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Sample records for haemonchus contortus l3

  1. Can Haemonchus placei-primary infected naïve lambs withstand Haemonchus contortus infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiniger, Regina Celis Pereira; Dias de Castro, Luciana Laitano; Benavides, Magda Vieira; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating whether a 5000 L3 larvae Haemonchus placei primary infection, a less pathogenic parasite species for sheep, could attenuate highly pathogenic Haemonchus contortus infections in lambs. Thirty nine 6-month-old lambs were divided in three primary-infection groups: (HcPI) H. contortus-primary infected lambs, (HpPI) H. placei-primary infected lambs, and (CTRL) non-infected control lambs. Later, these same individuals, then aged 10-month old, were cross challenged with Haemonchus parasite species, creating four groups: HcPI challenged with H. placei (HcPI-HpCH), HpPI challenged with H. contortus (HpPI-HcCH), HcPI challenged with H. contortus (HcPI-HcCH), and CTRL. After a 60-day challenge period, all animals were necropsied for gastrointestinal worm counts. HcPI faecal egg count average was found to be twice the HpPI FEC group (p<0.0001). The HcPI also showed lower packed cell volume averages compared to the other groups (p<0.0001). Both H. contortus- and H. placei-primary infections displayed immune responses with similar IgG levels. For the challenge trial, the larval doses used were not enough to trigger clinic infection signs in all treated groups, compared to controls, and H. placei primary infection was not able to maintain anti-H. contortus IgG levels in a subsequent H. contortus infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluación del efecto de las artemisininas provenientes del extracto etanólico de Artemisia cina sobre L3 de Haemonchus contortus en una técnica de explantes abomasales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isabel Higuera-Piedrahita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo enfoque de control integrado de parásitos obliga a buscar alternativas que consideren el medioambiente, es decir, sostenibles y sustentables. El objetivo de este trabajo fue fraccionar el extracto etanólico de la planta Artemisia cina, obtener artemisininas y conocer el efecto de estas sobre la capacidad de asociación de las L3 de Haemonchus contortus en explantes abomasales. El extracto etanólico se fraccionó por medio de la metodología establecida para Artemisia japónica, y se identificaron las artemisininas por medio de cromatografía en capa fina, teniendo como referencia artemisininas comerciales. Las artemisininas se utilizaron sobre L3 desenvainada, se realizó la técnica de explantes abomasales por triplicado y se compararon así: levamisol (7.5 mg/ml, artemisinina comercial (1 mg/ml, agua y seis diferentes fracciones de A. cina a dosis de 1 mg/ml: Ac3k, Ac3b, Ac3a, Ac3h, Ac3i, Ac4b. No se obtuvieron diferencias significativas entre las fracciones de A. cina y artemisinina comercial (p>0.05. Se concluye que no existió efecto de las artemisininas obtenidas del extracto etanólico de A. cina sobre la capacidad de asociación de las L3 de H. contortus al tejido abomasal. Es importante continuar con más estudios de la artemisinina para determinar sobre qué fase del parásito afecta su viabilidad.

  3. In vitro effects of Tabernaemontana citrifolia extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Mahieu, M; D'Alexis, S; Philibert, L; Archimede, H

    2010-08-01

    Tabernaemontana citrifolia (Apocynaceae) is traditionally used as an anthelmintic preparation for ruminants in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of this plant against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of T. citrifolia fruit, leaf and root were tested on four developmental stages of the parasite, using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI), and adult worm motility assay (AWM). Compared to the negative control, significant effects were observed for the different parts of T. citrifolia but with differences depending on the parasitic stage; efficacies on the larval development of H. contortus from 88.9% to 99.8% for fruit, from 72.1% to 83.8% for root and from 33.5% to 85% for leaf with dose-dependent effect for the methanolic extract. The root gave the best result on EHA (22.7% efficacy for dichloromethane extract) and AWM (56% efficacy, with dose-dependent effect for dichloromethane extract) and the leaf on LMI (49.4% efficacy). These results suggest that T. citrifolia possess anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The active ingredients responsible for the activity could be the alkaloid compounds present in the plant parts of the plant. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests. ... Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three ... In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge.

  5. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pessoa, L.M; Morais, S.M; Bevilaqua, C.M.L; Luciano, J.H.S

    2002-01-01

    The ovicidal activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labideae) and its main component eugenol was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus, gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants...

  6. In vitro effects of Musa x paradisiaca extracts on four developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and/or dichloromethane) of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). The highly significant (P67% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaf on adult worm motility (43% of inhibition of motility after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as terpenoid and flavonoid compounds present in the leaf and stem of the plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Hoste, H; Mahieu, M; Varo, H; Archimede, H

    2009-04-06

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and adult worm motility (AWM) assay. The highly significant (P90% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane and methanolic extracts on adult worm motility (inhibition of motility >59.2% after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of C. moschata seed against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as amino acid compounds or terpenoid compounds present in the extracts.

  8. Haemonchus contortus intestine: a prominent source of mucosal antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, D P; Lahmers, K K; Brown, W C

    2007-03-01

    We sought to identify antigens from Haemonchus contortus, an abomasal nematode of small ruminants, that stimulate local (abomasal lymph node, ALN) CD4+ T lymphocyte responses during a primary infection. Results led to a focus on antigens from the parasite intestine. The H. contortus intestine proved to be a major source of antigens that stimulated ALN CD4+, CD25+ T lymphocyte responses during infections in lambs. When stimulated by intestinal antigens, ALN lymphocytes from these lambs expressed IL-4 and IL-13 transcripts, and, more variably, IFN-gamma. An immunoaffinity-purified fraction, enriched for H. contortus apical intestinal membrane proteins, stimulated similar ALN responses. On further fractionation, antigens from six size classes (ranging from 30 to 200 kDa) also stimulated proliferation of ALN lymphocytes. Mass spectrometry analysis of these size classes identified several known apical intestinal membrane proteins from H. contortus. The results show that H. contortus intestinal antigens warrant investigation in strategies to induce mucosal immunity against this parasite. The specific proteins identified have value for this purpose. The results are in contrast with the now generalized idea that H. contortus intestinal antigens are 'hidden' from the host immune system, and this issue is discussed. The approach also has potential application to other gastrointestinal nematode parasites.

  9. [A new control method for Haemonchus contortus: FAMACHA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selver, Melih

    2006-01-01

    FAMACHA is a method that has been developed against Haemonchus contortus which causes anemia in sheep and goats especially in tropical and subtropical areas. The basic principle of the method is the detection of the color changes in the mucous membrane of the eye that is caused by anemia. According to the FAMACHA Anemia Guide, (FAG), the mucous membranes of the eyes of animals are inspected for color differences at two or three week intervals. The criteria are used for treating the animals. Thus FAG provides practical diagnosis and treatment of animals that are actually affected by H. contortus. Avoiding unnecessary treatment prevents the formation of drug resistance. The method is effective only if it is used with an effective Trichostrongylidae control program. The FAMACHA method can be tested in Turkey where H. contortus is a problem; especially in mild and rainy areas. Furthermore, the method maybe modified for other parasites causing anemia.

  10. Soil moisture influences the development of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis to third stage larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadijah, S; Kahn, L P; Walkden-Brown, S W; Bailey, J N; Bowers, S F

    2013-09-01

    Two climate chamber experiments were conducted to determine the effect of varying initial soil moisture (0, 10 and 15%), simulated rainfall amount (0, 12 and 24 mm) and simulated rainfall timing (days -1, 0 and 3 relative to faecal deposition) on development (day 14) of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis to the third stage larvae (L3) and faecal moisture (FM). Increasing initial soil moisture content from 0 to 10 or 15% led to higher recovery of total L3 (Pmoisture and simulated rainfall amount on the recovery of total L3, showing that the benefit of increased simulated rainfall lessened with increasing soil moisture. Simulated rainfall on the day of deposition resulted in higher recovery of L3 (Prelative to faecal deposition was best associated with recovery of total H. contortus and T. colubriformis L3 (R(2)=0.32-0.46), reinforcing the importance of sufficient moisture soon after faecal deposition. The effects of initial soil moisture, and the amount and timing of simulated rainfall on development to L3 were largely explained by changes to FM and soil moisture values within 4 days relative to faecal deposition. These results highlight the influence of soil moisture and its interaction with rainfall on development of H. contortus and T. colubriformis to L3. Consequently we recommend that soil moisture be given greater importance and definition in the conduct of ecological studies of parasitic nematodes, in order to improve predictions of development to L3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of two enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Haemonchus contortus infections in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; Hornok, S.; Cornelissen, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) using either excretory/secretory (ES) products or crude somatic antigens (CSA) of adult Haemonchus contortus were compared for their ability to detect antibodies against H. contortus in sheep. Serum samples obtained from a group of 32 H. contortus

  12. Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Haemonchus contortus in Small Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, R B; Kahn, L P; Sargison, N D; Van Wyk, J A

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic, blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, and a significant cause of mortalities worldwide. Haemonchosis is a particularly significant threat in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions, where warm and moist conditions favour the free-living stages, but periodic outbreaks occur more widely during periods of transient environmental favourability. The clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis is based mostly on the detection of anaemia in association with a characteristic epidemiological picture, and confirmed at postmortem by the finding of large numbers of H. contortus in the abomasum. The detection of impending haemonchosis relies chiefly on periodic monitoring for anaemia, including through the 'FAMACHA' conjunctival-colour index, or through faecal worm egg counts and other laboratory procedures. A range of anthelmintics for use against H. contortus is available, but in most endemic situations anthelmintic resistance significantly limits the available treatment options. Effective preventative programmes vary depending on environments and enterprise types, and according to the scale of the haemonchosis risk and the local epidemiology of infections, but should aim to prevent disease outbreaks while maintaining anthelmintic efficacy. Appropriate strategies include animal management programmes to avoid excessive H. contortus challenge, genetic and nutritional approaches to enhance resistance and resilience to infection, and the monitoring of H. contortus infection on an individual animal or flock basis. Specific strategies to manage anthelmintic resistance centre on the appropriate use of effective anthelmintics, and refugia-based treatment schedules. Alternative approaches, such as biological control, may also prove useful, and vaccination against H. contortus appears to have significant potential in control programmes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anthelmintic activity of Leucaena leucocephala protein extracts on Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Martins dos Santos Soares

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein extracts obtained from the plant Leucaena leucocephala on the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The seeds, shell and cotyledon of L. leucocephala were separated and their proteins extracted using a sodium phosphate buffer, and named as TE (total seed extract, SE (shell extract and CE (cotyledon extract. Soluble protein content, protease, protease inhibitory and chitinase activity assays were performed. Exsheathment inhibition of H. contortus larvae were performed at concentrations of 0.6 mg mL–1, and egg hatch assays were conducted at protein concentrations of 0.8, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 mg mL–1. The effective concentration for 50% hatching inhibition (EC50 was estimated by probit. Different proportions of soluble proteins, protease and chitinase were found in TE and CE. Protease inhibitory activity was detected in all extracts. The EC50 of the CE and TE extracts were 0.48 and 0.33 mg mL–1, respectively. No ovicidal effects on H. contortus were detected in SE extracts, and none of the protein extracts demonstrated larvicidal effects on H. contortus. We therefore conclude that protein extracts of L. leucocephala had a detrimental effect on nematode eggs, which can be correlated with the high protease and chitinase activity of these extracts.

  14. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon citratus against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Ribeiro, Wesley Lyeverton Correia; Santos, Jessica Maria Leite dos; Silva, Kaline das Chagas; Araújo Filho, José Vilemar de; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes are of major economic importance in livestock. An alternative for the control of parasites is phytotherapy. This study evaluated the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus decoction (CcD), C. citratus essential oil (CcEo) and citral against Haemonchus contortus using in vitro egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) and an in vivo test using a Meriones unguiculatus (gerbil) model. The effect of 800 mg/kg CcEo was evaluated in gerbils that had been artificially infected with 5,000 third-stage H. contortus larvae. The effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching were 0.46, 0.14 and 0.13 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. The EC50 values in the LDT were 5.04, 1.92 and 1.37 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. H. contortus population in the group treated with C. citratus essential oil was reduced by 38.5% (Pcitratus essential oil to control of H. contortus parasite of small ruminant.

  15. In vitro effects of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts on four development stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2010-10-11

    Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of Manihot esculenta (Cassava) leaf were tested in vitro on four development stages of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). Compared to the negative control, significant effects (P<0.0001) were observed for the methanolic extract of leaf against larval development (57.6% +/-7.6), with a dose dependent effect. These results suggest that Cassava possess anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be the terpenoids and condensed tannin compounds present in the leaf. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of plant trichomes on the vertical migration of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae on five tropical forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aruaque L F; Costa, Ciniro; Rodella, Roberto A; Silva, Bruna F; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2009-06-01

    The influence of trichomes on vertical migration and survival of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) on different forages was investigated. Four different forages showing different distributions of trichomes (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes, Andropogon gayanus, and Stylosanthes spp.), and one forage species without trichomes (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania), were used. Forages cut at the post-grazing height were contaminated with faeces containing L3. Samples of different grass strata (0-10, 10-20, >20 cm) and faeces were collected for L3 quantification once per week over four weeks. In all forages studied, the highest L3 recovery occurred seven days after contamination, with the lowest recovery on A. gayanus. In general, larvae were found on all forages' strata. However, most of the larvae were at the lower stratum. There was no influence of trichomes on migration and survival of H. contortus L3 on the forages.

  17. In vitro and in vivo Nematocidal Activity of Allium sativum and Tagetes erecta Extracts Against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio- Landín, Josefina; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Salinas-Sánchez, David Osvaldo; López-Arellano, María Eugenia; Liébano-Hernández, Enrique; Hernández-Velázquez, Victor Manuel; Valladares-Cisneros, María Guadalupe

    2015-12-01

    In the Mexican ethno-medicine, a number of plants have shown a successful anthelmintic activity. This fact could be crucial to identify possible green anti-parasitic strategies against nematodes affecting animal production. This research evaluated the in vitro and in vivo nematocidal effects of two single and combined plant extracts: bulbs of Allium sativum (n-hexane) and flowers of Tagetes erecta (acetone). The in vivo assay evaluated the administration of extracts either individually or combined against Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected gerbils. The in vitro larvicidal activity percentage (LAP) of A. sativum and T. erecta extracts against H. contortus (L3) was determined by means of individual and combined usage of the extracts. Similarly, the extracts were evaluated in terms of reduction in the parasitic population in gerbils infected with H. contortus by individual and combined usage. The LAP at 40 mg/mL was 68% with A. sativum and 36.6% with T. erecta. The combination caused 83.3% mortality of parasites. The oral administration of A. sativum and T. erecta extracts at 40 mg/mL, caused 68.7% and 53.9% reduction of the parasitic burden, respectively. Meanwhile, the combined effect of both extracts shown 87.5% reduction. This study showed evidence about the effect of A. sativum and T. erecta plant extracts by means of individual and combined usage against H. contortus in in vitro and in vivo bioassays in artificially H. contortus-infected gerbils as a model.

  18. Molecular identification of abomasal bacteria associated with genetic resistance and susceptibility to Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Holtz Tirabassi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The widespread occurrence of anthelmintic-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs, particularly Haemonchus contortus, in sheep production systems has magnified the need to identify and develop alternative control strategies. Strategies include the selection of genetically GIN-resistant sheep and the implementation of biological parasite control to reduce dependence on anthelmintic drugs. In this study, we aimed to establish the molecular identity of bacterial communities present in the abomasum of sheep classified as resistant or susceptible to H. contortus, an abomasal parasite. Thirty-eight sheep were experimentally infected with L3 Haemonchus contortus and analyzed for fecal egg count (FEC and hematocrit (Ht to establish haemonchosis resistance or susceptibility. Four resistant sheep (RS and four susceptible sheep (SS were selected for microbial sampling and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Molecular identification of the bacteria was based on amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, construction of a 16S rDNA clone library, and subsequent gene sequencing. Significant differences (p = 0.05 were observed in the occurrence of different phyla identified in RS and SS libraries: Firmicutes (61.4% and 37.2%, respectively, Proteobacteria (10.2% and 37.2%, respectively, Bacteroidetes (12.8% and 5.8%, respectively, and unclassified bacteria (12.8% and 17%, respectively. Differences between the proportions of bacterial communities present in the RS and SS pool samples were observed, contributing as a first step toward the assessment of the association between the gastrointestinal tract microbiota and nematode resistance in sheep.

  19. Effect of sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on adult female Haemonchus contortus in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a perennial warm-season forage rich in condensed tannins (CT) that has been reported to have anthelmintic activity against small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, but the mechan...

  20. Haemonchus contortus: Characterization of the baculovirus expressed form of aminopeptidase H11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reszka, N.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Zelnik, V.; Moskwa, B.; Bienkowska-Szewczyk, K.

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant form of Haemonchus contortus aminopeptidase H11, an intestinal membrane glycoprotein considered to be in its native form the most promising vaccine candidate, was produced in insect cells, characterised and tested in pilot vaccination-challenge trial on sheep. The sequence of the cloned

  1. Molecular characterization and expression of two putative protective excretory secretory proteins of Haemonchus contortus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; van Leeuwen, M. A.; Verstrepen, B. E.; Cornelissen, A. W.

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that vaccination with two low molecular mass excretory secretory (ES) antigens of 15 and 24 kDa, respectively, afforded a substantial degree of protection against Haemonchus contortus to sheep. In vitro cultivation of the parasite usually yields a limited amount of these proteins

  2. Lack of effects of quebracho and sainfoin hay on incoming third-stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, V; Prevot, F; Dorchies, Ph; Hoste, H

    2005-09-01

    The effects of tannins on adult populations of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta in goats are characterised mainly by a decrease in egg excretion without any significant changes in worm number. In contrast, the impact of tannins on T. colubriformis or T. circumcincta third-stage larvae (L3) is associated with a significant reduction in worm establishment. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of quebracho extract tannins on H. contortus L3. The consequences of consumption of sainfoin hay were also examined. Twenty-one naïve kids were divided into three experimental groups. Group Q received quebracho extract and group S received sainfoin hay from days D3 to D5. Group C remained as an infected control group. All kids received 1500 L3 H. contortus on D0, D1 and D2. On D18, post-infection, the kids were slaughtered and the worm populations compared in the different groups. Compared to the control values, the worm counts decreased, respectively, by 33% and 38% in groups Q and S but the differences were not significant. No differences were found in pathophysiological measurements between the three groups. The results confirm differences in tannin effect according to nematode species but not parasitic stage.

  3. Use of P-glycoprotein gene probes to investigate anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus and comparison with Onchocerca volvulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, M.S.G.; Okoli, M.N.; Schulz-Key, H.; Okongkwo, P.O.; Roos, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    A P-glycoprotein gene probe from the sheep parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus was developed and used to analyse restriction fragment length polymorphisms between susceptible isolates and isolates resistant to either benzimidazole; levamisole and benzimidazole; or benzimidazole, ivermectin and

  4. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia vestita Wall ex DC. and Artemisia maritima L. against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irum, Shamaila; Ahmed, Haroon; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra; Donskow-Łysoniewska, Katarzyna; Qayyum, Mazhar; Simsek, Sami

    2015-09-15

    Current study was designed to evaluate in vivo and in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia vestita Wall ex DC. and Artemisia maritima L. against Haemonchus contortus in comparison with ivermectin to investigate the effect of plant extracts on survival of infective L3 and adults under in vitro condition. Plant extracts were given to H. contortus infected sheep orally and it was infected with L3 stage of H. contortus at dose of 5000 larvae/sheep. Total of 25-30 larvae were incubated with plant extracts in PBS alone and ivermectin at different concentration used as positive control. It was recorded that there is a significant decrease in fecal egg count (FEC) after post-treatment period for both plants. The highest fecal egg count reduction for A. vestita was 87.2% at 100mg/kg while for A. maritima it was 84.5% on day 28 post-treatment. Investigated extracts indicated significant activity against larvae and adult worms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, L M; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Luciano, J H S

    2002-10-16

    The ovicidal activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labideae) and its main component eugenol was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus, gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants. The oil and eugenol were diluted in Tween 20 (0.5%) at five different concentrations. In the egg hatch test, H. contortus eggs were obtained from feces of goats experimentally infected. At 0.50% concentration, the essential oil and eugenol showed a maximum eclodibility inhibition. These results suggest a possible utilization of the essential oil of O. gratissimum as an aid to the control of gastrointestinal helmintosis of small ruminants.

  6. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sakong, BM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available , C.M.L., Moraes, S.M. & Vieira, L.S., 1999, ‘In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal effect of the plants Spigelia anthelmia and Momordica charantia against the nematode Haemonchus contortus’, Ciência Animal 9, 67–73. Bizimenyera, E.S., Githiori, J... ruminants of semi-arid Brazilian northeast’, Ciência Animal 10, 294–300. Mendoza de Gives, P., Crespo, J.F., Rodriguez, D.H., Prats, V.V., Hernandez, E.L. & Fernandez, G.E.O., 1998, ‘Biological control of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae in ovine...

  7. Effect of feeding bioactive forages on infection and subsequent development of Haemonchus contortus in lamb faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrábano, J; Calvete, C; Uriarte, J

    2010-08-27

    Contrasting dried herbage diets were offered to lambs to evaluate their effects on Haemonchus contortus infection and on subsequent development of larvae in faeces. Artificially infected lambs (n=24, 4 months old) were allocated to one of four treatment groups (n=6) and fed on hay of lucerne (Medicago sativa; Lu), sulla (Hedysarum coronarium; Su), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia; Sa) or wormwood (Artemisia absinthium; Wo) included as 20% in ground lucerne pellets. While voluntary intake was similar, lamb growth rates were notably affected by diet. Additionally, necropsies carried out 30 days post-infection showed that worm burden was reduced by 8 (Su), 13 (Sa) and 49% (Wo) with respect to that found in lambs fed on lucerne, though only the difference with wormwood was significant. Faecal egg excretion expressed on a dry matter basis was also reduced by 22 (Su), 54 (Sa) and 73% (Wo), but differences were significant only for wormwood and sainfoin, which was associated with a decrease in female fecundity. Sulla and sainfoin diets significantly reduced egg hatching rates but increased the percentage of L(3) in the faeces of the host animal, particularly in the case of sulla hay compared to other forages. Consequently, the potential risk of infection derived from faecal excretion could be notably altered. Further work is needed to validate these findings and their implications in an applied farming system. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY OF RESISTANCE IN GAROLE SHEEP NATURALLY INFECTED WITH HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS

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    Manoranjan Roy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistance status against natural infection to Haemonchus contortus as well as influence of season, sex, body weight, and haemoglobin type on resistance levels were evaluated in 309 numbers of Garole sheep. In adult Garole sheep, egg per gram(EPG of faeces for Haemonchus contortus was varied from 300 to 1600, but overall EPG in Garole have been recorded as 829.96 ± 20.60. The effects of season, sex, and body weight and haemoglobin type on EPG were all found to be highly significant (P < 0.01. EPG count was highest during monsoon (986.27 ± 28.26, followed by summer (832.88 ± 28.26 and lowest during winter (670.74 ± 28.26 which indicated the existence of a seasonal variation of EPG. Rams had higher EPG (954.32 ± 57.93 than ewes (705.60 ± 45.79 which reflected that males appeared to be more susceptible to Haemonchus contortus infection compared to females. Animals with lower body weight (upto 10 kg showed higher EPG (1017.20 ± 54.82, then the infection level decreased as body weight increased (886.79 ± 56.23 for 10 kg to 12 kg and 737.18 ± 50.29 for 12 kg to 14 kg and lowest EPG was recorded in animals with above 14 kg body weight (678.68 ± 54.49. This study reveals Hb-BB type animals had higher EPG count (983.81 ± 18.22 in comparison to Hb-AB type animals (676.12 ± 33.96 indicating that Haemoglobin-A locus has some relation with resistance. From our study it can be concluded that resistant level of Garole sheep against Haemonchus contortus is influenced by some intrinsic factors like sex, body weight, and haemoglobin type of the sheep and also by extrinsic factor like season.

  9. Protective immunity to a blood-feeding nematode (Haemonchus contortus) induced by parasite gut antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmer, D P; McGuire, T C

    1991-01-01

    To determine the ability of gut antigens to induce a protective immune response against blood-feeding nematodes, isolated gut antigens were used to immunize goats against Haemonchus contortus. Immunization-induced antibody responses recognized parasite gut antigens which were associated predominantly with the microvillous membrane region of the parasite gut. Antibody from immune serum also recognized seven predominant gut proteins on a Western blot (immunoblot). Several of these proteins appe...

  10. To trace the active compound in mengkudu (morinda citrifolia with anthelmintic acvtivity against Haemonchus contortus

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    T.B Murdiati

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites such Haemonchus contortus is usually controlled by management improvement and regular administration of anthelmintic. However, there is an indication of H. contortus resistance to several anthelmintic available in the market, which makes medicinal plants as an alternative anthelmintic and mengkudu or noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia have been reported as an effective anthelmintic. To trace the active compounds responsible for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus, the mengkudu fruit was continuosly extracted into hexane, chloroform, metanol and water, followed by in-vitro study on the anthelmintic activity. The in-vitro anthelmintic activity was base on the ability of the extracts to kill the worm and the ability of the extracts to prevent egg development. The study suggested that chloroform fraction which contains alkaloid and anthraquinon have the highest anthelmintic activity and showed significant different compared to control (P≤ 0.05.

  11. Microclimatic effect on vertical migration of Haemonchus contortus and Haemonchus placei third-stage larvae on irrigated Kikuyu pasture.

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    Krecek, R C; Hartman, R; Groeneveld, H T; Thorne, A

    1995-06-01

    The influence of microclimate on numbers of third-state larvae of haemonchus contortus and Haemonchus placei in four strata of irrigated Kikuyu pasture was assessed. On 36 different, interspersed days three replicates of pasture samples were collected on three occasions per day from 1990-1992 for larval recovery and the log10 mean counts of the larvae recovered were analysed by use of ANOVA models. Because the ground-surface area from which herbage was collected was standardized, estimated larval counts for the different strata could be compared; this was not possible in our previous studies. For H. contortus, the estimated larval counts in the four strata were predicted by microclimatic air temperature, relative humidity and soil moisture, with the coefficient-of-determination (R2) values ranging from 0.15-0.35. Of these, air temperature had the greatest effect. The same three predictors, together with illumination and wind speed, featured for H. placei, with R2 values of 0.19-0.52. With the exception of wind speed and illumination, which (for H. placei) had the opposite effect, all the microclimatic parameters listed, predicted an increase in numbers of larvae from a lower to an upper strata.

  12. The 'Toolbox' of strategies for managing Haemonchus contortus in goats: What's in and what's out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, P E; Murray, P J; Hoy, J M; Hohenhaus, M; Kotze, A

    2016-04-15

    A dynamic and innovative approach to managing the blood-consuming nematode Haemonchus contortus in goats is critical to crack dependence on veterinary anthelmintics. H. contortus management strategies have been the subject of intense research for decades, and must be selected to create a tailored, individualized program for goat farms. Through the selection and combination of strategies from the Toolbox, an effective management program for H. contortus can be designed according to the unique conditions of each particular farm. This Toolbox investigates strategies including vaccines, bioactive forages, pasture/grazing management, behavioural management, natural immunity, FAMACHA, Refugia and strategic drenching, mineral/vitamin supplementation, copper Oxide Wire Particles (COWPs), breeding and selection/selecting resistant and resilient individuals, biological control and anthelmintic drugs. Barbervax(®), the ground-breaking Haemonchus vaccine developed and currently commercially available on a pilot scale for sheep, is prime for trialling in goats and would be an invaluable inclusion to this Toolbox. The specialised behaviours of goats, specifically their preferences to browse a variety of plants and accompanying physiological adaptations to the consumption of secondary compounds contained in browse, have long been unappreciated and thus overlooked as a valuable, sustainable strategy for Haemonchus management. These strategies are discussed in this review as to their value for inclusion into the 'Toolbox' currently, and the future implications of ongoing research for goat producers. Combining and manipulating strategies such as browsing behaviour, pasture management, bioactive forages and identifying and treating individual animals for haemonchosis, in addition to continuous evaluation of strategy effectiveness, is conducted using a model farm scenario. Selecting strategies from the Toolbox, with regard to their current availability, feasibility, economical cost

  13. Fungal Antagonism Assessment of Predatory Species and Producers Metabolites and Their Effectiveness on Haemonchus contortus Infective Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manoel Eduardo; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Gives, Pedro Mendoza; Millán-Orozco, Jair; Uriostegui, Miguel Angel Mercado; Marcelino, Liliana Aguilar; Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Araújo, Andréia Luiza; Vargas, Thainá Souza; Aguiar, Anderson Rocha; Senna, Thiago; Rodrigues, Maria Gorete; Froes, Frederico Vieira; de Araújo, Jackson Victor

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess antagonism of nematophagous fungi and species producers metabolites and their effectiveness on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3). Assay A assesses the synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effect on the production of spores of fungal isolates of the species Duddingtonia flagrans, Clonostachys rosea, Trichoderma esau, and Arthrobotrys musiformis; Assay B evaluates in vitro the effect of intercropping of these isolates grown in 2% water-agar (2% WA) on L3 of H. contortus. D. flagrans (Assay A) produced 5.3 × 10(6) spores and associated with T. esau, A. musiformis, or C. rosea reduced its production by 60.37, 45.28, and 49.05%, respectively. T. esau produced 7.9 × 10(7) conidia and associated with D. flagrans, A. musiformis, or C. rosea reduced its production by 39.24, 82.27, and 96.96%, respectively. A. musiformis produced 7.3 × 10(9) spores and associated with D. flagrans, T. esau, or C. rosea reduced its production by 99.98, 99.99, and 99.98%, respectively. C. rosea produced 7.3 × 10(8) conidia and associated with D. flagrans, T. esau, or A. musiformis reduced its production by 95.20, 96.84, and 93.56%, respectively. These results show evidence of antagonism in the production of spores between predators fungi.

  14. Fungal Antagonism Assessment of Predatory Species and Producers Metabolites and Their Effectiveness on Haemonchus contortus Infective Larvae

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    Manoel Eduardo Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess antagonism of nematophagous fungi and species producers metabolites and their effectiveness on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3. Assay A assesses the synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effect on the production of spores of fungal isolates of the species Duddingtonia flagrans, Clonostachys rosea, Trichoderma esau, and Arthrobotrys musiformis; Assay B evaluates in vitro the effect of intercropping of these isolates grown in 2% water-agar (2% WA on L3 of H. contortus. D. flagrans (Assay A produced 5.3 × 106 spores and associated with T. esau, A. musiformis, or C. rosea reduced its production by 60.37, 45.28, and 49.05%, respectively. T. esau produced 7.9 × 107 conidia and associated with D. flagrans, A. musiformis, or C. rosea reduced its production by 39.24, 82.27, and 96.96%, respectively. A. musiformis produced 7.3 × 109 spores and associated with D. flagrans, T. esau, or C. rosea reduced its production by 99.98, 99.99, and 99.98%, respectively. C. rosea produced 7.3 × 108 conidia and associated with D. flagrans, T. esau, or A. musiformis reduced its production by 95.20, 96.84, and 93.56%, respectively. These results show evidence of antagonism in the production of spores between predators fungi.

  15. First report of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic nematodes can cause substantial clinical and subclinical problems in alpacas and anthelmintics are regularly used to control parasitic nematodes in alpacas. Although anthelmintic resistance has been reported in ruminants worldwide, very little is known about anthelmintic resistance in alpacas. The present study was carried out to confirm a suspected case of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia. Methods Post mortem examination of an alpaca was conducted to determine the cause of its death. To confirm a suspected case of macrocyclic lactone (ML) resistance in H. contortus in alpacas, a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was performed using closantel (7.5 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg). Nematode species were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Results Post mortem examination of a 1-year-old female alpaca that had died following a brief period of lethargy, anorexia and recumbency revealed severe anaemia, hypoproteinaemia and gastric parasitism by adult Haemonchus contortus, despite recent abamectin (0.2 mg/kg) treatment. Based on these findings and the exclusive use of MLs in the herd over the preceding six years, ML resistance in parasitic nematodes of alpacas on this farm was suspected. FECRT revealed that the efficacy of closantel was 99% (95% CI 93-100), whereas that of ivermectin was 35% (95% CI 0-78), indicating that the treatment failure was likely due to the presence of ML-resistant nematodes. Larval culture of faecal samples collected following ivermectin treatment consisted of 99% H. contortus and 1% Cooperia oncophora, a result confirmed using a PCR assay. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of ML resistance in H. contortus in alpacas in Australia. Based on the extent of anthelmintic resistance in sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in Australia, veterinarians and alpaca owners should be encouraged to implement integrated parasite management strategies to improve

  16. Proteomic analysis of Mecistocirrus digitatus and Haemonchus contortus intestinal protein extracts and subsequent efficacy testing in a vaccine trial.

