1), then between sixth and eighth week post-partum (T2). Depressive symptomatology and quality of life were assessed respectively by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale. In the first stage, the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in the total sample (150 women) was 14.7% and was related to age above 35 years, low school level, personal psychiatric history, multiparity, caesarean delivery or forceps in the previous pregnancy and unplanned pregnancy. This prevalence was 19.8% among the 126 women reviewed in T2 and was correlated with the exaggerated sympathetic signs during pregnancy, namely perversion of taste and fatigue. Quality of life was strongly correlated with depressive symptoms in T1 and T2. Post-partum depressive symptoms were common in our sample and were correlated with quality of life. Therapeutic measures should be proposed for women with post-partum depressive symptoms and particularly with several risk factors in order to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Graviditetsudløst transient osteoporose som årsag til hoftesmerter post partum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Morsel-Carlsen, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) affects pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and shows a pattern of bone marrow oedema. We report a case of TOH post-partum with involvement of both hips in a 34-year-old woman...

  17. Post-partum oestrusgedrag bij zeugen gaat niet gepaard met ovulatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souren, N.Y.P.; Langendijk, P.; Soede, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Sows occasionally show oestrous behaviour within 5 days of farrowing: this is termed post-partum oestrus (PPO). This study investigated the incidence and possible causes of PPO on nine Dutch farms. Lactation records (n = 1374) were used, hack fat thickness was measured (n=25), and ovarian condition

  18. Maternal social support, quality of birth experience, and post-partum depression in primiparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Franca; Castagna, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    Social relationships provide individuals with a general sense of self-worth, psychological wellbeing, as well as allowing them access to resources during stressful periods and transitions in life. Pregnancy is a time of significant life change for every woman. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of social support perceived by mothers during pregnancy on the quality of their birth experience and post-partum depression. A longitudinal study at three different times was carried out on 179 nulliparous pregnant women. Women completed a Maternal Social Support Questionnaire during the third trimester of their pregnancy. Then, on the first day after childbirth, clinical birth indices were collected. Finally, a month after childbirth, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was administered. Post-partum depression was influenced negatively by maternal perceived social support and positively by negative clinical birth indices. In addition to these direct effects, analyses revealed a significant effect of maternal perceived social support on post-partum depression, mediated by the clinical indices considered. Social support perceived by mothers during pregnancy plays a significant role as a protection factor against post-partum depression, both directly and indirectly, reducing the negative clinical aspects of the birth experience.

  19. Predicting early post-partum depressive symptoms among older primiparous Japanese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroko; Mori, Emi; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Sakajo, Akiko; Maehara, Kunie; Ozawa, Harumi; Morita, Akiko; Maekawa, Tomoko; Aoki, Kyoko; Makaya, Miyuki; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2015-10-01

    The number of older primiparas is increasing in Japan. These women have been shown to be more vulnerable to post-partum depression. This study aimed to identify factors for predicting post-partum depressive symptoms during hospitalization after childbirth in Japanese primiparas aged 35 years and over. The present authors used the data of 479 primiparas aged 35 years and over from a prospective cohort study. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires on the day before hospital discharge. The questionnaire consisted of: demographics and background information; depressive symptoms; fatigue; maternal confidence and maternal satisfaction; child-care values; physical symptoms; perceptions of daily life during hospitalization; concerns about child care and daily life; and infant feeding. Additionally, vital records data were obtained from the hospitals. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed on the binary outcome variable of depressive symptoms, measured by the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Women who scored 9 or more were considered to be at high risk for post-partum depression. The authors obtained informed consent from all participants and institutional ethics approvals before initiating the study. The following six variables reliably predicted the risk of post-partum depression: emergency cesarean section, lower satisfaction with birth experience, higher physical burden in daily life, long-term complications with the newborn, more concerns about newborn caretaking after discharge, and more concerns about one's own life after discharge. Recognition of women with these factors will help nurses to identify those at risk for developing post-partum depression and to provide appropriate care during hospitalization after childbirth. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  20. Post-partum depressive symptoms and medically assisted conception: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Gressier, F; Letranchant, A; Cazas, O; Sutter-Dallay, A L; Falissard, B; Hardy, P

    2015-11-01

    Does medically assisted conception increase the risk of post-partum depressive symptoms? Our literature review and meta-analysis showed no increased risk of post-partum depressive symptoms in women after medically assisted conception. Women who conceive with medically assisted conception, which can be considered as a stressful life event, could face an increased risk of depressive symptoms. However, no previous meta-analysis has been performed on the association between medically assisted conception and post-partum depressive symptoms. A systematic review with electronic searches of PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO databases up to December 2014 was conducted to identify articles evaluating post-partum depressive symptoms in women who had benefited from medically assisted conception compared with those with a spontaneous pregnancy. Meta-analyses were also performed on clinically significant post-partum depressive symptoms according to PRISMA guidelines. From 569 references, 492 were excluded on title, 42 on abstract and 17 others on full-text. Therefore, 18 studies were included in the review and 8 in the meta-analysis (2451 women) on clinically significant post-partum depressive symptoms after medically assisted conception compared with a spontaneous pregnancy. A sensitivity meta-analysis on assisted reproductive technologies and spontaneous pregnancy (6 studies, 1773 women) was also performed. The quality of the studies included in the meta-analyses was evaluated using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Statement for observational research. The data were pooled using RevMan software by the Cochrane Collaboration. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed from the results of the χ(2) and I(2) statistics. Biases were assessed with funnel plots and Egger's test. A fixed effects model was used for the meta-analyses because of the low level of heterogeneity between the studies. The systematic review of studies examining

  1. Immediate post-partum haemorrhage: Epidemiological aspects and maternal prognosis at South N’djamena District Hospital (Chad

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    Gabkika Bray Madoue

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-partum haemorrhage defined as blood loss after delivery over 500mls, affects all countries and is the commonest cause of maternal mortality. It is a frequent obstetric emergency in developing countries. Objective: To identify the causes of post-partum haemorrhage and identify adequate management of immediate post-partum haemorrhage and thus reduce maternal mortality. Patients and methods: This was a prospective and descriptive study of one year from 1st January 2014 to 31stDecember 2014 conducted at South N’Djamena district hospital. Before including a patient in our survey her consent was obtained after explaining to her the need for the survey. All consenting patients with post-partum haemorrhage were included. Data were analyzed using SPSS17.0. Results: We recorded 100 cases of post-partum haemorrhage among 6815 deliveries giving an incidence of 1.47%. The average age of the women was 25.0 years. The majority of deliveries (90% were vaginal. The main cause of immediate post-partum haemorrhage was a third stage of labour bleeding (66% followed by genital lesions (32%. The management was medical (uterotonic drug, fluid replacement and blood transfusion, obstetric (manual removal of placenta or clot, and surgical (suture of lesions, vascular ligature and hysterectomy. There were two maternal deaths (2%. Conclusion: Post-partum haemorrhage is often fatal in our region. Preventive measures and efficient management can help to improve maternal prognosis.

  2. Common symptoms during pregnancy to predict depression and health status 14 years post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Mohsina; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Callaway, Leonie; Alati, Rosa; Najman, Jake M; Williams, Gail; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2009-03-01

    To examine the prospective association between symptoms commonly experienced during pregnancy and the mental and general health status of women 14 years post partum. Data used were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a community-based prospective birth cohort study begun in Brisbane, Australia, in 1981. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Data were available for 5118 women. Women who experienced a higher burden of symptoms during pregnancy were at greater risk of becoming depressed and reporting poorer health status 14 years post partum. Women who experienced major problems during pregnancy were 4 times more likely to be depressed and nearly 8 times more likely to report poorer health status 14 years after the index pregnancy compared with women who experienced few problems. Findings suggest that pregnant women who experience common symptoms during pregnancy are likely to experience poorer mental and self-reported general health 14 years after the pregnancy.

  3. An Overview of Risk Factors Associated to Post-partum Depression in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shubham; Mehta, Nidhi

    2014-03-04

    Post partum depression (PPD) is an important complication of child-bearing. It requires urgent interventions as it can have long-term adverse consequences if ignored, for both mother and child. If PPD has to be prevented by a public health intervention, the recognition and timely identification of its risk factors is must. We in this review have tried to synthesize the results of Asian studies examining the risk factors of PPD. Some risk factors, which are unique to Asian culture, have also been identified and discussed. We emphasize on early identification of these risk factors as most of these are modifiable and this can have significant implications in prevention of emergence of post partum depression, a serious health issue of Asian women.

  4. The effects of social, cultural, economical and related factors on post partum psychosis

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    mitra Safa

    2006-11-01

    Results: Most of the subjects were in the range of 20-30 years old. They were housewives. In most case, they gave birth to a female newborn and the delivery was done in a normal way. Most of the patients declared that they had unplanned pregnancy. 29.6% of the patients had mental disease background. 9.1% had major depression, 5.6% had dysthymic disorder. 18.5% of the subjects had physical disease like UTI, hyper thyroid and seizure. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between post partum psychosis and variables such as age, education, job, and disease background, number of delivery and lack of child acceptance. It is suggested that for prevention of post partum psychosis, there should be a very suitable situation for pregnant mothers. Moreover by planning and designing educational programs, we could provide the proper background for child birth in the family.

  5. An overview of risk factors associated to post-partum depression in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Mehta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Post partum depression (PPD is an important complication of child-bearing. It requires urgent interventions as it can have long-term adverse consequences if ignored, for both mother and child. If PPD has to be prevented by a public health intervention, the recognition and timely identification of its risk factors is must. We in this review have tried to synthesize the results of Asian studies examining the risk factors of PPD. Some risk factors, which are unique to Asian culture, have also been identified and discussed. We emphasize on early identification of these risk factors as most of these are modifiable and this can have significant implications in prevention of emergence of post partum depression, a serious health issue of Asian women.

  6. Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma: a rare cause of quadriplegia in the post-partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, S; Ali, Z; Rath, G P; Prabhakar, H

    2007-12-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma (SSEH) is a rare cause of neurological deficit in the pregnant and post-partum patients. However, SSEH with associated myelitis presenting as quadriplegia and respiratory paralysis in the post-partum period has never been reported. We report the development of acute onset quadriplegia progressing to respiratory arrest in a 24-yr-old woman 2 weeks after normal vaginal delivery. There was no history suggestive of any coagulopathy (inherited or acquired), eclampsia, pre-existing neurological deficit, or iatrogenic manipulations such as spinal/epidural injections. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a posterior epidural haematoma extending from C4-C7 and areas of signal changes in spinal cord from cervicomedullary junction to D5 level (suggestive of demyelination). We highlight this rare cause of quadriplegia; focusing on the altered dynamics of the epidural vasculature in the peripartum period leading to SSEH.

  7. An Investigation on the Role of Personality Style Vulnerability, Spouse Violence, and Coping Responses in Prediction of Post Partum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حمیده قاسمی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the role of the vulnerability of personality style, spouse violence and coping responses in prediction of post-partum depression. A sample of 140 pregnant women were recruited. Data collection included two phases. In third trimester of pregnancy, demographic information, vulnerable personality style, spouse violence and coping responses were collected. The second phase was carried out after 2 weeks to 6 months after parturition that the post-partum depression questionnaire was completed. The results demonstrated that 49% of post-partum depression variances can be shown by vulnerability of personality style, spouse violence and coping responses. It seems that one of the most important factors for depression after parturition is vulnerability of personality style. Women with this personality style perceive higher levels of stress and use maladaptive coping responses. So they are more disposed to post-partum depression.

  8. Health and economic burden of post-partum Staphylococcus aureus breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch-Elliman, Westyn; Lee, Grace M; Golen, Toni H; Gold, Howard S; Baldini, Linda M; Wright, Sharon B

    2013-01-01

    To determine the health and economic burdens of post-partum Staphylococcus aureus breast abscess. We conducted a matched cohort study (N = 216) in a population of pregnant women (N = 32,770) who delivered at our center during the study period from 10/1/03-9/30/10. Data were extracted from hospital databases, or via chart review if unavailable electronically. We compared cases of S. aureus breast abscess to controls matched by delivery date to compare health services utilization and mean attributable medical costs in 2012 United States dollars using Medicare and hospital-based estimates. We also evaluated whether resource utilization and health care costs differed between cases with methicillin-resistant and -susceptible S. aureus isolates. Fifty-four cases of culture-confirmed post-partum S. aureus breast abscess were identified. Breastfeeding cessation (41%), milk fistula (11.1%) and hospital readmission (50%) occurred frequently among case patients. Breast abscess case patients had high rates of health services utilization compared to controls, including high rates of imaging and drainage procedures. The mean attributable cost of post-partum S. aureus breast abscess ranged from $2,340-$4,012, depending on the methods and data sources used. Mean attributable costs were not significantly higher among methicillin-resistant vs. -susceptible S. aureus cases. Post-partum S. aureus breast abscess is associated with worse health and economic outcomes for women and their infants, including high rates of breastfeeding cessation. Future study is needed to determine the optimal treatment and prevention of these infections.

  9. Health and economic burden of post-partum Staphylococcus aureus breast abscess.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westyn Branch-Elliman

    Full Text Available To determine the health and economic burdens of post-partum Staphylococcus aureus breast abscess.We conducted a matched cohort study (N = 216 in a population of pregnant women (N = 32,770 who delivered at our center during the study period from 10/1/03-9/30/10. Data were extracted from hospital databases, or via chart review if unavailable electronically. We compared cases of S. aureus breast abscess to controls matched by delivery date to compare health services utilization and mean attributable medical costs in 2012 United States dollars using Medicare and hospital-based estimates. We also evaluated whether resource utilization and health care costs differed between cases with methicillin-resistant and -susceptible S. aureus isolates.Fifty-four cases of culture-confirmed post-partum S. aureus breast abscess were identified. Breastfeeding cessation (41%, milk fistula (11.1% and hospital readmission (50% occurred frequently among case patients. Breast abscess case patients had high rates of health services utilization compared to controls, including high rates of imaging and drainage procedures. The mean attributable cost of post-partum S. aureus breast abscess ranged from $2,340-$4,012, depending on the methods and data sources used. Mean attributable costs were not significantly higher among methicillin-resistant vs. -susceptible S. aureus cases.Post-partum S. aureus breast abscess is associated with worse health and economic outcomes for women and their infants, including high rates of breastfeeding cessation. Future study is needed to determine the optimal treatment and prevention of these infections.

  10. Intravenous iron vs blood for acute post-partum anaemia (IIBAPPA): a prospective randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Seng; Gupta, Sarika; Curnow, Jennifer; Gidaszewski, Beata; Khajehei, Marjan; Diplock, Hayley

    2017-12-19

    Acute post-partum anaemia can be associated with significant morbidity including a predisposition for postnatal depression. Lack of clear practice guidelines means a number of women are treated with multiple blood transfusions. Intravenous iron has the potential to limit the need for multiple blood transfusions but its role in the post-partum setting is unclear. IIBAPPA is a multi-centre randomised non-inferiority trial. Women with a primary post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) >1000 mL and resultant haemoglobin (Hb) 5.5-8.0 g/dL after resuscitation with ongoing symptomatic anaemia who are otherwise stable (no active bleeding) are eligible to participate. Patients with sepsis or conditions necessitating rapid Hb restoration are excluded. Eligible participants are randomised to receive a blood transfusion or a single dose of intravenous iron polymaltose calculated using the Ganzoni formula. Primary outcome measures include Hb, Ferritin and C-Reactive Protein levels on Day 7. Secondary outcomes evaluate (i) Hb, Ferritin and CRP levels on Day 14, 28, (ii) anaemia symptoms on Day 0, 7, 14 and 28 using structured health related quality of life questionnaires, (iii) treatment safety by assessing adverse reactions and infection endpoints and (iv) the quantitative impact of anaemia on breast feeding quality using a hospital designed questionnaire. If equivalence in Hb and ferritin levels, symptom scores and safety endpoints is demonstrated, intravenous iron may become the preferred treatment for women with acute post-partum anaemia to minimise transfusion reactions and costs. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615001370594 on 16th December, 2015 (prospective approval).

  11. Development of a prenatal psychosocial screening tool for post-partum depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila; Wall, Jennifer; Forbes, Kaitlin; Kingston, Dawn; Kehler, Heather; Vekved, Monica; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-07-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of pregnancy in developed countries, affecting 10-15% of new mothers. There has been a shift in thinking less in terms of PPD per se to a broader consideration of poor mental health, including anxiety after giving birth. Some risk factors for poor mental health in the post-partum period can be identified prenatally; however prenatal screening tools developed to date have had poor sensitivity and specificity. The objective of this study was to develop a screening tool that identifies women at risk of distress, operationalized by elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety in the post-partum period using information collected in the prenatal period. Using data from the All Our Babies Study, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women living in Calgary, Alberta (N = 1578), we developed an integer score-based prediction rule for the prevalence of PPD, as defined as scoring 10 or higher on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4-months postpartum. The best fit model included known risk factors for PPD: depression and stress in late pregnancy, history of abuse, and poor relationship quality with partner. Comparison of the screening tool with the EPDS in late pregnancy showed that our tool had significantly better performance for sensitivity. Further validation of our tool was seen in its utility for identifying elevated symptoms of postpartum anxiety. This research heeds the call for further development and validation work using psychosocial factors identified prenatally for identifying poor mental health in the post-partum period. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Perbandingan Nilai Fleksibilitas Tubuh Ibu Post Partum Yang Melakukan Dan Tidak Melakukan Senam Pilates

    OpenAIRE

    Prabandani, Dyah Ayu; Laksono, Budi

    2016-01-01

    Latar Belakang : Mengukur nilai fleksibilitas tubuh adalah salah satu cara untuk mengetahui tingkat kelenturan tubuh seorang ibu, yang dapat berpengaruh terhadap ruang gerak sendi. Pada ibu post partum akan mengalami beberapa Perubahan seperti pengendoran otot dan bertambahnya berat badan yang dapat berpengaruh terhadap ruang gerak sendi. Senam pilates merupakan jenis senam yang populer di Indonesia yang menonjolkan stretching sehingga melatih kelenturan tubuh.Tujuan Penelitian : Membuktikan ...

  13. Acute Lung Injury Complicating Blood Transfusion in Post-Partum Hemorrhage: Incidence and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Teofili, Luciana; Bianchi, Maria; Zanfini, Bruno A.; Catarci, Stefano; Sicuranza, Rossella; Spartano, Serena; Zini, Gina; Draisci, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Background. We retrospectively investigated the incidence and risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) among patients transfused for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH).  Methods. We identified a series of 71 consecutive patients with PPH requiring the urgent transfusion of three or more red blood cell (RBC) units, with or without fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet (PLT) transfusion. Clinical records were then retrieved and examined for respiratory distress events. Accor...

  14. A CLINICAL EVALUATION OF POST-PARTUM DEPRESSION IN COASTAL KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annappa Shetty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Psychological mood changes, depression is very common in Post-partum period ranging from mild and transient “baby blues” experienced by 50-80% of women to postpartum Psychosis which affects 1% of women. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of different factors with Post-Partum depression in coastal Karnataka region, (Karwar. MATERIAL & METHODS  A Prospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, KAIMS, Karwar, Karnataka.  A total one thousand patients 4-7 Post-partum days were selected and interrogated using Edinburgh Postnatal depression scale (EPDS. Socio-demographic factors (age, Parity, literacy, socio-economic status, marital status and family structure, history of psychiatric disorders and abuse, mode of delivery and the obstetric outcome were recorded. The results were analysed statistically using Chi-square chart. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND RESULTS: The incidence of PPD was 22%. Significant association of PPD was seen with low socio-economic status group (P<005, poor literacy (P<0.001, nuclear family structure (P<0.05, single mother (P<0.001, past history of abuse (P<0.05 and poor obstetric outcome (P<0.001. CONCLUSION This study provides useful information about the prevalence of PPD and the association of socio economic, cultural practices prevalent in coastal Karnataka with PPD.

  15. Faktor Risiko yang Mempengaruhi Lama Penyembuhan Luka Perineum pada Ibu Post Partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anur Rohmin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Perineal trauma is an injury that occurs in the perineum during delivery and it happened  70% among woman who labors vaginally. The perineal wound was healed when the wound is to be dry, no redness, no swelling, tissue fused and cured ≤7 days post-partum. The aim of this study to find out the influenced factors of the length perineal wound healing in post partum mothers. This study carried in 10th March until 11th July 2016. Methode: A  survey analytic design with cross sectional design was used in this study. The samples of this study were 128 post partum. others. Data were analyzed by univariate, bivariate using Chi-square and multiple logistic regression. The results of this study found that mothers who the length of perineum wound ≤ 7 days (62.5% and >7 days (37.5%. Based on bivariate analysis there were a significant relationship between age, early mobilization, parity and kind of wound (p <0.05. Based on the multivariate analysis the most influencing factor was early mobilization (OR 7.613. The suggestion of this study is increasing the awareness of mother to do early mobilization.

  16. Improving non-technical skills (teamwork) in post-partum haemorrhage: A grouped randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Pippa M; Duffy, Shane P; Phillips, Dan

    2017-10-01

    To determine the effect of a decision support technology on teamwork and associated non-technical (NTS) and technical skills when teams manage post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) in the simulated environment. Multidisciplinary (MDT) maternity teams were taught how to manage post partum haemorrhage. They were randomised to the intervention: using a decision support mobile digital platform or a control group. Each team managed a post-partum simulation, which was recorded and reviewed by assessors. Primary outcome measures to assess teams NTS were the validated Global Assessment of Obstetric Team Performance (GAOTP) and Clinical Teamwork Scale (CTS). Secondary outcome measures were the 'friends and family test', technical skills, and the System Usability Scale (SUS). Sample size estimation was calculated by using 80% power 5% significance two tailed test (p1=85% p2=40%) n=34. 38 teams from August 2014-February 2016, were recruited, technical issues with failure of recording equipment meant 4 teams were excluded from teamwork analysis (1 intervention 3 control). Teamwork improved across all domains with the intervention (using a decision support mobile digital platform) p teamwork by 25% using CTS and 22% using GAOTP. Fewer technical skills were missed with the intervention (pteamwork is often cited as the cause of failures in care and we report a usable technology that assists with and improves teamwork during an emergency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dependency and self-criticism in post-partum depression and anxiety: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegen, Nicole; Luyten, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the role of self-criticism and dependency in inpatient post-partum depressed women (n = 55) and non-depressed controls (n = 37) as well as the relationship between both personality dimensions and severity of depression and anxiety. As expected, mothers with post-partum depression showed not only increased levels of depression but also anxiety compared with non-depressed mothers. Furthermore, they had significantly higher levels of self-criticism, but not of dependency. In the post-partum depressed mothers, both personality dimensions were positively associated with severity of depression. However, in non-depressed mothers, self-criticism was positively associated with depression, while there was an inverse relationship between dependency and severity of depression. In both samples, self-criticism, but not dependency, was related to state anxiety. The cross-sectional nature of this study limits the ability to draw causal conclusions. The study was based on self-report and conducted in relatively small samples.

  18. NON INVASIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT IN POST PARTUM MOTHER WITHEVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikmatur Rohmah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain is a sensation of discomfort that most post-partum mothers complain about, in the case of prolonged pain, the risk of post-partum blues is higher. The usage of evidence based practice method gives a bigger opportunity for nurse and medical attendants to think more critically in making decisions and in performing the appropriate treatment in accordance with the patient's problem and uniqueness. This research aimed to applicate management of non-invasive pain on post partum mother through the approach of evidence based practice. Method: This was a case-study, performed to client Mrs. A P1-1 A0 post sectio caesarea day 1 as there is an indication of suspect cepalo pelvis disproportion secondary arrest. Data were collected at maternity room, dr. Soebandi Regional General Hospital. Using interview, observation, and physical examination. Data analysis was conducted through a descriptive analysis. Result: Through a careful nursing, it is found out that pain location and spreading that generally spotted at the patient’s back during the contraction in the uterus, occurred around the shoulders when evidence-base practice is applied. The basic principle of applying an intervention to non invasive pain based on evidence–base practice are: cutaneous stimulation and distraction, while massaging area was set on the face, while the distraction media was interaction with the baby. Evaluation on evidence –based practice showed that pain is reduced to scale 2, while face and mobilitation become more relaxed. Discussion: Massage was intended to stimulated the production of endorphine and dinorphine that play an important roke to block the pain transmission through the descendent control system. Interaction with the baby was intended to function as a distraction media to dominate the incoming impuls into the ascendant control system,which further may close the gate of the pain transmitter. Both of the interventions were axpected to work

  19. In first-time mothers, post-partum depressive symptom prospectively predict symptoms of post-traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Golan; Herishanu-Gilutz, Shirley; Holcberg, Gershon; Kofman, Ora

    2015-11-01

    Symptoms of both depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are prevalent among first-time mothers following birth. However, the direction of the association between the two types of symptoms is unclear. Ninety six first-time mothers giving birth via vaginal delivery (N=38), emergency C-Section (N=27) and planned C-Section (N=21) were assessed for depression and PTSD twice: Six weeks post-partum and six-weeks later. Cross-lagged Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analyses revealed a prospective effect of depressive symptoms on PTSD symptoms. No moderating factors were identified. A relatively modest sample size and only two assessment waves. An early detection and intervention with symptoms of post-partum depression might also prevent the development of PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Brexanolone (SAGE-547 injection) in post-partum depression: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanes, Stephen; Colquhoun, Helen; Gunduz-Bruce, Handan; Raines, Shane; Arnold, Ryan; Schacterle, Amy; Doherty, James; Epperson, C Neill; Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Riesenberg, Robert; Hoffmann, Ethan; Rubinow, David; Jonas, Jeffrey; Paul, Steven; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2017-07-29

    Post-partum depression is a serious mood disorder in women that might be triggered by peripartum fluctuations in reproductive hormones. This phase 2 study investigated brexanolone (USAN; formerly SAGE-547 injection), an intravenous formulation of allopregnanolone, a positive allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA A ) receptors, for the treatment of post-partum depression. For this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled self-referred or physician-referred female inpatients (≤6 months post partum) with severe post-partum depression (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D] total score ≥26) in four hospitals in the USA. Eligible women were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated randomisation program, to receive either a single, continuous intravenous dose of brexanolone or placebo for 60 h. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignments. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in the 17-item HAM-D total score at 60 h, assessed in all randomised patients who started infusion of study drug or placebo and who had a completed baseline HAM-D assessment and at least one post-baseline HAM-D assessment. Patients were followed up until day 30. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02614547. This trial was done between Dec 15, 2015 (first enrolment), and May 19, 2016 (final visit of the last enrolled patient). 21 women were randomly assigned to the brexanolone (n=10) and placebo (n=11) groups. At 60 h, mean reduction in HAM-D total score from baseline was 21·0 points (SE 2·9) in the brexanolone group compared with 8·8 points (SE 2·8) in the placebo group (difference -12·2, 95% CI -20·77 to -3·67; p=0·0075; effect size 1·2). No deaths, serious adverse events, or discontinuations because of adverse events were reported in either group. Four of ten patients in the brexanolone group had adverse events compared with eight of 11 in the placebo group. The most

  1. Associations of maternal nutrition during pregnancy and post-partum with maternal cognition and caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Ashorn, Ulla; Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Sadalaki, John; Oaks, Brietta M; Haskell, Marjorie; Allen, Lindsay H; Vosti, Steve A; Ashorn, Per; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2018-04-01

    Pregnant and post-partum women require increased nutrient intake and optimal cognition, which depends on adequate nutrition, to enable reasoning and learning for caregiving. We aimed to assess (a) differences in maternal cognition and caregiving between women in Malawi who received different nutritional supplements, (b) 14 effect modifiers, and (c) associations of cognition and caregiving with biomarkers of iron, Vitamin A, B-vitamin, and fatty acid status. In a randomized controlled trial (n = 869), pregnant women daily received either multiple micronutrients (MMN), 20 g/day lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), or a control iron/folic acid (IFA) tablet. After delivery, supplementation continued in the MMN and LNS arms, and the IFA control group received placebo until 6 months post-partum, when cognition (n = 712), caregiving behaviour (n = 669), and biomarkers of nutritional status (n = 283) were assessed. In the full group, only one difference was significant: the IFA arm scored 0.22 SD (95% CI [0.01, 0.39], p = .03) higher than the LNS arm in mental rotation. Among subgroups of women with baseline low hemoglobin, poor iron status, or malaria, those who received LNS scored 0.4 to 0.7 SD higher than the IFA arm in verbal fluency. Breastmilk docosahexaenoic acid and Vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with verbal fluency and digit span forward (adjusting for covariates ps < .05). In this population in Malawi, maternal supplementation with MMN or LNS did not positively affect maternal cognition or caregiving. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid and B12 status may be important for post-partum attention and executive function. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Perspective on physiological/endocrine and nutritional factors influencing fertility in post-partum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Silvestre, F T; Kim, I H; Staples, C R

    2010-09-01

    Increasing reproductive performance of post-partum lactating dairy cows is a multi-factorial challenge involving disciplines of production medicine, nutrition, physiology and herd management. Systems of programmed timed insemination have been fine-tuned to achieve pregnancy per artificial inseminations (AI) approximating 45%. Systems have optimized follicle development, integrated follicle development with timing of induced corpus luteum regression and fine-tuned sequential timing of induced ovulation and AI. Use of programmes for insemination have identified occurrence of anovulatory ovarian status, body condition, uterine health and seasonal summer stress as factors contributing to reduced herd fertility. Furthermore, programmes of timed insemination provide a platform to evaluate efficacy of nutritional and herd health systems targeted to the transition and post-partum periods. The homeorhetic periparturient period, as cows deal with decreases in dry matter intake, results in a negative energy balance and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. Cows that transition well will cycle earlier and have a greater risk of becoming pregnant earlier post-partum. The innate arms of the immune system (acute and adaptive) are suppressed during the periparturient period. Cows experiencing the sequential complex of disorders such as dystocia, puerperal metritis, metritis, endometritis and subclinical endometritis are subsequently less fertile. Targeted strategies of providing specific nutraceuticals that provide pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleic, eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic, conjugated linoleic acid), sequential glycogenic and lipogenic enrichment of diets, and organic selenium appear to differentially regulate and improve the immune and reproductive systems to benefit an earlier restoration of ovarian activity and increased fertility. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. An Overview of Risk Factors Associated to Post-partum Depression in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Shubham; Mehta, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    Post partum depression (PPD) is an important complication of child-bearing. It requires urgent interventions as it can have long-term adverse consequences if ignored, for both mother and child. If PPD has to be prevented by a public health intervention, the recognition and timely identification of its risk factors is must. We in this review have tried to synthesize the results of Asian studies examining the risk factors of PPD. Some risk factors, which are unique to Asian culture, have also b...

  4. Predictors and incidence of post-partum depression: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Zarghami, Mehran; Azhar, Md Zain; Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Lye, Munn-Sann

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to identify the incidence and the related factors contributing to post-partum depression (PPD) in women in Iran for the first time. A total of 2279 eligible pregnant women from 32-42 weeks of pregnancy to 12 weeks post-partum (2009) who attended primary health centers in Mazandaran province were screened for depression using the Iranian version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Pregnant women free from depression were assessed using validated questionnaires, including the Premenstrual Syndrome Questionnaire, Social Support Appraisal Scale, Network Orientation Scale, General Health Questionnaire, Marital Inventory, Life Events Rating Scale and Parental Expectation Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of PPD. Of 1801 women who screened negative for depression at 32-42 weeks' gestation, cumulative incidence proportions were 6.7%, 4.3% and 4.5% during 0-2, >2-8 and >8-12 weeks post-partum, respectively. The factors predictive of PPD were: history of depression during the first two trimesters of pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59-4.1); psychiatric disorder during pregnancy (OR = 1.08, 95%CI = 1.06-1.11); gestational diabetes (OR = 2.93, 95%CI = 1.46-5.88); recurrent urinary infection (OR = 2.25, 95%CI = 1.44-3.52); unwanted pregnancy (OR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.69-3.7) and low household income (OR = 3.57, 95%CI = 1.49-8.5). The risk was decreased with increasing age (OR = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.84-0.92) and those with high self-efficacy for mothering (OR = 0.7, 95%CI = 0.62-0.78). A high rate of new cases of PPD was identified in Iranian women. A combination of psychological, sociological, obstetric and sociodemographic factors can render mothers vulnerable to post-partum depression. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. [The prevention of depression in pregnancy and the post-partum: when to intervene?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, Elena; Quartieri Bollani, Marta; Cauli, Gilla; Gala, Costanzo

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the presence of anxious-depressive symptoms and risk factors and discuss the method of intervention used with women in pregnancy and post-partum. The mood of the woman was assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), personality traits with the Vulnerable Personality Style Questionnaire (VPSQ) and social support through the Social Provisions Scale (PPS). 50 women have completed the evaluation. In line with the international literature, the presence of anxiety-depressive symptoms is accompanied by the presence of multiple risk factors, in particular the familiar seems to be a predisposing factor.

  6. Inadvertent intrathecal injection of labetalol in a patient undergoing post-partum tubal ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, P J; Hamza, M S; Ting, P H; Blank, R S; Grubb, C T

    2005-10-01

    After receiving a continuous spinal anesthetic for labor following an inadvertent dural puncture with a 17-gauge epidural needle, a morbidly obese parturient underwent post-partum tubal ligation 12 h after vaginal delivery. The patient received a total of 2 mL of 0.75% hyperbaric bupivacaine for the surgery. In response to moderate hypertension the patient received intravenous labetalol hydrochloride 20 mg. She subsequently was inadvertently administered approximately 15 mg of labetalol through the spinal catheter. The spinal catheter was removed immediately after the procedure. She suffered no apparent adverse neurologic effects.

  7. Graviditetsudløst transient osteoporose som årsag til hoftesmerter post partum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Morsel-Carlsen, Lone

    2014-01-01

    . She was known with undifferentiated spondyloartritis since 2004, which posed a diagnostic challenge. The reported patient was treated conservatively avoiding lactation, weight bearing activities, increased intake of calcium and vitamin D and recovered without further medical treatment.......Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) affects pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and shows a pattern of bone marrow oedema. We report a case of TOH post-partum with involvement of both hips in a 34-year-old woman...

  8. Memory in pregnancy and post-partum: Item specific and relational encoding processes in recall and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Pietro; Saraulli, Daniele; Oriolo, Debora; Costanzi, Marco; Zanetti, Humberto; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2016-08-01

    It has been recently proposed that pregnant women would perform memory tasks by focusing more on item-specific processes and less on relational processing, compared to post-partum women (Mickes, Wixted, Shapiro & Scarff, ). The present cross-sectional study tested this hypothesis by directly manipulating the type of encoding employed in the study phase. Pregnant, post-partum and control women either rated the pleasantness of word meaning (which induced item-specific elaboration) or named the semantic category to which they belonged (which induced relational elaboration). Memory for the encoded words was later tested in free recall (which emphasizes relational processing) and in recognition (which emphasizes item-specific processing). In line with Mickes et al.'s () conclusions, pregnant women in the item-specific condition performed worse than post-partum women in the relational condition in free recall, but not in recognition. However, compared to the other two groups, pregnant women also exhibited lower recognition accuracy in the item-specific condition. Overall, these results confirm that pregnant women rely on relational encoding less than post-partum women, but additionally suggest that the former group might use item-specific processes less efficiently than post-partum and control women. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ibuprofen versus acetaminophen as a post-partum analgesic for women with severe pre-eclampsia: randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil-De Gracia, Paulino; Solis, Valentin; Ortega, Nelson

    2017-06-01

    To compare differences in blood pressure levels between patients with severe post-partum pre-eclampsia using ibuprofen or acetaminophen. A randomized controlled trial was made in women with severe pre-eclampsia or superimposed pre-eclampsia after vaginal birth. The patient was randomly selected to receive either 400 mg of ibuprofen every 8 h or 1 g of acetaminophen every 6 h during the post-partum. The primary variable was systolic hypertension ≥150 mmHg and/or diastolic hypertension ≥100 mmHg after the first 24 h post-partum. Secondary variables were the arterial blood pressure readings at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-partum and maternal complications. A total of 113 patients were studied: 56 in the acetaminophen group and 57 in the ibuprofen group. With regard to the primary outcome, more cases were significantly hypertensive in the ibuprofen group (36/57; 63.1%) than in the acetaminophen group (16/56; 28.6%). Severe hypertension (≥160/110 mmHg) was not significantly different between the groups, 14.5% (acetaminophen) and 24.5% (ibuprofen). The levels of arterial blood pressure show a hammock-shaped curve independent of the drug used, however, is more noticeable with ibuprofen. This study shows that ibuprofen significantly elevates blood pressure in women with severe pre-eclampsia during the post-partum period.

  10. Aromaterapi Lavender dapat Menurunkan Intensitas Nyeri Perineum pada Ibu Post Partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Widayani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perineals pain affects  woman ability to mobilize so that it can cause complications such as post-partum haemoragik. Trauma to the perineum also cause discomfort and dyspareunia, therefore, perineal pain management is important. Currently the handling used to relieve pain is complementary therapy aromatherapy with essential oils of lavender, because lavender has the properties of anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, and also soothing. Aromatherapy stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete chemical mediators that serve as pain relievers and give rise to feelings of happiness. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of lavender aromatherapy to the perineal pain intensity in post partum women. This study is a quasy experiment pre and post non random control in postpartum women at Bidan Praktik Mandiri in Bandung. Sampling this study using consecutive sampling technique. The data taken using the instrument in the adaptation of a Visual Analog Scale (VAS and analyzed by using the wilcoxon signed rank test. The result is there was a decrease in pain intensity before and after the administration of inhaled lavender aromatherapy (Z=-3.77 with p-value 0.001. Lavender aromatherapy can be a complementary alternative therapy to reduce pain in postpartum women but more research necessary is needed with more respondents.

  11. Endocrine evaluation of puberty and post-partum ovarian function in indigenous and imported Brahman cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, H.S.; Ismaya, K.H.; Sulong, A.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to monitor the reproductive performance of Kedah Kelantan (KK) and Brahman cattle maintained under similar environmental and management conditions on commercial farms in Malaysia. This allowed the physiological differences affecting reproductive efficiency to be identified in both pubertal and adult stock. The results revealed that the Brahman breed exhibited a better growth rate but poorer post-partum fertility than the KK. It appears that Brahman cattle require feed supplementation around the time of calving in order to reduce the duration of post-partum anoestrus. Both breeds exhibited late onset of puberty (on average at 25-36 months of age), although some animals initiated sexual activity at a much earlier age; this suggests that better selection as well as nutritional supplementation and possibly endocrine manipulation are necessary management inputs. Although the Brahman shows excellent potential in terms of performance per animal, the greater carrying capacity of the KK and its greater adaptiveness to local conditions indicate that this indigenous animal still has a major role to play in livestock production in Malaysia. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  12. Post partum lymphocytic thyroiditis in North Indian population: a spectrum of thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Taneja, Vijay; Bansal, J.K.; Khanna, C.M.; Sharma, Manisha

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty one Indian women from Delhi and surrounding territory were prospectively evaluated to determine the frequency of post-partum thyroiditis upto 12 weeks of postpartum. Thirty one (11.8%) of the 261 cases included in our study developed thyroid disease. Twenty four (77%) of the patients who developed thyroiditis were found to have high titres of thyroid antibodies. Of these 24 patients, 21 (67.7%) tested positive for antimicrosomal antibodies and 17 (54.8%) tested positive for antithyroglobulin antibodies. Patients were found to have a spectrum of thyroid dysfunction. Transient hypothyroidism developed in 17 patients, I patient developed persistent hypothyroidism, 7 had transient thyrotoxicosis and 6 developed euthyroid goiters. Twenty two patients had goiters ranging from grade OB to grade II. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in 20 patients, while 2 had colloid goiter. It is concluded from our study that there is a significant incidence of post partum thyroid disease in the female population representative of North India, and most of the patients (93.5%) develop transient thyroid disorder. (author)

  13. Factors involved in the persistence of stress urinary incontinence from pregnancy to 2 years post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrue, Miren; Diez-Itza, Irene; Ibañez, Larraitz; Paredes, Jone; Murgiondo, Arantzazu; Sarasqueta, Cristina

    2011-12-01

    To identify factors involved in the persistence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) from pregnancy to 2 years post partum. In a longitudinal study at Donostia Hospital, San Sebastián, Spain, 458 primigravid women were recruited from April to October 2007. SUI was diagnosed via the 2002 International Continence Society definition. Severity was assessed via the Incontinence Severity Index, and impact on quality of life via the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire. Means (Student t test and analysis of variance) and percentages (χ(2) and Fisher exact tests) were compared, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with variables that were significant or close to significant in a univariate analysis (Ppregnancy. Incontinence severity was slight or moderate in most cases and the impact on quality of life was low. A higher body mass index (BMI) in pregnant women at term was the only factor found to be associated with persistent SUI (odds ratio 1.19; 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.32). Higher BMI in pregnant women at term was an independent risk factor for the persistence of SUI from pregnancy to 2 years post partum. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Post-partum blues among Korean mothers: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Yoo, Il Young; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to propose the post-partum blues (PPB) model and to estimate the effects of self-esteem, social support, antenatal depression, and stressful events during pregnancy on PPB. Data were collected from 249 women post-partum during their stay in the maternity units of three hospitals in Korea using a self-administered questionnaire. A structural equation modelling approach using the Analysis of Moments Structure program was used to identify the direct and indirect effects of the variables on PPB. The full model had a good fit and accounted for 70.3% of the variance of PPB. Antenatal depression and stressful events during pregnancy had strong direct effects on PPB. Household income showed indirect effects on PPB via self-esteem and antenatal depression. Social support indirectly affected PPB via self-esteem, antenatal depression, and stressful events during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. Mother's postnatal stress: an investigation of links to various factors during pregnancy and post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ewa; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2016-12-01

    Higher levels of parental stress have long-term effects on children's health and could lead to dysfunction in the parent-child interaction. Different background factors can be predictors of high parental stress. The aim of this study was to examine parental stress among Swedish women and identify different factors linked to women's parental stress. About 702 women were recruited to a clinical study and followed up six months after birth. Data were collected by two questionnaires, and 279 women completed the Swedish Parental Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ). Less than very good mental health and depressive symptoms after birth were strongly associated with parental stress, and the strongest association was found between post-partum depressive symptoms and high levels of stress in the subscale Incompetence. Multiparity was associated with high stress in two subscales, and lower level of education was a protective factor for stress in nearly all subscales. Depressive symptoms and perceived poor mental health post-partum are the most important factors related to high parental stress. The results point to the importance of identifying and supporting mothers with depressive symptoms, since these women have both mental illness and increased stress. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  16. Post-partum recovery course in patients with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Yukiko; Takagi, Kenjiro; Itaya, Yukiko; Ono, Yoshihisa; Matsumura, Hideyoshi; Takai, Yasushi; Seki, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    We examined the post-partum recovery course in patients with pre-eclampsia (PE) and gestational hypertension (GH) and evaluated the associated factors. In a retrospective review of 145 patients with GH or PE who gave birth between 1 January 2008 and 30 October 2011 at our institution, there were 125 PE and 20 GH cases. Data collected included the gestational age at initial examination and delivery, delivery mode, time for normalization of blood pressure (BP), and time until resolution of proteinuria in PE patients. Comparisons were made between singleton and multiple pregnancies, onset (early, hypertension and proteinuria, respectively. The time for BP normalization was longer in the early-onset group. The time for resolution of proteinuria was not affected by any factor examined. A post-partum observation period of 12 weeks is acceptable for differentiating PE and GH from chronic hypertension or renal disease. GH severity did not affect the recovery period, but proteinuria severity did. Onset time was a factor influencing the recovery from PE and GH. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Phytosterols from Dunaliella tertiolecta Reduce Cell Proliferation in Sheep Fed Flaxseed during Post Partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Ciliberti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The post partum period is characterized by immunosuppression and increased disease susceptibility. Both phytosterols from microalga Dunaniella tertiolecta and dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA influence cell proliferation and cytokine release during inflammation. The objective of this paper was the evaluation of the effects of physterols, extracted and purified from D. tertiolecta, on the in vitro immune responses of ewes supplemented with flaxseed during post partum. Twenty Comisana parturient ewes were divided in two balanced groups, and supplemented with flaxseed (FS, 250 g/day or fed with a conventional diet (CON. Blood samples (15 mL were collected for five weeks, starting from lambing, in order to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Stimulated PBMC were treated with a total sterols fraction from D. tertiolecta (TS, a mix of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol (purified extract, PE, and a mix of acetylated ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol (acetylated purified extract, AcPE, extracted and purified from D. tertiolecta at two concentrations (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL. Results of the experiment demonstrated that n-3 PUFA from flaxseed induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, with an increase of both IL-10, IL-6 and a decrease of IL-1β. TS, PE, and AcPE purified from D. tertiolecta showed an anti-proliferative effect on sheep PBMC regardless their chemical composition and concentration.

  18. Post-partum involution of the canine uterus - gross anatomical and histological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanou, D C; Ververidis, H N; Pourlis, A; Fragkou, I A; Kokoli, A N; Boscos, C M; Taitzoglou, I A; Tzora, A; Nerou, C M; Athanasiou, L; Fthenakis, G C

    2009-07-01

    We aimed to study the normal puerperium in the bitch. Ovariohysterectomy was performed in nine bitches, each at a different day after normal whelping; their genital tract was subject to gross anatomical examination, as well as to histological examination and electron microscopy scanning. Corpora albicans were evenly distributed in the left and right ovaries and placental sites were evenly distributed among left and right uterine horns. Placental sites were initially of dark green to grey colour, later becoming dark brown; their length and height progressively decreased. Height of the myometrium and diameter of the uterine glands progressively decreased. Trophoblast-like cells were consistently observed at the placental sites and on the surface of the interplacental areas, at all time points where hysterectomy had been performed. It is suggested that involution of the canine genital tract can last up to 3 months and is slow. Continuous (up to D84 post-partum) presence of prominent placental sites should be considered a normal feature of canine uterine post-partum involution.

  19. Luteinizing hormone-follicle stimulating hormone ratio as biological predictor of post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran Pillai, R; Sharon, Leena; Premkumar, Nancy R; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sagili, Haritha; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2017-01-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is the common adverse outcome of child bearing which affects the wellbeing of both mother and newborn and has long-term effects. Hence, reliable potential biological tests for early detection of PPD are essential. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were associated with depressive disorders and the present study estimated the levels of serum FSH, LH in postpartum depression and explored them as predictive biomarkers in the development of PPD. In this nested case control study done at a tertiary care hospital in South India, 450 postpartum women were screened at 6th week post-delivery for PPD. Socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded and depressive symptoms were assessed using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Out of 450 subjects screened, 100 women with depressive symptoms were categorized as cases and 100 controls were selected from the remaining subjects matching for age and BMI with cases. Serum levels of FSH and LH were measured using direct competitive immunoassay by chemiluminescene technology. Serum LH/FSH ratio was found to be significantly (p=0.02) low in PPD women when compared to normal postpartum subjects. We also found a significant negative correlation between LH/FSH ratio and EPDS scores. Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off value for serum of LH/FSH levels in predicting postpartum depression was estimated to be 0.22mlU/mL with an AUC of 0.598 (95%CI, 0.291-0.859). Our study demonstrated that low LH/FSH ratio after delivery was associated with increased risk for the development of PPD. Low LH/FSH ratio at six-week post delivery can be used as a robust biochemical predictor of post-partum depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive factors and post-partum depression: What is the influence of general personality traits, rumination, maternal self-esteem, and alexithymia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Anne; Luminet, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    The objective was to assess the impact of cognitive factors on post-partum depression (PPD) symptoms. Because most of the literature data concern the immediate post-partum period or the first year post-partum, we notably sought to assess the longer term impact of cognitive factors on the symptoms of PPD. Two studies were performed. In a pilot study, 1-month post-partum, 63 women filled out a sociodemographic information sheet and completed the abbreviated, revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Ruminative Responses Scale, the Maternal Self-Report Inventory, and the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale. In the main study, 124 women additionally completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The main study population was divided into 2 subgroups: women in the first year post-partum (n = 74) and those in the second year post-partum (n = 50). In the pilot study performed 1-month post-partum, brooding rumination and low self-esteem were significant predictors of the PPD symptom intensity. Neuroticism, brooding rumination, and low maternal self-esteem were also significant predictors of the PPD symptoms reported in the first year post-partum. Lastly, ruminative thoughts and alexithymia were significant predictors of the PPD symptoms reported in the second year post-partum. Our results suggest that alexithymia may be an important predictor of the incidence of this condition. The observation of differences in the PPD models as a function of the post-partum period may open up opportunities for developing novel PPD prevention/treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Lactobacillus-deficient vaginal microbiota dominate post-partum women in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ronan; Gondwe, Austridia; Fan, Yue-Mei; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Klein, Nigel; Harris, Kathryn

    2018-01-05

    The bacterial community found in the vagina is an important determinant of a woman's health and disease. A healthy vaginal microbiota is associated with a lower species richness and high proportions of one of a number of different Lactobacillus spp.. When disrupted the resulting abnormal vaginal microbiota is associated with a number of disease states and poor pregnancy outcomes. Studies up until now have concentrated on relatively small numbers of American and European populations which may not capture the full complexity of the community, nor adequately predict what constitutes a healthy microbiota in all populations. In this study we sampled and characterised the vaginal microbiota from a cohort of 1107 women in rural Malawi found on vaginal swabs taken post-partum. We found a population dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and devoid of the most common vaginal Lactobacillus species, even if the vagina was sampled over a year post-partum. The Lactobacillus -deficient anaerobic community commonly labelled community state type (CST) 4 could be sub-divided into four further communities. A Lactobacillus iners dominated vaginal microbiota became more common the longer after delivery the vagina was sampled, but G. vaginalis remained the dominant organism. These results outline the difficulty in all-encompassing definitions of what a healthy or abnormal vaginal microbiota is post-partum. Previous identification of community state types and associations between bacterial species, bacterial vaginosis and adverse birth outcomes may not represent the complex heterogeneity of the microbiota present. Importance A bacterial community in the vaginal tract that is dominated by small number of bacterial Lactobacillus species and when they are not present, there is a greater incidence of inflammatory conditions and adverse birth outcomes. A switch to a vaginal bacterial community lacking in Lactobacillus species is common after pregnancy. In this study we characterised the vaginal

  2. Post-partum ovarian activity in adult and first-calf dual purpose cows in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, H.; Gatica, A.; Miranda, J.; Matamoros, R.

    1990-01-01

    Progesterone (P 4 ) levels in skin milk were determined in two groups of dual purpose cows from farms in the Department of Escuintla on the south coast of Guatemala. Fifteen adult cows (crosses of Criollo with Zebu and Brown Swiss) were selected on the first farm and ten first-calf heifers (crosses of Criollo with Zebu and Holstein) on the second; both groups were considered to be representative of dual purpose livestock (milk and meat producers) in the country. To study the resumption of ovarian activity post-partum, milk samples were taken once a week from 10 days after calving until the first natural service; thereafter, sampling continued twice-weekly for 60 more days when the animals were rectally palpated for pregnancy diagnosis. On farm 1, the mean interval from calving to first rise in P 4 levels indicative of ovarian function was 42±16.7 days; all the study cows were at third calving and resumed cyclicity. On farm 2, only 30% of the study heifers resumed cyclicity and these had an interval from calving to first rise in P 4 of 80±28.9 days; all were at first calving. On farm 1, 73% of cows were served during first oestrus, 13% at second oestrus and 13% at the third. On farm 2, only 30% (3/10) of cows were served at first oestrus; the other 70% did not show signs of ovarian activity during the trial period which lasted until day 129 post-partum. Palpation of the cows 60 days post-service showed that all cows had conceived on farm 1 but only 20% on farm 2. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  3. High post-partum levels of corticosterone given to dams influence postnatal hippocampal cell proliferation and behavior of offspring: A model of post-partum stress and possible depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelte, Susanne; Pawluski, Jodi L; Galea, Liisa A M

    2006-09-01

    Post-partum stress and depression (PPD) have a significant effect on child development and behavior. Depression is associated with hypercortisolism in humans, and the fluctuating levels of hormones, including corticosterone, during pregnancy and the post-partum, may contribute to PPD. The present study was developed to investigate the effects of high-level corticosterone (CORT) post-partum in the mother on postnatal neurogenesis and behavior in the offspring. Sprague-Dawley dams were treated with either CORT (40 mg/kg) or sesame oil injections daily for 26 days beginning the day after giving birth. Dams were tested in the forced swim test (FST) and in the open field test (OFT) on days 24-26 post-partum. Results showed that the dams exposed to CORT expressed "depressive-like" behavior compared to controls, with decreased struggling behavior and increased immobility in the FST. To investigate the effects of treatment on hippocampal postnatal cell proliferation and survival in the offspring, males and females from treated dams were injected with BrdU (50 mg/kg) on postnatal day 21 and perfused either 24 h (cell proliferation) or 21 days (cell survival) later. Furthermore, male and female offspring from each litter were tested in adulthood on various behavioral tests, including the forced swim test, open field test, resistance to capture test and elevated plus maze. Intriguingly, male, but not female, offspring of CORT-treated dams exhibited decreased postnatal cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Both male and female offspring of CORT-treated dams showed higher resistance to capture and greater locomotor activity as assessed in the open field test. As high levels of CORT may be a characteristic of stress and/or depression, these findings support a model of 'CORT-induced' post-partum stress and possibly depression and demonstrate that the offspring of affected dams can exhibit changes in postnatal neurogenesis and behavior in adulthood.

  4. Predictors of depressive symptoms in older Japanese primiparas at 1 month post-partum: A risk-stratified analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroko; Mori, Emi; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Sakajo, Akiko; Maehara, Kunie; Ozawa, Harumi; Morita, Akiko; Maekawa, Tomoko; Aoki, Kyoko; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Older maternal age has become more common in Japan. Studies suggest that older maternal age and primiparity are associated with post-partum depression. The present study aimed to identify predictors of post-partum depression in older Japanese primiparas at 1 month post-partum. Participants were 479 primiparas aged 35 years and over, drawn from a prospective cohort study. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires. Depression was measured with the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was conducted on binary outcome variables of depression at 1 month post-partum, along with a stratified analysis based on the risk status of depression. Five predictors were identified: (i) the depression score during hospital stay; (ii) financial burden; (iii) dissatisfaction with appraisal support; (iv) physical burden in daily life; and (v) concerns about infant caretaking. Stratified analysis identified dissatisfaction with instrumental support in the low-risk group, and the Child-care Value Scale score as unique predictors in the high-risk group. These results highlight the importance of early assessment of depressive symptoms and the provision of continuous care. © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  5. Which mothers receive a post partum home visit in Queensland, Australia? A cross-sectional retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Wendy; Miller, Yvette

    2015-06-01

    Although home visiting in the early post partum period appears to have increased, there are limited data defining which women receive a visit and none that include Queensland. We aimed to investigate patterns of post partum home visiting in the public and private sectors in Queensland. Data were collected via a retrospective cross-sectional survey of women birthing in Queensland between 1 February and 31 May 2010 at 4 months post partum (n = 6948). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between receiving a home visit and sociodemographic, clinical and hospital variables. Analyses were stratified by public and private birthing sector because of significant differences between sectors. Public sector women were more likely to receive a visit from a nurse or midwife (from the hospital or child health sector) within 10 days of hospital discharge (67.2%) than private sector women (7.2%). Length of hospital stay was associated with home visiting in both sectors. Some vulnerable subpopulations in both sectors were more likely to be visited, whereas others were not. Home visiting in Queensland varies markedly between the public and private sector and is less common in some vulnerable populations. Further consideration to improving the equity of community post partum care in Queensland is needed.