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    Alison J Dicker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematode infections, such as Haemonchus contortus and Mecistocirrus digitatus, are ranked in the top twenty diseases affecting small-holder farmers' livestock, yet research into M. digitatus, which infects cattle and buffalo in Asia is limited. Intestine-derived native protein vaccines are effective against Haemonchus, yet the protective efficacy of intestine-derived M. digitatus proteins has yet to be determined.A simplified protein extraction protocol (A is described and compared to an established method (B for protein extraction from H. contortus. Proteomic analysis of the H. contortus and M. digitatus protein extracts identified putative vaccine antigens including aminopeptidases (H11, zinc metallopeptidases, glutamate dehydrogenase, and apical gut membrane polyproteins. A vaccine trial compared the ability of the M. digitatus extract and two different H. contortus extracts to protect sheep against H. contortus challenge. Both Haemonchus fractions (A and B were highly effective, reducing cumulative Faecal Egg Counts (FEC by 99.19% and 99.89% and total worm burdens by 87.28% and 93.64% respectively, compared to the unvaccinated controls. There was no effect on H. contortus worm burdens following vaccination with the M. digitatus extract and the 28.2% reduction in cumulative FEC was not statistically significant. However, FEC were consistently lower in the M. digitatus extract vaccinates compared to the un-vaccinated controls from 25 days post-infection.Similar, antigenically cross-reactive proteins are found in H. contortus and M. digitatus; this is the first step towards developing a multivalent native vaccine against Haemonchus species and M. digitatus. The simplified protein extraction method could form the basis for a locally produced vaccine against H. contortus and, possibly M. digitatus, in regions where effective cold chains for vaccine distribution are limited. The application of such a vaccine in these regions would

  17. Perfil proteico e metabolismo oxidativo de cordeiros experimentalmente infectados pelo Haemonchus contortus e suplementados com selênio e vitamina E Protein Profile and oxidative metabolism of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and supplemented with selenium and vitamin E

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    Paula Rocha Sampaio Junchem Nicolodi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a influência da suplementação com selênio e vitamina E sobre o perfil proteico e metabolismo oxidativo de cordeiros infectados experimentalmente pelo Haemonchus contortus, trinta cordeiros fêmeas foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: G1 (n=10: animais infectados; G2 (n=10: infectados e suplementados; G3 (n=5: controle; e G4 (n=5: não infectados e suplementados. Os grupos 1 e 2 receberam 500 larvas de H. contortus (L3, via oral, por um período de 20 dias, com intervalo de dois dias entre as doses. A suplementação nos grupos 2 e 4 foi realizada no dia zero, com 0,1mg kg-1 de Selenito de sódio (1,67% e com 2.000UI de vitamina E por via intramuscular (IM. Somente a vitamina E foi reaplicada no dia 30. As coletas de sangue para determinação do perfil proteico (proteína total, albumina, alfa, beta e gamaglobulina e metabolismo oxidativo (espécies reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico-TBARS e a enzima glutationa peroxidase (GSPX foram realizadas nos dias zero, 20, 30, 45, 60 e 80. OPG foi quantificado nos dias 0, 20 ,45 e 80. Em relação aos valores de proteínas totais, albumina, betaglobulina e gamaglobulina, as principais diferenças foram observadas quando os grupos parasitados foram comparados com o grupo somente suplementado; e este manteve valores mais elevados. Conclui-se que não há influência da suplementação com selênio e vitamina E no perfil proteico e metabolismo oxidativo quando os cordeiros se encontram severamente parasitados por H.contortus.The objective of the present study was to describe the influence of supplementation with selenium and vitamin E on the protein and oxidative profiles of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Thirty female lambs were divided into four groups as follows: G1 (n=10: infected animals; G2 (n=10: infected and supplemented; G3 (n=5: control; G4 (n=5: non-infected and supplemented. Groups 1 and 2 received 500 H. contortus larvae (L3 orally for a period of 20

  18. Functional reconstitution of Haemonchus contortus acetylcholine receptors in Xenopus oocytes provides mechanistic insights into levamisole resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulin, T; Fauvin, A; Charvet, CL; Cortet, J; Cabaret, J; Bessereau, J-L; Neveu, C

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The cholinergic agonist levamisole is widely used to treat parasitic nematode infestations. This anthelmintic drug paralyses worms by activating a class of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptors (L-AChRs) expressed in nematode muscle cells. However, levamisole efficacy has been compromised by the emergence of drug-resistant parasites, especially in gastrointestinal nematodes such as Haemonchus contortus. We report here the first functional reconstitution and pharmacological characterization of H. contortus L-AChRs in a heterologous expression system. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, five AChR subunit and three ancillary protein genes are necessary in vivo and in vitro to synthesize L-AChRs. We have cloned the H. contortus orthologues of these genes and expressed them in Xenopus oocytes. We reconstituted two types of H. contortus L-AChRs with distinct pharmacologies by combining different receptor subunits. KEY RESULTS The Hco-ACR-8 subunit plays a pivotal role in selective sensitivity to levamisole. As observed with C. elegans L-AChRs, expression of H. contortus receptors requires the ancillary proteins Hco-RIC-3, Hco-UNC-50 and Hco-UNC-74. Using this experimental system, we demonstrated that a truncated Hco-UNC-63 L-AChR subunit, which was specifically detected in a levamisole-resistant H. contortus isolate, but not in levamisole-sensitive strains, hampers the normal function of L-AChRs, when co-expressed with its full-length counterpart. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS We provide the first functional evidence for a putative molecular mechanism involved in levamisole resistance in any parasitic nematode. This expression system will provide a means to analyse molecular polymorphisms associated with drug resistance at the electrophysiological level. PMID:21486278

  19. Protein profile of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and supplemented with selenium and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausto, Guilherme Costa; Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Costa, Márcio Machado; dos Anjos Lopes, Sônia Terezinha; França, Raqueli Teresinha; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Minervino, Antonio Humberto Hamad; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Leal, Marta Lizandra do Rêgo

    2014-08-05

    Gastrointestinal nematodes cause significant economic losses in the sheep industry, with frequent reports of anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, alternative methods to control these parasites are necessary. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of treatment with selenium and copper on the protein profile of sheep that were experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twenty-eight lambs were experimentally infected with H. contortus and divided into four experimental groups as follow: G1--untreated animals; G2--treated with sodium selenite; G3--treated with copper; G4--treated with sodium selenite and copper. The serum protein, body weight and egg count per gram of feces (EPG) were assessed at the baseline and after 20, 40, 60 and 80 days. The parasite burden was assessed 80 days after the beginning of the experiment. Higher levels of total protein and gamma globulin were observed in the lambs treated with sodium selenite and copper on D80. Copper acted as a growth promoter. The copper-supplemented groups exhibited higher daily and total weight gain. The association of selenium and copper altered the protein profile of sheep. Copper and selenium supplementation reduced EPG and worm burden at the end of the experiment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the positive effect of the combined parenteral supplementation of Se and Cu on H. contortus infection. This injectable supplementation could be used as an auxiliary method to control H. contortus in sheep.

  20. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and Albendazole against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Silvia; Farajallah, Achmad; Sulistiawati, Erni; Muladno

    2016-02-01

    Administering a half dose of an anthelmintic is a simple method for detecting resistance in parasites infesting small ruminants. When a single anthelmintic fails in native sheep from Indonesia, a combination of anthelmintics from different chemical classes with different modes of action are administered as an alternative parasite-control strategy. This study compared the anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ) given either separately as a single dose or half dose or co-administered to sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twelve sheep from Bogor, West Java, Indonesia were divided into the following six treatment groups: half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, combined IVM + ABZ, and control. The treatment efficacy was determined using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) at day 0 (pre-treatment) and post-treatment at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. The efficacies of half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, and the combination treatment ranged from -1900% to 100%, 99% to 100%, -167% to 100%, -467% to 89%, and -200% to 100%, respectively. The FECRT for the half-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ showed that H. contortus is resistant to half-dose IVM and ABZ. Full-dose IVM was effective against H. contortus. The combined treatment was more effective against H. contortus than ABZ alone.

  1. Experimental infection of calves with Haemonchus placei or Haemonchus contortus: Assessment of clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters and histopathological characteristics of abomasums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Buzzulini, Carolina; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Salatta, Bruna; Siniscalchi, Débora; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-11-01

    The present study had the primary objective of evaluating clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters, as well as observing anatomical and histopathological characteristics of abomasums, from calves prime-infected with Haemonchus contortus or H. placei. Ten male Holstein newborns were subdivided in three groups (GI placebo; GII infected with H. contortus; GIII inoculated with H. placei). Eye mucosa staining was evaluated. Hematological and biochemical tests were performed on animals. The euthanasia of all ten experimental calves was performed on the 42nd day post-inoculation. Fragments were collected from each of all 10 abomasums for histopathological analysis. Discrete submandibular edema was diagnosed in animals from both infected groups (H. contortus or H. placei). However, there were no significant changes (P > 0.05) in the color of the ocular mucosa of calves from all three experimental groups across the entire experimental period. Hematological and biochemical changes diagnosed on animals could not be linked to infections by species of Haemonchus spp. Regarding histopathological exams, it was possible to diagnose hypertrophy, hyperplasia, binucleated cells, inflammatory infiltrate, multifocal hemorrhage and edema in abomasums from calves of both groups infected with H. placei and H. contortus. It can, thus, be concluded that not only are calves susceptible to infections by both Haemonchus species, but they can also present clinical changes and similar anatomic histopathological lesions independent of being infected by Haemonchus placei or Haemonchus contortus. These results reflect a negative effect on helminth control by mixed grazing between sheep and cattle, especially when using calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erin E; Garner, Bridget C; Williamson, Lisa H; Storey, Bob E; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2016-03-01

    Most small ruminant farms in tropical climates are plagued by Haemonchus contortus, a hematophagous, abomasal parasite. Heavy burdens of this parasite can cause anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, and mortality in susceptible animals. Haemonchus contortus is becoming a major health concern in New World camelids as well, namely llamas (Llama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), yet little research has been conducted regarding its prevalence or pathology in these species. Herein, we present a retrospective review of llamas and alpacas that were admitted to The University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Athens Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2002 and 2013. Antemortem fecal egg count (FEC) estimates performed on 30 alpacas were negatively correlated with hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Total protein was not significantly correlated with FEC. On postmortem examination, 55 of 198 camelids, including 2 from the aforementioned antemortem review, were infected with H. contortus, with llamas (42.6%) having a significantly higher infection rate than alpacas (22.2%). In 15.7% of the total cases, the parasite was the major cause of death. Common gross lesions included peritoneal, thoracic, and pericardial effusions, visceral pallor, subcutaneous edema, and serous atrophy of fat. Histologic lesions included centrilobular hepatic necrosis, hepatic atrophy, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the mucosa of the third gastric compartment (C3), extramedullary hematopoiesis in both the liver and spleen, and the presence of nematodes in C3. Our study emphasizes the importance of H. contortus diagnosis and herd monitoring in New World camelids, particularly llamas. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Comparison of parasitological and productive traits of Criollo lambs native to the central Mexican Plateau and Suffolk lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Hurtado, F; Romero-Escobedo, E; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Torres-Hernández, G; Becerril-Pérez, C M

    2010-09-20

    The study compares the parasitological and productive traits of Criollo lambs native to the central Mexican Plateau (CNCMP) and Suffolk (SU) lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. CNCMP lambs (n=20) and SU lambs (n=15) were infected with L3 of H. contortus while five lambs of each genotype were kept as controls. Fecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), blood eosinophil number (BEN), ocular mucous membrane color (as measured by the FAMACHA index), changes in body condition score (BCS) and cumulative live weight gain (CLWG) were measured weekly during a 20-week period. On week 20, all animals were euthanized and the number of adult worms (AW) in the abomasum was counted. Infected SU lambs had higher (pFAMACHA index. BCS tended to decline for infected SU lambs and increased slightly for infected CNCMP lambs. CLWG differed in all groups (p<0.05); infected SU lambs gained 12.1+/-1.9kg, infected CNCMP lambs gained 18.8+/-0.7kg, control SU lambs gained 34.6+/-1.6kg, and control CNCMP lambs gained 26.9+/-0.8kg. In conclusion, CNCMP lambs had a smaller worm burden, a better ability to maintain their productive traits, and were less affected by infection with Haemonchus contortus.

  4. In vitro activity of Lantana camara, Alpinia zerumbet, Mentha villosa and Tagetes minuta decoctions on Haemonchus contortus eggs and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Iara T F; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; de Oliveira, Lorena M B; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana L F; Morais, Selene M; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Ribeiro, Wesley L C

    2012-12-21

    The resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to anthelmintics has increased the need to evaluate natural products that can replace or assist current strategies to control gastrointestinal nematodes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of decoctions of Lantana camara (DLc), Alpinia zerumbet (DAz), Mentha villosa (DMv) and Tagetes minuta (DTm) on Haemonchus contortus by two in vitro tests. The effects of increasing concentrations of lyophilized decoctions (0.31 to 10mg/ml) were assessed using the egg hatch test (EHT). The decoctions were then tested in the larval artificial exsheathment assay. H. contortus third stage larvae (L3) were exposed to 0.31 mg/ml A. zerumbet and M. villosa decoctions and 0.62 mg/ml T. minuta and L. camara decoctions for 3h and then exsheathment procedure at 10 min intervals. An inhibitor of tannins, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP), was used to study if tannins were responsible for the inhibitory effect on hatching and exsheathment of larvae. A. zerumbet, M. villosa and T. minuta showed a dose-dependent effect in the EHT, which did not disappear after the addition of PVPP. No effect was observed for L. camara in the EHT. However, the decoctions inhibited the process of larval exsheathment, which may be related to tannin action because the addition of PVPP reversed the inhibitory effect. A. zerumbet, M. villosa and T. minuta decoctions showed inhibitory activity on H. contortus larvae hatching and exsheathing. The decoctions of these plants could be used to control gastrointestinal nematodes following confirmation of their anthelmintic activity in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Possible mechanisms of host resistance to Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands

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    The blood feeder parasite Haemonchus contortus appears to be the most economically important helminth species for small ruminant production in many regions of the world. The two sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands display distinctly different resistant phenotypes under both natural and experim...

  6. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Melia azedarach extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, M V; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Costa, C T C; Castro, C M S

    2006-08-31

    Haemonchus contortus is responsible for severe economic losses in sheep and goat breeding in the Northeast of Brazil. However, the effectiveness of control is compromised due to anthelmintic resistance and misuse. In the search for natural anthelmintics, Melia azedarach L., a plant indigenous to India but now distributed throughout Brazil, was selected due to the reported anthelmintic properties of its seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the seed and leaf extracts of the Brazilian adapted plant and investigate the type of organic chemical compounds present in the most active extracts. The ovicidal and larvicidal activity of M. azedarach extracts on H. contortus was evaluated through egg hatching and larval development tests. Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds and chloroform and ethanol extracts of leaves of M. azedarach were used in the tests. To perform the larval development test, feces of an animal free from parasites were mixed with third instar H. contortus larvae and extracts in several concentrations. The coprocultures were incubated for 7 days at 30 degrees C, then the larvae were recovered and counted. LC50 was calculated by probits using the SPSS 8.0 program. The seed ethanol extract was the most active on eggs (LC50=0.36mgmL(-1)) and the leaf ethanol extract showed the best inhibition of larval development (LC50=9.18mgmL(-1)). Phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts revealed the presence of condensed tannins, triterpenes and alkaloids.

  7. Reduced efficacy of ivermectin, abamectin and moxidectin against field isolates of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, M J; Woodgate, R G; Chick, B F

    2001-12-01

    To investigate the reduced efficacy of ivermectin, abamectin and moxidectin against two field isolates of Haemonchus contortus. These isolates were identified on separate properties in the New England region of New South Wales. Reduced efficacy of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics against two field isolates of H contortus was suspected. These isolates were obtained from sheep on separate farms and pen trials were performed to investigate the efficacy of macrocyclic lactones. The percentage efficacy was calculated for moxidectin, ivermectin and closantel against the isolate from one farm (VHR23) and for moxidectin, ivermectin and abamectin against the isolate from the second (VHR29). The persistent activity of moxidectin against both isolates was investigated. Ivermectin and closantel were found to have efficacies below 80% against established populations of VHR23. Moxidectin was effective against an established population of VHR23 but the persistent activity was reduced to 7 days. Moxidectin was also found to be effective against established populations of VHR29, however, ivermectin and abamectin were found to have efficacies below 80%. There was no evidence of persistent activity of moxidectin against VHR29. A reduction in efficacy of abamectin and/or ivermectin against field isolates of H. contortus was identified from two farms in the New England region of New South Wales. The persistent effect of moxidectin was reduced against both isolates.

  8. Use of medicinal plants to control Haemonchus contortus infection in small ruminants

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    Sawleha Qadir1

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is singly the most important of all the gastrointestinal nematodes that constrain the survival and productivity of sheep and goats owned by rural poor farmers in the developing world. This haematophagus parasite is infamous throughout the humid tropics/subtropics, being responsible for acute disease outbreaks with high levels of mortalities, particularly in young animals. Costs associated with control of this parasite in India, have been estimated to be US$ 103 million. H. contortus is also prominent amongst the reports of anthelmintic resistance that has emerged in all countries of the world that produce small ruminants. This emergence of multiple anthelmintic resistances has provided a spur for research on alternative forms of control. Recent surveys in developing countries have identified many plants that are intended and have the potential to be used as anthelmintics. This paper reviews the use of some medicinal plants as anthelmintics against H. contortus infection in small ruminants. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(11.000: 515-518

  9. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

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    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  10. Vaccination of goats against Haemonchus contortus with the gut membrane proteins H11/H-gal-GP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Lorena; Torgerson, Paul R; Hertzberg, Hubertus

    2016-10-15

    Forty goats, aged from 2 to 5 months were subjected to two different immunization protocols with a vaccine containing Haemonchus contortus gut membrane proteins H11/H-gal-GP to evaluate protection against H. contortus on pre-contaminated pastures. Goats were allocated to four groups of ten, three of them received their first vaccination before turnout. One group (V4) was then vaccinated at 4-week-intervals whereas another two groups (V6 and V6SEP) were vaccinated at 6-week-intervals. A control group (CTRL) remained unvaccinated. In May, after the second vaccination, all goats were turned out on pastures which had been previously contaminated with H. contortus eggs by seeder sheep for a period of six weeks. Goats of groups V4, V6 and CTRL were grazed together, whereas V6SEP was kept separately at an identical stocking rate. Clinical (PCV, FAMACHA, body weight), parasitological (faecal egg count, FEC) and serological (antibody titres) parameters were measured fortnightly. All goats were stabled in October, drenched with levamisole and two weeks later infected with 5000 L3 of H. contortus and slaughtered four weeks later for determination of abomasal worm burdens. Group mean FEC peaked 42-56days after turnout. Significantly lower FEC were observed in V6SEP vs CTRL between D 28 and 70 (p<0.01). Mean egg output of all groups decreased substantially and fluctuated at low levels until the end of the grazing period (D 154). Goats responded to vaccination with increasing antibody titres peaking after every booster. Mean worm burdens deriving from experimental infections were reduced by 89, 65 and 47% in groups V4, V6 and V6SEP, respectively, compared with the controls. The difference was significant for V4 (p<0.01). Antibody titres measured 14days before slaughter did not correlate statistically with the worm burdens. It was concluded that the vaccination protocol did not result in sufficient protection on pasture, as antibody titres were still low at the time the goats

  11. In vitro anthelmintic effects of Spigelia anthelmia protein fractions against Haemonchus contortus.

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    Sandra Alves Araújo

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes are a significant concern for animal health and well-being, and anthelmintic treatment is mainly performed through the use of chemical products. However, bioactive compounds produced by plants have shown promise for development as novel anthelmintics. The aim of this study is to assess the anthelmintic activity of protein fractions from Spigelia anthelmia on the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus. Plant parts were separated into leaves, stems and roots, washed with distilled water, freeze-dried and ground into a fine powder. Protein extraction was performed with sodium phosphate buffer (75 mM, pH 7.0. The extract was fractionated using ammonium sulfate (0-90% and extensively dialyzed. The resulting fractions were named LPF (leaf protein fraction, SPF (stem protein fraction and RPF (root protein fraction, and the protein contents and activities of the fractions were analyzed. H. contortus egg hatching (EHA, larval exsheathment inhibition (LEIA and larval migration inhibition (LMIA assays were performed. Proteomic analysis was conducted, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC chromatographic profiles of the fractions were established to identify proteins and possible secondary metabolites. S. anthelmia fractions inhibited H. contortus egg hatching, with LPF having the most potent effects (EC50 0.17 mg mL-1. During LEIA, SPF presented greater efficiency than the other fractions (EC50 0.25 mg mL-1. According to LMIA, the fractions from roots, stems and leaves also reduced the number of larvae, with EC50 values of 0.11, 0.14 and 0.21 mg mL-1, respectively. Protein analysis indicated the presence of plant defense proteins in the S. anthelmia fractions, including protease, protease inhibitor, chitinase and others. Conversely, secondary metabolites were absent in the S. anthemia fractions. These results suggest that S. anthelmia proteins are promising for the control of the gastrointestinal nematode H

  12. In vitro anthelmintic effects of Spigelia anthelmia protein fractions against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Sandra Alves; Soares, Alexandra Martins Dos Santos; Silva, Carolina Rocha; Almeida Júnior, Eduardo Bezerra; Rocha, Cláudia Quintino; Ferreira, André Teixeira da Silva; Perales, Jonas; Costa-Júnior, Livio M

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are a significant concern for animal health and well-being, and anthelmintic treatment is mainly performed through the use of chemical products. However, bioactive compounds produced by plants have shown promise for development as novel anthelmintics. The aim of this study is to assess the anthelmintic activity of protein fractions from Spigelia anthelmia on the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus. Plant parts were separated into leaves, stems and roots, washed with distilled water, freeze-dried and ground into a fine powder. Protein extraction was performed with sodium phosphate buffer (75 mM, pH 7.0). The extract was fractionated using ammonium sulfate (0-90%) and extensively dialyzed. The resulting fractions were named LPF (leaf protein fraction), SPF (stem protein fraction) and RPF (root protein fraction), and the protein contents and activities of the fractions were analyzed. H. contortus egg hatching (EHA), larval exsheathment inhibition (LEIA) and larval migration inhibition (LMIA) assays were performed. Proteomic analysis was conducted, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) chromatographic profiles of the fractions were established to identify proteins and possible secondary metabolites. S. anthelmia fractions inhibited H. contortus egg hatching, with LPF having the most potent effects (EC50 0.17 mg mL-1). During LEIA, SPF presented greater efficiency than the other fractions (EC50 0.25 mg mL-1). According to LMIA, the fractions from roots, stems and leaves also reduced the number of larvae, with EC50 values of 0.11, 0.14 and 0.21 mg mL-1, respectively. Protein analysis indicated the presence of plant defense proteins in the S. anthelmia fractions, including protease, protease inhibitor, chitinase and others. Conversely, secondary metabolites were absent in the S. anthemia fractions. These results suggest that S. anthelmia proteins are promising for the control of the gastrointestinal nematode H. contortus.

  13. Haemonchus contortus acetylcholine receptors of the DEG-3 subfamily and their role in sensitivity to monepantel.

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    Lucien Rufener

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-intestinal nematodes in ruminants, especially Haemonchus contortus, are a global threat to sheep and cattle farming. The emergence of drug resistance, and even multi-drug resistance to the currently available classes of broad spectrum anthelmintics, further stresses the need for new drugs active against gastro-intestinal nematodes. A novel chemical class of synthetic anthelmintics, the Amino-Acetonitrile Derivatives (AADs, was recently discovered and the drug candidate AAD-1566 (monepantel was chosen for further development. Studies with Caenorhabditis elegans suggested that the AADs act via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR of the nematode-specific DEG-3 subfamily. Here we identify nAChR genes of the DEG-3 subfamily from H. contortus and investigate their role in AAD sensitivity. Using a novel in vitro selection procedure, mutant H. contortus populations of reduced sensitivity to AAD-1566 were obtained. Sequencing of full-length nAChR coding sequences from AAD-susceptible H. contortus and their AAD-1566-mutant progeny revealed 2 genes to be affected. In the gene monepantel-1 (Hco-mptl-1, formerly named Hc-acr-23H, a panel of mutations was observed exclusively in the AAD-mutant nematodes, including deletions at intron-exon boundaries that result in mis-spliced transcripts and premature stop codons. In the gene Hco-des-2H, the same 135 bp insertion in the 5' UTR created additional, out of frame start codons in 2 independent H. contortus AAD-mutants. Furthermore, the AAD mutants exhibited altered expression levels of the DEG-3 subfamily nAChR genes Hco-mptl-1, Hco-des-2H and Hco-deg-3H as quantified by real-time PCR. These results indicate that Hco-MPTL-1 and other nAChR subunits of the DEG-3 subfamily constitute a target for AAD action against H. contortus and that loss-of-function mutations in the corresponding genes may reduce the sensitivity to AADs.

  14. Two types of galactosylated fucose motifs are present on N-glycans of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschinger, Katharina; Wilson, Iain B H

    2015-06-01

    N-Glycans from the nematode Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm), a parasite of sheep and cattle, were the first to be described to possess up to three fucose residues associated with the N,N'-diacetylchitobiosyl core, two being on the reducing-terminal proximal GlcNAc and one on the distal core GlcNAc residue. The assumption was that truncated glycans from this organism with three hexose residues have the composition Man3GlcNAc2Fuc1-3. In this study, we have performed HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS/MS in combination with selected digestions of N-glycans from Haemonchus. A dominant trifucosylated Hex3HexNAc2Fuc3 glycan was modified not only with α1,6-fucose but also with a proximal core α1,3-fucose and a galactosylated distal α1,3-fucose; thereby, only two of the hexose residues were mannose. Other N-glycans displayed galactosylation of the core α1,6-fucose, antennal fucosylation or modification with phosphorylcholine. Thus, the N-glycans of Haemonchus contain a number of potentially immunogenic glycan epitopes also found in other parasites and our proposed structures are in line with the previously defined specificity of nematode glycosyltransferases as we show that distal fucosylation and the presence of an α1,6-mannose are apparently mutually exclusive. These data are thereby of importance for engineering cell lines capable of mimicking Haemonchus-type N-glycans in the preparation of recombinant proteins as vaccine candidates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation with green tea polyphenols on digestion and meat quality in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, R Z; Li, H Y; Fang, Y; Sun, H X; Zhou, D W

    2015-07-01

    Ujumqin sheep are susceptible to infection by the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus, which reduces productivity and total meat yield in sheep. Thus, the effects of green tea polyphenol (GTP) supplements (0, 2, 4, or 6g of GTP/kg feed) on dietary nutrient digestibility and meat quality in lambs infected with H. contortus were examined; control lambs were not infected. H. contortus infections did not affect digestion but the apparent digestibilities of nutrients were decreased by dietary 2g of GTP/kg feed supplementation. There was an interaction between treatment and sampling time on plasma total protein, urea nitrogen, and amino acid concentrations. The antioxidant activity and meat color of INFGTP0 lambs decreased. In conclusion, H. contortus infections in lambs decreased meat quality, but appropriate levels of dietary GTP supplementation diminished these negative effects though lower dose of GTP supplement showed negative effects on digestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mutation detection on isotype-1 β tubulin genes of Haemonchus contortus resistant strain to benzimidazole using single strand conformation polymorphism

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    Dyah Haryuningtyas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of anthelmintic resistance of Haemonchus contortus to benzimidazole groups based on Larval development assay (LDA and Fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT test has been reported in some areas in Indonesia. Studies on sheep parasite H. contortus have shown that resistance to benzimidazole drugs is correlated with selection for individuals in the population possesing a spesific isotype-1 β tubulin gene. The aim of this study was to determine mutation on central part of isotype-1 β tubulin gene of benzimidazole resistant strain H. contortus using Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP. H. contortus worms were isolated from four sheep from two government farms that resistance to benzimidazole have been occurred (SPTD Trijaya, Kuningan, West Java and UPTD Pelayanan Kesehatan Hewan, Bantul, Yogyakarta and one sheep that susceptible from Cicurug, Bogor, West Java as a kontrol. Resistance status to benzimidazole was reexamined individually with LDA and FECRT before sheep slaughtered. DNA was extracted from female H. contortus worms. A fragment of 520 bp isotype- 1 β tubulin gene was amplified using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and then analyze using SSCP. The results showed that there were polymorphism in isotype-1 β tubulin gene among H. contortus susceptible (Cicurug, Bogor, Jawa Barat and two H. contortus resistant strains from SPTD Trijaya, Kuningan, West Java and UPTD Pelayanan Kesehatan Hewan, Bantul, Yogyakarta. Mutation occurred in the different nucleotide of the two resistant strain.

  17. Relative resistance of Menz and Washera sheep breeds to artificial infection with Haemonchus contortus in the highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Tesfaye; Alemu, Biruk; Sölkner, Johann; Gizaw, Solomon; Haile, Aynalem; Gosheme, Shenkute; Notter, David Russell

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative resistance of Menz and Washera sheep breeds to artificial infection with Haemonchus contortus. The challenge trial was conducted at the Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center in Ethiopia. A total of 39 (Menz = 21, Washera = 18) lambs of about 6 months old were used for the trial. All lambs were initially treated against internal parasite using albendazole and Fasinex to free them from internal parasites and kept indoors. H. contortus third-stage larvae (L3) were prepared according to standard procedure from adult female parasite collected from abattoirs and recovered using the Baerman technique. Approximately 5000 infective larvae were inoculated to the experimental lambs at about 5 weeks after deworming. Fecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), FAffa MAlan CHArt (FAMACHA) score, lamb body weight, and survival of lambs were recorded at 28, 35, and 42 days after challenge. Breed effect was not significant (P > 0.05), whereas time of measurement and the interaction of breed and time had significant (P < 0.05) effects on FEC and PCV. At 28 days after challenge, Menz sheep had lower FEC than Washera sheep, whereas at days 35 and 42, the Washera sheep had lower FEC than Menz lambs. The PCV decreased significantly throughout the post-challenge period. Despite their parasite burden, Menz sheep were able to maintain live weight during the 42 days of challenge. Chi-square tests for breed differences in lamb survival were not significant at any time (28, 35, and 42 days after challenge). Lower FEC at 28 days and delayed rise in FEC after infection in Menz lamb would allow in delaying anthelmintic treatment. In addition to maintain body weights during the infection period, sheep of both breeds exhibited substantial variability in PCV and FEC, suggesting opportunity to consider parasite resistance in selection program.

  18. Direct immunization of the abomasum or rectum of goats induces local lymph node responses against Haemonchus contortus mucosal antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, Douglas P; Brown, Wendy C; Parish, Steven

    2011-04-05

    We investigated several methods to immunize the abomasum (fourth and gastric stomach) of kid goats by direct (abomasal) or distal (rectal or nasal) routes utilizing mucosal antigens isolated from the abomasal parasite, Haemonchus contortus. Direct (ultrasound guided), immunization of the abomasal mucosa together with rectal immunization established lymphocyte proliferation responses in abomasal lymph nodes (ALNs), while distal methods, alone, produced equivocal results. The differential responses (cellular and antibody) induced by alternative immunization methods demonstrated an experimental system that can facilitate advances in mucosal immunization against H. contortus and other gastrointestinal pathogens of food animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Meta-analysis of the parasitic phase traits of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccareau, Mathilde; Sallé, Guillaume; Robert-Granié, Christèle; Duchemin, Tom; Jacquiet, Philippe; Blanchard, Alexandra; Cabaret, Jacques; Moreno, Carole R

    2017-04-24

    The parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus shows highly variable life history traits. This highlights the need to have an average estimate and a quantification of the variation around it to calibrate epidemiological models. This paper aimed to quantify the main life history traits of H. contortus and to identify explanatory factors affecting these traits using a powerful method based on a systematic review and meta-analysis of current literature. The life history traits considered are: (i) the establishment rate of ingested larvae; (ii) the adult mortality rate; (iii) the fertility (i.e. the number of eggs laid/female/day); and (iv) fecundity of female worms (i.e. the number of eggs per gram of faeces). A total of 37 papers that report single experimental infection with H. contortus in sheep and published from 1960 to 2015, were reviewed and collated in this meta-analysis. This encompassed 115 experiments on 982 animals. Each trait was analysed using a linear model weighted by its inverse variance. The average (± SE) larval establishment rate was 0.24 ± 0.02, which decreased as a function of the infection dose and host age. An average adult mortality rate of 0.021 ± 0.002) was estimated from the literature. This trait varied as a function of animal age, breed and protective response due to prior exposure to the parasite. Average female fertility was 1295.9 ± 280.4 eggs/female/day and decreased in resistant breeds and previously infected hosts. Average faecal egg count at necropsy was 908.5 ± 487.1 eggs per gram of faeces and varied as a function of infection duration and host resistance. The average sex ratio of H. contortus was 0.51 ± 0.006. This work is the first systematic review to summarise the available information on the parasitic phase of H. contortus in sheep. The results of the meta-analysis provide robust estimates of life history traits for parametrization of epidemiological models, their expected variation according to

  20. Real-time PCR for quantifying Haemonchus contortus eggs and potential limiting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Aaron F; Williams, Zachary B; Zarlenga, Dante S; Hildreth, Michael B

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the practicality of using real-time PCR for quantifying feces-derived trichostrongyle eggs. Haemonchus contortus eggs were used to evaluate fecal contaminants, time after egg embryonation, and the presence of competing and non-competing DNAs as factors that might interfere with generating reproducible results during simplex and multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR). Real-time PCR results showed linear quantifiable amplification with DNA from five to 75 eggs. However, threshold cycle (C (T)) values obtained by amplification of DNA from egg numbers between 75 and 1,000 did not differ significantly. Inhibitors of QPCR were effectively removed during DNA extraction as exemplified by the absence of any improvement in C (T) values with bovine serum albumin or phytase treatments. Changes from egg embryonation could only be detected during the first 6 h. Noncompetitive DNA did not appear to impact amplification; however, in a multiplex reaction a competing trichostrongyle such as Cooperia oncophora can hinder amplification of H. contortus DNA, when present at tenfold greater amounts. This study demonstrates the usefulness of QPCR for amplification and quantification of trichostrongyle eggs, and identifies potential limitations, which may be addressed through multiplex assays or the addition of a standard: exogenous DNA target.

  1. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Melia azedarach against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Mohamed, Mohamed Jamal; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2010-04-01

    The rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, has limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiosis control in sheep and goats and thus created interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The aim of this study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were tested for in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida). Both extracts were evaluated at five concentrations: 12.5, 6.2, 3.12, 1.56, and 0.78 mg/ml. The leaves aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts inhibited 99.4% and 100% of the egg hatching and 100% of larval development at 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. In a similar way, the leaves hydro-alcoholic extract was the most active on egg inhibition (ED (50) = 1.97 and ED ( 90 ) = 5.05 mg/ml), leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts showed the best inhibition of larval development (ED ( 50 ) = 3.01, 2.43, 3.17, 2.40, and ED ( 90 ) = 10.53, 8.14, 11.94, and 8.19 mg/ml), respectively. These results suggest that utilization of M. azedarach extracts is useful in the control of H. contortus.

  2. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus

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    Gerda Fouche

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA. The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3% at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%. The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide cellular assay.

  3. Protective immunity to a blood-feeding nematode (Haemonchus contortus) induced by parasite gut antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, D P; McGuire, T C

    1991-01-01

    To determine the ability of gut antigens to induce a protective immune response against blood-feeding nematodes, isolated gut antigens were used to immunize goats against Haemonchus contortus. Immunization-induced antibody responses recognized parasite gut antigens which were associated predominantly with the microvillous membrane region of the parasite gut. Antibody from immune serum also recognized seven predominant gut proteins on a Western blot (immunoblot). Several of these proteins appeared to be integral membrane proteins on the basis of their solubility in the detergent Triton X-114, indicating that the presentation protocol stimulated an antibody response to microvillous membrane antigens. Three different age groups of goats ranging from less than 6 months to greater than 1 year were immunized for challenge experiments. After infection with 10(4) larvae, an 87 to 95% reduction in fecal egg counts for all age groups of goats was achieved in the immunized compared with the control group. The reduction of worms in immunized goats ranged from 65% (kids) to 89% (yearlings) compared with controls. These results indicate that gut antigens can induce significant protection against blood-feeding nematodes. Antibody to H. contortus gut antigens also cross-reacted with microvilli of other blood-feeding nematodes including Ostertagia ostertagi and small strongyles of horses, which indicates that epitopes associated with the gut are phylogenetically conserved. Images PMID:1937800

  4. Haemonchus contortus: identification of proteases with diverse characteristics in adult worm excretory-secretory products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanu, F N; Rurangirwa, F R; McGuire, T C; Jasmer, D P

    1993-11-01

    Host tissue penetration and feeding by helminth parasites may be mediated by both mechanical processes and histolytic products released by the parasites. To investigate potential histolytic products released by adult Haemonchus contortus worms, proteases in excretory-secretory (ES) products were analyzed. The optimum activity of ES proteases was at pH 5.0, although activity was observed over a wide range of pH tested (pH 3.0-9.0). Four protease bands were observed on gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels, with estimated molecular weights (M(r)) of 32, 35, 38, and 40 kDa. Proteases of 32 and 35 kDa were active at pH 5.0-8.0, while activity of the 38- and 40-kDa proteases was inhibited at pH 8.0. Based on inhibitor studies, the four proteases identified on gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels were classified as cysteine proteases. Evidence was also obtained that indicated the presence of aspartic and metalloprotease activities in ES products, but these activities were not detected in gels. The diversity of adult H. contortus ES proteases may indicate variable functional requirements for the proteases. Further characterization of ES proteases will facilitate evaluation of their potential application in immunotherapeuti control of disease.

  5. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests

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    A.V. Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB. The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC. A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®, blood for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC, and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC. Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  6. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A V; Goldberg, V; Viotti, H; Ciappesoni, G

    2015-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB). The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC). A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest(®) and Multistix(®)), blood for packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC), and FAMACHA(©) for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC). Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA(©) score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix(®) test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA(©) and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  7. PREVALENCE OF HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS IN NATURALLY INFECTED SMALL RUMINANTS GRAZING IN THE POTOHAR AREA OF PAKISTAN

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    F. R. CHAUDARY, M. F. U. KHAN1 AND M. QAYYUM

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and seasonal trend of the Haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in the Potohar areas of northern Punjab, Pakistan from December 2004 to January 2006. Faecal samples collected from 968 sheep and 961 goats of different breeds were examined by the modified McMaster technique using saturated solution of sodium chloride. Results revealed that the infection was significantly (P<0.05 higher in sheep compared to goats. The peak infection level was recorded during rainy season (July-October. On the other hand, low infection level was noted from December upto May. In sheep, highest log faecal egg counts (LFECs were recorded in Islamabad, followed by Attock, Jhelum and Chakwal. However, in goats the LFECs trend was highest in Islamabad, followed by Jhelum, Attock and Chakwal districts. A significant (P<0.05 variability in LFECs was noted between sheep and goat breeds from site-site, while no significant difference was observed between breeds at the same site. Hairy (Jattal goats and Salt-Range (Latti sheep breeds exhibited significantly reduced LFECs level along with higher packed cell volume (PCV and haemoglobin (Hb levels compared to other breeds. Moreover, FAMACHA© chart scoring in relation with worm infection (FECs was more valid in sheep than goats. High prevalence of H. contortus in Potohar areas was due to favourable agro-climatic conditions that favour the development and survival of the free-living stages of H. contortus. The findings are discussed with regard to their relevance for strategic control of haemonchosis in small ruminants.