  6. Case of a woman with acromegaly whose presenting complaint was prolonged post-partum amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tomomi; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Oride, Aki; Moriyama, Masayuki; Kyo, Satoru

    2016-10-01

    We report a case of a woman who was incidentally diagnosed with acromegaly after referral for prolonged post-partum amenorrhea. A 25-year-old woman, gravida 2 para 1, had a normal transvaginal delivery and breastfeeding had been discontinued more than a year after delivery. Thereafter, spontaneous menstruation did not restart and she underwent hormonal therapy. Subsequently, she was referred to our university hospital for prolonged amenorrhea. Hormonal examination revealed severe hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (luteinizing hormone 0.5 mIU/mL, follicle-stimulating hormone amenorrhea, which revealed mass lesions extending from the pituitary fossa to the suprasellar area with similar signal intensity as the gray matter. In addition, bitemporal hemianopsia was observed on campimetry. After further examination, the patient was diagnosed with acromegaly. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Becoming a parent: a model of parents' post-partum experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine de Montigny

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving oneself as parent is a key challenge during the transition to parenthood. The importance of health professionals in determining perceived efficacy in parents upon the birth of their child is few explored. The objective of this study is to analayze the relations between the first time parents' perceived efficacy and their perceptions of nurses' help-giving and critical events during post-partum period. SAMPLE AND METHOD: One hundred sixty couples participated in a correlational study by completing questionaires after the birth of their first child. RESULTS: A model of parents' postpartum experience was established where nurses' collaboration and help-giving practices contribute directly and indirectly to the parents' perception of control and perceptions of events. They contribute indirectly to parent's perceived self-efficacy. IMPLICATIONS: The help given by health professionals, especially nurses, to parents following the birth of a child makes a major positive difference in the parents' experiences.

  8. Identifying the support needs of fathers affected by post-partum depression: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, N; Duffett-Leger, L; Dennis, C-L; Stewart, M; Tryphonopoulos, P D

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the experiences, support needs, resources, and barriers to support for fathers whose partners had post-partum depression (PPD) in preparation for a larger study. Qualitative methods and community-based research approaches were used in this exploratory/descriptive multi-site study, conducted in New Brunswick and Alberta. Telephone interviews were conducted with a total of 11 fathers in New Brunswick (n= 7) and Alberta (n= 4). Fathers experienced a number of depressive symptoms including: anxiety, lack of time and energy, irritability, feeling sad or down, changes in appetite, and thoughts of harm to self or baby. The most common barriers for fathers were lack of information regarding PPD resources and difficulty seeking support. This pilot study establishes the feasibility of the larger-scale exploration of fathers' experiences in supporting their spouses affected by PPD. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  9. [Isolated severe neurologic disorders in post-partum: posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, A; Benayoun, L; Yver, C; Bruno, O; Mantz, J

    2007-01-01

    Just after Caesarean section for twin pregnancy and feto-pelvic dysproportion, a woman presented severe headaches and arterial hypertension, then blurred vision, then generalised seizures. There were no oedematous syndrome, proteinuria was negative, ASAT were 1.5 N and platelet count was 120,000/mm(3). Cerebral CT-scan was normal. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) was diagnosed on MRI. A second MRI performed at day 9 showed complete regression of cerebral lesions, while patient was taking anti-hypertensive and antiepileptic drugs. PRES has to be evoked in post-partum central neurological symptoms, even in absence of classical sign of pre-eclampsia, like proteinuria. PRES and eclampsia share probably common physiopathological pathways. There management and prognosis seems identical.

  10. Values of Prostaglandin during Pre and Post-Partum and at parturition in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Khattab

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at Mehallet Mousa Animal production Research station, Animal production Research institute- ministry of agriculture, Egypt. This work was carried out on ten late pregnant buffaloes for studying prostaglandin (PG F2α during pre and post partum periods. Blood samples were collected five days prepartum and one week postpartum. Prostaglandin was determined by Elisa (Enzyme-Limked immunosorbant Assay. The results, showed that the plasma prostaglandin levels on day three, two and one prepartum was higher than on day five prepartum. On The day of delivery (0 day a sudden sharp increase in PGF2& con concentration occurred (180.83±4.23 pg/ml followed by a gradual decrease in the plasma concentration. Of PGF2α on day four, five, six and seven postpartum, small respectively.

  11. Post-partum depression, anxiety and marital satisfaction: A perspective from Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn I. Odinka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have noted the high prevalence of post-partum depression (PPD and anxiety associated with poor marital satisfaction, albeit amidst a dearth of literature on comorbid PPD and anxiety among women in Nigeria. Objective: The study was aimed to assess the prevalence of PPD and anxiety, and to investigate their relationship with marital satisfaction in low-risk women in Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria. Method: A cross-sectional study of 309 randomly selected nursing mothers at two tertiary health institutions. Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Index of Marital Satisfaction (IMS were used to collect data on demography, anxiety and depression and marital relationship respectively. All statistical tests were performed at a significant level of 0.05. Results: The age range of the respondents was 20–46 years; mean and s.d. was 29.65 and ± 4.87, respectively, and most of them were graduates of tertiary educational institutions (74.1%. The prevalence of post-partum anxiety was 31.1% and of PPD was 33.3%. Marital dissatisfaction was observed in 39.5% (122 of the respondents who were mothers. Those with co-morbid depression and anxiety (22.0% had worse marital dissatisfaction. The strongest correlation with depression and anxiety was item 12 of IMS (‘feel that my partner doesn’t confide in me’. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of marital dissatisfaction, PPD and anxiety among nursing mothers in Enugu, but with low detection rate. The effects of PPD and anxiety on the mother, her marital relationship and her infant make them essential conditions for early diagnosis, prevention and treatments.

  12. Metabolic predictors of post-partum disease and culling risk in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Hesam A; Leblanc, Stephen J; Leslie, Ken E; Duffield, Todd F

    2011-05-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine the relationship between serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose and calcium (Ca) with the occurrence of displaced abomasum (DA), clinical ketosis and culling in Holstein cows. Eight hundred and forty-nine cows from 16 farms were sampled weekly for the first 3 weeks post-partum. The cows were under clinical observation from calving until 60 days in milk (DIM) and during this time there were 22 cases of DA, 31 cases of clinical ketosis and 39 cows were culled. Elevated concentrations of BHBA were associated with DA, clinical ketosis and culling. In the first week after calving, cows with serum BHBA ≥1000μmol/L had 13.6 times greater odds of developing DA than cows with lower values. Serum NEFA and BHBA concentrations during week 1 were associated with the subsequent occurrence of clinical ketosis. The odds of clinical ketosis were 6.3 times greater in cows with serum NEFA ≥ 1.0mmol/L in the first week after calving. In addition, cows with BHB ≥1200μmol/L in the first week after calving, were at 4.7 times greater risk of developing clinical ketosis. In the first and second weeks after calving the serum Ca concentration was associated with subsequent culling. In addition, cows with NEFA concentration ≥ 1.0mmol/L were 3.6 times more likely to be culled within the following 2 months. The study indicated that early post-partum serum BHBA, NEFA and Ca concentrations have potential as indicators of disease and culling risk in dairy cows. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards 2015: post-partum haemorrhage in sub-Saharan Africa still on the rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpemba, Faraja; Kampo, Sylvanus; Zhang, Xinyu

    2014-03-01

    To review literature from 1996-2012 relating to factors associating with the persistent maternal mortality rate (MMR) caused by post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) in sub-Saharan Africa. One woman dies every seven minutes, at the same time, one-quarter of all maternal death worldwide is being caused by PPH. The aim of United Nations Fifth Millennium Development Goal 5 is to lower MMR by three quarters between 1990-2015. Narrative literature review. Study articles from 1996-2012 were searched in electronic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane, PubMED, Google's scholar and manual searches. Combinations of the following search words were used: post-partum haemorrhage/bleeding, sub-Saharan Africa/rural areas, antenatal/obstetric care/maternal mortality/skilled care at birth/maternity care/health survey. 125 article abstracts were read, and 50 full articles used in this review. Every day about 800 women died due to birth complications in 2010: of the 800 maternal deaths worldwide, 440 occurred in sub-Saharan Africa with PPH being the main cause. Common causes of PPH are related to failure of the healthcare system, inaccurate estimation of blood loss after delivery and lack of skills to prevent and manage PPH. Special attention is needed with emphasis on regular attendance of antenatal clinic, proper information concerning pregnancy and delivery, skills to accurate estimate blood loss, and prevention and management of PPH. PPH is the leading cause of MMR in areas where essential care and skilled health attendants are limited. Basic Emergency Obstetric Care and arrangements for timely referral to the big hospital with facilities must be practiced everywhere. This review may help to remind health workers and the government that maternal mortality due to PPH is still higher and more interventions are needed. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. [Maternal care after vaginal delivery and management of complications in immediate post-partum--Guidelines for clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E-G; Laffon, M

    2015-12-01

    To provide recommendations on maternal care after vaginal delivery, and management of complications in immediate post-partum period. Bibliographic research from the Pubmed database and recommendations issued by the main scientific societies, and assignment of a level of evidence and a recommendation grade. After a vaginal delivery, monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate, bleeding, uterine involution, genital pain, urination, temperature, transit and signs of phlebitis is recommended (professional consensus). Post-partum Anemia is defined by a hemoglobinpost-partum hypertension or de novo preeclampsia, the prescription rules for antihypertensive treatments and magnesium sulfate are the same as in prenatal period (professional consensus). Oral NSAIDs are effective for perineal pain and uterine involution (EL2). In case of broken down perineal wounds following childbirth, there is no argument in favor of suturing or not suturing, however the suturing is to be preferred for large dehisced perineal wounds (professional consensus). Infection of perineal scar justifies an oral broad-spectrum antibiotics, in addition to local nursing (professional consensus). In case of obstetric anal sphincter injuries, an antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended (grade B). Hygiene advice should be given to all women who had an episiotomy or a perineal tear (professional consensus). The only etiological treatment of post-dural puncture headache is the blood patch (EL2). It must not be carried out before 48 hours (professional consensus). Thromboembolic risk after a vaginal birth is about 1‰ (EL2). The prescription of thromboprophylaxis with LMWH and graduated compression stockings should be based on risk factors (professional consensus). During the immediate post-partum period, complications may be unrecognized or confused with the natural post-partum evolution, which implies a strong vigilance from practitioners. This vigilance is all the more necessary that the maternal residence

  15. Maternal educational level and the risk of persistent post-partum glucose metabolism disorders in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gante, Inês; Ferreira, Ana Carina; Pestana, Gonçalo; Pires, Daniela; Amaral, Njila; Dores, Jorge; do Céu Almeida, Maria; Sandoval, José Luis

    2018-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) occurs in 5-15% of pregnancies, and lower maternal educational attainment has been associated with higher risk of GDM. We aimed to determine if maternal education level is associated with persistent post-partum glucose metabolism disorders in women with GDM. Retrospective cohort study of women with GDM followed in 25 Portuguese health institutions between 2008 and 2012. Educational attainment was categorised into four levels. Prevalence of post-partum glucose metabolism disorders (type 2 diabetes mellitus, increased fasting plasma glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) was compared and adjusted odds ratios calculated controlling for confounders using logistic regression. We included 4490 women diagnosed with GDM. Educational level ranged as follows: 6.8% (n = 307) were at level 1 (≤ 6th grade), 34.6% (n = 1554) at level 2 (6-9th grade), 30.4% (n = 1364) at level 3 (10-12th grade) and 28.2% (n = 1265) at level 4 (≥ university degree). At 6 weeks post-partum re-evaluation, 10.9% (n = 491) had persistent glucose metabolism disorders. Educational levels 1 and 2 had a higher probability of persistent post-partum glucose metabolism disorders when compared to level 4 (OR = 2.37 [1.69;3.32], p women with GDM and associated with lower maternal educational level. Interventions aimed at this risk group may contribute towards a decrease in prevalence of post-partum glucose metabolism disorders.

  16. A case report of spontaneous rupture of a renal angiomyolipoma in a post-partum 21-year-old patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucky, Marc A; Shingler, Simon N; Stephenson, Richard N

    2009-10-01

    Renal angiomyolipomas (AML) are benign tumours containing vascular, smooth muscle and fatty elements. The majority of renal AML run an asymptomatic, benign course. The main associated complication is that of retro-peritoneal or intra-tumoural haemorrhage. Treatment options include conservative management versus interventional procedures such as total or partial nephrectomy, cryotherapy or embolization. We describe a case of symptomatic, spontaneous rupture of AML in the immediate post-partum period of a patient treated under our care. This case highlights the presentation in the form of an acute abdomen in the immediate post-partum period. This is important as acute abdomen following delivery can be attributed to a number of other causes. It also demonstrates that further complications of renal angiomyolipoma rupture can arise, emphasising the importance of post treatment vigilance for signs of infection, further haemorrhage and post embolic events.

  17. "We have been working overnight without sleeping": traditional birth attendants' practices and perceptions of post-partum care services in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiti, Gladys R; Kiwara, Angwara D; Mbekenga, Columba K; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2015-02-03

    In many low-income countries, formal post-partum care utilization is much lower than that of skilled delivery and antenatal care. While Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) might play a role in post-partum care, research exploring their attitudes and practices during this period is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore TBAs' practices and perceptions in post-partum care in rural Tanzania. Qualitative in-depth interview data were collected from eight untrained and three trained TBAs. Additionally, five multiparous women who were clients of untrained TBAs were also interviewed. Interviews were conducted in February 2013. Data were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze data. Our study found that TBAs take care of women during post-partum with rituals appreciated by women. They report lacking formal post-partum care training, which makes them ill-equipped to detect and handle post-partum complications. Despite their lack of preparation, they try to provide care for some post-partum complications which could put the health of the woman at risk. TBAs perceive that utilization of hospital-based post-partum services among women was only important for the baby and for managing complications which they cannot handle. They are poorly linked with the health system. This study found that the TBAs conducted close follow-ups and some of their practices were appreciated by women. However, the fact that they were trying to manage certain post-partum complications can put women at risk. These findings point out the need to enhance the communication between TBAs and the formal health system and to increase the quality of the TBA services, especially in terms of prompt referral, through provision of training, mentoring, monitoring and supervision of the TBA services.

  18. Barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation in pregnancy and in the post-partum period: The health care professionals' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Felix; Hopewell, Sarah; Sinclair, Lesley; McCaughan, Dorothy; McKell, Jennifer; Bauld, Linda

    2018-05-15

    Health care professionals and the health care environment play a central role in protecting pregnant and post-partum women and their infants from smoking-related harms. This study aimed to better understand the health professional's perspective on how interactions between women, health care professionals, and the environment influence how smoking is managed. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Data were from 48 health care staff involved in antenatal or post-partum care at two UK sites, including midwives, obstetricians, health visitors, GPs, pharmacists, service commissioners, and Stop Smoking Service (SSS) advisors and managers. Thematic analysis was guided by a social-ecological framework (SEF). Themes were divided across three SEF levels and represented factors connected to the management of smoking in the health care context and the beliefs and behaviour of pregnant or post-partum smokers. Organizational level: Service reconfigurations, 'last resort' nicotine replacement therapy prescribing policies, and non-mandatory training were largely negative factors. There were mixed views on opt-out referral pathways and positive views on carbon monoxide monitoring. Interpersonal level: Protection of client-professional relationships often inhibited frank discussions about smoking, and weak interservice relationships affected SSS referral motivation and quality. Individual level: Professionals felt community midwives had primary responsibility for managing smoking, although midwives felt underskilled doing this. Midwives' perceived priority for addressing smoking was influenced by the demands from unrelated organizational initiatives. Opportunities to improve clinical support for pregnant smokers exist at organizational, interservice, and health care professional levels. Interactions between levels reflect the importance of simultaneously addressing different level-specific barriers to smoking cessation in pregnancy. Statement of contribution What is already

  19. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and cerebrovascular constriction syndrome in the differential diagnosis of post-partum headaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz López, N; Cano Hernández, B; Balbás Álvarez, S

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum headache can be due to many causes. In a patient with previous epidural analgesia, the headache can be attributed to post-dural puncture headache, even if the symptoms are not typical of this clinical entity. We report a case of a post-partum with accidental dural tap during the insertion of an epidural catheter for labour analgesia, and who referred to headaches in the third post-partum day. Initially, a post-dural puncture headache was suspected, but the subsequent onset of seizures and visual impairment meant that the diagnosis had to be reconsidered. In this case report, the clinical and pathophysiological features of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, as well as the differential diagnosis of post-partum headaches are described. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Swedish women's food habits during pregnancy up to six months post-partum: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Anna Lena; Isaksson, Ulf; Sandström, Herbert; Lundqvist, Anette; Hörnell, Agneta; Hamberg, Katarina

    2016-06-01

    Diet influences the health of the foetus and the woman during pregnancy and later in life. It is therefore important to investigate pregnant women's food habits. The aim of this study was to describe women's food habits during pregnancy and up to six months post-partum. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (VIP-FFQ) was distributed to 163 pregnant women on five occasions during and after pregnancy. Data were analysed using Friedman's ANOVA and a Bonferroni post-hoc test. Food habits in relation to the National Food Agency's (NFA) food index. The pregnant women's diets were inadequate according to the NFA food index. A tendency towards an even poorer diet after delivery was identified, something which was related to an increased intake of discretionary food, e.g. sweets, cakes, cookies, crisps, ice cream, and decreased intake of fruit and vegetable. The alcohol consumption was low throughout. The food habits during pregnancy were inadequate compared to recommendations and these habits became unhealthier after delivery. These suggest that dietary counselling needs to be more effective and continued into the lactating period. An increased focus should be given to healthy eating from the life course perspective, not just focus on effects on the foetus and pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in lymphocyte subsets during pregnancy and post-partum in cases of beginning eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnert, M; Schmidt, S

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the present retrospective study was to examine the peripheral blood lymphocytes for expression of phenotypic and activation markers concerning the development of hypertension in pregnancy. 16 women (aged 25-43 years; mean 35.1) developing hypertension in the third trimester (week 25-34) have had blood samples taken in the first (post-partum, The control group consisted of 16 age-matched pregnant healthy women, who underwent the same regime. All blood samples were taken in the morning, stored at room temperature and stained within 6 hours and measured within 24 hours. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance between both groups was done with multiple comparison according to Dunn. Comparing both groups, the total white cell count was significantly increased in all pregnancies and post-partum. In case of hypertension in pregnancy the cell numbers of suppressor/cytotoxic (CD 8+) and CD 56(+)-activated T cells showed a significant increase in the first trimester (< 14 weeks) [p < 0.05] and decreased thereafter to normal values. In the second trimester (week 14-23) helper/inducer lymphocytes and CD 56+/CD 3+ lymphocytes decreased in case of pre-ecclampsia and cytotoxic lymphocytes elevated [p < 0.05]. In the third trimester (week 24-35) there was no difference in both study groups and in late pregnancy (week 36-termination) there were only small differences without statistical significance. Within 1 week postnatal the value of Il-2 receptor T lymphocytes decreased in the group of pre-eclampsia in comparison to normal pregnancies [p < 0.05]. Regarding the major changes in activated T cells in both study groups no specific pattern of lymphocyte subsets in case of pre-eclampsia could be found in comparison to healthy pregnant women. Further investigations should focus on functional activation and/or suppression of the cellular immune system. Perhaps this could lead to a screening test for pre-eclampsia in future, which is non-invasive for the patient and economic for

  2. Color vision abnormality as the sole manifestation of posterior reversible encephalopathy due to post-partum HELLP syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hironori; Matsubara, Teppei; Makino, Shinji; Horie, Kenji; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2017-03-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is associated with several symptoms; of those, visual acuity loss, light oversensitivity (photophobia), and light flashes (photopsia) are known as PRES-related eye symptoms. We report a post-partum woman with PRES associated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome (HELLP), in whom color vision abnormality (achromatopsia) was the sole manifestation. Cesarean section was performed at 28 weeks due to headache, epigastralgia, and severe hypertension. HELLP became evident after delivery. On post-partum day 1, she complained of achromatopsia, stating: "all things look brownish-gray". Ophthalmologic examination was normal, but brain magnetic resonance imaging showed occipital lobe lesions, indicative of PRES, and, interestingly, also color vision center (area V4) lesions, suggesting that the achromatopsia had been caused by brain damage. It may be prudent to question HELLP patients concerning achromatopsia. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Studies on the post-partum ovarian activity of dairy cattle under different feeding regimes in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrin, J.; Villalba, P.; Guerron, E.; Zurita, E.

    1990-01-01

    In order to monitor ovarian activity in post-partum dairy cows in the Cayambe Valley, Ecuador, 164 cows from three farms were studied. Milk progesterone concentrations (analysed by RIA) and additional data on livestock management, nutritional status and health were compiled. Farms were classified mainly according to nutritional and management status; the better the nutritional status of the cows the sooner they resumed oestrous activity (28.3-31.6 days post-partum). The duration of the first oestrous cycle was found to be variable, 18.0 to 20.4 days. Thirty-one per cent of the study cows did not conceive during the course of the trial and the mean calving interval of those that calved was 426 days. The high incidence of hypofunctional ovaries was a cause for concern on one farm. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Differences in total and allergen specific IgE during pregnancy compared with 1 month and 1 year post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lee M; Ownby, Dennis R; Wegienka, Ganesa R; Peterson, Edward L; Woodcroft, Kimberly J; Joseph, Christine L; Johnson, Christine C

    2009-10-01

    Pregnancy alters the function of many body systems, including the immune system. However, little is known regarding the effect of pregnancy on maternal IgE levels or atopy. To determine whether pregnancy consistently influences serum levels of total or allergen specific IgE. Blood samples were obtained from 764 women during the third trimester of pregnancy and 1 month post partum. A third sample was obtained from 106 of these women 1 year post partum. Samples were analyzed for total and specific IgE to 8 regionally common allergens using a commercially available system. Sensitization was defined as an allergen specific IgE level of 0.35 kU of allergen per liter or higher to any allergen. Total IgE increased significantly post partum, both at 1 month (40.36 vs 35.37 IU/mL intrapartum; P = .001) and at 1 year (44.97 vs 37.00 IU/mL intrapartum; P = .005). Allergen specific IgE decreased significantly at 1 month for cat, dog, ragweed, timothy grass, and egg (P = .001 to P = .02) but not for dust mite, cockroach, or Alternaria (P = .15 to P = .90). Similar patterns of change in total and specific IgE were seen at 1 year. However, on average, only 3.5% of participants changed sensitization status to the individual allergens studied during the 1 year of observation. Compared with intrapartum levels, total IgE levels increased significantly at 1 month and 1 year post partum. Conversely, at the same time points, IgE levels specific for common allergens significantly declined to most but not all allergens. Few women changed their sensitization status over 1 year.

  5. Untersuchungen zur Involution der Vagina and Zervix beim Rind post partum unter Berücksichtigung der Zervix als Geburtshindernis

    OpenAIRE

    Wehrend, Axel

    2002-01-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es die physiologische Involution der Zervix im Vergleich zur Vagina beim Rind während der ersten zehn Tage post partum zu charakterisieren. Weiterhin sollte durch klinische Untersuchungen an Kühen nach Dystokie und einer retrospektiven Datenauswertung von Schwergeburten unterschiedlicher Tierarten der Anteil zervikal bedingter Geburtsstockungen im Interspeziesvergleich analysiert und Einflussfaktoren auf das Auftreten dieser Dystokieform sowie Störungen in der...

  6. Antenatal dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and early post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Rachel; Hill, Briony; Jacka, Felice N; O'Neil, Adrienne; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a debilitating disorder experienced during pregnancy and/or the first year post-partum. Recently, maternal dietary intake during pregnancy has emerged as a possible area of intervention for the prevention of mental disorders in women and their offspring. However, the relationship between antenatal diet quality and perinatal depressive symptoms remains poorly understood. The current study explored the predictive role of antenatal diet quality for antenatal and post-natal depressive symptoms. Pregnant women (n = 167) were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011. Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at time 1 [T1, mean weeks gestation = 16.70, standard deviation (SD) = 0.91], time 2 (T2, mean weeks gestation = 32.89, SD = 0.89) and time 3 (T3, mean weeks post-partum = 13.51, SD = 1.97) and a food frequency questionnaire at T1 and T2. Diet quality was determined by extracting dietary patterns via principal components analysis. Two dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy' (including fruit, vegetables, fish and whole grains) and 'unhealthy' (including sweets, refined grains, high-energy drinks and fast foods). Associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were investigated by path analyses. While both 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' path models showed good fit, only one significant association consistent with study hypotheses was found, an 'unhealthy' diet was associated with increased depressive symptoms at 32 weeks gestation. Given that this association was cross-sectional, it was not possible to make any firm conclusions about the predictive nature of either dietary patterns or depressive symptoms. Dietary intervention studies or larger prospective studies are therefore recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Progesterone profiles and post-partum fertility in dairy cattle in southern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, J.E.; Gatica, R.; Tapia, P.

    1990-01-01

    Milk samples were taken at weekly intervals from 77 dairy cows on days 23, 30, 37, 43 and 50 post-partum (pp) in order to monitor ovarian activity through progesterone concentration measurement. Skim milk samples were assayed for progesterone by radioimmunoassay using kits provided through the FAO and IAEA. Oestrus, clinical examinations, treatments, artificial insemination and pregnancy diagnosis were recorded. The profiles of progesterone concentration and oestrus occurrence combined with behavioural and clinical data indicated that the study cows were in the following reproductive states: I - normal, 38%; II - 'silent' oestrus, 12%; III - prolonged luteal activity, 13%; IV - irregular cyclic activity, 23%; and V - anoestrus, 13%. After artificial insemination, 89% (25/28) of normal, 77% (7/9) of silent oestrus, 50% (5/10) of prolonged luteal activity, 82% (14/17) of irregular cyclic activity and 80% (8/10) of anoestrous cows eventually became pregnant either with or without hormone treatment. With the exception of the anoestrous group, these results seem to support the idea that once a week sampling for progesterone over a seven week period pp is sufficient to monitor the ovarian activity and predict the fertility of a dairy herd. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Diagnosis of post-partum ovarian vein thrombophlebitis by color Doppler ultrasonography: about 10 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, J R; Poulain, P; Renaud-Giono, A; Darnault, J P; Proudhon, J F; Grall, J Y; Mocquet, P Y

    1997-09-01

    Post-partum ovarian vein thrombosis is often overlooked or mistaken for other complications such as endometritis. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a very good diagnostic method when properly indicated and correctly interpreted according to clinical data. This study reports ten cases that were retrospectively studied, during which color Doppler ultrasonography was used. The clinical signs and the results are reviewed. The lesions were clearly visualized in eight of the ten cases; one of the two failures resulted from a methodological fault (uninterpretable result); the other one was due to the lack of experience of the operator and nonrecognition of the clinical signs. Thrombosis appears as a hypoechogenic and tubular image. This type of examination is particularly indicated in the presence of certain clinical signs that were observed in our cases: fever and iliac pain are the main precursor signs, often associated with abdominal meteorism and slow digestive transit; provoked cul-de-sac pain during vaginal probing was the only constant sign, sometimes associated with painful swelling.

  9. Pregnancy Intention and Post-partum Depressive Affect in Louisiana Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Elizabeth Y; Ma, Ping; Dunaway, Lauren Futrell; Theall, Katherine P

    2016-05-01

    Postpartum depression is associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes for both the mother and infant. This study examines the relationship between a mother and/or her partner's pregnancy intentions and reported post-partum depressive symptoms (PPDs). Using Louisiana pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system, 2000-2003, a secondary cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 5549 mothers, stratified by race, who delivered a singleton, live birth and whose infant was still alive at the time of the survey. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted, taking into account the complex survey design. In multivariable models, unwanted pregnancies were associated with severe PPDs (aOR 1.76, 95 % CI 1.23-2.53). Furthermore, the association between husbands/partners' who did not want or care about the pregnancy and mild PPDs remained for White women (aOR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.02-1.69); while among Black women, neither parent's pregnancy intention were associated with mild or severe PPDs. This study supports existing research demonstrating the association between pregnancy intention and PPDs. This study contributes to the limited information on the role that partner pregnancy intention plays on maternal mental health outcomes, however further discussion is needed on the impact of this role across races. Findings can be used in programs aiming to reduce adverse mental health outcomes among high-risk mothers.

  10. Psychological health of men with partners who have post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah L; Bushnell, John A; Collings, Sunny C; Purdie, Gordon L

    2006-08-01

    To compare the psychological health of men with partners who have post-partum depression (PPD; index group) with that of men with partners without PPD (comparison group). Using a cross-sectional survey, psychological symptoms and disturbances of index group men (n = 58) and comparison group men (n = 116) were compared. Validated self-report measures were used to assess five key areas of mental health: depression, anxiety, non-specific psychological impairment, aggression and alcohol use. Index group men had more symptoms of depression, aggression and non-specific psychological impairment, and had higher rates of depressive disorder, non-specific psychological problems and problem fatigue than comparison group men. Index group men were also more likely to have three or more comorbid psychological disturbances. There was no difference between the groups on measures of anxiety and alcohol use. Although many men in the postnatal period experience a variety of mental health problems, those who have a partner with PPD are themselves at increased risk for experiencing psychological symptoms and disturbances. Differentiation of psychological syndromes is important; higher rates of depressive disorder, non-specific psychological problems and problem fatigue were found, but rates of anxiety disorder and hazardous alcohol use did not differ between the groups. More attention from health professionals to men's mental health in the postnatal period may be beneficial to the entire family system.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of degeneration of uterine adenomyosis during pregnancy and post-partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Hiroto; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Usui, Rie; Kijima, Shigeyoshi; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2018-03-08

    Degeneration of adenomyosis during pregnancy and the post-partum period is very rare. A 42-year-old Japanese parous woman with four normal-term deliveries, who presented with abdominal pain and fever at 22 weeks of gestation with transient increases of the white blood cell count and C-reactive protein, demonstrated sustained inflammation after cesarean section at 29 weeks of gestation due to the occurrence of gestational hypertension with late deceleration. The noncontrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 22 weeks demonstrated a poorly demarcated hypointense area at the posterior uterine wall on T1- and T2-weighted imaging. The 2nd MRI 2 weeks after the cesarean section showed hypointensity on a T1-weighted image and hyperintensity on a T2-weighted image, allowing confirmation of the diagnosis of degeneration of adenomyosis. Repeated MRIs were clinically useful to diagnose the degeneration of adenomyosis. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Dextromethorphan Reduces Postoperative Pain of Post Partum Tubal Ligation under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Manochehrian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Postoperative pain has harmful effects in many systems. Dextromethorphan reduces postoperative pain in post partum tubal ligation under general anesthesia. Materials & Methods: In this research 40 patients with ASA class I and II in double blind randomized clinical trial were studied in two groups. 90 minutes before surgery the patients received 90 mg dextromethorphan or placebo (oral. The patients induced general anesthesia with thiopental (5mg/kg, fentanyl 1.5 g/kg and succinylcholin(1-1.5 mg/kg and maintenance with halothane and N2O 50%. Patients were observed studied for analgesic requirement, nausea, vomiting, urinary retention and respiratory depression in recovery and 2,4,8 and 24 hours after surgery. Results: There was no significant difference in age, education, . . . Pain in recovery, 2 and 4 hours after surgery in dextromethorphan was less than placebo group. The analgesic requirement (pethidine in dextromethophan was less than placebo group.Conclusion: Administration of 90 mg dextromethorphan 90 minutes before the surgery under GA reduces pain in recovery time , 2 and 4 hours after the surgery.

  13. Post partum depression and the psychosocial predictors in first-time fathers from northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Wei, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Chun-Li; Porr, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    there is growing evidence that fathers also experience post partum depression (PPD). However, paternal PPD has been less studied than maternal PPD. Very few studies have investigated PPD in first-time fathers from northwestern China. the purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence and predictors of depressive symptoms in first-time fathers from northwestern China. a longitudinal study was conducted involving 180 couples who were assessed at three time periods: 3 days, 2 weeks and 6 weeks after childbirth. Self-reported questionnaires including Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC), and Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (KMSS) were administered to all participants during each time period. after childbirth 35 (21.1%) of the fathers at 3 days, 32 (20.4%) at 2 weeks and 20 (13.6%) at 6 weeks, indicated that they suffered from PPD. Paternal parental sense of competence, paternal marital satisfaction, and maternal depressive symptoms were among the main predictors for paternal PPD. the study results suggest that paternal PPD is a significant public health concern. Health professionals should focus attention on the psychological health among new fathers during the postpartum period; and, the psychosocial predictors should be considered and incorporated into clinical assessment and intervention of paternal PPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differentiating maternal fatigue and depressive symptoms at six months and four years post partum: Considerations for assessment, diagnosis and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Gartland, Deirdre; Woolhouse, Hannah; Brown, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    fatigue and depressive symptoms are common among women in the postpartum period, and it has been proposed that fatigue is a risk factor for later depression. To progress this research, there is a need to clarify the conceptual and measurement issue of whether these two sets of symptoms are distinct constructs. There is also a need to determine whether they are distinct constructs beyond the postnatal period. The aim of the study was to assess the construct and discriminant validity of fatigue and depressive symptoms as measured by the SF-36 Vitality subscale (SF-36) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at six months and at four years post partum. data from over 1000 women participating in the Maternal Health Study, a longitudinal study of women׳s physical and psychological health and recovery after childbirth were used. confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-factor model of fatigue and depressive symptoms represented as distinct but related constructs was a better fit to the data than a one-factor model of fatigue and depression sharing the same underlying construct at both six months and four years post partum. this study provides empirical evidence that maternal fatigue and depression in the first year after having a baby and at four years post partum are best understood as separate psychological constructs or experiences. The findings have important implications for clinical practice, in particular underlining the importance of differentiating tiredness from depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychosocial risk factors and treatment of new onset and recurrent depression during the post-partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Pirjo; Hintikka, Jukka

    2017-07-01

    When developing maternity care services, it is important to know how psychosocial factors affect the course of post-partum depression (PPD), and how depressed mothers are treated. The aim of this study is to assess how adverse childhood experiences, poor present support and violence, and low socioeconomic status (SES) associate with PPD, specifically in new onset and recurrent post-partum depression. The second aim is to assess the treatment received for PPD. This is a cross-sectional study. The study group comprises 104 mothers with a current episode of PPD, and a control group of 104 mothers without an episode. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders was used for data collection. Psychosocial risk factors, treatment issues, and the course of depression were assessed with a structured self-report questionnaire. In age-adjusted multivariate analyses, adverse childhood experiences, a low level of present support in close relationships, and a poor SES were associated significantly with PPD. Childhood adversity was associated with both new onset and recurrent depression. Nevertheless, a low level of support and a poor SES were also associated with recurrent depression. A quarter of mothers with a major depressive episode in the post-partum period attended psychiatric services. In mothers with new onset depression, the proportion was only 5%. There is an urgent need to develop the diagnostics of depression in maternity care services. An awareness of psychosocial risk factors might help in this. More depressed mothers should be referred to psychiatric services.

  16. Determination of the reproductive behavior of dairy cows, post-partum, by means of radio immunoassay (RIA) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, Patricio; Guerron, Edwin

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of this trial was to determine the post-partum ovaric activity in dairy cattle recently introduced in the Ecuadorian subtropic. On this trial, progesterone levels in milk of 114 post-partum cows from 6 different farms were determined. The progesterone level in milk was analyzed by RIA and the milk sampling was done according to established protocol. Additional data about management, nutritional condition and health of the animals were also taken in each farm. In the Santo Domingo valley, the ovaries of post-partum cows, with a good nutritious diet, start functioning after 54.21 days with a range of 10 to 161. The duration of the first oestral cycle was 24.07 with the range of 6 to 29 days. Fifty six cows (49.12 percent) remained pregnant up to the end of the trial and the average of interval calving was 409. 95 - 115. 69 days. In the area, there is high incidence of ovaric hypofunctions ( 30.70 percent) and return of anoestrus ( 14.03 percent). heats of the cows were observed ( 62.90 percent) by the farmers, but they were determined by progesterone levels, through RIA technique

  17. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Hunter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1 breastfeeding initiation, (2 early post-partum breastfeeding, (3 breastfeeding plan, (4 post-partum breastfeeding support and (5 breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67 of mothers received helped from their husband or partner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79 of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-partum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.

  18. Effect of restricted suckling upon post-partum reproductive activity in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Barbella, S.F.; Martinez Guillen, N.D.; Combellas, J.B. de; Rondon Morales, Z.

    1990-01-01

    The post-partum reproductive performance of adult West African ewes of proven fertility was studied to assess the beneficial effect of both 14 and 18 h restricted nursing or early weaning (35 days post-lambing) on the resumption of ovarian function and conception rate at first oestrus. Although the interval from lambing to first oestrus and/or conception in the 14 h nursing (55.13±11.03 days), 18 h nursing (65.00±15.65 days) and control (59.00±13.48 days) groups did not differ, the percentage of ewes that showed oestrus (90, 60 and 50% respectively) favoured the treatment with the shortest nursing time. When lambs were weaned early, the interval from lambing to oestrus (61.40±16.50 days) did not differ significantly from that for the 14 h nursing ewes (70.10±19.37 days) but tended to be lower than for the controls (94.25±62.38 days). Since differences in response were assumed to be dependent on body condition of the individual ewes at the time of lambing, and body weight changes of the dams after lambing were correlated with progesterone hormone, plasma proteins, glucose and free fatty acids, it was assumed that the beneficial effects of the treatments on the reproductive parameters were due to the partition of nutrients towards restoration of body reserves and subsequently to the secretion of progesterone. (author). 27 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Acute lung injury complicating blood transfusion in post-partum hemorrhage: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teofili, Luciana; Bianchi, Maria; Zanfini, Bruno A; Catarci, Stefano; Sicuranza, Rossella; Spartano, Serena; Zini, Gina; Draisci, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated the incidence and risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) among patients transfused for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH). We identified a series of 71 consecutive patients with PPH requiring the urgent transfusion of three or more red blood cell (RBC) units, with or without transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and/or platelets (PLT). Clinical records were then retrieved and examined for respiratory distress events. According to the 2004 consensus definition, cases of new-onset hypoxemia, within 6 hours after transfusion, with bilateral pulmonary changes, in the absence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema were identified as TRALI. If an alternative risk factor for acute lung injury was present, possible TRALI was diagnosed. Thirteen cases of TRALI and 1 case of possible TRALI were identified (overall incidence 19.7%). At univariate analysis, patients with TRALI received higher number of RBC, PLT and FFP units and had a longer postpartum hospitalization. Among the diseases occurring in pregnancy- and various pre-existing comorbidities, only gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, significantly increased the risk to develop TRALI (p = 0.006). At multivariate analysis including both transfusion- and patient-related risk factors, pregnancy-related, hypertensive disorders were confirmed to be the only predictors for TRALI, with an odds ratio of 27.7 ( 95% CI 1.27-604.3, p=0.034). Patients suffering from PPH represent a high-risk population for TRALI. The patients with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, not receiving anti-hypertensive therapy, have the highest risk. Therefore, a careful monitoring of these patients after transfusions is recommended.

  20. Cardiovascular System during the Post Partum State in Women with a History of Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Caroline S.; Gooch, Linda; Flotta, Deborah; Lykins, David; Powers, Robert W.; Landsittel, Douglas; Roberts, James M.; Shroff, Sanjeev G.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesis In subjects with previous preeclampsia, differences in cardiovascular and/or blood biochemical parameters are present in the non-pregnant state and that a simultaneous assessment of multiple derived indices better differentiates between women with or without prior preeclampsia. We examined 18 prior preeclamptic and 50 prior uncomplicated pregnancies, ~16 months post partum. Cardiovascular assessment included: (1) systemic hemodynamics and mechanics (Doppler echocardiography, tonometry, oscillometric sphygmomanometry) (2) endothelial function (plethysmography) (3) left ventricular properties (echocardiography), and (4) blood biochemical analyses. Compared to women with prior uncomplicated pregnancies, prior preeclamptics had higher mean (80±1 vs. 86±3 mmHg, P=0.04) and diastolic (64±1 vs. 68±2 mmHg; P=0.04) pressures and total vascular resistance (1562±37 vs. 1784±114 dyne•s/cm5; P=0.03). Systolic blood pressure, arterial compliance, and left ventricular properties were not different. While heart-to-femoral pulse wave velocity was not different, heart-to-brachial pulse wave velocity tended to be faster in prior preeclamptics (374±8 vs. 404±20 cm/s; P=0.06). Stress-induced increase in forearm blood flow was less in prior preeclamptics (245±21% vs. 136±22%; P=0.01), indicating impaired endothelial function. No significant differences were observed in markers of endothelial activation, dyslipidemia, or oxidative stress; prior preeclamptics tended to have higher glucose level (58.7±1.9 vs. 95±5.2 mg/dl; P=0.06). Logistic regression analysis indicated that a simultaneous evaluation of multiple derived indices better discriminated between the two groups. The differences in the prior preeclamptic group are in directions known to be associated with greater cardiovascular disease risk later in life. PMID:21606389

  1. Physical health after childbirth and maternal depression in the first 12 months post partum: results of an Australian nulliparous pregnancy cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Hannah; Gartland, Deirdre; Perlen, Susan; Donath, Susan; Brown, Stephanie J

    2014-03-01

    to investigate the relationship between maternal physical health problems and depressive symptoms in the first year after childbirth. prospective pregnancy cohort study. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 1507 nulliparous women. women were recruited from six public hospitals between six and 24 weeks gestation. Written questionnaires were completed at recruitment and at three, six and 12 months post partum. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); standardised measures of urinary and faecal incontinence, a checklist of symptoms for other physical health problems. overall, 16.1% of women reported depressive symptoms during the first 12 months post partum, with point prevalence at three, six and 12 months post partum of 6.9%, 8.8% and 7.8% respectively. The most commonly reported physical health problems in the first three months were tiredness (67%), back pain (47%), breast problems (37%), painful perineum (30%), and urinary incontinence (29%). Compared with women reporting 0-2 health problems in the first three months post partum, women reporting 5 or more health problems had a six-fold increase in likelihood of reporting concurrent depressive symptoms at three months post partum (Adjusted OR=6.69, 95% CI=3.0-15.0) and a three-fold increase in likelihood of reporting subsequent depressive symptoms at 6-12 months post partum (Adjusted OR=3.43, 95% CI 2.1-5.5). poor physical health in the early postnatal period is associated with poorer mental health throughout the first 12 months post partum. Early intervention to promote maternal mental health should incorporate assessment and intervention to address common postnatal physical health problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernot, Jocelyn; Olds, Tim; Lewis, Lucy K; Maher, Carol

    2013-05-29

    Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4-8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program. A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined. This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752.

  3. Maternal-foetal attachment independently predicts the quality of maternal-infant bonding and post-partum psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Eleonora; Palagini, Laura; Bacci, Olivia; Borri, Chiara; Teristi, Valentina; Corezzi, Camilla; Faraoni, Sara; Antonelli, Paolo; Cargioli, Claudio; Banti, Susanna; Perugi, Giulio; Mauri, Mauro

    2017-08-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of maternal antenatal attachment and post-partum psychopathology, maternal-infant bonding, while checking for antenatal psychopathology, for lifetime psychiatric diagnosis and for the known risk factors for peripartum depression. One hundred and six women recruited at the first month of pregnancy (T0) were evaluated with the structured interview for DSM-IV TR (SCID-I) to assess the presence of lifetime psychiatric diagnosis and with the Perinatal Depression Predictor Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). At the sixth month of pregnancy (T1) and at the first month post-partum (T2), all patients were evaluated with the PDPI-R, the EPDS, the STAI, at T1, with the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS), and at T2 with the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (MPAS). Multivariate regression analyses showed that maternal-foetal attachment was the variable most significantly associated with postnatal symptoms of depression and anxiety and with quality of maternal-infant attachment. The logistic regression analyses showed that antenatal attachment may predict postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms (respectively, OR: 0.83 - IC [0.74 - 0.95], p = .005, OR: 0.88 - IC [0.79 - 0.98], p = .02), and the quality of maternal postnatal attachment (OR: 1.17 - IC [1.08 - 1.27], p depression, the sociodemographic variables and lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. The quality of maternal-foetal bonding may independently predict the quality of maternal-infant attachment and post-partum depressive and anxiety symptoms. A comprehensive assessment of maternal risk factors for perinatal psychopathology during pregnancy should include the evaluation of antenatal attachment that could be modifiable by specific interventions promoting the quality of maternal bonding.

  4. The impact of maternal post-partum depression on the language development of children at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, L A; Silva, R A; Godoy, R; Jansen, K; Matos, M B; Tavares Pinheiro, K A; Pinheiro, R T

    2012-05-01

    Language is one of the most important acquisitions made during childhood. Before verbal language, a child develops a range of skills and behaviours that allow the child to acquire all communication skills. Factors such as environmental factors, socio-economic status and interaction with parents can affect the acquisition of vocabulary in children. Post-partum depression can negatively affect the first interactions with the child and, consequently, the emotional, social and cognitive development of the child. To analyse the effect of the duration of the mother's depression on the language development of children at 12 months old. This was a longitudinal study. The participants of this study were mothers who had received prenatal care from the Brazilian National System of Public Health in Pelotas city, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The mothers were interviewed at two different time points: from 30 to 90 days after delivery and at 12 months after delivery; the children were also evaluated at this later time point. To diagnose maternal depression, we used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and to assess child development, we used the language scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. We followed 296 dyads. Maternal depression at both time points (post partum and at 12 months) was significantly associated with the language development of infants at 12 months of age. This impact was accentuated when related to the duration of the disorder. Older women and women with more than two children were more likely to have children with poorer language development, while women who were the primary caregiver had children with higher scores on the language test. The findings indicate that maternal age, parity, primary caregiver status and duration of post-partum depression are associated with the language development of the child. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Risk factors for suicide attempt in pregnancy and the post-partum period in women with serious mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressier, Florence; Guillard, Virginie; Cazas, Odile; Falissard, Bruno; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M-C; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health concern worldwide, and mental disorders have been identified as a main risk factor. Suicide is also one of the leading causes of perinatal maternal mortality, but very few studies have focused on suicide attempts (SA) in the perinatal period. This work aims to assess risk factors associated with SA in pregnancy and in the post-partum period in women with mental health disorders. Women (n = 1439) with psychiatric disorders jointly admitted with their infant to 16 psychiatric Mother-Baby Units over 10 years (2001-2010) were assessed retrospectively for the occurrence of SA in pregnancy or the postpartum period. Multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the independent impact of maternal sociodemographic characteristics, history of childhood maltreatment and abuse, current mental illness and pregnancy data on SA in pregnancy and/or postpartum. One hundred and fifty-four women (11.68%) attempted suicide: 49 in pregnancy (3.71%) and 105 (7.97%) in the post-partum period. SA in pregnancy was related to alcohol use (OR = 2.37[1.02-5.53]; p = 0.04) and smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.87[1.01-3.49]; p = 0.04) and also to a history of miscarriage (OR = 2.29[1.18-4.41]; p = 0.01). SA in the post-partum period was associated with major depressive episode (OR = 2.72[1.40-5.26]; p = 0.003) or recurrent depression (OR = 4.12[2.25-7.51], p depression in the perinatal period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Position in the second stage of labour and de novo onset of post-partum urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serati, Maurizio; Di Dedda, Maria Carmela; Bogani, Giorgio; Sorice, Paola; Cromi, Antonella; Uccella, Stefano; Lapenna, Martina; Soligo, Marco; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the maternal position at the time of delivery on the onset of de novo symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) in the post-partum period. This prospective study evaluated the data of consecutive women undergoing labour and delivery, between January 2014 and July 2014. We included only women with a singleton pregnancy undergoing vaginal delivery. During the study period, patients chose to deliver in the position that they considered the most comfortable. The onset of UI was evaluated according to the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-sf). Overall, 716 primiparous women were included in the study. Sixty women refused the 12-week post-partum interview (8.4%). Women were divided in two groups: 296 women (45.1%) who chose an upright position during delivery (group 1) and 360 women (54.9%) who chose a supine position (group 2). Group 1 had a significantly lower episiotomy rate, but a higher rate of greater than second degree perineal tears. In group 1 we found a significantly lower rate of de novo UI (40.5% vs 48.9%, p = 0.03) and in particular of stress urinary incontinence. Via multivariate analysis, birth position was the only factor correlating with the occurrence of urinary incontinence in the post-partum period (OR: 1.52; 95%CI: 1.06, 2.18; p = 0.02). Upright positions at delivery are related to a lower episiotomy rate and a higher rate of greater than second degree perineal tears. Supine positions are an independent risk factor for the onset of de novo UI.

  7. Risk of maternal mortality in women with severe anaemia during pregnancy and post partum: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnavi Daru, MBBS

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Anaemia affects as many as half of all pregnant women in low-income and middle-income countries, but the burden of disease and associated maternal mortality are not robustly quantified. We aimed to assess the association between severe anaemia and maternal death with data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on maternal and newborn health. Methods: We used multilevel and propensity score regression analyses to establish the relation between severe anaemia and maternal death in 359 health facilities in 29 countries across Latin America, Africa, the Western Pacific, eastern Mediterranean, and southeast Asia. Severe anaemia was defined as antenatal or postnatal haemoglobin concentrations of less than 70 g/L in a blood sample obtained before death. Maternal death was defined as death any time after admission until the seventh day post partum or discharge. In regression analyses, we adjusted for post-partum haemorrhage, general anaesthesia, admission to intensive care, sepsis, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, thrombocytopenia, shock, massive transfusion, severe oliguria, failure to form clots, and severe acidosis as confounding variables. These variables were used to develop the propensity score. Findings: 312 281 women admitted in labour or with ectopic pregnancies were included in the adjusted multilevel logistic analysis, and 12 470 were included in the propensity score regression analysis. The adjusted odds ratio for maternal death in women with severe anaemia compared with those without severe anaemia was 2·36 (95% CI 1·60–3·48. In the propensity score analysis, severe anaemia was also associated with maternal death (adjusted odds ratio 1·86 [95% CI 1·39–2·49]. Interpretation: Prevention and treatment of anaemia during pregnancy and post partum should remain a global public health and research priority. Funding: Barts and the London Charity.

  8. [Unwanted adolescent pregnancy and post-partum utilization of contraceptive methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Urquiza, Rosa María; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; García-Barrios, Cecilia; González, Dolores; Walker, Dylis

    2003-01-01

    To describe the proportion of unwanted pregnancies among all pregnant adolescents, its association with sociodemographic characteristics, and the use of post-partum contraceptive methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 220 women between 13 and 19 years of age, in two semi-urban municipalities of the State of Morelos, Mexico, interviewed between 1992 and 1994. Women were interviewed at home, six to twelve weeks after their delivery date. Women were asked whether they had wanted their last pregnancy, and about knowledge and use of contraceptive methods after delivery. Adolescent pregnancies accounted for 17% of all births registered in these two municipalities. Among all adolescent mother 22.73% reported that their pregnancy had not been wanted. A positive association was found between the lack of access to health services provided by public medical insurance systems (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social IMSS and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado ISSSTE) and unwanted pregnancy (adjusted OR = 3.03, 95% CI (1.31, 7.) An association was also found between living in an urban community (adjusted OR = 2.16, 95% CI (1.08, 4.33) and an unwanted pregnancy. Among all adolescent mothers, 91.3% were familiar with "the pill" as a contraceptive method; 84.72% knew about the IUD, and 63.68% knew about the condom. However, only 35% of them were actually using an effective contraceptive method six weeks after delivery. No difference in frequency of contraceptive use was found among the adolescent mothers, according to whether they wanted their last pregnancy. Only 43.39% of mothers who delivered at hospitals or health centers were using an effective contraceptive method. These findings suggest that there is a great potential for family planning programs to target adolescents, and that the use of contraceptive methods after delivery should be promoted among adolescent mothers, especially those lacking access to public medical

  9. Relationships between antenatal and postnatal care and post-partum modern contraceptive use: evidence from population surveys in Kenya and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai; Hotchkiss, David

    2013-01-04

    It is often assumed, with little supportive, empirical evidence, that women who use maternal health care are more likely than those who do not to use modern contraceptives. This study aims to add to the existing literature on associations between the use of antenatal (ANC) and post-natal care (PNC) and post-partum modern contraceptives. Data come from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in Kenya (2008-09) and Zambia (2007). Study samples include women who had a live birth within five years before the survey (3,667 in Kenya and 3,587 in Zambia). Multivariate proportional hazard models were used to examine the associations between the intensity of ANC and PNC service use and a woman's adoption of modern contraceptives after a recent live birth. Tests of exogeneity confirmed that the intensity of ANC and PNC service use and post-partum modern contraceptive practice were not influenced by common unobserved factors. Cox proportional hazard models showed significant associations between the service intensity of ANC and PNC and post-partum modern contraceptive use in both countries. This relationship is largely due to ANC services; no significant associations were observed between PNC service intensity and post-partum FP practice. While the lack of associations between PNC and post-partum FP use may be due to the limited measure of PNC service intensity, the study highlights a window of opportunity to promote the use of modern contraceptives after childbirth through ANC service delivery. Depending on the availability of data, further research should take into account community- and facility-level factors that may influence modern contraceptive use in examining associations between ANC and PNC use and post-partum FP practice.