  8. Ivermectin selection on beta-tubulin: evidence in Onchocerca volvulus and Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, J K L; Blackhall, W J; Osei-Atweneboana, M Y; Bourguinat, C; Galazzo, D; Beech, R N; Unnasch, T R; Awadzi, K; Lubega, G W; Prichard, R K

    2006-12-01

    Ivermectin resistance is common in trichostrongylid nematodes of livestock, such as Haemonchus contortus. This anthelmintic is the only drug approved for mass administration to control onchocerciasis caused by the nematode parasite, Onchocerca volvulus. In parts of West Africa up to 18 rounds of ivermectin treatment have been administered to communities and there are reports of poor parasitological responses to treatment. Understanding ivermectin resistance and ivermectin selection is an important step to reduce selection pressure for resistance, and to develop molecular markers which can be used to monitor the development of resistance and its spread. Here we report evidence that ivermectin selection changes the frequency of beta-tubulin alleles in both the sheep parasite, H. contortus, and the human parasite, O. volvulus. In O. volvulus we have been able to look at the frequency of beta-tubulin alleles in O. volvulus obtained before any ivermectin was used in humans in Africa, and following its widespread use. In H. contortus, we have been able to look at the frequency of beta-tubulin alleles in a strain which has not seen any anthelmintic selection and in an ivermectin selected strain derived from the unselected strain. We have found ivermectin selects on beta-tubulin in both of these nematode species. In the case of O. volvulus, we had previously reported that ivermectin selects for specific single nucleotide polymorphisms in the O. volvulus beta-tubulin gene. This polymorphism results in three amino acid changes in the H3 helix of beta-tubulin, as well as deletions in an associated intron. We report a simple PCR assay to detect the amplicon length polymorphism, resulting from these intronic deletions, which can be used to monitor the frequency of the beta-tubulin allele selected for by ivermectin in O. volvulus.

  9. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia extracts on Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Jill M; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Lindsay, David S; Zajac, Anne M

    2011-01-10

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking abomasal parasite of small ruminants that is responsible for major losses to producers worldwide. Resistance of this nematode to commercial anthelmintics has produced a demand for alternative control methods. Plants in the genus Artemisia have traditionally been used as anthelmintics and whole plants and plant extracts have demonstrated activity against gastrointestinal nematodes in several studies. In addition, Artemisia annua is the sole commercial source of artemisinin, the raw material used to produce drugs effective against the hemoprotozoan malaria parasites (Plasmodium species). Artemisinin derivatives have also shown efficacy against some trematodes, including Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma species. In this study, artemisinin was tested for efficacy against H. contortus in a gerbil model of infection. Also tested in the gerbil model were an aqueous extract, an ethanolic extract and the essential oil of A. annua, and an ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium. In all experiments, gerbils were infected with 600 third-stage H. contortus larvae. In experiment 1, gerbils were treated orally with 400 milligrams per kilogram body weight (mg/kg BW) artemisinin once or 200mg/kg BW artemisinin daily for 5 days (Days 4-8 post-infection). In experiment 2, gerbils were treated daily for 5 days with 600 mg/kg BW of A. annua ethanolic or aqueous extract. In Experiment 3, gerbils were treated with 1000 mg/kg BW of A. annua or A. absinthium ethanolic extract or with 300 mg/kg BW of A. annua essential oil daily for five consecutive days (Days 4-8 post-infection). No significant effects of treatment were seen with artemisinin or any of the Artemisia species extracts at the dosages studied. The non-ionic surfactant Labrosol(®) was an effective nontoxic solvent for delivery of hydrophilic plant extracts and the lipophilic essential oil used in the study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anthelmintic activity of botanical extracts against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes, Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2011-07-01

    The source of chemical anthelmintics (levamisole, flubendazole, and thiabendazole) had limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiasis control in sheep and goats and thus awakened interest in the study of medicinal plant extracts as alternative sources of anthelmintics. The egg hatching and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the sheep parasite, Haemonchus contortus. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of leaf, bark, and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R. Br., Annona squamosa L., Datura metel L., and Solanum torvum Swartz were tested against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA). The assays were run in 24-well cell culture plates at room temperature with five replicates. All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 48 and exposure for egg hatching and LDA, respectively; however, 100% egg hatching and larvicidal inhibition were found in the methanol extracts of A. paniculata, A. squamosa, D. metel, and S. torvum at 25 mg/ml and the effect was similar to positive control of Albendazole (0.075 mg/ml) and Ivermectin (0.025mg/ml) against H. contortus, respectively. The EHA result showed the ED(50) of methanol extracts of A. paniculata and D. metel, which were 2.90 and 3.08 mg/ml, and in larval development assay, the ED(50) was 4.26 and 3.86 mg/ml, respectively. These effects remain to be confirmed through in vivo studies.

  11. Dose titration of sericea lespedeza leaf meal on Haemonchus contortus infection in lambs and kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J M; Whitley, N C; Pollard, D A; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H; Moulton, K E; Mosjidis, J A

    2011-09-27

    The objective of three experiments was to determine the impact of supplementing sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata; SL) in three concentrations in a loose or pelleted diet on gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in small ruminants. Experiments on lambs were conducted at the USDA, Agricultural Research Service in Booneville, AR (Exp. 1) and at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, LA (Exp. 2); an experiment on goat kids occurred at University of Maryland-Eastern Shore (Exp. 3). Exp. 1 used crossbred hair sheep lambs naturally infected with GIN that were randomly allocated to diets containing 0, 25, 50, and 75% SL diets (n=11 or 12/diet). Exp. 2 consisted of Haemonchus contortus-inoculated crossbred wool breed lambs that were blocked by gender and FEC and randomly assigned to 0, 25, 50, or 75% SL diet (n=8/diet). Fecal egg counts (FEC) and blood packed cell volume (PCV) were not influenced by SL supplementation in Exp. 1 and 2. Exp. 3 consisted of naturally GIN infected Boer crossbred goat kids in individual pens. Kids were blocked by FEC and randomly allotted to treatments of 0, 20, 40, or 60% SL with 9-13 goats/diet. The more SL fed, the greater the reduction in FEC (Pexperiment indicated that feces from control animals produced 43% H. contortus larva while 20, 40 and 60% SL resulted in 39%, 35% and 31% H. contortus larvae, respectively. Feeding dried SL may be less effective in lambs than kids, though concurrent studies must be conducted to confirm this. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Novel assay for the detection and monitoring of levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrère, Virginie; Beech, Robin N; Charvet, Claude L; Prichard, Roger K

    2014-03-01

    A levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor has recently been described in the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. The pentameric receptor is produced from different subunit proteins, one of which is Hco-ACR-8. A truncated transcript, Hco-acr-8b, has been identified in six levamisole-resistant H. contortus isolates and was found to be absent in four levamisole-susceptible isolates, indicating Hco-acr-8b could be a potential marker for levamisole resistance. The Hco-acr-8b transcript contains exons 1 and 2 and terminates with 347bp from within the intron 2. In this work, we investigated genomic DNA sequences of the Hco-acr-8 gene, in a region including exon 2 and exon 3, from a wide range of levamisole-susceptible and resistant H. contortus isolates. Sequences potentially involved in generating the truncated splice variant within the second intron were analysed from individuals and pools of parasites. We found an insertion/deletion (indel) of 63bp located just downstream from the splice acceptor site for the alternative third exon. The sequence of the indel, when present, was similar in the 12 isolates examined. The presence or absence of this indel was statistically (Chi(2) test) correlated with levamisole resistance status. A correlation was also demonstrated between the absence of the indel and the expression of the Hco-acr-8b transcript. We believe this is the first report of a putative DNA marker for levamisole resistance detection. Using this new knowledge, we have developed a novel DNA-based assay for the detection and monitoring of levamisole resistance in parasitic nematodes of animals. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cathepsin B-like cysteine proteases confer intestinal cysteine protease activity in Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shompole, S; Jasmer, D P

    2001-01-26

    Cathepsin B-like cysteine protease genes (cbls) constitute large multigene families in parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes. Although expressed in the intestine of some nematodes, the biological and biochemical functions of the CBL proteins remain unresolved. Di- and tetra-oligopeptides were used as fluorogenic substrates and irreversible/competitive inhibitors to establish CBL functions in the intestine of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. Cysteine protease activity was detected against diverse substrates including the cathepsin B/L substrate FR, the caspase 1 substrate YVAD, the cathepsin B substrate RR, but not the CED-3 (caspase 3) substrate DEVD. The pH at which maximum activity was detected varied according to substrate and ranged from pH 5.0 to 7.0. Individual CBLs were affinity isolated using FA and YVAD substrates. pH influenced CBL affinity isolation in a substrate-specific manner that paralleled pH effects on individual substrates. N-terminal sequencing identified two isolated CBLs as H. contortus GCP-7 (33 kDa) and AC-4 (37 kDa). N termini of each began at a position consistent with proregion cleavage and protease activation. Isolation of the GCP-7 band by each peptide was preferentially inhibited when competed with a diazomethane-conjugated inhibitor, Z-FA-CHN(2), demonstrating one functional difference among CBLs and among inhibitors. Substrate-based histological analysis placed CBLs on the intestinal microvilli. Data indicate that CBLs are responsible for cysteine protease activity described from H. contortus intestine. Results also support a role of CBLs in nutrient digestion.

  14. Climate-driven changes to the spatio-temporal distribution of the parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, in sheep in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Hannah; Caminade, Cyril; Bolajoko, Muhammad Bashir; Phelan, Paul; van Dijk, Jan; Baylis, Matthew; Williams, Diana; Morgan, Eric R

    2016-03-01

    Recent climate change has resulted in changes to the phenology and distribution of invertebrates worldwide. Where invertebrates are associated with disease, climate variability and changes in climate may also affect the spatio-temporal dynamics of disease. Due to its significant impact on sheep production and welfare, the recent increase in diagnoses of ovine haemonchosis caused by the nematode Haemonchus contortus in some temperate regions is particularly concerning. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of climate change on H. contortus at a continental scale. A model of the basic reproductive quotient of macroparasites, Q0 , adapted to H. contortus and extended to incorporate environmental stochasticity and parasite behaviour, was used to simulate Pan-European spatio-temporal changes in H. contortus infection pressure under scenarios of climate change. Baseline Q0 simulations, using historic climate observations, reflected the current distribution of H. contortus in Europe. In northern Europe, the distribution of H. contortus is currently limited by temperatures falling below the development threshold during the winter months and within-host arrested development is necessary for population persistence over winter. In southern Europe, H. contortus infection pressure is limited during the summer months by increased temperature and decreased moisture. Compared with this baseline, Q0 simulations driven by a climate model ensemble predicted an increase in H. contortus infection pressure by the 2080s. In northern Europe, a temporal range expansion was predicted as the mean period of transmission increased by 2-3 months. A bimodal seasonal pattern of infection pressure, similar to that currently observed in southern Europe, emerges in northern Europe due to increasing summer temperatures and decreasing moisture. The predicted patterns of change could alter the epidemiology of H. contortus in Europe, affect the future sustainability of contemporary

  15. Evolution and Biogeography of Haemonchus contortus: Linking Faunal Dynamics in Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, E P; Zarlenga, D S

    2016-01-01

    History is the foundation that informs about the nuances of faunal assembly that are essential in understanding the dynamic nature of the host-parasite interface. All of our knowledge begins and ends with evolution, ecology and biogeography, as these interacting facets determine the history of biodiverse systems. These components, relating to Haemonchus, can inform about the complex history of geographical distribution, host association and the intricacies of host-parasite associations that are played out in physiological and behavioural processes that influence the potential for disease and our capacity for effective control in a rapidly changing world. Origins and evolutionary diversification among species of the genus Haemonchus and Haemonchus contortus occurred in a complex crucible defined by shifts in environmental structure emerging from cycles of climate change and ecological perturbation during the late Tertiary and through the Quaternary. A history of sequential host colonization associated with waves of dispersal bringing assemblages of ungulates from Eurasia into Africa and processes emerging from ecosystems in collision and faunal turnover defined the arena for radiation among 12 recognized species of Haemonchus. Among congeners, the host range for H. contortus is exceptionally broad, including species among artiodactyls of 40 genera representing 5 families (and within 12 tribes of Bovidae). Broad host range is dramatically reflected in the degree to which translocation, introduction and invasion with host switching, has characterized an expanding distribution over time in North America, South America, southern Eurasia, Australia and New Zealand, coincidental with agriculture, husbandry and global colonization by human populations driven particularly by European exploration after the 1500s. African origins in xeric to mesic habitats of the African savannah suggest that historical constraints linked to ecological adaptations (tolerances and

  16. Predatory activity of Butlerius nematodes and nematophagous fungi against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manoel Eduardo da; Uriostegui, Miguel Angel Mercado; Millán-Orozco, Jair; Gives, Pedro Mendoza de; Hernández, Enrique Liébano; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor de

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predatory activity of the nematode Butlerius spp. and fungal isolates of Duddingtonia flagrans, Clonostachys rosea, Arthrobotrys musiformis and Trichoderma esau against H. contortus infective larvae (L3) in grass pots. Forty-eight plastic gardening pots containing 140 g of sterile soil were used. Panicum spp. grass seeds (200 mg) were sown into each pot and individually watered with 10 mL of tap water. Twelve days after seeding, the pots were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=8). Two thousand H. contortus infective larvae (L3) were added to each group. Additionally, the following treatments were established: Group 1 - 2000 Butlerius spp. larvae; group 2 - A. musiformis (1x107 conidia); group 3 - T. esau (1x107 conidia); group 4 - C. rosea (1x107 conidia), group 5 - D. flagrans (1x107conidia) and Group 6 - no biological controller (control group). The larval population of H. contortus exposed to Butlerius spp. was reduced by 61.9%. Population reductions of 90.4, 66.7, 61.9 and 85.7% were recorded in the pots containing A. musiformis, T. esau, C. rosea and D. flagrans, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the predatory nematode Butlerius spp. and the assessed fungi display an important predatory activity can be considered suitable potential biological control agents.

  17. Predatory activity of Butlerius nematodes and nematophagous fungi against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predatory activity of the nematode Butlerius spp. and fungal isolates of Duddingtonia flagrans, Clonostachys rosea, Arthrobotrys musiformis and Trichoderma esau against H. contortus infective larvae (L3 in grass pots. Forty-eight plastic gardening pots containing 140 g of sterile soil were used. Panicum spp. grass seeds (200 mg were sown into each pot and individually watered with 10 mL of tap water. Twelve days after seeding, the pots were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=8. Two thousand H. contortus infective larvae (L3 were added to each group. Additionally, the following treatments were established: Group 1 – 2000 Butlerius spp. larvae; group 2 – A. musiformis (1x107 conidia; group 3 – T. esau (1x107 conidia; group 4 – C. rosea (1x107 conidia, group 5 – D. flagrans (1x107conidia and Group 6 – no biological controller (control group. The larval population of H. contortus exposed to Butlerius spp. was reduced by 61.9%. Population reductions of 90.4, 66.7, 61.9 and 85.7% were recorded in the pots containing A. musiformis, T. esau, C. rosea and D. flagrans, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the predatory nematode Butlerius spp. and the assessed fungi display an important predatory activity can be considered suitable potential biological control agents.

  18. The nutritional status affects the complete blood count of goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cériac, S; Jayles, C; Arquet, R; Feuillet, D; Félicité, Y; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C

    2017-11-09

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) remains the most important pathogenic constraint of small ruminant production worldwide. The improvement of the host immune response against GIN though breeding for improved animal resistance, vaccination and nutritional supplementation appear as very promising methods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of four nutritional status differing in protein and energy levels (Hay: 5.1 MJ/Kg of dry matter (DM) and 7.6% of crude protein (CP), Ban: 8.3 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.5% of CP, Soy: 7.6 MJ/Kg of DM and 17.3% of CP, BS: 12.7 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.4% of CP) on the haematological disturbances due to Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole kid goats. No significant effect of the nutritional status was observed for faecal egg count (FEC) but the experimental infection induced haematological disturbances whose intensity and lengthening were dependent on the nutritional status. A transient marked regenerative macrocytic hypochromic anaemia as revealed by a decrease of packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin and an increase of reticulocytes was observed in all infected groups except Hay. In this latter, the anaemia settled until the end of the experiment. Furthermore, H. contortus induced a thrombocytopenia significantly more pronounced in the group under the lowest nutritional status in term of protein (Hay and Ban). A principal component analysis revealed that the variables that discriminated the nutritional status were the average daily gain (ADG) and the PCV, considered as measures of the level of resilience to H. contortus infection. Moreover, the variables that discriminated infected and non-infected animals were mostly related to the biology of RBC (i.e. size and hemoglobin content) and they were correlated with FEC. The severity and the lengthening of the regenerative anaemia and the thrombocytopenia induced by H. contortus have been affected by the nutritional status. The protein enriched

  19. Morphological variation between isolates of the nematode Haemonchus contortus from sheep and goat populations in Malaysia and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharamah, A A; Rahman, W A; Siti Azizah, M N

    2014-03-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic nematode parasite of sheep and goats. This work was conducted to investigate the population and host variations of the parasitic nematode H. contortus of sheep and goats from Malaysia and Yemen. Eight morphological characters were investigated, namely the total body length, cervical papillae, right spicule, left spicule, right barb, left barb, gubernaculum and cuticular ridge (synlophe) pattern. Statistical analysis showed the presence of morphological variation between populations of H. contortus from Malaysia and Yemen, with minor variation in the synlophe pattern of these isolates. Isolates from each country were grouped together in the scatterplots with no host isolation. Body, cervical papillae and spicule lengths were the most important characters that distinguished between populations of the two countries. This variation between Malaysia and Yemen may be attributed to geographical isolation and the possible presence of a different isolate of this worm in each country.

  20. Chemical composition and in vitro activity of Calotropis procera (Ait.) latex on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Géssica S; de Morais, Selene M; Andre, Weibson P P; Ribeiro, Wesley L C; Rodrigues, Ana L M; De Lira, Fábia C M L; Viana, Janaína M; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L

    2016-08-15

    Calotropis procera is among the species of medicinal plants that have traditionally been used for the treatment of parasites in small ruminants, stimulating the scientific validation of anthelmintic effects. This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of ethyl acetate extract of Calotropis procera latex (EAECPL), assess the in vitro effect against Haemonchus contortus and the structural changes caused in the adult worm. The latex was collected, lyophilized and subjected to washing with the ethyl acetate solvent to obtain EAECPL. The constituents of the extract were isolated by column chromatography and identified by (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The egg hatching test (EHT), larval development test (LDT) and adult worms motility test (WMT) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of EAECPL on eggs, larvae and adult of H. contortus, respectively. The worms obtained from the WMT, after 24h exposure to EAECPL or controls were observed on a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were analysed by variance analysis and compared with Tukey's test (P<0.05). Three compounds were isolated from EAECPL and identified as urs-19(29)-en-3-yl acetate, (3β)-Urs-19(29)-en-3-ol, and 1-(2',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-glycerol. In the EHT, EAECPL inhibited larval hatching by 91.8% at dose of 4mg/ml. In the LDT 1mg/ml inhibited 99.8% larval development. In the WMT, EAECPL in the concentration of 100μg/ml inhibited 100% motility of worms, 12h post-exposition. In the SEM, obvious differences were not detected between the negative control worms and the worms treated with EAECPL. In this study, EAECPL showed an effect on inhibition egg hatching, larval development and motility of the adult worms of H. contortus. This should be related both to the identified compounds, as well as the other compounds present in the EAECPL, acting alone or synergistically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. From isolates to a synthetic laboratory population : maintenance of variability in the nematode Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulai M.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus isolates were collected from goats of five locations with different climatic characteristics in Guadeloupe archipelago. They were investigated for morphology, morphometrics and allozyme diversity after passage in immunosuppressed lambs using long acting corticoids. The basic aim of the work was to construct a synthetic strain in laboratory conditions which was representative of the isolates. The isolates were only slightly different although climatic conditions were very different. The resemblance of isolates might be due to the practice of goat exchanges between farms or to their insular origin. However the isolate from a smaller island (Les Saintes was different (mostly on morphometrics from all the others originating from Guadeloupe main island. The first assemblage in laboratory resulting from the installation from a mixture of the five isolates was not very representative, whereas the next generation (synthetic strain resembled all the isolates as shown from allozyme study. Female fecundity and length in established synthetic strain were lower than that recorded in isolates, indicating a decrease in fitness, possibly due to the stability of experimental environment. The representativity of the synthetic strain was good but the strain could still evoluate on further passages and should be evaluated on a large number of generations maintained in laboratory.

  2. Synergistic inhibition of Haemonchus contortus exsheathment by flavonoid monomers and condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klongsiriwet, Chaweewan; Quijada, Jessica; Williams, Andrew R.; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williamson, Elizabeth M.; Hoste, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the separate and combined anthelmintic (AH) effects of different phenolic compounds, including condensed tannins and flavonoids, all of which are known to occur in willow leaves, a potentially valuable dry season feed. A range of contrasting model tannins, which span the whole range of willow tannins, were isolated from tilia flowers, goat willow leaves, black currant leaves and red currant leaves. All together, the tested compounds represented the major tannin types (procyanidins and prodelphinidins) and flavonoid types (flavonols, flavones and flavanones). The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) was used to assess their in vitro effects on Haemonchus contortus third stage larvae. Arbutin, vanillic acid, and taxifolin proved to be ineffective whereas naringenin, quercetin and luteolin were highly effective at 250 μM concentrations. Procyanidin (PC) tannins tended to be less active than prodelphinidin tannins (PD). Experiments with combinations of tannins and quercetin or luteolin revealed for the first time the existence of synergistic AH effects between tannins and flavonoid monomers. They also provided evidence that synergistic effects appear to occur at slightly lower concentrations of PC than PD. This suggests that the AH activity of condensed tannins can be significantly enhanced by the addition of quercetin or luteolin. This information may prove useful for plant breeding or selection and for designing optimal feed mixtures. PMID:26199861

  3. Efficacy of anthelmintic properties of medicinal plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, C; Rahuman, A Abdul

    2011-12-01

    The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This present work evaluated the efficacy of ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and seed extracts of five medicinal plants were tested in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities on Haemonchus contortus. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA), all plant extracts were evaluated at five concentrations 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.13 mg/ml. The leaf and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol of Annona squamosa, Eclipta prostrata, Solanum torvum, Terminalia chebula, and Catharanthus roseus extracts were showed complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml). The overall findings of the present study have shown that our experimental plant extracts contain possible anthelmintic compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synergistic inhibition of Haemonchus contortus exsheathment by flavonoid monomers and condensed tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaweewan Klongsiriwet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the separate and combined anthelmintic (AH effects of different phenolic compounds, including condensed tannins and flavonoids, all of which are known to occur in willow leaves, a potentially valuable dry season feed. A range of contrasting model tannins, which span the whole range of willow tannins, were isolated from tilia flowers, goat willow leaves, black currant leaves and red currant leaves. All together, the tested compounds represented the major tannin types (procyanidins and prodelphinidins and flavonoid types (flavonols, flavones and flavanones. The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA was used to assess their in vitro effects on Haemonchus contortus third stage larvae. Arbutin, vanillic acid, and taxifolin proved to be ineffective whereas naringenin, quercetin and luteolin were highly effective at 250 μM concentrations. Procyanidin (PC tannins tended to be less active than prodelphinidin tannins (PD. Experiments with combinations of tannins and quercetin or luteolin revealed for the first time the existence of synergistic AH effects between tannins and flavonoid monomers. They also provided evidence that synergistic effects appear to occur at slightly lower concentrations of PC than PD. This suggests that the AH activity of condensed tannins can be significantly enhanced by the addition of quercetin or luteolin. This information may prove useful for plant breeding or selection and for designing optimal feed mixtures.

  5. Frequency of benzimidazole resistance inHaemonchus contortus populations isolated from buffalo, goat and sheep herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Luiz Nunes

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing problem that threatens livestock production worldwide. Understanding of the genetic basis of benzimidazole resistance recently allowed the development of promising molecular diagnostic tools. In this study, isolates of Haemonchus contortus obtained from goats, sheep and buffaloes raised in Brazil were screened for presence of the polymorphism Phe200Tyr in the β-tubulin 1 gene, which confers resistance to benzimidazole. The allelic frequency of the mutation conferring resistance ranged from 7% to 43%, and indicated that resistance to benzimidazole could be found in nematodes isolated from all the ruminant species surveyed. Although significant variation in the frequency of the F200Y mutation was observed between different herds or host species, no significant variation could be found in populations isolated from animals within the same herd. These findings suggest that screening of samples from a few animals has the potential to provide information about the benzimidazole resistance status of the entire herd, which would enable a considerable reduction in the costs of diagnosis for the producer. Molecular diagnosis has practical advantages, since it can guide the choice of anthelmintic drug that will be used, before its application in the herd, thus reducing the economic losses driven by anthelmintic resistance.

  6. Dried, ground banana plant leaves (Musa spp.) for the control of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, L; Yoshihara, E; Ribeiro, B L M; Silva, L K F; Marques, E C; Meira, E B S; Rossi, R S; Sampaio, P H; Louvandini, H; Hasegawa, M Y

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the anthelmintic effect of Musa spp. leaves, 12 animals were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus, and another 12 animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Then, both treatment groups were offered 400 g of dried ground banana plant leaves, and the control animals were offered only 1000 g of coast cross hay. During the trials, the animals received weekly physical examinations. The methods used to evaluate the efficiency of this treatment were packed cell volume, total plasma protein and faecal egg counts, and egg hatchability tests were performed on days -2, +3, +6, +9, +13 and +15. Coproculture tests were performed on day -2 to confirm monospecific infections. In the FEC and EHT, a statistically significant difference (0.04, 0.005; p  0.05) for Haemochus contortus group in all tests. Our results confirmed previous findings suggesting that dried ground banana plant leaves possess anthelmintic activity.

  7. The anthelmintic effect of plant extracts on Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides venezuelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Camila O; Chagas, Ana Carolina S; Cotinguiba, Fernando; Furlan, Maysa; Brito, Luciana G; Chaves, Francisco C M; Stephan, Marília P; Bizzo, Humberto R; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2012-02-10

    The indiscriminate use of anthelmintics has resulted in the establishment of parasite resistance. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antiparasitic effect of plant extracts on Haemonchus contortus in sheep and the in vivo effect on Strongyloides venezuelensis in Rattus norvegicus. The plant extracts from Piper tuberculatum, Lippia sidoides, Mentha piperita, Hura crepitans and Carapa guianensis, produced at different research institutions, were chemically analyzed and evaluated through the egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) in H. contortus. P. tuberculatum (150 and 250 mg kg(-1) of body weight) was evaluated for its anthelmintic action on R. norvegicus experimentally infected with S. venezuelensis. In the EHT, the LC(50) and LC(90) of the extracts were respectively as follows: 0.031 and 0.09 mg mL(-1) for P. tuberculatum, 0.04 and 0.13 mg mL(-1) for L. sidoides, 0.037 and 0.10 mg mL(-1) for M. piperita, 2.16 and 17.13 mg mL(-1) for H. crepitans and 2.03 × 10(-6) and 1.22 × 10(-12) mg mL(-1) for C. guianensis. In the LDT, the LC(50) and LC(90) were respectively: 0.02 and 0.031 mg mL(-1) for P. tuberculatum, 0.002 and 0.04 mg mL(-1) for L. sidoides, 0.018 and 0.03 mg mL(-1) for M. piperita, 0.36 and 0.91 mg mL(-1) for H. crepitans and 17.65 and 1890 mg mL(-1) for C. guianensis. The extract of P. tuberculatum showed the following substances: piperamides as (Z)-piplartine, (E)-piplartine, 8,9-dihydropiplartine, piperine, 10,11-dihydropiperine, 5,6 dihydropiperlongumine and pellitorine. The major compounds of the oils were thymol (76.6%) for L. sidoides, menthol (27.5%) for M. piperita and oleic acid (46.8%) for C. guianensis. Regarding the in vivo test, neither dose of P. tuberculatum caused any significant reduction (P>0.05) in worm burden and fecal egg counts compared with the control group. We conclude that the extracts of P. tuberculatum, L. sidoides and M. piperita have effective activity when tested in vitro, but the doses of the

  8. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Zanthoxylum simulans essential oil against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, H; Wang, W X; Dai, J L; Zhu, L

    2015-07-30

    The need for new anthelmintic agents with low impact on the environment is becoming urgent. Phytotherapy is an alternative method to control gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. This study aims to determine the composition of Zanthoxylum simulans essential oil (ZSEO) and evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal effects of ZSEO on Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay, larval development assay (LDA), and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The chemical composition of ZSEO was determined through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and 94 compounds were identified from the ZSEO. The major constituents of ZSEO were borneol (18.61%), β-elemene (10.87%). ZSEO and borneol both at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval hatching by 100%, with LC50 values of 3.98 and 1.50mg/mL, respectively. The LC50 value of β-elemene was not determined because of its insufficient activity. The results of LDA showed that ZSEO, borneol, and β-elemene all at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval development by 99.8%, 100%, and 55.4%, respectively, and exhibited dose-dependent responses with LC50 values of 4.02, 1.99, and 32.17 mg/mL, respectively. The results of LMIA showed that ZSEO, borneol, and β-elemene all at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval migration by 74.3%, 97.0%, and 53.2%, respectively. ZSEO presented ovicidal and larvicidal activities in vitro. Therefore, Zanthoxylum may be an alternative source of anthelmintic agents to control gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Anthelmintic activity of Tunisian chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaji, S; Alimi, D; Jabri, M A; Abuseir, S; Gharbi, M; Akkari, H

    2017-05-08

    The chemical treatment of gastrointestinal parasitic diseases has been undermined by increasing resistance and high toxicity. There is an urgent need to search for alternative natural sources for the treatment of such parasites. In this respect, the present study aims to quantify phenolic compounds of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) and to study their in vitro anti-oxidant and anthelmintic activities in solvents with increasing polarity. In vitro determination of anti-oxidant capacity was carried out using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation methods. In vitro anthelmintic activity was investigated on egg-hatching inhibition and loss of motility of adult worms of Haemonchus contortus from sheep. The results showed that methanolic and aqueous extracts contain more total polyphenols, total flavonoids and condensed tannins than chloroformic and hexanic extracts. ABTS and DPPH assays showed that methanolic extracts had the highest anti-oxidant potency (IC50 = 1.19 μg/ml and 1.18 μg/ml, respectively). In vitro anthelmintic activity showed that both methanolic (IC50 = 1.559 mg/ml) and aqueous (IC50 = 2.559 mg/ml) extracts had the greatest effect on egg hatching and motility of worms (100% after 8 h post exposure at 8 mg/ml). A significant and positive correlation between DPPH and ABTS tests was observed for all tested extracts. Therefore, total phenolic, total flavonoid and condensed tannin values were correlated with IC50 from both ABTS and DPPH, and with inhibition of egg hatching. To our knowledge, this report is the first of its kind to deal with in vitro anthelmintic activities of chamomile extracts.

  10. Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil and its main component thymol: Anthelmintic effects against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luis E; Benincasa, Bruno I; Fachin, Ana L; França, Suzelei C; Contini, Silvia S H T; Chagas, Ana C S; Beleboni, Rene O

    2016-09-15

    Haemonchus contortus is an important gastrointestinal parasite on sheep farms in tropical regions. The resistance of the parasite against most anthelmintic drugs represents a great economic problem to sheep farming and is a major challenge that needs to be overcome. The searches for new anthelmintic agents that act on different stages of the parasite's life cycle are necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against H. contortus and of its main component, the monoterpene thymol. Despite the relative ineffectiveness of the oil in the in vivo test, which may be corrected in the future after technical improvements to increase the oil's bioavailability, the in vitro results validated the popular use of T. vulgaris oil as an anthelmintic agent, at least against H. contortus. In fact, both the essential oil and thymol, which accounts for 50.22% of the oil composition, were effective against the three main stages of H. contortus. The oil and thymol were able to inhibit egg hatching by 96.4-100%, larval development by 90.8-100%, and larval motility by 97-100%. Similar to the positive control (levamisole 20mg/mL), the oil and thymol completely inhibited the motility of H. contortus adults within the first 8h of the experiment. Since thymol reproduces the anthelmintic effects of the oil and because it is the main component of the oil, it is reasonable to assume that thymol is the most important compound responsible for the anthelmintic effect of T. vulgaris. These results are of ethnopharmacological importance and may contribute to the development of new drugs and even herbal medicines, increasing treatment options for the farm breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Abomasal lymph node responses to Haemonchus contortus intestinal antigens established in kid goats by infection or immunization with intestinal antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, Douglas P; Karanu, Francis; Davis, William C; McGuire, Travis S

    2003-02-01

    Immune responses to Haemonchus contortus intestinal antigens were evaluated using abomasal lymph node (ALN) lymphocytes from kid goats protected against challenge infection by immunization with parasite intestinal antigen, and from kids that were challenged after immunization with ovalbumin. ALN lymphocytes from the intestinal antigen-immunized group produced significantly higher antibody levels against intestinal antigens than the ovalbumin group, supporting the theory that immunization contributed to that ALN response. In contrast, intestinal lysates and membrane enriched preparations from intestinal cells stimulated significant proliferation of ALN lymphocytes in both groups. The proliferation was antigen-dependent, since intestinal antigens failed to stimulate proliferation in ALN lymphocytes from unimmunized and uninfected kids. For both the intestinal antigen and ovalbumin immunized groups, CD4+ T lymphocytes predominated in ALN lymphocytes that were stimulated to proliferate by intestinal antigens. The results indicate that H. contortus infection alone can induce ALN lymphocyte responses to intestinal antigens. In contrast to ALN lymphocyte responses, serum antibody against intestinal antigens was generally low to undetectable in ovalbumin-immunized kids following infection. Abomasal mucus from an H. contortus infected lamb was probed with a monoclonal antibody that binds to a periodate sensitive determinant on numerous H. contortus intestinal membrane and secreted proteins. Numerous bands of reactivity were detected, indicating that multiple parasite intestinal antigens were released into abomasal mucus during infection. The results, challenge the general concept that H. contortus intestinal antigens are 'hidden' from the host immune system during an infection. On the contrary, parasite intestinal proteins may be relatively abundant antigens presented to the host during infection. In addition, ALN T lymphocytes appear to provide a more sensitive measure

  12. In vitro effects of Coriandrum sativum, Tagetes minuta, Alpinia zerumbet and Lantana camara essential oils on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; de Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Ribeiro, Wesley Lyeverton Correia; dos Santos, Jessica Maria Leite; de Morais, Selene Maia; de Paula, Haroldo Cesar Beserra; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2013-01-01

    Phytotherapy can be an alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. This study evaluated the efficacy of Alpinia zerumbet, Coriandrum sativum, Tagetes minuta and Lantana camara essential oils by two in vitro assays on Haemonchus contortus, an egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT). No effect was observed for L. camara in the EHT. A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta essential oils exhibited a dose-dependent effect in the EHT, inhibiting 81.2, 99 and 98.1% of H. contortus larvae hatching, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg mL-1. The effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching was 0.94, 0.63 and 0.53 mg mL-1 for A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta essential oils, respectively. In LDT, L. camara, A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta at concentration of 10 mg mL-1 inhibited 54.9, 94.2, 97.8 and 99.5% of H. contortus larval development, presenting EC50 values of 6.32, 3.88, 2.89 and 1.67 mg mL-1, respectively. Based on the promising results presented in this in vitro model, it may be possible use of these essential oils to control gastrointestinal nematodes. However, their anthelmintic activity should be confirmed in vivo.