  10. Relationships between antenatal and postnatal care and post-partum modern contraceptive use: evidence from population surveys in Kenya and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Mai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often assumed, with little supportive, empirical evidence, that women who use maternal health care are more likely than those who do not to use modern contraceptives. This study aims to add to the existing literature on associations between the use of antenatal (ANC and post-natal care (PNC and post-partum modern contraceptives. Methods Data come from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS in Kenya (2008–09 and Zambia (2007. Study samples include women who had a live birth within five years before the survey (3,667 in Kenya and 3,587 in Zambia. Multivariate proportional hazard models were used to examine the associations between the intensity of ANC and PNC service use and a woman’s adoption of modern contraceptives after a recent live birth. Results Tests of exogeneity confirmed that the intensity of ANC and PNC service use and post-partum modern contraceptive practice were not influenced by common unobserved factors. Cox proportional hazard models showed significant associations between the service intensity of ANC and PNC and post-partum modern contraceptive use in both countries. This relationship is largely due to ANC services; no significant associations were observed between PNC service intensity and post-partum FP practice. Conclusions While the lack of associations between PNC and post-partum FP use may be due to the limited measure of PNC service intensity, the study highlights a window of opportunity to promote the use of modern contraceptives after childbirth through ANC service delivery. Depending on the availability of data, further research should take into account community- and facility-level factors that may influence modern contraceptive use in examining associations between ANC and PNC use and post-partum FP practice.

  11. Use of radioimmunoassay technique for the determination of post-partum ovaric activity in high and low milk production in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, P.; Paneluisa, S.; Arcos, E.

    1993-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to determinate the post-partum ovarian activity in milking cows of high and low production in one farm of ecuadorian highland. For this experiment was necessary to use 48 animals between second and sith calving, the milk samples were collected according one pre-stablished protocol and the same was: one sample 5th or 6th days, twice a week until the cows were pregnacy and 180 days after parturitium if the cow is open. Additional data were compiled in each farm and both the results of the progesterone by RIA were used to determinate the diferents reproductive parameters in the post-partum of the cows. The most of reproductives parameters in the post-partum of the cows in the both group didn't have significance but the conception rate, services per conception, number of pregnacy cows and percentaje of non visibles heats had one high significance between the treatments

  12. Patterns of ovarian and oestrous activity and induction of cyclic activity during the post-partum period in Egyptian buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboul-Ela, M.B.; Shafie, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    This report covers three studies. In the first study, ovarian and oestrous activity were monitored in 47 buffaloes for 90 days following parturition. Failure to resume ovarian cyclicity after calving was found to be the main reason for the delay in conception. High incidence of ovulatory anoestrus (64%) constitutes also a major problem in Egyptian buffaloes. In the second study, buffaloes with inactive ovaries were treated at 90 days post-partum with either GnRH or progesterone, given either intravaginally (PRID) or orally (CAP). Both GnRH and PRID were effective in inducing ovulation but GnRH administration was followed by a high incidence of silent ovulation. Within the 35 days following treatment, about 50% of the PRID treated animals got in calf vs. 44 and 22% for GnRH and CAP treated animals, respectively. In the third study, buffaloes were treated with either 6 or 12μg GnRH at either 7 or 15 days post-partum. GnRH treatment resulted in significant reductions in the intervals from calving to first ovulation, first detected oestrus and time to first rise in serum progesterone concentration (> 1 ng/mL). (author). 26 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  13. The benefits of paid maternity leave for mothers' post-partum health and wellbeing: Evidence from an Australian evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Belinda; Strazdins, Lyndall; Martin, Bill

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigates the health effects of the introduction of a near universal paid parental leave (PPL) scheme in Australia, representing a natural social policy experiment. Along with gender equity and workforce engagement, a goal of the scheme (18 weeks leave at the minimum wage rate) was to enhance the health and wellbeing of mothers and babies. Although there is evidence that leave, especially paid leave, can benefit mothers' health post-partum, the potential health benefits of implementing a nationwide scheme have rarely been investigated. The data come from two cross-sectional surveys of mothers (matched on their eligibility for paid parental leave), 2347 mother's surveyed pre-PPL and 3268 post-PPL. We investigated the scheme's health benefits for mothers, and the extent this varied by pre-birth employment conditions and job characteristics. Overall, we observed better mental and physical health among mothers after the introduction of PPL, although the effects were small. Post-PPL mothers on casual (insecure) contracts before birth had significantly better mental health than their pre-PPL counterparts, suggesting that the scheme delivered health benefits to mothers who were relatively disadvantaged. However, mothers on permanent contracts and in managerial or professional occupations also had significantly better mental and physical health in the post-PPL group. These mothers were more likely to combine the Government sponsored leave with additional, paid, employer benefits, enabling a longer paid leave package post-partum. Overall, the study provides evidence that introducing paid maternity leave universally delivers health benefits to mothers. However the modest 18 week PPL provision did little to redress health inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THE EFFECT OF Anredera cordifolia (Ten. Steenis SUPPLEMENTATION ON UTERINE INVOLUTION PROCESS EVALUATED BY OESTRUS POST PARTUM BEHAVIOR AND FERNING

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    R. Purwasih

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Anrederacordifolia (Ten. Steenissupplementation on uterine involution process in rabbit. The research design applied was completelyrandomized design with 4 treatments and 3 replications (T0 = without Anredera cordifoliasupplementation; TI = Anredera cordifolia supplemented two days before parturition; T2 = Anrederacordifolia supplemented two days after parturition; T3 = Anredera cordifolia supplemented two daysbefore until two days after parturition. The results showed that Anredera cordifolia (Ten. Steenissupplementation could accelerate post partum oestrus in does that were characterized by post partumoestrus behavior, ferning of saliva and cervical mucus. The best treatment was T3, that was four daysAnredera cordifolia supplementation that was administered at 0.45 g/kg of body weight/day. Furtherresearch was needed to find an optimal dose of Anredera cordifolia (Ten. Steenis on uterine involution.

  15. PP108. Post-partum evaluation of the blood pressure and the kidney function in pre-eclamptic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechère-Bertschi, A; Montillier, P; Boulvain, M; Wuerzner, G; Gaspoz, J-M; Burnier, M; Irion, O P

    2012-07-01

    Recent data have shown that preeclampsia is not just a disease of pregnancy that resolves with delivery. Preeclampsia may be considered a 'risk marker' for later-life diseases, including cardiovascular and renal diseases and the metabolic syndrome. We aimed a longitudinal prospective study to analyze the renal abnormalities in the post-partum. We studied 127 post-preeclamptic women at 6 weeks post-partum. Twenty-four hour urine collection, ambulatory blood pressure and renal function were evaluated. The mean age (±SD) was 32±6years, BMI was 29.4±5.7, the race distribution was Caucasian 69%, Hispanic 14%, Black 12% and Orient 5%. Ten % were active smokers, 10% have been suffering from gestational diabetes. The mean duration of the pregnancy was 36 weeks 3/7±4. Our results show that the prevalence of hypertension defined by office blood pressure ⩾140/90 mmHg or ongoing antihypertensive treatment was 35%. The daytime ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) was 122±16/85±11 mmHg, heart rate 84±8, and 111±20/75±11 mmHg at nighttime.Sixteen % had a daytime ABPM ⩾135/85mmHg corresponding to the definition of ambulatory hypertension. Ultrasensitive CRP was 4.9±5.1mg/ml, of them 31% had a frank elevation of the CRP >4. The glomerular filtration rate evaluated by the Gault-Cockroft equation showed a hyperfiltration with a mean value of 150±42ml/min. Eleven% had a decreased GFR post-partum period, women having suffered from a pre-eclampsia display many cardiovascular risk factors with a high prevalence of hypertension, microalbuminuria, renal hyperfiltration and elevated CRP. These women should be carefully screened, and sub-groups with the higher risk have to be targeted for prevention and treatment, and close follow-up. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Myometrial cavernous hemangioma with pulmonary thromboembolism in a post-partum woman: a case report and review of the literature

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    Bhavsar Tapan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus are rare benign vascular lesions. Nine cases of diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the gravid uterus have been reported, most of which diffusely involved the myometrium. These vascular malformations are clinically significant, and may cause pronounced bleeding resulting in maternal or fetal demise. Thrombosis of cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus has been previously reported. We here report the first case in which a thrombosed cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium resulted in a fatal pulmonary embolism in a post-partum woman. Case presentation A 25-year-old obese African-American woman who had one pregnancy and was delivered of twins by cesarean section was admitted 1 week after the successful delivery. The 12-day clinical course included ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, systemic hypertension, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the sputum, leukocytosis and asystole. A transabdominal ultrasound examination showed heterogeneous thickened and irregular products in the endometrial canal. The laboratory values were relevant for an increased prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, ferritin and a decrease in hemoglobin. The clinical cause of death was cited as acute respiratory distress syndrome. At autopsy, a 400g spongy, hemorrhagic uterus with multiple cystic spaces measuring approximately 0.5 × 0.4cm filled with thrombi within the myometrium was identified. Immunohistological examination with a CD31 stain for vascular endothelium associated antigen confirmed several endothelium-lined vessels, some of which contained thrombi. These histological features were consistent with cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium. A histological examination of the lungs revealed multiple fresh thromboemboli in small- and medium-sized pulmonary arteries in the right upper and lower lobes without organization, but with adjacent areas of fresh hemorrhagic infarction

  17. Myometrial cavernous hemangioma with pulmonary thromboembolism in a post-partum woman: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Tapan; Wurzel, John; Duker, Nahum

    2012-11-23

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus are rare benign vascular lesions. Nine cases of diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the gravid uterus have been reported, most of which diffusely involved the myometrium. These vascular malformations are clinically significant, and may cause pronounced bleeding resulting in maternal or fetal demise. Thrombosis of cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus has been previously reported. We here report the first case in which a thrombosed cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium resulted in a fatal pulmonary embolism in a post-partum woman. A 25-year-old obese African-American woman who had one pregnancy and was delivered of twins by cesarean section was admitted 1 week after the successful delivery. The 12-day clinical course included ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, systemic hypertension, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the sputum, leukocytosis and asystole. A transabdominal ultrasound examination showed heterogeneous thickened and irregular products in the endometrial canal. The laboratory values were relevant for an increased prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, ferritin and a decrease in hemoglobin. The clinical cause of death was cited as acute respiratory distress syndrome. At autopsy, a 400g spongy, hemorrhagic uterus with multiple cystic spaces measuring approximately 0.5 × 0.4cm filled with thrombi within the myometrium was identified. Immunohistological examination with a CD31 stain for vascular endothelium associated antigen confirmed several endothelium-lined vessels, some of which contained thrombi. These histological features were consistent with cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium. A histological examination of the lungs revealed multiple fresh thromboemboli in small- and medium-sized pulmonary arteries in the right upper and lower lobes without organization, but with adjacent areas of fresh hemorrhagic infarction. This case underscores the importance of a high index of suspicion in

  18. Risk of maternal mortality in women with severe anaemia during pregnancy and post partum: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daru, Jahnavi; Zamora, Javier; Fernández-Félix, Borja M; Vogel, Joshua; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Morisaki, Naho; Tunçalp, Özge; Torloni, Maria Regina; Mittal, Suneeta; Jayaratne, Kapila; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Togoobaatar, Ganchimeg; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Khan, Khalid S

    2018-05-01

    Anaemia affects as many as half of all pregnant women in low-income and middle-income countries, but the burden of disease and associated maternal mortality are not robustly quantified. We aimed to assess the association between severe anaemia and maternal death with data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on maternal and newborn health. We used multilevel and propensity score regression analyses to establish the relation between severe anaemia and maternal death in 359 health facilities in 29 countries across Latin America, Africa, the Western Pacific, eastern Mediterranean, and southeast Asia. Severe anaemia was defined as antenatal or postnatal haemoglobin concentrations of less than 70 g/L in a blood sample obtained before death. Maternal death was defined as death any time after admission until the seventh day post partum or discharge. In regression analyses, we adjusted for post-partum haemorrhage, general anaesthesia, admission to intensive care, sepsis, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, thrombocytopenia, shock, massive transfusion, severe oliguria, failure to form clots, and severe acidosis as confounding variables. These variables were used to develop the propensity score. 312 281 women admitted in labour or with ectopic pregnancies were included in the adjusted multilevel logistic analysis, and 12 470 were included in the propensity score regression analysis. The adjusted odds ratio for maternal death in women with severe anaemia compared with those without severe anaemia was 2·36 (95% CI 1·60-3·48). In the propensity score analysis, severe anaemia was also associated with maternal death (adjusted odds ratio 1·86 [95% CI 1·39-2·49]). Prevention and treatment of anaemia during pregnancy and post partum should remain a global public health and research priority. Barts and the London Charity. Copyright This is an Open Access article published under the CC BY 3.0 IGO license which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium

  19. EFFECT OF SHEARING DURING PREGNANCY ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE POST-PARTUM PERIOD OF EWES ON EXTENSIVE HUSBANDRY

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    Viviane Marques Guyoti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of shearing during pregnancy has been described as a tool for improving productivity in sheep and for minimizing perinatal mortality in lambs through the increase of fetal development. This study assessed the effect of shearing around 74 days of gestation on the productive performance of ewes and lambs during the first month of life. Forty Corriedale ewes were inseminated in autumn in Southern Brazil. All ewes were kept together at the same pasture under extensive husbandry conditions. The ewes were randomly separated into two treatment groups: twenty animals were completely sheared at 74 ± 6 days of pregnancy, and twenty were kept without sheared during pregnancy, composing the control group. Ewes and their lambs were evaluated at three different times during the experiment: at birth, between 15 and 21 days post-partum and between 22 and 45 days post-partum. Ewes had their body condition score, body weight, placental weight, milk production and serum concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate measured, while lambs had hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma lactate and glucose, as well as body weight at birth and until wean determined. Values of hematocrit and hemoglobin were lower and body weight at birth and at wean was higher in the group of lambs born from sheared ewes. Placenta weight was higher in sheared ewes. Body condition score and beta-hydroxybutyrate showed no differences between groups. Milk production of sheared ewes (1.26 L/day was higher than in control group (0.93 L/day. Shearing ewes at 74 days of pregnancy was efficient for the better development of lambs at post-birth, reducing perinatal mortality rates.

  20. Cavitating lung disease due to concomitant drug resistant tuberculosis and invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis in a post-partum patient: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Animesh; Suri, J C; Sen, M K; Chakrabarti, S; Gupta, Ayush; Capoor, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Many disorders can present as cavitating lesions in the lung. In this case report, a case of mixed infection with drug resistant tuberculosis and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a post-partum patient has been presented. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies on post-partum reproductive performance of Hereford beef cows in Uruguay with the aid of progesterone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavestany, D.; Cardozo, W.; Tagle, R.; Gama, S.; Lanzzeri, S.; Perdigon, F.

    1990-01-01

    A trial was undertaken on Hereford beef cows to determine the length of their post-partum (pp) anoestrous periods under traditional conditions of feeding and management in Uruguay. Three subsequent trials to shorten pp anoestrus involving early weaning (at 40 days pp), temporary weaning for 72 hours (at 45 days), and temporary weaning for 24 hours combined with GnRH, were run in different parts of Uruguay under different soil and pasture conditions. No treatment differences were found, but cows on improved pastures had shorter pp anoestrous periods (74, 99 and 102 days for the three trials respectively) and higher pregnancy rates (80%, 46% and 55% respectively). It was concluded that the main cause of low reproductive efficiency was poor nutrition and that, under such conditions, no treatment to shorten the pp anoestrus would ever be expected to be successful. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Comparison between the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory: predicting incontinence prevention behaviour in post-partum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, M; Chase, J

    1996-08-01

    A small-scale study was undertaken to test the relative predictive power of the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory for the uptake of a behaviour (pelvic floor exercises) to reduce post-partum urinary incontinence in primigravida females. A structured questionnaire was used to gather data relevant to both models from a sample antenatal and postnatal primigravida women. Questions examined the perceived probability of becoming incontinent, the perceived (dis)utility of incontinence, the perceived probability of pelvic floor exercises preventing future urinary incontinence, the costs and benefits of performing pelvic floor exercises and sources of information and knowledge about incontinence. Multiple regression analysis focused on whether or not respondents intended to perform pelvic floor exercises and the factors influencing their decisions. Aggregated data were analysed to compare the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory directly.

  3. Post-Partum Depression, Personality, and Cognitive-Emotional Factors: A Longitudinal Study on Spanish Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Marín-Morales, Dolores; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier; Velasco Furlong, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, our purpose was to examine whether personality and cognitive factors could be related to post-partum depression (PPD), mediated by anxiety, in Spanish women. Women were evaluated for personality and cognitive factors after the first trimester, for anxiety in the third trimester, and for PPD 4 months after childbirth. A structural equation model revealed that personality and cognitive factors were associated with anxiety and PPD as predictors. Neuroticism and extroversion proved to be the most relevant factors. Conscientiousness was associated with pregnancy anxiety. Pregnancy anxiety appeared as an independent predictor of PPD. The model presented here includes personality and cognitive and emotional factors as predictors of PPD. Comprehensive care for pregnant women should contemplate assessment and intervention on all these aspects. Special focus should be on cognitive factors and emotional regulation strategies, so as to minimize the risk of later development of emotional disorders during puerperal phases.

  4. High dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated acids during pregnancy and prevalence of post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Camilla M M; Kac, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies suggest association between low concentrations of omega-3 family fatty acids and greater risk for post-partum depression (PPD). The objective was to investigate the effect of unbalanced dietary intake of omega-6/omega-3 ratio >9:1 in the prevalence for PPD. The study comprises a prospective cohort with four waves of follow-up during pregnancy and one following delivery. PPD was evaluated according to the Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale (PPD ≥ 11) in 106 puerperae between 2005 and 2007, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Independent variables included socio-demographic, obstetric, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake data, which were obtained by means of a food frequency questionnaire in the first trimester of pregnancy. Statistical analysis involved calculation of PPD prevalence and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. PPD prevalence amounted to 26.4% [n = 28; confidence interval (CI) 95%: 18.0-34.8], and higher prevalences of PPD were observed in women who consumed an omega-6/omega-3 ratio >9:1 (60.0%) and in those with pre-pregnancy BMI <18.5 kg/m(2) (66.7%). These variables held as factors associated to PPD in the multivariate model, elevating the chances of occurrence of the outcome in 2.50 (CI 95%: 1.21-5.14) and 4.01 times (CI 95%: 1.96-8.20), respectively. Analyses were adjusted for age, schooling, pre-pregnancy BMI, lipids consumption and time elapsed since delivery. It verified an association between omega-6/omega-3 ratio above 9:1, the levels recommended by the Institute of Medicine, and the prevalence of PPD. These results add to the evidence regarding the importance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the regulation of mental health mechanisms. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Beliefs and practices during pregnancy, post-partum and in the first days of an infant's life in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Claudia; Pol, Sreymom; Suon, Kamsan; Neou, Leakhena; Day, Nicholas P J; Parker, Michael; Kingori, Patricia

    2017-04-12

    The aim of this study was to record the beliefs, practices during pregnancy, post-partum and in the first few days of an infant's life, held by a cross section of the community in rural Cambodia to determine beneficial community interventions to improve early neonatal health. Qualitative study design with data generated from semi structured interviews (SSI) and focus group discussions (FGD). Data were analysed by thematic content analysis, with an a priori coding structure developed using available relevant literature. Further reading of the transcripts permitted additional coding to be performed in vivo. This study was conducted in two locations, firstly the Angkor Hospital for Children and secondarily in five villages in Sotnikum, Siem Reap Province, Cambodia. A total of 20 participants underwent a SSIs (15 in hospital and five in the community) and six (three in hospital and three in the community; a total of 58 participants) FGDs were conducted. Harmful practices that occurred in the past (for example: discarding colostrum and putting mud on the umbilical stump) were not described as being practiced. Village elders did not enforce traditional views. Parents could describe signs of illness and felt responsible to seek care for their child even if other family members disagreed, however participants were unaware of the signs or danger of neonatal jaundice. Cost of transportation was the major barrier to healthcare that was identified. In the population examined, traditional practices in late pregnancy and the post-partum period were no longer commonly performed. However, jaundice, a potentially serious neonatal condition, was not recognised. Community neonatal interventions should be tailored to the populations existing practice and knowledge.

  6. Tranexamic acid for treatment of women with post-partum haemorrhage in Nigeria and Pakistan: a cost-effectiveness analysis of data from the WOMAN trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bernadette; Miners, Alec; Shakur, Haleema; Roberts, Ian

    2018-02-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia account for almost 85% of global maternal deaths from post-partum haemorrhage. Early administration of tranexamic acid, within 3 h of giving birth, was shown to reduce the risk of death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage in the World Maternal Antifibrinolytic (WOMAN) trial. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of early administration of tranexamic acid for treatment of post-partum haemorrhage. For this economic evaluation we developed a decision model to assess the cost-effectiveness of the addition of tranexamic acid to usual care for treatment of women with post-partum haemorrhage in Nigeria and Pakistan. We used data from the WOMAN trial to inform model parameters, supplemented by estimates from the literature. We estimated costs (calculated in 2016 US$), life-years, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) with and without tranexamic acid, calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and compared these to threshold values in each country. Costs were assessed from the health-care provider perspective and discounted at 3% per year in the base case analysis. We did a series of one-way sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to assess the robustness of the results to parameter uncertainty. Early treatment of post-partum haemorrhage with tranexamic acid generated an average gain of 0·18 QALYs at an additional cost of $37·12 per patient in Nigeria and an average gain of 0·08 QALYs at an additional cost of $6·55 per patient in Pakistan. The base case ICER results were $208 per QALY in Nigeria and $83 per QALY in Pakistan. These ICERs were below the lower bound of the cost-effectiveness threshold range in both countries. The ICERs were most sensitive to uncertainty in parameter inputs for the relative risk of death due to bleeding with tranexamic acid, the discount rate, the cost of the drug, and the baseline probability of death due to bleeding. Early treatment of post-partum

  7. The effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of death and hysterectomy in women with post-partum haemorrhage: statistical analysis plan for the WOMAN trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Haleema; Roberts, Ian; Edwards, Philip; Elbourne, Diana; Alfirevic, Zarko; Ronsmans, Carine

    2016-05-17

    Severe haemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Most haemorrhage deaths occur soon after childbirth. Severe post-partum bleeding is sometimes managed by the surgical removal of the uterus (hysterectomy). Death and hysterectomy are important health consequences of post-partum haemorrhage, and clinical trials of interventions aimed at preventing these outcomes are needed. The World Maternal Antifibrinolytic trial aims to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy and other health outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage. It is an international, multicentre, randomised trial. Approximately 20,000 women with post-partum haemorrhage will be randomly allocated to receive an intravenous injection of either tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual care. The primary outcome measure is a composite of death in hospital or hysterectomy within 42 days of delivery. The cause of death will be described. Secondary outcomes include death, death due to bleeding, hysterectomy, thromboembolic events, blood transfusion, surgical and radiological interventions, complications, adverse events and quality of life. The health status and occurrence of thromboembolic events in breastfed babies will also be reported. We will conduct subgroup analyses for the primary outcome by time to treatment, type of delivery and cause of haemorrhage. We will conduct an analysis of treatment effect adjusted for baseline risk. The World Maternal Antifibrinolytic trial should provide reliable evidence for the efficacy of tranexamic acid in the prevention of death, hysterectomy and other outcomes that are important to patients. We present a protocol update and the statistical analysis plan for the trial. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76912190 (Registration date 08 December 2008), Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00872469 (Registration date 30 March 2009) and Pan African Clinical Trials Registry: PACTR201007000192283 (Registration date 02 September 2010).

  8. Prediction of incidence and bio-psycho-socio-cultural risk factors of post-partum depression immediately after birth in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Zarghami, Mehran; Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Zain, Azhar Md; Mohammad, Asghari Jafarabadi; Lye, Munn-Sann

    2016-10-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mental problem associated with childbirth. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of early PPD and possible relevant risk factors among women attending primary health centers in Mazandaran province, Iran for the first time. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among 2279 eligible women during weeks 32-42 of pregnancy to determine bio-psycho-socio-cultural risk factors of depression at 2 weeks post-partum using the Iranian version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Univariate and hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Among 1,739 mothers whose EPDS scores were ≤ 12 during weeks 32-42 of gestation and at the follow-up study, the cumulative incidence rate of depression was 6.9% (120/1,739) at 2 weeks post-partum. In the multivariate model the factor that predicted depression symptomatology at 2 weeks post-partum was having psychiatric distress in pregnancy based on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (OR = 1.06, (95% CI: 1.04-1.09), p = 0.001). The risk of PPD also lower in those with sufficient parenting skills (OR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69-0.88), p = 0.001), increased marital satisfaction (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.9-0.99), p = 0.03), increased frequency of practicing rituals (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89-0.99), p = 0.004) and in those whose husbands had better education (OR = 0.03 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), p = 0.04). The findings indicated that a combination of demographic, sociological, psychological and cultural risk factors can make mothers vulnerable to PPD.

  9. “ICE” – A rare cause for coagulopathy in a case of massive post-partum hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navkiran Singh Gill

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A case of massive post-partum hemorrhage in East-Malaysia, associated with 3-4 methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA abuse otherwise known as Ecstasy or locally as “ICE”, injected by the patient as a means to suppress labor pains prior to hospital presentation. We report a rare case of substance abuse that lead to life threatening hemorrhage in a maternal patient of productive age group. Presenting to the labor suite in second stage of labor in breech presentation, exhibiting active neuropsychiatric symptoms of intoxication like euphoria, drowsiness, mydriasis but able to obey commands. A rapid response by the Obstetric on-call team proceeded with an assisted-breech delivery. Post-delivery, a baby girl with poor Apgar score was born and intubated. The mother was then posted for an Examination Under Anesthesia as she was noted to have slow blood oozing per-vaginally using a single shot spinal as she exhibited features of difficult intubation and high risk of aspiration. During the procedure, she tipped into massive PPH complicated with DIVC, and was rushed into the intensive care unit for stabilization and back into the operation theatre, needing a total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH as definitive bleeding control. She required large scale resuscitative efforts peri-operatively including continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH as well as regional intensive care consultation. We describe, chronologically the anesthetic challenges faced in managing a patient in acute substance intoxication at presentation to our district hospital during twilight hours. We then explain the pharmacodynamics of MDMA in provoking coagulopathy. No reports of similar cases in the South-East Asia region.

  10. Carbetocin versus oxytocin in the management of atonic post partum haemorrhage (PPH) after vaginal delivery: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Ahmed Mohamed; Hassan, AbdelGany M A; Shehata, Nesreen A A

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness and safety of carbetocin vs. oxytocin in the management of atonic post partum haemorrhage (PPH) after vaginal delivery. A prospective randomised study was conducted in which 100 pregnant women were randomised into 2 equal groups: group 1 received Carbetocin 100 µgm (Pabal(®) Ferring, UK) and group 2 received oxytocin 5 IU (Syntocinon(®), Novartis, Switzerland). The amount of blood loss and the need for other uterotonics were significantly lower in the carbetocin group (811 ± 389.17 vs. 1010 ± 525.66 and 10/50 vs. 21/50). There was no significant difference between the carbetocin and oxytocin groups regarding occurrence of major PPH (6 vs. 11), the need for blood transfusion (6 vs. 9), the difference between blood haemoglobin levels before delivery and 24 h after delivery (0.6 ± 0.28 vs. 0.56 ± 0.25), respectively. There was no significant difference between the 2 study groups regarding both systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured immediately after the drug administration and at 30 and 60 min later. Regarding the drugs side effects, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the occurrence of nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, flushing, dizziness, headache, shivering, metallic taste, dyspnea, palpitations and itching. Carbetocin is a better alternative to oxytocin in management of atonic PPH with non-significant hemodynamic changes or side effects .

  11. [Is the cognitive-behavioural therapy an effective strategy also in the prevention of post partum depression? a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Bernardo; Laurenzi, Sabrina; Di Nicolò, Marzia; Bellantuono, Cesario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in the prevention of post partum depression (PPD) in pregnant women at risk. PubMed, Medline, PsychInfo, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 1991 to June 2011 to review studies on the efficacy of CBT in the prevention of PD. The literature analyzed recommends that depression in pregnancy requires an efficient management to provide mother's symptoms relief as well as to prevent PD. While several studies demonstrated the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of PD, only a few controlled studies focused on its efficacy in the prevention of PD in women identified at risk during pregnancy. The efficacy of CBT in preventing PD in pregnant women at risk is supported by only a few studies, presenting some methodological flaws. Better designed trials are needed to strongly support the efficacy of such psychotherapeutic preventive strategy in women at risk for PD.

  12. Efficacy of selective arterial embolisation for the treatment of life-threatening post-partum haemorrhage in a large population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Touboul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess efficacy and determine the optimal indication of selective arterial embolisation (SAE in patients with life-threatening post-partum haemorrhage (PPH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and two patients with PPH underwent SAE and were included from January 1998 to January 2002 in our university care center. Embolisation was considered effective when no other surgical procedure was required. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis were performed. SAE was effective for 73 patients (71.5%, while 29 required surgical procedures. SAE was effective in 88.6% of women with uterine atony that was associated with positive outcome (OR 4.13, 1.35-12.60, whereas caesarean deliveries (OR 0.16, 0.04-0.5 and haemodynamic shock (OR 0.21, 0.07-0.60 were associated with high failure rates, 47.6% and 39.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Success rate for SAE observed in a large population is lower than previously reported. It is most likely to succeed for uterine atony but not recommended in case of haemodynamic shock or after caesarean section.

  13. Evaluation of the clinical effect of an on-line course for community nurses on post-partum emotional distress: a community-based longitudinal time-series quasi-experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Marga; Orlygsdottir, Brynja; Elvarsson, Bjarki Thor

    2012-09-01

    About 14% of Icelandic women suffer post-partum from frequent depressive symptoms, and of those, 12% also report a high degree of parenting stress. Education of nurses and midwives on post-partum distress is crucial in reducing its degree. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical effect of an on-line course for community nurses on post-partum emotional distress. A community-based, longitudinal, time-series quasi-experiment was conducted in four stages from 2001 to 2005. Mothers attending 16 health centres throughout Iceland and scoring ≥ 12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at the 9th week post-partum were eligible to participate. Health centres were divided into experimental (EHC) and control centres (CHC), and control centres were crossed over to experimental centres the following year and new control centres recruited. Nurses at EHC attended an on-line course on post-partum emotional distress. Participating mothers answered the EPDS; the Parenting Stress Index/Short form and the Fatigue Scale. Nursing diagnoses and interventions were recorded at all study centres. Of the women who were eligible (n = 163), 57% (n = 93) participated. At baseline, 9 weeks post-partum, there were no significant differences between groups of women in the rate of depressive symptoms, fatigue or parenting stress. Women in all groups improved on all distress indicators over time; however, those from the EHC improved statistically and clinically significantly more on depressive symptoms than those from the CHC. Documentation of particular nursing diagnoses and interventions was significantly more frequent at the EHC, but referrals to specialists were significantly less frequent. On-line education for nurses on post-partum emotional distress is feasible and is related to improvement in post-partum depressive symptoms. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  14. Early perinatal diagnosis of mothers at risk of developing post-partum depression--a concise guide for obstetricians, midwives, neonatologists and paediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Alessandra; Donzelli, Gianpaolo; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we tried to provide all those involved in perinatal medicine with a concise guide to detect mothers at risk of developing post-partum depression. Motherhood is a critical situation characterized by role conflicts because conflicts among the role of mother, worker and wife are the norm in the post-partum period and may jeopardize the mother's existence. We have described a kind of personality that is at great risk of developing post-partum depression because of the incapacity to creatively manage situations of role conflict. This personality structure is called typus melancholicus, and we operationally defined its main features: orderliness, conscientiousness, hypernomia/heteronomia and intolerance of ambiguity. We have shown how these mothers may typically behave during pregnancy and early motherhood: they cannot avoid behaving with feverish perfectionism, developing an exaggerated preoccupation towards the unborn child and hostility towards persons and events that are experienced as an obstacle to their search for perfection. They ultra-carefully follow all the steps concerning paediatric check-ups and feel all the responsibility relating to the care of the child, without being able to delegate to someone else or share their feelings. We hope to provide those clinicians who are engaged in the care of pregnant women and their children with a valuable and user-friendly instrument for understanding and making a timely diagnoses of at-risk psychopathological phenomena.

  15. Exploratory analysis of textual data from the Mother and Child Handbook using the text-mining method: Relationships with maternal traits and post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshio; Manaka, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Makiko; Sato, Shuhei; Ohwada, Michitaka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possibility of screening apprehensive pregnant women and mothers at risk for post-partum depression from an analysis of the textual data in the Mother and Child Handbook by using the text-mining method. Uncomplicated pregnant women (n = 58) were divided into two groups according to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory grade (high trait [group I, n = 21] and low trait [group II, n = 37]) or Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score (high score [group III, n = 15] and low score [group IV, n = 43]). An exploratory analysis of the textual data from the Maternal and Child Handbook was conducted using the text-mining method with the Word Miner software program. A comparison of the 'structure elements' was made between the two groups. The number of structure elements extracted by separated words from text data was 20 004 and the number of structure elements with a threshold of 2 or more as an initial value was 1168. Fifteen key words related to maternal anxiety, and six key words related to post-partum depression were extracted. The text-mining method is useful for the exploratory analysis of textual data obtained from pregnant woman, and this screening method has been suggested to be useful for apprehensive pregnant women and mothers at risk for post-partum depression. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. The role of prenatal, obstetric, and post-partum factors in the parenting stress of mothers and fathers of 9-month old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvienko-Sikar, Karen; Murphy, Gillian; Murphy, Mike

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the role of perinatal, obstetric and post partum factors on maternal and paternal stress. It will present the first examination of the role of prenatal, obstetric, post-partum, and demographic variables in parenting stress for mothers and fathers at 9 months. Data from 6821 parental dyads of 9-month-old infants were extracted from the Growing Up in Ireland National Longitudinal Study of Children. Participants completed the Parental Stress Scale, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Quality of Attachment Sub-scale from the Maternal and Paternal Postnatal Attachment Scales, and a single item health status question from the Short Form 12 Health Survey. Information on prenatal care, pregnancy complications, obstetric outcomes, infant health, and participant demographics were also collected. Separate hierarchical linear regressions were conducted for mothers and fathers Results: Mothers reported higher levels of parenting stress than fathers (p stress was predicted by attachment, own health status, average sleep, occupation, household income, and having a very rapid labor. Paternal parenting stress was predicted by attachment and own health status. A range of perinatal factors was associated with an increased risk of higher parenting stress at 9 months post-partum and the roles of these factors differ between mothers and fathers. These findings are important for predicting and reducing risk of parenting stress in both genders.

  17. Determinants of post-partum anaemia – a cross sectional study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention and treatment of anaemia in post-natal women is essential in reducing maternal ... (WHO) criteria had further investigations done to determine the cause. ... Intermittent Preventive Therapy (IPT) administration during pregnancy were ...

  18. Pengaruh Senam Nifas terhadap Penurunan Tinggi Fundus Uteri pada Ibu Post Partum di RSUP DR. M. Djamil Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurniati Tianastia Rullynil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPerdarahan merupakan penyebab utama kesakitan dan kematian ibu pada masa nifas, dimana 50%-60% karena kegagalan miometrium berkontraksi secara sempurna. Salah satu asuhan untuk memaksimalkan kontraksi uterus pada masa nifas adalah dengan melaksanakan senam nifas, guna mempercepat proses involusi uteri. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh senam nifas terhadap penurunan tinggi fundus uteri (TFU pada ibu post partum. Penelitian ini merupakan studi eksperimental dengan Post Test Only Control Group Design. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian berupa kaliper pelvimetri. Diberikan perlakuan senam nifas pada kelompok intervensi dan tidak senam nifas pada kelompok kontrol, kemudian dilakukan pengukuran tinggi fundus uteri hari ke-1, hari ke-3 dan hari ke-6. Data dianalisa menggunakan Uji General Linier Model (GLM. Rerata TFU hari ke-1 pada kelompok intervensi 12,37±0,72 dan 12,42±0,54 pada kelompok kontrol. Rerata TFU hari ke-3 pada kelompok intervensi 9,00±0,94 dan 9,87±0,75 pada kelompok kontrol. Sedangkan rerata TFU hari ke-6 pada kelompok intervensi 5,72±0,88 dan 7,37±0,68 pada kelompok kontrol. Terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan penurunan tinggi fundus uteri antara kedua kelompok pada hari ke-3 (p=0,00 dan hari ke 6 (p=0,00. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa senam nifas berpengaruh terhadap penurunan tinggi fundus uteri. Penurunan tinggi fundus uteri pada kelompok intervensi lebih turun dibanding kelompok kontrol.Kata kunci: senam nifas, tinggi fundus uteri, post partumAbstractHemorrhage is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in the puerperium, about 50%-60% of hemorrhage occurs due to failure of myometrium to contract completely. One care to maximaze uterine contraction during the puerperium is by implementing parturition gymnastics in order to accelarate the process of uterine involution. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of parturition gymnastics on a decreasing of

  19. Variation of transaminases, HCV-RNA levels and Th1/Th2 cytokine production during the post-partum period in pregnant women with chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles Ruiz-Extremera

    Full Text Available This study analyses the evolution of liver disease in women with chronic hepatitis C during the third trimester of pregnancy and the post-partum period, as a natural model of immune modulation and reconstitution. Of the 122 mothers recruited to this study, 89 were HCV-RNA+ve/HIV-ve and 33 were HCV-RNA-ve/HIV-ve/HCVantibody+ve and all were tested during the third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and post-delivery. The HCV-RNA+ve mothers were categorized as either Type-A (66%, with an increase in ALT levels in the post-partum period (>40 U/L; P<0.001 or as Type-B (34%, with no variation in ALT values. The Type-A mothers also presented a significant decrease in serum HCV-RNA levels in the post-delivery period (P<0.001 and this event was concomitant with an increase in Th1 cytokine levels (INFγ, P = 0.04; IL12, P = 0.01 and IL2, P = 0.01. On the other hand, the Type-B mothers and the HCV-RNA-ve women presented no variations in either of these parameters. However, they did present higher Th1 cytokine levels in the partum period (INFγ and IL2, P<0.05 than both the Type-A and the HCV-RNA-ve women. Cytokine levels at the moment of delivery do not constitute a risk factor associated with HCV vertical transmission. It is concluded that differences in the ALT and HCV-RNA values observed in HCV-RNA+ve women in the postpartum period might be due to different ratios of Th1 cytokine production. In the Type-B women, the high partum levels of Th1 cytokines and the absence of post-partum variation in ALT and HCV-RNA levels may be related to permanent Th1 cytokine stimulation.

  20. [THE ADDED VALUE OF ART THERAPY FOR MOTHERS WITH POST-PARTUM DEPRESSION IN ARABIC SOCIETY IN ISRAEL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan Hamed-Agbariah; Rosenfeld, Yaakov

    2015-09-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is a neurotic condition, which appears usually within two months after the delivery. This is the most common complication of pregnancy and puerperium, affecting about 15 to 20% of the mothers. In Israel, with some 150,000 deliveries annually, this relates to about 20,000 women each year. Routine treatment with psychotherapy (PT), helps about two thirds of these women. Continuation of the maternal symptoms affects the baby's development, and the rest of the family as well. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the additional value of art therapy (AT), compared to standard therapy, with PT alone, to eradicate symptoms of depression. A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted. During the period 2011-2013, a total of 141 Arab mothers with symptoms of PPD, from the Um-El-Fahem region, were included in the study. A comparison was made between two groups: The control group receiving routine treatment with PT and the intervention group which received, in addition, AT. Both groups demonstrated a reduction in the level of depressive symptoms. In the intervention group, however, the reduction in the level of depressive symptoms was statistically more significant (p depressive state. In a health care system with chronic budgetary constraints, the addition of some cardboard and plasticine to the "Health Basket", coupled with a few hours with a trained therapist, is probably a worthy alternative, considering the scope of the problem and its influence on the mother, the baby, and the family as a whole. The appearance of PPD symptoms is a common and significant medical condition. These attributes make this phenomenon a significant problem from the public health perspective. Routine treatment with PT, helps a lot of women. Many, however, remain symptomatic. The addition of AT enables most of them to resume a normal and healthy course of life.

  1. Short communication. Melatonin improves the reproductive performance of seasonal anoestrus goats exposed to buck effect during early post-partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zarazaga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether any combination of buck effect and melatonin treatment could improve reproductive performance in Payoya female goats during early postpartum. Forty-four pregnant female goats were used. After birth in spring, they were distributed into two major groups: females submitted to the buck effect (BE, N=22 or not such effect (NBE, N=22. In turn, the BE animals were subdivided into: 1 no further treatment (CBE, N=11 and 2 implanted with melatonin (MELBE, N=11. And the NBE animals were subdivided into: 3 no further treatment (CNBE, N=12 and 4 implanted with melatonin (MELNBE, N=10. Melatonin was implanted 10 days after birth. Oestrus activity was tested daily using entire males from day of birth (D0 in the groups NBE and from D55 after birth in the BE groups. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed 10 days after the detection of oestrus and 45 days after mounting to determine pregnancy. Fecundity, fertility and productivity were higher in MELBE animals compared to CNBE animals (fecundity and fertility: 66.7% vs. 0.0%, and productivity: 0.73 vs. 0.00 kids/female for MELBE and CNBE respectively, p<0.05, and CBE animals (fecundity and fertility: 66.7% vs. 14.3%, and productivity: 0.73 vs. 0.09 kids/female for MELBE and CBE respectively; p<0.05. No significant differences were recorded between the subgroups of the NBE animals. The present results show that exogenous melatonin improves the reproductive performances of early post-partum Payoya does exposed to male effect during the seasonal anoestrus.

  2. Pregnancy-specific anxiety, ART conception and infant temperament at 4 months post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C A; Boivin, J; Gibson, F L; Hammarberg, K; Wynter, K; Saunders, D; Fisher, J

    2013-04-01

    Is anxiety focused on the pregnancy outcome, known to be particularly salient in women conceiving through assisted reproductive technology (ART), related to difficult infant temperament? While trait anxiety predicts infant temperament, pregnancy-focused anxiety is not associated with more difficult infant temperament. A large body of research has provided convincing evidence that fetal exposure to maternal anxiety and stress in pregnancy has adverse consequences for child neurodevelopmental, behavioural and cognitive development, and that pregnancy-specific anxiety (concerns related to the pregnancy outcome and birth) may be of particular significance. Women conceiving through ART are of particular interest in this regard. Research over more than 20 years has consistently demonstrated that while they do not differ from spontaneously conceiving (SC) women with respect to general (state and trait) anxiety, they typically report higher pregnancy-specific anxiety. While research suggests normal behavioural and developmental outcomes for children conceived through ART, there is some evidence of more unsettled infant behaviour during the first post-natal year. The longitudinal cohort design followed 562 nulliparous women over a 7-month period, during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 4 months after birth. Approximately equal numbers of nulliparous women conceiving through ART (n = 250) and spontaneously (SC: n = 262) were recruited through ART clinics and nearby hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Participants completed three anxiety measures (state, trait, pregnancy specific) at time 1 in the third trimester of pregnancy and a measure of infant temperament at time 2, 4 months after birth. At time 1, relevant socio-demographic, pregnancy (maternal age, smoking, alcohol, medications, medical complications) information was recorded and at time 2, information regarding childbirth (gestation, infant birthweight, mode of delivery) and post-natal (concurrent

  3. Management of Recurrent Post-partum Pregnancy Tumor with Localized Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N Raghavendra; Kumar, P Mohan; Selvi, Tamil; Nalini, H Esther

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy tumor is a benign, hyperplastic lesion of the gingiva, considered to be reactive or traumatic rather than neoplastic in nature. The term pyogenic granuloma is a misnomer as it is not filled with pus or granulomatous tissue histologically. It is multi factorial in nature, which shows an exaggerated response to stimuli such as low grade or chronic irritation, trauma or hormonal variations. Higher levels of sex hormones during pregnancy produce effects on sub gingival microflora, the immune system, the vasculature and specific cells of periodontium which in turn in the presence of local irritants exaggerate the lesion. Since the lesion is clinically indistinguishable from other type of hyperplastic conditions, histological findings are required for proper diagnosis. We present a case report of recurrent pyogenic tumor which showed the evidence of pre-existing localized periodontitis with extensive horizontal bone destruction. The lesion was excised by electrocautery combined with conventional flap procedure after parturition period. During 3 and 6 months follow-up period post-operative healing showed satisfactory results without recurrence.

  4. Management of Recurrent Post-partum Pregnancy Tumor with Localized Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Raghavendra Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy tumor is a benign, hyperplastic lesion of the gingiva, considered to be reactive or traumatic rather than neoplastic in nature. The term pyogenic granuloma is a misnomer as it is not filled with pus or granulomatous tissue histologically. It is multi factorial in nature, which shows an exaggerated response to stimuli such as low grade or chronic irritation, trauma or hormonal variations. Higher levels of sex hormones during pregnancy produce effects on sub gingival microflora, the immune system, the vasculature and specific cells of periodontium which in turn in the presence of local irritants exaggerate the lesion. Since the lesion is clinically indistinguishable from other type of hyperplastic conditions, histological findings are required for proper diagnosis. We present a case report of recurrent pyogenic tumor which showed the evidence of pre-existing localized periodontitis with extensive horizontal bone destruction. The lesion was excised by electrocautery combined with conventional flap procedure after parturition period. During 3 and 6 months follow-up period post-operative healing showed satisfactory results without recurrence.

  5. Immigrant and refugee women's post-partum depression help-seeking experiences and access to care: a review and analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, J; Donnelly, T

    2010-12-01

    • This literature review on post-partum depression (PPD) presents an analysis of the literature about PPD and the positive and negative factors, which may influence immigrant and refugee women's health seeking behaviour and decision making about post-partum care. • A critical review of English language peer-reviewed publications from 1988 to 2008 was done by the researchers as part of a qualitative research study conducted in a western province of Canada. The overall goal of the study is to raise awareness and understanding of what would be helpful in meeting the mental health needs of the immigrant and refugee women during the post-partum period. • Several online databases were searched: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, MEDLINE (Ovid), EBM Reviews - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. • Review of the literature suggests: 1 Needs, issues and specific risk factors for PPD among immigrant and refugee women have been limited. 2 Descriptive accounts regarding culture and PPD are found in the literature but impact of cultural factors upon PPD has not been well studied. 3 Few studies look at how social support, gender, and larger institutions or organizational structures may affect immigrant and refugee women's help-seeking and access to mental health care services. 4 More research is needed to hear the immigrant and refugee women's ideas about their social support needs, the difficulties they experience and their preferred ways of getting help with PPD. This review and analysis of the literature is about the phenomenon of post-partum depression (PPD) and the barriers and facilitators, which may influence immigrant and refugee women's health seeking behaviour and decision making about post-partum care. As part of a qualitative research study conducted in a western province of Canada a critical review of English language peer-reviewed publications from 1988 to 2008 was undertaken by the researchers. The overall goal

  6. Effect of system of lamb rearing and season on early post-partum fertility of ewes and growth performance of lambs in Katahdin sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastle-Simpson, S; D'Souza, K; Redhead, A; Singh-Knights, D; Baptiste, Q; Knights, M

    2017-10-01

    The effect of season (S), lamb rearing system (RT) and grain supplementation (GS) on post-partum fertility in Katahdin ewes and growth in Katahdin lambs was evaluated. Katahdin ewes were bred to lamb in fall (n = 36) or spring (n = 56) and at approximately 2.5 months post-partum were randomly assigned to be permanently separated or to continue to suckle their lambs for an additional 3 months. All ewes were joined with rams following treatment to synchronize oestrus. Weaned (W, n = 84) and continuously suckled lambs (CSK, n = 88) were fed forage only (n = 84; hay and pasture for fall- and spring-born lambs respectively) or were supplemented (n = 88; 18% crude protein ration ad libitum) and all weighed biweekly. Ewes rebred in the fall had a shorter ram introduction to lambing interval (p ewes lambing was not affected by season. The first service lambing rate was lower in ewes continuously suckling lambs in the spring, but not in the fall breeding season (S × RT, p = 0.03). Lambs that continuously suckled their dams and were supplemented grew quicker and gained more (p ewes are capable of early rebreeding post-partum while suckling their lambs, which makes them suited for use in accelerated lambing programmes. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Panic disorder as a risk factor for post-partum depression: Results from the Perinatal Depression-Research & Screening Unit (PND-ReScU) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambelli, C; Montagnani, M S; Oppo, A; Banti, S; Borri, C; Cortopassi, C; Ramacciotti, D; Camilleri, V; Mula, M; Cassano, G B; Mauri, M

    2010-04-01

    Although the role of anxiety disorders on the development of Post-partum Depression (PPD) have already been studied in literature, that of individual anxiety disorders has not received specific attention. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Panic Disorder (PD) and family history for PD as risk factors for PPD. Six hundred women were recruited in a prospective, observational study at the 3rd month of pregnancy and followed up until the 6th month after delivery. At baseline, risk factors for PPD, Axis-I disorders and family history for psychiatric disorders were assessed. We investigated minor and major depression (mMD) occurred at 1st, 3rd and 6th months post-partum. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between PD, family history for PD and PPD. Forty women had mMD in the post-partum. PD during pregnancy (RR=4.25; 95%CI:1.48-12.19), a history of PD (RR 2.47; 95%CI:1.11-5.49) and family history for PD (RR=2.1; 95%CI:1.06-4.4) predicted PPD after adjusting for lifetime depression and risk factors for PPD. The response rate is moderately low, but it is similar to other studies. The drop out rate is slightly high, however the 600 women who completed the 6th month follow-up did not differ from the presence of PD at baseline. PD is an independent risk factor for PPD, underscoring need to assess PD symptoms during pregnancy. Furthermore, PD represents an important risk factor for the development of PPD and should be routinely screened in order to develop specific preventive interventions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody Increases Risk of Post-partum Depression by Decreasing Prefrontal Cortex BDNF and 5-HT Levels in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Wang, Xinyi; Zhao, Yuhang; Liu, Aihua; Zhao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is a common mental disease in the perinatal period that profoundly affects mothers and their offspring. Some clinical studies have found that PPD is related to thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs); however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. Female C57BL/6 mice immunized with adenovirus encoding the cDNA of the full-length mTPO (mTPO-Ad) were used to establish the isolated TPOAb-positive mouse model in the present study. Maternal depressive-like behaviors were assessed using the forced swimming test (FST), sucrose preference test (SPT), and tail suspension test (TST) post-partum. The serum TPOAb titer was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before pregnancy and post-partum. Furthermore, in the prefrontal cortex, the mRNA and protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured, serotonin (5-HT) levels were measured by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), and total thyroxine (TT4) levels were determined by ELISA. Compared with the controls, the mice immunized with mTPO-Ad displayed depressive behaviors, with a significantly lower sucrose preference (SP) at the 12-h time point and a longer immobility time in the FST and TST, which were accompanied by a lower expression of BDNF and 5-HT but no change in the TT4 concentration in the prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that elevated TPOAb may increase the risk of subsequent PPD and decrease the concentration of BDNF and 5-HT in the prefrontal cortex.