  13. In vitro effects of Coriandrum sativum, Tagetes minuta, Alpinia zerumbet and Lantana camara essential oils on Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Tersia Freitas Macedo

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy can be an alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. This study evaluated the efficacy of Alpinia zerumbet, Coriandrum sativum, Tagetes minuta and Lantana camaraessential oils by two in vitro assays on Haemonchus contortus, an egg hatch test (EHT and larval development test (LDT. No effect was observed for L. camara in the EHT. A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta essential oils exhibited a dose-dependent effect in the EHT, inhibiting 81.2, 99 and 98.1% of H. contortus larvae hatching, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg mL-1. The effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50 of egg hatching was 0.94, 0.63 and 0.53 mg mL-1 for A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta essential oils, respectively. In LDT, L. camara, A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta at concentration of 10 mg mL-1 inhibited 54.9, 94.2, 97.8 and 99.5% of H. contortus larval development, presenting EC50 values of 6.32, 3.88, 2.89 and 1.67 mg mL-1, respectively. Based on the promising results presented in this in vitro model, it may be possible use of these essential oils to control gastrointestinal nematodes. However, their anthelmintic activity should be confirmed in vivo.

  14. Cathepsin B-like cysteine proteases and Caenorhabditis elegans homologues dominate gene products expressed in adult Haemonchus contortus intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, D P; Roth, J; Myler, P J

    2001-09-03

    Proteins expressed by nematode intestinal cells are potential targets for parasite control by immune or chemical based strategies. To expand our knowledge on nematode intestinal proteins, expressed sequence tags were generated for 131 cDNA clones from the intestine of adult female Haemonchus contortus. An estimated 55 distinct protein genes or gene families were identified. Predicted proteins represented diverse functions. Several predicted polypeptides were related to H. contortus proteins implicated in inducing protective immunity against challenge infections of this parasite. The dominant intestinal transcripts were represented by cathepsin B-like cysteine protease genes (cbl) (17% of protein coding expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analyzed). An estimated 11 previously undescribed cbl genes were identified, doubling the recognized members of this gene family. Multiple C-type lectin sequences were identified. Other notable sequences included a predicted Y-box binding protein, serine/threonine kinases and a cyclin E-like sequence. Predicted protein homologues were found in Caenorhabditis elegans for all but one H. contortus sequence (99%), while fewer homologues from other parasitic nematodes were found. Many of the proteases, lipase and C-type lectin homologues in C. elegans had apparent signal peptides, suggesting that they are secreted. Several gene products had no obvious similarity outside the phylum Nematoda. The ESTs identified intestinal genes with potential application to immune control, understanding of basic intestinal regulatory processes and refinement of nematode genomic resources.

  15. Distinct characteristics of two intestinal protein compartments discriminated by using fenbendazole and a benzimidazole resistant isolate of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shompole, Sankale; Yao, Chaoqun; Cheng, Xiaoya; Knox, David; Johnson, Sandra; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2002-08-01

    The intestine of Haemonchus contortus is hypersensitive to the effects of the anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ). The effects are postulated to stem from disruption of microtubules and interference with apical secretory vesicle transport, followed by release of digestive enzymes into the intestinal cell cytoplasm. Here, FBZ caused marker proteins for both apical (pepsinogen-like protease, PEP-1) and basal (cystatin-like protein) protein compartments to became homogeneously distributed in the cytoplasm of H. contortus intestinal cells. The observations with PEP-1 support the hypothesis that release of hydrolytic enzymes into the intestinal cell cytoplasm contributes to the mechanism of benzimidazole efficacy. A benzimidazole resistant isolate of H. contortus expressed type 1 and 2 intestinal beta-tubulin transcripts that would encode predominantly tyr200 and phe200 variants, respectively. This isolate was resistant to the known intestinal cell alterations induced by FBZ treatment in the susceptible isolate, including inhibition of apical vesicle transport. These results implicate type 1 beta-tubulin in mediating apical vesicle transport in intestinal cells and suggest that the tyr200 variant is a determinant of FBZ resistance in intestinal cells. In contrast, the basal protein compartment demonstrated sensitivity to FBZ treatment in these otherwise "resistant" worms. Hence, distinct FBZ-sensitive components appear to be involved in distributing intestinal proteins into the described apical and basal compartments of normal worms.

  16. CD4+ T lymphocytes contribute to protective immunity induced in sheep and goats by Haemonchus contortus gut antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanu, F N; McGuire, T C; Davis, W C; Besser, T E; Jasmer, D P

    1997-10-01

    Immunization with parasite antigens derived from the gut of adult Haemonchus contortus induces significant levels of protection against the parasite in sheep and goats. However, the mechanisms of immunity involved in this protection are not clear. Here, we investigate the requirement for CD4+ T lymphocytes in gut antigen-induced immunity against H. contortus. Gut antigen immunized animals were depleted (> 98%) of their CD4+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood by intravenous injection of an anti-CD4 MoAb. Depletion in peripheral blood persisted for at least eight days, after which there was gradual recovery of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Serum antibody levels in gut antigen-immunized animals correlated significantly with worm parameters, suggesting a contribution by antibody to the immunity observed. By covariate analysis, using ELISA OD as the covariate, CD4+ T lymphocyte depletion was shown to partially abrogate immunity induced by gut antigen immunization, against challenge infection with H. contortus. The greatest effect of CD4+ T lymphocyte depletion was observed at 14 days post-infection with differences between CD4+ T lymphocyte depleted and intact animals less apparent between days 21 and 25. Collectively, our data indicate that CD4+ T lymphocytes contribute to immunity induced by gut antigens. Our results also suggest that antibody works synergistically with CD4+ T lymphocytes to confer this immunity.

  17. Selective effect of the anthelmintic bephenium on Haemonchus contortus levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Claude L; Robertson, Alan P; Cabaret, Jacques; Martin, Richard J; Neveu, Cédric

    2012-06-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels involved in the neurotransmission of both vertebrates and invertebrates. A number of anthelmintic compounds like levamisole and pyrantel target the AChRs of nematodes producing spastic paralysis of the worms. The muscle AChRs of nematode parasites fall into three pharmacological classes that are preferentially activated by the cholinergic agonists levamisole (L-type), nicotine (N-type) and bephenium (B-type), respectively. Despite a number of studies of the B-type AChR in parasitic species, this receptor remains to be characterized at the molecular level. Recently, we have reconstituted and functionally characterized two distinct L-AChR subtypes of the gastro-intestinal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system by providing the cRNAs encoding the receptor subunits and three ancillary proteins (Boulin et al. in Br J Pharmacol 164(5):1421-1432, 2011). In the present study, the effect of the bephenium drug on Hco-L-AChR1 and Hco-L-AChR2 subtypes was examined using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. We demonstrate that bephenium selectively activates the Hco-L-AChR1 subtype made of Hco-UNC-29.1, Hco-UNC-38, Hco-UNC-63, Hco-ACR-8 subunits that is more sensitive to levamisole than acetylcholine. Removing the Hco-ACR-8 subunit produced the Hco-L-AChR2 subtype that is more sensitive to pyrantel than acetylcholine and partially activated by levamisole, but which was bephenium-insensitive indicating that the bephenium-binding site involves Hco-ACR-8. Attempts were made to modify the subunit stoichiometry of the Hco-L-AChR1 subtype by injecting five fold more cRNA of individual subunits. Increased Hco-unc-29.1 cRNA produced no functional receptor. Increasing Hco-unc-63, Hco-unc-38 or Hco-acr-8 cRNAs did not affect the pharmacological characteristics of Hco-L-AChR1 but reduced the currents elicited by acetylcholine and the other agonists. Here, we

  18. Selective effect of the anthelmintic bephenium on Haemonchus contortus levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Claude L.; Robertson, Alan P.; Cabaret, Jacques; Martin, Richard J.; Neveu, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels involved in the neurotransmission of both vertebrates and invertebrates. A number of anthelmintic compounds like levamisole and pyrantel target the AChRs of nematodes producing spastic paralysis of the worms. The muscle AChRs of nematode parasites fall into three pharmacological classes that are preferentially activated by the cholinergic agonists levamisole (L-type), nicotine (N-type) and bephenium (B-type), respectively. Despite a number of studies of the B-type AChR in parasitic species, this receptor remains to be characterized at the molecular level. Recently, we have reconstituted and functionally characterized two distinct L-AChR subtypes of the gastro-intestinal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system by providing the cRNAs encoding the receptor subunits and three ancillary proteins (Boulin et al. in Br J Pharmacol 164(5):1421–1432, 2011). In the present study, the effect of the bephenium drug on Hco-L-AChR1 and Hco-L-AChR2 subtypes was examined using the two microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. We demonstrate that bephenium selectively activates the Hco-L-AChR1 subtype made of Hco-UNC-29.1, Hco-UNC-38, Hco-UNC-63, Hco-ACR-8 subunits that is more sensitive to levamisole than acetylcholine. Removing the Hco-ACR-8 subunit produced the Hco-L-AChR2 subtype that is more sensitive to pyrantel than acetylcholine and partially activated by levamisole, but which was bephenium-insensitive indicating that the bephenium-binding site involves Hco-ACR-8. Attempts were made to modify the subunit stoichiometry of the Hco-L-AChR1 subtype by injecting five fold more cRNA of individual subunits. Increased Hco-unc-29.1 cRNA produced no functional receptor. Increasing Hco-unc-63, Hco-unc-38 or Hco-acr-8 cRNAs did not affect the pharmacological characteristics of Hco-L-AChR1 but reduced the currents elicited by acetylcholine and the other agonists. Here

  19. Protective immunity to Haemonchus contortus induced by immunoaffinity isolated antigens that share a phylogenetically conserved carbohydrate gut surface epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, D P; Perryman, L E; Conder, G A; Crow, S; McGuire, T

    1993-11-15

    Whole gut homogenates of the blood-sucking nematode Haemonchus contortus induce protective immunity in goats, and some of these gut Ag are conserved among related parasitic nematode species. To identify gut Ag that induce protective immunity and have phylogenetically conserved epitopes, mAb were made to gut-surface Ag of H. contortus. Forty-nine mAb reacted with microvilli of the parasite gut. Two of these mAb (42/10.6.1 and 42/53.3.5) were analyzed here. Both of the mAb bound to the microvillar surface of freshly isolated gut, and each mAb recognized carbohydrate epitopes, based on sensitivity to periodate oxidation. The 42/10.6.1 epitope occurred on at least 18 proteins in Western blots and in several H. contortus tissues. Proteins recognized by this mAb localized to membrane and excretory/secretory fractions of the worm. This epitope was also identified on the gut and other tissues and multiple proteins of related adult and larval nematodes, including larval Ancylostoma caninum and a mixed population of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In contrast, the 42/53.3.5 mAb bound to the gut surface and recognized proteins of 100 and 46 kDa from adult H. contortus gut. Four proteins of 100, 52, 46, and 30 kDa were isolated from the 42/53.3.5 immunoaffinity columns, and except for the 30-kDa protein, each was recognized by both the 42/10.6.1 and 42/53.3.5 mAb. Epitopes recognized by each mAb were distinct from one another and phosphorylcholine. When used to immunize goats, Ag isolated by both mAb induced protection that significantly (p < 0.05) reduced total worm counts after challenge infections compared with the control groups.

  20. Non-classic characteristics define prominent DNase activities from the intestine and other tissues of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dongmi; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2003-01-01

    The anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ) induces nuclear DNA fragmentation (DF) in intestinal cells of Haemonchus contortus. The DNA fragments had 3'-OH, which suggests involvement of a neutral DNase. To identify candidate DNase(s) involved, DNase activity in H. contortus intestine and other worm fractions was characterized relative to classic DNases I (neutral) and II (acidic). Seven distinct DNase activities were identified and had Mrs of 34, 36, 37 or 38.5 kDa on zymographic analysis. The different activities were distinguished according to pH requirement, sensitivity to 10 mM EDTA and worm compartment. Activities of intestinal DNases at 34, 36 and 38.5 kDa were sensitive to EDTA at pH 5.0 and 7.0. Sensitivity to EDTA at pH 5.0 was unexpected compared to classic acidic DNase II activity, suggesting unusual properties of these DNases. In whole worms, however, the activities at 36 and 38.5 kDa were relatively insensitive to EDTA, indicating predominance of DNases that are distinct from the intestine. The activity at 37 kDa in excretory/secretory products had an acidic pH requirement and was insensitive to EDTA, resembling classic acidic DNase activity. Under conditions of pH 5.0 and 7.0, intestinal DNases produced 3'-ends that could be labeled by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, indicating presence of 3'-OH. The labeling of 3'-ends at pH 5.0, again, was unexpected for acidic DNase activity. These results and several other activities suggest that multiple H. contortus DNases have characteristics distinct from the classic mammalian DNases I and II. Treatment of H. contortus with FBZ did not induce any detectable DNase activities distinct from normal intestine, although relative activities of intestinal DNases appear to have been altered by this treatment.

  1. Individual administration of three tanniferous forage plants to lambs artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus and Cooperia curticei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorn, Felix; Häring, Dieter Adrian; Maurer, Veronika; Senn, Markus; Hertzberg, Hubertus

    2007-05-15

    We investigated direct anthelmintic effects associated with the feeding of fresh tanniferous forages against established populations of Haemonchus contortus and Cooperia curticei in lambs. Twenty-four parasite naive lambs were inoculated with a single dose of infective larvae of these two parasites 27 days prior to the start of the feeding experiment. Lambs were individually fed with either chicory (Cichorium intybus), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) or a ryegrass/lucerne mixture (control) for 17 days. Animals where then united to one flock and subjected to control feeding for another 11 days to test the sustainability of potentially lowered egg excretion generated by tanniferous forage feeding. When compared to the control, administration of all tanniferous forages was associated with significant reductions of total daily faecal egg output specific to H. contortus (chicory: 89%; birdsfoot trefoil: 63%; sainfoin: 63%; all tests P<0.05) and a tendency of reduced H. contortus worm burden (chicory: 15%; birdsfoot trefoil: 49% and sainfoin: 35% reduction). Irrespective of the condensed tannin (CT) containing fodder, no anthelmintic effects were found against C. curticei. Cessation of CT-feeding followed by non-CT control feeding did not result in a re-emergence of faecal egg counts based on faecal dry matter (FECDM) in any group, suggesting that egg output reductions are sustainable. The moderate to high concentrations of CTs in birdsfoot trefoil (15.2 g CTs kg(-1) dry matter (DM)) and sainfoin (26.1 g CTs kg(-1) DM) were compatible with the hypothesis that the antiparasitic effect of these forages is caused by their content of CTs. For chicory (3 g CTs kg(-1) DM), however, other secondary metabolites need to be considered. Overall, birdsfoot trefoil and in particular sainfoin seem promising candidates in contributing to an integrated control strategy against H. contortus not only by mitigating parasite related health

  2. The effect of different adjuvants on immune parameters and protection following vaccination of sheep with a larval-specific antigen of the gastrointestinal nematode, Haemonchus contortus.

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    David Piedrafita

    Full Text Available It has recently been recognised that vaccine adjuvants play a critical role in directing the nature of a vaccine induced effector response. In the present study, several adjuvants were evaluated for their ability to protect sheep after field vaccination with the larval-specific Haemonchus contortus antigen, HcsL3. Using a suboptimal antigen dose, aluminium adjuvant was shown to reduce the cumulative faecal egg counts (cFEC and worm burden by 23% and 25% respectively, in agreement with a previous study. The addition of Quil A to the aluminium-adjuvanted vaccine brought cFEC back to control levels. Vaccination with the adjuvant DEAE-dextran almost doubled the protection compared to the aluminium-adjuvanted vaccine resulting in 40% and 41% reduction in cFEC and worm counts compared to controls. Examination of skin responses following i.d. injection of exsheathed L3, revealed that cFEC was negatively correlated with wheal size and tissue eosinophils for the DEAE-dextran and aluminium-adjuvanted groups respectively. These studies have for the first time shown the potential of DEAE-dextran adjuvant for helminth vaccines, and discovered significant cellular correlates of vaccine-induced protection.

  3. The Effect of Different Adjuvants on Immune Parameters and Protection following Vaccination of Sheep with a Larval-Specific Antigen of the Gastrointestinal Nematode, Haemonchus contortus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrafita, David; Preston, Sarah; Kemp, Joanna; de Veer, Michael; Sherrard, Jayne; Kraska, Troy; Elhay, Martin; Meeusen, Els

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been recognised that vaccine adjuvants play a critical role in directing the nature of a vaccine induced effector response. In the present study, several adjuvants were evaluated for their ability to protect sheep after field vaccination with the larval-specific Haemonchus contortus antigen, HcsL3. Using a suboptimal antigen dose, aluminium adjuvant was shown to reduce the cumulative faecal egg counts (cFEC) and worm burden by 23% and 25% respectively, in agreement with a previous study. The addition of Quil A to the aluminium-adjuvanted vaccine brought cFEC back to control levels. Vaccination with the adjuvant DEAE-dextran almost doubled the protection compared to the aluminium-adjuvanted vaccine resulting in 40% and 41% reduction in cFEC and worm counts compared to controls. Examination of skin responses following i.d. injection of exsheathed L3, revealed that cFEC was negatively correlated with wheal size and tissue eosinophils for the DEAE-dextran and aluminium-adjuvanted groups respectively. These studies have for the first time shown the potential of DEAE-dextran adjuvant for helminth vaccines, and discovered significant cellular correlates of vaccine-induced protection. PMID:24205209

  4. Método Famacha como parâmetro clínico individual de infecção por Haemonchus contortus em pequenos ruminantes Famacha guide as an individual clinic parameter for Haemonchus contortus infection in small ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Beltrão Molento; Cláudio Tasca; Alencar Gallo; Márcio Ferreira; Ronaldo Bononi; Evandro Stecca

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização do método Famacha como estratégia auxiliar no controle do parasita Haemonchus contortus em ovinos e caprinos no Brasil. A principal característica deste método é a identificação de animais resistentes e resilientes no rebanho, sendo possível a seleção de animais que não necessitam receber tratamento antiparasitário. Além do acompanhamento clínico, foram determinados valores de hematócrito e ovos por grama de fezes (OPG). Ao término do experim...

  5. OPTIMIZING THE USE OF DUDDINGTONIA FLAGRANS CHLAMYDOSPORES AGAINST HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS IN FECES OF SHEEP

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    Nadia Florencia Ojeda-Robertos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the proportion of D. flagrans chlamydospores that led to the highest trapping efficacy in the presence of eggs or L3 larvae of H. contortus. Firstly, five groups of 15 coprocultures each were prepared, with proportions of eggs:chlamydospores (E:C in Groups I throught V of 1:0 (Control group,  1:1, 1:10,  1:100, and 1:1.000, respectively. A second batch of fifty coprocultures was then prepared, with five groups of 10 coprocultures each and larvae:chlamydospore (L:C ratios equal to those used to evaluate different E:C ratios (Groups VI, VII, VIII, IX and X. Larval reduction percentages were calculated to estimate trapping efficacy. Numbers of larvae harvested from cultures seeded with eggs and chlamydospores at E:C ratios of less than 1:1 were lower than those from the control (P0.05. This study demonstrates the importance of adjusting the dose of D. flagrans chlamydospores to achieve 10 chlamydospores for each egg or larvae in the faeces, in order to reach the optimal use.

  6. The efficacy of a slow-release albendazole capsule against Haemonchus contortus with known resistance to albendazole

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    Alan D. Fisher

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release albendazole capsules (CRCs are currently registered for use in Australia and New Zealand as anthelmintic treatment in sheep. However, reports on the efficacy of such products on resistant parasite populations are sometimes controversial. This is the first study to report on the efficacy of such products under South African field conditions in sheep harbouring a population of Haemonchus contortus with known multiple anthelmintic resistance, including to albendazole. Treatment groups were comprised of CRC-treated and single dose albendazole-treated sheep, as well as negative controls. Groups were compared by using faecal egg count reduction tests, FAMACHA© anaemia scoring, conception rates and comparative weight gains over three and a half months. Based on a comparison of faecal egg counts, no advantage could be found using CRCs. Moreover, the use of the product actually decreased weight gain when compared with the control group animals.

  7. Chemical Structures of Plant Hydrolyzable Tannins Reveal Their in Vitro Activity against Egg Hatching and Motility of Haemonchus contortus Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, M T; Karonen, M; Ahern, J R; Baert, N; Payré, B; Hoste, H; Salminen, J-P

    2016-02-03

    The use of synthetic drugs against gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants has led to a situation where resistance to anthelmintics is widespread, and there is an urgent need for alternative solutions for parasite control. One promising approach is to use polyphenol-rich bioactive plants in animal feeds as natural anthelmintics. In the present work, the in vitro activity of a series of 33 hydrolyzable tannins (HTs) and their hydrolysis product, gallic acid, against egg hatching and motility of L1 and L2 stage Haemonchus contortus larvae was studied. The effect of the selected compounds on egg and larval structure was further studied by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated clear relationships between HT structure and anthelmintic activity. While HT size, overall flexibility, the types and numbers of functional groups, together with the linkage types between monomeric HTs affected the activity differently, the optimal structure was found with pentagalloylglucose.

  8. Comparison of two in vitro methods for the detection of ivermectin resistance in Haemonchus contortus in sheep

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    Urda Dolinská M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in sheep cause severe economic losses. Anthelmintics are the most commonly used drugs for prophylaxis and therapy against parasitic helminths. The problem of drug resistance has developed for all commercially available anthelmintics in several genera and classes of helminths. In vitro and in vivo tests are used to detect anthelmintic resistance. Two in vitro methods (larval migration inhibition test and micromotility test for the detection of ivermectin (IVM resistance were compared using IVM-resistant and IVM-susceptible isolates of Haemonchus contortus. The degree of resistance for each test was expressed as a resistance factor (RF. The micromotility test was more sensitive for quantitatively measuring the degree of resistance between susceptible and resistant isolates. The RFs for this test for IVM and eprinomectin ranged from 1.00 to 108.05 and from 3.87 to 32.32, respectively.

  9. Effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage and hay on established populations of Haemonchus contortus and Cooperia curticei in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorn, Felix; Häring, Dieter Adrian; Maurer, Veronika; Zinsstag, Jakob; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hertzberg, Hubertus

    2006-12-20

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of dried and ensiled sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on established populations of Haemonchus contortus (abomasum) and Cooperia curticei (small intestine) in lambs under controlled conditions. Twenty-four parasite naïve lambs were inoculated with a single dose of infective larvae of these parasites 28 days prior to the start of the feeding experiment. Twenty-four days post-infection, 4 days prior to the start of the feeding experiment, animals were allocated to four groups according to egg excretion, live weight and sex. Groups A and B received sainfoin hay and control hay, respectively, for 16 days. Groups C and D were fed on sainfoin silage or control silage for the same period. Feeds were offered ad libitum and on the basis of daily refusals were supplemented with concentrate in order to make them isoproteic and isoenergetic. Individual faecal egg counts on a dry matter basis (FECDM) were performed every 3-4 days and faecal cultures and packed cell volume (PCV) measurements were done weekly. After 16 days of experimental feeding, all animals were slaughtered and adult worm populations were determined. The consumption of conserved sainfoin was associated with a reduction of adult H. contortus (47% in the case of hay, P<0.05; 49% in the case of silage, P=0.075) but had little effect on adult C. curticei. Compared to the controls, H. contortus specific FECDM was reduced by 58% (P<0.01) in the sainfoin hay group and by 48% (P=0.075) in the sainfoin silage group. For both sainfoin feeds FECDM specific to C. curticei were significantly decreased when compared to the control feeds (hay 81% and silage 74%, both tests P<0.001). Our data suggest that different mechanisms were responsible for the reduction in FECDM in response to feeding tanniferous fodder. For H. contortus, the decrease seemed to be due to a nematocidal effect towards adult H. contortus. In contrast for C. curticei, the reduction in FECDM appeared to

  10. HAEMOGLOBIN PHENOVARIANTS VS RESILIENCE STATUS, HAEMATOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND MINERAL PROFILE IN GAROLE SHEEP NATURALLY INFECTED WITH HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS.

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    Manoranjan Roy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 232 nos. of Garole sheep were evaluated for studying the variability of resilience to natural infection of Haemonchus contortus in relation to haemoglobin phenovariants as well as to know the association of haemoglobin phenovariants with several haematological parameters, biochemical parameters and serum macro and micro elements. This study revealed a significant variation (p<0.01 of haematological parameters, biochemical parameters and mineral status against resistance status and haemoglobin phenovariants. Significantly (P<0.01 less EPG count was recorded in Haemoglobin–AB type animals than the Haemoglobin-BB type animals. Haemoglobin-AB type animals also possessed significantly higher level of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total leukocyte count, lymphocyte count, serum total protein, albumin, globulin, calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper and zinc than Haemoglobin-BB type animals. On the other hand Haemoglobin-BB type animals possessed significantly higher level of neutrophil and serum alkaline phosphatase enzyme than Haemoglobin-AB type animals. During selection of H. contortus resistant Garole sheep inclusion of haemoglobin type as an indicator trait may be helpful to achieve the goal. Measurement of haematological parameters, biochemical parameters and serum macro and micro elements in these cases may also be essential for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes

  11. In vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L E; Castro, P M N; Chagas, A C S; França, S C; Beleboni, R O

    2013-07-01

    Despite the overall progress of sheep farming in Brazil, infections with the gastrointestinal parasite Haemonchus contortus represent one the most important problems in sheep production, aggravated by the increasing resistance of nematodes to traditional anthelmintic drugs caused by inadequate sheep flock management by breeders. Ethnopharmacological data indicate Annona muricata as a promising alternative for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes because of its general anthelmintic properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effects of A. muricata aqueous leaf extract against eggs, infective larvae and adult forms of parasitic nematode H. contortus. At higher doses, A. muricata extract showed 84.91% and 89.08% of efficacy in egg hatch test (EHT) and larval motility test (LMT), respectively. In the adult worm motility test, worms were completely immobilized within the first 6-8h of nematode exposition to different dilutions of extract. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of phenolic compounds in A. muricata aqueous leaf extract that may be responsible for the anthelmintic effects observed. Moreover those results validate the traditional use of A. muricata as a natural anthelmintic and then the pharmacological potential of its compounds for future in vivo investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple lethal effects induced by a benzimidazole anthelmintic in the anterior intestine of the nematode Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, D P; Yao, C; Rehman, A; Johnson, S

    2000-01-05

    A mechanism of benzimidazole efficacy against parasitic nematodes is postulated to involve inhibition of intestinal secretory vesicle transport via depolymerization of microtubules. We show that fenbendazole (FBZ) treatment of lambs causes pathology localized to the anterior intestine in the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. The pathology included gross disintegration of the anterior intestine, DNA fragmentation in anterior intestinal nuclei with characteristics of an apoptosis-like process, and inhibition of host erythrocyte digestion. These lethal effects were associated with inhibited transport of apical secretory vesicles in the anterior intestine, and then generalized dispersal of these vesicles contents throughout the intestinal cytoplasm and worm body. Cytoplasmic accumulation of secretory vesicles and undigested erythrocytes preceded DNA fragmentation and vesicle content dispersal. Both DNA fragmentation and vesicle content dispersal were detected in disintegrated intestine and intestine that had not yet undergone disintegration. These pathologic effects in the anterior intestine appear sufficient to explain the efficacy of FBZ against adult H. contortus. The results implicate mechanisms in the anterior intestine that govern dispersal of apical secretory vesicle contents, DNA fragmentation and tissue disintegration as effectors of this pathology.

  13. In vitro effects of four tropical plants on three life-cycle stages of the parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounzangbe-Adote, M S; Paolini, V; Fouraste, I; Moutairou, K; Hoste, H

    2005-04-01

    Alcoholic extracts of four tropical plants (Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, Newbouldia laevis, Morinda lucida and Carica papaya) were screened in vitro for potential anti-parasitic effects against eggs, infective larvae and adult Haemonchus contortus. Significant effects were obtained with all four plants but differences were observed depending on the parasitic stage. The effects of the four plant extracts were similar on egg hatching and were dose dependent. In contrast, no dose-response relationship was found for infective larvae and adult worms, although more potent effects were usually observed with the highest concentrations. Using a larval inhibition migration test, extracts of fagara (Z. zanthoxyloides) were found to be less active against Haemonchus infective larvae than were the other plants. N. laevis was found to be highly and rapidly effective against adult worms. Overall, these in vitro results suggest that these four plants, traditionally used by small farmers in Western Africa, do possess anti-parasitic properties. These effects remain to be confirmed through in vivo studies.

  14. Heterosis analysis of Haemonchus contortus resistance and production traits in Rhoen sheep, Merino Land sheep and crossbred lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielscher, A; Brandt, H; Erhardt, G; Gauly, M

    2006-11-05

    A crossbreeding program was conducted to evaluate the resistance status to Haemonchus contortus in reciprocal crossbred (F(1)) lambs and their Merino Land sheep (Ml) and Rhoen sheep (Rh) purebred counterparts. A total of 406 lambs were included in the study. Faecal egg counts (FEC) and haematocrit values (Hc) of all the lambs were collected 4 and 8 weeks after an artificial infection with H. contortus. FAMACHA scores were given at the same time. Worm counts of all lambs were obtained after slaughtering at 21 weeks of age. The Ml group consistently showed the highest body weights, daily weight gains and best carcass performances, whereas the Rh group showed the lowest results. Most of the body weight parameters in the F(1) group fell intermediately between the Ml and Rh groups, though the heterosis analysis of body weight and carcass parameters showed a tendency to favour the crossbreeding group Rh x Ml. The Rh group showed, on average, the highest FEC and the lowest Hc values compared to the Ml. However, the nematode counts were not significantly different between the pure breeds. In comparison, the worm counts of the Rh x Ml crosses were significantly different from those in the Ml x Rh crosses. A heterosis analysis showed that FEC, Hc and the worm count in the F(1) group favoured the crossbreeding group Rh x Ml. These results suggested that crossbreeding Rh to Ml sheep may be a suitable way of producing lambs with improved resistance to H. contortus infection without any negative effects on production traits.

  15. Effect of bioactive compounds from Sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) on the in vitro larval migration of Haemonchus contortus: role of tannins and flavonol glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrau, E; Fabre, N; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

    2005-10-01

    Anthelmintic bioactivity against gastrointestinal nematodes has been associated with leguminous forages supporting the hypothesis of a role of condensed tannins. However, the possibility that other compounds might also been involved has received less consideration. Using bio-guided fractionation, the current study aimed at characterizing the biochemical nature of the active compounds present in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia ), previously identified as an anthelmintic leguminous forage. The effects of sainfoin extracts were evaluated on 3rd-stage larvae (L3) of Haemonchus contortus by using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. Comparison of extracts obtained with several solvent systems showed that the bioactivity was associated with the 70ratio30 acetone/water extract. Further fractionation of the later allowed the separation of phenolic compounds. By use of a dialysis method, compounds were separated with a molecular weight cut-off of 2000 Da. The in vitro anthelmintic effect of the fraction with condensed tannins was confirmed. In the fraction containing molecules of MW <2000 Da, 3 flavonol glycosides were identified as rutin, nicotiflorin and narcissin. At 1200 mug/ml, each inhibited significantly the migration of larvae. Addition of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVPP) to both fractions before incubation restored larval migration. These results confirmed the role of both tannins and flavonol glycosides in the anthelmintic properties of sainfoin.

  16. Ist die FAMACHA©-Eye-Colour-Karte zur klinischen Diagnose von Haemonchus contortus – Befall bei Schafen und Ziegen in Norddeutschland geeignet?

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmann, Regine

    2007-01-01

    In sheep and goats the most pathogenous worm is the bloodsucking Barber’s pole worm Haemonchus contortus. Studies in South Africa confirmed the FAMACHA-Test to be a useful tool for identifying anaemic animals. Apart from the reduction of anthelmintic drugs, the targeted, selective treatment of single animals may delay the development of anthelmintic-resistant worms. Three field studies, carried out in Northern Germany in consecutive years, showed that at a comparatively low infestation of H....

  17. Exploring the limitations of pathophysiological indicators used for targeted selective treatment in sheep experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylinski, C; Cortet, J; Neveu, C; Cabaret, J

    2015-01-15

    Identifying which sheep to treat as part of a Targeted Selective Treatment approach to gastro-intestinal nematode control relies entirely on the efficacy of the indicators. Indicators such as FAMACHA© (anaemia), DISCO (diarrhea) and reductions in weight gains were designed specifically to reflect those sheep experiencing symptomatic consequences of infection. Using the gastro-intestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus as a model species, this study explored the utility and sensitivity of these indicators under controlled experimental conditions on 63 adult sheep. The potential effect of sheep with different H. contortus resistance phenotypes on indicator efficacy was compared in three different phenotypes, i.e. high (Blackbelly females), medium (Blackbelly rams) and low resistance (Romane rams). The potential effect of the H. contortus isolate on indicator efficacy was also explored by using four different isolates, with varying anthelmintic resistance capacities, to infect the sheep. We limited the study to the first month of infection to evaluate the interest of these indicators as an early predictive means for controlling infection. The pathophysiological indicators FAMACHA© and DISCO do not reflect infection intensity based on Faecal Egg Counts, nor do reductions in weight gains. FAMACHA© was however a good indicator of anaemia with strong correlations to haematocrit. There was little agreement among the three indicators to identify the same animals in need of treatment and even combining them did not increase their predictive value of infection intensity or relative host damage from infection. The indicator sensitivity was influenced by the H. contortus isolate and sheep resistance phenotype in which they were tested. One isolate was poorly infective but induced high levels of anaemia (FAMACHA©) and diarrhea (DISCO) compared to the three others. The FAMACHA© and DISCO had higher values in the sheep group with a medium resistance phenotype (Blackbelly rams

  18. Método Famacha como parâmetro clínico individual de infecção por Haemonchus contortus em pequenos ruminantes Famacha guide as an individual clinic parameter for Haemonchus contortus infection in small ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Beltrão Molento

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização do método Famacha como estratégia auxiliar no controle do parasita Haemonchus contortus em ovinos e caprinos no Brasil. A principal característica deste método é a identificação de animais resistentes e resilientes no rebanho, sendo possível a seleção de animais que não necessitam receber tratamento antiparasitário. Além do acompanhamento clínico, foram determinados valores de hematócrito e ovos por grama de fezes (OPG. Ao término do experimento, foi determinada uma considerável redução (75,6% na utilização de medicação antiparasitária nos ovinos, quando comparado com o controle profilático de tratamento do rebanho todo em intervalos de 30 dias dos anos anteriores. O método Famacha, embora também indicado para uso em caprinos, requer pequenas adaptações para sua melhor aplicabilidade. O método Famacha pode ser utilizado no Brasil com o objetivo de racionalizar o uso dos compostos antiparasitários, preservando sua eficácia por períodos prolongados.The objective of this research was to evaluate the Famacha method as an auxiliary strategy for the control of the parasite Haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in Brazil. The main characteristic of this method is the identification of resistant and resilient animals within the flock, selecting animals that do not require drug treatment. Haematocrit levels and fecal eggs per gram (EPG were measure as well as the clinical examination. At the end of the experiment a considerable decrease (75.6% in antiparasitic drug usage was determined in sheep, when compared to the prophylactic control management, treating all flock in 30 days intervals in previous years. Although the Famacha guide is indicated to be used in goats, some particularities have to be observed to obtain better results. The Famacha method may be applicable in Brazil with the aim of reducing drug usage and prolonging its lifespan.

  19. Anthelmintic effects of Prosopis laevigata n-hexanic extract against Haemonchus contortus in artificially infected gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesús-Gabino, A F; Mendoza-de Gives, P; Salinas-Sánchez, D O; López-Arellano, M E; Liébano-Hernández, E; Hernández-Velázquez, V M; Valladares-Cisneros, G

    2010-03-01

    The anthelmintic effect of Prosopis laevigata (mezquite) n-hexanic extract was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus endoparasitic stages in artificially infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Prosopis laevigata leaves were collected from the Sierra de Huautla, Ecological Reserve of the Biosphere, in Morelos State, Mexico; dehydrated under shade and macerated with n-hexane for 3 days, followed by distillation for 8 h. This procedure was repeated three times and the final extract was kept at 4 degrees C. The in vivo effect of the plant extract was evaluated in gerbils artificially infected with H. contortus. Plant extract concentration was 40 mg/ml. Three groups of gerbils were as follows: group 1 (n = 7), P. laevigata extract at 100 microl intraperitoneally (IP); group 2 (n = 6), control--Tween 20 in water at a single dose of 100 microl IP; group 3 (n = 8) also served as a control, receiving water only, to determine the mortality due to causes other than the plant extract. An additional group of seven gerbils (group 4) was administered fenbendazole, as a positive control. Five days later the animals were euthanized and stomach and mucosa removed to quantify the nematodes. Data were analysed using the Student's t-test to compare the mean of nematodes obtained in groups 1, 2 and 3. The parasite population in the plant extract treated group 1 was reduced by 42.5% (P < 0.05) with respect to the control group 2; and when control group 3 was used for comparison the parasitic reduction was estimated as 53.11%. This study shows the in vivo anthelmintic effect of P. laevigata n-hexane extract for the first time, using gerbils as an in vivo model, with potential use in sheep.

  20. Intestinal transcriptomes of nematodes: comparison of the parasites Ascaris suum and Haemonchus contortus with the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Yong Yin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The nematode intestine is a major organ responsible for nutrient digestion and absorption; it is also involved in many other processes, such as reproduction, innate immunity, stress responses, and aging. The importance of the intestine as a target for the control of parasitic nematodes has been demonstrated. However, the lack of detailed knowledge on the molecular and cellular functions of the intestine and the level of its conservation across nematodes has impeded breakthroughs in this application.As part of an extensive effort to investigate various transcribed genomes from Ascaris suum and Haemonchus contortus, we generated a large collection of intestinal sequences from parasitic nematodes by identifying 3,121 A. suum and 1,755 H. contortus genes expressed in the adult intestine through the generation of expressed sequence tags. Cross-species comparisons to the intestine of the free-living C. elegans revealed substantial diversification in the adult intestinal transcriptomes among these species, suggesting lineage- or species-specific adaptations during nematode evolution. In contrast, significant conservation of the intestinal gene repertories was also evident, despite the evolutionary distance of approximately 350 million years separating them. A group of 241 intestinal protein families (IntFam-241, each containing members from all three species, was identified based on sequence similarities. These conserved proteins accounted for approximately 20% of the sampled intestinal transcriptomes from the three nematodes and are proposed to represent conserved core functions in the nematode intestine. Functional characterizations of the IntFam-241 suggested important roles in molecular functions such as protein kinases and proteases, and biological pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and translation. Conservation in the core protein families was further explored by extrapolating observable RNA interference phenotypes in C

  1. Intestinal transcriptomes of nematodes: comparison of the parasites Ascaris suum and Haemonchus contortus with the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong; Martin, John; Abubucker, Sahar; Scott, Alan L; McCarter, James P; Wilson, Richard K; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2008-08-06

    The nematode intestine is a major organ responsible for nutrient digestion and absorption; it is also involved in many other processes, such as reproduction, innate immunity, stress responses, and aging. The importance of the intestine as a target for the control of parasitic nematodes has been demonstrated. However, the lack of detailed knowledge on the molecular and cellular functions of the intestine and the level of its conservation across nematodes has impeded breakthroughs in this application. As part of an extensive effort to investigate various transcribed genomes from Ascaris suum and Haemonchus contortus, we generated a large collection of intestinal sequences from parasitic nematodes by identifying 3,121 A. suum and 1,755 H. contortus genes expressed in the adult intestine through the generation of expressed sequence tags. Cross-species comparisons to the intestine of the free-living C. elegans revealed substantial diversification in the adult intestinal transcriptomes among these species, suggesting lineage- or species-specific adaptations during nematode evolution. In contrast, significant conservation of the intestinal gene repertories was also evident, despite the evolutionary distance of approximately 350 million years separating them. A group of 241 intestinal protein families (IntFam-241), each containing members from all three species, was identified based on sequence similarities. These conserved proteins accounted for approximately 20% of the sampled intestinal transcriptomes from the three nematodes and are proposed to represent conserved core functions in the nematode intestine. Functional characterizations of the IntFam-241 suggested important roles in molecular functions such as protein kinases and proteases, and biological pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and translation. Conservation in the core protein families was further explored by extrapolating observable RNA interference phenotypes in C. elegans to their

  2. In vitro activity of the essential oil from Hesperozygis myrtoides on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and Haemonchus contortus

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    Caroline V.V. Castilho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Commercial antiparasitics have been the main tool to control parasites, but due to the resistance development, plant extracts have been widely investigated to find new molecules. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro acaricide and anthelmintic activities of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Hesperozygis myrtoides (A.St.-Hil. ex Benth. Epling, Lamiaceae. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Four tests were conducted in vitro to screen the antiparasitic action of the essential oil. The evaluation on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was performed with the adult immersion test at concentrations ranging from 0.391 to 25 mg/ml and the larval packet test from 3.125 to 100 mg/ml. For Haemonchus contortus the egg hatch test was performed from 0.012 to 25 mg/ml and the larval development test from 0.003 to 0.4 mg/ml. The LC50 and LC90 values were calculated by Probit. The main components identified in the essential oil were isomenthone (47.7%, pulegone (21.4%, limonene (7.7%, isomenthyl acetate (6.8% and neoisomenthol (3.9%. In the larval packet test the LC50 and LC90 were 13.5 and 21.8 mg/ml, respectively. In egg hatch test, the LC50 and LC90 were 0.249 and 0.797 mg/ml, respectively, while in the larval development test were 0.072 and 0.167 mg/ml, respectively. This is the first report of the H. myrtoides evaluation against those parasites. The anthelmintic results proved its efficacy on H. contortus encouraging new research with a focus on their main bioactives.

  3. Atividade ovicida e larvicida in vitro do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus sobre Haemonchus contortus Ovicidal and larvicidal activity in vitro of Eucalyptus globulus essential oils on Haemonchus contortus

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    Iara T. F. Macedo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus (OEEG sobre a eclosão e desenvolvimento de larvas de Haemonchus contortus. A determinação da composição química do OEEG foi feita por meio de cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa. No teste de eclosão de ovos (TEO, utilizaram-se as concentrações 21,75; 17,4; 8,7; 5,43 e 2,71 mg.mL-1; e no de desenvolvimento larvar (TDL as concentrações foram 43,5; 21,75; 10,87; 5,43 e 2,71 mg.mL-1. Cada ensaio foi acompanhado por um controle positivo, 0,02 mg.mL-1 tiabendazol, no TEO e 0,008 mg.mL-1 ivermectina no TDL, e por um controle negativo com o diluente Tween 80 (3%. A eficácia máxima obtida pelo OEEG sobre ovos foi de 99,3% na concentração de 21,75 mg.mL-1 e, sobre larvas, 98,7% na concentração de 43,5 mg.mL-1. A concentração do OEEG, que inviabilizou 50% dos ovos e das larvas do parasito, foi de 8,3 e 6,92 mg.mL-1, respectivamente. A análise química do óleo identificou como principal componente o monoterpeno 1,8-cineol. O OEEG apresentou atividade ovicida e larvicida in vitro sobre H. contortus, determinando um bom potencial para utilização no controle de nematóides gastrintestinais de ovinos e caprinos.The objective of this work was to evaluate ovicidal and larvicidal effects of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil (EGEO on Haemonchus contortus. The chemical composition determination of EGEO was through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Egg hatch test (EHT was performed in concentrations 21.75; 17.4; 8.7; 5.43 e 2.71 mg.mL-1. In larval development test (LDT were used the concentrations 43.5; 21.75; 10.87; 5.43 e 2.71 mg.mL-1. Each trial was conducted by negative control with Tween 80 (3% and positive control, 0.02 mg.mL -1 of thiabendazole in EHT and 0.008 mg.mL-1 of ivermectin in LDT. The maximum effectiveness of EGEO on eggs was 99.3% in concentration of 21.75 mg.mL-1 and on larvae was 98.7% in concentration 43

  4. Effect of multidrug resistance modulators on the activity of ivermectin and moxidectin against selected strains of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae

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    Molento Marcelo B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematode parasites have shown resistance to the anthelmintics, ivermectin and moxidectin, and there is evidence that the over-expression of parasite P-glycoprotein (P-gp may account, at least in part, for resistance to ivermectin. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the multidrug resistance (MDR modulators, verapamil, CL 347.099 (an analog of verapamil and cyclosporin A, would enhance the efficacy of ivermectin and moxidectin against selected strains of Haemonchus contortus using an in vitro larval migration assay. The modulators had no effects on the number of migrating larvae when used alone. Ivermectin and moxidectin showed a significant (P<0.05 increase in its efficacy by 52.8 and 58.5% respectively, when used in association with verapamil against a moxidectin-selected strain. CL 347,099 also increased significantly (P<0.05 the ivermectin and moxidectin efficacy by 24.2 and 40.0% respectively, against an ivermectin-selected strain and by 40.0 and 75.6% respectively, against an moxidectin-selected strain. At the concentrations tested cyclosporin A showed a variable effect on increasing the efficacy of the anthelmintics against the susceptible and resistant strains.

  5. Persistence of the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles against Haemonchus contortus in grazing South African goats

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    Vatta, A.F.; Waller, P.J.; Githiori, J.B.; Medley, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the duration of anthelmintic effect of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) in grazing goats, as data for the persistence of efficacy of COWP in this host species is limited. Forty-eight indigenous male goats were infected naturally by grazing them on Haemonchus contortus-infected pasture. When the faecal egg count (FEC) in the goats was 3179 ± 540 eggs per gram of faeces (mean ± standard error), half the animals were treated with 4 g COWP (day 0; mean live weight = 25.5 ± 0.8 kg). Eight treated (COWP) and eight non-treated (CONTROL) goats were removed from the pasture on each of days 7, 28 and 56, maintained for 27 or 29 days in concrete pens and then humanely slaughtered for nematode recovery. Mean liver copper levels were in the high range in the goats removed from pasture at day 7 (treated: 191 ± 19.7 ppm; untreated: 120 ± 19.7 ppm; P = 0.022), but had dropped to normal levels at days 28 and 56. The mean H. contortus burdens of the treated versus the non-treated goats were, respectively, 184 ± 48 and 645 ± 152 for the goats removed from pasture at day 7 (71% reduction; P = 0.004), 207 ± 42 and 331 ± 156 at day 28 (37% reduction; P = 0.945) and 336 ± 89 and 225 ± 53 at day 56 (−49% reduction; P = 0.665). Weekly monitoring of FECs after treatment until slaughter indicated that the COWP-treated goats had lower FECs than the controls, the treatment main effect being significant at days 7, 28 and 56 (P goats removed from pasture at day 28 (P ≤ 0.001). Packed cell volumes increased during the course of the experiment (day, P goats removed from pasture at day 28 (CONTROL 28 d, 28.65 ± 0.52% goats, extending at most to 28 days after treatment. However, repeated COWP administration at three-month intervals may be safe, given that liver copper levels return to normal two to three months after COWP treatment. PMID:22789299

  6. Experiences with integrated concepts for the control of Haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Thomas H; Miller, James E; Burke, Joan M; Mosjidis, Jorge A; Kaplan, Ray M

    2012-05-04

    The generally warm, moist environmental conditions in the southern United States (U.S.) are ideal for survival and growth of the egg and larval stages of Haemonchus contortus and other gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep and goats. Consequently, infection with GIN is the greatest threat to economic small ruminant production in this region. With anthelmintic resistance now reaching epidemic proportions in small ruminants in the U.S., non-chemical control alternatives are critically needed. The Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (SCSRPC) was formed in response to this crisis and over the last decade has successfully validated the use of several novel control technologies, including FAMACHA(©) for the implementation of targeted selective treatments (TST), copper oxide wire particles (COWP), nematode-trapping fungi, and grazing or feeding hay of the high-tannin perennial legume sericea lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours. G. Don)]. Producer attitudes toward GIN control in the U.S. have been shifting away from exclusive dependence upon anthelmintics toward more sustainable, integrated systems of parasite control. Some novel control technologies have been readily adopted by producers in combination with appropriate diagnostic tools, such as FAMACHA(©). Others techniques are still being developed, and will be available for producer use as they are validated. Although new drugs will likely be available to U.S. goat and sheep producers in the future, these will also be subject to development of anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, the adoption and implementation of sustainable GIN control principles will remain important. With emerging markets for grass-fed or organic livestock, there will continue to be a critical need for research and outreach on development and on-farm application of integrated GIN control systems for small ruminants in the U.S. for the foreseeable future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of resistance in a selected field strain of Haemonchus contortus to ivermectin and moxidectin using the Larval Migration on Agar Test

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    Fernanda S. Fortes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is one of the most common and economically significant causes of disease in small ruminants worldwide, and the control programs of parasitic nematodes - including H. contortus - rely mostly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. The consequence of the use of this, as the sole sanitary strategy to avoid parasite infections, was the reduction of the efficacy of all chemotherapeutic products with a heavy selection for resistance. The widespread of anthelmintic resistance and the difficulty of its early diagnosis has been a major concern for the sustainable parasite management on farms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the ivermectin (IVM and moxidectin (MOX effect in a selected field strain of H. contortus with a known resistance status, using the in vitro larval migration on agar test (LMAT. Third stage larvae of the selected isolate were obtained from faecal cultures of experimentally infected sheep and incubated in eleven increasing diluted concentrations of IVM and MOX (6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072 and 6144µg/mL. The dose-response sigmoidal curves were obtained using the R² value of >0.90 and the lethal concentration (LC50 dose for the tested anthelmintic drugs using a four-parameter logistic model. The LC50 value for MOX was significantly lower than IVM (1.253µg/mL and 91.06µg/mL, identifying the H. contortus isolate as considerably less susceptible to IVM compared to MOX. Furthermore, the LMAT showed a high consistency (p<0.0001 and provided to be a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring the resistance status of IVM and MOX in H. contortus field isolate, as well as it may be used for official routine drug monitoring programs under the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA guidance.

  8. Comparison of the resistance to sympatric and allopatric isolates of Haemonchus contortus of Black Belly sheep in Guadeloupe (FWI) and of INRA 401 sheep in France.

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    Aumont, G; Gruner, L; Hostache, G

    2003-10-08

    The resistance of a tropical breed of sheep towards the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus (Hc) was compared to that of a European breed after artificial infection with the parasite following a 2 x 2 x 2 experimental design: two isolates (Hc Gua from Guadeloupe versus Hc Fra from France), two breeds each reared in their native habitats (Black Belly (BB) in Guadeloupe, FWI, INRA 401 reared in France), and two groups of lambs with differing infection status (one naive, i.e. infected for the first time during the experiment, and one primed, i.e. which had previously received doses of 5000 L3 on Days -35 and -32 before the infection during this experiment). Both groups were composed of 10 male lambs, which were 20 weeks of age when they were given a dose of 10,000 L3 of the relevant isolate on Day 0. Resistance was assessed by regular fecal egg counts (FECs) and blood samples, and worm counts were processed on Day 35 p.i. The FEC was lower in the BB than in INRA 401 lambs, lower in the primed than naive groups, and lower in Hc Fra than in Hc Gua. The eosinophil count remained unchanged in the naive INRA 401 groups, but increased in all the other groups. The hematocrit fell after infection, but the live weight was not affected by the infection. Worm burdens were 1868 and 5237 in the naive BB and INRA 401 groups, respectively, and 596 and 4835 in the primed BB and INRA 401 groups. The daily production of eggs per Hc Gua female worm was 1.5-fold that of Hc Fra. The number of worms had no effect on worm length or Hc in utero egg count in the BB sheep, but a positive and significant correlation between these two traits was seen in the INRA 401 lambs. These findings are indicative of innate resistance, and confirmed the high acquired resistance of the BB sheep to both sympatric and allopatric isolates of Hc. The regulation of worm population and fecundity differed in the BB and INRA 401 sheep.

  9. Effects of in vitro exposure to ivermectin and levamisole on the expression patterns of ABC transporters in Haemonchus contortus larvae

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    Ali Raza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the interaction of ATP binding cassette (ABC transport proteins with ivermectin (IVM and levamisole (LEV in larvae of susceptible and resistant isolates of Haemonchus contortus in vitro by measuring transcription patterns following exposure to these anthelmintics. Furthermore, we studied the consequences of drug exposure by measuring the sensitivity of L3 to subsequent exposure to higher drug concentrations using larval migration assays. The most highly transcribed transporter genes in both susceptible and resistant L3 were pgp-9.3, abcf-1, mrp-5, abcf-2, pgp-3, and pgp-10. The resistant isolate showed significantly higher transcription of pgp-1, pgp-9.1 and pgp-9.2 compared to the susceptible isolate. Five P-gp genes and the haf-6 gene showed significantly higher transcription (up to 12.6-fold after 3 h exposure to IVM in the resistant isolate. Similarly, five P-gp genes, haf-6 and abcf-1 were transcribed at significantly higher levels (up to 10.3-fold following 3 h exposure to LEV in this isolate. On the other hand, there were no significant changes in transcriptional patterns of all transporter genes in the susceptible isolate following 3 and 6 h exposure to IVM or LEV. In contrast to these isolate-specific transcription changes, both isolates showed an increase in R-123 efflux following exposure to the drugs, suggesting that the drugs stimulated activity of existing transporter proteins in both isolates. Exposure of resistant larvae to IVM or LEV resulted, in some instances, in an increase in the proportion of the population able to migrate at the highest IVM concentrations in subsequent migration assays. The significant increase in transcription of some ABC transporter genes following 3 h exposure to both IVM and LEV in the resistant isolate only, suggests that an ability to rapidly upregulate protective pathways in response to drugs may be a component of the resistance displayed by this isolate.

  10. mRNA sequences for Haemonchus contortus intestinal cathepsin B-like cysteine proteases display an extreme in abundance and diversity compared with other adult mammalian parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka Dautova; McCarter, James P

    2004-10-01

    Cathepsin B-like cysteine protease (cbl) genes produce the most abundant mRNAs ( approximately 16%) detected in the adult female intestine of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. CBL enzymes appear to digest host proteins and are vaccine candidates for immune control of H. contortus and potentially other parasitic nematodes. Hence, it is important to quantify the extent of diversity of H. contortuscbl genes. Here, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used to assess both the size and diversity of the H. contortuscbl gene family. Contig analysis of 686 cbl ESTs from a USA isolate resolved 123 clusters. ESTs were grouped into discrete sets and analyzed using an additive model. Discovery of new cbl clusters increased with each set and reached a terminal rate of about 1 per 10 ESTs. The extreme diversity was unique to cbls relative to other genes investigated and was ascribed to specific cbl clades. Sixty percent of cbl clusters from a UK isolate were shared with those identified in the USA isolate, suggesting conservation of cbl gene repertoires across regions, although minor to moderate geographic variation cannot be excluded. Sequence comparisons also suggested high potential for antigenic diversity among CBL proteins, which is relevant to vaccine strategies. Compared to other parasitic nematodes of mammals, the extreme abundance and diversity of intestinal cbl transcripts appear to be relative specializations for H. contortus. Therefore, adaptations related to nutrient acquisition may vary markedly among these parasitic nematodes.

  11. In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extracts of Aerial Parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. and Leaves of Schinus molle L. against Haemonchus contortus

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    Selamawit Zenebe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Haemonchus contortus, the causative agent of Haemonchosis, is the most economically important parasite in small ruminant production. Control with chemotherapy has not been successful due to rapid emergence of drug-resistant strains. There is a continuous search for alternative leads particularly from plants. The study aimed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extracts of leaves of Schinus molle and aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis against H. contortus. Methods. Adult motility test and egg hatching inhibition assay were employed to investigate the in vitro adulticidal and egg hatching inhibitory effects of the extracts. Results. Higher concentrations of the extracts (10 and 5 mg/ml had a significantly superior adulticidal activity (p<0.05 compared to the negative control and lower concentration levels, which was comparable to albendazole. Similarly, the relative egg hatch inhibition efficacy of S. molle and C. quadrangularis extracts indicated a maximum of 96% and 88% egg hatch inhibition, respectively, within the 48 hrs of exposure at 1 mg/ml. Conclusion. The current study evidenced that the crude methanolic extracts of the plants have promising adulticidal and egg hatching inhibitory effects against H. contortus.

  12. Two benzimidazole resistance-associated SNPs in the isotype-1 β-tubulin gene predominate in Haemonchus contortus populations from eight regions in China

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    Zongze Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important parasitic nematodes of small ruminants around the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The control of haemonchosis relies mainly on anthelmintics, but the excessive and prolonged use of anthelmintics is causing serious drug resistance issues in many countries. As benzimidazole (BZ anthelmintics have been broadly used in China, we hypothesized that resistance is widespread. Given the link between three known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, designated F167Y, E198A and F200Y in the isotype-1 β-tubulin gene and BZ resistance, our goal here was to explore the presence of these mutations in H. contortus from small ruminants (sheep and goats from eight provinces in China using PCR-coupled sequencing. In addition, the genetic diversity and genetic relationship of isotype-1 β-tubulin sequence haplotypes were also investigated. Among 192 H. contortus adult individuals representing the eight populations, we identified six distinct sequence types, five of which had SNP E198A (GCA and/or F200Y (TAC. Sequence analysis showed that the frequencies of SNPs E198A and F200Y were 0–70% and 0–31%, respectively. SNP F167Y (TAC was not detected in any population. In addition, high haplotype diversities (0.455–0.939 and nucleotide diversities (0.018–0.039 were calculated. A network analysis of the isotype-1 β-tubulin gene sequences showed that SNPs E198A and F200Y occurred in multiple distinct groupings, suggesting multiple independent origins of these SNPs. The findings of this first study of SNPs in the isotype-1 β-tubulin gene of H. contortus populations suggest that BZ resistance is prevalent in some regions of China, and that any control strategy might focus on monitoring BZ resistance in this country.

  13. In vitro AND in vivo ANTHELMINTIC EFFECT OF Coffea arabica RESIDUES AGAINTS AN Haemonchus contortus ISOLATE WITH LOW SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TANNINS

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    G.I. Ortiz-Ocampo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic (AH effect of the percolated by-product of Coffea arabica against a Haemonchus contortus isolate with low susceptibility to tannins. Firstly, the susceptibility to tannins of Paraíso H. contortus isolate was evaluated with the in vitro larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA using an acetone:water (70:30 extract of Acacia pennatula. Afterwards, the in vitro AH effect of acetone:water extracts of percolated C. arabica by-products (Clean and Smooth (CS and Shade Grown (SG Starbucks® were evaluated. Then, the in vivo AH effect was determined in growing sheep (4 months old and 15.2 kg bodyweight, infected with H. contortus (Paraiso isolate and fed with a diet containing the percolated by-product of C. arabica. Three experimental groups were formed (n = 6 lambs: GC Group (control diet without C. arabica, GCA Group (feed containing 10% C. arabica and, GCA+PEG (polyethilenglycol Group (feed with 10% C. arabica + PEG as a tannin inhibitor. Fecal samples were obtained daily from the rectum of lambs (days 1 to 20 of the study. The H. contortus isolate tolerated the A. pennatula extract at concentrations of 150 and 300 μg extract/ml PBS (P > 0.05, which confirmed its low susceptibility to tannins. The C. arabica CS extract reduced the exsheatment from 150 μg of extract/ml PBS and the SG variety from 1200 μg of extract/ml PBS (P0.05. In conclusion, the C. arabica percolated by-product extracts showed in vitro AH effect against exsheathment. However, the consumption of feed containing 10% of the percolated by-product did not show an in vivo AH effect in sheep infected with the Paraiso H. contortus isolate. The latter could be due to the low susceptibility towards the secondary compounds of tannin rich plants of the H. contortus isolate used in this study.

  14. F200Y polymorphism in the β-tubulin gene in field isolates of Haemonchus contortus and risk factors of sheep flock management practices related to anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niciura, Simone Cristina Méo; Veríssimo, Cecília José; Gromboni, Juliana Gracielle Gonzaga; Rocha, Marina Ibelli Pereira; de Mello, Suelen Scarpa; Barbosa, Cristina Maria Pacheco; Chiebao, Daniela Pontes; Cardoso, Daniel; Silva, Giane Serafim; Otsuk, Ivani Pozar; Pereira, José Roberto; Ambrosio, Luis Alberto; Nardon, Romeu Fernandes; Ueno, Tatiana Evelyn Hayama; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2012-12-21

    Haemonchus contortus is the most prevalent and pathogenic nematode of sheep in tropical areas. The objectives of this study were to assess the frequency of the F200Y polymorphism on the β-tubulin gene in third-stage larvae of H. contortus from 33 sheep flocks in São Paulo state, Brazil, and to associate this frequency to risk factors based on farm management practices. The resistance allele frequency varied from 9 to 74%, and the resistance genotype frequency varied from 0 to 66.7%. Resistance genotype frequencies higher than 40% were associated with multiple risk factors - new sheep farming enterprises, the absence of farm records, the use of Dorper and Suffolk breeds, rotational grazing, the lack of wetlands on farms, pasture sharing with cattle or horses, frequent incorporation of animals into the flock, semi-intensive farming systems, whole-flock treatment, failure to use the FAMACHA method, lack of the dose-and-move practice, anthelmintic rotation after each application, visual estimation of animal weight for treatment, and lack of drug combination use. It can be concluded that genotyping the F200Y polymorphism can be used to monitor the resistance in sheep flocks and the knowledge of management strategies at the farm level is important to identify drug resistance related factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro nematicidal effects of medicinal plants from the Sierra de Huautla, Biosphere Reserve, Morelos, Mexico against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae.

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    López-Aroche, U; Salinas-Sánchez, D O; Mendoza de Gives, P; López-Arellano, M E; Liébano-Hernández, E; Valladares-Cisneros, G; Arias-Ataide, D M; Hernández-Velázquez, V

    2008-03-01

    Twenty extracts from plants from Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve, Morelos, Mexico were evaluated against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae in an in vitro assay. The plant species evaluated were Bursera copallifera, B. grandifolia, Lippia graveolens, Passiflora mexicana, Prosopis laevigata, Randia echinocarpa and Urtica dioica. The plants were separated into their parts and macerated with different solvents (n-hexane, acetone, ethanol and methanol). An in vitro assay was used to evaluate the anthelmintic activity against unsheathed third stage H. contortus infective larvae. The experiment was carried out in 24-well cell culture plates at room temperature with three replicates per treatment and using a concentration of 20 mg ml- 1. Ten 5 microl aliquots were taken from the corresponding wells and deposited on a slide for microscopical observation at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exposure. The evaluation criteria were based on the average numbers of live and/or dead larvae in the different treatments. Alive and dead larval numbers were statistically analysed through the ANOVA test (P>0.01). The Tukey test was used as a complementary tool to determine which treatment was different from the other treatments (P>0.05). The highest mortality was observed with P. laevigata hexanic extract from stem and leaves combined, which produced 51%, 81% and 86% larval mortality at 24, 48 and 72 h post-exposure, respectively. On the other hand, B. copallifera stem acetonic extract exhibited 18%, 59% and 66% nematicidal activity after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure, respectively.

  16. Haemonchus contortus GA1 antigens: related, phospholipase C-sensitive, apical gut membrane proteins encoded as a polyprotein and released from the nematode during infection.

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    Jasmer, D P; Perryman, L E; McGuire, T C

    1996-08-06

    It was previously shown that the Haemonchus contortus apical gut surface proteins p46, p52, and p100 induced protective immunity to challenge infections in goats. Here, it is shown that the three proteins are all encoded by a single gene (GA1) and initially expressed in adult parasites as a polyprotein (p100GA1). p46GA1 and p52GA1 are related proteins with 47% sequence identity, including a cysteine-containing region, which appears to confer secondary structure to these proteins, and a region with sequence similarity to bacterial Tolb proteins. GA1 protein expression is regulated during the life cycle at the level of transcript abundance. Only p52GA1 has characteristics of a glycosylinositolphospholipid membrane-anchored protein. However, both p46GA1 and p52GA1 were released from the gut membrane by phosphatidylinositol specific-phospholipase C, suggesting that p46GA1 membrane association depends on interactions with a glycosylinositolphospholipid gut membrane protein. Finally, GA1 proteins occur in abomasal mucus of infected lambs, demonstrating possible presentation to the host immune system during H. contortus infection. The results identify multiple characteristics of the GA1 proteins that should be considered for design of recombinant antigens for vaccine trials and that implicate a series of cellular processes leading to modification and expression of GA1 proteins at the nematode apical gut surface.

  17. Conservation of a microRNA cluster in parasitic nematodes and profiling of miRNAs in excretory-secretory products and microvesicles of Haemonchus contortus.

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    Henry Y Gu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression in a range of animals, including nematodes. We have analysed a cluster of four miRNAs from the pathogenic nematode species Haemonchus contortus that are closely linked in the genome. We find that the cluster is conserved only in clade V parasitic nematodes and in some ascarids, but not in other clade III species nor in clade V free-living nematodes. Members of the cluster are present in parasite excretory-secretory products and can be detected in the abomasum and draining lymph nodes of infected sheep, indicating their release in vitro and in vivo. As observed for other parasitic nematodes, H. contortus adult worms release extracellular vesicles (EV. Small RNA libraries were prepared from vesicle-enriched and vesicle-depleted supernatants from both adult worms and L4 stage larvae. Comparison of the miRNA species in the different fractions indicated that specific miRNAs are packaged within vesicles, while others are more abundant in vesicle-depleted supernatant. Hierarchical clustering analysis indicated that the gut is the likely source of vesicle-associated miRNAs in the L4 stage, but not in the adult worm. These findings add to the growing body of work demonstrating that miRNAs released from parasitic helminths may play an important role in host-parasite interactions.

  18. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis

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    Arroyo-Lopez Celia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT and negative (treated, T control groups (treatment with albendazole. On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05. At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers. However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and

  19. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Lopez, Celia; Manolaraki, Foteini; Saratsis, Anastasios; Saratsi, Katerina; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Skampardonis, Vasileios; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua) against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT) and negative (treated, T) control groups (treatment with albendazole). On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05). At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV) values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values) and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers). However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and/or other

  20. Accuracy of an anaemia scoring chart applied on goats in sub-humid Kenya and its potential for control of Haemonchus contortus infections.

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    Ejlertsen, M; Githigia, S M; Otieno, R O; Thamsborg, S M

    2006-11-05

    We tested the practical application of an anaemia scoring chart (the FAMACHA chart) as a method for controlling Haemonchus contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions in a sub-humid area of Central Kenya. The objectives were: (1) to test the accuracy of the FAMACHA chart in identifying anaemic goats (PCVFAMACHA group (F1 (n=34) and F2 (n=31) on farms 1 and 2, respectively) and a control group (C1 (n=34) and C2 (n=30)). In F1 and F2 goats with a FAMACHA score of 3, 4 or 5 were treated with anthelmintic after scoring. In C1 and C2 goats were treated every 4 weeks from 15 February to 20 July. Every 2 weeks all goats were scored with the FAMACHA chart and weighed. Furthermore, faecal samples were collected for faecal egg counts (FEC) and blood samples were collected for packed cell volume (PCV) determination. H. contortus was found to be the predominant nematode on both farms. The mean FECs were higher on farm 1 compared to farm 2, while in contrast the mean PCV levels were lowest on farm 2. The latter was most likely due to the presence of Fasciola spp., flea and tick infections on farm 2. The accuracy of the chart was evaluated by using PCV as the gold standard for anaemia (PCVFAMACHA chart can be a valuable tool for decision-making in control of H. contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions, without morbidity or mortality unacceptable to the farmer. The application may further reduce the risk of development of anthelmintic resistance by increasing refugia. However, caution should be taken under conditions where other anaemia-causing parasites are present (e.g. Fasciola spp. and ecto-parasites), since this possibly decreases the accuracy of the FAMACHA chart.

  1. A stochastic model accommodating the FAMACHA© system for estimating worm burdens and associated risk factors in sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynecke, D P; Van Wyk, J A; Gummow, B; Dorny, P; Boomker, J

    2011-05-11

    A previously developed multiple regression algorithm was used as the basis of a stochastic model to simulate worm burdens in sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus over five consecutive Haemonchus seasons (November to January/February) on a farm in the summer rainfall region in South Africa, although only one season is discussed. The algorithm associates haemoglobin levels with worm counts in individual animals. Variables were represented by distributions based on FAMACHA(©) scores and body weights of sheep, and Monte Carlo sampling was used to simulate worm burdens. Under conditions of high disease risk, defined as the sampling event during the worm season with the lowest relative mean haemoglobin level for a class of sheep, the model provided a distribution function for mean class H. contortus burdens and the probability of these occurring. A mean H. contortus burden for ewes (n=130 per sample) of approximately 1000 (range 51-28,768) and 2933 (range 78-44,175) for rams (n=120 per sample) was predicted under these conditions. At the beginning of the worm season when the risk of disease was lowest (i.e. when both classes had their highest estimated mean haemoglobin levels), a mean worm burden of 525 (range 39-4910) for ewes and 651 (range 37-17,260) for rams was predicted. Model indications were that despite being selectively drenched according to FAMACHA(©) evaluation, 72% of the ewes would maintain their mean worm burden below an arbitrarily selected threshold of 1000 even when risk of disease was at its highest. In contrast, far fewer rams (27%) remained below this threshold, especially towards the end of the worm season. The model was most sensitive to changes in haemoglobin value, and thus by extrapolation, the haematocrit, which is used as the gold standard for validating the FAMACHA(©) system. The mean class haemoglobin level at which there was a 50% probability of worm burdens being ≤ 1000 worms was 7.05 g/dl in ewes and 7.92 g/dl in rams

  2. Chemical composition and in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts of Tagetes patula against a multidrug-resistant isolate of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Flávio Augusto Sanches; Souza, Amauri Alves; Fantatto, Rafaela Regina; Pietro, Rosemeire Cristina Linhari Rodrigues; Barioni, Waldomiro; Rabelo, Márcio Dias; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; de Souza Chagas, Ana Carolina; Furlan, Maysa

    2017-11-27

    Sheep breeding has suffered economic losses due to parasitism by gastrointestinal nematodes, particularly Haemonchus contortus. The use of natural products, specifically Tagetes patula, has been suggested as an alternative method of combatting this issue. Chemical analyses of the extracts of this species described in the literature report the presence of important classes of secondary metabolites such as thiophenes, flavonoids, alkaloids and benzofurans, some of which were identified and isolated in this study. The aim of this work was to test the effect of the essential oil (EO) and the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts (TpEtOH ) of T. patula on eggs and larvae of H. contortus, through an egg hatch test (EHT) and a larval development test (LDT). In the EHT, the EO showed 100% inhibition at 0.75 mg.mL-1 (LC50 = 0.0780 mg.mL-1 ), and the TpEtOH showed 100% inhibition at 100 mg.mL-1 (LC50 = 12.8 mg.mL-1 ). In the LDT, the EO showed 100% inhibition at 0.375 mg.mL-1 (LC50 = 0.0400 mg.mL-1 ), and the TpEtOH showed 100% inhibition at 1.56 mg mL-1 (LC50 = 0.340 mg.mL-1 ). Compared to available literature data, the results presented here suggest that the crude extracts of T. patula have substantial potential for controlling this nematode by interrupting its life cycle and/or preventing it from reaching the infective stage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. The ruminant parasite Haemonchus contortus expresses an alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase capable of synthesizing the Lewis x and sialyl Lewis x antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBose-Boyd, R A; Nyame, A K; Jasmer, D P; Cummings, R D

    1998-08-01

    Glycoproteins from the ruminant helminthic parasite Haemonchus contortus react with Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin and Wisteria floribunda agglutinin, which are plant lectins that recognize alpha1,3-fucosylated GlcNAc and terminal beta-GalNAc residues, respectively. However, parasite glycoconjugates are not reactive with Ricinus communis agglutinin, which binds to terminal beta-Gal, and the glycoconjugates lack the Lewis x (Le(x)) antigen or other related fucose-containing antigens, such as sialylated Le(x), Le(a), Le(b) Le(y), or H-type 1. Direct assays of parasite extracts demonstrate the presence of an alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase (alpha1,3FT) and beta1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (beta1,4GalNAcT), but not beta1,4-galactosyltransferase. The H. contortus alpha1,3FT can fucosylate GlcNAc residues in both lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) Galalpha1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->3Galbeta1-->4Glc to form lacto-N-fucopentaose III Galbeta1-->4[Fuca1-->3]GlcNAc beta1-->3Galbeta1-4GIc, which contains the Le(x) antigen, and the acceptor lacdiNAc (LDN) GalNAcbeta1-->4GlcNAc to form GalNAc beta1-->4[Fualpha1-->3]GlcNAc. The alpha1,3FT activity towards LNnT is dependent on time, protein, and GDP-Fuc concentration with a Km 50 microM and a Vmax of 10.8 nmol-mg(-1) h(-1). The enzyme is unusually resistant to inhibition by the sulfhydryl-modifying reagent N-ethylmaleimide. The alpha1,3FT acts best with type-2 glycan acceptors (Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-R) and can use both sialylated and non-sialylated acceptors. Thus, although in vitro the H. contortus alpha1,3FT can synthesize the Le(x) antigen, in vivo the enzyme may instead participate in synthesis of fucosylated LDN or related structures, as found in other helminths.