  9. Clinical study on the factors affecting the post-partum recovery of patients with hypertensive pregnancy disorders at a Chinese hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Wang, Yan; Xu, Jiayuan; Zhang, Chunfang; Zhou, Helen; Liu, Guoli

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the post-partum recovery of blood pressure (BP) in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and to evaluate HDP risk factors. A total of 124 patients with gestational hypertension (n = 63) or pre-eclampsia (n = 61) who gave birth at Peking University People's Hospital between January and December 2013 were included in this study. The recorded clinical and laboratory parameters included the patients' general information, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, gestational age at onset and delivery, delivery mode and time taken for BP to return to normal level. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of various risk factors on post-partum BP recovery. The mean interval for BP normalization was 24.1 ± 22.8 days (median, 7 days). Forty-six percent of the patients recovered from hypertension within three days, and 75% recovered within six weeks of delivery. About 90% of the patients required 60 days for BP to normalize after delivery. After adjusting for confounding factors, post-partum recovery from hypertension was found to be influenced by hypertension severity, maternal serum albumin level, a family history of hypertension and gestational week at delivery. The BP of the majority of the patients with gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia returned to normal within 60 days of delivery. Hypertension severity, maternal serum albumin level, a family history of family hypertension and gestational week at delivery influenced the time required for BP normalization. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. The barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation experienced by women's partners during pregnancy and the post-partum period: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Kate; Graham, Hilary; McCaughan, Dorothy; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda

    2015-09-03

    Smoking in pregnancy can cause substantial harm and, while many women quit, others continue to smoke throughout pregnancy. The role of partners is an important but relatively under-researched factor in relation to women's smoking in pregnancy; partner's smoking status and attitudes to smoking cessation are important influences in a pregnant women's attempt to quit. Further understanding of how partners perceive the barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation in pregnancy is needed, particularly from qualitative studies where participants describe these issues in their own words. A synthesis of qualitative research of partners' views of smoking in pregnancy and post-partum was conducted using meta-ethnography. Searches were undertaken from 1990 to January 2014 using terms for partner/household, pregnancy, post-partum, smoking, qualitative in seven electronic databases. The review was reported in accordance with the 'Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research' (ENTREQ) statement. Nine studies reported in 14 papers were included, detailing the experience of 158 partners; the majority were interviewed during the post-partum period. Partners were all male, with a single exception. Socioeconomic measures indicated that most participants were socially disadvantaged. The synthesis identified recurring smoking-related perceptions and experiences that hindered (barriers) and encouraged (facilitators) partners to consider quitting during the woman's pregnancy and into the post-partum period. These were represented in five lines of argument relating to: smoking being an integral part of everyday life; becoming and being a father; the couple's relationship; perceptions of the risks of smoking; and their harm reduction and quitting strategies. The cluster of identified barriers and facilitators to quitting offers pointers for policy and practice. The workplace emerges as an important space for and influence on partners' smoking habits

  11. Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody-positivity post-partum is associated with impaired β-cell function in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, T P; Højlund, K; Snogdal, L S; Jensen, D M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate whether the presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibodies post-partum in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with changes in metabolic characteristics, including β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. During 1997-2010, 407 women with gestational diabetes mellitus were offered a 3-month post-partum follow-up including anthropometrics, serum lipid profile, HbA1c and GAD autoantibodies, as well as a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with blood glucose, serum insulin and C-peptide at 0, 30 and 120 min. Indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were estimated to assess insulin secretion adjusted for insulin sensitivity, disposition index (DI). Twenty-two (5.4%) women were positive for GAD autoantibodies (GAD+ve) and the remainder (94.6%) were negative for GAD autoantibodies (GAD-ve). The two groups had similar age and prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Women who were GAD+ve had significantly higher 2-h OGTT glucose concentrations during their index-pregnancy (10.5 vs. 9.8 mmol/l, P = 0.001), higher fasting glucose (5.2 vs. 5.0 mmol/l, P = 0.02) and higher 2-h glucose (7.8 vs. 7.1 mmol/l, P = 0.05) post-partum. Fasting levels of C-peptide and insulin were lower in GAD+ve women compared with GAD-ve women (520 vs. 761 pmol/l, P = 0.02 and 33 vs. 53 pmol/l, P = 0.05) Indices of insulin sensitivity were similar in GAD+ve and GAD-ve women, whereas all estimates of DI were significantly reduced in GAD+ve women. GAD+ve women had higher glucose levels and impaired insulin secretion adjusted for insulin sensitivity (DI) compared with GAD-ve women. The combination of OGTT and GAD autoantibodies post-partum identify women with impaired β-cell function. These women should be followed with special focus on development of Type 1 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  12. Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post-partum, the proportion of cycling cows was 83.3 and 69.9% for those which

  13. Clinical decision-making: midwifery students' recognition of, and response to, post partum haemorrhage in the simulation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Julie; Endacott, Ruth; Biro, MaryAnne; Bulle, Bree; Cooper, Simon; Miles, Maureen; Gilmour, Carole; Buykx, Penny; Kinsman, Leigh; Boland, Rosemarie; Jones, Jan; Zaidi, Fawzia

    2012-03-23

    This paper reports the findings of a study of how midwifery students responded to a simulated post partum haemorrhage (PPH). Internationally, 25% of maternal deaths are attributed to severe haemorrhage. Although this figure is far higher in developing countries, the risk to maternal wellbeing and child health problem means that all midwives need to remain vigilant and respond appropriately to early signs of maternal deterioration. Simulation using a patient actress enabled the research team to investigate the way in which 35 midwifery students made decisions in a dynamic high fidelity PPH scenario. The actress wore a birthing suit that simulated blood loss and a flaccid uterus on palpation. The scenario provided low levels of uncertainty and high levels of relevant information. The student's response to the scenario was videoed. Immediately after, they were invited to review the video, reflect on their performance and give a commentary as to what affected their decisions. The data were analysed using Dimensional Analysis. The students' clinical management of the situation varied considerably. Students struggled to prioritize their actions where more than one response was required to a clinical cue and did not necessarily use mnemonics as heuristic devices to guide their actions. Driven by a response to single cues they also showed a reluctance to formulate a diagnosis based on inductive and deductive reasoning cycles. This meant they did not necessarily introduce new hypothetical ideas against which they might refute or confirm a diagnosis and thereby eliminate fixation error. The students response demonstrated that a number of clinical skills require updating on a regular basis including: fundal massage technique, the use of emergency standing order drugs, communication and delegation of tasks to others in an emergency and working independently until help arrives. Heuristic devices helped the students to evaluate their interventions to illuminate what else could

  14. Clinical decision-making: midwifery students' recognition of, and response to, post partum haemorrhage in the simulation environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholes Julie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports the findings of a study of how midwifery students responded to a simulated post partum haemorrhage (PPH. Internationally, 25% of maternal deaths are attributed to severe haemorrhage. Although this figure is far higher in developing countries, the risk to maternal wellbeing and child health problem means that all midwives need to remain vigilant and respond appropriately to early signs of maternal deterioration. Methods Simulation using a patient actress enabled the research team to investigate the way in which 35 midwifery students made decisions in a dynamic high fidelity PPH scenario. The actress wore a birthing suit that simulated blood loss and a flaccid uterus on palpation. The scenario provided low levels of uncertainty and high levels of relevant information. The student's response to the scenario was videoed. Immediately after, they were invited to review the video, reflect on their performance and give a commentary as to what affected their decisions. The data were analysed using Dimensional Analysis. Results The students' clinical management of the situation varied considerably. Students struggled to prioritise their actions where more than one response was required to a clinical cue and did not necessarily use mnemonics as heuristic devices to guide their actions. Driven by a response to single cues they also showed a reluctance to formulate a diagnosis based on inductive and deductive reasoning cycles. This meant they did not necessarily introduce new hypothetical ideas against which they might refute or confirm a diagnosis and thereby eliminate fixation error. Conclusions The students response demonstrated that a number of clinical skills require updating on a regular basis including: fundal massage technique, the use of emergency standing order drugs, communication and delegation of tasks to others in an emergency and working independently until help arrives. Heuristic devices helped the

  15. Post partum anxiety and depression in peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Iqbal S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postpartum anxiety and depression is a major public health concern because of its adverse effects on the cognitive and social development of the infant. Globally postpartum depression has been widely investigated but as anxiety is a more prominent feature of postpartum depression we assessed the prevalence of anxiety and depression and their associated factors in post partum women. Methods A quasi-experimental study investigating the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child growth and development was conducted in two peri-urban, multiethnic, communities of Karachi, a mega city of Pakistan. A house to house questionnaire based survey was done by trained field workers; 420 consenting pregnant women were identified and data for socio-demographic, home environment and family relationship variables was collected between 36 weeks of pregnancy and within 10 days of childbirth. Mother's levels of anxiety and depression were assessed after one month, two months, six months and twelve months of childbirth; this was two step process: initially an indigenous, validated screening instrument Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale was used and diagnostic confirmation was done through a psychologist's interview based on DSM IV criteria. Women found to be anxious and depressed at least once out of four assessments were considered for the computation of overall prevalence of postpartum anxiety and depression as well as its risk factors. However, point prevalence's of postpartum anxiety and depression were also reported at each assessment time. Two sixty seven women could be followed for one year. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Chi-square test, simple and multiple logistic regression were used to see the association of different factors. Results The overall prevalence of postpartum anxiety and depression was found to be 28.8 percent. Domestic violence, difficulty in breast feeding at birth and unplanned current pregnancy

  16. Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody-positivity post-partum is associated with impaired β-cell function in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, T. P.; Højlund, K.; Snogdal, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether the presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibodies post-partum in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with changes in metabolic characteristics, including β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. METHODS: During 1997-2010, 407...... women with gestational diabetes mellitus were offered a 3-month post-partum follow-up including anthropometrics, serum lipid profile, HbA1c and GAD autoantibodies, as well as a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with blood glucose, serum insulin and C-peptide at 0, 30 and 120 min. Indices of insulin...... similar age and prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Women who were GAD+ve had significantly higher 2-h OGTT glucose concentrations during their index-pregnancy (10.5 vs. 9.8 mmol/l, P = 0.001), higher fasting glucose (5.2 vs. 5.0 mmol/l, P = 0.02) and higher 2-h glucose (7.8 vs. 7.1 mmol/l, P = 0.05) post...

  17. Late eclampsie post partum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, J. M.; Hajenius, P. J.; Richard, E.; Wolf, H.; Bleker, O. P.

    2007-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman, who had given birth once before, had an eclamptic epileptic seizure eight days after caesarean delivery of healthy premature twins. Severe headache and loss of vision, leading to blindness, had not been recognised as prodromal signs by the healthcare professionals involved.

  18. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. V. Endocrine changes and conception during the early post partum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant Anglo-Arab and Thoroughbred mares (n = 24 were divided randomly according to age and breed into 4 groups of 6 mares each from approximately 6 weeks before their expected foaling date. Diets received by the 4 groups varied in essential amino-acid and total protein contents. Serum progestagen, FSH and LH concentrations were determined from the day of parturition until foal heat and during the 1st oestrous cycle following foal heat. Serum progestagen, FSH and LH concentrations did not differ between the treatment groups. Progestagen concentrations were high (c = 7.0: 5.2-16.4 ng/mℓ at parturition but decreased rapidly within 48 h. As progestagen concentrations decreased LH concentrations increased from Days 3-6 post partum to reach maximum values at, or the day after ovulation. FSH concentrations declined 3-4 d after parturition and increased 2-3 d before ovulation at foal heat. The duration of elevated progestagen concentrations during the luteal phase of the subsequent oestrous cycle affected the interovulatory period. A 12-14 d FSH cyclical releasing pattern occurred. Season/photoperiod affected the resumption of normal oestrous cyclicity during the post partum period. The duration of the 1st oestrous cycle after foal heat in mares fed a low-quality protein diet showed a greater range (13-30 d compared to mares fed a high-quality protein diet (18-26 d.

  19. Evaluation of reproductive tract infection during early post-partum period and its relationship with subsequent reproductive performance in high milk producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senosy, W; Uchiza, M; Tameoka, N; Izaike, Y; Osawa, T

    2012-04-01

    Clinically normal Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 43) were used to establish a relationship between the evaluations of the uterine condition by vaginoscopy, Metricheck, endometrial cytology (EC) and ultrasonography (US) during post-partum period (pp), and subsequent reproductive performance. The uterine status of the selected cows was evaluated by EC, Metricheck, US and vaginoscopy on a weekly basis from the third week (W3) to the seventh week (W7) pp. The animals were bred after a voluntary waiting period of 45-60 days pp and diagnosed for pregnancy status at 45 days after breeding by US. First service conception rate (FSCR) of bred animals was 32.6% (14/43). There was no significant difference in polymorphonuclear leucocyte percentage between conceived and non-conceived cows during different weeks post-partum. First service conception rate in animals with normal vaginal discharge as detected by Metricheck was significantly low when compared to those of abnormal discharge during W3 (2.3% vs 30.3%; p reproductive performance of dairy cattle. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Post-partum depression in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: validation of a concept using a mixed-methods cross-cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Judith K; Ryder, Robert W; Lammers, Marie-Christine; Mukaba, Thibaut N; Bolton, Paul A

    2008-12-01

    To determine if a post-partum depression syndrome exists among mothers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, by adapting and validating standard screening instruments. Using qualitative interviewing techniques, we interviewed a convenience sample of 80 women living in a large peri-urban community to better understand local conceptions of mental illness. We used this information to adapt two standard depression screeners, the Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. In a subsequent quantitative study, we identified another 133 women with and without the local depression syndrome and used this information to validate the adapted screening instruments. Based on the qualitative data, we found a local syndrome that closely approximates the Western model of major depressive disorder. The women we interviewed, representative of the local populace, considered this an important syndrome among new mothers because it negatively affects women and their young children. Women (n = 41) identified as suffering from this syndrome had statistically significantly higher depression severity scores on both adapted screeners than women identified as not having this syndrome (n = 20; P depression and validated instruments to screen for this disorder. As the importance of compromised mental health in developing world populations becomes recognized, the methods described in this report will be useful more widely.

  1. Distribution of causes of maternal mortality during delivery and post-partum: results of an African multicentre hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonneau, Patrick F; Matsudai, Tomohiro; Alihonou, Eusèbe; De Souza, Jose; Faye, Ousseynou; Moreau, Jean-Charles; Djanhan, Yao; Welffens-Ekra, Christiane; Goyaux, Nathalie

    2004-06-15

    To assess the maternal mortality ratio in maternity units of reference hospitals in large west African cities, and to describe the distribution of complications and causes of maternal deaths. Prospective descriptive study in twelve reference maternities located in three African countries (Benin, Ivory Coast, Senegal). Data (clinical findings at hospital entry, medical history, complications, type of surgery, vital status of the women at discharge) were collected from obstetrical and surgical files and from admission hospital registers. All cases of maternal deaths were systematically reviewed by African and European staff. Of a total of 10,515 women, 1495 presented a major obstetric complication with dystocia or inappropriate management of the labour phase as the leading cause. Eighty-five maternal deaths were reported, giving a global hospital-based maternal mortality ratio of 800/100,000. Hypertensive disorders were involved in 25/85 cases (29%) and post-partum haemorrhage in 13/85 cases (15%). Relatively few cases (14) of major sepsis were reported, leading to three maternal deaths. The results of this multicentre study confirm the high rates of maternal mortality in maternity units of reference hospitals in large African cities, and in addition to dystocia the contribution of hypertensive disorders and post-partum haemorrhage to maternal deaths.

  2. Narrating Motherhood as Experience and Institution: Experimental Life-Writing in Mary Kelly’s Post-Partum Document (1973–79

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowska Justyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores American visual artist Mary Kelly’s autobiographical work Post-partum document in reference to the politics of life writing. Resorting to Lacanian psychoanalysis, a pastiche of scientific narratives and other (auto-narrative strategies, in her work Kelly documented the first five years of her son’s life from his weaning from the breast until the day when he wrote his name. By documenting her child’s development, the artist also recorded the process of her own formation as a maternal subject, a formation gradually worked out through an evolving relationship with her son. In her work, the artist made vivid the incompatibility and limitations of various narrative frameworks in retelling a fundamentally relational experience that verges on the mental and bodily, and which is necessarily mediated by the patriarchal ideology. This article analyses Kelly’s conflicting narrative strategies that fail to successfully represent the mother-child formative relationship and which demonstrate the mother’s ideological alienation. It reads Kelly’s work politically, exploring the ways in which Post-partum document’s (auto-narrative voices address questions and dilemmas of the feminine/maternal subject, the subject’s formation, and the limits of its (self- representation within patriarchy. The article argues that Kelly challenges the traditional autobiographic genre by attending to her lived experience as a mother and the culturally repressed maternal desire.

  3. Oral health related quality of life in pregnant and post partum women in two social network domains; predominantly home-based and work-based networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Individuals connected to supportive social networks have better general and oral health quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess whether there were differences in oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) between women connected to either predominantly home-based and work-based social networks. Methods A follow-up prevalence study was conducted on 1403 pregnant and post-partum women (mean age of 25.2 ± 6.3 years) living in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Women were participants in an established cohort followed from pregnancy (baseline) to post-partum period (follow-up). All participants were allocated to two groups; 1. work-based social network group - employed women with paid work, and, 2. home-based social network group - women with no paid work, housewives or unemployed women. Measures of social support and social network were used as well as questions on sociodemographic characteristics and OHRQoL and health related behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to obtain OR of relationships between occupational contexts, affectionate support and positive social interaction on the one hand, and oral health quality of life, using the Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP) measure, adjusted for age, ethnicity, family income, schooling, marital status and social class. Results There was a modifying effect of positive social interaction on the odds of occupational context on OHRQoL. The odds of having a poorer OHIP score, ≥4, was significantly higher for women with home-based social networks and moderate levels of positive social interactions [OR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.08-2.48)], and for women with home-based social networks and low levels of positive social interactions [OR 2.15 (95% CI: 1.40-3.30)] compared with women with work-based social networks and high levels of positive social interactions. Black ethnicity was associated with OHIP scores ≥4 [OR 1.73 (95% CI: 1.23-2.42)]. Conclusions Pregnant and post-partum

  4. Stratégie transfusionnelle des hémorragies graves du post-partum: étude rétrospective à propos de 47 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouadja, Hosni; Rouissi, Wissem; Mahjoub, Mohamed; Sakhri, Jaballah; Beletaifa, Dhafer; Jazia, Khaled Ben

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L’hémorragie du post-partum est la principale cause de morbi-mortalité maternelle dans le monde. La prise en charge est multidisciplinaire. La stratégie transfusionnelle est capitale jouant un rôle majeur dans le pronostic maternel. L’objectif de ce travail a été de déterminer le rapport PFC/CGR lors de la prise en charge des hémorragies graves du post-partum. Méthodes Une étude Etude rétrospective sur une période de 4 ans (2009-2012) a été réalisée dans un centre de maternité de référence de niveau III du centre-Est tunisien. Elle a inclut les parturientes admises pour une hémorragie sévère du post-partum définit par la nécessité d’une transfusion de plus de 04 CGR durant les 3 premières heures ou de plus de 10 CGR durant les 24 premières heures de prise en charge. Résultats Notre étude a inclut 47 parturientes. Le diagnostic de l’HPP a été fait devant un saignement vaginal dans 28 cas et suite à une césarienne dans 19 cas. En préopératoire le taux d’Hb a été de 6.3 g/dl. Le rapport transfusionnel (PFC/CGR) a été de 1/0.7. Conclusion Au cours de notre prise en charge, le rapport transfusionnel a été plus élevé que les recommandations récentes de la littérature stipulant une administration précoce et massive de PFC avec un ratio PFC/CGR compris entre 1/2 et 1/1. L’administration du fibrinogène (Fbg) et de l’acide tranexamique doit être précoce. L’emploi du facteur VII activé recombinant (rFVIIa) doit rester une solution ultime de prise en charge. PMID:28292131

  5. Oral health related quality of life in pregnant and post partum women in two social network domains; predominantly home-based and work-based networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarca, Gabriela A; Leal, Maria do C; Leao, Anna T T; Sheiham, Aubrey; Vettore, Mario V

    2012-01-13

    Individuals connected to supportive social networks have better general and oral health quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess whether there were differences in oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) between women connected to either predominantly home-based and work-based social networks. A follow-up prevalence study was conducted on 1403 pregnant and post-partum women (mean age of 25.2 ± 6.3 years) living in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Women were participants in an established cohort followed from pregnancy (baseline) to post-partum period (follow-up). All participants were allocated to two groups; 1. work-based social network group--employed women with paid work, and, 2. home-based social network group--women with no paid work, housewives or unemployed women. Measures of social support and social network were used as well as questions on sociodemographic characteristics and OHRQoL and health related behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to obtain OR of relationships between occupational contexts, affectionate support and positive social interaction on the one hand, and oral health quality of life, using the Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP) measure, adjusted for age, ethnicity, family income, schooling, marital status and social class. There was a modifying effect of positive social interaction on the odds of occupational context on OHRQoL. The odds of having a poorer OHIP score, ≥ 4, was significantly higher for women with home-based social networks and moderate levels of positive social interactions [OR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.08-2.48)], and for women with home-based social networks and low levels of positive social interactions [OR 2.15 (95% CI: 1.40-3.30)] compared with women with work-based social networks and high levels of positive social interactions. Black ethnicity was associated with OHIP scores ≥ 4 [OR 1.73 (95% CI: 1.23-2.42)]. Pregnant and post-partum Brazilian women in paid

  6. Developing, implementing and evaluating a simulation learning package on post-partum haemorrhage for undergraduate midwifery students in KwaZulu-Natal*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafaza B. Amod

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The training of undergraduate midwifery students to identify and manage post-partum haemorrhage, is an essential skill in midwifery. Aim: The aim of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate a simulation learning package (SLP on post-partum haemorrhage for undergraduate midwifery students using high fidelity simulation without risks to real-life patients. Methods: An exploratory sequential mixed methodology was used in this study. The study was made up of three phases namely; the development, implementation and evaluation of the learning package. The research participants were fourth year baccalaureate of nursing midwifery students and midwifery experts involved in teaching midwifery. Data was collected using an evaluation checklist for experts, a student satisfaction survey and focus group sessions. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS Version 23.0 and the qualitative data was analysed using content analysis as described by Graneheim and Lundman(2004. Results: The evaluation checklist for experts revealed that the developed SLP was considered suitable for undergraduate students. It encouraged active learning, teamwork and accommodated diverse learning styles. The package was easy to use and offered opportunities for student feedback. The student satisfaction survey revealed that the pre-simulation support received was adequate and helpful, and the post simulation outcomes showed that using high fidelity simulation improved clinical skills, knowledge, critical thinking, self-confidence and satisfaction. The focus group sessions revealed that the SLP was an innovative and interactive method of learning; it improved the student's perception of their clinical competence, stimulated critical thinking and increased self-confidence. Conclusion: A simulation learning package, that uses high fidelity simulation, can be an innovative and interactive method to teach midwifery emergencies.

  7. Post-partum pituitary insufficiency and livedo reticularis presenting a diagnostic challenge in a resource limited setting in Tanzania: a case report, clinical discussion and brief review of existing literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheriff Faheem G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pituitary disorders following pregnancy are an important yet under reported clinical entity in the developing world. Conversely, post partum panhypopituitarism has a more devastating impact on women in such settings due to high fertility rates, poor obstetric care and scarcity of diagnostic and therapeutic resources available. Case presentation A 37 year old African female presented ten years post partum with features of multiple endocrine deficiencies including hypothyroidism, hypoadrenalism, lactation failure and secondary amenorrhea. In addition she had clinical features of an underlying autoimmune condition. These included a history of post-partum thyroiditis, alopecia areata, livedo reticularis and deranged coagulation indices. A remarkable clinical response followed appropriate hormone replacement therapy including steroids. This constellation has never been reported before; we therefore present an interesting clinical discussion including a brief review of existing literature. Conclusion Post partum pituitary insufficiency is an under-reported condition of immense clinical importance especially in the developing world. A high clinical index of suspicion is vital to ensure an early and correct diagnosis which will have a direct bearing on management and patient outcome.

  8. Cost-utility analysis of a one-time supervisor telephone contact at 6-weeks post-partum to prevent extended sick leave following maternity leave in The Netherlands: results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uegaki, K.; Stomp-van den Berg, S.G.; de Bruijne, M.C.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; Heymans, M.W.; van Mechelen, W.; van Tulder, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Working women of childbearing age are a vital part of the population. Following childbirth, this group of women can experience a myriad of physical and mental health problems that can interfere with their ability to work. Currently, there is little known about cost-effective post-partum

  9. Development and Validation of a Questionnaire for the Assessment of Pelvic Floor Disorders and Their Risk Factors During Pregnancy and Post Partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Melanie; Junginger, Bärbel; Henrich, Wolfgang; Baeßler, Kaven

    2017-04-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire for the assessment of pelvic floor disorders, their symptoms and risk factors in pregnancy and after birth including symptom course, severity and impact on quality of life. Methods The validated German pelvic floor questionnaire was modified and a new risk factor domain developed. The questionnaire was initially completed by 233 nulliparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy and at six weeks (n = 148) and one year (n = 120) post partum. Full pyschometric testing was performed. The clinical course of symptoms and the influence of risk factors were analysed. Results Study participants had a median age of 31 (19-46) years. 63 % had spontaneous vaginal deliveries, 15 % operative vaginal deliveries and 22 % were delivered by caesarean section. Content validity: Missing answers never exceeded 4 %. Construct validity: The questionnaire distinguished significantly between women who reported bothersome symptoms and those who did not. Reliability: Cronbach's alpha values exceeded 0.7 for bladder, bowel and support function, and 0.65 for sexual function. The test-retest analysis showed moderate to almost complete concordance. The intraclass coefficients for domain scores (between 0.732 and 0.818) were in acceptable to optimal range. Reactivity: The questionnaire was able to track changes significantly with good effect size for each domain. Risk factors for pelvic floor symptoms included familial predisposition, maternal age over 35 years, BMI above 25, nicotine abuse, subjective inability to voluntarily contract the pelvic floor musculature and postpartum wound pain. Conclusion This pelvic floor questionnaire proved to be valid, reliable and reactive for the assessment of pelvic floor disorders, their risk factors, incidence and impact on quality of life during pregnancy and post partum. The questionnaire can be utilised to assess the course of symptoms and treatment effects

  10. Influence of energy balance on the antimicrobial peptides S100A8 and S100A9 in the endometrium of the post-partum dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swangchan-Uthai, Theerawat; Chen, Qiusheng; Kirton, Sally E; Fenwick, Mark A; Cheng, Zhangrui; Patton, Joe; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A; Wathes, D Claire

    2013-01-01

    Uterine inflammation occurs after calving in association with extensive endometrial remodelling and bacterial contamination. If the inflammation persists, it leads to reduced fertility. Chronic endometritis is highly prevalent in high-yielding cows that experience negative energy balance (NEB) in early lactation. This study investigated the effect of NEB on the antimicrobial peptides S100A8 and S100A9 in involuting uteri collected 2 weeks post partum. Holstein-Friesian cows (six per treatment) were randomly allocated to two interventions designed to produce mild or severe NEB (MNEB and SNEB) status. Endometrial samples were examined histologically, and the presence of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and natural killer cells was confirmed using haematoxylin and eosin and immunostaining. SNEB cows had greater signs of uterine inflammation. Samples of previously gravid uterine horn were used to localise S100A8 and S100A9 by immunohistochemistry. Both S100 proteins were present in bovine endometrium with strong staining in epithelial and stromal cells and in infiltrated leucocytes. Immunostaining was significantly higher in SNEB cows along with increased numbers of segmented neutrophils. These results suggest that the metabolic changes of a post-partum cow suffering from NEB delay uterine involution and promote a chronic state of inflammation. We show that upregulation of S100A8 and S100A9 is clearly a key component of the early endometrial response to uterine infection. Further studies are warranted to link the extent of this response after calving to the likelihood of cows developing endometritis and to their subsequent fertility. PMID:23533291

  11. Re-conceptualising prenatal life stressors in predicting post-partum depression: cumulative-, specific-, and domain-specific approaches to calculating risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy H; Tronick, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Prenatal life stress predicts post-partum depression (PPD); however, studies generally examine individual stressors (a specific approach) or the summation of such exposure (a cumulative approach) and their associations with PPD. Such approaches may oversimplify prenatal life stress as a risk factor for PPD. We evaluated approaches in assessing prenatal life stress as a predictor of PPD diagnosis, including a domain-specific approach that captures cumulative life stress while accounting for stress across different life stress domains: financial, relational, and physical health. The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a population-based survey, was used to analyse the association of prenatal life stressors with PPD diagnoses among 3566 New York City post-partum women. Specific stressors were not associated with PPD diagnosis after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Exposure to a greater number of stressors was associated with PPD diagnosis, even after adjusting for both sociodemographic variables and specific stressors [odds ratio (OR) = 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5, 6.7]. Individuals reporting a moderate-to-high number of financial problems along with a moderate-to-high number of physical problems were at greater odds of PPD (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.2, 15.3); those with a moderate-to-high number of problems in all three domains were at over fivefold increased odds of PPD (OR = 5.5, CI = 1.1, 28.5). In assessing prenatal stress, clinicians should consider the extent to which stressors occur across different life domains; this association appears stronger with PPD diagnosis than simple assessments of individual stressors, which typically overestimate risk or cumulative exposures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Emotional impact of severe post-partum haemorrhage on women and their partners: an observational, case-matched, prospective, single-centre pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricbourg, Aude; Gosme, Christelle; Gayat, Etienne; Ventre, Chloé; Barranger, Emmanuel; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2015-10-01

    This observational, matched-control, prospective, single-centre study sought to estimate the emotional impact of post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) on women and their partners, including its influences on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), postpartum depression and the mother/child relationship. All consecutive women who were admitted for PPH from December 2010 through December 2011 and their partners were screened for eligibility. Emotional impact was assessed using three self-reported questionnaires (Impact of Event Scale-Revised to assess PTSD, Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale to assess post-natal depression and Mother-Infant Bonding Scale to assess the relationship between mother and child). Each PPH patient was matched with a control woman for whom the delivery was not complicated by PPH. The results showed (a) that women with PPH and their partners were more likely to report symptoms related to PTSD compared with controls, (b) that women with PPH were less likely to suffer from postnatal depression and (c) that there was no difference in the mother/child relationship between women with PPH and controls. PPH is associated with a high incidence of PTSD-related symptoms in both women and their partners. PTSD in the context of PPH is likely an under-recognised phenomenon by health care professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin.

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    Esther Cathyln Atukunda

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH, which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH.Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241. Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%.A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6% developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0% had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (85% in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL.WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell indices are unavailable.

  14. The impact of early outcome events on the effect of tranexamic acid in post-partum haemorrhage: an exploratory subgroup analysis of the WOMAN trial.

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    Brenner, Amy; Shakur-Still, Haleema; Chaudhri, Rizwana; Fawole, Bukola; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam; Roberts, Ian

    2018-06-07

    In severe post-partum haemorrhage, death can occur within hours of bleeding onset so interventions to control the bleeding must be given immediately. In clinical trials of treatments for life-threatening bleeding, established treatments are given priority and the trial treatment is usually given last. However, enrolling patients in whom severe maternal morbidity or death is imminent or inevitable at the time of randomisation may dilute the effects of a trial treatment. We conducted an exploratory analysis of data from the WOMAN trial, an international, randomised placebo-controlled trial of the effects of tranexamic acid on death and surgical intervention in 20,060 women with post-partum haemorrhage. We assessed the impact of early maternal death or hysterectomy due to exsanguination on the effect of tranexamic acid on each of these respective outcomes. We conducted repeated analyses excluding patients with these outcomes at increasing intervals from the time of randomisation. We quantified treatment effects using risk ratios (RR) and 99% confidence intervals (CI) and prepared cumulative failure plots. Among 14,923 women randomised within 3 h of delivery (7518 tranexamic acid and 7405 placebo), there were 216 bleeding deaths (1.5%) and 383 hysterectomies due to bleeding (2.8%). After excluding deaths from exsanguination at increasing time intervals following randomization, there was a significant reduction in the risk of death due to bleeding with tranexamic acid (RR = 0.41; 99% CI 0.19-0.89). However, after excluding hysterectomies at increasing time intervals post-randomization, there was no reduction in the risk of hysterectomy due to bleeding with tranexamic acid (RR = 0.79; 99% CI 0.33-1.86). Findings from this analysis provide further evidence that tranexamic acid reduces the risk of death from exsanguination in women who experience postpartum haemorrhage. It is uncertain whether tranexamic acid reduces the risk of hysterectomy for bleeding after

  15. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy, poor birth outcomes and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya

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    Obare Francis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the experiences of unintended pregnancies and poor birth outcomes among adolescents aged 15–19 years in the general population are well documented, there is limited understanding of the same among those who are living with HIV. This paper examines the factors associated with experiencing unintended pregnancies, poor birth outcomes, and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional study that captured information on pregnancy histories of HIV-positive female adolescents in four regions of Kenya: Coast, Nairobi, Nyanza and Rift Valley provinces. Study participants were identified through HIV and AIDS programs in the four regions. Out of a total of 797 female participants, 394 had ever been pregnant with 24% of them experiencing multiple pregnancies. Analysis entails the estimation of random-effects logit models. Results Higher order pregnancies were just as likely to be unintended as lower order ones (odds ratios [OR]: 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8–2.0 while pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to be unintended compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.1; 95% CI: 0.1–0.2. Higher order pregnancies were significantly more likely to result in poor outcomes compared to lower order ones (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6–4.0. In addition, pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to result in poor outcomes compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.9. However, experiencing unintended pregnancy was not significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 0.5–3.3. There was also no significant difference in the likelihood of post-partum contraceptive use by whether the pregnancy was unintended (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5–1.5. Conclusions The experience of repeat unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive female adolescents

  16. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy, poor birth outcomes and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya.

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    Obare, Francis; van der Kwaak, Anke; Birungi, Harriet

    2012-10-06

    Although the experiences of unintended pregnancies and poor birth outcomes among adolescents aged 15-19 years in the general population are well documented, there is limited understanding of the same among those who are living with HIV. This paper examines the factors associated with experiencing unintended pregnancies, poor birth outcomes, and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya. Data are from a cross-sectional study that captured information on pregnancy histories of HIV-positive female adolescents in four regions of Kenya: Coast, Nairobi, Nyanza and Rift Valley provinces. Study participants were identified through HIV and AIDS programs in the four regions. Out of a total of 797 female participants, 394 had ever been pregnant with 24% of them experiencing multiple pregnancies. Analysis entails the estimation of random-effects logit models. Higher order pregnancies were just as likely to be unintended as lower order ones (odds ratios [OR]: 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-2.0) while pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to be unintended compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.1; 95% CI: 0.1-0.2). Higher order pregnancies were significantly more likely to result in poor outcomes compared to lower order ones (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6-4.0). In addition, pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to result in poor outcomes compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.9). However, experiencing unintended pregnancy was not significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 0.5-3.3). There was also no significant difference in the likelihood of post-partum contraceptive use by whether the pregnancy was unintended (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5-1.5). The experience of repeat unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive female adolescents in the sample is partly due to inconsistent use of contraception to prevent

  17. Use of radioimmunoassay technique for the determination of post-partum ovaric activity in high and low milk production in dairy cows. Actividad ovarica post-parto en vacas de alta y baja produccion lechera usando la tecnica de radioimmunoanalisis (RIA)

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    Villalba, P [Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica, Quito (Ecuador); Paneluisa, S; Arcos, E [Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Central del (Ecuador)

    1993-07-01

    The principal objective of this study was to determinate the post-partum ovarian activity in milking cows of high and low production in one farm of ecuadorian highland. For this experiment was necessary to use 48 animals between second and sith calving, the milk samples were collected according one pre-stablished protocol and the same was: one sample 5th or 6th days, twice a week until the cows were pregnacy and 180 days after parturitium if the cow is open. Additional data were compiled in each farm and both the results of the progesterone by RIA were used to determinate the diferents reproductive parameters in the post-partum of the cows. The most of reproductives parameters in the post-partum of the cows in the both group didn't have significance but the conception rate, services per conception, number of pregnacy cows and percentaje of non visibles heats had one high significance between the treatments.

  18. Exposure to Photoperiod-Melatonin-Induced, Sexually-Activated Rams after Weaning Advances the Resumption of Sexual Activity in Post-Partum Mediterranean Ewes Lambing in January.

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    Abecia, José A; Chemineau, Philippe; Gómez, Andrea; Palacios, Carlos; Keller, Matthieu; Delgadillo, José A

    2017-01-21

    This study was aimed to determine whether the presence of sexually stimulated rams by photoperiodic and melatonin treatments can advance the resumption of post-partum sexual activity in Mediterranean ewes lambing in January and weaned at the end of the breeding season at 41°N, in March. Rams were exposed to two months of long days (16 h light/day) and given three melatonin implants at the end of the long days (sexually-activated rams; SAR). Control rams (CR) were exposed to the natural photoperiod. Thirty-six ewes weaned on 25 February were assigned to one of two groups. From 1 March to 30 June, one group was housed with four SAR males (SAR-treated; n = 18), and the other group (CR-treated; n = 18) was housed with four unstimulated rams. Ovulation was assessed once per week based on plasma progesterone concentrations. Estrus was monitored daily by marks left on ewes by rams' harnesses. SAR-treated ewes had a shorter ( p ewes (61 ± 17 days vs. 102 ± 47 days; mean date of first estrus after weaning on April 26 and June 6, respectively). The proportion of the ewes ovulating in April or May was higher ( p ewes resumed estrous activity sooner than CR-treated ewes such that, in April, May, and June, the proportion of females that exhibited estrus was higher ( p ewes in spring. The practical implications of this work could be important in ewes adapted for intensive production and accelerated lambing systems.

  19. Clinical features and risk factors for post-partum depression in a large cohort of Chinese women with recurrent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Shen, Yifeng; Ren, Jianer; Wu, Wenyuan; Guan, Chengbin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Danning; Gao, Chengge; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wu, Jinbo; Deng, Hong; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Yunshu; Shao, Yun; Rong, Han; Gan, Zhaoyu; Sun, Yan; Hu, Bin; Pan, Jiyang; Li, Yi; Sun, Shufan; Song, Libo; Fan, Xuesheng; Li, Yi; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Yang, Bin; Lv, Luxian; Chen, Yunchun; Wang, Xiaoli; Ning, Yuping; Shi, Shenxun; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S; Flint, Jonathan; Tian, Hongjun

    2012-02-01

    Post partum depression (PPD) is relatively common in China but its clinical characteristics and risk factors have not been studied. We set out to investigate whether known risk factors for PPD could be found in Chinese women. A case control design was used to determine the impact of known risk factors for PPD in a cohort of 1970 Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD). In a within-case design we examined the risk factors for PPD in patients with recurrent MDD. We compared the clinical features of MDD in cases with PPD to those without MDD. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic and ordinal regression. Lower occupational and educational statuses increased the risk of PPD, as did a history of pre-menstrual symptoms, stressful life events and elevated levels of the personality trait of neuroticism. Patients with PPD and MDD were more likely to experience a comorbid anxiety disorder, had a younger age of onset of MDD, have higher levels of neuroticism and dysthymia. Results obtained in this clinical sample may not be applicable to PPD within the community. Data were obtained retrospectively and we do not know whether the correlations we observe have the same causes as those operating in other populations. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the despite cultural differences between Chinese and Western women, the phenomenology and risk factors for PPD are very similar. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antenatal depression in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka and the factor structure of the Sinhalese version of Edinburgh post partum depression scale among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala

    2013-01-01

    Mental health problems among women of reproductive age group contribute to 7% of Global Burden of Diseases of women of all ages. Purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of antenatal depression among pregnant women in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, and to explore the factor structure of EPDS. Pregnant women with gestational age of 24-36 weeks and residing in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka were recruited to the study using a two stage cluster sampling procedure. Sinhalese version of Edinburgh Post Partum Depression Scale (EPDS) and an interviewer administered questionnaire was use to collect data. A cut off value of 9 was used for the Sinhalese version of EPDS. A total of 376 pregnant women were studied. Median EPDS score among pregnant women was 5 (IQR 2-8). Prevalence of antenatal depression in this study sample was 16.2% (n = 61). Thought of self harming (item number 10) was reported by 26 pregnant women (6.9%). None of the socio-demographic factors were associated with depression in this study sample. Having heart burn was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (p = 0.041). Sri Lankan version of EPDS showed a two factor solution. Anxiety was not emerged as a separate factor in this analysis. Prevalence of antenatal depression in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka was relatively low. Anxiety was not emerged as a separate factor in the Sinhalese version of the EPDS.

  1. Antenatal depression in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka and the factor structure of the Sinhalese version of Edinburgh post partum depression scale among pregnant women.

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    Suneth Buddhika Agampodi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mental health problems among women of reproductive age group contribute to 7% of Global Burden of Diseases of women of all ages. Purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of antenatal depression among pregnant women in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, and to explore the factor structure of EPDS. METHODS: Pregnant women with gestational age of 24-36 weeks and residing in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka were recruited to the study using a two stage cluster sampling procedure. Sinhalese version of Edinburgh Post Partum Depression Scale (EPDS and an interviewer administered questionnaire was use to collect data. A cut off value of 9 was used for the Sinhalese version of EPDS. RESULTS: A total of 376 pregnant women were studied. Median EPDS score among pregnant women was 5 (IQR 2-8. Prevalence of antenatal depression in this study sample was 16.2% (n = 61. Thought of self harming (item number 10 was reported by 26 pregnant women (6.9%. None of the socio-demographic factors were associated with depression in this study sample. Having heart burn was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (p = 0.041. Sri Lankan version of EPDS showed a two factor solution. Anxiety was not emerged as a separate factor in this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of antenatal depression in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka was relatively low. Anxiety was not emerged as a separate factor in the Sinhalese version of the EPDS.

  2. A violência doméstica como indicador de risco no rastreamento da depressão pós-parto Domestic violence as a risk factor in the screening of for post-partum depression

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    Rosiane Mattar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: apurar a freqüência de risco para depressão pós-parto (DP em puérperas de hospital de São Paulo, região Sudeste do Brasil, e determinar fatores associados - entre eles a violência doméstica (VD. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo, tipo corte transversal. Participaram 133 mulheres, que tiveram partos com idade gestacional de 20 semanas ou mais, no período de agosto a setembro de 2005, em maternidade terciária em São Paulo (Brasil. Foram entrevistadas empregando-se a versão em português do Abuse Assessment Screen para o diagnóstico de violência e responderam questionário de auto-avaliação do risco de DP (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. As variáveis foram representadas por freqüências absoluta e relativa. A associação entre as variáveis de interesse e DP foi avaliada pelo teste do chi2 ou exato de Fisher. Adotou-se o nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: o risco de DP foi identificado em 24 puérperas (18%. Das mulheres entrevistadas, 38,3% referiram história de abusos. Observou-se associação entre a ocorrência de VD após os 15 anos de idade e o risco de depressão (p=0,03. A ocorrência de abusos no grupo de mulheres com probabilidade de apresentar DP foi de 58,3%, proporção significativamente maior do que a observada no grupo controle com 33,9%. CONCLUSÕES: a probabilidade de apresentar depressão foi alta entre as puérperas assistidas em maternidade terciária da região Sudeste do Brasil. A VD sofrida após os 15 anos de idade esteve estatisticamente associada ao risco de DP.PURPOSE: to assess the prevalence of the risk of post-partum depression in women in the post-natal ward of a hospital in São Paulo city, in the southeastern region of Brazil, and analyze the associated factors, including domestic violence (DV. METHODS: this was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The participants were 133 women with at least 20 weeks of gestation age, who delivered their babies from August to September

  3. Occipital lobe epilepsy secondary to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) during a post-partum eclampsia in Mali (West Africa).

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    Youssoufa, Maïga; Callixte, Kuate Tegueu; Christian, Napon

    2013-08-13

    Eclampsia is known to cause posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) that is often associated with an extensive neurovascular damage affecting preferably posterior regions, often leading to reversible cortical blindness. In spite the magnitude of these lesions, post eclamptic symptomatic epilepsy is rare. We therefore report a case of symptomatic occipital lobe epilepsy secondary to PRES. A 39-year-old female right handed teacher who presented with headache of progressive onset, phosphenes, rapid decline of visual acuity to blindness, vomiting, repeated generalized tonic-clonic seizures followed by altered consciousness and very high blood pressure (HBP) of 240/120 mmHg, all of which started about 12 hours following a normal delivery. Nine months later, the patient presented with paroxysmal visual symptoms predominating in the right visual field followed by partial tonic clonic seizures with secondary generalization and recurrence of partial occipital lobe seizures. The pathophysiologic mechanism of irreversible tissue damage during PRES syndrome could result from a combination of events including the delay for early treatment, inadequate antihypertensive drugs that could worsen the brain damage by hypo perfusion, inadequate or delayed treatment for seizures or status epilepticus. Despite its high incidence in the third world, eclampsia is not a usual cause of epilepsy. Our case is the first description of post eclamptic occipital lobe epilepsy in Africa. With this report, we draw practitioners' attention on this rare complication.

  4. Pregnancy and post-partum depression and anxiety in a longitudinal general population cohort: the effect of eating disorders and past depression.

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    Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Treasure, Janet

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of past depression, past and current eating disorders (ED) on perinatal anxiety and depression in a large general population cohort of pregnant women, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Anxiety and depression were measured during and after pregnancy in 10,887 women using the Crown-Crisp Experiential Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Women were grouped according to depression and ED history: past ED with (n = 123) and without past depression (n = 50), pregnancy ED symptoms with (n = 77) and without past depression (n = 159), past depression only (n = 818) and controls (n = 9,660). We compared the course of depression and anxiety with linear mixed-effect regression models; and probable depressive and anxiety disorders using logistic regression. Women with both past depression and past/current ED had high anxiety and depression across time perinatally; this was most marked in the group with pregnancy ED symptoms and past depression (b coefficient:5.1 (95% CI: 4.1-6.1), p depressive and anxiety disorder compared to controls. At 8 months post-partum pregnancy ED symptoms and/or past depression conferred the highest risk for a probable depressive and anxiety disorder. Data were based on self-report. There was some selective attrition. Pregnancy ED symptoms and past depression have an additive effect in increasing the risk for depression and anxiety perinatally. Screening at risk women for anxiety and depression in the perinatal period might be beneficial. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prise en charge des plaies du périnée en post partum: faut-il prescrire systématiquement un antibiotique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Eko, Filbert Eko; Ko’A, Claude Odile Vanessa Ebode; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Mbu, Robinson Enow

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Introduction L'intégrité des voies génitales n'est pas toujours respectée au cours de l'accouchement. Aucun protocole de prise en charge des plaies périnéales du post-partum (déchirures et épisiotomies) n'existant dans nos services, la prise en charge reste praticien dépendant. Nous avons entrepris cette étude dans le but d'établir l'intérêt de l'antibiotique dans le traitement des plaies périnéales du post-partum. Notre objectif était d'évaluer l'impact de l'antibioprophylaxie sur le processus de cicatrisation et dans la prévention des complications infectieuses après réparation. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude de cohorte prospective sur une durée de 6 mois, soit du 1er janvier au 31 mai 2016, menée dans l'Unité de Gynécologie et Obstétriques de l'Hôpital Central de Yaoundé. Deux groupes A et B d'accouchées avec déchirure périnéale et/ou épisiotomie étaient suivies. Le groupe A était composé de 85 accouchées à qui on avait prescrit le protocole compresse imbibée de Bétadine® (placebo). Le groupe B (ou groupe test) était composé d'accouchées qui en plus du placebo, avaient la prescription d'un antibiotique (association 1000mg d'amoxicilline et 125mg d'acide clavulanique à raison de 1000mg 2fois par jour par voie orale pendant 05 jours). Les 2 groupes étaient suivis à J0, J2 et J9. Nos critères d'évaluation de la prise en charge étaient: la douleur, l'infection, la tuméfaction, la propreté de la plaies et le delai de cicatrisation complete. Les données étaient saisies et analysées à l'aide des logiciels Epidata analysis version 3.2 et STATA version 12.0 (Texas USA 2001). Les corrélations entre les variables étaient recherchées selon le cas par le chi carré, l'Odds ratio et avec la valeur de P (significatif pour toute valeur ≤ 0.05). Résultats La moyenne d'âge était de 26.32 ± 6.5 ans avec des extrêmes de 15 et 43 ans. Les primipares représentaient 55.9% de la population d'étude. La

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Ferric Carboxy Maltose in Iron Deficiency Anaemia During Post-partum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet; Roy, Priyankar; Gandhi, Khushali; Choudhary, Sumesh; Aggarwal, Rohina; Sokabaj, Shaheen

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the commonest treatable cause of postpartum anaemia. Parenteral iron therapy results in faster and higher replenishment of iron stores and correction of haemoglobin levels with better compliance. Ferric Carboxy Maltose is an effective and a safe option which can be administered intravenously in single total correction dose without any serious adverse effects.The study was done to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ferric Carboxy Maltose in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in post-natal patients. It was an open, single arm study including 615 women with diagnosis of Iron deficiency anaemia and haemoglobin (Hb) levels between 4gm% and 11gm% from January 2013 to December 2016. Intravenous Ferric Carboxy Maltose(500-1500mg) was administered and the improvement in haemoglobin levels and iron stores were assessed after three weeks of total dose infusion. Out of the 615 women, 595 women were included in the analysis. Most of the women were in the age group of 27-30 years. Most of the women had mild anaemia as per World Health Organisation guidelines. Mean hemoglobin levels significantly increased over a period of three weeks after Ferric Carboxy Maltose administration. Other parameters like total iron binding capacity, Ferritin and Iron also had a significant improvement after Ferric Carboxy Maltose administration. No serious adverse events were observed after Ferric Carboxy Maltose. Intravenous Ferric Carboxy Maltose was an effective and a safe treatment option for iron deficiency anaemia and has an advantage of single administration of high doses without serious adverse effects.

  7. Promoting male partner HIV testing and safer sexual decision making through secondary distribution of self-tests by HIV-negative female sex workers and women receiving antenatal and post-partum care in Kenya: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Harsha; Masters, Samuel H; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Maman, Suzanne; Omanga, Eunice; Agot, Kawango

    2016-06-01

    Increased uptake of HIV testing by men in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for the success of combination prevention. Self-testing is an emerging approach with high acceptability, but little evidence exists on the best strategies for test distribution. We assessed an approach of providing multiple self-tests to women at high risk of HIV acquisition to promote partner HIV testing and to facilitate safer sexual decision making. In this cohort study, HIV-negative women aged 18-39 years were recruited at two sites in Kisumu, Kenya: a health facility with antenatal and post-partum clinics and a drop-in centre for female sex workers. Participants gave informed consent and were instructed on use of oral fluid based rapid HIV tests. Participants enrolled at the health facility received three self-tests and those at the drop-in centre received five self-tests. Structured interviews were conducted with participants at enrolment and over 3 months to determine how self-tests were used. Outcomes included the number of self-tests distributed by participants, the proportion of participants whose sexual partners used a self-test, couples testing, and sexual behaviour after self-testing. Between Jan 14, 2015, and March 13, 2015, 280 participants were enrolled (61 in antenatal care, 117 in post-partum care, and 102 female sex workers); follow-up interviews were completed for 265 (96%). Most participants with primary sexual partners distributed self-tests to partners: 53 (91%) of 58 participants in antenatal care, 91 (86%) of 106 in post-partum care, and 64 (75%) of 85 female sex workers. 82 (81%) of 101 female sex workers distributed more than one self-test to commercial sex clients. Among self-tests distributed to and used by primary sexual partners of participants, couples testing occurred in 27 (51%) of 53 in antenatal care, 62 (68%) of 91 from post-partum care, and 53 (83%) of 64 female sex workers. Among tests received by primary and non-primary sexual partners, two (4%) of 53

  8. Depressão pós-parto: fatores de risco e repercussões no desenvolvimento infantil Post-partum depression: risk factors and repercussions in infant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eluisa Bordin Schmidt

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A depressão pós-parto é uma condição que afeta 10% a 15% das mulheres no pós-parto. Este quadro tem seu início em algum momento durante o primeiro ano do pós-parto, havendo maior incidência entre a quarta e oitava semana após o parto. Geralmente se manifesta por um conjunto de sintomas como irritabilidade, choro freqüente, sentimentos de desamparo e desesperança, falta de energia e motivação, desinteresse sexual, transtornos alimentares e do sono, ansiedade, sentimentos de incapacidade de lidar com novas solicitações. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma revisão bibliográfica acerca da depressão pós-parto. São abordados aspectos conceituais, epidemiológicos, fatores de risco associados a sua ocorrência e algumas repercussões da depressão pós-parto na relação materno-infantil e no desenvolvimento da criança. O conhecimento destes aspectos reveste-se de grande importância considerando as conseqüências prejudiciais às mães bem como ao desenvolvimento cognitivo, social e emocional de suas crianças.The post-partum depression is a condition that affects 10 to 15% of the women in the post-partum period. These symptoms begin at some moment during the first year after delivery, occurring more frequently between the fourth and eighth week after parturition. It is generally expressed through a complexity of symptoms where there is a presence of irritability, frequent crying, feelings of abandonment and hopelessness, lack of energy and motivation, lack of sexual interest, disturbances in sleep and eating patterns, anxiety, and feelings of not being able to cope with new demands. The objective of this paper is to present a bibliographical revision regarding the post-partum depression. Conceptual and epidemiological aspects, risk factors associated with their occurrence as well as a few repercussions of the post-partum depression in the mother-child relation, and the development of the infant will be broached. The

  9. Falsiporphyromonas endometrii gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the post-partum bovine uterus, and emended description of the genus Porphyromonas Shah and Collins 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, K; Drillich, M; Baumgardt, S; Kämpfer, P; Busse, H-J; Ehling-Schulz, M

    2014-02-01

    Two black-pigmented, anaerobic bacterial strains, designated LMM 40(T) and LMM 41, were isolated from the bovine post-partum endometrium of two Holstein cows. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were identical and showed the highest similarity to the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the type strain of Porphyromonas crevioricanis (90.2%) but only 85.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain of the type species of the genus Porphyromonas, Porphyromonas asaccharolytica. The major fatty acid profiles of the two strains were similar to those of species of the genus Porphyromonas, containing iso-C(15 : 0) as the major component and moderate amounts of anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(13 : 0), C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 0). Hydroxylated fatty acids, such as iso-C(14 : 0) 3-OH, iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH and iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH, were also detected. The quinone profiles were dominated by the menaquinones MK-8 and MK-9, while spermidine was the major polyamine. The polar lipid profiles contained major amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified phospholipid, an unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified lipids and minor amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminolipid, a second unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The genomic DNA G+C contents of LMM 40(T) and LMM 41 were 40.7 and 41.3 mol%, respectively. Based on a polyphasic approach, including phylogenetic analysis, physiological and biochemical tests as well as metabolic fingerprinting, it is proposed that the two strains are members of a novel genus and species, for which the name Falsiporphyromonas endometrii gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Falsiporphyromonas endometrii is LMM 40(T) ( = DSM 27210(T) = CCUG 64267(T)). An emended description of the genus Porphyromonas is also presented.

  10. Family planning knowledge, attitudes and practices in refugee and migrant pregnant and post-partum women on the Thailand-Myanmar border - a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Patricia; Hall, Layla; Kulkus, Sibylla; Paw, Moo Kho; Tun, Nay Win; Min, Aung Myat; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Srikanok, Somjet; Ontuwong, Pranee; Sirinonthachai, Supachai; Nosten, François; Somerset, Shawn; McGready, Rose

    2016-08-19

    Lack of data in marginalized populations on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) hampers efforts to improve modern contraceptive practice. A mixed methods study to better understand family planning KAP amongst refugee and migrant women on the Thailand-Myanmar border was conducted as part of an ongoing effort to improve reproductive health, particularly maternal mortality, through Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU) antenatal and birthing services. Cross-sectional surveys and focus group discussions (FGDs) in currently pregnant women; and in-depth interviews (IDIs) in selected post-partum women with three children or more; were conducted. Quantitative data were described with medians and proportions and compared using standard statistical tests. Risk factors associated with high parity (>3) were identified using logistic regression analysis. Qualitative data were coded and grouped and discussed using identified themes. In January-March 2015, 978 women participated in cross-sectional studies, 120 in FGD and 21 in IDI. Major positive findings were: > 90 % of women knew about contraceptives for birth spacing, >60 % of women in the FGD and IDI reported use of family planning (FP) in the past and nearly all women knew where they could obtain FP supplies. Major gaps identified included: low uptake of long acting contraception (LAC), lack of awareness of emergency contraception (>90 % of women), unreliable estimates of when child bearing years end, and misconceptions surrounding female sterilization. Three was identified as the ideal number of children in the cross-sectional survey but less than half of the women with this parity or higher in the IDI actually adopted LAC leaving them at risk for unintended pregnancy. Discussing basic female anatomy using a simple diagram was well received in FGD and IDIs. LAC uptake has increased particularly the IUD from 2013-2015. Definitive contextual issues were identified during this study and a significant range of action

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with recent intimate partner violence and relationships between disability and depression in post-partum women in one clinic in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Carpenter, Bradley; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Hannass-Hancock, Jill; Smit, Jennifer; Tomlinson, Mark; Butler, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by pregnant and post-partum women has negative health effects for women, as well as the foetus, and the new-born child. In this study we sought to assess the prevalence and factors associated with recent IPV amongst post-partum women in one clinic in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa, and explore the relationship between IPV, depression and functional limitations/disabilities. Past 12 month IPV-victimisation was 10.55%. Logistic regression modelled relationships between IPV, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, socio-economic measures, and sexual relationship power. In logistic regression models, overall severity of functional limitations were not associated with IPV-victimisation when treated as a continuous overall score. In this model relationship power (aOR0.22, p = 0.001) and depressive symptoms (aOR1.26, p = 0.001) were significant. When the different functional limitations were separated out in a second model, significant factors were relationship power (aOR0.20, p = 0.001), depressive symptoms (aOR1.20, p = 0.011) and mobility limitations (aOR2.96, p = 0.024). The study emphasises that not all functional limitations are associated with IPV-experience, that depression and disability while overlapping can also be considered different drivers of vulnerability, and that women's experience of IPV is not dependent on pregnancy specific factors, but rather wider social factors that all women experience.

  12. Alteração tireoidiana: um fator de risco associado à depressão pós-parto? Thyroid dysfunction: a risk factor associated with post-partum depression?

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    Gustavo Enrico Cabral Ruschi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estudar prevalência de depressão pósparto e sua correlação com alterações tireoidianas maternas. MÉTODOS: estudo observacional descritivo transversal realizado com 292 mulheres entre 31 e 180 dias após o parto, atendidas em unidades de saúde pública da Região Metroplitana de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil. Analisou-se a amostra segundo características sociodemográficas e clínico-obstétricas. Definiu-se transtorno depressivo pelo escore igual ou superior a 12 na Escala de Depressão Pós-Parto de Edimburgo (EPDS. A avaliação tireoidiana foi realizada por dosagens séricas de hormônio tireo-estimulante (TSH, tiroxina livre (T4 livre e dos anticorpos anti-peroxidase (TPO. Para avaliação dos resultados utilizamos técnicas de análise descritiva e teste do χ2, adotando nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: 115 mulheres (39,4% apresentaram escores iguais ou superiores a 12 na EPDS, sendo consideradas deprimidas; 117 (60,6%, com escores inferiores a 12, foram consideradas não deprimidas. A prevalência de depressão pós-parto no grupo com alterações tireoidianas foi de 36% e no grupo sem alterações tireoidianas foi de 40%. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na frequência de depressão entre as pacientes com e sem alterações tireoidianas (χ2=0,131;p=0,717. CONCLUSÕES: a frequência de DPP foi elevada, não sendo observada associação entre depressão pós-parto e alterações tireoidianas.OBJECTIVES: to investigate the prevalence of post partum depression and its correlation with thyroid dysfunction in mothers. METHODS: a descriptive, cross-cutting observational study carried out among 292 women between the 31st and 180th days post partum, attending public health units in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The sample was analyzed for socio-demographic and clinical-obstetric characteristics. A depressive disorder was defined by a score

  13. Conhecimentos maternos sobre amamentação entre puérperas inscritas em programa de pré-natal Breastfeeding knowledge among post-partum women previously enrolled in a prenatal program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilza Sandre-Pereira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer o nível de informação sobre amamentação entre as mulheres que participam do programa de pré-natal na Maternidade-Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A amostra totalizou 135 puérperas que responderam a questionário estruturado, contendo perguntas objetivas sobre aspectos práticos e teóricos do aleitamento materno. Os resultados mostraram que as mulheres iniciaram o pré-natal, em média, com 16 semanas de gravidez e realizaram cerca de oito consultas. Dentre elas, 53,3% afirmaram ter recebido informações sobre aleitamento materno durante o acompanhamento pré-natal e a informação mais lembrada por 22,2% foi a de amamentar até os seis meses de vida do bebê. Quanto ao momento ideal para a primeira mamada, 50,4% consideraram ser logo após o parto e 47,4% apontaram o leite materno como benéfico para proteger o bebê contra doenças. Embora as mães tenham conhecimentos básicos sobre aleitamento materno, questões como o momento ideal para a primeira mamada, a importância do colostro e aspectos nutricionais relacionados à nutriz ainda precisam ser melhor esclarecidos durante o pré-natal e no período pós-parto imediato.The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge of breastfeeding issues among post-partum women who had participated in a prenatal program at the Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ Maternity Teaching Hospital. The sample totaled 135 post-partum women who answered a structured questionnaire with objective questions about practical and theoretical aspects of breastfeeding. The women had begun prenatal care at the 16th week of gestation on average, with an average of 8 medical consultations. Some 53.3% stated having received information about breastfeeding during prenatal care, and 22.2% stated that the information they remembered the best was that they should breastfeed for the first 6 months. Regarding the best moment for the first feeding, 50

  14. Health professionals’ perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to providing smoking cessation advice to women in pregnancy and during the post-partum period: a systematic review of qualitative research

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    Kate Flemming

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing smoking in pregnancy is a policy priority in many countries and as a result there has been a rise in the development of services to help pregnant women to quit. A wide range of professionals are involved in providing these services, with midwives playing a particularly pivotal role. Understanding professionals’ experiences of providing smoking cessation support in pregnancy can help to inform the design of interventions as well as to improve routine care. Methods A synthesis of qualitative research of health professionals’ perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to providing smoking cessation advice to women in pregnancy and the post-partum period was conducted using meta-ethnography. Searches were undertaken from 1990 to January 2015 using terms for maternity health professionals and smoking cessation advisors, pregnancy, post-partum, smoking, and qualitative in seven electronic databases. The review was reported in accordance with the ‘Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research’ (ENTREQ statement. Results Eight studies reported in nine papers were included, reporting on the views of 190 health professionals/key informants, including 85 midwives and health visitors. The synthesis identified that both the professional role of participants and the organisational context in which they worked could act as either barriers or facilitators to an individual’s ability to provide smoking cessation support to pregnant or post-partum women. Underpinning these factors was an acknowledgment that the association between maternal smoking and social disadvantage was a considerable barrier to addressing and supporting smoking cessation Conclusions The review identifies a role for professional education, both pre-qualification and in continuing professional development that will enable individuals to provide smoking cessation support to pregnant women. Key to the success of this education

  15. Embarazo no deseado en adolescentes, y utilización de métodos anticonceptivos posparto Unwanted adolescent pregnancy and post-partum utilization of contraceptive methods

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    Rosa María Núñez-Urquiza

    2003-01-01

    potencial de cobertura aún no alcanzado entre el grupo de adolescentes, especialmente entre las que viven en áreas suburbanas y entre las no derechohabientes de la seguridad social. Asimismo, sugiere la necesidad de insistir en la promoción de la utilización de métodos anticonceptivos posparto en este grupo considerado de alto riesgo reproductivo. Además, se evidencia la necesidad de investigar sobre métodos de educación sexual y reproductiva que puedan introducirse en el sistema escolar desde el nivel primario.OBJECTIVE: To describe the proportion of unwanted pregnancies among all pregnant adolescents, its association with sociodemographic characteristics, and the use of post-partum contraceptive methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 220 women between 13 and 19 years of age, in two semi-urban municipalities of the State of Morelos, Mexico, interviewed between 1992 and 1994. Women were interviewed at home, six to twelve weeks after their delivery date. Women were asked whether they had wanted their last pregnancy, and about knowledge and use of contraceptive methods after delivery. RESULTS: Adolescent pregnancies accounted for 17% of all births registered in these two municipalities. Among all adolescent mother 22.73% reported that their pregnancy had not been wanted. A positive association was found between the lack of access to health services provided by public medical insurance systems (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social IMSS and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado ISSSTE and unwanted pregnancy (adjusted OR=3.03, 95% CI (1.31, 7. An association was also found between living in an urban community (adjusted OR=2.16, 95% CI (1.08, 4.33 and an unwanted pregnancy. Among all adolescent mothers, 91.3% were familiar with "the pill" as a contraceptive method; 84.72% knew about the IUD, and 63.68% knew about the condom. However, only 35% of them were actually using an effective contraceptive

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with recent intimate partner violence and relationships between disability and depression in post-partum women in one clinic in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gibbs

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence (IPV experienced by pregnant and post-partum women has negative health effects for women, as well as the foetus, and the new-born child. In this study we sought to assess the prevalence and factors associated with recent IPV amongst post-partum women in one clinic in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa, and explore the relationship between IPV, depression and functional limitations/disabilities. Past 12 month IPV-victimisation was 10.55%. Logistic regression modelled relationships between IPV, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, socio-economic measures, and sexual relationship power. In logistic regression models, overall severity of functional limitations were not associated with IPV-victimisation when treated as a continuous overall score. In this model relationship power (aOR0.22, p = 0.001 and depressive symptoms (aOR1.26, p = 0.001 were significant. When the different functional limitations were separated out in a second model, significant factors were relationship power (aOR0.20, p = 0.001, depressive symptoms (aOR1.20, p = 0.011 and mobility limitations (aOR2.96, p = 0.024. The study emphasises that not all functional limitations are associated with IPV-experience, that depression and disability while overlapping can also be considered different drivers of vulnerability, and that women's experience of IPV is not dependent on pregnancy specific factors, but rather wider social factors that all women experience.

  17. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Samantha R.; Prichard, Allan S.; Maerz, Noah L.; Prichard, Austin P.; Endres, Elizabeth L.; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E.; Akins, Matthew S.; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver. PMID:28922379

  18. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation.

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    Samantha R Weaver

    Full Text Available Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver.

  19. Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-27

    Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries. We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15 000 women with a composite primary endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore increased the sample size from 15 000 to 20 000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008); ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283. Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20 060 women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive tranexamic acid (n=10 051) or placebo (n=10

  20. Cost-utility analysis of a one-time supervisor telephone contact at 6-weeks post-partum to prevent extended sick leave following maternity leave in The Netherlands: results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial

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    van Poppel Mireille NM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Working women of childbearing age are a vital part of the population. Following childbirth, this group of women can experience a myriad of physical and mental health problems that can interfere with their ability to work. Currently, there is little known about cost-effective post-partum interventions to prevent work disability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether supervisor telephone contact (STC during maternity leave is cost-effective from a societal perspective in reducing sick leave and improving quality-adjusted life years (QALYs compared to common practice (CP. Methods We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial. QALYs were measured by the EuroQol 5-D, and sick leave and presenteeism by the Health and work Performance Questionnaire. Resource use was collected by questionnaires. Data were analysed according to intention-to-treat. Missing data were imputed via multiple imputation. Uncertainty was estimated by 95% confidence intervals, cost-utility planes and curves, and sensitivity analyses. Results 541 working women from 15 companies participated. Response rates were above 85% at each measurement moment. At the end of the follow-up, no statistically significant between-group differences in QALYs, mean hours of sick leave or presenteeism or costs were observed. STC was found to be less effective and more costly. For willingness-to-pay levels from €0 through €50,000, the probability that STC was cost-effective compared to CP was 0.2. Overall resource use was low. Mean total costs were €3678 (95% CI: 3386; 3951. Productivity loss costs represented 37% of the total costs and of these costs, 48% was attributable to sick leave and 52% to work presenteeism. The cost analysis from a company's perspective indicated that there was a net cost associated with the STC intervention. Conclusions STC was not cost-effective compared to common practice for a healthy population of working

  1. Cost-utility analysis of a one-time supervisor telephone contact at 6-weeks post-partum to prevent extended sick leave following maternity leave in The Netherlands: results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uegaki, Kimi; Stomp-van den Berg, Suzanne G M; de Bruijne, Martine C; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Heymans, Martijn W; van Mechelen, Willem; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2011-01-27

    Working women of childbearing age are a vital part of the population. Following childbirth, this group of women can experience a myriad of physical and mental health problems that can interfere with their ability to work. Currently, there is little known about cost-effective post-partum interventions to prevent work disability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether supervisor telephone contact (STC) during maternity leave is cost-effective from a societal perspective in reducing sick leave and improving quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) compared to common practice (CP). We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial. QALYs were measured by the EuroQol 5-D, and sick leave and presenteeism by the Health and work Performance Questionnaire. Resource use was collected by questionnaires. Data were analysed according to intention-to-treat. Missing data were imputed via multiple imputation. Uncertainty was estimated by 95% confidence intervals, cost-utility planes and curves, and sensitivity analyses. 541 working women from 15 companies participated. Response rates were above 85% at each measurement moment. At the end of the follow-up, no statistically significant between-group differences in QALYs, mean hours of sick leave or presenteeism or costs were observed. STC was found to be less effective and more costly. For willingness-to-pay levels from €0 through €50,000, the probability that STC was cost-effective compared to CP was 0.2. Overall resource use was low. Mean total costs were €3678 (95% CI: 3386; 3951). Productivity loss costs represented 37% of the total costs and of these costs, 48% was attributable to sick leave and 52% to work presenteeism. The cost analysis from a company's perspective indicated that there was a net cost associated with the STC intervention. STC was not cost-effective compared to common practice for a healthy population of working mothers; therefore, implementation is not indicated. The cost

  2. Improving access to interventions among mothers screened positive for post-partum depression (PPD) at National Programme on Immunization (NPI) clinics in south-western and south-eastern Nigeria - A service development report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Muideen O; Bello-Mojeed, Mashudat A; Munir, Kerim M; Duduyemi, Olaniyi O; Orovwigho, Andrew O; Odetunde, Odutola I; Taiwo, Olufemi G; Olofinlade, Jushua A; Omotoso, Olakunle N; Famurewa, Olayinka H; Omolabi, Oladipupo O; Jejeloye, Adebayo O

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of improving access to interventions among mothers screened positive for post-partum depression (PPD) at National Programme on Immunization (NPI) clinics randomly selected from Lagos and Enugu States in south-western and south-eastern Nigeria respectively. The principle of human centred design was employed by engaging the mothers screened positive for PPD to be part of the decision making regarding their further assessment and intervention services. The study brought intervention services to primary healthcare centre at the NPI clinics. Improvement in willingness to seek interventions was observed among the mothers screened positive for PPD in this study when compared to our observation in a previous report, where mothers diagnosed with PPD were referred and requested to visit a mental health facility closer to their NPI clinics for further assessment and interventions (95.2% versus 33.7%). Interventional services for the mothers diagnosed with PPD also impact positively on the growth parameters of their infants on follow-up. Principle of human centred design improved access to intervention services among the mothers and infants studied. NPI clinics at primary healthcare level would provide appropriate forum for early screening of mothers for PPD and interventions in low-resource setting like Nigeria. There would be improvement in maternal and child health coverage if the Nigerian Government can adapt human centred design principles employed in this study nationwide.

  3. A case of uneventful early post partum phase of pregnancy with LSCS in a known case of portal hypertension with splenectomy & a delayed peritonitis.

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    Dr. Dhruvkumar Baru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of 32 year old multigravida, a known case of portal hypertension with episodes of haemetemesis on and off since last 12 years with history of splenectomy 2.5 years ago with uneventful 1st LSCS presented with pain abdomen and abdominal distension post- LSCS. Blood investigations showed microcytic anaemia corrected by blood transfusion while hypo -proteinemia by FFP transfusion. USG showed portal vein thrombosis with ascites. CT scan was done which confirmed signs of portal hypertension with cavernoma formation and gross ascites, Fluid cytology suggestive of PMN's. Patient was managed by controlled tapping and fluid monitoring along with appropriate antibiotics.

  4. Magnitude da depressão pós-parto no Brasil: uma revisão sistemática The extent of post-partum depression in Brazil: a systematic review

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    Gustavo Lobato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: realizar uma revisão sistemática dos estudos sobre a magnitude da depressão pós-parto (DPP no Brasil. MÉTODOS: a busca e seleção da literatura baseouse em artigos publicados em periódicos nacionais e internacionais, nas bases de dados eletrônicas Lilacs, SciELO e Medline. RESULTADOS: foram selecionados 14 estudos, sendo que 13 deles reportavam a prevalência de DPP e apenas um estudo de seguimento com limitada casuística (n=21 trazia estimativa da incidência do agravo (42,8%. A grande heterogeneidade em relação à população de estudo, método diagnóstico utilizado e período pós-parto focalizado dificultou a obtenção de uma estimativa agregada da prevalência de DPP no Brasil. Contudo, estudos conduzidos em unidades básicas de saúde, no âmbito da Estratégia de Saúde da Família ou em populações carentes apontaram uma prevalência entre 30 e 40% de DPP, enquanto pesquisas que incluíram amostras de base populacional e populações de unidades hospitalares terciárias revelaram uma prevalência de cerca de 20%. CONCLUSÕES: embora novos estudos sejam necessários para melhor caracterizar as peculiaridades que envolvem a magnitude da DPP no Brasil, as evidências disponíveis justificam uma atenção prioritária para os agravos à saúde mental materna no âmbito da saúde pública no país.OBJECTIVES: to carry out a systematic review of studies of the extent of post-partum depression (PPD in Brazil. METHODS: articles were searched for and selected from national and international periodicals included in the Lilacs, SciELO and Medline electronic databases. RESULTS: fourteen studies were selected, thirteen of which reported the prevalence of PPD and one, which followed up a limited number of cases (n=21 estimated the incidence of the disorder at 42.8%. The wide range of different populations studied, diagnostic methods used, and post-partum period monitored made it difficult to obtain an aggregate estimate for

  5. Association of glucocorticoid and type 1 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors gene variants and risk for depression during pregnancy and post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Neelam; Darwin, Lucy; Nishigandh, Deole; Ngianga-Bakwin, Kandala; Smith, Steve C; Grammatopoulos, Dimitris K

    2013-09-01

    Women with postnatal depression (PND) appear to have abnormal hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress, which might involve a genetic variability component. We investigated association of genetic variants in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, NR3C1) and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) genes with increased risk for PND. Two hundred pregnant women were recruited prospectively and PND risk was assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during pregnancy and again 2-8 weeks post-natally (CW-GAPND study). The BclI and ER22/23EK single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the GR and the haplotype-tagged rs1876828, rs242939 and rs242941 SNPs of the CRHR1 associated with genetic risk to depressive disorders were genotyped. A cut-off score of 10 was used to detect increased risk of PND. Association analysis was carried out in 140 patients that completed the study protocol. The BclI and rs242939 SNPs were over-represented in women with postnatal EPDS score ≥10 with significant allele association (p = 0.011 and depression during pregnancy and postpartum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Affective disorders among women during post partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Juliana Orejarena Serrano

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Women, in general, present a high rate of prevalence of affective disorders, mainly depressive ones, during their lives. This is even more evident during their puerperal time, were depression is quite common. This is, probably, due to the fact of a highest physical and emotional needs during this difficult period, for both the mother and the family,as well. This clinical condition will increase both the mobility and mortality rates among puerperal women and will increase the risk for new episodes of depression on future pregnancies. Since we all know that during puerperium, both mother and child are usually attended by the Health System, this is a good time to detect these disorders. Therefore, we will try to review the pertinent medical literature regarding this probem, in order to provide the psychiatrist and another physicians with new, effective tools, that will allow them to recognize earlier, patients with this disorder, handle them properly to avoid all negative consequences.

  7. PARAVAGINAL AND RETROPERITONEAL HAEMATOMA POST PARTUM

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    Boštjan Lovšin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postpartum haemorrhage from ruptured tissues can usually be diagnosed and managed properly. A problem exists with the occult haemorrhage without evident tissue trauma in which case a haematoma develops. Methods. After a normal delivery of the 41 years old secundipara after a previous caesarean in epidural analgesia a boy was born. Placenta was delivered spontaneously and perineal rupure sutured properly. About an hour after the delivery heavy pain was noted in the lower abdomen. Pelvic exam revealed a paravaginal haematoma and ultrasound scan coagulated and fresh blood behind the uterus. Rupture of the uterus was suspected and laparotomy revision performed. During the laparotomy there was no haemorrhage in the pelvic cavity, no uterine rupture but a large retroperitoneal haematoma extending to mesosigmoidal part of intestinum. Paravaginal heamatoma was evacuated vaginally and after half an hour the retroperitoneal haematoma diminished by 50 %. The patient received two blood transfusions. The blood loss was estimated as about 500 grams. The pulse and blood pressure were normal all the time. The laboratory values of haemoglobin was 96 g/l, haematocrit 0.30 before the operation and 93 g/l and 0.28 respectively 6 hours after. Beside anaemia the postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was dismissed from the hospital the 6th day postpartum. Conclusions. Although the laparotomy seems an excessive treatment it was the only way to exclude uterus rupture after a previous caesarean, heavy pain in the lower abdomen and blood behind the uterus noted on the ultrasound scan. In the non-urgent situation a CT scan could be performed to locate the blood accumulation and possibly exclude uterine rupture.

  8. [Risk factors for post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dois, Angelina; Uribe, Claudia; Villarroel, Luis; Contreras, Aixa

    2012-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a public health problem with high prevalence in Chile. Many factors are associated with PPD. To analyze the factors associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (SD) in women with low obstetric risk. Cross-sectional analytical study on a sample of 105 postpartum women with low obstetric risk assessed by the Edinburgh Depression Scale at the eighth week postpartum. A 37% prevalence of depressive symptoms was found. Univariate analysis showed that the perception of family functioning, overcrowding and number of siblings, were significantly associated with postpartum depressive symptoms. A multiple regression model only accepted family functioning as a predictor of depression. Perception of family functioning was the only variable that explained in part the presence of depressive symptoms in women with low obstetric risk.

  9. Determinantes nutricionais e sóciodemográficos da variação de peso no pós-parto: uma revisão da literatura Nutritional and socio-demographic determinants of post-partum weight change: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Trindade de Castro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo de revisão sobre os fatores nutricionais e sócio-demográficos da variação de peso no pós-parto. Foi realizada uma busca bibliográfica nas bases de dados eletrônicas Scientific Eletronic Library On-line (SciELO, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS e Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE referente a literatura publicada na última década (1997-2008. Treze artigos, um informe técnico e dois livros considerados relevantes sobre o assunto e publicados anteriormente ao ano 1997 foram citados na revisão. A revisão priorizou estudos de ensaios clínicos randomizados e de seguimento realizados com gestantes e mulheres no pós-parto. Os resultados obtidos mostram como principais fatores associados com a variação de peso no pós-parto o ganho de peso gestacional acima das recomendações do Institute of Medicine, Índice de Massa Corporal Pré-Gestacional > 25 kg/m2, dieta, tempo e intensidade do aleitamento materno e os fatores sócio-demográficos: raça negra, primiparidade, idade materna, baixa renda e baixa escolaridade. A prática regular de atividade física é recomendada como uma estratégia para evitar o ganho de peso excessivo e melhorar a perda de peso durante o pós-parto. No Brasil não existe uma estratégia nacional para prevenir o ganho de peso excessivo e garantir a adequada perda de peso nesse período. Durante o pós-parto, a maioria das ações de saúde visa basicamente garantir o aleitamento materno.This study is a review of nutritional and sociodemographic factors determining post-partum weight variation. A bibliographical search was carried out on the electronic databases Scientific Eletronic Library On-line (SciELO, Latin-American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE for titles published in the past decade (1997-2008. Thirteen articles, one technical

  10. Effects of a single administration of prostaglandin F2alpha, or a combination of prostaglandin F2alpha and prostaglandin E2, or placebo on fertility variables in dairy cows 3–5 weeks post partum, a randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiner Adrian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed uterine involution has negative effects on the fertility of cows; use of prostaglandin F2alpha alone as a single treatment has not been shown to consistently improve fertility. Combined administration of PGF2alpha and PGE2 increased uterine pressure in healthy cows. We hypothesized, that the combination of both prostaglandins would accelerate uterine involution and have, therefore, a positive effect on fertility variables. In commercial dairy farming, the benefit of a single post partum combined prostaglandin treatment should be demonstrated. Methods 383 cows from commercial dairy farms were included in this study. Uterine size and secretion were evaluated at treatment 21–35 days post partum and 14 days later. Cows were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups: PGF2alpha and PGE2, PGF2alpha or placebo. For every animal participating in the study, the following reproduction variables were recorded: Interval from calving to first insemination, days open, number of artificial inseminations (AI to conception; subsequent treatment of uterus, subsequent treatment of ovaries. Plasma progesterone level at time of treatment was used as a covariable. For continuous measurements, analysis of variance was performed. Fisher's exact test for categorical non-ordered data and exact Kruskal-Wallis test for ordered data were used; pairwise group comparisons with Bonferroni adjustment of significance level were performed. Results There was no significant difference among treatment groups in uterine size. Furthermore, there was no significant difference among treatments concerning days open, number of AI, and subsequent treatment of uterus and ovaries. Days from calving to first insemination tended to be shorter for cows with low progesterone level given PGF2alpha and PGE2 in combination than for the placebo-group (P = 0.024. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the administration of PGF2alpha or a combination

  11. Effects of a single administration of prostaglandin F2alpha, or a combination of prostaglandin F2alpha and prostaglandin E2, or placebo on fertility variables in dairy cows 3-5 weeks post partum, a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsbrunner, Gaby; Burkhardt, Heinz W; Steiner, Adrian

    2006-12-21

    Delayed uterine involution has negative effects on the fertility of cows; use of prostaglandin F2alpha alone as a single treatment has not been shown to consistently improve fertility. Combined administration of PGF2alpha and PGE2 increased uterine pressure in healthy cows. We hypothesized, that the combination of both prostaglandins would accelerate uterine involution and have, therefore, a positive effect on fertility variables. In commercial dairy farming, the benefit of a single post partum combined prostaglandin treatment should be demonstrated. 383 cows from commercial dairy farms were included in this study. Uterine size and secretion were evaluated at treatment 21-35 days post partum and 14 days later. Cows were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups: PGF2alpha and PGE2, PGF2alpha or placebo. For every animal participating in the study, the following reproduction variables were recorded: Interval from calving to first insemination, days open, number of artificial inseminations (AI) to conception; subsequent treatment of uterus, subsequent treatment of ovaries. Plasma progesterone level at time of treatment was used as a covariable. For continuous measurements, analysis of variance was performed. Fisher's exact test for categorical non-ordered data and exact Kruskal-Wallis test for ordered data were used; pairwise group comparisons with Bonferroni adjustment of significance level were performed. There was no significant difference among treatment groups in uterine size. Furthermore, there was no significant difference among treatments concerning days open, number of AI, and subsequent treatment of uterus and ovaries. Days from calving to first insemination tended to be shorter for cows with low progesterone level given PGF2alpha and PGE2 in combination than for the placebo-group (P = 0.024). The results of this study indicate that the administration of PGF2alpha or a combination of PGF2alpha and PGE2 21 to 35 days post partum had no beneficial

  12. Effects of a single administration of prostaglandin F2alpha, or a combination of prostaglandin F2alpha and prostaglandin E2, or placebo on fertility variables in dairy cows 3–5 weeks post partum, a randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsbrunner, Gaby; Burkhardt, Heinz W; Steiner, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Background Delayed uterine involution has negative effects on the fertility of cows; use of prostaglandin F2alpha alone as a single treatment has not been shown to consistently improve fertility. Combined administration of PGF2alpha and PGE2 increased uterine pressure in healthy cows. We hypothesized, that the combination of both prostaglandins would accelerate uterine involution and have, therefore, a positive effect on fertility variables. In commercial dairy farming, the benefit of a single post partum combined prostaglandin treatment should be demonstrated. Methods 383 cows from commercial dairy farms were included in this study. Uterine size and secretion were evaluated at treatment 21–35 days post partum and 14 days later. Cows were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups: PGF2alpha and PGE2, PGF2alpha or placebo. For every animal participating in the study, the following reproduction variables were recorded: Interval from calving to first insemination, days open, number of artificial inseminations (AI) to conception; subsequent treatment of uterus, subsequent treatment of ovaries. Plasma progesterone level at time of treatment was used as a covariable. For continuous measurements, analysis of variance was performed. Fisher's exact test for categorical non-ordered data and exact Kruskal-Wallis test for ordered data were used; pairwise group comparisons with Bonferroni adjustment of significance level were performed. Results There was no significant difference among treatment groups in uterine size. Furthermore, there was no significant difference among treatments concerning days open, number of AI, and subsequent treatment of uterus and ovaries. Days from calving to first insemination tended to be shorter for cows with low progesterone level given PGF2alpha and PGE2 in combination than for the placebo-group (P = 0.024). Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the administration of PGF2alpha or a combination of PGF2alpha and PGE2 21 to

  13. Accident vasculaire cérébral hémorragique du tronc cérébral suite à une éclampsie du post partum: à propos d’un cas et revue de la littérature

    OpenAIRE

    Ennaqui, Khadija; Makayssi, Assia; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima

    2017-01-01

    Les accidents vasculaires cérébraux sont des accidents rares mais graves durant la grossesse et le post-partum, ils sont responsable d'une mortalité et d'une morbidité élevée, la pré éclampsie, l'éclampsie et les accidents vasculaires cérébraux sont significativement liés. Le dysfonctionnement endothélial, l'altération de l'autorégulation cérébrale, et l'hypertension sévère sont, probablement, la cause de nombreux accidents vasculaires cérébraux chez la femme enceinte et durant la période du ...

  14. Efeitos do manejo pós-parto de vacas primíparas no desempenho de bezerros de corte até um ano de idade Effects of post-partum management of primiparous cows on growth of beef calves up to one year of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Augusto Albornoz Pötter

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos no desenvolvimento de bezerros submetidos a: a três tratamentos, consitindo de cargas animais pós-parto (CA de 240 kg de peso vivo (PV/ha (tratamento 1, T1, de 320 kg de PV/ha (T2, ambas em campo nativo, e de 400 kg de PV/ha em pastagem melhorada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. por 80 dias pós-parto e, posteriormente, em CA igual à do T2 em campo nativo (T3; b duas idades de desmame, consistindo de desmame aos 100 (DP ou 180 (DC dias de idade, foram avaliados utilizando 92 bezerros filhos de vacas primíparas Hereford e Braford. O sexo dos bezerros influenciou significativamente o peso ao nascer, não sendo observado efeito da raça da vaca. Os tratamentos e a raça da vaca não influenciaram o ganho médio diário (GMD dos bezerros do nascimento ao desmame precoce. Bezerros filhos de vacas Braford tiveram maiores pesos no DP (PDP que os filhos de vacas Hereford, enquanto os tratamentos não influenciaram o PDP. Os bezerros filhos de vacas Braford no T2 tiveram GMD até os 180 dias (GMD180 e PV aos 180 dias (PAJ180 superiores aos bezerros filhos de vacas Braford no T1 e Hereford no T2. Os bezerros do DP tiveram GMD180 e PAJ180 significativamente inferiores aos bezerros do DC. Entretanto, não se verificaram efeitos de tratamentos e idade de desmame sobre o GMD até os 365 dias e o peso ajustado aos 365 dias de idade. Portanto, os três manejos pós-parto das vacas e as duas idades de desmame dos bezerros avaliados não influenciaram o desenvolvimento dos bezerros a um ano de idade.The effects on the performance of calves submitted to: a three treatments, consisted of post-partum stocking rates (CA of 240 kg of live weight (LW/ha (treatment 1, T1, of 320 kg of LW/ha (T2, both on natural pastures, and of 400 kg of LW/ha on improved pasture of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. during the first 80 days post-partum, and after on natural pasture at the same stocking rate as T2 afterwards (T3; b two weaning ages, consisted of

  15. Safety and effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion in women with persistent post-partum posterior pelvic girdle pain: 12-month outcomes from a prospective, multi-center trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Robyn; Cher, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum posterior pelvic girdle pain (PPGP) affects nearly 20 % of women who experience back pain in the peripartum period. The sacroiliac joint is a source of this pain in 75 % of women with persistent PPGP. A subset of women will fail to obtain acceptable pain relief from the current array of non-surgical treatment options. The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac (SI) joint fusion in women with chronic SI joint dysfunction whose pain began in the peri-partum period whose symptoms were recalcitrant to non-surgical management. A sub-group analysis of subjects with sacroiliac joint disruption and/or degenerative sacroiliitis enrolled in a prospective, multi-center trial of SI joint fusion was performed. Subjects with PPGP were identified and compared with women without PPGP and with men. Of 172 enrolled subjects, 52 were male, 100 were females without PPGP and 20 females had PPGP. PPGP subjects were significantly younger (43.3 years, vs. 52.8 for females without PPGP and 50.5 for men, p = 0.002). There were no differences in any other demographic or baseline clinical measure. Women with PPGP experienced a significant improvement in pain (-51 mm on VAS), function (-20.6 pts on ODI) and quality of life (SF-36 PCS +10.4, MCS +7.2, EQ-5D +0.31) at 12 months after surgery. These improvements were characteristic of the overall study results; no difference was detected between sub-groups. The sacroiliac joint can be a source of pain in women with persistent PPGP and should be investigated as a pain generator. In this study, women with carefully diagnosed chronic SI joint pain from PPGP recalcitrant to conservative therapies experienced clinically beneficially improvements in pain, disability and quality of life after minimally invasive SI joint fusion using a series of triangular porous plasma spray coated implants.

  16. Les différentes modalités d'accompagnement au retour à domicile permettent-elles de répondre aux attentes des patientes en Post-partum ?

    OpenAIRE

    Arsac, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Mothers, newborns and couples are in an important vulnerability during the post-natal period. They have a multitudes of needs. A relay at home is frequently setting up in order to complete the post-natal support. Do the accompaniement at home return succeed in answering the patient expectations and needs ? Patients with a post-natal home support organized were recruited in the maternity ward. A survey was sent a month later by e-mail. They were asked about their life conditions, the course of...

  17. Subclinical ketosis in post-partum dairy cows fed a predominantly pasture-based diet: defining cut-points for diagnosis using concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and determining prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    Firstly, to define, in dairy cows in the first 5 weeks post-calving fed a predominantly pasture-based diet, cut-points of concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood, above which there were associations with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), reduced pregnancy rates (PR) and decreased milk production, in order to better define subclinical ketosis (SCK) in such cattle; and secondly, to determine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for SCK. An observational field study was conducted in 565 cows from 15 spring-calving and predominantly pasture-fed dairy herds in two regions of New Zealand during the 2010- 2011 dairy season. Within each herd, a cohort of randomly selected cows (approximately 40 per herd) was blood sampled to determine concentrations of BHBA on six occasions at weekly intervals starting within 5 days of calving. The key outcome variables were the presence/absence of PVD at 5 weeks post-calving, PR after 6 weeks (6-week PR) and after the completion of the breeding season (final PR), and mean daily milk solids production. Two cut-points for defining SCK were identified: firstly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L within 5 days post-calving, which was associated with an increased diagnosis of PVD (24 vs. 8%); and secondly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L at any stage within 5 weeks post-calving, which was associated with decreased 6-week PR (78 vs. 85%). The mean herd-level incidence of SCK within 5 weeks post-calving was 68 (min 12; max 100)% and large variations existed between herds in peak prevalence of SCK and the interval post-calving at which such peaks occurred. Cows>8 years of age and cows losing body condition were at increased risk of SCK within 5 weeks of calving. Cows with concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L in early lactation had a higher risk of PVD and lower 6-week PR. Cow and herd-level prevalence of SCK varied widely in early lactation. Subclinical ketosis is common and is significantly

  18. Post-partum trend in blood pressure levels, renal function and proteinuria in women with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia in Sub-Saharan Africa: a 6-months cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaze, Francois Folefack; Njukeng, Francis A; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Ashuntantang, Gloria; Mbu, Robinson; Halle, Marie Patrice; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

    2014-04-09

    Preeclampsia and eclampsia, which are the most frequent hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, are associated with renal involvements. We aimed to assess the time trend in blood pressure levels, renal function and proteinuria after delivery, and investigate their determinants in Cameroonian women with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia. This was a prospective cohort study involving 54 women with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia, conducted between July 2010 and February 2012 at the central maternity unit of the Yaoundé Central Hospital. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded from day-1 to 6 months after delivery. Mixed-linear and logistic regression models were used to relate baseline and within follow-up levels of covariates, with changes in blood pressure levels, renal function and proteinuria, as well as persisting hypertension, renal failure and proteinuria. During follow-up, a significant improvement was observed in blood pressure, renal function and proteinuria (all p post-delivery, respectively. Corresponding figures for persisting hypertension were 23 (42.6%), 15 (27.8%) and 8 (14.8%). Advanced age, higher body mass index, low gestational age at delivery, low fetal birth weight, and proteinuria at delivery were the main risk factors for persisting hypertension at 3 months, meanwhile low fetal birth weight, severe preeclampsia and proteinuria at delivery were correlated with persisting proteinuria at 3 months. Advanced age and higher body mass index were the only determinants of the composite outcome of persisting hypertension or proteinuria at three and six months. Hypertension and proteinuria are very common beyond the postpartum period in Cameroonian women with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia. Long-term follow-up of these women will help preventing and controlling related complications.

  19. Rastreamento da depressão pós-parto em mulheres atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família Post-partum depression screening among women attended by the Family Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Bezerra da Silva Cruz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estimar a prevalência de depressão puerperal (DP sua associação com transtorno mental comum (TMC nas mulheres atendidas por duas unidades do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF da cidade de São Paulo e identificar os fatores de risco associados à DP. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal com 70 puérperas atendidas nas Unidades do PSF, Fazenda da Juta II e Jardim Sinhá, entre outubro de 2003 e fevereiro de 2004. Como instrumentos utilizaram-se: questionário com informações sociodemográficas econômicas e dados obstétricos e perinatais; Self-Report Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20, para rastreamento de TMC e a Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS, para avaliação de DP. Para testar as associações entre variáveis explicativas (fatores de risco e a presença de DP foram utilizados os testes t de Student, chi2 e chi2 de tendência linear, quando indicados. Para avaliar a concordância entre a EPDS e o SRQ foi utilizado o coeficiente de concordância kappa (kapa. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de TMC e de DP foi de 37,1%. As escalas apresentaram boa concordância (kapa = 0,75. As variáveis explicativas idade materna, cor, escolaridade, ocupação e estado civil, além de idade, ocupação e instrução do companheiro, renda familiar, número de gestações, paridade, abortamentos, filhos vivos, partos prematuros, idade gestacional, tipo do parto, planejamento da gestação, Apgar de 1º e 5º minuto, sexo e peso do recém-nascido e aleitamento materno não apresentaram significância estatística. Quanto maior a percepção de suporte social do marido, menor a prevalência de DP (p=0,03. CONCLUSÃO: devido à alta prevalência e impacto negativo sobre a mãe e seu filho, é valioso sensibilizar o profissional de saúde para a importância da DP.PURPOSE: to estimate the prevalence of Family Health Program postpartum depression (PPD and its association with minor mental disorders (MMD among women attended in two (FHP PSF units

  20. Perfil sócio-demográfico e psicossocial de puérperas adolescentes do Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - 1999-2001 A socioeconomic and psychosocial profile of post-partum adolescents in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1999-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Reis Sabroza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Identificar o perfil sócio-demográfico de puérperas adolescentes, segundo a faixa etária e a situação conjugal. Foram entrevistadas 1.228 adolescentes no pós-parto imediato em maternidades públicas, conveniadas com o SUS e privadas do Município do Rio de Janeiro. A análise estatística consistiu em utilizar testes qui-quadrado (chi2 para testar hipóteses de homogeneidade de proporções. Ao comparar os dois grupos, observa-se que as adolescentes mais jovens e sem união consensual estão mais sujeitas a engravidar de outros adolescentes, muitos dos quais desempregados; a não desejar a gestação; a não receber apoio familiar ou do pai do bebê e a realizar mais tentativas de aborto. A aderência às consultas pré-natais foi influenciada pela presença de uma união consensual. As adolescentes com menos idade e sem união consensual demonstraram maior insatisfação com a gestação, e a união conjugal influenciou positivamente a maneira como a gestação foi percebida pela família e pela própria adolescente. Os resultados obtidos revelam que as adolescentes em idade mais precoce e sem união consensual apresentam piores condições sócio-demográficas e psicossociais.This study aimed to describe the socioeconomic and psychosocial characteristics of a sample of teenage mothers classified according to marital status and age group. A sample of 1,228 adolescent mothers was interviewed in the immediate post-partum, selected from public and private hospitals in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The chi-square test (chi2 was used to verify the hypothesis of homogeneity of proportions. Comparing the groups, we found that single and younger adolescents were at increased risk of unwanted pregnancy, less family support, and more abortions. Fathers of the infants also tended to be adolescents and unemployed. Adherence to prenatal care was influenced by the adolescent's marital status. The results showed that the most disadvantaged

  1. Livstruende haemorrhagia per rectum postoperativt efter appendektomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, M A; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    1994-01-01

    A case of life-threatening haemorrhage nine days after appendicectomy is described in a 51 year old previously healthy man. Coecotomy revealed a bleeding artery near the invaginated appendiceal stump. The bleeding artery was presumably an intramural branch to the appendix from the posterior coeca...

  2. Post partum emotional distress in mothers of preterm infants: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More mothers of preterm neonates(27.3%) had GHQ-30 scores which categorised them as having significant emotional distress than mothers of full term normal infants(3.7%). Similarly more mothers of preterm neonates(15.1%) were more depressed than mothers of full term normal infants(3.7%). These differences were ...

  3. [Psychomotor development in offspring of mothers with post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podestá L, Loreto; Alarcón, Ana María; Muñoz, Sergio; Legüe C, Marcela; Bustos, Luis; Barría P, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has adverse effects on psychomotor development of the offspring. To evaluate the relationship between PPD and psychomotor development in children aged 18 months, consulting in primary care. Cross-sectional study with 360 infants and their mothers. Children had their psychomotor evaluation at l8 months and mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. The prevalence of both PPD and psychomotor alteration was estimated. The association between PPD and psychomotor alteration, including confounding variables, was estimated through logistic multiple regression analysis. The prevalence of PPD and psychomotor alteration was 29 and 16%, respectively Mothers with PPD had twice the probability of having an offspring with psychomotor alteration (Odds ratio = 2.0, confidence intervals = 1.07-3.68). This probability was significantly higher among single mothers or those with an unstable partner. PPD has a detrimental impact on psychomotor development of children.

  4. post partum haemorhage among women delivered at mbeya referral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    death is among women who deliver at home either alone or with tradition birth attendant. (TBA) [9]. To date, effort to reduce maternal mortality through training TBAs have been disappointing [2]. Study population and Methods: This study was a hospital based descriptive retrospective hospital based cross-sectional.

  5. Immediate post-partum haemorrhage: Epidemiological aspects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have more because after this dose, undesirable effects can occur. For these patients .... and 24,600 cases of liver cancer – and also found strong evidence that: ... and economic vulnerabilities, making it easier for them to eat unhealthy foods.

  6. Perinatal nutrition interventions and post-partum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jacqueline F; Best, Karen; Makrides, Maria

    2017-12-15

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mood disorder associated with childbirth. No single cause of PPD has been identified, however the increased risk of nutritional deficiencies incurred through the high nutritional requirements of pregnancy may play a role in the pathology of depressive symptoms. Three nutritional interventions have drawn particular interest as possible non-invasive and cost-effective prevention and/or treatment strategies for PPD; omega-3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), vitamin D and overall diet. We searched for meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCT's) of nutritional interventions during the perinatal period with PPD as an outcome, and checked for any trials published subsequently to the meta-analyses. Fish oil: Eleven RCT's of prenatal fish oil supplementation RCT's show null and positive effects on PPD symptoms. Vitamin D: no relevant RCT's were identified, however seven observational studies of maternal vitamin D levels with PPD outcomes showed inconsistent associations. Diet: Two Australian RCT's with dietary advice interventions in pregnancy had a positive and null result on PPD. With the exception of fish oil, few RCT's with nutritional interventions during pregnancy assess PPD. Further research is needed to determine whether nutritional intervention strategies during pregnancy can protect against symptoms of PPD. Given the prevalence of PPD and ease of administering PPD measures, we recommend future prenatal nutritional RCT's include PPD as an outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Post partum emotional distress in mothers of preterm infants: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate whether mothers of preterm infants experience more psychological distress than mothers of normal full term infants in the immediate postpartum period. Design: Cross sectional prospective study of postpartal women using the Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) and the GHQ-30. Setting: Neonatal ...

  8. Supplemental fish oil does not alter immune competence or the pathophysiological response to an intramammary infusion of endotoxin in peri-partum multiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, Michael A; Gomes, Rodrigo C; DePeters, Edward J

    2009-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of supplementing the diet with fish oil during the peri-partum period on the immune competence and the pathophysiological response to a lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis challenge. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=30) were completely randomized to one of two treatments at 3 weeks pre-partum. Treatments differed only in the source of supplemental lipid and included either Energy Booster or fish oil. Treatment diets were fed from -21 d relative to expected date of parturition until 10 d post partum. Treatments were fed as a bolus prior to the a.m. feeding. The dose of lipid during the pre-partum period was 250 g/d, whereas the amount of lipid supplemented post partum was adjusted to the level of intake, approximately 0.92% of the previous day's dry matter intake. Ex-vivo analyses of immune competence were measured including the antimicrobial activity of whole blood against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans as well as the production of interferon-gamma by peripheral blood mononuclear cultures. At 7 days in milk cows were infused with 100 microg of Esch. coli lipopolysaccharide into one rear quarter. Supplementing fish oil increased plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, but had no affect on the proportions of arachidonic acid at calving. Fish oil did not influence the production of interferon-gamma or the antimicrobial activity of whole blood against any of the microorganisms. Furthermore, fish oil had no ameliorative effect on either the local or the systemic acute phase response following an intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge in early lactating Holstein cows. Supplementing fish oil in the diet of peri-partum cows will not protect them from deleterious effects of an excessive acute phase response.

  9. [Excrement of the meconium and the intra-partum cardiotocogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santeler, P; Hochuli, E

    1976-01-01

    Of 2233 parturients, 170 cases with evidence of meconium during delivery were examined. We tried to establish the correlation between the appearance of meconium and the occurance of contraction induced FHR-decelerations in continuous intra partum monitoring. In addition we purposed to determine, whether the appearing of meconium during labor can be used as a clinical prognosite sign for fetal outcome. Our data support the assumption that the passage of meconium during any stage of labor only represents a sign of potential fetal distress showing the intra partum records pathology FHF-patterns. The appearance of meconium alone -- diagnosed at the time of the entrance of parturients or in an advanced stage of labor -- demands supplemented diagnostic methods for a better interpreting of an actual or compensated fetal distress.

  10. Falling caesarean section rate and improving intra-partum outcomes: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Pina; Zaher, Summia; Penketh, Richard; Cherian, Sobha; Collis, Rachel E; Sanders, Julia; Bhal, Kiron

    2018-02-19

    To evaluate caesarean section (CS) rates and moderate to severe hypoxaemic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) rates with other core intra-partum outcomes following reconfiguration of maternity services in Cardiff, South Wales, UK. Cohort study of births from 2006 to 2015. A University tertiary referral centre for foetal and maternal medicine with 6000 births/year, University Hospital of Wales, United Kingdom. Data relating to births from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2015 were extracted from the computerized maternity database on a yearly basis. Case notes of all mothers and babies for the same duration were hand searched for documentation of HIE. HIE data was also collected prospectively by neonatologist (SC) and obstetrician (PA). Incidence of caesarean section births, babies with moderate to severe HIE, instrumental vaginal births, obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) associated with instrumental delivery, and major post-partum haemorrhage (MPPH) of 2500 mL or more. During this 10-year period, a downward trend in emergency CS rate was seen from 15.6% in 2006 to 10.5% in 2015, reducing total CS rate from 25.5% in 2006 to 21.2% in 2015. A downward trend in the incidence of moderate and severe HIE was seen over the same period. There was an increase in operative vaginal births (OVB) from 12.8% to 15%. The rate of spontaneous vaginal births (SVB) remained stable. The incidence of OASIS remained constant and MPPH rate has fallen. Following amalgamation of two medium sized obstetric units and the opening of a Midwifery Led Unit (MLU), core intrapartum outcomes have improved. Contributing factors are the introduction of regular multidisciplinary training with enhanced team working, compulsory education for obstetricians and midwives on cardiotocograph (CTG) interpretation, increased consultant presence on delivery suite, robust risk management systems and broad multidisciplinary agreement on clinical guidelines promoting vaginal birth.

  11. Analysis of ante-partum maternal morbidity in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nitai; Islam, M Ataharul; Chowdhury, Rafiqul Islam; Bari, Wasimul

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a prospective study of maternal morbidity during the ante-partum period in rural areas of Bangladesh. The data came from a survey of Maternal Morbidity in Bangladesh, conducted by the Bangladesh Institute of Research for Promotion of Essential and Reproductive Health and Technologies (BIRPERHT) during the period from November 1992 to December 1993. Since then no such national level survey has been conducted in Bangladesh. This paper employs multiple-decrement life table technique, a convenient way of analysing the risks of different types of disease conditions that women experience during the antenatal period for different age categories. The high-risk complications such as ante-partum haemorrhage, excessive vomiting, fits/convulsion and oedema were considered in this study. In this study a cause specific model was applied to explore the differences in the risks exerted at different ages of reproductive life attributable to some selected complications of pregnancy. The results of this study indicate that women of age 25-29 years are less susceptible to most of the selected life-threatening and high-risk complications during pregnancy such as haemorrhage, fits/convulsion and oedema. However, younger women (age or = 30 years) are at greater risk of haemorrhage, fits/convulsion and oedema.

  12. Socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors of ante-partum fetal death in a tertiary care hospital in Dhaka City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, A K; Sultana, N; Chowdhury, S; Azim, E

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the socio-demographic profile and to identify the risk factors of ante-partum fetal death which occurs after the age of viability of fetus. This prospective observational study was conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of Ad-din Women Medical College Hospital from June 2009 to July 2010. A total of 14,015 pregnant patients were admitted in the study place after the age of viability, which was taken as 28 weeks of gestation for our facilities. Eighty-three (0.59%) of them were identified as intrauterine fetal death. Assessment of maternal socio-demographic characteristics and maternal-fetal risk factors were evaluated with a semi structured questionnaire which was pre-tested before executing in this study. Majority (81.92%, n=68) of the patients were below 30 years of age, 78.31% belonged to middle socioeconomic group. Almost 58% women had education below secondary school certificate (SSC) level and 28.91% took regular antenatal checkup. About 61.45% patients were multi-gravida. Most (59.04%) ante-partum deaths were identified below 32 weeks of pregnancy. Out of 83 patients, maternal risk factors were identified in 41(49.59%) cases where fetal risk factors were found in 16(19.27%) cases; no risk factors could be determined in rests. Hypertension (48.78%), diabetes (21.95%), hyperpyrexia (17.3%), abruptio placentae (4.88%) and UTI (7.36%) were identified as maternal factors; and congenital anomaly (37.5%), Rh incompatibility (37.5%), multiple pregnancy (12.5%) and post-maturity (12.5%) were the fetal risk factors. Here, proximal biological risk factors are most important in ante-partum fetal deaths. More investigations and facilities are needed to explain the causes of ante-partum deaths.

  13. [Risks factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality in pre-term infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeballos Sarrato, Susana; Villar Castro, Sonia; Ramos Navarro, Cristina; Zeballos Sarrato, Gonzalo; Sánchez Luna, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Pre-term delivery is one of the leading causes of foetal and perinatal mortality. However, perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal death in preterm deliveries have not been well studied. To analyse foetal mortality and perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality in pregnancies of less than 32 weeks gestational age. The study included all preterm deliveries between 22 and 31 +1 weeks gestational age (WGA), born in a tertiary-referral hospital, over a period of 7 years (2008-2014). A logistic regression model was used to identify perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality (foetal malformations and chromosomal abnormalities were excluded). During the study period, the overall foetal mortality was 63.1% (106/168) (≥22 weeks of gestation) occurred in pregnancies of less than 32 WGA. A total of 882 deliveries between 22 and 31+6 weeks of gestation were included for analysis. The rate of foetal mortality was 11.3% (100/882). The rate of intra-partum foetal death was 2.6% (23/882), with 78.2% (18/23) of these cases occurring in hospitalised pregnancies. It was found that Assisted Reproductive Techniques, abnormal foetal ultrasound, no administration of antenatal steroids, lower gestational age, and small for gestational age, were independent risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality. This study showed that there is a significant percentage intra-partum foetal mortality in infants between 22 and 31+6 WGA. The analysis of intrapartum mortality and risk factors associated with this mortality is of clinical and epidemiological interest to optimise perinatal care and improve survival of preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of feed in the dry period on fertility of dairy cows post partum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruip, T.A.M.; Meijer, G.A.L.; Rukkwamsuk, T.; Wensing, T.

    1998-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the decrease in fertility of dairy cows is related to the increase in milk yield and associated with fatty liver and increased vulnerability for both infection and metabolic diseases. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this complex of health and reproductive problems an

  15. EL POSPARTO EN LA VACA POST-PARTUM IN THE CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Vásquez Aureliano

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available El posparto es un periodo crítico del ciclo reproductivo del bovino. Para que se reasuma la función reproductiva después del parto, es necesario que haya involución uterina, cese la inhibición de la función del hipotálamo y la hipófisis para que se restablezcan el patrón de secreción de la hormona luteinizante y la ovulación. En el presente artículo se discuten sucintamente los aspectos más relevantes que influyen en la restauración de la función reproductiva, a saber: el amamantamiento y cercanía del ternero a la madre, presencia del toro en el hato, la nutrición, las reservas energéticas de la madre y el efecto del suministro de algunas hormonas.The postpartum is a critical period during the reproductive life of a cow. In a general approach, the return to reproductive function after parturition, depends on uterine involution and cessation of the inhibition of hypothalamic and hypophyseal functions. In the present revision, known relevant factors aspects which influence postpartum reproductive physiology, are briefly discussed, including suckling, nutrition and energy status of the cow, contact with the calf and presence of a bull, and the effect of time of the year at parturition, as well as the use of hormonal therapies.

  16. Prise en charge des hemorragies du post partum immediat a la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median delay of management was 2 hours ranging from 1 to 72 hours. Classical “manual removal of placenta-uterine revision-oxytocin-intravenous infusion of Ringer lactate-clamping uterine arteries” to 196 women (78.0 %), repair of tears of the birth canal to 51 women (20.3 %), hysterectomy for uterus tear to 5 women ...

  17. Temperament, post-partum depression, hopelessness, and suicide risk among women soon after delivering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Serafini, Gianluca; Berrettoni, Claudia; Angeletti, Gloria; Koukopoulos, Alexia; Tatarelli, Roberto; Lester, David; Roselli, Domenico; Primiero, Francesco M

    2011-07-22

    The aim of the authors in this study was to assess the prevalence of postpartum depression and evaluate the association of affective temperaments with emotional disorders in a sample of 92 pregnant women consecutively admitted for delivery between March and December 2009. In the first few days postpartum, women completed the Suicidal History Self-rating Screening Scale, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire, and the Gotland Male Depression Scale. Fifty percent of the women reported an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 9 or higher, and 23% a score of 13 or higher. Women with a dysphoric-dysregulated temperament had higher mean scores on the Beck Hopelessness Scale (p Depression Scale (p Depression Scale (p Depression Scale was significantly associated with temperament when controlling for the presence of other variables. Women with a dysphoric-dysregulated temperament were 1.23 times as likely to have higher depressive symptom scores. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness of psychiatric screening programs in the postpartum period as well as factors associated with depression and suicidality during the same period.