  4. [Use of FAMACHA Scoring System as a diagnostic aid for the registration of distinguishing marks in the breeding program for lambs exposed to an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauly, M; Schackert, M; Erhardt, G

    2004-11-01

    The control of gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep has almost entirely been based on the use of anthelmintics and pasture management. Therefore anthelmintic resistance escalated in the past. One way of reducing this problem may be the limitation of anthelmintic treatment to those animals with clinical symptoms only. The FAMACHA Eye-colour-chart is based on the principle knowledge that the colour of mucous membranes are correlated with the anaemiae situation of an animal. To monitor anaemic animals they are identified and classified in a 1 to 5-color scale based on the colour of the conjunctiva, and anaemic animals can be selectively treated. It helps to reduce treatments and therefore the development of drug resistance. The objective of this study was to estimate the correlation between FAMACHA-scores, haematocrit values, faecal egg counts, plasma albumin level and worm burden following an experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus in lambs. The estimated correlations have been low. This proofs the limits of the FAMACHA system under a situation of low parasite pressure.

  5. ANTHELMINTIC EFFECTS OF DRIED GROUND BANANA PLANT LEAVES (MUSA SPP.) FED TO SHEEP ARTIFICIALLY INFECTED WITH HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS AND TRICHOSTRONGYLUS COLUBRIFORMIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Lilian; Yoshihara, Eidi; Silva, Leandro Kataoaka Fernandes; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Ribeiro, Bruno Leonardo Mendonça; de Souza Meira, Enoch Brandão; Rossi, Rodolfo Santos; do Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini; Hasegawa, Marjorie Yumi

    2017-01-01

    Helminths is a endoparasites that cause the major losses for profitable sheep production in Brazil. The increased development of resistant strains of endoparasites have enforced the search for sustainable alternatives. The aim of this paper was to provide information about endoparasites control with banana leaves in infected sheep as alternative control strategies and see its viability. In this study, we performed two trials to investigate the anthelmintic properties of banana leaves on endoparasites in sheep. In Trial 1, twelve sheep were artificially infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis; in Trial 2, eleven sheep were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus. Clinical examinations, packed cell volume, total protein, faecal egg counts (FECs) and egg hatchability tests (EHTs) were performed. At the end of the trials, the sheep were humanely slaughtered, and total worm counts were performed. In Trial 1 and 2, no significant FEC decreases were note but significant diference in EHTs were observed. Total worm counts, clinical and haematological parameters did not reveal significant changes between the treatment and control groups. These results suggest that feeding dried ground banana plant leaves to sheep may reduce the viability of Trichostrongylus colubriformis eggs, and this anthelmintic activity is potentially exploitable as part of an integrated parasite management programme. However, further investigation is needed to establish the optimal dosage, develop a convenient delivery form and confirm the economic feasibility of using banana plantation byproducts as feed for ruminant species. Abbreviations: Coproculture test (CT)., Faecal egg count (FEC)., Egg hatchability test (EHT).

  6. Blood parameters of sheep with high infection of Haemonchus contortus and treated with “mushroom of the sun” (Agaricus blazei

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    Gabriela Almeida Bastos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood and parasitological parameters of sheep experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and treated with “mushroom of the sun” (Agaricus blazei were assessed. Lambs infected with the nematode were divided into three groups: treated with basidiocarp powder from the fungus, wormed with trichlorfon, and a control group that did not receive anthelmintic. Split-plot design analysis was performed where the treatments were defined as plots and four periods of collection were defined as subplots. Interaction between the treatments and the collection periods for the fecal egg counts per gram of feces (FEC was observed. Treatment with “mushroom of the sun” showed anthelmintic efficacies ranging from 28.6 to 54.2%. Similar performances to weight gain were observed among the groups. A significant interaction between treatments and evaluation periods was observed for erythrocyte counts, hematocrit value, and serum concentrations of albumin and urea. The values of the mean corpuscular volume, erythrocyte distribution width, and leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts, as well as the mean platelet volume, varied among the collection days. The administration of “mushroom of the sun” significantly reduced the FEC, did not influence on the erythrocyte count and hematocrit value, which remained within normal limits. However it increased the serum concentrations of albumin.

  7. A suite of genes expressed during transition to parasitic lifestyle in the trichostrongylid nematode Haemonchus contortus encode potentially secreted proteins conserved in Teladorsagia circumcincta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy-Normand, Alexia; Cortet, Jacques; Cabaret, Jacques; Neveu, Cédric

    2010-11-24

    The control of gastro-intestinal nematodes remains largely based on anthelminthic treatments, however spreading of anthelmintic resistance has reduced their efficacy. The genes involved in the transition to parasitic lifestyle could constitute targets of interest to develop alternative control strategies. In the trichostrongylid nematode Haemonchus contortus, we have used a SSH (Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization) based approach to generate two distinct subtracted cDNA libraries specifically enriched in cDNA expressed during the early parasitic fourth stage larvae L4 (5 days post-infection). A total of 200 clones were subjected to dot-blot experiments and 46 clones were selected for further characterization. The 46 corresponding expressed sequence tags (EST) were found to cluster into nine contigs. The corresponding full-length cDNA was obtained for all candidates. The genes encoding potentially secreted proteins were investigated in more detail. RT-PCR experiments confirmed their specific expression or over expression from the early L4 larvae to the adult stages and search for homologs in the trichostrongylid species T. circumcincta was performed in order to investigate whether they may be novel cross-specific targets. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A tissue specific approach for analysis of membrane and secreted protein antigens from Haemonchus contortus gut and its application to diverse nematode species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, A; Jasmer, D P

    1998-11-30

    General methods to conduct tissue specific analysis are largely lacking for nematodes. An approach is described that focused on isolation of membrane and secreted protein genes from the gut of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. The approach capitalized on a monoclonal antibody that recognizes multiple membrane and secreted worm proteins. Polyclonal antisera made against these proteins were used to screen expression cDNA libraries made either from adult worm gut or whole worm. The genes identified encode predicted or known membrane and secreted proteins from gut, including a cysteine protease, a zinc metallopeptidase and a previously described GA1 protein. Another gene, Hc40, was isolated from the whole worm cDNA library and is nearly identical to a vaccine patent sequence pBTA879. Tissue analysis demonstrated the intended focus on membrane and secreted proteins from parasite gut was achieved. Proteins related to each of those described were identified from other nematode species through data base analysis. Additionally, this analysis led to (1) identification of homologues of each gene in C. elegans; (2) deduction of a dimorphic structure in the Hc40 protein; (3) recognition of both monomorphic and dimorphic families of Hc40-related proteins; and (4) detection of two apparent classes of transcripts (mep1a and mep1b) that would each encode a divergent version of the putative zinc metallopeptidase MEP1. The tissue specific approach and information base described should generally contribute to investigations on nutrient digestion and related secretory processes in nematode gut.

  9. In vitro analysis of the anthelmintic activity of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) sesquiterpene lactones against a predominantly Haemonchus contortus egg population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joyce G; Cassida, Kimberly A; Turner, Kenneth E

    2011-08-25

    The anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) herbage has been attributed to sesquiterpene lactones. Chicory leaves contain significant amounts of lactucin (LAC), 8-deoxylactucin (DOL), and lactucopicrin (LPIC), but the proportions of these three sesquiterpene lactones vary among forage chicory cultivars. To determine whether the individual compounds differ in anthelmintic activity, we prepared sesquiterpene lactone-enriched extracts from leaves of two forage chicory cultivars, 'Grasslands Puna' (Puna) and 'Forage Feast', and tested their effects on the hatching of a predominantly Haemonchus contortus egg population. The dominant constituents in the Puna and Forage Feast extracts were DOL and LAC, respectively; LPIC concentrations in the two extracts were similar. Extracts from both cultivars inhibited egg hatching at all concentrations tested (Psesquiterpene lactone concentrations increased from 0 to 6.7 mg/ml. Treatment with higher concentrations resulted in a sharp decline in egg hatchability. Concentrations of sesquiterpene lactones required for 50% lethality were determined by probit dose-effect analysis to be 2.6 mg/ml (95% confidence interval: 2.4-2.8 mg/ml) for the Puna extract and 6.4 mg/ml (95% confidence interval: 5.9-7.2mg/ml) for the Forage Feast extract (Psesquiterpene lactones in chicory leaf extracts suggest that Puna may be a better cultivar than Forage Feast for use in bioactive pastures for gastrointestinal parasite control in small ruminants. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Efficacy of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) pellets against multi resistant Haemonchus contortus and interaction with oral ivermectin: Implications for on-farm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Elodie; Simon, Margaux; Quijada, Jessica; Schelcher, François; Sutra, Jean-François; Lespine, Anne; Hoste, Hervé

    2016-08-30

    The worldwide spread of resistance to anthelmintic (AH) drugs in gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) imposes to explore alternative solutions. Amongst those, the possible use of tannin-containing nutraceuticals appears as a relevant option to replace (or decrease the frequency of) chemical-based treatments. Our objectives were to test the AH efficacy of sainfoin pellets against a multiresistant strain of Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected lambs and to examine possible interaction between ivermectin (IVM) and condensed tannins (CT)-rich ressource. In vivo study was performed with twenty-four lambs were inoculated (Day 0) with multiresistant H. contortus infective larvae. On D21 Post-Infection, the lambs were assigned to two dietary treatments (sainfoin vs lucerne control pellets). On D39, half of the animals per group received 0.25ml/kg of an oral ivermectin treatment. On D47, animals were slaughtered to count worms. The consumption of sainfoin was associated with higher packed cell volume (PCV) values (P<0.05) and reduced faecal egg counts (FECs) (P<0.05). For the experimental feeding period, FECs were overall reduced by 50% in the sainfoin group. The diet did not have significant effect on the worm number but sainfoin significantly reduced female fertility. Decrease in plasma IVM concentrations was observed in the sainfoin-fed animals and was associated with a decrease of IVM efficiency when compared with the control group. Incubating tannin in vitro with ivermectin and rumen fluid showed a blocking of ivermectin by the tannins. This suggests that tannins lower the IVM intestinal absorption compromising thereby drug plasma bioavailability and efficacy. Tannin-containing nutraceuticals alter the biology of multiresistant nematodes, thus representing an option for their sustainable control. In vivo and in vitro interactions between nutraceuticals and chemicals impose caution when both tannin-rich diet and drug-based treatments are combined. Further

  11. Benzimidazole -Resistance in Haemonchus Contortus: New PCR-RFLP Method for the Detection of Point Mutation at Codon 167 of Isotype 1 Β-Tubulin Gene

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    A Eslami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the lack of a suitable and economic test for the analysis of the polymorphism at codon 167, we developed a new PCR-RFLP technique, based on a modified forward primer (UT-HC167 MF-primer, to identify simultaneously the SNPs at codons 167 and 200 of isotype 1 β-tubu­lin gene of Haemonchus contortus.Methods: There already are several safe and easy methods for identification of point mutations at codons 198 and 200. Due to the lack of a reliable and easy method for the detection of the single nucleo­tide polymorphism (SNP at codon 167, we developed an innovative PCR-RFLP technique based on a modified forward primer (UT-HC167 MF-primer, in which the nucleotide T at the posi­tion 443 was substituted through a nucleotide A creating a restriction site for restriction endonuc­lease SnaB I in the nucleotide sequences including codon 167. A total of 138 adult male H. contortus were collected from three different geo-climatic areas of Iran. The isolated genomic DNA of each single worm was amplified by PCR using primers flanking codon 167. The PCR product (527 bp was then amplified by semi-nested PCR using the UT-HC167 MF-primer and the reverse primer achiev­ing a PCR product of 451 bp in length. This PCR product was subsequently digested with the restriction endonucleases SnaB I and TaaI for analysis of the mutations at codons 167 and 200, respec­tively.Results: All worms had two alleles encoding for phenylalanine (BZss homozygote for both codons.Conclusion: Using the UT-HC167 MF-primer and a suitable reverse primer designed upstream from codon 200, it is possible to amplify a PCR product which can be used for analysis of the SNPs at all three mentioned codons using RFLP.

  12. Anthelmintic-resistant strains of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis isolated from an organic sheep and goat farm in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thansborg, Stig M.

    2013-01-01

    A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance (AR) was investigated in an organic dairy sheep and goat farm. The herd was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from a number of other farms. Selection for the study was based on history of anthelmintic-treatment failure. Forty-eight lambs and 48...... %. This is the first isolation of BZ-resistant H. contortus and T. colubriformis in Denmark and highlights the need for continuous surveillance of AR in conventional and organic farms.......A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance (AR) was investigated in an organic dairy sheep and goat farm. The herd was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from a number of other farms. Selection for the study was based on history of anthelmintic-treatment failure. Forty-eight lambs and 48...

  13. Método FAMACHA para detectar anemia clínica causada por Haemonchus contortus em cordeiros lactentes e ovelhas em lactação

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    Maria Angela M. Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O controle das endoparasitoses gastrintestinais em pequenos ruminantes tem sido tradicionalmente realizado por meio do uso indiscriminado dos anti-helmínticos, porém essa prática tem resultado em grande pressão de seleção de parasitas resistentes. Métodos seletivos (ex: FAMACHA/FMC e contagem de ovos nas fezes/OPG e que apresentem boa sensibilidade para identificar os animais que necessitam receber o tratamento químico são importantes alternativas aos métodos tradicionais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar a sensibilidade e a especificidade do método FMC, usado para detectar anemia causada por Haemonchus contortus em ovinos da raça Suffolk, em duas categorias de alta suscetibilidade; cordeiros lactentes e ovelhas durante a fase de lactação. A conjuntiva ocular de 42 cordeiros lactentes e 35 ovelhas em lactação foi avaliada usando o método FMC, em intervalos de 14 dias, durante cinco meses. O hematócrito (Ht foi utilizado como padrão-ouro para avaliação clínica de anemia dos animais. Para o cálculo de sensibilidade e especificidade, diferentes critérios foram utilizados: animais classificados como 4 e 5 ou 3, 4 e 5 e anêmicos pelo Ht (teste positivo; animais classificados como 1, 2 e 3 ou 1 e 2 e não anêmicos pelo Ht (teste negativo. Três valores de corte para Ht (≤22%, ≤19% ou ≤15% foram utilizados para confirmar a anemia. Entre os gêneros observados nas coproculturas, H. contortus (61,5% e Ostertagiasp (21,3% foram os mais prevalentes. Em ambas as categorias, a inclusão do FMC 3 como teste positivo, elevou a sensibilidade mas reduziu a especificidade do método. Quando o FMC 3 foi considerado anêmico, o percentual de falsos negativos foi próximo a zero, no entanto, houve aumento no número de tratamentos aplicados em animais não anêmicos (falso positivo. Durante as avaliações, a maior parte dos cordeiros (73% e das ovelhas (53% permaneceu nas categorias de FMC 1 e 2. Apenas 5% dos

  14. Nitrogen and mineral balance of lambs artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus and fed tanniferous sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharenberg, A; Heckendorn, F; Arrigo, Y; Hertzberg, H; Gutzwiller, A; Hess, H D; Kreuzer, M; Dohme, F

    2008-08-01

    Tanniferous temperate legumes are assumed to possess anthelmintic properties, but it is unclear whether this is the direct result of condensed tannins (CT) or is mediated indirectly via an improved metabolic protein supply. A metabolism experiment was conducted to differentiate between these factors by feeding the CT plant sainfoin (19.7% CP in DM) to lambs infected with the abomasal blood-sucking nematode Hemonchus contortus. A total of 18 infected lambs were fed sainfoin either untreated or treated with polyethylene glycol, a CT-inactivating agent, or a grass-clover mixture (13.2% CP in DM) over 3 wk (n = 6). Six uninfected lambs received the grass-clover mixture as a control. In addition to indicators of infection (fecal egg count, packed-cell volume, abomasal worm burden, and serum protein), nutrient digestibility, the balance of N and selected minerals, ruminal fluid characteristics, and plasma AA levels were determined mostly in the final experimental week. The specific effects of the sainfoin CT, the extra CP with sainfoin, and the infection were statistically evaluated by contrast analysis. The sainfoin CT exerted no beneficial effects on resilience to nematode infection and exerted only minor effects on ruminal ammonia or blood urea concentrations and the excretory pattern of N. Plasma alanine, aspartate, and proline concentrations tended to be greater (P < or = 0.09) because of the sainfoin CT, whereas the other AA remained unaffected. Intake of the mineral supplement was lower (P < 0.001) for lambs fed sainfoin compared with those fed sainfoin treated with polyethylene glycol. Feeding the high-protein sainfoin instead of the grass-clover mixture increased (P < 0.001) N retention and apparent OM digestibility, whereas digestibility of NDF and ADF were decreased (P < 0.001). Feeding sainfoin also decreased (P < or = 0.04) plasma alanine, glycine, isoleucine, and total nonessential AA compared with the grass-clover mixture. Although fecal egg count, worm

  15. Intestinal DNases of 36 and 38.5kDa from the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus have non-classic DNase characteristics and produce DNA fragments with 3'-hydroxyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dongmi; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2004-01-01

    Treatment with the anthelmintic fenbendazole induces fragmentation of genomic DNA in intestinal cells of Haemonchus contortus. This effect is characterized by DNA fragments with 3'-hydroxyls (OH). Investigation into DNases responsible identified intestinal DNase activities that produce DNA fragments with 3'-OH. However, this interpretation was complicated by a mixture of activities in the intestinal fractions evaluated. In addition, intestinal activities displayed non-classic characteristics. Here it is shown that heparin sulfate (HS) fractionation enriched for intestinal DNases that produce 3'-OH. The 2.0M NaCl fraction of HS contained DNase activity that produced 3'-OH with minimal contamination by activity that produced 3'-phosphates (P). 3'-OH were produced under acidic (pH 5.0) or neutral (pH 7.0) conditions by DNases in this fraction. These DNases were sensitive to EDTA under each condition. Furthermore, EDTA-sensitive DNase activity in this fraction digested H. contortus intestinal cell nuclear DNA in histological sections, producing 3'-OH under acidic and neutral conditions. DNases at 36 and 38.5kDa in this fraction each produced 3'-OH at pH 5.0 when gel eluted, and each activity was sensitive to EDTA. Hence, the 36 and 38.5kDa DNases in the 2.0M NaCl HS intestinal fraction have characteristics expected for candidate DNases that mediate DF in H. contortus intestinal cell nuclei induced by fenbendazole. DNase activity that produces 3'-OH under acidic condition with sensitivity to EDTA is unconventional for classic acidic or neutral DNases and is a unique finding for nematodes. Excretory/secretory products from the worm and whole worm lysates were also explored as sources to fractionate intestinal DNases identified. HS fractionation of those worm samples did not clearly resolve the intestinal DNases of interest, although DNases with distinct characteristics were identified in each source.

  16. VERIFICAÇÃO DO ÍNDICE DE HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS NO REBANHO CAPRINO DO MUNICÍPIO DE TIMON, MARANHÃO, PELO USO DO MÉTODO FAMACHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Nunes Neto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O Nordeste brasileiro durante séculos tem sido destaque como área de vocação para a exploração de caprinos. Em todo o mundo, as verminoses são os principais fatores limitantes da produção pecuária. Objetivouse verificar índice de Haemonchus contortus em rebanhos caprinos do município de Timon no Estado do Maranhão, utilizando o método Famacha. O material foi coletado em 13 povoados, onde foram visitadas 28 propriedades, escolhidas de forma aleatória. Foram escolhidos 10% do total do rebanho de cada propriedade visitada, totalizando 80 animais. Para avaliação dos resultados, os dados coletados foram inseridos em planilhas eletrônicas e, com aplicação de médias e geração de gráficos, pôde se avaliar a incidência de verminose no rebanho caprino. Os maiores índices de infecção foram observados em animais acima de seis meses de idade. Dos animais submetidos à análise do método Famacha 11,2% encontravam-se na categoria um, 16,2% estavam na categoria dois, 36,2% na categoria três, 17,5% na categoria quatro e 18,7% na categoria cinco. Conclui-se que a maioria dos criadores de caprinos do município de Timon-MA, quanto à vermifugação, não levam em consideração os períodos chuvosos e desconhecem o método Famacha. Os dados apresentados demonstram que o método Famacha é eficiente como alternativa no controle parasitário quando existe alta prevalência do parasita Haemonchus contortus.

  17. In vitro levamisole selection pressure on larval stages of Haemonchus contortus over nine generations gives rise to drug resistance and target site gene expression changes specific to the early larval stages only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarai, Ranbir S; Kopp, Steven R; Knox, Malcolm R; Coleman, Glen T; Kotze, Andrew C

    2015-06-30

    There is some evidence that resistance to levamisole and pyrantel in trichostrongylid nematodes is due to changes in the composition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) which represent the drug target site. Altered expression patterns of genes coding for nAChR subunits, as well as the presence of truncated versions of several subunits, have been implicated in observed resistances. The studies have mostly compared target sites in worm isolates of very different genetic background, and hence the ability to associate the molecular changes with drug sensitivity alone have been clouded to some extent. The present study aimed to circumvent this issue by following target site gene expression pattern changes as resistance developed in Haemonchus contortus worms under laboratory selection pressure with levamisole. We applied drug selection pressure to early stage larvae in vitro over nine generations, and monitored changes in larval and adult drug sensitivities and target site gene expression patterns. High level resistance developed in larvae, with resistance factors of 94-fold and 1350-fold at the IC50 and IC95, respectively, in larval development assays after nine generations of selection. There was some cross-resistance to bephenium (70-fold increase in IC95). The expression of all the putative subunit components of levamisole-sensitive nAChRs, as well as a number of ancillary protein genes, particularly Hco-unc-29.1 and -ric-3, were significantly decreased (up to 5.5-fold) in the resistant larvae at generation nine compared to the starting population. However, adult worms did not show any resistance to levamisole, and showed an inverse pattern of gene expression changes, with many target site genes showing increased expression compared to the starting population. A comparison of the larval/adult drug sensitivity data with the known relationships for field-derived isolates indicated that the adults of our selected population should have been highly resistant

  18. Motility in the L3 stage is a poor phenotype for detecting and measuring resistance to avermectin/milbemycin drugs in gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Melissa M; Lopez-Soberal, Lorraine; Storey, Bob E; Howell, Sue B; Kaplan, Ray M

    2017-12-18

    Motility is a commonly used in vitro phenotype for assessing anthelmintic activity of candidate compounds, and for detecting anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. Third-stage larvae (L3) of parasitic nematodes are commonly used in motility-based assays because L3 are simple to obtain and can remain viable in storage for extended periods. To improve the measurement of motility of microscopic stages of nematodes, our laboratory developed the Worminator, which quantitatively measures motility of parasites. Using the Worminator, we compared the dose-response characteristics of several avermectin/milbemycin (AM) compounds using L3 from both AM-susceptible and AM-resistant Cooperia spp. (abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin) and Haemonchus contortus (eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin). Concentrations tested with the Worminator ranged from 0.156 to 40 μM. Differences in EC50 between AM-susceptible and AM-resistant isolates of Cooperia spp. and Haemonchus contortus were small, with resistance ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.34 for Cooperia spp., 0.99 to 1.65 for Haemonchus contortus. Larval migration inhibition assays were conducted using the same isolates and were equally ineffective for detection of resistance with resistance ratios less than 2.0. These results contrast with those of the Larval Development Assay where we obtained a resistance ratio of 16.48 using the same isolates of Haemonchus contortus. Moreover, even at the highest concentration tested (40 μM), 100% inhibition of motility was never achieved and EC50 for Worminator assays were more than 100× higher than peak plasma levels achieved in vivo following treatment. These data demonstrate that dose-response characteristics for inhibition of motility in L3 of gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock do not significantly differ for AM-susceptible and AM-resistant isolates. These data challenge the suitability of motility as a phenotype for detecting and measuring resistance to AM

  19. A Biological Study of Larvae and Adult Hemonchus contortus in Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuswandi Yuswandi

    2015-11-01

    experimental animal in vivo. Before the goat necropsied, the diagnosis of H. contortus egg was done every two day post infection and started two weeks after infection. The data was analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the capability of the egg development of the worm to the L3 stadium was 0,33%, the capability of the L3 development to adult was 32,42%, and the prepaten period of H. contortus was 21 days.

  20. Why is it important to correctly identify Haemonchus species? Por que é importante a identificação correta das espécies de Haemonchus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Francisco Talamini do Amarante

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by Haemonchus spp. is a major cause of economic losses in the livestock industry because it impairs weight gain and increases mortality in cattle and small ruminants, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. The proper identification of the various species, as well as knowledge regarding the epidemiology of parasitic gastroenteritis, is essential for the establishment of sustainable strategies of parasite control. This review focuses on the use of easily applied, low-cost parasitological methods of identifying Haemonchus species on the basis of their morphology. In most studies carried out in Brazil, the distinctions between Haemonchus contortus and Haemonchus placei have not been considered. Many reports of H. contortus, particularly in cattle, might actually represent H. placei. The appropriate identification of species is therefore indispensable. In addition to the measurement of male spicules, new morphological characteristics, such as the synlophe, should be evaluated in order to differentiate between and among species. Measurements of infective larvae in fecal cultures can also indicate the identity of Haemonchus species. This approach can be quite useful in studies that do not involve animal sacrifice, such as studies of anthelmintic resistance based on the fecal egg count reduction test.Infecções por Haemonchus spp. são uma das principais causas de perda econômica nas criações de ruminantes devido à redução no ganho de peso e mortalidade de bovinos e pequenos ruminantes, especialmente em regiões com clima tropical e subtropical. A identificação precisa das diferentes espécies, bem como o conhecimento sobre a epidemiologia das gastroenterites parasitárias, são fundamentais para a elaboração de estratégias sustentáveis de profilaxia das parasitoses. Essa revisão tem por objetivo central, abordar os principais métodos parasitológicos utilizados na identificação morfológica das

  1. PARÂMETROS IMUNOPARASITOLÓGICOS DE CORDEIROS NATURALMENTE INFECTADOS POR Haemonchus spp., Teladorsagia spp. E Trichostrongylus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Toscan

    2016-01-01

    No contexto produtivo da ovinocultura atual, o controle da infecção parasitária estabelece um desafio constante aos produtores, isso porque os parasitas gastrointestinais apresentam altas prevalências nos rebanhos, possuem elevada patogenicidade e frequentes resistências aos produtos antiparasitários. As infecções parasitárias em ovinos caracterizam-se por ocorrer simultaneamente por vários gêneros de nematódeos, no entanto, Haemonchus contortus é considerado o principal parasita gastrointest...

  2. A novel snapback primer probe assay for the detection and discrimination of sympatric Haemonchus species using DNA melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Rudolf; Silbermayr, Katja; Periasamy, Kathiravan

    2017-04-15

    Different sympatric species of Haemonchus parasites infecting ruminants and camels can be distinguished morphologically, but involves tedious microscopic examinations, measurements and several other limitations. Information on internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2) sequence provides confirmatory differentiation of sympatric Haemonchus species. The present study introduces a novel, snapback primer probe based, real time PCR assay for the differentiation of three sympatric Haemonchus species, H. contortus (Hco), H. placei (Hpl) and H. longistipes (Hlo). The assay was designed to amplify a region of 130bp within the ITS-2 gene that included three diagnostic mutational sites capable of discriminating Hco, Hpl and Hlo. Following melt curve analysis, species-specific diagnostic melt peaks were obtained for Hco, Hpl and Hlo with a mean melting temperature of 56.6±0.3°C, 64.4±0.1°C and 54.4±0.1°C respectively. The test for analytical sensitivity revealed the ability of the assay to detect up to 5 copies per reaction. To evaluate the discriminating power of the assay, 174 samples from adult worms and 3rd stage larvae belonging to different Haemonchus species and various other nematode species including Cooperia curticei, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, and Teladorsagia circumcincta were tested. Additionally, DNA extracted from 25 fecal egg samples was also tested and the specificity of the assay was verified by sequencing the ITS-2 gene of all the Haemonchus positive and non-Haemonchus samples. The assay worked accurately with 100% specificity in at least three real time PCR platforms. The assay is an effective alternative to the sequencing approach and is expected to be helpful for the screening of individual adult and larval Haemonchus parasites. However, caution needs to be applied while interpreting the results from fecal egg samples due to varying levels of sympatric co-infections from different Haemonchus species. The present study is the

  3. Evolution and biogeography of Haemonchus contortus, linking faunal dynamics in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    History is the foundation that informs about the nuances of faunal assembly that are essential in understanding the dynamic nature of the host-parasite interface. All of our knowledge begins and ends with evolution, ecology and biogeography as these interacting facets determine the history of biodi...

  4. Lectin, hemolysin and protease inhibitors in seed fractions with ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hévila Oliveira Salles

    Full Text Available Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (0.05, Bonferroni test. Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties.

  5. Synergistic inhibition of Haemonchus contortus exsheathment by flavonoid monomers and condensed tannins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klongsiriwet, Chaweewan; Quijada, Jessica; Williams, Andrew Richard

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the separate and combined anthelmintic (AH) effects of different phenolic compounds, including condensed tannins and flavonoids, all of which are known to occur in willow leaves, a potentially valuable dry season feed. A range of contrasting model tannins, which span...... the whole range of willow tannins, were isolated from tilia flowers, goat willow leaves, black currant leaves and red currant leaves. All together, the tested compounds represented the major tannin types (procyanidins and prodelphinidins) and flavonoid types (flavonols, flavones and flavanones). The larval...... to be less active than prodelphinidin tannins (PD). Experiments with combinations of tannins and quercetin or luteolin revealed for the first time the existence of synergistic AH effects between tannins and flavonoid monomers. They also provided evidence that synergistic effects appear to occur at slightly...

  6. Synergistic interaction of ten essential oils against Haemonchus contortus in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthelmintic resistance in sheep gastrointestinal nematodes is a worldwide problem. Multi-drug resistant haemonchosis is the most serious impediment for small ruminant systems, and there are no new drug candidates currently under development. Molecules from natural sources have demonstrated anthelmi...

  7. Dose titration of sericea lespedeza leaf meal on Haemonchus contortus infection in lambs and kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of three experiments was to determine the impact of supplementing sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata; SL) in three concentrations in a loose or pelleted diet on gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in small ruminants. Experiments on lambs were conducted at the USDA, Agricultural Research...

  8. In vitro larvicidal effects of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa Linn. on Haemonchus larval stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norisal Binti Nasai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Gastrointestinal helminthosis is a global problem in small ruminant production. Most parasites have developed resistance to commonly available anthelminthic compounds, and there is currently an increasing need for new compounds with more efficacies. This study evaluated the in vitro effects of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa (EECL as a biological nematicide against third stage Haemonchus larvae (L3 isolated from sheep. Materials and Methods: Haemonchus L3 were cultured and harvested from the feces of naturally infected sheep. EECL was prepared and three concentrations; 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL were tested for their efficacies on Haemonchus L3. Levamisole at concentration 1.5 and 3 mg/mL were used as positive controls. Results: EECL showed anthelmintic activity in a dose-dependent manner with 78% worm mortality within 24 h of exposure at the highest dose rate of 200 mg/mL. There was a 100% worm mortality rate after 2 h of levamisole (3 mg/mL admisntration. However, there was a comparable larvicidal effect between when levamisole (1.5 mg/mL and EECL (200 mg were administered. Conclusion: The study shows that EECL does exhibit good anthelmintic properties at 200 mg/mL which is comparable with levamisole at 1.5 mg/mL.

  9. Interaction between Trypanosoma brucei and Haemonchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate the immunomodulatory influence of concurrent T. brucei and H. contortus infection in West African Dwarf (WAD) goats, 28 infected and 7 uninfected (control) of 8-9 months old male WAD goats were studied. The infected goats were separated into resistant (Class 1) and susceptible (Class 2) Faecal ...

  10. L3 + Cosmics Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %RE4 %title\\\\ \\\\The L3+C experiment takes advantage of the unique properties of the L3 muon spectrometer to get an accurate measurement of cosmic ray muons 30 m underground. A new muon trigger, readout and DAQ system have been installed, as well as a scintillator array covering the upper surfaces of the L3 magnet for timing purposes. The acceptance amounts to 200 $m^2 sr$. The data are collected independently in parallel with L3 running. In spring 2000 a scintillator array will be installed on the roof of the SX hall in order to estimate the primary energy of air showers associated with events observed in L3+C.\\\\ \\\\The cosmic ray muon momentum spectrum, the zenith angular dependence and the charge ratio are measured with high accuracy between 20 and 2000 GeV/c. The results will provide new information about the primary composition, the shower development in the atmosphere, and the inclusive pion and kaon (production-) cross sections (specifically the "$\\pi$/K ratio") at high energies. These data will also hel...

  11. In-vitro antihelmintic effects of two Kenyan plant extracts against Heamonchus contortus adult worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gachoki Kareru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was on evidence based information that Entada leptostachya Harms and Rapanea rhododendroides (Gil Mez were used by the herbalists in Mbeere County, Kenya, for the treatment of gastrointestinal worms. The plants’ aqueous and solvent extracts were tested for their in-vitro antihelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus adult worms. Of the eight plant extracts investigated, four extracts exhibited adult worm mortality greater than 50% while the other four afforded mortality ranging between 60-77%. E. leptostachya methanol extract was the most active (77%. Albendazole was used as a positive control drug while Goodwin’s physiological solution was used as negative control. Methanol extracts for both plants exhibited the highest anthelmintic activity at the test concentrations of 25mg/ml. Although R. rhododendroides was ranked third in general usage by the herbalists, E. leptostachya was solely used for the treatment of intestinal worms. The present results demonstrated that E. leptostachya and R. rhododendroides plant extracts had antihelmintic agents, and justified their traditional use as alternative drugs for the treatment of heamonchosis in ruminants.

  12. L3 Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Falagan bobillo, M A; Chen, E F A; Prokofiev, D; Prokofiev, D; Shvorab, A; Galaktionov, Y; Kopal, M; Cotorobai, F; Le goff, J; Tully, C; Van hoek, W; Nozik, V Z; Nessi-tedaldi, F; De la cruz, B; Wadhwa, M; Chtcheguelski, V; Anderhub, H B; Guo, Y; Garcia-abia, P; Piroue, P; Della marina, R; Cerrada, M; Gailloud, M; Xia, L; Chaturvedi, U K; Pistolesi, E; Zhang, S

    2002-01-01

    % L3 \\\\ \\\\ The detector consists of a large volume low field solenoid magnet, a small central tracking system with very high spatial resolution, a high resolution electromagnetic calorimeter encapsulating the central detector, a hadron calorimeter acting also as a muon filter, and high precision muon tracking chambers. \\\\ \\\\The detector is designed to measure energy and position of leptons with the highest obtainable precision allowing a mass resolution $\\Delta$m/m smaller than 2\\% in dilepton final states. Hadronic energy flux is detected by a fine-grained calorimeter, which also serves as muon filter and tracking device. \\\\ \\\\The outer boundary of the detector is given by the iron return-yoke of a conventional magnet, using aluminium plates for the coil. The field is 0.5~T over a length of 12~m. This large volume allows a high precision muon momentum measurement, performed by three sets of drift chambers in the central detector region. From the multiple measurement of the coordinate in the bending plane a m...

  13. Binding of hematin by a nem class of glutathione transferase from the blood-feeding parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, A.J.; Jefferies, J.R.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; LaCourse, E.J.; Teesdale, P.; Barrett, J.; Tait, A.; Brophy, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The phase II detoxification system glutathione transferase (GST) is associated with the establishment of parasitic nematode infections within the gastrointestinal environment of the mammalian host. We report the functional analysis of a GST from an important worldwide parasitic nematode of small

  14. Anthelmintic activity of Saba senegalensis (A.DC. Pichon (Apocynaceae extract against adult worms and eggs of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bonewendé Belemlilga

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: These results indicate that the aqueous extract of S. senegalensis possesses an anthelmintic property and may justify its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal parasites.

  15. The L3 radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlen, S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Goldstein, J. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Marin, A. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Xu, J. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Zhou, B. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Capell, M. [CERN/PPE, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Wu, S. [CERN/PPE, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    1996-01-21

    A radiation monitoring system for the L3 experiment at the Large Electron Positron (LEP) collider is described. This system was installed in the L3 detector in April 1993. It provides information on the instantaneous and integrated radiation dose in the vicinity of the L3 silicon microvertex detector and time expansion chamber, and since April 1994 it has also provided trigger signals for the LEP beam dump in the case of large instantaneous dose rates in the L3 central tracking region. (orig.).

  16. In vitro evaluation of nematophagous fungi patogenicity against nematode of domestic animals/
    Avaliação in vitro da patogenicidade de fungos predadores de nematóides parasitos de animais domésticos

    OpenAIRE

    Alvimar José da Costa; Giane Serafim da Silva; Regina Célia Cândido; Jaime Maia dos Santos; Arlete Silveira Maia; Érika Barbosa Neves Graminha

    2001-01-01

    Biological control is a promising alternative for the control of pre-parasitic stages through the action of nematophagous fungi’s. The present study evaluated in vitro the patogenicity of both Arthrobotrys musiformis and A. conoides fungi on “infective larvae (or L3 state larvae)” of Haemonchus contortus, L3 larvae of Ancylostoma spp. And larvated eggs of the nematode Ascaridia galli. Nine groups were formed: six treated groups (G1A and G2A: L3 of H. contortus; G1B and G2B: L3 of Ancylostoma ...

  17. L3+C air shower array

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Photo 01: a view of the L3+C air shower array; 50 scintillators on the roof of the SX-hall above L3. Photo 02: view of one of the detectors of the array.Photo 04: detectors seen against the background of the LEP Point 2 facilities.

  18. Cutting the L3 torque tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    Workers cut the torque tube, with a plasma-cutting device on the L3 experiment, which closed with the LEP accelerator in 2000. L3 was housed in a huge red solenoid, which will be taken over by the ALICE detector when the new LHC is completed.

  19. A Comparative Study of Single Helminths and Concurrent Helminths ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The larvae isolated from those concurrently infected were mainly Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubrioformis, Oesophagostamum columbianum, Cooperia sp and Strongyloides pappilosus while those singly infected harboured mainly Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubrioformis and Strongyloides ...

  20. Método Famacha como parâmetro clínico individual de infecção por Haemonchus contortus em pequenos ruminantes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Tasca, Cláudio; Gallo, Alencar; Ferreira, Márcio; Bononi, Ronaldo; Stecca, Evandro

    2004-01-01

    ... de hematócrito e ovos por grama de fezes (OPG). Ao término do experimento, foi determinada uma considerável redução (75,6%) na utilização de medicação antiparasitária nos ovinos, quando comparado com o controle...

  1. In vitro analysis of the anthelmintic activity of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) sesquiterpene lactones against a predominatly Haemonchus contortus egg population

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) herbage has been attributed to sesquiterpene lactones. Chicory leaves contain significant amounts of lactucin (LAC), 8-deoxylactucin (DOL), and lactucopicrin (LPIC), but the proportions of these three sesquiterpene lactones vary among fora...

  2. FAMACHA(©) scores history of sheep characterized as resistant/resilient or susceptible to H. contortus in artificial infection challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J F S; Mendes, J B; De Jong, G; Maia, D; Teixeira, V N; Passerino, A S; Garza, J J; Sotomaior, C S

    2016-03-15

    With the aim of validating the FAMACHA(©) as a method for phenotypic selection of sheep resistant/resilient to gastrointestinal nematodes, 27 Suffolk ewes with known FAMACHA(©) score histories were experimentally infected with 25,000 larvae of Haemonchus contortus. From the day of infection (day 0) to 60 days post-infection, at intervals of 7-15 days, ewes were evaluated for packed cell volume (PCV) and fecal egg counts (FEC). A statistically significant increase (pFAMACHA(©) scores from the 27 ewes showed that 58.33% of the ewes classified as RR and 46.67% of the S group had a history of only F1 and F2 scores. In the RR group, only one animal (8.33%) had an F4 score, occurring one time out of the 61 evaluations of this ewe. In contrast, 40.0% of S group ewes had F4 and/or F5 scores. During the period of FAMACHA(©) score history that was evaluated, 69.56% of the total number of anthelmintic treatments in the flock were administered to ewes from group S. Since ewes with F4 and/or F5 scores during the FAMACHA(©) score time period were classified as susceptible during the experimental infection (with the exception of one ewe), we conclude that the FAMACHA(©) score history is a useful tool for the selection of ewes that are resistant/resilient, as well as for the identification of susceptible animals that should be culled. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. L3 experiment dismantling at LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    The last muon chamber is removed from the L3 experiment at the LEP collider, which was in operation from 1989 to 2000. The large red magnet yoke will be reused by the ALICE experiment when the LHC is constructed.

  4. $K_{l3}$ transition form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, C R; Ji, Chueng-Ryong; Maris, Pieter

    2001-01-01

    The rainbow truncation of the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation is combined with the ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation for the meson bound state amplitudes and the dressed quark-W vertex in a manifestly covariant calculation of the K_{l3} transition form factors and decay width in impulse approximation. With model gluon parameters previously fixed by the chiral condensate, the pion mass and decay constant, and the kaon mass, our results for the K_{l3} form factors and the kaon semileptonic decay width are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. What is special about L3 processing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Cornelis L. J. (Kees); Jaensch, Carol

    2015-01-01

    While research on third language (L3) and multilingualism has recently shown remarkable growth, the fundamental question of what makes trilingualism special compared to bilingualism, and indeed monolingualism, continues to be evaded. In this contribution we consider whether there is such a thing as

  6. Cognitive approaches to L3 acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Garcia Mayo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Multilingualism has established itself as an area of systematic research in linguistic studies over the last two decades. The multilingual phenomenon can be approached from different perspectives: educational, formal linguistic, neurolinguistic, psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic, among others. This article presents an overview of cognitive (psychological and formal linguistic approaches to third language (L3 acquisition where the assumption is that language acquisition is a complex multi-faceted process. After identifying what is meant by L3, the article briefly reviews the major issues addressed from both the psycholinguistic strand and the emerging L3 linguistic strand and concentrates on those aspects that are in need of further research in both.El plurilingüismo se ha ganado su propia área de investigación dentro de los estudios de lingüística en las últimas dos décadas. El fenómeno se puede abordar desde perspectivas diferentes: educativa, lingüística de carácter formal, neurolingüística, psicolingüística y sociolingüística, entre otras. Este artículo presenta una visión general de dos perspectivas cognitivas, la psicológica y la procedente de la lingüística formal, al tema de la adquisición de la tercera lengua (L3. Ambas perspectivas comparten la asunción de que la adquisición del lenguaje es un proceso complejo y con varias vertientes. Después de identificar lo que entendemos por L3, el artículo revisa de forma sucinta los principales temas que se han tratado tanto desde la perspectiva psicolingüística como desde la más emergente perspectiva lingüística en materia de L3 y se concentra en aquellos aspectos que consideramos que necesitan mayor investigación en ambas.

  7. Hadron calorimetry in the L3 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Civinini, C.; D' Alessandro, R.; Gallo, E.; Marchionni, A.; Meschini, M.; Pieri, M.; Wang, Y.F. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Florence (Italy) Florence Univ. (Italy)); Arefiev, A.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gordeev, A.; Gorodkov, Yu.; Kamyshkov, Y.U.; Klimentov, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Malinin, A.; Morgunov, V.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Savin, A.; Shevchenko, S.; Shevchenko, V.; Shmakov, K.; Shoumilov, E.; Shoutko, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vorobiev, I. (Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki, Moscow (USSR)); An, Q.; Blomeke, P.; Cai, X.; Cui, X.; Gong, Z.F.; Ilyas, M.M.; Khan, R.; Kumar, V.; Kunin, A.; Lin, Y.B.; Qureshi, K.; Siedling, R.; Wadhawa, M.; Wu, R.J.; Wu, S.W.; Wu, Y.G.; Zichichi, A. (World Lab., Geneva (Switzerland). FBLJA Project); Azemoon, T.; Ball, R.C.; Capell, M.; Chen, M.L.; Goldfarb, S.; Jones, L.W.; Mills, G.B.; Roe, B.P. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA)); Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Chendvankar, S.R.; Ganguli, S.N.; Gurtu, A.; Malh

    1991-04-01

    The characteristics of the L3 hadron calorimeter as realized in the observation of hadronic jets and other events from e{sup +}e{sup -} c collisions at LEP are presented and discussed. The pattern-recognition algorithm utilizing the fine granularity of the calorimeter is described, and the observed overall resolution of 10.2% for hadron jets from Z decay is reported. The use of the calorimeter in providing information on muon energy losses is also noted. (orig.).

  8. Kosmische Myonen im L3-Detektor

    CERN Document Server

    Saidi, Rachid

    2000-01-01

    Durch die Untersuchung des Mondschattens in der primaren kosmischen Strahlung konnen Informationen uber die Winkelau osung des L3-Detektors gewonnen werden, sowie mit ausreichender Statistik das Verhaltnis von Antiprotonen zu Protonen fur Protonenergien um 1 TeV abgeschatzt werden. Die Bahn der Protonen vom Mond zur Erde wird durch folgende Eekte beein ut: Das Magnetfeld zwischen Mond und Erde lenkt die geladenen Teilchen ab. Fur 1 TeV Protonenenergie wurde ein Wert von 1:70 abgeschatzt. Die Mehrfachstreuung in der 30 m dicken Erdschicht uber L3 verursacht eine Winkelverschmierung von 3.5 mrad fur 100 GeV Myonen. Der Winkel zwischen Proton und den sekundaren Myonen, die durch Wechselwirkung von primaren Kernen mit den oberen Schichten der Atmosphare entstehen, betragt 3 mrad fur 100 GeV Myonen. Die berechnete Winkelau osung dieser Untersuchung fur den L3-Detektor mit verschiedenen Energien betragt einen Wert von 0:170 0:030 fur das starkste Myonschattensignal bei 150 GeV Myonenenergie. Dabei wurde fur den Mon...

  9. Avaliação in vitro da patogenicidade de fungos predadores de nematóides parasitos de animais domésticos

    OpenAIRE

    Graminha, Érika Barbosa Neves; Universidade Estadual Paulista; Maia, Arlete Silveira; Centro de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal; Santos, Jaime Maia dos; Universidade Estadual Paulista; Cândido, Regina Célia; Universidade de São Paulo; Silva, Giane Serafim da; Centro de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal; Costa, Alvimar José da; Centro de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal

    2001-01-01

    O controle biológico é uma alternativa promissora no controle dos estágios pré-parasitários de helmintos, por meio da ação de fungos nematófagos. Com este propósito, o presente estudo avaliou in vitro a patogenicidade dos fungos Arthrobotrys musiformis e A. conoides sobre larvas infectantes de Haemonchus contortus, Ancylostoma spp. e ovos larvados de Ascaridia galli. Foram utilizados nove grupos: seis tratamentos (G1A e G2A: L3 de H. contortus; G1B e G2B: L3 de Ancylostoma spp.; G1C e G2C: ov...

  10. Cloning and sequence analysis of H. contortus HC58cDNA gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complete coding sequence of Hemonchus contortus HC58cDNA was generated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and polymerase chain reaction using primers based on the 5\\' and 3\\' ends of the parasite mRNA, accession no. AF305964. The HC58cDNA gene was 851bp long, with open reading frame of 717bp, ...

  11. Analysis list: l(3)mbt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l(3)mbt Cell line,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/l(3)mbt....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/l(3)mbt.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscie...ncedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/l(3)mbt.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/l(3)mbt.Cel...l_line.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/l(3)mbt.Larvae.tsv

  12. Trichostrongylus and Haemonchus anthelmintic resistance in naturally infected sheep from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANDERLEI KLAUCK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The anthelmintic resistance in small ruminants is a common problem and concern worldwide. The aim of this study was to verify anthelmintic treatment efficacy in naturally infected sheep. This study was conducted on nine herds that used the same anthelmintic management for over a year. In each farm, the animals were divided into two groups: untreated control group (n = 5 and treated (n = 10 according to the number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG. The treatment effect was checked based on EPG results and larval culture performed before treatment and 10 days after treatment. Significant differences were not observed (P> 0.05 on EPG results between untreated and treated groups. The coproculture showed that the animals were infected primarily byHaemonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp.,Teladorsagia spp., Cooperia spp. andOesophagostomum spp. In all farms, anthelmintic resistance by genera Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus was found, but this resistance varied greatly between farms.Haemonchus spp. showed resistance to closantel, levamisole, and albendazole. Trichostrongylus spp. was shown to be resistant to closantel, levamisole, and albendazole. The drugs tested showed to be efficient against the genera Teladorsagia,Cooperia, and Oesophagostomum. Based on these results, we conclude that the anthelmintic resistance to the tested drugs is a problem present in the farms evaluated.

  13. The Effects of L2 Experience on L3 Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the influence of experience with a second language (L2) on the perception of phonological contrasts in a third language (L3). This study contributes to L3 phonology by examining the influence of L2 phonological perception abilities on the perception of an L3 at the beginner level. Participants were native speakers of Korean…

  14. IN VITRO ANTIHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF THREE PLANT SPECIES TRADITIONALLY USED IN TABASCO, MEXICO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Espinosa-Moreno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antihelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus was searched as a new alternative for animal health improvement using three plants (Cydista aequinoctialis L., Heliotropium indicum L. and Momordica charantia L. of traditional usage in the rural area of Tabasco State, Mexico. Aqueous extracts were obtained of dried material. Each extract was diluted in distilled water to obtain a concentration of 20 mg ml-1. The antihelmintic activity was evaluated at 24, 48 y 72 h of exposition with 100 μL of each extract and 50 L3 unsheathed larvaes of H. contortus in a 96 well ELISA plaque.;/span;

  15. Dnase1L3 Regulates Inflammasome-Dependent Cytokine Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Shi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus arises in humans and mice lacking the endonuclease Dnase1L3. When Dnase1L3 is absent, DNA from circulating apoptotic bodies is not cleared, leading to anti-DNA antibody production. Compared to early anti-DNA and anti-chromatin responses, other autoantibody responses and general immune activation in Dnase1L3−/− mice are greatly delayed. We investigated the possibility that immune activation, specifically inflammasome activation, is regulated by Dnase1L3. Here, we report that Dnase1L3 inhibition blocked both NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasome-mediated release of high-mobility group box 1 protein and IL-1β. In contrast to IL-1β release, Dnase1L3 inhibition only mildly impaired NLRP3-dependent pyroptosis, as measured by propidium iodide uptake or LDH release. Mechanistically, we found that Dnase1L3 was needed to promote apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC nuclear export and speck formation. Our results demonstrate that Dnase1L3 inhibition separates cytokine secretion from pyroptosis by targeting ASC. These findings suggest that Dnase1L3 is necessary for cytokine secretion following inflammasome activation.

  16. Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Larvae (L3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Larvae (L3) harvested from the Faeces of Naturally Infected Swayne's Hartebeest ( Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei ) at Senkele Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary, Ethiopia.

  17. Last L3 section removed from iron yoke

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    The inner section of the L3 detector is removed from its iron yoke. L3 ran on the LEP collider at CERN between 1989 and 2000. This magnet return yoke will be reused by the ALICE exeriment when the LHC is constructed.

  18. GLONASS CDMA L3 ambiguity resolution and positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaminpardaz, Safoora; Teunissen, P.J.G.; Nadarajah, Nandakumaran

    2016-01-01

    A first assessment of GLONASS CDMA L3 ambiguity resolution and positioning performance is provided. Our analyses are based on GLONASS L3 data from the satellite pair SVNs 755-801, received by two JAVAD receivers at Curtin University, Perth, Australia. In our analyses, four different versions of

  19. Parasitological characteristics and tissue response in the abomasum of sheep infected with Haemonchus spp. Características parasitológicas e resposta tissular do abomaso em cordeiros infectados por Haemonchus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.G. Oliveira-Sequeira

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A histopathological study was conducted on the abomasal mucosa of 40 Corriedale sheep exposed to natural infection with Haemonchus spp. The sheep were allowed to graze on contaminated pastures for 14 days and, after being housed for 28 days, they were slaughtered. Fecal samples were collected for fecal egg counts (FEC and abomasum samples were obtained for histopathological examination and eosinophil, mast cell and globule leucocyte counts. The number of Haemonchus spp. present in the abomasum was estimated from a 10% aliquot of its content. The number of eggs per female was estimated for 10 Haemonchus spp. females collected from each animal. The following significant correlation coefficients were obtained between the characteristics analyzed: number of Haemonchus and FEC (r = 0.86, female length and number of eggs per female (r = 0.60, female length and FEC (r = 0.53, number of eosinophils and number of Haemonchus (r = 0.48, number of eosinophils and number of globule leucocytes (r = 0.54, number of mast cells and female length (r = -0.39, and number of mast cells and number of globule leucocyte (r = 0.34. The characteristics that showed the highest correlation with animal load was FEC.Realizou-se um estudo histopatológico da mucosa do abomaso de 40 cordeiros da raça Corriedale, expostos à infecção natural por Haemonchus spp. Os cordeiros foram colocados em pastagens contaminadas por 14 dias e após 28 dias de estabulação foram necropsiados. Por ocasião da necropsia, foram colhidas amostras de fezes para a realização da contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e amostras do abomaso para exame histopatológico e contagem do número de eosinófilos, mastócitos e leucócitos globulares. O número de Haemonchus spp. presente no abomaso foi estimado a partir de uma alíquota de 10% do conteúdo. O número de ovos por fêmea foi estimado em 10 fêmeas de Haemonchus spp. colhidas de cada animal. Coeficientes de correlação significativos

  20. Haemonchus resistente a lactona macrocíclica em caprinos naturalmente parasitados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Mary Jane Tweedie de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O ivermectin, antiparasitário amplamente utilizado em caprinos jovens, foi avaliado sobre nematódeos gastrintestinais, em todas as fases parasitárias. Doze caprinos jovens, naturalmente parasitados foram utilizados no experimento, sendo um grupo de seis animais medicado com ivermectin, na dose de 200µg.kg-1 v.o. e o outro grupo utilizado como controle. Para a avaliação, utilizou-se o teste de redução na contagem de ovos (FECR, redução de larvas infectantes e carga parasitária. Amostras fecais de caprinos foram coletadas no dia da medicação (dia zero, aos sete e catorze dias. No décimo quarto dia pós-medicação, todos os caprinos foram sacrificados, para a coleta de helmintos e cálculo da carga parasitária total. A redução do número de ovos (FECR e a eficácia sobre adultos foi de 42,10 % e 32,62 %, respectivamente.O gênero Haemonchus representou 100 % da população do grupo medicado e 99,58 % do grupo controle. Estes resultados indicam que os caprinos já estavam parasitados por Haemonchus resistente ao ivermectin.

  1. IceBridge DMS L3 Photogrammetric DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge DMS L3 Photogrammetric DEM (IODMS3) data set contains gridded digital elevation models and orthorectified images of Greenland derived from the Digital...

  2. L3 English acquisition in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spellerberg, Stine Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings of gender-related tendencies found in a study of factors influential in third language acquisition of English in Denmark and Greenland. A survey consisting of a questionnaire and an English test was carried out amongst pupils in their last year of compulsory schooling...... in Copenhagen, Denmark, and Nuuk, Greenland. In total, responses from 187 pupils were included, some of which were responses from pupils learning English as a second language; these respondents were included for comparisons (Copenhagen: L2 learners N =59, L3 learners N=32; Nuuk: L3 learners N=96; age: 14......–16 years). The results showed significant gender-related differences with different patterns between the three learner groups (L2 and L3 learners in Copenhagen, L3 learners in Nuuk) with regard to the level of English proficiency, the degree to which pupils like English as a school subject and the pupils...

  3. Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lloberas, Mercedes; Alvarez, Luis; Entrocasso, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo; Ballent, Mariana; Mate, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    .... The current work evaluated the relationship among systemic drug exposure, target tissue availabilities and the pattern of drug accumulation within resistant Haemonchus contortus for moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin...

  4. NASA's Preparations for ESA's L3 Gravitational Wave Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2016-03-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) selected gravitational-wave astrophysics as the science theme for its third large mission opportunity, known as `L3,' under its Cosmic Vision Programme. NASA is seeking a role as an international partner in L3. NASA is: (1) participating in ESA's early mission activities, (2) developing potential US technology contributions, (3) participating in ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission, (4) and conducting a study of how NASA might participate. This talk will survey the status of these activities.

  5. Reserve interlanguage transfer : the effects of L3 Italian & L3 French on L2 English pronoun use

    OpenAIRE

    Aysan, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical references leaves 58-67. This study focuses on the reverse interlanguage transfer by examining the effects of the L3 Italian and L3 French on the L2 English subject pronoun use as well as the effects of referentiality. The participants were 60 tertiary level students studying at Ankara University English Prepara...

  6. Analysis of Multi Muon Events in the L3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Volker

    2000-01-01

    The muon density distribution in air showers initiated by osmi parti les is sensitive to the hemi al omposition of osmi rays. The density an be measured via the multipli ity distribution in a nite size dete tor, as it is L3. With a shallow depth of 30 meters under ground, the dete tor provides an ex ellent fa ility to measure a high muon rate, but being shielded from the hadroni and ele troni shower omponent. Subje t of this thesis is the des ription of the L3 Cosmi s experiment (L3+C), whi h is taking data sin e May 1999 and the analysis of muon bundles in the large magneti spe trometer of L3. The new osmi trigger and readout system is brie y des ribed. The in uen e of dierent primaries on the multipli ity distribution has been investigated using Monte Carlo event samples, generated with the CORSIKA program. The simulation results showed that L3+C measures in the region of the \\knee" of the primary spe trum of osmi rays. A new pattern re ognition has been developed and added to the re onstru tion ode, whi h ...

  7. Effect of dietary protein intake on calf resilience to Haemonchus placei infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Louvandini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte bezerros com 2 a 3 meses de idade criados livres de vermes foram divididos em 2 grupos com 10 animais cada alimentados com alta proteína (HP e baixa proteina (LP com 257 e 91 g kg-1 de proteína na materia seca respectivamente, devidamente balanceado em energia e minerais. Após 4 semanas submetidos a estas duas dietas cada grupo original foi subdividido em 2 grupos, um contendo 4 animais não infectado (C e 6 animais infectados (I. O grupo infectado recebeu 5.000 larvas de Haemonchus placei duas vezes por semana por um período de 9 semamas, após 4 semanas da última infecção todos os animais foram sacrificados e realizada a contagem de vermes. Semanalmente foram feitas as pesagens dos animais, número de ovos por grama de fezes e colheita de sangue para determinação do hematócrito, hemoglobina, albumina e proteína total. A contagem de ovos por grama de fezes foi superior no grupo de HP em relação ao grupo de LP, tendo em vista que o número de vermes adultos no grupo HP (11.900 ± 7.660 foi maior que o grupo de LP (5.450 ± 7.895 . Apesar do número superior de vermes encontrado no grupo HP, observou-se valores superiores de hematócrito e peso vivo quando comparado com o grupo de LP (p<0,05, demonstrado que a suplementação protéica possibilita uma melhor resilience em bezerros infectados com Haemonchus placei.

  8. Stirling-cycle cooler reliability growth at L-3 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, David; Kuo, Dan; Phan, Quang

    2011-06-01

    L-3 CE has in place a continuous effort to evaluate and improve the lifetime of its cryocooler products. This effort includes analysis of both lab environment reliability tests and field data from shipped units. The purpose of this paper is to outline L-3 CE's life testing methodology and provide reliability data for L-3 CE cryocoolers, specifically for the 0.6- Watt Cooler (Model B602), 1.0-Watt Reduced Size, Weight, and Power (RSWAP) Cooler (Model B610), and the 1.5- Watt Cooler (Model B1500). Cooler performance characteristics such as cooldown time, refrigeration capacity, and input power are monitored throughout the life of the cooler. The data presented here updates previously reported data. Field data for the 1.0-Watt Cooler (Model B1000) is also presented.

  9. SELECTED ASPECTS OF ETCS-L3 DEPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Koutecký

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on selected problem areas in the implementation of ETCS L3, analyz-es their impacts and offers a number of possible solutions as a basis for pilot testing. It compares the suitability of each solution and summarizes their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Appraisal Systems in L2 vs. L3 Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys-Barker, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a comment on the ways multilingual language users perceive their L2 and L3 learning experiences at the level of appraisals, that is, variables that "assign value to current stimuli based on past experience". In the theoretical part of the article the concept of appraisals is introduced and briefly outlined from the different…

  11. Bilingual Education and L3 Learning: Metalinguistic Advantage or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgers, Dieuwerke; Evans, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Metalinguistic skills are highlighted in the literature as providing bilinguals with an advantage in additional language (L3) learning. The extent to which this may apply to bilingual education and content-and-language-integrated-learning settings, however, is as yet little understood. This article reports on a study exploring and comparing the…

  12. Metaphonological Awareness in Multilinguals: A Case of L3 Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrembel, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on an unexplored area of metalinguistic awareness in the acquisition of third language (L3) phonology, hereafter referred to as metaphonological awareness. It addresses the role of attention and noticing in input processing. The contribution constitutes a part of a larger scale project on metaphonological awareness in various…

  13. L2-Accented Speech in L3 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrembel, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The paper is aimed at investigating the sources of cross-linguistic influence in the third language (L3) phonology, and, particularly, the impact of the second language (L2) on the phonological acquisition of another foreign language. The study consisted in foreign accent judgements performed by a group of expert judges who were presented with…

  14. Desiccation tolerance of gastrointestinal nematode third-stage larvae: exploring the effects on survival and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylinski, C; Lherminé, E; Coquille, M; Cabaret, J

    2014-08-01

    The free-living third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes are able to tolerate extreme weather conditions such as desiccation, but little is known about the consequent effects this has on their fitness. This study explored how the desiccation of Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae affected their absolute fitness by examining their success at consequent life cycle stages for a complete generation, and comparing them against a control. The stages examined include establishment, fecundity, larval development and pathogenicity. The results show that while desiccation greatly reduced the survival of the L3 prior to infection in sheep, their absolute fitness was not negatively impacted. Instead, it appears desiccation slightly augmented H. contortus fitness by triggering increases in fecundity. The study further explored what influence different gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) species (H. contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Teladorsagia circumcincta), isolates and age of L3 had on their capacity to revive following various periods of desiccation. The results showed desiccation tolerance varied as a function of each of these variables. The greatest L3 survival was found in Te. circumcincta followed by Tr. colubriformis and finally H. contortus. Significant variation was observed between individual species isolates and as a function of age. The results of this study carry important practical implications for the epidemiological understanding of gastrointestinal nematode species of economic importance.

  15. Experimental determination of magnetic characteristics of Kunashak L3 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanul; Yu, Yongjae; Ryeol Lee, Seung

    2017-04-01

    A systematic alternating-field (AF) demagnetization on mutually oriented fragments of Kunashak L3 Chondrite was carried out. AF demagnetization spectra for natural remanent magnetization (NRM), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) were compared. We found that NRM, ARM, and SIRM are controlled by two dominant coercivity fractions, one being in the order of 100 mT, were identified. Higher coercivity fraction was stable whose remanence appears to be carried by Fe-Ni alloys. It is apparent that softer coercivity fraction was governed by the metal-sulfur meting produced by shock metamorphism. Directions of NRM were consistent in mm-scale, implying that brecciation process is responsible for the consistent NRM direction of Kunashak L3 Chondrite.

  16. DNASE1L3 mutations in hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçakar, Z Birsin; Foster, Joseph; Diaz-Horta, Oscar; Kasapcopur, Ozgur; Fan, Yao-Shan; Yalçınkaya, Fatoş; Tekin, Mustafa

    2013-08-01

    Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS) is characterized by recurrent urticaria along with dermal vasculitis, arthritis, and glomerulonephritis. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) develops in >50% of patients with HUVS, although the pathogenesis is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the causative DNA mutations in 2 families with autosomal-recessive HUVS, in order to reveal the pathogenesis and facilitate the laboratory diagnosis. Autozygosity mapping was combined with whole-exome sequencing. In a family with 3 affected children, we identified a homozygous frameshift mutation, c.289_290delAC, in DNASE1L3. We subsequently identified another homozygous DNASE1L3 mutation leading to exon skipping, c.320+4delAGTA, in an unrelated family. The detected mutations led to loss of function, via either nonsense-mediated messenger RNA decay or abolished endonuclease activity, as demonstrated by a plasmid nicking assay. These results show that HUVS is caused by mutations in DNASE1L3, encoding an endonuclease that previously has been associated with SLE. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Results from the L3 experiment at LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A.L.; Andreev, V.P.; Antonov, L.; Antreasyan, D.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Atamanchuk, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J.A.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R.C.; Banerjee, S.; Bao, J.; Barillere, R.; Barone, L.; Baschirotto, A.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Behrens, J.; Bencze, G.L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G.M.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J.J.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bock, R.; Boehm, A.; Borgia, B.; Bosetti, M.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Bouwens, B.; Brambilla, E.; Branson, J.G.; Brock, I.C.; Brooks, M.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.M.; Castello, R.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; L3 Collaboration

    1993-12-01

    In this report we summarize the major results from the first three years of running of the L3 detector at the Large Electron Positron collider (LEP). The L3 detector was designed to measure electrons, photons and muons with high precision; it has achieved ([Delta]E/E)[approx]1.4% for electrons and photons at E=45 GeV and ([Delta]p/p)[approx]2.5% for muons at p=45 GeV. Most of the experimental results presented are based on approximately 500 000 Z events. The data provide four independent checks of the Standard Model weak neutral currents to an accuracy of [approx]1%. These are: The measurement of Z parameters; the measurement of the forward-backward charge asymmetry of lepton pairs; the measurement of asymmetry parameters from Z[yields]b anti b decays; and the measurement of the [tau] lepton polarization asymmetry. The data also provide information on weak charged currents from measurements of b hadrons such as decay width, lifetime, and B[sup 0]- anti B[sup 0] mixing, and from measurements of [tau] leptons such as their lifetime and branching ratios. The large number of Z events and the resolution of the L3 detector allow precision tests of QED and QCD, including the production of [pi][sup 0], [eta] and hard photons. Leptonic final states with hard isolated photons are analyzed and high mass photon pairs are observed. Higgs boson production has not been observed and limits are given in the context of the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions. We also present upper limits on rare Z decays such as Z[yields][gamma][gamma][gamma] and on flavor violating decays such as Z[yields]e[tau], [mu][tau]. Finally, upper limits obtained in the search for various new particles and new interactions are reported. (orig.)

  18. A luminosity measurement at LEP using the L3 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffeman, E.N.

    1996-06-25

    To perform high precision measurements at particle colliders it is crucial to know the exact intensity of the colliding beams. In particle physics this quantity is generally referred to as the luminosity. The determination of the luminosity in one of the experiments (L3) is the topic of this thesis. The implementation and the use of a silicon strip detector in L3, will be described in detail. In chapter one the most important parameters measured at LEP are discussed, preceded by a short introduction to the Standard Model. The process generally used for luminosity measurements in electron positron colliders is small angle Bhabha scattering. This process is discussed at the end of chapter one. In chapter two the characteristics of the collider and the L3 experiment are given. Together with the signature of the small angle Bhabha scattering, these experimental conditions determine the specifications for the design of the luminosity monitor. The general features of silicon strip detectors for their application in high energy physics are presented in chapter three. Some special attention is given to the behaviour of the sensors used for the tracking detector in the luminosity monitor. The more specific design details of the luminosity monitor are constricted to chapter four. In chapter five the conversion from detector signals into ccordinates relevant for the analysis is explained. The selection of the small angle Bhabha scattering events and the subsequent determination of the luminosity, are presented in chapter six. Systematic uncertainties are carefully studied. Important for a good understanding of the Bhabha selection are the events where a photon is produced in the scattering process. These events are separately studied. In chapter seven a comparison is presented between the radiative events observed in the data and their modelling in the Bhlumi Monte Carlo programme. (orig.).

  19. Hydrogen Learning for Local Leaders – H2L3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfass, Patrick [Technology Transition Corporation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The Hydrogen Learning for Local Leaders program, H2L3, elevates the knowledge about hydrogen by local government officials across the United States. The program reaches local leaders directly through “Hydrogen 101” workshops and webinar sessions; the creation and dissemination of a unique report on the hydrogen and fuel cell market in the US, covering 57 different sectors; and support of the Hydrogen Student Design Contest, a competition for interdisciplinary teams of university students to design hydrogen and fuel cell systems based on technology that’s currently commercially available.

  20. Synthesis and aqueous phase behavior of thermoresponsive biodegradable poly(D,L-3-methylglycolide)-block-poly(ethyelene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-3-methylglycolide) triblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, Zhiyuan; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Kwon, Young-Min; Bae, You Han; Kim, Sung Wan

    2002-01-01

    Novel biodegradable thermosensitive triblock copolymers of poly(D,L-3-methylglycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-3-methylglycolide) (PMG-PEG-PMG) have been synthesized. Ring-opening polymerization of D,L-3-methyl-glycolide (MG) initiated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and

  1. 21 CFR 866.6030 - AFP-L3% immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AFP-L3% immunological test system. 866.6030... Systems § 866.6030 AFP-L3% immunological test system. (a) Identification. An AFP-L3% immunological test... measure, by immunochemical techniques, AFP and AFP-L3 subfraction in human serum. The device is intended...