  18. Symptoms associated with the DSM IV diagnosis of depression in pregnancy and post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Martin; Marks, Maureen N; Pinard, Claudia; Taylor, Alyx; von Castelberg, Brida; Künzli, Hansjörg; Glover, Vivette

    2009-06-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum may affect symptoms of depression. However it has not yet been tested how the symptoms used for the DSM IV diagnosis of depression discriminate depressed from non depressed women perinatally. A modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV (SCID interview) was used that allowed assessment of all associated DSM IV symptoms of depression with depressed and non depressed women in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Loss of appetite was not associated with depression either ante or postnatally. The antenatal symptom pattern was different from the postnatal. The sensitivity of the symptoms ranged from 0.7% to 51.6%, and specificity from 61.3% to 99.1%. The best discriminating symptoms were motor retardation/agitation and concentration antenatally, and motor retardation/agitation, concentration and fatigue postnatally. Depression in pregnancy and postpartum depression show significantly different symptom profiles. Appetite is not suitable for the diagnosis of depression in the perinatal period.

  19. Treatment of post-partum depression: a review of clinical, psychological and pharmacological options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fitelson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Fitelson1, Sarah Kim4, Allison Scott Baker3, Kristin Leight21Director, 2Attending Psychiatrist, TheWomen's Program, 3Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellow, Division of Child Psychiatry, 4PGY-I Resident in Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Postpartum depression (PPD is a common complication of childbearing, and has increasingly been identified as a major public health problem. Untreated maternal depression has multiple potential negative effects on maternal-infant attachment and child development. Screening for depression in the perinatal period is feasible in multiple primary care or obstetric settings, and can help identify depressed mothers earlier. However, there are multiple barriers to appropriate treatment, including concerns about medication effects in breastfeeding infants. This article reviews the literature and recommendations for the treatment of postpartum depression, with a focus on the range of pharmacological, psychotherapeutic, and other non-pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: postpartum depression, postnatal depression, lactation, antidepressant, hormone therapy, psychotherapy, bright light therapy, omega-3

  20. Effect of post-partum body condition score on milk yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determines the effect of dam body condition on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows. The milk production records of 60 Friesian x Bunaji dairy cows were used for the study. The body condition score (BCS) was recorded on scale 1 to 5 with an increment of 0.25 points. The mean initial milk yield (IMY), ...

  1. SERUM ELECTROLYTES IN BUFFALOES DURING LATE PREGNANCY, PARTURITION AND POST PARTUM PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Hussain, Muhammad Amir Saeed and Isma Nazli Bashir

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was executed on 30 pregnant Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Serum was harvested for the estimation of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and iron in the late pregnancy (at 8th and 9th month of gestation, at parturition and in the postpartum periods (at Ist and 2 month postpartum. The concentrations of Ca and P were significantly (P< 0.05 lower and Mg was significantly (P<0.05 higher at the time of parturition. The concentrations of Na and K did not show much variation. The values of Fe also decreased significantly (P<0.05 near parturition (at 9th month of gestation and at parturition. No puerperal disorder was observed in any of the experimental animals.

  2. Congenital Complete Heart Block and Post-Partum Focal Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi N. Ravipati

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 24 year old woman presented in her 6th month of her first pregnancy with light headedness and dizziness at rest and imbalance during walking of 2 weeks duration. Her pregnancy has been thus far uncomplicated. Prior to her pregnancy she had been in good health with no medical history or cardiac problems. She was very active, working full time, swimming, and playing softball. On her review of system, the patient reported that her heart rate had always been slow even after strenuous physical activity but denied ever seeing a cardiologist or having an electrocardiogram (ECG. Her family history was negative for any cardiac or connective tissue disorders.

  3. [Risk factors of teenage pregnancies, deliveries and post-partum in the department of Loiret].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouini, S; Randriambololona, D; Randriamboavonjy, R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the obstetric outcome of teenage pregnancies compared to adult women in the department of Loiret. A retrospective study of adolescents (10-19 years) delivered after 22 weeks compared to adult women aged 20-35 years (controls) from the first January to the 31 December 2012 in a maternity level 3. The two groups were compared by the Chi(2) test or the exact test of Fisher. A P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Adolescent had less prenatal consultations than controls (4 versus 7). They used more tobacco during pregnancy than adult controls. Urinary infections and preterm threat and births were more frequent in the adolescent group compared to the controls (P=0.04 and 0.018). However, the gestational diabetes was less frequent in the adolescent group versus controls (P=0.0005, OR: 0.16 [IC95%: 0.03-0.54]). The adolescent group represented 2.38 of total deliveries. The rate of vaginal deliveries and caesarean section was similar in the two groups. Vaginal tears were significantly more frequent among adolescents than controls (P=0.0019). The adolescents were more likely to preterm delivery and to have urinary infections than the adult women (controls). They are less likely to have gestational diabetes than older women. The rates of vaginal deliveries are comparable; however, the adolescents are more likely to experience vaginal tears than controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. ACUTE LUNG INJURY COMPLICATING BLOOD TRANSFUSION IN POST-PARTUM HEMORRHAGE: INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Teofili

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions. Patients suffering from PPH represent a high-risk population for TRALI. In particular, patients with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia   have the highest risk, particularly if they are not receiving anti-hypertensive therapy. A careful monitoring of these patients after transfusions is therefore recommended.

  5. Hypertension 6 weeks post partum in apparently normal women. A reappraisal and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piver, M S; Corson, S L; Bolognese, R J

    1967-08-01

    Hypertensive blood pressure readings were recorded in 282 women from a group of 1025 consecutive patients returning for their sixth-week postpartum visit. Of the 282 women, 120 were classified as toxemic; however, 162 (58%) had had no elevation of blood pressure antepartum, intrapartum, or during the immediate postpartum period. In addition, 100 women with normal sixth-week postpartum blood pressures were randomly selected as controls. A retrospective analysis of their records showed sixth-week postpartum hypertension to occur much less frequently (13%) in nulliparous women, as compared to the preeclamptic nulliparous patients (31%). With the exception of proteinuria, all of the other data studied failed to reveal any significant abnormalities in the late postpartum hypertensive group of patients.

  6. Furosemide versus Hydralazine for Managing Post Partum Hypertension in Severe Preeclampsia: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Behrashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia are important maternal and fetal– infant complications and they can be regarded as the second cause of maternal death as well. The present study aimed to assess the effects of hydralazine and furosemide on blood pressure in sever preeclampsia. Methods: One hundred patients with severe preeclampsia were enrolled. After spontaneous onset of postpartum diuresis and discontinuation of intravenous magnesium sulfate, patients were randomly assigned to receive either Hydralazine10mg QID or furosemide10mg BID for 5 days. Patients’ blood pressure was recorded every 6h and the collected data were compared. Results: Postpartum patients with severe preeclampsia who received furosemide had significantly lower systolic blood pressure by postpartum fifth day(66% compared with 42%, P=0.016;OR=2.6 compared to those who had hydralazine. On the other hand, the time duration of response to treatment was lower in patients who received hydralazine compared with furosemide (24.3h compared with 31.4h; P=0.034. Conclusion: Furosemide proved to be more effective on blood pressure mean reduction compared with Hydralazine in women with sever preeclampsia.

  7. Risk factors for severe post partum haemorrhage in Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandabwa, J; Doyle, P; Todd, J; Ononge, S; Kiondo, P

    2008-02-01

    To determine the risk factors for severe postpartum haemorrhage. A case control study. Mulago hospital labour wards, Kampala, Uganda. One hundred and six mothers with severe postpartum haemorrhage were recruited between 15th November 2001 and 30th November 2002 and were compared with 500 women who had normal delivery. The predictors for postpartum haemorrhage were co-existing hypertension (O.R 9.3, 95% CI: 1.7-51.7), chronic anaemia (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 9.5-31.7), low socio economic background (OR 5.3, 95% CI: 3.0, 9.2), past history of postpartum haemorrhage (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.8), previous delivery by Caesarean section (OR 7.5, 95% CI: 3.5-14.3), long birth interval of more than sixty months (OR 5.2, 95% CI: 2.1-13.0), prolonged third stage (OR 49.1, 95% CI: 8.8-342.8) and non use of oxytocics (OR 4.3%, 95% CI: 1.2-15.3). Severe postpartum haemorrhage is common in our environment and is associated with a high maternal morbidity and mortality. The determinants of postpartum haemorrhage are useful in identifying mothers at risk and together with the services of a skilled birth attendant at delivery will prevent postpartum haemorrhage and reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. In our study, the following risk factors were identified: pre-existing hypertension, chronic anaemia, low socio-economic background, history of postpartum haemorrhage, previous delivery by Caesarean section, longbirth interval of more than sixty months, prolonged third stage and non use of oxytocics were found to be significant.

  8. [Influence of low birth weight on the increased risk of post-partum hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijiao; Tian, Qi; Wu, Aiping; Kan, Shuting; Tao, Jie; Dong, Yan; Han, Hongfeng; Gao, Xinying; Zheng, Yao; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Shouling

    2014-07-01

    To compare the prevalence of hypertension between low birth weight infant (LBWI) women and non-LBWI women. A retrospective cohort study was applied and 3 172 pregnant women giving births during October 1976 to December 2008 in our hospital and underwent physical check-up between 2010 and 2011 at the Kailuan medical group were included and divided into LBWI group and non-LBWI group by the history of LBWI. Prevalence of hypertension was obtained during the follow-up program. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relative risk of hypertension. A total number of 3 172 women, with an average age of 42.3 years old were divided into LBWI group (n = 147) and non-LBWI group (n = 3 025), with the average birth weights of their infants were 2.31 kg and 3.39 kg, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension from the follow-up program was significantly higher in LBWI group than that in the non-LBWI group (23.8% vs. 16.9%, P hypertension in LBWI group was 1.60 (95%CI:1.02-2.53) folds higher than that in the non-LBWI group. Prevalence of hypertension in women with LBWI was higher than that in those women without LBWI. History of LBWI seemed to have had an increased risk to develop hypertension.

  9. The dimensionality of disclosure of HIV status amongst post-partum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disclosure was commonplace in the sample, ranging from widely disclosing status (rare); to disclosing to some family, friends and partners; to tacit disclosure, where participants took medication in front of others without explicitly discussing their status. Women described reasons for non-disclosure in terms of not being ready ...

  10. Staphylococcal aureus Enterotoxin C and Enterotoxin-Like L Associated with Post-partum Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Kristina T; Gumpert, Heidi; Olesen, Bente

    2017-01-01

    between isolates from the two outbreaks revealed a S. aureus pathogenicity island containing enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L only in isolates from outbreak 2. Enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L carrying S. aureus are associated with bovine mastitis and our findings indicate that these may also...... PVL and ACME negative. In outbreak 1, the isolates harbored SCCmec IVa and in outbreak 2 SCCmec V. The clinical presentation differed between the two outbreaks, as none of five MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 1 had mastitis vs. five of six MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 2 (p ....02). To investigate if whole-genome sequencing could identify virulence genes associated with mastitis, t015:ST45 isolates from Denmark (N = 101) were whole-genome sequenced. Sequence analysis confirmed two separate outbreaks with no sign of sustained spread into the community. Analysis of the accessory genome...

  11. The single unit transfusion in post partum hemorrhage: A new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Vivek; Karoshi, Mahantesh; Kakumani, V

    2006-01-01

    Every year, about 210 million women become pregnant. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is one of the major complications of pregnancy, accounting for 14 million cases annually. Of these, it is estimated that around 140,000 women die, resulting in a case fatality rate of 1%. PPH is defined by WHO as a blood loss > or = 500 mls. Most instances of PPH occur suddenly and without warning even in women without any of the known risks for this condition. If women do not receive timely medical treatment, as is often the case in many parts of the world, death can occur within two hours. The chance of receiving a safe blood transfusion as part of the therapy for PPH varies enormously from country to country, depending on whether a safe blood transfusion program has been set up as a part of the national health policy. The increasing realization of the potential deleterious effects of blood transfusion, including exposure to HIV and other viral agents, has changed the practices that were previously acceptable for the transfusion of blood, as has the recent recognition of specific patients who will benefit from a single unit of blood. In countries with limited resources, where a majority of women have anemia at the onset of their pregnancies, the slightest deviation from normality during labor and/or delivery leading to excessive hemorrhage can put a women's life at risk. In these instances, the patient needs urgent resuscitation, stabilization and transfer to a nearby center. Available blood, preferably typed cross matched and screened for infections, should be given until the patient receives specific treatment. This is especially true in bled- out obstetrics patients, where one unit may make the difference between a near death state and the possibility of slow recovery and survival.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, Maryam; Afrasiabi, Sedigheh; Rahnama, Parvin; Montazeri, Ali

    2012-09-03

    There is evidence that traumatic birth experiences are associated with psychological impairments. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms and its obstetric and perinatal risk factors among a sample of Iranian women. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Bushehr, Iran during a 3-months period from July to September 2009. Data were collected from all women attending eleven healthcare centers for postnatal care 6 to 8 weeks after childbirth. Those who had a traumatic delivery were identified and entered into the study. In order to assess childbirth-related post-traumatic stress, the Post-traumatic Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I) was administered. Data on demographic, obstetric and perinatal characteristics also were collected. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the association between childbirth-related post-traumatic stress and demographic and obstetric and perinatal variables. In all, 400 women were initially evaluated. Of these, 218 women (54.5%) had a traumatic delivery and overall, 80 women (20%) were found to be suffering from post-partum post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that post-partum PTSD was associated with educational level, gestational age at delivery, number of prenatal care visits, pregnancy complications, pregnancy intervals, labor duration, and mode of delivery. The findings indicated that the prevalence of traumatic birth experiences and post-partum PTSD were relatively high among Iranian women. The findings also indicated that obstetric and perinatal variables were independently the most significant contributing factors to women's post-partum PTSD. It seems that a better perinatal care and supportive childbirth might help to reduce the burden of post-partum PTSD among this population.

  13. Elective caesarean operation in the bitch using aglepristone before the pre-partum decline in peripheral progesterone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, X; Fontaine, E; Segalini, V; Fontbonne, A

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate caesarean operation (CO) undertaken before the pre-partum decrease of progesterone but following administration of a progesterone receptor antagonist and to evaluate the innocuity of this procedure for the dam and pups. Thirty seven bitches of 15 different breeds, received an injection of 15 mg/kg aglepristone 59 or 60 days after the estimated day of ovulation, determined by progesterone quantitative assays, and caesarean section (CS) was performed between 20 and 24 h after administration. Progesterone remained above 6 nmol/l at the time of CS (mean = 15.75, SD = 3.84). No post-operative clinical complications were reported in any of the bitches. All bitches were able to nurse and feed their puppies in the first 24 h following surgery. No pups showed any signs of prematurity and 5 out of 188 pups (2.6) died in the first 2 weeks after delivery. This small study demonstrates that a CS may be safely and successfully performed an average of 2 days before the expected date of parturition following the administration of aglepristone, without any harmful consequence for the dam and her neonates.

  14. Identification of risk factors and demographic features of patients with peri partum cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharieff, S.; Khan, Shah-e-Zaman

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe and identify the demographic features and risk factors for peri partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Design: A prospective study: The study was conducted at the department of Adult Cardiology, National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi, Pakistan from December 1999 to August 2001. Subjects and Methods: A total of 35 consecutive patients diagnosed to have peri partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) on echocardiogram were enrolled. Proforma containing demographic characteristics and established risk factors for PPCM was established and filled carefully. The data gathered was analyzed statistically. Results: The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 30.8-6.74 years. Urdu speaking (Mohajir) population was found to be more affected ethnic group (42.9%) Majority of the patients was from lower socio-economic group with poor nutritional status (77%) and multiparous (77.14%). 25.7% had past history of PPCM and 71.4% presented during postpartum period. Mortality at six months was 22.8% while 42.9% had persistent disease and only 34.3% recovered completely. Conclusion: Advanced age, lower economic group with poor nutritional status, multi parity and past history of peri partum cardiomyopathy were identified as risk factors for the development of PPCM, especially among Mohajir population. There was no statistically significant difference between the clinical features and outcome of patients presented first time or with recurrent PPCM. We identified advanced age (>30 years), high LVEDD, and low ejection fraction (EF) at initial presentation as poor prognostic factors. (author)

  15. Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) Tapping for Post Sectio Caesaria Patient: Decrease Anxiety and Increase Early Mobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Rusmini, Rusmini; Suparmi, Suparmi; Musdalifah, Ulfah

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the level of anxiety and early mobilization using the Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT): Tapping on patients post partum post secsio Caesaria before and after intervention period both control and experimental group. Design Quasi-experimental two group design was applied in the study. Forty two mothers with primipara post secsio Caesaria were recruited. Data analysis in the study included correlation, paird t-test, and independent t-test. The findings ...

  16. The tip of the iceberg: Post caesarean wound dehiscence presenting as abdominal wound sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaundinya Kiran Bharatam

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Uterine scar dehiscence with infection requires high index of suspicion as rare cause for post partum localized/generalized peritonitis with sepsis. Severe abdominal wound infection after caesarean section may be associated with uterine wound dehiscence, which poses a grave risk to the mother in a future pregnancy.

  17. Risk of post-pregnancy hypertension in women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Ida; Basit, Saima; Melbye, Mads

    2017-01-01

    with prescription drugs, and hazard ratios estimated using Cox regression.Results Of women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in a first pregnancy in their 20s, 14% developed hypertension in the first decade post partum, compared with 4% of women with normotensive first pregnancies in their 20s...

  18. A rare case of peripartum cardiomyopathy posted for caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Kotekar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Post Partum Cardiomyopathy (PPCM is a relatively rare form of heart failure associated with pregnancy. It was recognized first in the 19th century by Ritchie and is defined as the onset of acute heart failure in the last trimester or early post partum period in the absence of infections, metabolic, toxic, ischaemic or valvular causes of myocardial dysfunction. Prognosis depends on the degree of cardiomegaly at presentation and in the following 6 months. Initial high risk period carries a mortality of 25 to 50%. Keeping in mind the reduced contractility and ejection fraction with ventricular dilatation proceeding to cardiac failure, the anesthesiologist managing a case of PPCM faces the challenge of avoiding myocardial depression, hypovolemia and increased SVR, all of which may be hazardous

  19. Cardiomyopathie du péri-partum prise en charge en milieu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiomyopathie du péri-partum prise en charge en milieu Hospitalier Universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso : aspects thérapeutiques et évolutifs. S. J-B. Tougouma, A.A. Yaméogo, A. Dembélé, G. Kinda, N.V. Yaméogo, G.R.C. Millogo, J.K. Kologo, A. Héma, Y. Kambiré, L. Savadogo, M.S. Ouédraogo, P. Zabsonré ...

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth: the phenomenon of traumatic birth

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J L

    1997-01-01

    CHILDBIRTH CAN BE A VERY PAINFUL EXPERIENCE, often associated with feelings of being out of control. It should not, therefore, be surprising that childbirth may be traumatic for some women. Most women recover quickly post partum; others appear to have a more difficult time. The author asserts that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may occur after childbirth. He calls this variant of PTSD a "traumatic birth experience." There is very little literature on this topic. The evidence available ...

  1. Ante partum depression and husband’s mental problem increased risk maternity blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Ismail

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternity blues disorder (MB is common, and it is usually undiagnosed. This study to identify several risk factors related to MB. Subjects were pregnant women who had antenatal and delivery at the Persahabatan Hospital (RSP Jakarta from 1 November 1999 to 15 August 2001. Consecutive sampling and was followed-up until two-week postpartum. Those who ever had psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders were excluded. MB and ante partum depression (APD detected by using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Husband’s mental status based on Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90 respectively. Among 580 subjects, 25% suffering from MB. Compared with those who did not have APD, those who experienced it had more than three-fold increased risk to be MB [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.57; 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.54;5.03]. Those who had not healthy baby on the first 5 days afterbirth than who had healthy baby had twice increased risk to be MB (aHR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.34 ; 3.66. Who had husband with problem in mental health had 1.9 increased risk to be MB (aHR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.36 ; 2.68. Stress during pregnancy had 1.6 increased risk to be MB (aHR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.14 ; 2.25. To control MB, special attention should be paid to women who had APD history, who had unhealthy baby on 5 first days afterbirth, who had husbands’ mental health problems, and who had stress during pregnancy. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:74-80Keywords: ante partum, maternity blues, depression, mental problem

  2. Can Exosomes Induced by Breast Involution Be Markers for the Poor Prognosis and Prevention of Post-partum Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    human body fluids, including plasma, malignant effusions and breast milk , and contain a wide variety of proteins , such as annexins, heat shock proteins ...membranes by wet transfer at 100V for 1 hour. The membranes were blocked with 5% non- fat dry milk in TBST and 10% goat serum and incubated with...at 275oC. Protein Identification: MS/MS spectra data were extracted from raw data files and exported as mascot generic format files (mfg) using

  3. Investigating the use of social media to help women from going back to smoking post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John B; Barnes, Margaret; Teo, Cynthia; Sutherns, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the social factors that would help women who had quit smoking due to pregnancy from returning to smoking after delivery of their baby. Women who attended their first antenatal check-up at a general public hospital were invited to participate in pre- and postpartum interviews. A total of 24 women were interviewed pre- and postpartum. They reported isolation as a factor that influenced how they dealt with stress. This stress was linked to relapse. The use of electronic media through the Internet was a way women could interact with the outside community without having to leave home. Women who had strong family relationships in geographic proximity were not as likely to use the computer to interact with relatives and friends. Women who did not have strong local and family ties that support their desire to not go back to smoking, reported using Facebook and other Internet activities to keep in touch while they stayed at home with their new infant. The use of electronic media may help facilitate interaction between new mothers, which could prevent isolation and relapse back to smoking after delivery. This mechanism might also be used to enhance skill-development and problem-solving by these women. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Role of HbA1c in post-partum screening of women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Claesson

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Proposed thresholds of HbA1c had low diagnostic sensitivity. Combined with a fasting glucose test, the performance was no better than with using a fasting glucose test alone. Combining a fasting glucose test with a lower HbA1c cut-point may be an alternative approach for selection of women for an OGTT.

  5. Prognostic indicators of post partum viability of kids born to Escherichia coli-vaccinated or unvaccinated does : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.M. Munyua

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine some blood and other physiological parameters with potential for use as prognostic indicators of viability of newborn goat kids. Of the 143 kids born during the on-farmstudy, 97 were crosses of Galla × Small East African (SEA and 46 were pure SEA. The SEA × Galla kids were 46 single males, with a mean body weight at birth of 2.77 ± 0.22 kg , 43 females with a mean body weight at birth of 2.36 ± 0.76 kg and 5 and 3 sets of female and male twins (mean body weight at birth of 1.8 ± 0.19 kg and 2.05 ± 0.07 kg for the female and male kids, respectively. The SEA kids comprised 36 single male and female kids (mean body weight at birth of 2.48 ± 0.04 kg and 10 sets of twins (both male and female (mean body weight at birth of 1.50 ± 0.04 kg . Pre-suckling sera obtained on-station from kids born of does vaccinated against Escherichia coli (n = 8 and unvaccinated does (n = 7 had a total protein content of 5 mmol/l and had an E. coli antibody titre of between 1/160 and 1/640. On the other hand, kids that died within 48 hours of birth (parturient deaths and had been classified in categories 3 and 4 righting reaction had low ( 45 minutes, low rectal temperature (< 36 °C, low birth weights (< 1.5 kg for singles and < 1.0 kg for twins, low white blood cells (< 4000/ m/l , low (< 2 mmol/l blood glucose levels, low total protein (< 40.0 g//l , low (< 1:160 E. coli antibody titre and IgG ( < 3350 mg//l in sera obtained 12 hours after birth have a poor prognosis for survival.

  6. Gestational glucose intolerance modifies the association between magnesium and glycemic variables in mothers and daughters 15 years post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gobbo, Liana C; Song, Yiqing; Elin, Ronald J; Meltzer, Sara J; Egeland, Grace M

    2012-07-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and low magnesium (Mg) intake and status are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, Mg homeostasis may be modified by GDM. We sought to determine if a history of GDM prospectively modifies associations between Mg and glycemic variables in mothers and their offspring. Plasma and dietary Mg, anthropometric, lifestyle and glycemic variables were assessed in mothers affected by GDM during 1989-1990, a comparative group of normoglycemic women, pregnant during the same time period, and the 15-year-old, nondiabetic daughters of affected and unaffected pregnancies (n = 332). Multivariate regression analyses evaluated the cross-sectional association between plasma and dietary Mg with glycemic variables in mothers and daughters. Plasma Mg was lower in mothers with a history of GDM in comparison to control mothers after adjustment for current type 2 diabetes, race and body mass index (0.90 ± 0.01 versus 0.96 ± 0.01 mmol/L; p = 0.002). Plasma Mg was significantly associated with insulin sensitivity and was inversely associated with fasting insulin in GDM mothers only (pmothers and offspring with a history of GDM.

  7. Comparison of the Effect of Rectal Misoprostol and IM Syntometrin in the Prevention of Post Partum Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Samimi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In developing countries, postpartum hemorrhage is one of the preventable causes of maternal mortality. The aim of this study is comparison of the effect of rectal misoprostol and intramascular syntometerine in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Materials & Methods: This study was a double blind randomized clinical trial and carried on 200 pregnant women referred to Shabiehkhani maternity center in 2010. The first group received 1ml intramuscular syntometrine and the second group received 600 µg misoprostol rectal suppository after placental delivery. The two groups were matched for confounding variables. All of the study subjects were followed up for 24hrs and their blood pressure, pulse rate, uterine tone, before and after delivery hemoglobin, need to additional uterotonic drugs and drug side effects were evaluated and the results were recorded in an information sheet. Finally all the data were entered into SPSS software and analyzed with statistical tests. Results: The mean age of subjects was 25.61±4.75 years, mean gestational age was 38.8±1.2 weeks, and Mean neonatal birth weight was 3346.2±349.56 grams. The mean fall in hemoglobin level in misorostol group was significantly lower than in syntometrin group (P=0.009. But there weren't any significant differences between the two groups in uterine tone, blood pressure, and pulse rate and also in drug side effects. Conclusion: In this study we demonstrated that rectal misoprostol suppository was more effective than injection syntometrin in decreasing postpartum hemorrhage. Thus, it can be used as a choice drug for third stage management (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(2:38-44

  8. [Early prenatal interview knowledge in post-partum women: Cross-sectional study in 2011 in Lille (France)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aernout, E M; Carpentier, S

    2016-04-01

    Early prenatal interview (EPI) is one of the flagship measures of the 2005-2007 perinatal strategy. It allows mothers to have a 45-minute interview, distinct from a medical consultation, promoting the expression of their expectations and medical, psychological or social difficulties. It should be routinely offered to all mothers in early pregnancy. The main objective of our study was to determine the proportion of women who had knowledge of Early prenatal interview and to profile women who knew it. Secondary objectives were to describe the EPI achievement rate and its terms of implementation. All women who gave birth between 16 and 20 January 2011 in one of the ten maternity hospitals of the Lille metropolis were interviewed during their stay in maternity. A mixed model logistic regression was made to draw the profile of women with knowledge of Early prenatal interview. Of 311 women who gave birth during the study period, 270 were included in the survey. 148 patients (54.8 %) knew Early prenatal interview and 79 (29.3 %) had it. Women who had a high level of education were significantly more aware of this interview than those with low level of study. Other factors studied were not significantly related to knowledge of the EPI. While the EPI should be routinely offered to all pregnant women, only half of the patients who give birth had heard about it during their pregnancy. Women of low educational level should be more targeted by professional performing this interview. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Infant Development and Pre- and Post-partum Depression in Rural South African HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Violeta J; Matseke, Gladys; Cook, Ryan; Bellinger, Seanna; Weiss, Stephen M; Alcaide, Maria L; Peltzer, Karl; Patton, Doyle; Lopez, Maria; Jones, Deborah L

    2017-10-06

    HIV-exposed infants born to depressed women may be at risk for adverse developmental outcomes. Half of HIV-infected women in rural South Africa (SA) may suffer from pregnancy-related depression. This pilot study examined the impact of depression in HIV-infected women in rural SA on infant development. Mother-infant dyads (N = 69) were recruited in rural SA. Demographics, HIV disclosure, depression, male involvement, and alcohol use at baseline (18.35 ± 5.47 weeks gestation) were assessed. Male involvement, depression, infant HIV serostatus and development were assessed 12 months postnatally. Half of the women (age = 29 ± 5) reported depression prenatally and one-third reported depression postnatally. In multivariable logistic regression, not cohabiting with their male partner, nondisclosure of HIV status, and postnatal depression predicted cognitive delay; decreased prenatal male involvement predicted delayed gross motor development (ps depression among HIV-infected women and infant development and increasing male involvement may reduce negative developmental outcomes among HIV-exposed or infected infants.

  10. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for post-partum depression (PPD): a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crescenzo, Franco; Perelli, Federica; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of postpartum depression with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been claimed to be both efficacious and well tolerated, but no recent systematic reviews have been conducted. A qualitative systematic review of randomized clinical trials on women with postpartum depression comparing SSRIs to placebo and/or other treatments was performed. A comprehensive literature search of online databases, the bibliographies of published articles and grey literature were conducted. Data on efficacy, acceptability and tolerability were extracted and the quality of the trials was assessed. Six randomised clinical trials, comprising 595 patients, met quality criteria for inclusion in the analysis. Cognitive-behavioural intervention, psychosocial community-based intervention, psychodynamic therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy, a second-generation tricyclic antidepressant and placebo were used as comparisons. All studies demonstrated higher response and remission rates among those treated with SSRIs and greater mean changes on depression scales, although findings were not always statistically significant. Dropout rates were high in three of the trials but similar among treatment and comparison groups. In general, SSRIs were well tolerated and trial quality was good. There are few trials, patients included in the trials were not representative of all patients with postpartum depression, dropout rates in three trials were high, and long-term efficacy and tolerability were assessed in only two trials. SSRIs appear to be efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment of postpartum depression, but the available evidence fails to demonstrate a clear superiority over other treatments. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Postpartum depression, neonatal hospitalization, and educational intervention]. [Article in Italian] • Depressione post partum, ospedalizzazione neonatale ed intervento educativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Picciau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression (PPD is a non-psychotic depressive disease with varying severity, from moderate to severe, which originates after the 4th week from giving birth. At our hospital, a clinical approach to help mothers in a delicate period of their life was performed in 2 phases, in the first week of life during hospitalization of the newborn and after the 4th-6th week after delivery. The main instrument in use for the screening of PPD and used also in our study was the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Results are presented concerning in particular the correlations between EPDS and variables such as maternal characteristics and lenght of neonatal hospitalization. Articoli Selezionati del Congresso “Medicina Narrativa e Comunicazione nella Pratica Clinica” · Cagliari · 14 Aprile 2014 Guest Editors: Massimiliano Zonza, Vassilios Fanos, Gian Paolo Donzelli

  12. Preclinical screening for retinopathy of prematurity risk using IGF1 levels at 3 weeks post-partum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pérez-Muñuzuri

    Full Text Available Following current recommendations for preventing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP involves screening a large number of patients. We performed a prospective study to establish a useful screening system for ROP prediction and we have determined that measuring serum levels of IGF1 at week three and the presence of sepsis have a high predictive value for the subsequent development of ROP. A total of 145 premature newborn, with birthweight <1500 g and/or <32 weeks gestational age, were enrolled. 26.9% of them showed some form of retinopathy. A significant association was found between the development of retinopathy and each of the following variables: early gestational age, low birthweight, requiring mechanical ventilation, oxygen treatment, intracranial haemorrhage, sepsis during the first three weeks, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the need for erythrocyte transfusion, erythropoietin treatment, and low levels of serum IGF1 in the third week. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to obtain curves for the probability of developing ROP, based on the main factors linked with ROP, namely serum levels of IGF1 and presence of sepsis. Such preclinical screening has the ability to identify patients with high-risk of developing retinopathy and should lead to better prediction for ROP, while at the same time optimising the use of clinical resources, both human and material.

  13. Pulmonary arterial dissection in a post-partum patient with patent ductus arteriosus: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mehmet; Arslan, Uğur; Ateş, Ahmet Hakan; Aksakal, Aytekin

    2015-02-26

    Pulmonary arterial dissection is an uncommon but usually a deadly complication of chronic pulmonary hypertension. A 26-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinics with sudden dyspnea and chest discomfort one hour after giving birth to twins by vaginal delivery. An echocardiography was performed with a pre-diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. However, echocardiographic examination revealed a dilated main pulmonary artery and a dissection flap extending from main pulmonary artery to left pulmonary artery. In summary, in this report, we described a very rare case of pulmonary artery dissection in a pregnant patient with a previously un-diagnosed patent ductus arteriosus without an obvious rise in pulmonary artery pressure and reviewed the relevant literature.

  14. Gestational Weight Gain and Post-Partum Weight Loss Among Young, Low-Income, Ethnic Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROTHBERG, Bonnie E. Gould; MAGRIPLES, Urania; KERSHAW, Trace S.; RISING, Sharon Schindler; ICKOVICS, Jeannette R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Document weight change trajectories that lead to gestational weight gain or postpartum weight loss outside clinical recommendations established by Institute of Medicine (IOM). Methods Women aged 14-25 receiving prenatal care and delivering singleton infants at term (N=427). Medical record review and four structured interviews conducted: second and third trimester, 6- and 12-months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling to evaluate weight change trajectories. Results Only 22% of participants gained gestational weight within IOM guidelines. 62% exceeded maximum recommendations -- more common among those overweight/obese (BMI≥25.0; phypertension; breastfeeding promoted postpartum weight loss (all p<.02). BMI by race interaction suggested healthier outcomes for Latinas (p=0.02). Conclusion Excessive pregnancy weight gain and inadequate postpartum weight loss are highly prevalent among young low-income ethnic minority women. Pregnancy and postpartum are critical junctures for weight management interventions. PMID:20974459

  15. Stavudine (d4T) concentrations in women receiving post-partum antiretroviral treatment and their breastfeeding infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Jessica M.; Taha, Taha E.; Sun, Jin; Hoover, Donald R.; Parsons, Teresa L.; Kumwenda, Johnstone J.; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Hendrix, Craig W.; Kumwenda, Newton I.; Eshleman, Susan H.; Mirochnick, Mark

    2012-01-01

    First-line antiretroviral treatment regimens in resource-limited settings used in breastfeeding mothers often include stavudine (d4T). Limited data describing d4T concentrations in breast milk are available. We analyzed d4T concentrations in 52 mother-infant pairs using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lower limit of quantification: 5 ng/ml in plasma, 20 ng/ml in breast milk). Median (interquartile range) d4T concentrations were 86 (36–191) ng/ml in maternal plasma, 151 (48–259) ng/ml in whole milk, 190 (58–296) ng/ml in skim milk, and <5 (<5-<5) ng/ml in infant plasma. While d4T is concentrated in breast milk relative to maternal plasma, the infant d4T dose received from breast milk is very small and not clinically significant. PMID:22614899

  16. Relationship between backfat thickness and fertility from the point dry off to the day 150 post partum

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Nils-Martin

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of herd fertility and milk yields is of great interest in modern farming management. Therefore the body condition plays a very important role. The purpose of this study was to characterize relations of the body condition, especially during early lactation, and the fertility. As a result of evaluating the tendency of the energetic balance during this period, successful insemination can be increased. For this reason, backfat thickness (RFD) of milk cows have been measured from ...

  17. Stress indicators in the post-partum period and their relation with women’s mood in the puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Marín Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research project is to study the relationships among physiological indicators of stress, maternal hormone levels and mood in the early postpartum, and their possible association with psychological problems during the puerperium. This observational, longitudinal and correlational study will be carried in a sample of voluntary women belonging to area 9 of health services of the Community of Madrid, the participants will be recruited during their childbirth hospitalization. To evaluate the target variables structured and validated questionnaires would be applied and analysis of biological indicators taken at two time points:-In the early postpartum: anxiety, depression and childbirth satisfaction, physiological indicators of the stress response (cortisol in saliva, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine, and seric oxytocin and gonadotropin hormone levels. -During the puerperal period up to three months after delivery: perceived stress,anxiety and depression. Socio-demographic information as well as clinical data on the progress of labor, and status of maternal and neonatal health condition will be also obtained and included in the study.

  18. Preclinical screening for retinopathy of prematurity risk using IGF1 levels at 3 weeks post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Muñuzuri, Alejandro; Couce-Pico, Maria Luz; Baña-Souto, Ana; López-Suárez, Olalla; Iglesias-Deus, Alicia; Blanco-Teijeiro, José; Fernández-Lorenzo, José Ramón; Fraga-Bermúdez, José María

    2014-01-01

    Following current recommendations for preventing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) involves screening a large number of patients. We performed a prospective study to establish a useful screening system for ROP prediction and we have determined that measuring serum levels of IGF1 at week three and the presence of sepsis have a high predictive value for the subsequent development of ROP. A total of 145 premature newborn, with birthweight <1500 g and/or <32 weeks gestational age, were enrolled. 26.9% of them showed some form of retinopathy. A significant association was found between the development of retinopathy and each of the following variables: early gestational age, low birthweight, requiring mechanical ventilation, oxygen treatment, intracranial haemorrhage, sepsis during the first three weeks, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the need for erythrocyte transfusion, erythropoietin treatment, and low levels of serum IGF1 in the third week. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to obtain curves for the probability of developing ROP, based on the main factors linked with ROP, namely serum levels of IGF1 and presence of sepsis. Such preclinical screening has the ability to identify patients with high-risk of developing retinopathy and should lead to better prediction for ROP, while at the same time optimising the use of clinical resources, both human and material.

  19. Faktor-faktor yang Berhubungan Dengan Unmet Need KB Pasca-Salin IUD post-placenta di Kamar Rawat Pasca-bersalin RSUP DR. M. Djamil periode Januari-Maret 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Handayani Utami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakWanita pada periode post-partum memiliki angka unmet need terhadap kontrasepsi, padahal ini waktu yang tepat untuk mulai memakai kontrasepsi. Salah satu kontrasepsi pasca-salin terkini yang mulai disosialisasikan adalah IUD post-placenta. Namun demikian, masih belum banyak wanita pasangan usia subur yang menggunakan alat kontrasepsi ini bahkan mengetahuinya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan unmet need KB pasca-salin IUD post-placenta. Jenis penelitian survey dengan desain cross sectional study. Waktu pengambilan data dari 12 Januari sampai dengan 12 Maret 2013. Sampel adalah wanita pasangan usia subur yang melahirkan pervaginam dan dipilih secara accidental sampling. Penelitian dilakukan pada 88 orang responden dengan 50 orang bukan akseptor KB IUD post-placenta dan 38 orang akseptor KB IUD Post-placenta. Pengumpulan data dilakukan menggunakan kuesioner melalui wawancara terpimpin. Data dianalisis secara univariat dan bivariat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan faktor yang memiliki hubungan signifikan dengan unmet need IUD post-placenta adalah faktor pengetahuan (p value = 0,001, sedangkan faktor lain yang tidak memiliki hubungan signifikan adalah faktor pendidikan (p value = 0,222, faktor status ekonomi (p value = 1,000, dan faktor konseling KB (p value = 0,583.Kata kunci: faktor yang berhubungan, unmet need, KB pasca-salin, IUD post-placentaAbstractThe women in post-partum period have unmet need rate to contraception, whereas it’s approriate time to start using contraception. One of recent post-partum contraception method is IUD post-placenta. But, only a few women of fertile age couple use this contraception even has known it. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated to unmet need of post-partum contraception IUD post-placenta. This survey study with cross sectional design study. The data was collected from January 12 until March 12 2013. The subject were

  20. La Poste

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ The French Post Office has issued ten commemorative envelopes bearing original images depicting CERN and its history. This special fiftieth anniversary collector's edition will be available on the French Post Office (« La Poste ») stand at the Open Day on 16 October, in the CMS experiment hall at Cessy. Information for collectors: a pictorial postmark and date stamp have been specially designed and produced for the occasion with the assistance of CERN's graphics team. Sending a philatelic souvenir is a great way to commemorate the Open Day, so La Poste will be setting up a large post-box for that very purpose next to its stand. A perfect way to send images of CERN all around the world...

  1. The co-existence of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms in the perinatal period: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Andee; Xuereb, Rita Borg; Carrick-Sen, Debbie; Sultana, Roberta; Rankin, Judith

    2016-05-01

    to identify and appraise the current international evidence regarding the presence and prevalence of the co-existence of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms in the antenatal and post partum period. using a list of keywords, Medline, CINHAL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Web of Science and the Index of Theses and Conference Proceedings (Jan 1960 - Jan 2015) were systematically searched. Experts in the field were contacted to locate papers that were in progress or in press. Reference lists from relevant review articles were searched. Inclusion criteria included full papers published in English reporting concurrent depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms in pregnant and post partum women. A validated data extraction review tool was used. 3424 citations were identified. Three studies met the full inclusion criteria. All reported findings in the postnatal period. No antenatal studies were identified. The prevalence of triple co-morbidity was relatively low ranging from 2% to 3%. triple co-morbidity does occur, although the prevalence appears to be low. Due to the presentation of complex symptoms, women with triple co-morbidity are likely to be difficult to identify, diagnose and treat. Clinical staff should be aware of the potential of complex symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbetocin versus oxytocin for prevention of post-partum haemorrhage at caesarean section in the United Kingdom: An economic impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Nelson, Helen A; Draycott, Tim; Siassakos, Dimitrios; Yau, Christopher W H; Hatswell, Anthony J

    2017-03-01

    To determine the economic impact of the introduction of carbetocin for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at caesarean section, compared to oxytocin. The model is a decision tree conducted from a UK National Health Service perspective. 1500 caesarean sections (both elective and emergency) were modelled over a 12 month period. Efficacy data was taken from a published Cochrane meta-analysis, and costs from NHS Reference costs, the British National Formulary and the NHS electronic Medicines Information Tool. A combination of hospital audit data and expert input from an advisory board of clinicians was used to inform resource use estimates. The main outcome measures were the incidence of PPH and total cost over a one year time horizon, as a result of using carbetocin compared to oxytocin for prevention of PPH at caesarean section. The use of carbetocin compared to oxytocin for prevention of PPH at caesarean section was associated with a reduction of 30 (88 vs 58) PPH events (>500ml blood loss), and a cost saving of £27,518. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, carbetocin had a 91.5% probability of producing better outcomes, and a 69.4% chance of being dominant (both cheaper and more effective) compared to oxytocin. At list price, the introduction of carbetocin appears to provide improved clinical outcomes along with cost savings, though this is subject to uncertainty regarding the underlying data in efficacy, resource use, and cost. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Elevated levels of Hs-CRP and IL-6 after delivery are associated with depression during the 6 months post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Yutao; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-09-30

    The objective of this study is to determine whether inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6) early in the postpartum period contribute to the development of postpartum depression (PPD). From 4 May 2014 to 30 June 2014, all eligible women not on medication for depression giving birth at the Beijing Chao-Yang hospital were consecutively recruited and followed up for 6 months. Depression symptoms were measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and inflammatory biomarkers (Hs-CRP and IL-6) were tested. During the study period, 296 women were enrolled and completed follow-up. In these women, 45 (15.2%) were considered as meeting the criteria for PPD. Serum levels of Hs-CRP and IL-6 in women with PPD were significantly higher than those without PPD (all P<0.0001). Receiver operating characteristics to predict PPD demonstrated areas under the curve of IL-6 of 0.861 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.801-0.922), which was superior to Hs-CRP (0.837 (95% CI, 0.781-0.894), P<0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, IL-6 and Hs-CRP were independent predictors of PPD. The present study demonstrates a strong relationship between elevated serum Hs-CRP and IL-6 levels at admission and the development of PPD within 6 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Post-partum reproductive activity and estrus synchronization responsiveness in anglonubian x sprd fed with dried carnauba wax palm fruit (Copernicia prunifera long term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maia Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the use of dried carnauba wax palm fruit in 28 postpartum goats fed diets containing Bermudagrass hay and either corn (WCWP or carnauba-based (CWP concentrated feed. Estrus synchronization was performed 90 days postpartum, and the goats were mated. In the CWP group, compared to the WCWP group, the daily dry matter intake was significantly reduced (646.48 ± 11.03 g vs. 739.29 ± 3.24 g, respectively; P < 0.01. The time to the first functional corpus luteum was similar between the groups, occurring a mean 66 days postpartum. During estrus synchronization, the CWP group had a decreased sternal subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness when compared to the WCWP group (11.93 ± 0.45 mm vs. 13.69 ± 0.57 mm, respectively; P < 0.05 and a lower pregnancy rate (86.67% vs. 46.15%, respectively; P < 0.02. The embryonic vesicle and crown-rump length growth rates, and the biparietal, thoracic, and abdominal diameters at 45 days of pregnancy were within normal range for goats in both groups. Litter size at birth was similar between the groups at a mean 1.39 ± 0.11. In conclusion, the substitution of corn with dehydrated carnauba wax palm fruit in concentrated feed for postpartum goats showed no positive effects. Reduced feed intake in the does consuming the carnauba diet caused decreased body reserves, which probably resulted in a decreased pregnancy rate in the affected does.

  5. A rare case of important and recurrent abnormal uterine bleeding in a post partum woman caused by cavernous hemangioma: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka, Kacou Edele; Apollinaire Horo, Gninlgninrin; Fomba, Minata; Kouyate, Salif; Koffi, Abdoul Koffi; Konan, Seni; Fanny, Mohamed; Effi, Benjamin; Kone, Mamourou

    2017-01-01

    The cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumor. About 50 cases of this disease were found in the literature over the last century and only 9 cases of cavernous hemangioma on the pregnant uterus were published it comes into cavernous or capillary form. The symptomatology is not unequivocal and when it occurs during pregnancy or postpartum, it causes life-threatening cataclysmic hemorrhage. Antenatal diagnosis is difficult and requires a multidisciplinary approach with pathologists, radiologists and gynecologists to avoid these complications or unnecessary hysterectomies. The diagnosis is histological. Hysterectomy is possible after failure of conservative treatment means. We report a rare case, a novel mixed cavernous hemangioma of the body associated with a capillary hemangioma of the cervix in a patient of 28 years 5th visors with recurrent genital bleeding in the postpartum period leading to a hysterectomy.

  6. Acute disseminated melioidosis giving rise to pneumonia and renal abscesses complicated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in a post partum woman: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewickrama, Piyumi Sachindra Alwis; Weerakoon, Rohini

    2017-11-29

    Melioidosis is an established endemic infection in Sri Lanka, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram negative bacterium distributed in saprophytes in soil and surface water. Main mode of transmission is via percutaneous inoculation. Pneumonia is the most common presentation in acute disease. We report a 33 year old previously healthy Sinhalese female with an occupational exposure to surface water in paddy fields, who was on postpartum day 6 following an uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery via an elective caesarian section. She presented with a 1 day history of breathlessness, preceded by a brief episode of fever. She had occasional right side coarse crackles and pitting oedema of both lower limbs. Shortly after admission, she developed type one respiratory failure needing invasive mechanical ventilation. Initial chest x-ray revealed slight obliteration of right medial diaphragmatic border while echocardiogram revealed moderate pulmonary hypertension. Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram excluded a pulmonary embolism, but revealed bilateral multi-lobar consolidation. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated bilateral pyelonephritis with renal abscesses. As initial cultures were inconclusive, melioidosis antibody levels were done due to high degree of suspicion, which was found to be positive with a titer of 1:2560. A diagnosis of melioidosis was made based on the suggestive clinical picture, exposure history and the highly positive antibody level. She developed left side focal seizures together with thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anemia, suggestive of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain was negative for cerebral abscesses but revealed extensive minute haemorrhagic foci throughout the cerebrum. Thus, the final diagnosis was acute melioidosis causing pneumonia and renal abscesses, complicated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and sepsis. She demonstrated dramatic response to high dose meropenem and co-trimoxazole along with plasmapheresis. Four weeks after treatment, the antibody titer came down to 1:320. Melioidosis antibody was absent in the baby. This case was challenging as it was an atypical presentation of melioidosis during postpartum leading to a diagnostic conundrum. This highlights the need to look into the effect of pregnancy and postpartum as added risk factors. High index of suspicion is necessary to avoid diagnostic delays.

  7. A case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the setting of post-partum preeclampsia with suppressed plasma aldosterone levels and plasma renin activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Negro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is characterized by headache, altered mental status, visual loss, and seizures. PRES is associated with neuroradiological findings: white matter abnormalities, predominantly in the parieto-occipital regions of the brain. PRES has been described in association with hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia, renal failure, or following immunosuppressive or anticancer therapy. We report a case of PRES in a severe preeclampsia occurring in the late postpartum period, with suppressed plasma aldosterone levels and plasma renin activity. These laboratory abnormalities may be due to an apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome.

  8. 分娩直後の脳出血にて発症したPost-partum cerebral angiopathyの一例

    OpenAIRE

    春原, 匡; 渡部, 寿一; 大里, 俊明; 高橋, 雄一; 村橋, 威夫; 荻野, 達也; 石井, 康博; 中川原, 譲二

    2008-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman of her first pregnancy presented with intracranial hemorrhage of right caudate nucleus soon after delivery. She had had no history of pregnancy-induced hypertension or no complication in her pregnant course. Blood pressure in delivery was controlled within normal limit. Angiography revealed bilateral vasoconstriction of intracranial vessels and blood flow counted by SPECT was decreased. Steroid pals therapy was done, but watershed infarction with right foot weakness occurr...

  9. Relationship between histopathological changes in post partum renal biopsies and renal function tests of African women with early onset pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedun, S M; Naicker, T; Moodley, J

    2000-05-01

    To improve the diagnostic accuracy of concurrent renal disease in hypertension of pregnancy, biopsy evaluation is essential. In addition, establishing underlying renal disease is important for prognosis on future pregnancies. We therefore designed a study to determine the diagnostic yield of postpartum renal biopsy and the nature and frequency of complications associated with this procedure. Also, to determine relationships, if any, between renal function tests and ultrastructural and histopathological findings. Fifty renal biopsies were performed in the immediate postpartum period in black African women with early onset pre-eclampsia. Each biopsy specimen was placed in a separate container and coded so that sampling was unknown to the electron microscopist. Each biopsy specimen was divided into three parts, and processed and stained for light, fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy using conventional techniques. Renal tissue biopsies were adequate for diagnostic purposes in all cases. There were no complications in any of the 50 patients studied. Ultrastructural examination confirmed the light microscopy findings. In addition the ultrastructural findings showed intramembranous deposits, foot process fusion and mesangial deposits. In 16 patients with normal renal function tests; the biopsies evaluation from these patients showed ultrastructural changes. In the remaining 34 patients with abnormal renal function tests of varying severity; biopsy evaluation from these patients showed both ultrastructural and histopathological changes. Renal biopsy procedure is safe, and ultrastructural and histological findings obtained from postpartum renal biopsies are more informative than the routine renal function tests.

  10. Blood as a surrogate marker for tissue-specific DNA methylation and changes due to folate depletion in post-partum female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Jill A; Xie, Long; Harris, Sarah; Wong, Yi K; Ford, Dianne; Mathers, John C

    2011-07-01

    DNA methylation patterns are tissue specific and may influence tissue-specific gene regulation. Human studies investigating DNA methylation in relation to environmental factors primarily use blood-derived DNA as a surrogate for DNA from target tissues. It is therefore important to know if DNA methylation changes in blood in response to environmental changes reflect those in target tissues. Folate intake can influence DNA methylation, via altered methyl donor supply. Previously, manipulations of maternal folate intake during pregnancy altered the patterns of DNA methylation in offspring but, to our knowledge, the consequences for maternal DNA methylation are unknown. Given the increased requirement for folate during pregnancy, mothers may be susceptible to aberrant DNA methylation due to folate depletion. Female mice were fed folate-adequate (2 mg folic acid/kg diet) or folate-deplete (0.4 mg folic acid/kg diet) diets prior to mating and during pregnancy and lactation. Following weaning, dams were killed and DNA methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing® in blood, liver, and kidney at the Esr1, Igf2 differentially methylated region (DMR)1, Igf2 DMR2, Slc39a4CGI1, and Slc39a4CGI2 loci. We observed tissue-specific differences in methylation at all loci. Folate depletion reduced Igf2 DMR1 and Slc39a4CGI1 methylation across all tissues and altered Igf2 DMR2 methylation in a tissue-specific manner (pmethylation measurements may not always reflect methylation within other tissues. Further measurements of blood-derived and tissue-specific methylation patterns are warranted to understand the complexity of tissue-specific responses to altered nutritional exposure. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A novel tamponade agent for management of post partum hemorrhage: adaptation of the Xstat mini-sponge applicator for obstetric use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria I; Jensen, Jeffrey T; Gregory, Kenton; Bullard, Mary; Longo, Paul; Heidel, Jerry; Edelman, Alison

    2017-06-13

    Although uterine tamponade is an effective treatment for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), current methods have key limitations in their use, particularly in low resource settings. The XStat™ Mini Sponge Dressing (MSD) is approved for the management of non-compressible wounds in the battlefield/trauma setting. The MSD applies highly compressed medical sponges capable of stopping high-flow arterial bleeding within seconds. The objective of our study was to adopt the MSD for use in managing PPH. We performed desktop testing using a uterine model with pressure sensors to compare key design elements of the obstetrical prototype MSD (fundal pressure achieved, reduction in fluid loss, time to deploy, and time to remove) with alternativetechniques (uterine packing, balloon tamponade). To evaluate safety, we delivered the fetus of pregnant ewes by cesarean section and used the prototype to deliver the MSD into one uterine horn, and closed the hysterotomy. We followed the clinical recovery of animals (n = 3) over 24 h, and then removed the reproductive tract for histologic evaluation. To evaluate late effects, we surgically removed the MSDs after 24 h, and followed the clinical recovery of animals (n = 6) for an additional seven days before tissue removal. The obstetrical prototype has a long tapered delivery system designed to be deployed during vaginal examination, and administers three times the volume of the approved MSD trauma bandage. The MSD are deployed within a mesh bag to facilitate removal by vaginaltraction. On desktop testing, the MSD resulted in the highest average fundal pressure (113 mmHg), followed by the MSD bag device (85.8 mmHg), gauze packing (15.5 mmHg), and the uterine balloon (8.2 mmHg). The MSD bag test group achieved the largest fluid flow reduction of -74%, followed by gauze packing (-55%), MSD (-35%), and uterine balloon (-19%). Animal testing demonstrated good uterine fill with no evidence of adverse clinical recovery, uterine trauma or infection at 24 h, or up to 7 days following device removal. We adapted a highly effective trauma dressing and applicator for use in the treatment of severe PPH. Preliminary desktop and animal testing provide a basis for initial clinical trials in women.

  12. Improving the antenatal and post-partum management of women presenting to Sexual Health Services with positive syphilis serology through audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Christina H; Henniker-Major, Ruth; Homfray, Virginia; Browne, Rita

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of congenital syphilis remains low in the UK, but the morbidity and mortality to babies born to women who are untreated for the condition make testing for the disease antenatally one of the most cost-effective screening programmes. Women attending North Middlesex Hospital, UK with a positive syphilis test at their antenatal booking visit are referred to St Ann's Sexual Health Clinic, London, for management and contact tracing. We were concerned that our initial audit revealed that a large proportion of women referred to our service never attended and recorded partner notification was poor. Following the implementation of recommendations, specifically the introduction of an electronic referral system, re-audit showed an improvement in attendance, contact tracing, documentation and communication.

  13. Etat de Stress Post-traumatique lié à l'accouchement et Algies pelviennes chroniques

    OpenAIRE

    GEFFROY- GRECO , Gisele

    2005-01-01

    Objectif : Rechercher un lien entre un accouchement objectivement stressant (césarienne ou forceps pour anomalies du rythme cardiaque fœtal, hémorragie de la délivrance) et des algies pelviennes chroniques (dysménorrhées, douleurs pelviennes non cycliques, dyspareunies) dans le post-partum tardif (au-delà d'un an).Méthode : auto-questionnnaire ; enquête exposés/non-exposés ; comparaison entre accouchement stressant et accouchement normal. Résultats : taux de réponse 58,3%. 253 patientes dans ...

  14. Monitoring post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Jespersen, Andreas Maaløe

    2013-01-01

    This blog reports on the rumour that White House considers establishing a nudge unit similar to the UK Behavioural Insights Team. Given The Nudging Networks purpose and the work of the iNudgeYou-team this post is updated continuously to follow the US debate as it unfolds. Which issues are raised...

  15. Post petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urry, John

    2014-01-01

    In this original book-object, John Urry describes a world conditioned by an all-oil system. Our movement, possessions, and even our social relationships are entirely dependent on this rapidly-depleting energy source. He shows that the 20. century created the illusion of a future that, today, proves untenable, even in the medium term. While everyone's attention is still focused on just how long this reprieve will last, John Urry shifts the debate, asking the much more fundamental question: 'What happens next?' What would a world without oil look like? How would our lives as producers and consumers play out in a world deprived of this resource? In spite of growing awareness of the depletion of oil reserves, these questions remain unanswered. That is why the author alerts us to the need to prepare for post-oil now, and asks: without political awareness, how can our societies radically reinvent their relationship to energy and movement? John Urry thus imagines what will become of 'disconnected' societies in the form of four 'post-oil' scenarios, and calls us to action. His work is of particular importance to the Mobile Lives Forum, which aims to imagine good mobile lives for the future and prepare for the mobility transition. This text is transcript of a lecture given by John Urry to the Mobile Lives Forum's Scientific Steering Committee. Table of contents: 1 - Illusion: Understanding the energization of a social phenomenon; The birth of a new socio-technical system; United states: founders of an all-energy society; The emergence of an oil-based civilisation; Increasing difficulties in the use of oil; The role of oil in the current economic crisis; Can oil-dependency be deleted?; 2 - 4 scenarios: The Magic bullet future; digital lives; Unplugging: a post-car society; Warlordism in a world of shortages; 3 - Conclusion

  16. SUSPICIOUS POST

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    If you receive a suspicious letter or package in the post, please do not open it and contact the Fire Brigade Tel. 74444. They will contact the CERN Medical Service. This is especially important in today's current situation with regard to the Anthrax scare. For further information, the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva recommends the following web sites:   http://www.admin.ch/ch/f/cf/brennpunkt/03.html http://www.who.int/emc-documents/zoonoses/whoemczdi986c.html

  17. Posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1983-01-01

    A system for posting hazardous materials into and out of an enclosure, such as a glovebox, through a port in a wall of the enclosure. The port is normally closed by a door which cooperates with a removable end closure, on a container or the like when the latter is presented to and secured at the port. The container is secured in position at the port by means of a rotatable coupling ring. A single interlock ensures that the door cannot be opened in the absence of a container at the port and also that the container cannot be removed from the port when the door is open. In place of the container, a glove secured to a rigid sleeve may be used to enable the operator to perform a work function within the glovebox. (author)

  18. Posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    A posting system for the movement of equipment, such as a manipulator, into and out of an enclosure e.g. a cell or glovebox, for toxic or radioactive materials has the manipulator arranged within a collapsible bellows-like container with an end of the container cooperating with a port entry to the enclosure. The collapsible container isolates the manipulator from the environment outside the enclosure and allows the manipulator to enter and leave the contaminated enclosure without breach of the containment. A particular construction of cell for use with radioactive material is described, having a thick wall of shielding material such as concrete provided with a door normally closed by a Pb shutter and having a cylindrical gamma shield block located over the shutter on the exterior of the wall. (author)

  19. USO DA PGF2? NO PUERPÉRIO PARA REDUZIR O ANESTRO PÓS-PARTO DE CABRAS EM ALEITAMENTO CONTÍNUO E CONTROLADO USE OF PGF2? ON THE PUERPERIO TO REDUCE THE POS-PARTUM ANESTROUS OF CONTINUOS OR CONTROLLED SUCKLING GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernandes Lima

    2008-07-01

    study the effect of PGF2α administration on anestrous post-partum period in 80 goats, with continuos or controlled suckled, rised in semi-extensive system with water and mineral salt ad libitum. The females, with age between two and six years, were randomly distributed in three groups (GI, GII, GIII. The females of GI (n = 30 received 250µg of PGF2α in vulvar muscle on days 6th and 12th after delivery. The females of GII (n = 30 received the same treatment of Group I, but every day from days 6th to 10th after delivery. The GIII (n = 20 was the control group. The estrous detection was made by using teasers and the mating with bucks with confirmed fertility. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and by analysis of standard errors of difference among proportions. Difference in the occurrence of estrous among the three experimental groups was not observed (P > 0.05, however the average time of post partum anestrous was significantly reduced (P < 0.05 in animals treated with PGF2α. It was also detected a relevant reduction (P < 0.05 of post-partum anestrous in females with controlled suckled. Difference was not registered (P > 0.05 on pregnant percentages among the different groups. It may be concluded that the administration of PGF in the beginning of puerperium in caprine is efficient to reduce the anestrous pos-partum period, specially in females controlled suckled; however do not influence the fertility in meat goats.

    KEY WORDS: Caprine, estrus, puerperium, prostaglandine.

  20. Post natal use of analgesics: comparisons between conventional postnatal wards and a maternity hotel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeng, Hedvig; Eskild, Anne; Nesheim, Britt-Ingjerd

    2010-04-01

    To investigate factors related to analgesic use after delivery, and especially whether rates of analgesic use were different in a midwife-managed maternity hotel as compared to conventional postnatal wards. One maternity hotel and two conventional postnatal wards at Ullevål University Hospital in Oslo, Norway. Data were obtained from hospital records for 804 women with vaginal deliveries. Postnatal analgesic use. Overall, approximately half the women used analgesics after vaginal delivery in both conventional postnatal wards and maternity hotel. The factors that were significantly associated with use of analgesics postnatally in multivariate analysis were multiparity, having a non-Western ethnicity, smoking in pregnancy, younger age, instrumental delivery, analgesic use during labour, maternal complications post partum, and duration of postnatal stay 4 days or more. The use of analgesics is determined by socio-demographic and obstetric factors rather than the organisation of the ward.

  1. Risk of post-pregnancy hypertension in women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Ida; Basit, Saima; Melbye, Mads; Lykke, Jacob A; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Bundgaard, Henning; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Boyd, Heather A

    2017-07-12

    Objectives  To determine how soon after delivery the risk of post-pregnancy hypertension increases in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and how the risk evolves over time. Design  Nationwide register based cohort study. Setting  Denmark. Populations  482 972 primiparous women with a first live birth or stillbirth between 1995 and 2012 (cumulative incidence analyses), and 1 025 118 women with at least one live birth or stillbirth between 1978 and 2012 (Cox regression analyses). Main outcome measures  10 year cumulative incidences of post-pregnancy hypertension requiring treatment with prescription drugs, and hazard ratios estimated using Cox regression. Results  Of women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in a first pregnancy in their 20s, 14% developed hypertension in the first decade post partum, compared with 4% of women with normotensive first pregnancies in their 20s. The corresponding percentages for women with a first pregnancy in their 40s were 32% and 11%, respectively. In the year after delivery, women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy had 12-fold to 25-fold higher rates of hypertension than did women with a normotensive pregnancy. Rates in women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy were threefold to 10-fold higher 1-10 years post partum and remained twice as high even 20 or more years later. Conclusions  The risk of hypertension associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is high immediately after an affected pregnancy and persists for more than 20 years. Up to one third of women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy may develop hypertension within a decade of an affected pregnancy, indicating that cardiovascular disease prevention in these women should include blood pressure monitoring initiated soon after pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Abordagem fisioterapêutica no pré-parto: proposta de protocolo e avaliação da dor Physiotherapeutic approach in the pre-partum: proposed protocol and evaluate pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Souza Castro

    2012-09-01

    , relaxation and transcutaneous electrical stimulation. After the intervention, the volunteers were questioned again by VAS. The VAS data pre-and post-intervention were submitted to the paired t test, reaching an average value of 8.8 pre-intervention and 8.2 post-intervention, no statistical difference. The results obtained through quantitative analysis of pain showed no increase of the same until one hour after the intervention, which was considered positive, since due to the increasing expansion is expected to increase the pain. The proposed physical therapy protocol proved easy to apply. It can assist the therapist in choosing the most adequate to the reality of pre-delivery room. The physical therapy approach in the pre-partum seems to positively affect pain and maternal discomfort in the study group.

  3. Revisiting the Yummy Mummy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina; Folmann, Birgitte; Nikolajsen, Helene

    To explore Danish new fathers’ perceptions of their partners’ post partum body and how fathers’ perspective influence the post partum body identity and body image of the new mother.......To explore Danish new fathers’ perceptions of their partners’ post partum body and how fathers’ perspective influence the post partum body identity and body image of the new mother....

  4. Severe maternal morbidity and breastfeeding outcomes in the early post-natal period: a prospective cohort study from one English maternity unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Cooper, Derek; Bick, Debra

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has identified potential issues of establishing and maintaining breastfeeding among women who experience severe maternal morbidity associated with pregnancy and birth, but evidence in the UK maternity population was scarce. We explored the association between severe maternal morbidity and breastfeeding outcomes (uptake and prevalence of partial and exclusive breastfeeding) at 6 to 8 weeks post-partum in a UK sample. Data on breastfeeding outcomes were obtained from a large cohort study of women who gave birth in one maternity unit in England to assess the impact of women's experiences of severe maternal morbidity (defined as major obstetric haemorrhage, severe hypertensive disorder or high dependency unit/intensive care unit admission) on their post-natal health and other important outcomes including infant feeding. Results indicated that among women who responded (n = 1824, response rate = 53%), there were no statistically significant differences in breastfeeding outcomes between women who did or did not experience severe morbidity, except for women with severe hypertensive disorder who were less likely to breastfeed either partially or exclusively at 6 to 8 weeks post-partum. Rather, breastfeeding outcomes were related to multi-dimensional factors including sociodemographic (age, ethnicity, living arrangement), other pregnancy outcomes (neonatal intensive care unit admission, mode of birth, women's perceived control during birth) and post-natal psychological factors (depressive symptoms). Women who experience severe maternal morbidity can be reassured that establishing successful breastfeeding can be achieved. More studies are required to understand what support is best for women who have complex health/social needs to establish breastfeeding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Post cardiac injury syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S L; Nielsen, F E

    1991-01-01

    The post-pericardiotomy syndrome is a symptom complex which is similar in many respects to the post-myocardial infarction syndrome and these are summarized under the diagnosis of the Post Cardiac Injury Syndrome (PCIS). This condition, which is observed most frequently after open heart surgery, i...... on the coronary vessels, with cardiac tamponade and chronic pericardial exudate. In the lighter cases, PCIS may be treated with NSAID and, in the more severe cases, with systemic glucocorticoid which has a prompt effect....

  6. Castor oil for induction of labor in post-date pregnancies: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Ronit; Hochner, Hagit; Savitsky, Bella; Porat, Shay; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorith

    2018-02-01

    Castor oil is a substance used for labor induction in an inpatient setting. However, its efficacy as an agent for the induction of labor, for post-date pregnancies in an outpatient setup is unknown. Efficacy of castor oil as an agent for the induction of labor, for post-date pregnancies in outpatient settings. Eighty-one women with a low-risk post-date singleton pregnancy with a Bishop score≤7, without effective uterine contractions were randomized to the intervention, 60ml of castor oil, or the control, 60ml of sun-flower oil. The primary outcome was proportion of women entering the active phase of labor 24, 36, 48h after ingestion. Secondary outcomes included meconium stained amniotic fluid, abnormal fetal heart rate tracing, cesarean section rate, instrumental deliveries, birth weight, 5min Apgar score, chorioamnionitis, hypertensive complications, retained placenta, and post-partum hemorrhage. Intervention and control groups included 38 and 43 women, respectively. No differences in baseline characteristics, except for age were noted. The observed interaction between castor oil and parity was significant (p interaction =0.02). Multiparous women in the intervention group exhibited a significant beneficial effect on entering active labor within 24, 36 and 48h after castor oil consumption compared with the placebo (Hazard Ratio=2.93, p=0.048; Hazard Ratio=3.29, p=0.026; Hazard Ratio=2.78, p=0.042 respectively). This effect was not noted among primiparous women. No differences in rate of obstetric complications or adverse neonatal outcomes were noted. Castor oil is effective for labor induction, in post-date multiparous women in outpatient settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Post-Polio Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Post-Polio Syndrome Information Page Post-Polio Syndrome Information Page What research is being done? ... behavior of motor neurons many years after a polio attack. Others are looking at the mechanisms of ...

  8. Glove box posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    A system for posting objects into closed containers, such as glove boxes, is described in which the bag used, preferably made of plastic, does not have to be fitted and sealed by the operator during each posting operation. (U.K.)

  9. The protective role of maternal post-traumatic growth and cognitive trauma processing in Palestinian mothers and infants: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2018-02-21

    Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences. This three-wave prospective study involved Palestinian women living in the Gaza Strip who were at the second trimester of pregnancy (T1), women with infants aged 4 months (T2), and women with children aged 12 months (T3) months. The participants reported their war experiences in a 30-item checklist of losses, destruction, and atrocities in the 2008-09, 2012, and 2014 military offensives. Post-traumatic growth was assessed by a 21-item scale and post-traumatic cognition by a 36-item scale. Maternal mental health was assessed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive, anxiety, and dissociation symptoms at T1 and T3, and infants' stress regulation was assessed with the Infant Behaviour Questionnaire at T2 and T3. We included 511 women at T1, 481 women at T2, and 454 women at T3. High maternal post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition had protective roles. Post-traumatic growth had a protective effect on maternal mental health since severe exposure to traumatic war experiences was not associated with maternal PTSD, depression, and dissociation if women showed high post-traumatic growth, as indicated by the significant interaction effect between post-traumatic growth and war trauma on each of the three symptoms. Post-traumatic cognition had a protective effect on infant development since severe exposure was not associated with dysfunctional

  10. Post-quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Daniel J; Lange, Tanja

    2017-09-13

    Cryptography is essential for the security of online communication, cars and implanted medical devices. However, many commonly used cryptosystems will be completely broken once large quantum computers exist. Post-quantum cryptography is cryptography under the assumption that the attacker has a large quantum computer; post-quantum cryptosystems strive to remain secure even in this scenario. This relatively young research area has seen some successes in identifying mathematical operations for which quantum algorithms offer little advantage in speed, and then building cryptographic systems around those. The central challenge in post-quantum cryptography is to meet demands for cryptographic usability and flexibility without sacrificing confidence.

  11. Post-quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Lange, Tanja

    2017-09-01

    Cryptography is essential for the security of online communication, cars and implanted medical devices. However, many commonly used cryptosystems will be completely broken once large quantum computers exist. Post-quantum cryptography is cryptography under the assumption that the attacker has a large quantum computer; post-quantum cryptosystems strive to remain secure even in this scenario. This relatively young research area has seen some successes in identifying mathematical operations for which quantum algorithms offer little advantage in speed, and then building cryptographic systems around those. The central challenge in post-quantum cryptography is to meet demands for cryptographic usability and flexibility without sacrificing confidence.

  12. In utero and intra-partum HIV-1 transmission and acute HIV-1 infection during pregnancy: using the BED capture enzyme-immunoassay as a surrogate marker for acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinda, Edmore T; Moulton, Lawrence H; Humphrey, Jean H; Hargrove, John W; Ntozini, Robert; Mutasa, Kuda; Levin, Jonathan

    2011-08-01

    The BED assay was developed to estimate the proportion of recent HIV infections in a population. We used the BED assay as a proxy for acute infection to quantify the associated risk of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) during pregnancy and delivery. Design A total of 3773 HIV-1 sero-positive women were tested within 96 h of delivery using the BED assay, and CD4 cell count measurements were taken. Mothers were classified according to their likelihood of having recently seroconverted. The risk of MTCT in utero and intra-partum was assessed comparing different groups defined by BED and CD4 cell count, adjusting for background factors using multinomial logistic models. Compared with women with BED ≥ 0.8/CD4 ≥ 350 (typical of HIV-1 chronic patients) there was insufficient evidence to conclude that women presenting with BED pregnancy.

  13. Post-Concussion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... psychological factors, especially since the most common symptoms — headache, dizziness and sleep problems — are similar to those often experienced by people diagnosed with depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder. In many cases, both physiological effects of ...

  14. La prise en charge de l'allaitement artificiel par les méthodes alternatives à la bromocriptine dans le post-partum : ses effets et limites sur le moyen terme

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since March 2013, the "Agence Nationale de Sécurité du médicament" has evaluated that the benefit-risk ratio of the bromocriptine was unfavourable in the indication of "inhibition of physiological lactation for medical reason in the immediate and late postpartum". Review: The current recommendations rest on the use of the nonmedicamentous methods, while specifying not to replace the bromocriptine by another lactation's inhibitor molecule (lisuride, cabergoline). Material: A stud...

  15. Estudo ultra-sonográfico da involução uterina pós-parto em cadelas Ultrasonography study of the post-partum uterine involution in bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T.S. Ferri

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se 15 cadelas no pós-parto, são descritas as características da involução uterina e determinado o diâmetro do útero, por meio de exames seriados de ultra-som em modo B (tempo real, no período de zero a 28 dias pós-parto. O diâmetro uterino declina progressivamente, sem influência da ordem de parto ou tamanho da ninhada. As características ultra-sonográficas do útero são melhor visualizadas na primeira semana pós-parto e a qualidade da imagem diminui com o progresso da involução. Pela técnica usada são visualizadas apenas três camadas constituintes da parede uterina.The ultrasonographic characteristics and the involution of the uterus were described in 15 pregnant bitches by serial B-mode (real time technique at period of 0 to 28 days postpartum. The uterine diameter decreased progressively, without influence of parity or litter size. The ultrasonographic image of the uterus is better view in the first week and the image quality is poor at subsequent weeks. The uterus was composed of only three ecographic layers.

  16. Lower inter-partum interval and unhealthy life-style factors are inversely associated with n-3 essential fatty acids changes during pregnancy: a prospective cohort with Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Thatiana J P; Farias, Dayana R; Rebelo, Fernanda; Lepsch, Jaqueline; Vaz, Juliana S; Moreira, Júlia D; Cunha, Geraldo M; Kac, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    To analyze serum fatty acids concentrations during healthy pregnancy and evaluate whether socioeconomic, demographic, obstetric, nutritional, anthropometric and lifestyle factors are associated with their longitudinal changes. A prospective cohort of 225 pregnant women was followed in the 5th-13th, 20th-26th and 30th-36th weeks of gestation. Serum samples were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and analyzed to determine the fatty acids composition using a high-throughput robotic direct methylation method coupled with fast gas-liquid chromatography. The independent variables comprised the subjects' socioeconomic and demographic status, obstetric history, early pregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary and lifestyle parameters. Analyses were performed using linear mixed-effects models. The overall absolute concentrations of fatty acids increased from the 1st to the 2nd trimester and slightly increased from the 2nd to the 3rd trimester. Early pregnancy BMI, inter-partum interval and weekly fish intake were the factors associated with changes in eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acids (EPA+DHA) and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Early pregnancy BMI, age and monthly per-capita income were inversely associated with the changes in the n-6/n-3 ratio. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with the n-6/n-3 ratio. Early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with EPA+DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while presenting a reduced weekly fish intake and a lower inter-partum interval were associated with lower levels of n-3 PUFAs. A lower per-capita family income and a drinking habit were factors that were positively associated with a higher n-6/n-3 ratio.

  17. Teaching Post-Pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Gregory

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the term ‘post-pornography’, drawing on diverse texts from the last three decades. We propose that ‘post-pornography’ expands Porn Studies beyond its focus on explicit representations of sex. First, we outline the history of post-pornography as a concept that emerged in the sex-positive, anti-censorship and queer/feminist moment in the United States in the 1980s and 1990s and has subsequently been taken up by a diverse group of artists, activists and scholars to describe practices that both reference and attempt to move beyond pornography. We define post-pornography as characterised by three aspects—the denaturalising of sex, the de-centring of the spectator and the recognition of media and technology as inseparable from sex. We examine the history of Porn Studies in the university, including in our own faculty at UNSW Art & Design, and the singular influence of Linda Williams in defining its place and setting out its pedagogical methods. We propose post-pornography as a framework that can confront prevailing assumptions about sex and sexuality that underpin Porn Studies and its critique of pornography, and outline a set of concepts that have emerged from the development of the second- and third-year art theory course Post-Pornographic Bodies.

  18. Computer Security: posting and mis-posting

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    This is what can happen at CERN if you don't lock your computer screen...   “Hi, I am looking for a partner either male or female to attend salsa lessons. I have a great body and enjoy rubbing it against other people on the dance floor. I would consider dinner after with the right person. If you think you can keep up with me and enjoy getting sweaty send me a reply. Stay sexy…” This is the original text of a recent posting on the CERN Market webpage. Some people might find this appealing, some people think this is funny. Personally, I couldn’t care less. But professionally, we had to follow up as this text can be perceived as inappropriate and, thus, in violation of the Terms of Usage of the CERN Market as well as the CERN Computing Rules and its annex on private usage of the CERN computing facilities. We remind you that the CERN Market is a public website that can be used by people within but also outside CERN. All posts are visible world...

  19. Post-Session Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    Entity authentication provides confidence in the claimed identity of a peer entity, but the manner in which this goal is achieved results in different types of authentication. An important factor in this regard is the order between authentication and the execution of the associated session....... In this paper, we consider the case of post-session authentication, where parties authenticate each other at the end of their interactive session. This use of authentication is different from session-less authentication (e.g., in RFID) and pre-session authentication (e.g., for access control.) Post......-session authentication, although a new term, is not a new concept; it is the basis of at least a few practical schemes. We, for the first time, systematically study it and present the underlying authentication model. Further, we show that an important class of problems is solvable using post-session authentication...

  20. Post-human Viewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    to become part of a global cultural flow, thus calling into question the physical connection between viewer and image. This article analyses what happens to that connection when not only the image but also the physical body is mediated and challenged in post-human relations, and examines the ensuing ethical...... implications. The author takes photojournalism and, in particular, mobile phone footage as a starting point for an exploration of the (post-human) body as evidence and sign of authenticity in the modern age of digital communications and journalism....

  1. Post-duralpunktur hovedpine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J

    1990-01-01

    Post dural puncture headache is one of the major complications of spinal anaesthesia. In order to establish this diagnosis, the headache must be dependent on the position of the patient. The symptoms are probably due to leakage of cerebro-spinal fluid from the subarachnoid space to the epidural...

  2. LHC magnet support post

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    A prototype magnet support for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The magnet supports have to bridge a difference in temperature of 300 degrees. Electrical connections, instrumentation and the posts on which the magnets stand are the only points where heat transfer can happen through conduction. They are all carefully designed to draw off heat progressively. The posts are made of 4 mm thick glass-fibre– epoxy composite material. Each post supports 10 000 kg of magnet and leaks just 0.1 W of heat. This piece required a long development period which started in the early ’90s and continued until the end of the decade. The wires next to the support post are wires from strain gauges, which are employed to measure the stress level in the material when the support is mechanically loaded. These supports are mechanically optimized to withstand a weight of up to 100Kn (10 tons) while being as thin as possible to minimize conduction heat to magnets. This is the reason why the stress measurement was extensively done...

  3. Post-irradiation diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerwaldt, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    In radiotherapy of pelvic cancers, the X-ray dose to be delivered to the tumour is limited by the tolerance of healthy surrounding tissue. In recent years, a number of serious complications of irradiation of pelvic organs were encountered. Modern radiotherapy necessitates the acceptance of a calculated risk of complications in order to achieve a better cure rate. To calculate these risks, one has to know the radiation dose-effect relationship of normal tissues. Of the normal tissues most at risk when treating pelvic tumours only the bowel is studied. In the literature regarding post-irradiation bowel complications, severe and mild complications are often mixed. In the present investigation the author concentrated on the group of patients with relatively mild symptoms. He studied the incidence and course of post-irradiation diarrhea in 196 patients treated for carcinoma of the uterine cervix or endometrium. The aims of the present study were: 1) to determine the incidence, course and prognostic significance of post-irradiation diarrhea; 2) to assess the influence of radiotherapy factors; 3) to study the relation of bile acid metabolism to post-irradiation diarrhea; 4) to investigate whether local factors (reservoir function) were primarily responsible. (Auth.)

  4. Teaching Post Keynesian Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denne bog har gør gældende, at post keynesiansk økonomi har sit egen metodiske og didaktiske grundlag, og dens realistisk analyse er tiltrængt i den aktuelle økonomiske og finansielle krise. På et tidspunkt hvor det oprindelige indhold i Keynes 'General Theory ikke længere er til stede i de flest...

  5. [Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Pathophysiology, adiagnosis and treatment of post-pregnancy osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Takumi

    Post-pregnancy osteoporosis is a rare condition with little known pathophysiology. Most cases are diagnosed in the late stage of pregnancy or in the post-partum while breastfeeding, particularly in first pregnancy. Vertebral fractures are most commonly observed and characterized by prolonged severe pain and functional limitations. Measurements of bone mineral density(BMD)of the lumbar spine and proximal femur with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA)are the clinical methods most commonly used for no fracture women. Conventional radiography will confirm the fracture in most cases, and magnetic resonance(MR), which can be safely used during pregnancy, is effective in detecting vertebral fractures and bone marrow edema. Although the bone resorption increased at the end of pregnancy and lactation, the bone formation increases and the bone structure is almost recovered after cessation of lactating in postpartum. There is much uncertainty about whether pharmacological treatments should be used for osteoporosis that presents during pregnancy and lactation. This is partly because of the lack of a firm evidence base for treatment and also because there is a spontaneous recovery of bone mass and strength after pregnancy or weaning.

  6. Communication from La Poste

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    We should like to remind users that post sent to the CERN site must be correctly addressed in order to reach the right destination as quickly as possible: Correspondence (goods subject to Swiss VAT): Surname, first name CERN (Department, Building & Mailbox) Route de Meyrin 385 Case Postale 1211 Genève 23 CERN (Switzerland) Official orders (goods not subject to Swiss VAT): CERN Goods Reception Order number ( Ca, Ct, Cl....) For the attention of: (surname, first name) Route de Meyrin 385 Case Postale 1211 Genève 23 CERN (Switzerland) Please inform your suppliers of the above addresses. Last minute Swiss motorway sticker on sale at the POST OFFICE, Main Building (63 R 02) 40.- CHF

  7. Post-Session Authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed , Naveed; Jensen , Christian ,

    2012-01-01

    Part 1: Full Papers; International audience; Entity authentication provides confidence in the claimed identity of a peer entity, but the manner in which this goal is achieved results in different types of authentication. An important factor in this regard is the order between authentication and the execution of the associated session. In this paper, we consider the case of post-session authentication, where parties authenticate each other at the end of their interactive session. This use of a...

  8. Síndrome post

    OpenAIRE

    Avalos, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    ¿Qué sigue luego de que una mujer terminara su relación con el último hombre que amaba? Eso, dicen ellas, depende de cuanto duró el romance o cómo sea la psiquis de cada amante. Lo cierto es que el escenario post convierte a algunas en depresivas, caletas, indiferentes y hasta amnésicas. ¿Qué te parece, varón?

  9. Pionerserien - Jytte Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Ethvert ungt fag hviler på en række pionerers arbejde med at bane vejen, udbrede kendskabet, overbevise politikere og embedsmænd, forsøge sig frem, støde panden mod en mur og forsøge igen. Hele tiden drevet af troen, lysten og glæden ved faget. Jytte Post Petersen er en af musikterapiens store...

  10. Post-Cruise Questionnaire - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Post-Cruise Questionnaire is a mandatory post trip legal document that observers fill out after every trip they have completed.

  11. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc...... received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement......, pretreatment with tribochemical silicate coating significantly increased retention of the posts. Increased cement film thickness resulted in decreased retention of untreated posts and of pretreated posts luted with zinc phosphate cement. Increased cement film thickness had no influence on retention...

  12. Post-traumatic syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, M.; Sartor, K.; Aschoff, A.; Spahn, B.

    1999-01-01

    The improvement of preclinical emergency medicine, better surgical and conservative therapies, and the development of intensive care units and specialized centers have improved the survival rate for patients with serious spinal cord injuries. Therefore, more sequelae of chronic spinal cord injuries such as post-traumatic spinal cord cavitations also occur. The first such case was described by Bastian in 1867. Generally, these cavitations were diagnosed from 2 months up to 32 years after the trauma. The overall prevalence of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS) is not known; however, with the increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), its diagnosis has increased, ranging from 2.3% of paraplegic and tetraplegic patients in 1976 and 3.2% in 1985, to nearly 50% in a selected group of patients in 1991 and 1993. In 1995, a 4.45% incidence was reported. In our clinic we are currently treating 440 cases of syringomyelia, 140 of which are PTS. Several observations suggest more than one potential mechanism for the evolution of a post-traumatic cyst or PTS. Various factors, such as hemorrhage or, in particular, ischemia within the spinal cord, blockage of the cerebrosinal fluid (CSF) pathways around the cord or localized meningeal fibrosis either alone or in combination with other factors, may be involved. Clinically, sensory disturbances, loss of motor function, pain, and modification of the deep tendon reflexes are observed in most patients. On MRI, PTS is seen as a longitudinal, cystic cavity within the spinal cord, giving a hypointense signal on T 1 -weighted images and a hyperintense signal on T 2 -weighted images. For treatment planning it is mandatory to identify the lower and upper end of the PTS on the MRI. (orig.) [de

  13. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after childbirth and the influence of maternity team care during labour and birth: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, Sarah; Vercauteren, Tinne; Tersago, Jolein; Jacquemyn, Yves; Raes, Filip; Franck, Erik

    2016-01-01

    we examined the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the role of personal and obstetric risk factors, as well as the role of midwifery team care factors in a cohort of Flemish women. prospective cohort study. Data collection was performed at two times post partum: During the first week, socio-demographic and obstetric data as well as information related to midwifery team care factors were assessed using self-report measures. To asses PTSD symptomatology, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Traumatic Event Scale (TES) were used. At six weeks post partum, PTSD symptoms were reassessed either by telephone interviews or e-mail. Results were calculated in frequencies, means and standard deviations. Differences between week one and six were analysed using parametrical and non-parametrical statistics. Multiple and logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors for PTSD symptomatology. P-value was set at 0.05. maternity wards in Flanders, Belgium. the first (week 1) and follow-up (week 6) sample of the data collection consisted of 340 and 229 women respectively. the prevalence of PTSD symptoms after childbirth ranged from 22% to 24% in the first week and from 13% to 20% at six weeks follow-up. Multiple regression analysis showed that Islamic belief, a traumatic childbirth experience, family income <€2500, a history of psychological or psychiatric consults and labour/birth with complications significantly predicted PTSD symptomatology at six weeks post-birth. Midwifery team care and the opportunity to ask questions, as well as experiencing a normal physiological birth were significantly associated with less postnatal PTSD symptoms. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTISE: the results of this study suggest that contextual factors such as religion, socio-economic status, and childbirth experience might be important factors to address by the midwifery team. Midwifery team care factors such as 'providing the opportunity to

  14. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2016-01-01

    The value of developing hybrid international criminal procedure (ICP) is that it is arguably inclusive (representing two major legal traditions) and distinct from any domestic system, thus creating a separate, sui generis realm for international criminal law (ICL) jurists to meet. Since its...... addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  15. The post Chernobyl society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenofontov, Ion.

    2011-01-01

    The disaster from the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl that took place on April 26, 1986 is considered to be the worst ecologic disaster in Europe during the entire nuclear power producing history (estimated on the highest level, the seventh). The disaster had an poisonous impact on people's health and ambitions, it also gave birth to a new vision on the impact of the human factor on the universe. The post Chernobyl society is an alarming sign as regarding the human surviving perspectives, and a violent lesson on the 'global biography'. (author)

  16. Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian; Wallén, Mia; Aakesson, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) is a relatively common and potentially life-threatening complication. The objective of this study was to examine the rate of PTH and identify risk factors. A retrospective cohort study was carried out including all tonsillectomies (430 patients) performed...... as surgical technique" [relative risk (RR) = 5.3], "peritonsillar abscess as indication for surgery" (RR = 0.3) and "age equal to or above 15 years at the time of surgery" (RR = 5.4). It is concluded that patient age, PTA as indication for surgery and the use of coblation significantly affect the occurrence...

  17. Post-Quantum Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauthier Umana, Valérie

    . The public key cryptosystems that can resist these emerging attacks are called quantum resistant or post-quantum cryptosystems. There are mainly four classes of public-key cryptography that are believed to resist classical and quantum attacks: code-based cryptography, hash-based cryptography, lattice......-based cryptography and multivariate public-key cryptography. In this thesis, we focus on the rst two classes. In the rst part, we introduce coding theory and give an overview of code-based cryptography. The main contribution is an attack on two promising variants of McEliece's cryptosystem, based on quasi...

  18. Post LS1 schedule

    CERN Document Server

    Lamont, M

    2014-01-01

    The scheduling limits for a typical long year taking into account technical stops, machine development, spe- cial physics runs are presented. An attempt is then made to outline a ten year post LS1 schedule taking into account the disparate requirements outlined in the previous talks in this session. The demands on the planned long shutdowns and the impact of these demands on their proposed length will be discussed. The option of using ion running as a pre-shutdown cool-down period will be addressed.

  19. Shared consultant physician posts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, J

    2012-01-31

    Our aim was to assess the acceptability and cost-efficiency of shared consultancy posts. Two consultant physicians worked alternate fortnights for a period of twelve months. Questionnaires were distributed to general practitioners, nurses, consultants and junior doctors affected by the arrangement. Patients or their next of kin were contacted by telephone. 1\\/17 of consultants described the experience as negative. 14\\/19 junior doctors reported a positive experience. 11 felt that training had been improved while 2 felt that it had been adversely affected. 17\\/17 GPs were satisfied with the arrangement. 1\\/86 nurses surveyed reported a negative experience. 1\\/48 patients were unhappy with the arrangement. An extra 2.2 (p<0.001) patients were seen per clinic. Length of stay was shortened by 2.49 days (p<0.001). A saving of 69,212 was made due to decreased locum requirements. We present data suggesting structured shared consultancy posts can be broadly acceptable and cost efficient in Ireland.

  20. [Post-traumatic tics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, S; Chacón, J; Redondo, L; Navarro-Busto, C; Solana, B

    1996-10-01

    Secondary tics are those in which an aetiology justifying them can be found, as compared to idiopathic tics, which make up the majority, and the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (SGT), which is, at the moment, of unknown origin. Of the possible aetiologies described as causing tics, craneo-encephalic trauma has been mentioned on very few occasions. We present a case of post-traumatic tics (verbal and neck) in a young man of 24, and review the published cases which can be considered to be of post-traumatic tics. We have found six cases of tics secondary to traumas, all craneo-encephalic, like ours (the one under study). The time interval between the blow and the appearance of the tic or tics varied between 2 weeks and 3 months. The absence of significant lesions seen in the complementary investigations make it impossible for us to discover the site of the lesion caused by the trauma. However, the presence in some cases of other tics before the trauma, and of family histories of tics, supports the idea of a genetic basis or predisposition to suffer this disorder.

  1. Independents' group posts loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, V.; Price, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    Low oil gas prices and special charges caused the group of 50 U.S. independent producers Oil and Gas Journal tracks to post a combined loss in first half 1992. The group logged a net loss of $53 million in the first half compared with net earnings of $354 million in first half 1991, when higher oil prices during the Persian Gulf crisis buoyed earnings in spite of crude oil and natural gas production declines. The combined loss in the first half follows a 45% drop in the group's earnings in 1991 and compares with the OGJ group of integrated oil companies whose first half 1992 income fell 47% from the prior year. Special charges, generally related to asset writedowns, accounted for most of the almost $560 million in losses posted by about the third of the group. Nerco Oil and Gas Inc., Vancouver, Wash., alone accounted for almost half that total with charges related to an asset writedown of $238 million in the first quarter. Despite the poor first half performance, the outlook is bright for sharply improved group earnings in the second half, assuming reasonably healthy oil and gas prices and increased production resulting from acquisitions and in response to those prices

  2. Post-traumatic hemobilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Kailidou, E.

    1991-01-01

    Four patients with post-traumatic hemobilia were evaluated with arteriography over a 2-year period. In two patients hemobilia was of iatrogenic origin; in particular, one case appeared after a cholecystectomy, and the other was due to placement of a biliary stent with an endoscope. In the other two patients hemobilia was the result of a gun injury. Arteriography of the hepatic arterial system demonstrated two false aneurysms, extravasation of contrast medium through the biliary system in one patient and arterioportal fistula in another patient. It is concluded that arteriography of the hepatic arterial system is the method of choice for the evaluation and the possible treatment of patients with hemobilia. (author). 20 refs.; 4 figs

  3. Post-traumatic hemobilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlahos, L.; Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Kailidou, E. (Athens Univ. (Greece))

    Four patients with post-traumatic hemobilia were evaluated with arteriography over a 2-year period. In two patients hemobilia was of iatrogenic origin; in particular, one case appeared after a cholecystectomy, and the other was due to placement of a biliary stent with an endoscope. In the other two patients hemobilia was the result of a gun injury. Arteriography of the hepatic arterial system demonstrated two false aneurysms, extravasation of contrast medium through the biliary system in one patient and arterioportal fistula in another patient. It is concluded that arteriography of the hepatic arterial system is the method of choice for the evaluation and the possible treatment of patients with hemobilia. (author). 20 refs.; 4 figs.

  4. Post dengue neurological complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizlinda Tohid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue infection is highly endemic in many tropical countries including Malaysia. However, neurological complications arising from dengue infection is not common; Gullain–Barre syndrome (GBS is one of these infrequent complications. In this paper, we have reported a case in which a 39-year-old woman presented with a neurological complication of dengue infection without typical symptoms and signs of dengue fever. She had a history of acute gastroenteritis (AGE followed by an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI weeks prior to her presentation rendering GBS secondary to the post viral URTI and AGE as the most likely diagnosis. Presence of thrombocytopenia was the only clue for dengue in this case.

  5. [Enterostomy post emergency enterectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilescu, S; Velicu, D; Gheorghiu, L; Duţescu, S

    2002-01-01

    This is a clinical approach regarding 43 resection of intestine, performed in emergency condition, terminated as enterostomy, with represent 20% of enterectomyes performed in emergency condition and 1.6% of urgent operations. The decision of enterostomy has been taken in the conditions of peritoneal sepsis, occlusion or the association of the two circumstances. The results are comparatively analyzed between the cases with enterostomy that has been made from the beginning (66% success, 33% gone wrong), and those with enterostomy made at the second intervention (14% success, 86% gone wrong). One discusses problems of leading, technique and post-operating nursing. The intestinal reintegration has been made possible at 16 patients after a timing of three of four weeks.

  6. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalovic A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN is a frequent cause of acute nephritis in children. This case study was done with the aim to point out that the infections caused by Group A streptococci, in spite of antibiotic era, are still present in the population. An 8-year old boy was admitted in our hospital with a two-day history of fewer, tonsillopharyngitis. After hospital admission, patient was treated with penicillin during the period of 10 days, antihypertensive medications (captopril, furosemide, including restricted diet of salt. After the treatment, patient became better. On demission it was found proteinuria and microhematuria PSGN is very serious disease, which leaves severe complications if the valid therapy with penicillin is not used in propriety time, during the recommended period of 10 days.

  7. Post-representational cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Kitchin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a move amongst critical cartographers to rethink maps from a post-representational perspective – that is, a vantage point that does not privilege representational modes of thinking (wherein maps are assumed to be mirrors of the world and automatically presumes the ontological security of a map as a map, but rather rethinks and destabilises such notions. This new theorisation extends beyond the earlier critiques of Brian Harley (1989 that argued maps were social constructions. For Harley a map still conveyed the truth of a landscape, albeit its message was bound within the ideological frame of its creator. He thus advocated a strategy of identifying the politics of representation within maps in order to circumnavigate them (to reveal the truth lurking underneath, with the ontology of cartographic practice remaining unquestioned.

  8. Post-traumatic pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Richard; Wick, Bruce; Kirschen, David

    2003-02-01

    Many clinicians have noted that patients demonstrate a myopic refractive change following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). This apparent myopic shift disappears with cycloplegia, yet stubbornly reappears as soon as the pharmaceutical effect wears off. We propose that this shift is secondary to an irritative lesion that affects the parasympathetic innervation, resulting in ciliary body contracture. The dilemma for the clinician is whether to provide the immediate relief of clear distance vision by prescribing additional minus lenses, or to work toward attempting to re-establish the baseline refractive error. The natural history of post-traumatic pseudomyopia in our experience involves one of the following three courses: (1) a transient condition that will occasionally resolve; (2) the typical case, a recalcitrant condition that will resolve under cycloplegic intervention, but immediately return as the cycloplegic wears off; or (3) a less-common subgroup of patients who continue to show an increase in myopia over time. Our description of these cases demonstrates management strategies (including atropinization) to relax accommodative spasm, traditional vision therapy techniques aimed at loosening the accommodative system, and refractive corrections. Pseudomyopia is one of many ocular and behavioral sequelae following TBI. By understanding the natural course and potential management options for post-traumatic pseudomyopia, the clinician will be better prepared to deal with these challenging cases. Flexibility is required, since options that work with one patient may prove ineffective with another. Counseling the patient as to potential outcomes given the natural history of this condition helps establish more-realistic expectations by the patients being treated.

  9. Post retention and post/core shear bond strength of four post systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, L W; Williams, P T; Clarke, C T

    2000-01-01

    As clinicians we continue to search for a post system which will give us maximum retention while maximizing resistance to root fracture. The introduction of several new post systems, with claims of high retentive and resistance to root fracture values, require that independent studies be performed to evaluate these claims. This study tested the tensile and shear dislodgment forces of four post designs that were luted into roots 10 mm apical of the CEJ. The Para Post Plus (P1) is a parallel-sided, passive design; the Para Post XT (P2) is a combination active/passive design; the Flexi-Post (F1) and the Flexi-Flange (F2) are active post designs. All systems tested were stainless steel. This study compared the test results of the four post designs for tensile and shear dislodgment. All mounted samples were loaded in tension until failure occurred. The tensile load was applied parallel to the long axis of the root, while the shear load was applied at 450 to the long axis of the root. The Flexi-Post (F1) was significantly different from the other three in the tensile test, however, the Para Post XT (P2) was significantly different to the other three in the shear test and had a better probability for survival in the Kaplan-Meier survival function test. Based on the results of this study, our recommendation is for the Para Post XT (P2).

  10. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Post-16 Initiative logo This is the first of a regular series of contributions from the Institute's Post-16 Initiative. The Initiative is taking a hard and searching look at the physics taught in schools and colleges from age 16 to age 19. To start with, it is responding to Government initiatives, but hopes to encourage and stimulate good practice in physics teaching on a longer time scale than can be afforded in making responses to current developments. Here Jon Ogborn writes about what AS courses need to be, while Peter Campbell gives his thoughts about teaching matter. Advanced Subsidiary physics: what should it be? From September 2000 all A-levels will be new. Students can take the first Advanced Subsidiary (AS) year and stop there - or decide to go on. In the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative, we have been thinking how to provide a satisfying one-year experience of physics at the new AS level, and what it should achieve. The students will decide. So the AS course must give a decent picture of what physics is, what it offers for their futures, what interests it can satisfy. That all says breadth, with enough depth to see what is in store later. And this sounds like the right recipe for someone who is taking a single AS year of physics to broaden their A-level experience. It must also be attractive. A way forward is shown by the Salters - Horners course, attracting interest through leading from applications. Why does that work? It gives physics a story to tell, into which ideas fit and make sense. Our own new A-level, Advancing Physics, must also have interesting stories to tell, which must in addition build up an honest picture of physics. An example: teach electric circuits through modern sensing devices. Sensor instrumentation is a key activity of physicists, full of new ideas, but also simple. It makes essential use of circuits such as the potential divider. Practical work gets better things to do than checking the equation for resistors in parallel

  11. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    (post16) Faces of Physics To study a physics course post-16 is take out an option on your future. But physics itself is very varied, and so is what you might do with it. It seems right that post-16 physics courses reflect important aspects of this variety. Physics varies with why people do it. As reliable knowledge, physics is often essential to making things happen. This is physics as feeding into technology, and quite often feeding off technology. The human urge here is the urge to create things that work. It drives individual inventors; it drives large teams in multinational companies. At the opposite end of this spectrum is physics driven by curiosity, by the urge to find out. The stock examples are the grand discoveries from the expansion of the universe to the discovery of the nucleus of atoms. But the physicist's curiosity is often on a more detailed, even finicky scale: how exactly do the molecules of this polymer respond to stress?; just how do ions implanted in this material modify its conductivity? It is clear to me that a decent post-16 physics course must respect and reflect both. This is by no means a matter of `basic laws and their applications'. It is a matter of recognizing two fundamental interests, in doing and in explaining, and of recognizing that they are at once closely interdependent and worlds apart. Ideas in physics are also not of one kind. One opposition is the idea of describing Nature in terms of deterministic physical laws, as against describing Nature as the predictable outcome of probabilistic behaviour `underneath'. The first has gripped the Western imagination since at least the time of Descartes. The second has increasingly come to the fore, especially in thermodynamics with the idea that we can only make processes work by fixing the circumstances so that uncaring atoms and molecules happen by chance to do what we want. Now in quantum theory both ideas - determinism and randomness - co-exist. Post-16 physics courses are not in

  12. IVGEN Post Flight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquillen, John; Brown, Dan; Hussey, Sam; Zoldak, John

    2014-01-01

    The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment was a technology demonstration experiment that purified ISS potable water, mixed it with salt, and transferred it through a sterilizing filter. On-orbit performance was verified as appropriate and two 1.5 l bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA certified laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopiea (USP) standards. Salt concentration deviated from required values and an analysis identified probable causes. Current efforts are focused on Total Organic Content (TOC) testing, and shelf life.The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment demonstrated the purification of ISS potable water, the mixing of the purified water with sodium chloride, and sterilization of the solution via membrane filtration. On-orbit performance was monitored where feasible and two 1.5-liter bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA-registered laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopeia (USP)standards [1]. Current efforts have been focused on challenge testing with identified [2] impurities (total organic-carbon), and shelf life testing. The challenge testing flowed known concentrations of contaminants through the IVGEN deionizing cartridge and membrane filters to test their effectiveness. One finding was that the filters and DI-resin themselves contribute to the contaminant load during initial startup, suggesting that the first 100 ml of fluid be discarded. Shelf life testing is ongoing and involves periodic testing of stored DI cartridges and membrane filters that are capped and sealed in hermetic packages. The testing is conducted at six month intervals measuring conductivity and endotoxins in the effluent. Currently, the packaging technique has been successfully demonstrated for one year of storage testing. The USP standards specifies that the TOC be conducted at point of generation as opposed to point of

  13. Post commissioning noise study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heraud, P.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation described a wind farm post-commissioning study conducted at a wind farm owned by Helimax Energy Inc. The farm was located in a partly-forested, partly cultivated region in Quebec that featured gently rolling hills. Over 600 dwellings were located within 2 km of the wind farm, and 44 dwellings were within the wind farm's boundaries. The noise impact assessments were conducted at various points near the wind farm. The wind farm was designed using an International Standards Organization (ISO) noise propagation model and a 40 dBA to provide adequate setbacks. The study was conducted using 10 days of continuous measurements at selected points of a wind farm. Points of reception included points from 650 m to 800 m. Noise over 2 km was not thought to be contributed by the wind turbine. The nearest dwelling was 512 m from one of the farm's wind turbines. The study also considered ground factor, temperature, relative humidity, and the height of the receptors. Quebec noise level limits are 40 dBA at night, and 45 dBA during the day. Noise level limits are independent of wind speed. Measured noise contributions over 40 dBA were not observed during the measurement program. The wind turbines were only audible for 1 night out of the 30 night study period. It was concluded that the ISO noise propagation model is a reliable tool for conducting noise impact assessments. tabs., figs

  14. NEWS: Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter

    2000-07-01

    post16.gif As a teacher of physics it is very easy to become preoccupied with particulars of courses, or topics or even single concepts. Concerned with imminent student audiences and desired learning outcomes, the daily challenge is to summon satisfactory teaching approaches and resources for the job at hand. For the conscientious teacher, assessment outcomes may too often seem a judgment on our own efforts rather than those of our students. From time to time we may step back and think bigger, for example while planning a recruitment event, or while away from work on holiday. We may be successful locally. But why, at a time when books and television documentaries popularizing science have a large following, has physics education been facing declining numbers? Many recognize that physics has an essential contribution to make to the training of science or engineering specialists, but we know that it is also important for the skilled worker, the informed citizen and, in fact, for anyone trying to make sense of the world. So what are the best ways forward for post-16 physics? To make any impact on the bigger picture requires organization, thinking and meeting time among people in diverse roles: teachers and curriculum managers; university lecturers; employers and professional bodies; unitary awarding bodies; regulatory and funding agencies; and even Government. For the past few years, the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative has created an unrivalled opportunity to address the wider issues. Its Shaping the Future booklets series was designed to stimulate informed discussion and debate, by providing background information and analysis. Taken together, the booklets should help all those concerned with physics education to understand where we are now, and why. Literally dozens of people have contributed to a review and analysis of physics education. Each booklet is a 48-page smorgasbord in A4 landscape format, containing many examples of good practice, basic but

  15. Post-ovulatory contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasier, A; Baird, D T

    1990-06-01

    It is possible to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse by suppressing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization or interfering with tubal transport and/or implantation of the early embryo. IUCDs probably prevent implantation by stimulating the release of prostaglandins from the endometrium but are not acceptable to many women. Post-coital contraceptive steroids, e.g. high-dose oestrogens, are associated with a relatively high incidence of side-effects and must be taken within 72 hours of coitus. As these agents are effective by creating a uterine environment unfavourable for implantation, it may be possible to use antigestagens or antioestrogens in this way. It is already known that an antigestagen in combination with a prostaglandin is a highly effective method of inducing abortion in very early pregnancy. The corpus luteum is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy and its destruction by a luteolytic agent should dislodge the implanting embryo. If an effective method of preventing implantation could be developed which was relatively free from side-effects, it should be possible to use it as a regular form of contraception to be taken only when the risk of pregnancy had occurred.

  16. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  17. NEWS: Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    (post16) Making physics connect Doesn't Melvyn Bragg do a wonderful job, engaging both scientists and artists in sensitive discussion on Radio 4 about their methods and their purposes? But every week teachers have the chance to show their students that physics is a way of seeing the world that is well-connected with other aspects of knowledge and culture. The stakes are high: students who fail to appreciate this generally choose not to study the subject beyond GCSE. Most students find our preoccupation with technical detail off-putting. Accepting that we have a syllabus to cover, it's still a question of balance. In our teaching we should aim for variety in order to find ways to connect with every student's interests. Also, we can show that we (the nearest embodiment of a physicist some students will experience) are multidimensional and so fully human. Most important, teachers need flexibility to both encourage and respond to student comment and questions. The first booklet in the discussion series Shaping the Future takes up these themes. Rich in ideas for both immediate use and the longer term, it aims to stimulate debate and improve teaching. Copies cost £5.50 including postage and are available from Ingrid Ebeyer, Post-16 Initiative, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH. How far is it? This question is asked in many family cars and school minibuses at the start of a journey, and answered by most in terms of hours and minutes rather than miles. What a good idea for introducing a social and historical perspective to a lesson on distance, velocity and time. How far can you actually get in a day? What is the range of human activity? Walking for eight hours will get many people about 25 miles. A pack horse will progress at much the same rate, but fast riding or a coach and team of horses will get further. Motorway driving (when the cones are on holiday) would take you nearly 500 miles. The 05.15 am train from Penzance arrives in Inverness at 7

  18. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    (Post-16 Initiative) Engineering Physics? Many A-level physics students do not go on to study physics. For them physics is a support subject, either just for fun or just for the grade. Where physics is a lead subject some students go on to study physics but many more go on to study engineering. So can we deliberately give some aspects of an A-level course an engineering flavour? Electromagnetism would seem a good place to start. There is a clear `physics' route into this topic, a microscopic forces and fields view of the situation. But do our students really need to look at it this way? All electromagnetic machines are linked magnetic and electric circuits. The design idea is to link these circuits as closely as possible. The electric circuits must be as good as possible, with a high conductivity. The magnetic circuits must be as good as possible, with high permeance. Conductivity depends on area/length. So does permeance. The goodness of an electromagnetic machine (how good it is at its job, which is linking electric and magnetic circuits) scales as the square of its linear dimensions. That means small electromagnetic machines are harder to make, and so the very smallest nanomotors are electrostatic. None of this is new, but many teachers are uncomfortable with it. We are thinking like physicists. Many of our students are not. They deserve us to take the trouble every now and again to encourage them to think a bit differently about a topic, to look at practical ways of discussing design and to give their course an engineering flavour. Philip Britton Coursework in A-level Physics The criteria for the new AS and A-levels have provided the teams developing the specifications with an opportunity to think creatively about how internal assessment is used within post-16 physics courses. Teachers may be concerned that allowing 30% of the marks to be internally assessed will create a burden for them. However, it is possible to look at this in a much more positive light

  19. Effect of a low glycaemic index diet in gestational diabetes mellitus on post-natal outcomes after 3 months of birth: a pilot follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Markovic, Tania P; Ross, Glynis P; Foote, Deborah; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2015-07-01

    A low glycaemic index (LGI) diet during pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may offer benefits to the mother and infant pair beyond those during pregnancy. We aimed to investigate the effect of an LGI diet during pregnancy complicated with GDM on early post-natal outcomes. Fifty-eight women (age: 23-41 years; mean ± SD pre-pregnancy body mass index: 24.5 ± 5.6 kg m(-2) ) who had GDM and followed either an LGI diet (n = 33) or a conventional high-fibre diet (HF; n = 25) during pregnancy had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and blood lipid tests at 3 months post-partum. Anthropometric assessments were conducted for 55 mother-infant pairs. The glycaemic index of the antenatal diets differed modestly (mean ± SD: 46.8 ± 5.4 vs. 52.4 ± 4.4; P diet during pregnancy complicated by GDM has outcomes similar to those of a conventional healthy diet. Adequately powered studies should explore the potential beneficial effects of LGI diet on risk factors for chronic disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Post-Baccalaureate Fellowship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadbury, Jr., William E.

    The Post-Baccalaureate Fellowship Program provides an opportunity for students who went to college with inferior preparation to supplement their education by studying for 1 year at an academically demanding liberal arts college before entering graduate or professional school. The post-baccalaureate fellows take regular courses in a program that is…

  1. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Post-16 Initiative logo Physics in Mathematical Mood Later this year, as part of the post-16 initiative of the Institute of Physics, a booklet with the above title will be published. In draft form, the booklet was discussed at the ASE conference in January. Some of the issues raised are briefly set out here. If you have any views to contribute, please write to Simon Carson at the Institute of Physics or e-mail simon.carson@physics.org. A mathematical view of the world is intrinsically a part of physics and therefore physics should be studied in an appropriately mathematical way. However, we all know that, to some students at least, mathematics proves to be a stumbling block rather than a powerful aid to understanding. So how can we help? Realizing that as physics teachers we need to deliver the mathematics necessary to an understanding of our subject is a start. Its corollary is that we need to find the space within the physics core. We may wish to use supplementary courses such as AS mathematics or QCA's new free-standing mathematics units, but requiring additional courses as a prerequisite to a study of A-level physics may deter students. Teaching the mathematics in context may aid understanding but we also must ensure that techniques are seen in a variety of contexts and that at some point the tool is abstracted from the background. As teachers we need to be aware of the very basic mathematical difficulties that students bring with them: the use of calculators, standard form, simple algebraic manipulation, for example. Mathematical arguments need to be developed fully and carefully. Encouraging cooperation and discussion between students may help the less able to understand and the more able to appreciate and develop their own understanding through making explicit their reasoning by explaining it to others. And what of new technology? Software tools allow students to develop their understanding about graphs, for example, enabling them to investigate the

  2. POST-RELIGION: TRADITIONALISTS’ ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill M. Tovbin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to describe the phenomenon of post-religion as a specific spiritual sphere of the Post-modernity. Methodology. In the introduction analyzed a variety of methodological approaches, opening his inadequacy applied to the spiritual sphere of Post-modernity: «classic» religious studies, religious studies of traditional spiritual movements and the post-modern religious studies, partly produced Traditionalist school, could - according to the author's hypothesis - become a methodological basis for the most complete analysis of post-religion. Scientific novelty. In the main part of the article crystallized the authorized concept of post-religion, its relation with traditional and religious spiritual realms. Post-religion is positioned as the top of secularism enshrined in the departure from the straight and aggressive secularism of the Modernity, but without recourse to Tradition. Post-religion a simulation spirituality, skillfully imitating the outer areas of traditional spirituality and creates a planar religiosity, radically preventing attached to the vertical line of Traditions. In this regard, are the main artificially selected parameters of post-religion: deconstruction, splitting, virtualization, and collage. Deconstruction is a transformation of spirituality in semiotic set for egocentric selectivity of modern believer. Post-religion’s splitting is deprivation of spirituality center, destruction of sacral Center and the transformation of spirituality in the plane on which the intellectual and sensual wandering post-believer from one semiotic island to another. Virtualization is a displacement field of spiritual tension in a completely virtual area, isolated from the natural conditions of existence and created as his replacement, network discussion sites and galleries. Collage is an arbitrary combination of different semiotic pieces of Tradition with the aim of creating a believable picture of tradition; it is collage leads

  3. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Seedat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is among the most prevalentanxiety disorders, both in terms of lifetime and 12-month prevalencerates documented in epidemiological studies worldwide.

  4. Leukoencephalopaty post chemo and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potente, G.; Iozzino, M.; Amici, A.; Vitturini, A.; Capua, A.; Tombolini, V.

    1987-01-01

    22 patients submitted to radio chemotherapy of the central nervous system have been examined. 6 of them (28%) showed at Ct signs of post radiochemotherapic lekoencephalopathy 4 of them suffered of acute myeloid leukemia and 2 of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

  5. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Retention and failure morphology of prefabricated posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, Alireza; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of cement, post material, surface treatment, and shape (1) on the retention of posts luted in the root canals of extracted human teeth and (2) on the failure morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Posts of titanium alloy (ParaPost XH), glass fiber (Para...... at 37 degrees C for 7 days, retention was determined by extraction of the posts. Failure morphology of extracted posts was analyzed and quantified stereomicroscopically. RESULTS: Type of luting cement, post material, and shape of post influenced the retention and failure morphology of the posts. Because...

  7. Post-menopausal breast abscess.

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, G. C.; Naraynsingh, V.; Jankey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty post-menopausal women with breast abscess were treated at Port of Spain General Hospital, Trinidad, between 1976 and 1980. In this age group, breast abscess can be confused with cancer due to a lack of inflammatory features. History and physical examination are often not helpful in differentiating an abscess from carcinoma. Although the usual treatment of an abscess is incision and drainage, in post-menopausal women, excision of the lesion is helpful for accurate histological diagnosis.

  8. Post-menopausal breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, G. C.; Naraynsingh, V.; Jankey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty post-menopausal women with breast abscess were treated at Port of Spain General Hospital, Trinidad, between 1976 and 1980. In this age group, breast abscess can be confused with cancer due to a lack of inflammatory features. History and physical examination are often not helpful in differentiating an abscess from carcinoma. Although the usual treatment of an abscess is incision and drainage, in post-menopausal women, excision of the lesion is helpful for accurate histological diagnosis. PMID:3628144

  9. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Institute of Physics post-16 initiative, shaping the future Physics education based in IT - sorry ICT! Which, of course, makes for a nifty headline, but as is so often the case with neat slogans, little else. Two formative questions: What, in another decade, will the government of the day call `What you lot should be doing with computers'? and What, of the many things that currently exercise our intellects, will there be anything special to say about in a decade, concerning the use of computers in the teaching of physics? Advancing Physics represents some attempts to come to grips with the second of the two questions above. The first is left to a higher wisdom. In thinking about learning, what can we do with the huge processing power, increasingly available in smaller and less obtrusive packages? What will we do that helps people learn physics, both tomorrow and in 2009? Here are a few suggestions based on development work so far. Wide, reliable and shared access to well ordered learning resources. We have created a CD-ROM, with versions for both student and teacher, that provides a wide range of resources. These do not teach, but do provide. A commitment to allowing a course to evolve and adapt. Electronic publication puts the costs into origination, and not into publication and distribution. A website allows for the community of users to contribute. E-mail networks support individuals and propagate good practice. You can create and explore your own microworlds. The interactive nature of models, and the crafted relationships between the models and the natural world give an insight into the creative imaginary worlds of the physicist. The unreasonable, but pleasurable, success of mathematics in describing the natural world can come to the fore. Measurements that were not possible before are now possible. What was previously indirect, and inaccessible, now becomes a direct measurement, making relationships transparent in new and fruitful ways. The dichotomy between

  10. Post-Newtonian gravitational bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.; Will, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    We present formulae and numerical results for the gravitational radiation emitted during a low-deflection encounter between two massive bodies (''gravitational bremsstrahlung''). Our results are valid through post-Newtonian order within general relativity. We discuss in detail the gravitational waveform (transverse-traceless part of the metric perturbation tensor), the toal luminosity and total emitted energy, the angular distribution of emitted energy (antenna pattern), and the frequency spectrum. We also present a method of ''boosting'' the accuracy of these quantities to post-3/2-Newtonian order. A numerical comparison of our results with those of Peters and of Kovacs and Thorne shows that the post-Newtonian method is reliable to better than 0.1% at v=0.1c, to a few percent at v=0.35c, and to 10--20% at v=0.5c. We also compare our results with those of Smarr

  11. Post-Newtonian gravitational bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.; Will, C.M.

    1977-07-01

    Formulae and numerical results are presented for the gravitational radiation emitted during a low-deflection encounter between two massive bodies. Results are valid through post-Newtonian order within general relativity. The gravitational waveform, the total luminosity and total emitted energy, the angular distribution of emitted energy, and the frequency spectrum are discussed in detail. A method boosting the accuracy of these quantities to post Newtonian order is also presented. A numerical comparison of results with those of Peters, and of Kovacs and Thorne shows that the post Newtonian method is reliable to better than 0.1 percent at v = 0.1 c, to a few percent at v = 0.35 c, and to 10 to 20 percent at v = 0.5 c

  12. Post-inflationary brane cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2001-01-01

    The brane cosmology has invoked new challenges to the usual Big Bang cosmology. In this paper we present a brief account on thermal history of the post-inflationary brane cosmology. We have realized that it is not obvious that the post-inflationary brane cosmology would always deviate from the standard Big Bang cosmology. However, if it deviates some stringent conditions on the brane tension are to be satisfied. In this regard we study various implications on gravitino production and its abundance. We discuss Affleck-Dine mechanism for baryogenesis and make some comments on moduli and dilaton problems in this context

  13. Job share a consultant post.

    OpenAIRE

    Thornicroft, G.; Strathdee, G.

    1992-01-01

    Job sharing offers advantages to both employer and employee but it is still uncommon in medicine. Based on the experiences of two psychiatrists sharing a consultant post this article describes some of the problems in obtaining a job share. The most difficult part can be getting an interview, and once a post has been obtained the terms and conditions of service may have to be modified to suit job sharing. Getting on well with your job sharing partner and good communication will not only help o...

  14. Post-heroic warfare revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    killed during World War II (1940-1945) and the military campaign in Afghanistan (2002-2014), the paper shows that a ‘good’ military death is no longer conceived of as a patriotic sacrifice, but instead legitimised by an appeal to the unique moral worth, humanitarian goals and high professionalism...... of the fallen. The paper concludes that fatalities in transnational military interventions have invoked a sense of post-patriotic heroism instead of a post-heroic crisis, and argues that the social order of modern society has underpinned, rather than undermined, ideals of military self-sacrifice and heroism...

  15. Hydrodynamics of post CHF region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.

    1984-04-01

    Among various two-phase flow regimes, the inverted flow in the post-dryout region is relatively less well understood due to its special heat transfer conditions. The review of existing data indicates further research is needed in the areas of basic hydrodynamics related to liquid core disintegration mechanisms, slug and droplet formations, entrainment, and droplet size distributions. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail both analytically and experimentally. Criteria for initial flow regimes in the post-dryout region are given. Preliminary models for subsequent flow regime transition criteria are derived together with correlations for a mean droplet diameter based on the adiabatic simulation data

  16. Post irradiation examination technology exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozawa, Shizuo; Ito, Masayasu; Taguchi, Taketoshi; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Lee, Hyung-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Under the KAERI and JAEA agreement, in a part of the program 18 (Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and Evaluation Technique of Irradiated Materials), an eddy current test was proposed as a round robin test, and it has been being progressed in both organizations in order to enhance the post irradiation examination technology. Up to now, several data are obtained by both PIE facilities. In this paper, the round robin test program is shown, and also shown obtained data with discussion from applicability as a nondestructive test in the hot cell. (author)

  17. Adding semantics to microblog posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Microblogs have become an important source of information for the purpose of marketing, intelligence, and reputation management. Streams of microblogs are of great value because of their direct and real-time nature. Determining what an individual microblog post is about, however, can be non-trivial

  18. Post-harvest loss reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gogh, van Bart; Boerrigter, Henry; Noordam, Maryvon; Ruben, Ruerd; Timmermans, Toine

    2017-01-01

    This paper was written by experts from Wageningen University & Research (WUR), representing their combined expertise on food chains, post-harvest technology, sustainability, food security, economics, and food safety. The paper was drafted at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs

  19. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…

  20. in the Post Colonial State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After nearly 50 years of independence as a nation-state, fierce inter-ethnic competitions for political and ... failure of the post-independence state has failed to permeate the socioeconomic and political lives ...... Northern Ghana", Thesis for the Master of Arts Degree Presented to the McAnulty College and. Graduate School of ...

  1. Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Transmission of HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics Just ... to HIV frequently. Another HIV prevention method, called pre-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP, is when people at high risk ...

  2. Credibility improves topical blog post retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Topical blog post retrieval is the task of ranking blog posts with respect to their relevance for a given topic. To improve topical blog post retrieval we incorporate textual credibility indicators in the retrieval process. We consider two groups of indicators: post level (determined using

  3. fistules perilymphatiques post-traumatiques post-traumatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1, 18, 27, 28). CONCLUSION. La fistule péri-lymphatique post-traumatique est de diagnos- tic difficile. Celui-ci est étayé par un faisceau d'arguments cliniques et paracliniques et n'est confirmé qu'en per-opéra- toire. L'indication d'une exploration chirurgicale et son délai dépendent essentiellement de la symptomatologie ...

  4. Psychosocial factors, lifestyle, and fetal growth: the added value of both pre- and post-natal assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejin-Karlsson, Elisabeth; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2003-09-01

    Psychosocial resources as well as lifestyle habits during pregnancy have been shown to effect the risk of having a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) child. Most previous studies are based on a single assessment of these exposures, which does not take into account the possibility of different effects during early and late stages of pregnancy. The impact of psychosocial and lifestyle factors on the risk of giving birth to an SGA child (as measured by ultrasound) was examined among 747 nulliparous Swedish women who completed both a prenatal baseline, and a post-partum assessment. Those registering low social participation on both assessments showed increased risk of giving birth to an SGA infant (OR = 2.44 and 95% CI: 1.06-5.66), while at one assessment (OR = 1.70 and 95% CI: 0.74-3.91). Maternal smoking confirmed by both or one assessments yielded an OR = 2.72 and 95% CI: 1.37-5.39 and OR = 1.60 and 95% CI: 0.58-4.46, respectively. During early pregnancy, poor instrumental support, maternal smoking, or passive smoking yielded increased risks of SGA, adjusted for confounding (OR = 2.39 and 95% CI: 1.11-5.17; OR = 2.38 and 95% CI: 1.27-4.49; OR = 2.92 and 95% CI: 1.17-7.32, respectively). In late pregnancy, only maternal smoking yielded a significant association (OR = 2.34 and 95% CI: 1.24-4.41). Scheduling repeated assessments of psychosocial resources and lifestyle factors during pregnancy yielded additional information. The findings suggest that there can be differential effects of such exposures depending on gestational stage. This information is of importance when designing appropriate intervention strategies for maternal health services as well as for public health relevant policy formulation (e.g. regarding exposure to environmental tobacco during pregnancy).

  5. The post-secular city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    ) elements in ritual and ceremonies. Second, emergent spaces of post-secular practices are not only connected to traditional religious sites. With Schmautz (1998) it is necessary to understand a sacred site in its original social and cultural setting, and in the present experience of it. With a point...... in research on trans-national identity making (Fortier 2002). This paper suggests a displacement of focus from trans-national to international identity making and the possible role of religious societies. It is argued that an international culture is not mainstream culture however there are (universal......’ the paper argues for a possible potential of storytelling and mutual recognition. Third, it offers an argument for detecting ‘post-secular sites’ at the urban level from two angles: From architecture (the iconic consciousness) and from performance (the sacred drama). Fourth, the paper closes with a case...

  6. Post-Newtonian Jeans Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, Elham; Kazemi, Ali; Roshan, Mahmood; Abbassi, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    The Jeans analysis is studied in the first post-Newtonian limit. In other words, the relativistic effects on local gravitational instability are considered for systems whose characteristic velocities and corresponding gravitational fields are higher than those permitted in the Newtonian limit. The dispersion relation for the propagation of small perturbations is found in the post-Newtonian approximation using two different techniques. A new Jeans mass is derived and compared to the standard Jeans mass. In this limit, the relativistic effects make the new Jeans mass smaller than the Newtonian Jeans mass. Furthermore, the fractional difference between these two masses increases when the temperature/pressure of the system increases. Interestingly, in this limit, pressure can enhance gravitational instability instead of preventing it. Finally, the results are applied to high-temperature astrophysical systems, and the possibility of local fragmentation in some relativistic systems is investigated.

  7. Post-Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...... serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we develop three propositions on the sequential effects on post-acquisition IT integration in acquisition programs. Their combined explanation is that serial acquirers must have a growth-by-acquisition strategy that includes the capability to improve...... IT integration capabilities, to sustain high alignment across acquisitions and to maintain a scalable IT infrastructure with a flat or decreasing cost structure. We begin the process of validating the three propositions by investigating a longitudinal case study of a growth-by-acquisition program....

  8. Post-Newtonian Jeans Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Elham; Kazemi, Ali; Roshan, Mahmood; Abbassi, Shahram, E-mail: mroshan@um.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 1436, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-20

    The Jeans analysis is studied in the first post-Newtonian limit. In other words, the relativistic effects on local gravitational instability are considered for systems whose characteristic velocities and corresponding gravitational fields are higher than those permitted in the Newtonian limit. The dispersion relation for the propagation of small perturbations is found in the post-Newtonian approximation using two different techniques. A new Jeans mass is derived and compared to the standard Jeans mass. In this limit, the relativistic effects make the new Jeans mass smaller than the Newtonian Jeans mass. Furthermore, the fractional difference between these two masses increases when the temperature/pressure of the system increases. Interestingly, in this limit, pressure can enhance gravitational instability instead of preventing it. Finally, the results are applied to high-temperature astrophysical systems, and the possibility of local fragmentation in some relativistic systems is investigated.

  9. Testing post-editing guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2014-01-01

    guidelines to use in translator training programmes. Recently, the first set of publicly available industry-focused PE guidelines (for ‘good enough’ and ‘publishable’ quality) were developed by Translation Automation User Society (TAUS) in partnership with the Centre for Global Intelligent Content (CNGL......), which can be used as a basis on which to instruct post-editors in professional environments. This paper reports on a qualitative study that investigates how trainee translators on an MA course, which is aimed at preparing the trainees for the translation industry, interpret these PE guidelines...... for publishable quality. The findings suggest trainees have difficulties interpreting the guidelines, primarily due to trainee competency gaps, but also due to the wording of the guidelines. Based on our findings we propose training measures to address these competency gaps. Furthermore, we provide post...

  10. Post-Digital Literary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Cramer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital humanities and digital literary studies face much the same challenges as contemporary media art: what will become of them once their media are no longer “new”, and the limitations of processing art as data have become more clearly and widely understood? This paper revisits information aesthetics and computer poetics from the 1960s and 1970s, casting them as precursors of today’s digital humanities, with many of the same issues, achievements and failures, and with their own hype cycles of boom and bust. Conversely, “post-digital” and “Post-Internet” trends in music, graphic design and visual arts may anticipate possible futures of digital humanities and literary studies after the hype has passed.

  11. Post accidental small breaks analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depond, G.; Gandrille, J.

    1980-04-01

    EDF ordered to FRAMATOME by 1977 to complete post accidental long term studies on 'First Contrat-Programme' reactors, in order to demonstrate the safety criteria long term compliance, to get information on NSSS behaviour and to improve the post accidental procedures. Convenient analytical models were needed and EDF and FRAMATOME respectively developped the AXEL and FRARELAP codes. The main results of these studies is that for the smallest breaks, it is possible to manually undertake cooling and pressure reducing actions by dumping the steam generators secondary side in order to meet the RHR operating specifications and perform long term cooling through this system. A specific small breaks procedure was written on this basis. The EDF and FRAMATOME codes are continuously improved; the results of a French set of separate effects experiments will be incorporated as well as integral system verification

  12. Post-stroke cognitive impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolyevna Katunina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-stroke cognitive impairments are common effects of stroke. Vascular cognitive impairments are characterized by the heterogeneity of the neuropsychological profile in relation to the site and pattern of stroke. Their common trait is the presence of dysregulation secondary to frontal dysfunction. The treatment of vascular cognitive impairments should be multimodality and aimed at stimulating neuroplasticity processes, restoring neurotransmitter imbalance, and preventing recurrent vascular episodes.

  13. The post-transcriptional operon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenenbaum, Scott A.; Christiansen, Jan; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    model (PTO) is used to describe data from an assortment of methods (e.g. RIP-Chip, CLIP-Chip, miRNA profiling, ribosome profiling) that globally address the functionality of mRNA. Several examples of post-transcriptional operons have been documented in the literature and demonstrate the usefulness...... of the model in identifying new participants in cellular pathways as well as in deepening our understanding of cellular responses....

  14. The SPOOKI post production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, M.; Klasa, M.; Fortier, S.; Fortin, F.; Hardy, G.; Pelletier, L.; Edouard, S.; Archambault, B.; Yazidi, H.

    2010-09-01

    The Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) delivers a large number of numerical weather prediction products to the various weather offices and clients throughout Canada and abroad. The current post production system was built according to the needs and ideology of the 1980's and it is becoming obsolete with time. Its cumbersome architecture is difficult to maintain and requires a lot of human and computing resources. The "Weather Elements" section of CMC is aware of the problems associated with its maintenance in the long term and has therefore decided to review in depth the whole approach to the operational post production. The analysis of present and future needs have led to the development of an innovative concept in the operational production field inspired by the "Plug and Play" process. SPOOKI (Système de Production Orienté-Objet contennant une Kyrielle d'Informations - Object oriented production system containing a myriad of information) was created in its present form in 2007. It is based on a modular approach where each plug-in component is specialized, reusable and autonomous. These object oriented programming characteristics greatly simplify the maintenance of the system. Particular attention was also given to create a user-friendly system for novice users. An experimental version of SPOOKI is currently running in development mode and an operational one is planned to be implemented in the coming year. The poster presentation will describe SPOOKI, the future CMC operational post production system. Several examples of usage will be shown.

  15. 76 FR 76449 - Post Office Closing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... the closing of the Spring Dale, West Virginia post office has been filed. It identifies preliminary... Postal Service's determination to close the Spring Dale post office in Spring Dale, West Virginia. The...

  16. Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menk, Peter

    2001-01-01

    ... nations and the United Nations. The purpose of the Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop was to examine the United States military ground forces role in the post-conflict phase of operations...

  17. Post-Flight Data Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Marina

    2018-01-01

    A software tool that facilitates the retrieval and analysis of post-flight data. This allows our team and other teams to effectively and efficiently analyze and evaluate post-flight data in order to certify commercial providers.

  18. Issues and Solutions for Command Post Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stytz, Martin R; Banks, Sheila B

    2006-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, the modeling of joint command post teams is still very much in its infancy and this lack of foundational research hinders our ability to assess the performance of command post teams...

  19. 37 CFR 2.81 - Post publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Post publication. 2.81 Section 2.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.81 Post publication. (a...

  20. 75 FR 74108 - Post Office Closing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... the closing of the Eugene Post Office's University Station in Eugene, Oregon, has been filed. It... the Eugene Post Office's University Station located in Eugene, Oregon. The petition, which was filed.... Categories of issues apparently raised. The categories of issues raised include: Failure to follow the post...

  1. Imaging Neuroinflammation in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a complex...several central nervous system conditions including post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Microglia represent over...trials. We have subsequently identified a better agent for interrogating TSPO in post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) subjects, 18-F PBR111, a

  2. CERN at the Post Office

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    In collaboration with CERN and the Conseil général de l'Ain, the French postal services of the Pays de Gex have released a new set of pre-paid envelopes paying tribute to CERN. The envelopes, which come in packets of ten, each featuring a different aspect of CERN, will be on sale from 6 June onwards. They will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (Ferney-Voltaire, Prévessin-Moëns, Saint-Genis-Pouilly, Thoiry and CERN-Prévessin), as well as from the CERN Shop (Reception, Building 33). The envelopes were unveiled at an official ceremony on 23 May, which was attended by Jocelyne Boch, Vice-President of the Conseil général de l'Ain and Mayoress of Thoiry, as well as Marina Combe, Head of the Saint-Genis-Pouilly, Thoiry and CERN-Prévessin post offices, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General. The last set of envelopes to feature CERN, which commemorated the Laboratory's 50th anniversary in 2004, were a huge success, with sales totalling 35 000 in less than a year. 'We received...

  3. Parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghai, Viraj A A; Clifton, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Einstein’s theory of gravity has been extensively tested on solar system scales, and for isolated astrophysical systems, using the perturbative framework known as the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. This framework is designed for use in the weak-field and slow-motion limit of gravity, and can be used to constrain a large class of metric theories of gravity with data collected from the aforementioned systems. Given the potential of future surveys to probe cosmological scales to high precision, it is a topic of much contemporary interest to construct a similar framework to link Einstein’s theory of gravity and its alternatives to observations on cosmological scales. Our approach to this problem is to adapt and extend the existing PPN formalism for use in cosmology. We derive a set of equations that use the same parameters to consistently model both weak fields and cosmology. This allows us to parameterize a large class of modified theories of gravity and dark energy models on cosmological scales, using just four functions of time. These four functions can be directly linked to the background expansion of the universe, first-order cosmological perturbations, and the weak-field limit of the theory. They also reduce to the standard PPN parameters on solar system scales. We illustrate how dark energy models and scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories of gravity fit into this framework, which we refer to as ‘parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology’ (PPNC). (paper)

  4. [Post-Lyme disease syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaut-Jurkowska, Justyna; Jurkowski, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    Lyme disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacteria, spirochete of the Borrelia type. Skin, nervous system, musculoskeletal system and heart may be involved in the course of the disease. The prognosis for properly treated Lyme disease is usually good. However, in about 5% of patients so called Post-Lyme disease syndrome (PLSD) develops. It is defined as a syndrome of subjective symptoms persisting despite proper treatment of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. The most common symptoms include: fatigue, muscle and joint pain, and problems with memory and concentration. Pathogenesis of PLDS remains unknown. The differential diagnosis should include neurological, rheumatic and mental diseases. Till now there is no causative treatment of PLDS. In relieving symptom rehabilitation, painkillers, anti-inflammatory and antidepressants medicines are recommended. Emotional and psychological supports are also necessary. Non-specific symptoms reported by patients with post- Lyme disease syndrome raise the suspicion of other pathologies. This can lead to misdiagnosis and implementation of unnecessary, potentially harmful to the patient's therapy. An increase in tick-borne diseases needs to increase physicians awareness of these issues. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  5. Parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghai, Viraj A. A.; Clifton, Timothy

    2017-03-01

    Einstein’s theory of gravity has been extensively tested on solar system scales, and for isolated astrophysical systems, using the perturbative framework known as the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. This framework is designed for use in the weak-field and slow-motion limit of gravity, and can be used to constrain a large class of metric theories of gravity with data collected from the aforementioned systems. Given the potential of future surveys to probe cosmological scales to high precision, it is a topic of much contemporary interest to construct a similar framework to link Einstein’s theory of gravity and its alternatives to observations on cosmological scales. Our approach to this problem is to adapt and extend the existing PPN formalism for use in cosmology. We derive a set of equations that use the same parameters to consistently model both weak fields and cosmology. This allows us to parameterize a large class of modified theories of gravity and dark energy models on cosmological scales, using just four functions of time. These four functions can be directly linked to the background expansion of the universe, first-order cosmological perturbations, and the weak-field limit of the theory. They also reduce to the standard PPN parameters on solar system scales. We illustrate how dark energy models and scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories of gravity fit into this framework, which we refer to as ‘parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology’ (PPNC).

  6. The Incoherence of Post-Truth

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Dom

    2018-01-01

    Ostensibly, there has been a recent rise in ‘post-truth’ thinking (Higgins, 2016; Rochlin, 2017; Speed & Mannion, 2017; Suiter, 2016). The Oxford English Dictionary, which made ‘post-truth’ its word of the year for 2016, defines post-truth as “[r]elating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping political debate or public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief” (“Post-truth,” 2017). Going into more detail, post-truth is described not ju...

  7. Subthreshold Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Ozten

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder is a very broad category among mental disorders. Since its inclusion in DSM-III, the diagnostic criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder has undergone a number of changes. The diagnosis and treatment of people who have some symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder without meeting full criteria still remains controversial. Although subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder has been debated since it was first defined, the presence of subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms has found to raise the risk for suicidal ideation significantly. This article overviews the definitions of trauma related disorders in history of psychiatry and highlights the need to define subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms that were reported to be associated with impairment, comorbidity, and suicidal ideation. Clinical differences between subthreshold and full post-traumatic stress disorder will also be discussed.

  8. Post-Secularism, Religious Knowledge and Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2012-01-01

    Post-secularism seems to follow in the wake of other (what are here called) "postal" perspectives--post-structuralism, postmodernism, post-empiricism, post-positivism, post-analytical philosophy, post-foundationalism and so on--in questioning or repudiating what it takes to be the epistemic assumptions of "modernism." To be sure, post-secularism…

  9. Post-Communist Welfare Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerami, Alfio; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    . The authors' impressive analysis of causal factors, including political elites' strategic use of social policy, makes the book an original and important contribution to the comparative welfare state literature.'- Professor Linda J. Cook, Brown University“ 'This edited volume is extraordinarily good...... factors such as micro-causal mechanisms, ideas, discourses, path departures, power politics, and elite strategies. This book includes contributions from leading international Experts such as Claus Offe, Robert Kaufman, Stefan Haggard, Tomasz Inglot, and Mitchell Orenstein, to examine welfare in specific...... countries and across social policy domains. By providing a broad overview based on a theoretical foundation and drawing on recent empirical evidence, Post-Communist Welfare Pathways offers a comprehensive, state-of-the-art account of the progress that has been made since 1989, and the main challenges...

  10. Post-accident radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, G.J.; Kathren, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Under contract to the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center of the Electric Power Research Institute, technical information and specifications were obtained for commercially available radiological monitoring instrumentation designed for use as post-accident monitors. The information was collated and published in the NSAC Handbook of Postaccident Instrumentation (Kathren and Laughlin 1981), and included such data as range, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and energy dependence of the detector, environmental and seismic limitations of the equipment, the testing program performed to evaluate the equipment, a list of references where the instrumentation is currently installed, and a list of features and accessories available with the monitoring systems. The information presented in this section reveals that, even though a number of vendors claim to be able to meet the guidance of Regulatory Guide 1.97 (USNRC 1980), few have actually conducted tests to verify that their equipment does indeed satisfy the guidance of this Regulatory Guide, and that some of the guidance may in fact be unrealistic

  11. Leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Wahbi AM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah M Al-Wahbi1, Shaza Elmoukaied2 1Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Surgery, Dr Sulaiman Al Habib Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Varicocelectomy is the most commonly performed operation for the treatment of male infertility. Many surgical approaches are used as each of them has advantages over the other and is preferred by surgeons. Vascular injury has never been reported as a complication of varicocelectomy apart from testicular artery injury. We present a 36-year-old male who developed leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy due to common femoral artery injury. He was successfully treated by using a vein graft. Keywords: varicocele, varicocelectomy, complications, vascular injuries

  12. Post-Industrial Cultural Criticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2015-01-01

    hierarchies within journalism. The article maps which Danish websites conduct arts and culture reviews, asks what features these websites have that facilitate public discourse, and measures the actual discussion on the websites. While academic diagnoses of the state of the online public sphere have generally......Integrating perspectives from research into cultural and post-industrial journalism, this article presents a pilot study of websites with reviews of arts and culture conducted by amateurs. Such websites constitute a popular space for cultural criticism, and one that challenges traditional...... reviewers have highly specialized knowledge of culture and, on that basis, argues that the emergence of this type of critic might represent a qualitative strengthening of cultural criticism....

  13. Successful Pregnancies Post Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Adnan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the maternal and fetal outcomes in renal transplant female recipients who became pregnant from 1989 to 2005 in our center, we retrospectively studied 20 incident pregnancies in 12 renal transplant recipients; 5 (41.7 % of them from living related, 4 (33.3% from deceased, and 3 (25% from living unrelated donors. The mean age at pregnancy was 30.5 ± 4.5 years and mean interval from transplantation to pregnancy was 21 ± 5.7 months with the interval was < 1 year in one patient. The mean serum creatinine (SCr before pregnancy vs 6 months post delivery was 110 ± 24.3, and 156 ± 190 µmol/ L, respectively, (p = 0.2. All patients were normotensive during the prenatal period except two who were hypertensive, none was markedly proteinuric, and only one acute rejection episode occurred during one pregnancy. Graft loss one year post delivery occurred in 2 patients; one with elevated prenatal SCr > 132 µmol/L, and another with short interval from transplantation to pregnancy < 1 year, while the remaining 10 patients revealed current mean SCr of 105 ± 18.2 µmol/L. Complications during pregnancy inclu-ded pre-eclampsia in (25%, UTI (25%, preterm delivery < 37 weeks (30%, however, none of the pregnancies ended by abortion. Normal vaginal delivery vs cesarean section was 70% vs 30%, respectively. Gestational age at delivery was 36.3 ± 3.9 weeks, and mean fetal birth weight was 2349 ± 574 gm. Apgar score was 9-10 in all of the 20 babies, and none revealed intrauterine growth retardation or congenital anomalies. We conclude that consecutive pregnancies demons-trate long-term maternal and fetal survival and function. The major risk factors are elevated starting serum creatinine, hypertension, and short time interval from transplantation to pregnancy.

  14. Post-therapeutic imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollice, Saverio, E-mail: saveriopollice@hotmail.it [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, “L. Bonomo Hospital”, 76123 Andria, BT (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Neuroradiology, “Cardarelli Hospital”, Naples (Italy); Scarabino, Tommaso, E-mail: tscarabino@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, “L. Bonomo Hospital”, 76123 Andria, BT (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • This study is the result of collaboration between neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons. • Comparison between neuroimaging techniques to better evaluate the complications after treatment of the spin. • Evaluation of the imaging features of complications and definition of follow-up. - Abstract: Any surgical approach modifies the normal anatomical and functional arrangement of the segmental spine which is aimed, therefore image interpretation cannot ignore a correct set of knowledge in the field of anatomy, pathophysiology, drug compliance, interventional radiology and surgery. Neuroradiological imaging has an important role before surgery to direct the surgeon or interventional radiologist during the operation, both in post-surgery, where imaging examination can rightly evaluate properties and effects of the treatment and can detect potential complications as infections, abscess, bleeding, exuberant scar, mobilization and rupture of devices. The available methods of imaging are the X-rays (XR) made at least in two projections, Computed Tomography (CT) with MPR (multiplanar) and VR (volume rendering) reconstruction, and Magnetic Resonance (MR), often performed before and after contrast media injection. Imaging assessment of spine after surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including surgical procedures and disease for which it was performed; biomechanical of the underlying cortical and cancellous bone findings; conditions of muscles, intervertebral disk and ligaments; time since surgery procedures; duration and nature of the post-surgical syndrome. Depending upon several factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities (X-rays, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance) may be required to evaluate effectiveness of the treatment; to demonstrate any clinically relevant abnormality at the treated region and adjacent structures (complications such as inflammation, abscesses, bleeding and misplacement of the device); to

  15. Post-therapeutic imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollice, Saverio; Muto, Mario; Scarabino, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This study is the result of collaboration between neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons. • Comparison between neuroimaging techniques to better evaluate the complications after treatment of the spin. • Evaluation of the imaging features of complications and definition of follow-up. - Abstract: Any surgical approach modifies the normal anatomical and functional arrangement of the segmental spine which is aimed, therefore image interpretation cannot ignore a correct set of knowledge in the field of anatomy, pathophysiology, drug compliance, interventional radiology and surgery. Neuroradiological imaging has an important role before surgery to direct the surgeon or interventional radiologist during the operation, both in post-surgery, where imaging examination can rightly evaluate properties and effects of the treatment and can detect potential complications as infections, abscess, bleeding, exuberant scar, mobilization and rupture of devices. The available methods of imaging are the X-rays (XR) made at least in two projections, Computed Tomography (CT) with MPR (multiplanar) and VR (volume rendering) reconstruction, and Magnetic Resonance (MR), often performed before and after contrast media injection. Imaging assessment of spine after surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including surgical procedures and disease for which it was performed; biomechanical of the underlying cortical and cancellous bone findings; conditions of muscles, intervertebral disk and ligaments; time since surgery procedures; duration and nature of the post-surgical syndrome. Depending upon several factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities (X-rays, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance) may be required to evaluate effectiveness of the treatment; to demonstrate any clinically relevant abnormality at the treated region and adjacent structures (complications such as inflammation, abscesses, bleeding and misplacement of the device); to

  16. Management Of Post Stroke Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavian Ghandehari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of seizures in relation to stroke is 8.9%, with a frequency of 10.6 and 8.6% in haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke, respectively. In subarachnoid haemorrhage the incidence is 8.5%. Due to the fact that infarcts are significantly more frequent than haemorrhages, seizures are mainly related to occlusive vascular disease of the brain. The general view is to consider stroke-related seizures as harmless complications in the course of a prolonged vascular disease involving the heart and brain. Seizures can be classified as those of early and those of late onset in a paradigm comparable to post-traumatic epilepsy, with an arbitrary dividing point of two weeks after the event. Most early-onset seizures occur during the first day after the stroke. Late-onset seizures occur three times more often than early-onset ones. A first late-onset epileptic event is most likely to take place between six months and two years after the stroke. However, up to 28% of patients develop their first seizure several years later. Simple partial seizures, with or without secondary generalisation, account for about 50% of total seizures, while complex partial spells, with or without secondary generalisation, and primary generalised tonic–clonic insults account for approximately 25% each. Status epilepticus occurs in 12% of stroke patients, but the recurrence rate after an initial status epilepticus is not higher than after a single seizure. Inhibitory seizures, mimicking transient ischaemic attacks, are observed in 7.1% of cases. The only clinical predictor of late-onset seizures is the initial presentation of partial anterior circulation syndrome due to a territorial infarct. Patients with total anterior circulation syndrome have less chance of developing epileptic spells, not only due to their shorter life expectancy but also due to the fact that the large infarcts are sharply demarcated in these patients. The optimal timing and type of antiepileptic drug

  17. Gynecologic Malignancies Post-LeFort Colpocleisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Elkattah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. LeFort colpocleisis (LFC is a safe and effective obliterative surgical option for older women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse who no longer desire coital activity. A major disadvantage is the limited ability to evaluate for post-LFC gynecologic malignancies. Methods. We present the first case of endometrioid ovarian cancer diagnosed after LFC and review all reported gynecologic malignancies post-LFC in the English medical literature. Results. This is the second reported ovarian cancer post-LFC and the first of the endometrioid subtype. A total of nine other gynecologic malignancies post-LFC have been reported in the English medical literature. Conclusions. Gynecologic malignancies post-LFC are rare. We propose a simple 3-step strategy in evaluating post-LFC malignancies.

  18. Development of new radiopaque glass fiber posts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the radiopacity and filler content of three experimental glass fiber posts (EGFP) in comparison with other glass/carbon fibers and metal posts from the dental market. Three EGFP were obtained by pultrusion of glass fibers in a polymer matrix based on 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Using intraoral sensor disks 27 posts, as well as mesiodistal sections of human molar and aluminum step wedges were radiographed for evaluation of radiopacity. The percentage compositions of fillers by weight and volume were investigated by combustion analysis. Two EGFP showed radiopacity higher than enamel. The commercial endodontic posts showed radiopacity as follows: higher than enamel, between enamel and dentin, and lower than dentin. The results showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) when evaluated with one-way ANOVA statistical analysis. According to combustion analyses, the filler content of the tested posts ranges between 58.84 wt.% and 86.02 wt.%. The filler content of the tested EGFP ranged between 68.91 wt.% and 79.04 wt.%. EGFP could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts. Future glass fiber posts are recommended to present higher radiopacity than dentin and perhaps ideally similar to or higher than that of enamel, for improved clinical detection. The posts with a lower radiopacity than dentin should be considered insufficiently radiopaque. The radiopacity of some glass fiber posts is not greatly influenced by the amount of filler. - Highlights: • AR glass fibers for dental applications • AR glass fibers have a great potential for obtaining radiopaque glass fiber posts. • Experimental AR glass fiber posts could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts for clinical application.

  19. Development of new radiopaque glass fiber posts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtos, Gabriel, E-mail: gfurtos@yahoo.co.uk [Raluca Ripan Institute of Research in Chemistry, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Baldea, Bogdan [Dep. of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Timisoara (Romania); Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Laura [Raluca Ripan Institute of Research in Chemistry, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the radiopacity and filler content of three experimental glass fiber posts (EGFP) in comparison with other glass/carbon fibers and metal posts from the dental market. Three EGFP were obtained by pultrusion of glass fibers in a polymer matrix based on 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Using intraoral sensor disks 27 posts, as well as mesiodistal sections of human molar and aluminum step wedges were radiographed for evaluation of radiopacity. The percentage compositions of fillers by weight and volume were investigated by combustion analysis. Two EGFP showed radiopacity higher than enamel. The commercial endodontic posts showed radiopacity as follows: higher than enamel, between enamel and dentin, and lower than dentin. The results showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) when evaluated with one-way ANOVA statistical analysis. According to combustion analyses, the filler content of the tested posts ranges between 58.84 wt.% and 86.02 wt.%. The filler content of the tested EGFP ranged between 68.91 wt.% and 79.04 wt.%. EGFP could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts. Future glass fiber posts are recommended to present higher radiopacity than dentin and perhaps ideally similar to or higher than that of enamel, for improved clinical detection. The posts with a lower radiopacity than dentin should be considered insufficiently radiopaque. The radiopacity of some glass fiber posts is not greatly influenced by the amount of filler. - Highlights: • AR glass fibers for dental applications • AR glass fibers have a great potential for obtaining radiopaque glass fiber posts. • Experimental AR glass fiber posts could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts for clinical application.

  20. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well.

  1. Catecholamines in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Catecholamines in post - traumatic stress disorder 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0327 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...emotionally arousing experiences are typically vivid and persistent. The recurrent, intrusive memories of traumatic events in post - traumatic stress disorder ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0327 TITLE: Catecholamines in post - traumatic stress

  2. Post spinal meningitis and asepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videira, Rogerio L R; Ruiz-Neto, P P; Brandao Neto, M

    2002-07-01

    Post spinal meningitis (PSM) is a complication still currently being reported. After two PSM cases in our hospital an epidemiological study was initiated, which included a survey of techniques for asepsis that are applied in our department. Cases defined as PSM comprised meningitis within a week after spinal anesthesia. Anesthesia records, anesthesia complication files and the records of the Hospital Commission for Infection Control from 1997 to 2000 were reviewed. Asepsis techniques applied were surveyed by a questionnaire answered by all our department's anesthesiologists. The equipment and procedures for spinal anesthesia were listed. Current anesthesia textbooks were reviewed for recommendations regarding asepsis techniques in conjunction with spinal anesthesia. Three cases of PSM were identified following 38,128 spinal anesthesias whereas none was observed in 12,822 patients subjected to other types of regional or general anesthesia (P>0.05). Culture of cerebrospinal fluid yielded Streptococcus in two patients and was negative in the other patient. The asepsis technique applied by the anesthesiologists varied considerably. The literature review showed that aspects on asepsis for spinal anesthesia are poorly covered. The incidence of meningitis was similar in patients subjected to spinal anesthesia and in those subjected to other anesthetic techniques. Asepsis techniques were found to differ considerably among our staff members, reflecting the lack of well-defined published standards for this procedure. We recommend that asepsis for spinal anesthesia should not be less rigorous than for surgical asepsis.

  3. STS-70 Post Flight Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Glen (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    In this post-flight overview, the flight crew of the STS-70 mission, Tom Henricks (Cmdr.), Kevin Kregel (Pilot), Major Nancy Currie (MS), Dr. Mary Ellen Weber (MS), and Dr. Don Thomas (MS), discuss their mission and accompanying experiments. Pre-flight, launch, and orbital footage is followed by the in-orbit deployment of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) and a discussion of the following spaceborne experiments: a microgravity bioreactor experiment to grow 3D body-like tissue; pregnant rat muscular changes in microgravity; embryonic development in microgravity; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX); terrain surface imagery using the HERCULES camera; and a range of other physiological tests, including an eye and vision test. Views of Earth include: tropical storm Chantal; the Nile River and Red Sea; lightning over Brazil. A three planet view (Earth, Mars, and Venus) was taken right before sunrise. The end footage shows shuttle pre-landing checkout, entry, and landing, along with a slide presentation of the flight.

  4. Post-crisis financial intermediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie MIHAI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis that begun in 2007 in the US, which then swept around the world, has left deep scars on the already wrinkled face of the global economy. Some national and regional economies, which had money for expensive makeup, or created money[1], managed to blur or hide the scars left by the crisis, others are still facing difficulties in overcoming the effects of this. The rapacity of banks, their greed and risk ignorance, were the origin of the outbreak of the last major economic and financial crisis but unfortunately those who were responsible or, rather, irresponsible, paid little or nothing at all for the burden of their bad loan portfolio. This cost has been supported by the population, either directly by paying high interest and fees [Mihai I., 2007], or indirectly, through the use of public budgets to cover the losses of banks, most of which had private capital. In this context, we intend to examine the state of financial intermediation in Romania in the post-crisis period, and to primarily follow: (i The structure and evolution of the banking system; (ii Non-government credit situation; (iii The level of savings; (iiii Loan-deposit ratio; (v The degree of financial intermediation and disintegration phenomenon etc., and to articulate some conclusions and suggestions on the matters that have been explored.

  5. Post-mining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This plentifully illustrated book aims at showing how new equilibria are building up during the transition between mining activity and post-mining, and at stressing on the necessity to keep up the cultural elements, the competencies and knowledge of mining works. The first chapter - mine and men - shows the importance of mineral substances in the objects of the everyday life, illustrates the importance of the mining tradition in France and describes the technical and administrative organisation of the end of the mining activity (works, rehabilitation, regulation, monitoring..). Chapter two - exploitation methods - presents the surface and underground facilities and their impact on the environment (extraction machines, workshops, ore processing plants, decantation ponds..). The third chapter deals with the rehabilitation and monitoring aspects: impact of mining activity stoppage on underground and surface waters, land stability, soils cleansing.. The last chapter summarizes the history of French mining region by region: Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Lorraine-Alsace, Massif central, Bretagne-Normandie, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur and Pyrenees

  6. STS 63: Post flight presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    At a post flight conference, Captain Jim Wetherbee, of STS Flight 63, introduces each of the other members of the STS 63 crew (Eileen Collins, Pilot; Dr. Bernard Harris, Payload Commander; Dr. Michael Foale, Mission Specialist from England; Dr. Janice Voss, Mission Specialist; and Colonel Vladimir Titor, Mission Specialist from Russia), gave a short autobiography of each member and a brief description of their assignment during this mission. A film was shown that included the preflight suit-up, a view of the launch site, the actual night launch, a tour of the Space Shuttle and several of the experiment areas, several views of earth and the MIR Space Station and cosmonauts, the MlR-Space Shuttle rendezvous, the deployment of the Spartan Ultraviolet Telescope, Foale and Harris's EVA and space walk, the retrieval of Spartan, and the night entry home, including the landing. Several spaceborne experiments were introduced: the radiation monitoring experiment, environment monitoring experiment, solid surface combustion experiment, and protein crystal growth and plant growth experiments. This conference ended with still, color pictures, taken by the astronauts during the entire STS 63 flight, being shown.

  7. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singavi, Arun K; Harrington, Alexandra M; Fenske, Timothy S

    2015-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a serious complication after solid organ or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and include a range of diseases from benign proliferations to malignant lymphomas. Risk factors for developing PTLD include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, recipient age, transplanted organ, type of immunosuppression, and genetics. Uncontrolled proliferation of EBV-infected B cells is implicated in EBV-positive PTLD, whereas the pathogenesis of EBV-negative PTLD may be similar to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the general population. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies PTLD into four categories: early lesions, polymorphic PTLD, monomorphic PTLD, and classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL). Treatment is aimed at cure of PTLD, while maintaining transplanted organ function. However, there are no established guidelines for the treatment of PTLD. Immune suppression reduction (ISR) is the first line of treatment in most cases, with more recent data suggesting early use of rituximab. In more aggressive forms of PTLD, upfront chemotherapy may offer a better and more durable response. Sequential therapy using rituximab followed by chemotherapy has demonstrated promising results and may establish a standard of care. Novel therapies including anti-viral agents, adoptive immunotherapy, and monoclonal antibodies targeting cytokines require further study in the prevention and treatment of PTLD.

  8. Post Pelvic Radiotherapy Bony Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seung Jae [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    There has been recent interest in radiation-induced bone injury in clinical conditions, especially for pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF). A PIF is caused by the effect of normal or physiological stress on bone with demineralization and decreased elastic resistance. Pelvic radiotherapy (RT) can also contribute to the development of a PIF. A PIF has been regarded as a rare complication with the use of megavoltage equipment. However, recent studies have reported the incidence of PIFs as 8.2{approx}20% after pelvic RT in gynecological patients, an incidence that was higher than previously believed. The importance of understanding a PIF lies in the potential for misdiagnosis as a bony metastasis. If patients complain of pelvic pain after whole-pelvis radiation therapy, the presence of a PIF must be considered in the differential diagnosis. The use of multibeam arrangements and conformal RT to reduce the volume and dose of irradiated pelvic bone can be helpful to minimize the risk of fracture. In addition to a PIF, osteonecrosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral head can develop after radiation therapy. Osteoradionecrosis of the pelvic bone is a clinical diagnostic challenge that must be differentiated from an osseous metastasis. A post-radiation bone sarcoma can result as a long-term sequela of pelvic irradiation for uterine cervical cancer.

  9. Post Implementation Review Framework and Procedures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This template outlines the Social Security Administration's (SSA) approach to initiating, conducting, and completing Post Implementation Reviews (PIRs). The template...

  10. A Review of Post and Core Application with Emphasize on Non Metallic Posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahroodi MH

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Many different methods are suggested to restore endodontically treated teeth. Prefabricated posts can not be indicated for all teeth and cast posts require extra time and cost. In addition, with the introduction of full ceramic restorations, achieving the ideal esthetic with metal post underneath them may be problematic or impossible because the darkness of the metallic posts may show through the highly translucent all ceramic restorations. In this article the review of litature and describiton of applied methods of different procedure in restoring the root canal therapied teeth and few techniques of non metallic posts fabrication such as fiber reinforced composite and zirconium oxide posts have been described.

  11. Microleakage of Different Post Systems and a Custom Adapted Fiber Post

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Geramipanah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effects of closely adapting a prefabricated fiber to the post space remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify the microleakages of a custom adapted fiber-reinforced post, a prefabricated quartz fiber post and a cast post using nondestructive methods.Materials and Methods: Sixty-five extracted human premolars were endodontically treated and randomly divided into three groups (n=15, which were restored using a cast post-and-core, a custom adapted fiber post (Refropost with a microhybrid microfiller resin composite (Gradia, or a prefabricated quartz fiber post (DT light post and two groups of control ( n=10. All groups were cemented using a dual polymerizing resin cement (Panavia F2.0. A composite core (Z100 was used for the fiber posts. The microleakage was calculated for the experimental and control groups before and after thermal cycling and cycling loading using a radiotracer solution (thallium 201 chloride and a gamma counter device. Data were subjected to statistical analysis of ANOVA and Tukey HSD at significant level of P< 0.05.Results: Significantly lower microleakage values were found for the cast post-and-core (mean value =16.04 ×104 and custom adapted fiber post groups (mean value=14.36×104. Thermal cycling and cyclic loading had no significant effect on the microleakage value of any tested group.Conclusion: Post systems with improved adaptation showed similar microleakage to casting post

  12. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  13. Diagnostic Uncertainties in Post-stroke Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosink, M.; Renzenbrink, G.J.; Van Dongen, R.T.M.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; Geurts, A.C.H.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2008-01-01

    Aim of Investigation Pain is a common complication after stroke. The etiology of post-stroke pain is largely unknown and classification of post-stroke pain subtypes is primarily based on neurological examination and pain assessment. Classification could probably be improved by a better understanding

  14. Post-Colonialism Perspectives on Educational Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Educational competition has always been the puzzle issue of educational researches. In this article, I analyze several aspects of educational competition within the perspective of post-colonialism discourse. In the political aspect, Taiwanese education is linked with political power, to present the post-colonial spirit by continuing dynastic…

  15. A Short Course in Post-Structuralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that post-structuralism cannot be applied to literary texts because to talk about applying post-structuralism assumes: (1) free-standing subjects; (2) free-standing objects of investigation; (3) free-standing methods; and (4) free-standing interpretation. (RAE)

  16. 76 FR 67498 - Post Office Closing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. A2012-17; Order No. 918] Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Venice, California post office has been filed. It identifies preliminary steps and...

  17. Posting of workers : Enforcement problems and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Expert contribution to a final conference. According to the author, monitoring the process of posting and controlling the regular character of the cross-border provision of services with posted workers has proven to be a problematic area. Recent joint activities of the labour inspectorate have

  18. [In vivo evaluation of carbon fiber posts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, V; Lugliè, P F; Chessa, G

    2002-05-01

    The use of carbon fiber posts allows morpho-functional restoration of endodontically treated teeth with an assembly of materials of a modulus of elasticity similar to that of dentin. The study clinically evaluated the percentage of survival of dental elements treated and reconstructed with endocanal carbon fiber posts. At the Dentistry Clinic of the University of Sassari 60 dental elements were selected from 46 subjects. The teeth, which had been treated endodontically with success for at least six months, were classified by parameters taken from the international literature and reconstructed using Tech 2000 carbon fiber posts and adhesive resinous systems recommended by the post manufacturer. The success rate was 98.4%. Almost half (49%) of the samples were single-rooted elements, 37.4% of the posts were 1.2 mm in diameter; in 78.3% the opposing contact was with a natural tooth; 100% of the elements had a type A dental structure. Third generation posts are a valid alternative to metallic posts and improve the prognosis of the treated element. The carbon fiber posts fixed with the composite, forming a single unit with the dental element, thus improving mid-term RESULTS. The technique is easy to use under clinical conditions and can be performed in a single session. So far, the method has provided promising clinical results, as this study demonstrated.

  19. Patients' quality of life post thyroidectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, E C

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate health related quality of life post thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism with respect to clinical benefit and patient satisfaction. This is one of the first such studies in the literature evaluating quality of life post thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism.

  20. Post-tensioning system surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear power plant containment structure post-tensioning system tendon surveillance program is described in detail. Data collected over three yearly post-tensioning system Surveillance Programs is presented and evaluated to correlate anticipated stress losses with actual losses. In addition corrosion protected system performance is analyzed