  2. The soviet manned lunar program N1-L3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardier, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The conquest of space was marked by the Moon race in which the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, were engaged in the 1960s. On the American side, the Apollo program culminated with the Man on the Moon in July 1969, 50 years ago. At the same time, the Soviet Union carried out a similar program which was kept secret for 20 years. This N1-L3 program was unveiled in August 1989. Its goal was to arrive on the Moon before the Americans. It included an original super-rocket, development of which began in June 1960. But this program became a national priority only in August 1964 and the super-rocket failed four times between 1969 and 1972. This article analyses the reasons for these failures, which led to the cancellation of the program in 1974.

  3. Multilingual students' acquisition of English as their L3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samal Jalal, Rawand

    with regard to English proficiency. The current study conducted in Denmark investigated multilingual students’ English proficiency compared to their monolingual peers’, and examined which learning strategies proficient L3 learners utilize. The sample was comprised of 9-graders who are monolinguals (N = 82...... participants’ behavior (i.e., which learning strategies they employ) was observed during English classes for approximately 10 weeks. Preliminary analyses show that the monolinguals outperformed the multilinguals on a general English proficiency test; which stands in contrast to existing theories......) and multilinguals with Turkish L1 (N = 134). The participants provided basic demographic information, and were tested in their general English proficiency. Out of the 70 multilinguals with Turkish L1, 12 participants were selected for further testing; i.e., the four participants who scored the lowest, four...

  4. Resistência de Cooperia spp. e Haemonchus spp. às avermectinas em bovinos de corte Resistance of Cooperia spp. and Haemonchus spp. to avermectins in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Rangel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois testes de redução de ovos de helmintos por grama de fezes em bovinos naturalmente infectados. No primeiro teste utilizaram-se quatro grupos tratados: ivermectina 1% (IVM, produto endectocida experimental (PEE, ivermectina LA 1% (IVMLA e doramectina 1% (DRM. A contagem de ovos por gramas de fezes (OPG foi realizada durante 14 dias pós-tratamento. Foram observadas as seguintes taxas de eficácia: IVM, -1,3%; PEE, 100%; IVMLA, 18,9% e DRM 50,6%. Os gêneros de helmintos encontrados foram Cooperia e Haemonchus. No segundo teste foram avaliadas moxidectina 1% e abamectina 1%, e ambas apresentaram eficácia acima de 99%.Two fecal count-reducing-tests in infected bovines were performed considering eggs per gram. In the first test it was used four treated groups with ivermectin 1% (IVM, experimental endectocid product (EEP, ivermectin LA 1% (IVMLA e doramectin 1% (DRM. Evaluating the finds of eggs per gram in a 14-day-period after treatment and comparing with the control group it was observed the following efficacy rates: 1.3% to IVM, 100.0% to EEP, 18.9% to IVMLA and 50.6% to DRM. Helminthes genders found were Cooperia and Haemonchus. The second test was performed to evaluate moxidectin 1% and abamectin 1% and results showed efficacy over 99.0% for both.

  5. Learning of relative clauses by L3 learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Koosha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In surveys of third language acquisition (TLA research, mixed results demonstrate that there is no consensus among researchers regarding the advantages and/or disadvantages of bilinguality on TLA. The main concern of the present study was, thus, to probe the probable differences between Persian monolingual and Azeri-Persian bilingual learners of English regarding their syntactic knowledge. It was an attempt to investigate whether they differ significantly in learning relative clauses. To carry out this study, a total of 200 female high school students studying at second grade were randomly selected from two educational districts of Tabriz and Shiraz in Iran. The participants were homogeneous in terms of English proficiency, sex, and age. They attended public high schools they were taught the same materials and had the same number of hours of instruction. A general proficiency test, a language history questionnaire, and two syntactic structure tasks were administered to both groups. Statistical analyses including t-tests and descriptive statistics revealed that monolinguals and bilinguals differ in the comprehension and production of English L3 relative clauses.

  6. L1 and L2 Distance Effects in Learning L3 Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens, Job J.; der Slik, Frans; Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    Many people speak more than two languages. How do languages acquired earlier affect the learnability of additional languages? We show that linguistic distances between speakers' first (L1) and second (L2) languages and their third (L3) language play a role. Larger distances from the L1 to the L3 and from the L2 to the L3 correlate with lower…

  7. Transcriptomes and pathways associated with infectivity, survival and immunogenicity in Brugia malayi L3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiro David

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filarial nematode parasites cause serious diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness in humans, and heartworm infections in dogs. Third stage filarial larvae (L3 are a critical stage in the life cycle of filarial parasites, because this is the stage that is transmitted by arthropod vectors to initiate infections in mammals. Improved understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with this transition may provide important leads for development of new therapies and vaccines to prevent filarial infections. This study explores changes in gene expression associated with the transition of Brugia malayi third stage larvae (BmL3 from mosquitoes into mammalian hosts and how these changes are affected by radiation. Radiation effects are especially interesting because irradiated L3 induce partial immunity to filarial infections. The underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of such vaccines are unkown. Results Expression profiles were obtained using a new filarial microarray with 18, 104 64-mer elements. 771 genes were identified as differentially expressed in two-way comparative analyses of the three L3 types. 353 genes were up-regulated in mosquito L3 (L3i relative to cultured L3 (L3c. These genes are important for establishment of filarial infections in mammalian hosts. Other genes were up-regulated in L3c relative to L3i (234 or irradiated L3 (L3ir (22. These culture-induced transcripts include key molecules required for growth and development. 165 genes were up-regulated in L3ir relative to L3c; these genes encode highly immunogenic proteins and proteins involved in radiation repair. L3ir and L3i have similar transcription profiles for genes that encode highly immunogenic proteins, antioxidants and cuticle components. Conclusion Changes in gene expression that normally occur during culture under conditions that support L3 development and molting are prevented or delayed by radiation. This may explain

  8. In vitro evaluation of nematophagous fungi patogenicity against nematode of domestic animals/ Avaliação in vitro da patogenicidade de fungos predadores de nematóides parasitos de animais domésticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar José da Costa

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is a promising alternative for the control of pre-parasitic stages through the action of nematophagous fungi’s. The present study evaluated in vitro the patogenicity of both Arthrobotrys musiformis and A. conoides fungi on “infective larvae (or L3 state larvae” of Haemonchus contortus, L3 larvae of Ancylostoma spp. And larvated eggs of the nematode Ascaridia galli. Nine groups were formed: six treated groups (G1A and G2A: L3 of H. contortus; G1B and G2B: L3 of Ancylostoma spp.; G1C and G2C: larvated eggs of A. galli, being that G1 with A. musiformis and G2 with A. conoides and three untreated groups (G3A, G3B and G3C: larvae of H. contortus, Ancylostoma spp. And eggs of A. galli, respectively, without fungi. Each treatment had ten repetitions (ten Petri dishes with an average of 120 larvae of H. contortus and 200 larvae of Ancylostoma spp. and, approximately, 100 larvated A. galli eggs. The results showed A. musiformis plundered 66% and 94% of Ancylostoma spp. L3 larvae and H. contortus L3 larvae, respectively. While that A. conoides plundered 51,7% and 89,4% at the same larvae. The nematophagous fungi evaluated have not presented any predation type on A. galli larvated eggs. Afterwards, both are promising fungi as to their use for biological control of parasitic helminths of animal hosts.O controle biológico é uma alternativa promissora no controle dos estágios pré-parasitários de helmintos, por meio da ação de fungos nematófagos. Com este propósito, o presente estudo avaliou in vitro a patogenicidade dos fungos Arthrobotrys musiformis e A. conoides sobre larvas infectantes de Haemonchus contortus, Ancylostoma spp. e ovos larvados de Ascaridia galli. Foram utilizados nove grupos: seis tratamentos (G1A e G2A: L3 de H. contortus; G1B e G2B: L3 de Ancylostoma spp.; G1C e G2C: ovos larvados de A. galli, com A. musiformis (G1 e A. conoides (G2, respectivamente e três testemunhos (G3A, G3B e G3C: larvas de H

  9. The structure-activity relationships of L3MBTL3 inhibitors: flexibility of the dimer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Michelle A; Zhong, Nan; Dong, Aiping; Dickson, Bradley M; James, Lindsey I; Baughman, Brandi M; Norris, Jacqueline L; Kireev, Dmitri B; Janzen, William P; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Frye, Stephen V

    2013-11-01

    We recently reported the discovery of UNC1215, a potent and selective chemical probe for the L3MBTL3 methyllysine reader domain. In this article, we describe the development of structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a second series of potent L3MBTL3 antagonists which evolved from the structure of the chemical probe UNC1215. These compounds are selective for L3MBTL3 against a panel of methyllysine reader proteins, particularly the related MBT family proteins, L3MBTL1 and MBTD1. A co-crystal structure of L3MBTL3 and one of the most potent compounds suggests that the L3MBTL3 dimer rotates about the dimer interface to accommodate ligand binding.

  10. Differences between L3 and L2 x-ray absorption spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    1995-01-01

    The L3 and L2 edges of transition metals show differences in their spectral shape. Also the ratio between the L3 and L2 edges is found to deviate from 2:1. The interactions responsible for these effects are: the multiplet effects and the 3d (4d) spin-orbit coupling. The electronic interactions and

  11. L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were…

  12. Role of uL3 in Multidrug Resistance in p53-Mutated Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapina Russo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most common causes of death among adults. Chemotherapy is crucial in determining patient survival and quality of life. However, the development of multidrug resistance (MDR continues to pose a significant challenge in the management of cancer. In this study, we analyzed the role of human ribosomal protein uL3 (formerly rpL3 in multidrug resistance. Our studies revealed that uL3 is a key determinant of multidrug resistance in p53-mutated lung cancer cells by controlling the cell redox status. We established and characterized a multidrug resistant Calu-6 cell line. We found that uL3 down-regulation correlates positively with multidrug resistance. Restoration of the uL3 protein level re-sensitized the resistant cells to the drug by regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, glutathione content, glutamate release, and cystine uptake. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments and luciferase assays demonstrated that uL3 coordinated the expression of stress-response genes acting as transcriptional repressors of solute carrier family 7 member 11 (xCT and glutathione S-transferase α1 (GST-α1, independently of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. Altogether our results describe a new function of uL3 as a regulator of oxidative stress response genes and advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying multidrug resistance in cancers.

  13. NFE2L3 (NRF3): the Cinderella of the Cap'n'Collar transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillard, Grégory; Blank, Volker

    2011-10-01

    NFE2L3 [Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 3] or NRF3, a member of the Cap'n'Collar (CNC) family, is a basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor that was first identified over 10 years ago. Contrary to its extensively studied homolog NFE2L2 (NRF2), the regulation and function of the NFE2L3 protein have not yet attracted as much attention. Nevertheless, several recent reports have now shed light on the possible roles of NFE2L3. Structural and biochemical studies revealed a series of domains and modifications that are critical for its cellular regulation. The control of the subcellular localization of NFE2L3 appears to be essential for understanding its role in various cellular processes. Importantly, newer studies provide fascinating insights linking NFE2L3 to differentiation, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Here, we present an overview of the current level of knowledge of NFE2L3 transcription factor biology in humans and mice. From being the Cinderella of the CNC transcription factors for many years, NFE2L3 may now rapidly come into its own.

  14. Validation of the FAMACHA © eye colour chart using sensitivity/specificity analysis on two South African sheep farms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynecke, D.P; van Wyk, J.A; Gummow, B; Dorny, P; Boomker, J

    2011-01-01

    A validation study of the FAMACHA(©) system for clinical evaluation of anaemia due to Haemonchus contortus was conducted on two commercial sheep farms in the summer rainfall region of South Africa...

  15. Prevalence of Helminthic Infections among Wild Animals in Yankari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal culture and larval recovery revealed that Strongyloides canis and Ancylostoma caninum larvae were common among the carnivores. For the primates, Stronyloides stercoralis and Ancylostoma duodenale were encountered while, Haemonchus contortus, Stronyloides pappilosus, Trichostrongylus colubrioformis and ...

  16. Gastrointestinal Nematodes and Body Condition Scores of Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strongyle + Strongyloides, Strongyle + Trichuris, Strongyloides + Trichuris and Strongyle + Strongyloides + Trichuris. Haemonchus contortus was the predominant nematode infecting the goats followed by Trichostrongylus spp, Oesophagostomum spp and Strongyloides spp in that order. Sex and age of the animals were ...

  17. Browse Title Index - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anogeissus leiocarpus and Daniellia oliveri) on Haemonchus contortus, an abosomal ... Vol 11, No 13 (2012), In vitro induction of multiple buds from cotyledonary nodes of Balsam pear (Momordica charantia L.) Abstract PDF.

  18. EX1504L3 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  19. EX1504L3 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  20. EX1004L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1004L3: Exploration Indonesia - Bitung...

  1. TES/Aura L3 CO2 Lite Monthly Gridded V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 CO2 data consist of daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  2. EX1502L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1502L3: Caribbean Exploration (ROV)...

  3. EX1404L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1404L3: Northeast Seamounts and Canyons...

  4. The novel carbohydrate epitope L3 is shared by some neural cell adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kücherer, A; Faissner, A; Schachner, M

    1987-06-01

    The monoclonal L3 antibody reacts with an N-glycosidically linked carbohydrate structure on at least nine glycoproteins of adult mouse brain. Three out of the L3 epitope-carrying glycoproteins could be identified as the neural cell adhesion molecules L1 and myelin-associated glycoprotein, and the novel adhesion molecule on glia. Expression of the L3 carbohydrate epitope is regulated independently of the protein backbone of these three glycoproteins. Based on the observation that out of three functionally characterized L3 epitope-carrying glycoproteins three fulfill the operational definition of an adhesion molecule, we would like to suggest that they form a new family of adhesion molecules that is distinct from the L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope family of neural cell adhesion molecules. Interestingly, some members in each family appear to be unique to one family while other members belong to the two families.

  5. EX1504L3 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  6. EX1504L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III: Main Hawaiian...

  7. EX1605L3 Dive19 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  8. EX1504L3 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  9. EX1504L3 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  10. TES/Aura L3 H2O Monthly Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 H2O data consist of daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  11. EX1202L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L3: Gulf of Mexico Exploration...

  12. EX0909L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0909L3: Mapping Field Trials - Hawaiian...

  13. TES/Aura L3 CH4 Daily Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 CH4 data consist of daily averages of atmospheric Methane for atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  14. TES/Aura L3 CH4 Monthly Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 CH4 data consist of monthly averages of atmospheric Methane for atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  15. TES/Aura L3 CO2 Daily Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 CO2 data consist of daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  16. TES/Aura L3 HNO3 Monthly Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 ATD data consist of monthly atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  17. EX1605L3 Dive17 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  18. EX1605L3 Dive22 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  19. EX1504L3 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  20. The L3+C detector, a unique tool-set to study cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Banerjee, S; Bähr, J; Betev, B L; Bourilkov, D; Bottai, S; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Cartacci, A M; Chemarin, M; Chen, G; Chen He Sheng; Chiarusi, T; Dai Chang Jiang; Ding, L K

    2002-01-01

    The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, has been employed for the study of cosmic ray muons. The muon spectrometer of L3 consists of a set of high-precision drift chambers installed inside a magnet with a volume of about 1000 m**3 and a field of 0.5 T. Muon momenta are measured with a resolution of a few percent at 50 GeV. The detector is located under 30 m of overburden. A scintillator air shower array of 54 m by 30 m is installed on the roof of the surface hall above L3 in order to estimate the energy and the core position of the shower associated with a sample of detected muons. Thanks to the unique properties of the L3+C detector, muon research topics relevant to various current problems in cosmic ray and particle astrophysics can be studied.

  1. EX1605L3 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  2. EX1605L3 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  3. EX1605L3 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  4. EX1605L3 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  5. EX1605L3 Dive16 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  6. EX1605L3 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  7. EX1605L3 Dive20 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  8. EX1605L3 Dive21 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  9. Preparation and some properties of L-3-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase from pig brain mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, A P; Thorne, C J

    1969-01-01

    1. A method is described for extraction and partial purification of mitochondrial l-3-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase from pig brain. 2. By the criteria that have so far been applied, the extraction and purification procedures do not modify the activity of the enzyme towards artificial electron acceptors. 3. The amounts of acid-liberatable flavine and iron in the preparation were measured. 4. A study was made of the effects of various analogues of l-3-glycerophosphate on the activity of the enzyme.

  10. Search on charginos and neutralinos with the L3 detector at LEP; Recherche de charginos et de neutralinos avec le detecteur L3 au LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chereau, Xavier [Laboratoire d`Annecy-le-vieux de physique des particules, Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 Annecy (France)

    1998-04-30

    This work presents an experimental search for supersymmetric particles, the charginos and the neutralinos, at center of mass energies {radical} 161, 172 and 183 GeV, with the L3 detector at the e{sup +}e{sup -} collider LEP. Assuming R-parity conservation, SUSY events have a large missing energy, carried by the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), which allow us to distinguish them from standard events. Then, for all the studied final states and all the energies, we optimized the selections in order to have the best signal-to-noise ratio. No excess of events were observed with respect to the standard model predictions. We set upper limits on the chargino and neutralino production cross sections. In the frame of the constraint MSSM, these results were combined with the results from the L3 slepton analyses to set lower limits on the chargino and neutralino masses: particularly, we exclude a neutralino {chi}{sub 1}{sup 0} bar lighter than 25.9 GeV/c{sup 2} (95% C.L.). This result plays an important role for the interpretation of the dark matter in universe. The search for events with missing energy needs a detector with a good hermeticity. At the end of 1995, a new electromagnetic calorimeter was installed in the L3 experiment. Here we present the improvements of performances and the calibration of this detector composed of 48 bricks made with lead and scintillating fibers (SPACAL) 71 refs., 104 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. Incidence of Haemonchus spp. and effect on haematocrit and eye colour in goats farmed under resource-poor conditions in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, A F; Krecek, R C; Letty, B A; van der Linde, M J; Grimbeek, R J; de Villiers, J F; Motswatswe, P W; Molebiemang, G S; Boshoff, H M; Hansen, J W

    2002-01-03

    The diversity and predominance of nematode genera in goats of resource-poor farmers at Rust de Winter, Gauteng Province, Impendle, KwaZulu-Natal Province, and Kraaipan, North-West Province, South Africa, was determined by means of a longitudinal study of the nematode faecal egg counts (FECs) and differential third-stage nematode larvae. The animals were bled for haematocrit determination and scored for pallor of ocular mucous membranes using the FAMACHA( Copyright) method, an assay for clinical evaluation of anaemia caused by Haemonchus spp. Animals considered to be in danger of dying from anaemia caused by haemonchosis were selectively treated with an anthelmintic. Lower haematocrit values were registered during periods of heavier Haemonchus infection, which occurred from December/January to March for Rust de Winter; from December to March/April for Impendle; and from November/December to February or April for Kraaipan. There was agreement too between the lower haematocrits and paler mucous membranes scored according to the FAMACHA( Copyright) method. The use of this system may be recommended as part of an integrated approach to worm control in goats kept in the resource-poor areas studied.

  12. Haemonchus spp. in sheep farmed under resource-poor conditions in South Africa--effect on haematocrit, conjunctival mucous membrane colour and body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, A F; Krecek, R C; van der Linde, M J; Motswatswe, P W; Grimbeek, R J; van Wijk, E F; Hansen, J W

    2002-09-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted on the differential faecal egg counts, haematocrits and body condition scores of sheep belonging to resource-poor farmers at Rust de Winter, Gauteng province, and Kraaipan, North West Province, South Africa. The animals were scored for level of anaemia using the FAMACHA method, an assay for the clinical evaluation of anaemia caused by Haemonchus spp. Periods of higher Haemonchus egg counts occurred from October to March for sheep at Rust de Winter and from September/October to February or April for sheep at Kraaipan. Lower haematocrit values were registered during these periods as was a higher incidence of anaemic conjunctival mucous membrane colour scores compared to the period April to September. No clear relationship between the faecal egg counts and the body condition scores was evident. Although wider application of the FAMACHA system in sheep raised by resource-poor farmers should be investigated, the present study indicates that this method may certainly prove to be a valuable worm control strategy for such livestock owners.

  13. Haemonchus spp. in sheep farmed under resource-poor conditions in South Africa - effect on haematocrit, conjunctival mucous membrane colour and body condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Vatta

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study was conducted on the differential faecal egg counts, haematocrits and body condition scores of sheep belonging to resource-poor farmers at Rust de Winter, Gauteng province, and Kraaipan, North West Province, South Africa. The animals were scored for level of anaemia using the FAMACHA(c method, an assay for the clinical evaluation of anaemia caused by Haemonchus spp. Periods of higher Haemonchus egg counts occurred from October to March for sheep at Rust de Winter and from September/October to February or April for sheep at Kraaipan. Lower haematocrit values were registered during these periods as was a higher incidence of anaemic conjunctival mucous membrane colour scores compared to the period April to September. No clear relationship between the faecal egg counts and the body condition scores was evident. Although wider application of the FAMACHA(c system in sheep raised by resource-poor farmers should be investigated, the present study indicates that this method may certainly prove to be a valuable worm control strategy for such livestock owners.

  14. ESA’s L3 mission: A space-based gravitational-wave observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Guido

    2016-04-01

    ESA selected the Gravitational Universe as the science theme for one of its future L-class missions. L3 will measure gravitational waves in the 10µHz to 100mHz window; probably the richest of all gravitational wave windows. Expected sources in this frequency band range from massive black hole mergers to extreme mass ratio inspirals to compact galactic binary systems.The L3 mission is expected to be based on the eLISA/LISA design which was submitted by the eLISA consortium as a notional mission concept. NASA started discussions with ESA how to join L3 and participates in ESA’s Gravitational Observatory Advisory Team. NASA is also in the process of setting up its own L3-Study team to look at potential US contributions to L3. This group will also act as the US partner for the eLISA consortium. In summary, the space component of the GW community has gained significant momentum over the last 12 months and a successful pathfinder mission and potential GW discoveries by Advanced LIGO and/or pulsar timing arrays should further strengthen the case for LISA.

  15. Measurement of the masses of the electroweak gauge bosons at L3; Bestimmung der Massen der elektroschwachen Eichbosonen bei L3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbleck, C.

    2006-10-09

    This thesis presents the measurement of the masses of the carriers of the weak force in the Standard Model of Particle Physics, the gauge bosons W and Z. The masses are determined using the kinematics of the bosons' decay products. The data were collected by the L3 experiment at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) at centre-of-mass energies, {radical}(s), between 183 GeV and 209 GeV in the years 1997 to 2000. The Z-boson mass is determined to be m{sub Z}=91.272{+-}0.046 GeV. The second part of this analysis describes the measurement of the mass of the W-boson. The W-boson mass is determined to be m{sub W}=80.242{+-}0.057 GeV in this analysis. If combined with the L3 results at lower centre-of-mass energies, the final W boson mass value is m{sub W}=80.270{+-}0.055 GeV. The {rho} parameter is defined as {rho}=m{sup 2}{sub W}/(m{sup 2}{sub Z} . cos{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}). Using the value of m{sub Z} obtained in the Z resonance scan, the final value for m{sub W} and the value of {theta}{sub W}, {rho} is obtained to be {rho}=0.9937{+-}0.0024, yielding a 2.6{sigma} deviation from 1. Combining the L3 value for m{sub W} with the results of the LEP experiments ALEPH, DELPHI, and OPAL and the TEVATRON experiments CDF and DOe yields a W boson mass of m{sub W}=80.392{+-}0.029 GeV. Together with other measurements this determines the best value of the Higgs-boson mass to be m{sub H}=85{sub -28}{sup +39} GeV. (orig.)

  16. Mutations in the bacterial ribosomal protein l3 and their association with antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Rasmus N; Ntokou, Eleni; Nørgaard, Katrine

    2015-01-01

    Different groups of antibiotics bind to the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) in the large subunit of the bacterial ribosome. Resistance to these groups of antibiotics has often been linked with mutations or methylations of the 23S rRNA. In recent years, there has been a rise in the number...... of studies where mutations have been found in the ribosomal protein L3 in bacterial strains resistant to PTC-targeting antibiotics but there is often no evidence that these mutations actually confer antibiotic resistance. In this study, a plasmid exchange system was used to replace plasmid-carried wild...... background. Ten plasmid-carried mutated L3 genes were constructed, and their effect on growth and antibiotic susceptibility was investigated. Additionally, computational modeling of the impact of L3 mutations in E. coli was used to assess changes in 50S structure and antibiotic binding. All mutations...

  17. Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Y.; Badolato, A., E-mail: antonio.badolato@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Pirotta, S.; Urbinati, G.; Gerace, D.; Galli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Minkov, M.; Savona, V. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of Nanosystems, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-06-16

    We report on the experimental realization of ultra-high quality factor (Q) designs of the L3-type photonic crystal nanocavity. Based on genetic optimization of the positions of few nearby holes, our design drastically improves the performance of the conventional L3 as experimentally confirmed by direct measurement of Q ≃ 2 × 10{sup 6} in a silicon-based photonic crystal membrane. Our devices rank among the highest Q/V ratios ever reported in photonic crystal cavities, holding great promise for the realization of integrated photonic platforms based on ultra-high-Q resonators.

  18. ntegrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) using sericea lespedeza (SL), FAMACHA, and copper oxide wire particles (COWP) in weaned goats in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack of effective anthelmintics for control of GIN in goats has led to the need for an integrated management approach. FAMACHA is an effective tool for selective deworming of Haemonchus contortus-infected goats, while COWP and SL grazing have reduced H. contortus infection. The objective was to exam...

  19. Between-breed variations in resistance/resilience to gastrointestinal nematodes among indigenous goat breeds in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Mukiibi, Robert; Ampaire, A.; Benda-Beckmann, von K.; Kanis, E.

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), Haemonchus contortus, are a major health problem in goat production. Resistance to H. contortus, the most prevalent GIN in Uganda, was studied among three indigenous goat breeds to assess their differences. Twelve male goats of each breed approximately 7 months old

  20. Assessment of Helminth Infections in Goats Slaughtered in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proportions of goats infected with each parasite type were 100%, 94.4%, 88.6%,80.5%, 68.6 62.8% and 44.4% respectively for Strongyloides sp., tapeworms, Ascaris sp., Fasciola hepatica, Trichuris sp., Haemonchus contortus and Schistosoma haematobium. The proportion of animals infected with Haemonchus ...

  1. L1/L2/L3 Writing Development: Longitudinal Case Study of a Japanese Multicompetent Writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…

  2. Fast detection of alpha-fetoprotein-L3 using lens culinaris agglutinin immobilized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Qin, Liubin; Liu, Dejun; Liu, Changhong; Sun, Yongwei; Duan, Yourong

    2014-06-01

    Colloidal gold is extensively used for molecular sensing because that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands are affected by changes in the dielectric properties in the close vicinity of these structures due to the binding of ligands to the corresponding receptor molecules immobilized onto the nanostructures through chemi- or physisorption. We describe a simple method for the detection of Alpha-Fetoprotein-L3 which is a new generation of tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on the aggregation of Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) Immobilized Gold Nanoparticles. The LCA conjugated GNPs obtained were 15-20 nm in diameter. The visible color change of the gold nanoparticles from purple to blue on interaction with 100 ng/mL of AFP-L3 is the principle applied here for the sensing of AFP-L3 level. UV/Vis spectroscopy also allows assay monitoring by quantifying the red shift of the plasmon resonance wavelength. With this method, the protein AFP-L3 can be rapidly detected as demanded for clinical diagnosis.

  3. Study of photon-induced L3 vacancy alignment for elements La to U

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alignment of photon-induced L3 vacancies is studied in rare earth and high elements at energies of experimental interest, near thresholds to 60 keV, under non-relativistic dipole approximation. Numerical calculations of the matrix element are undertaken to produce theoretical data for comparison with the experimental ...

  4. Study of photon-induced L3 vacancy alignment for elements La to U

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Alignment of photon-induced L3 vacancies is studied in rare earth and high. Z elements at energies of experimental interest, near thresholds to 60 keV, under non- relativistic dipole approximation. Numerical calculations of the matrix element are un- dertaken to produce theoretical data for comparison with the ...

  5. Double Object Constructions in L3 English: An Exploratory Study of Morphological and Semantic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirre, Ainara Imaz; García Mayo, María del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the acquisition of double object constructions (DOCs) ("Susan gave Peter an apple") by 90 Basque/Spanish learners of English as a third language (L3). The aim of this study was to explore whether (i) learners established a distinction when accepting DOCs vs. prepositional phrase constructions (PPCs)…

  6. Joint International Workshop on Professional Learning, Competence Development and Knowledge Management - LOKMOL and L3NCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memmel, Martin; Ras, Eric; Weibelzahl, Stephan; Burgos, Daniel; Olmedilla, Daniel; Wolpers, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Memmel, M., Ras, E., Weibelzahl, S., Burgos, D., Olmedilla, D., & Wolpers, M. (2006). Joint International Workshop on Professional Learning, Competence Development and Knowledge Management - LOKMOL and L3NCD. Proceedings of ECTEL 2006. October 2nd-4th, Crete, Greece. Retrieved October 2nd, 2006,

  7. An automated synthesis module for preparation of L-3-[I-123]iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luurtsema, G; Jager, PL; Piers, A; de Hooge, MN

    2001-01-01

    L-3-[I-123]iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine (IMT) is an artificial amino acid suitable for SPECT imaging of various tumours. Manual synthesis of this radiopharmaceutical is reliable, but time-consuming and may require handling of large quantities of radioactivity. We developed an automated IMT synthesis

  8. Inter- and Intralingual Lexical Influences in Advanced Learners' French L3 Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates lexical inter- and intralingual influences in the oral production of 14 very advanced learners of French L3. Lexical deviances are divided into two main categories: formal influence and meaning-based influence. The results show that, as predicted with respect to advanced learners, meaning-based influence is the most…

  9. Enhanced 1524-nm Emission From Ge Quantum Dots in a Modified Photonic Crystal L3 Cavity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yong Zhang; Cheng Zeng; Danping Li; Zengzhi Huang; Kezheng Li; Jinzhong Yu; Juntao Li; Xuejun Xu; Maruizumi, Takuya; Jinsong Xia

    2013-01-01

    .... The enhancement factor is 110, and the corresponding Purcell factor is estimated to be 6.7. The large enhancement is due to high Purcell factor and high collection efficiency of modified L3 cavity verified by far-field patterns...

  10. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L3 regulates EMT process and cancer metastasis in prostate cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Min; Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Jung Hwa

    2014-09-26

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L3 (UCH-L3) is among the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) that cleave ubiquitin (Ub) from Ub precursors or protein substrates. Many DUBs have been shown to participate in cancer progression in various tissues. However, the mechanism and role of UCH-L3 in carcinogenesis has largely been unknown until recently. Here we investigated the implication of UCH-L3 in prostate cancer progression. Interestingly, UCH-L3 is upregulated in normal or non-metastatic prostate cancer cells and is downregulated in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines. Notably, knockdown of UCH-L3 in normal prostate cell line RWPE1 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important process for cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The induction of EMT by UCH-L3 knockdown results in an increase of cell migration and invasion. Yet, to the contrary, overexpression of UCH-L3 in highly metastatic prostate cancer cell line PC3 reverses EMT but the active site mutant UCH-L3 did not. Collectively, our findings identify UCH-L3 as a novel EMT regulator in prostate cells and highlight UCH-L3 as a potential therapeutic target for preventing metastatic prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence du feu et du pâturage sur l'évolution de la phytomasse d'une savane à Heteropogon contortus de la région de Sakaraha (sud-ouest de Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakotoarimanana, V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Fire and Grazing on Grass Phytomass Evolution in a Heteropogon contortus Savanna (Sakaraha Region, South West Madagascar. An experimental study of the effects of fire and grazing was carried out in the Sakaraha area (S. W. Madagascar. The objectives were to evaluate the combined or separate effects of fire and grazing on the green biomass and total phytomass of a Heteropogon contortus-Poupartia caffra dominated savanna. Three burning treatments (no burning, early burning and late burning and two grazing treatments (grazed, ungrazed were compared. A three-year study showed that (1 both burning treatments led to a delayed vegetation phenophase but a higher standing phytomass at the end of the growth cycle, (2 grazing treatment led to a significant decrease of the standing phytomass and of the contribution of Poaceae.

  12. Revising the worksheet with L3: a language and environment foruser-script interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohn, Michael H.

    2008-01-22

    This paper describes a novel approach to the parameter anddata handling issues commonly found in experimental scientific computingand scripting in general. The approach is based on the familiarcombination of scripting language and user interface, but using alanguage expressly designed for user interaction and convenience. The L3language combines programming facilities of procedural and functionallanguages with the persistence and need-based evaluation of data flowlanguages. It is implemented in Python, has access to all Pythonlibraries, and retains almost complete source code compatibility to allowsimple movement of code between the languages. The worksheet interfaceuses metadata produced by L3 to provide selection of values through thescriptit self and allow users to dynamically evolve scripts withoutre-running the prior versions. Scripts can be edited via text editors ormanipulated as structures on a drawing canvas. Computed values are validscripts and can be used further in other scripts via simplecopy-and-paste operations. The implementation is freely available underan open-source license.

  13. The (SPP) Green function and SU(3) breaking in K{sub l3} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ecker, Gerhard [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Eidemueller, Markus [Departament de Fisica Teorica, IFIC, CSIC - Universitat de Valencia, Edifici d' Instituts de Paterna, Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Kaiser, Roland [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pich, Antonio [Departament de Fisica Teorica, IFIC, CSIC - Universitat de Valencia, Edifici d' Instituts de Paterna, Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Portoles, Jorge [Departament de Fisica Teorica, IFIC, CSIC - Universitat de Valencia, Edifici d' Instituts de Paterna, Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-04-01

    Using the 1/N{sub C} expansion scheme and truncating the hadronic spectrum to the lowest-lying resonances, we match a meromorphic approximation to the (SPP) Green function onto QCD by imposing the correct large-momentum falloff, both off-shell and on the relevant hadron mass shells. In this way we determine a number of chiral low-energy constants of O(p{sup 6}), in particular the ones governing SU(3) breaking in the K{sub l3} vector form factor at zero momentum transfer. The main result of our matching procedure is that the known loop contributions largely dominate the corrections of O(p{sup 6}) to f{sub +}(0). We discuss the implications of our final value f{sub +}{sup K{sup 0}}{sup {pi}{sup -}}(0) 0.984{+-}0.012 for the extraction of V{sub us} from K{sub l3} decays.

  14. The effect of symmetry on the U L3 NEXAFS of octahedral coordinated uranium(vi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagus, Paul S. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203-5017, USA; Nelin, Connie J. [Consultant, Austin, Texas 78730, USA; Ilton, Eugene S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA

    2017-03-21

    We describe a detailed theoretical analysis of how distortions from ideal cubic or Oh symmetry affect the shape, in particular the width, of the U L3-edge NEXAFS for U(VI) in octahedral coordination. The full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of the L3-edge white line decreases with increasing distortion from Oh symmetry due to the mixing of symmetry broken t2g and eg components of the excited state U(6d) orbitals. The mixing is allowed because of spin-orbit splitting of the ligand field split 6d orbitals. Especially for higher distortions, it is possible to identify a mixing between one of the t2g and one of the eg components, allowed in the double group representation when the spin-orbit interaction is taken into account. This mixing strongly reduces the ligand field splitting, which, in turn, leads to a narrowing of the U L3 white line. However, the effect of this mixing is partially offset by an increase in the covalent anti-bonding character of the highest energy spin-orbit split eg orbital. At higher distortions, mixing overwhelms the increasing anti-bonding character of this orbital which leads to an accelerated decrease in the FWHM with increasing distortion. Additional evidence for the effect of mixing of t2g and eg components is that the FWHM of the white line narrows whether the two axial U-O bond distances shorten or lengthen. Our ab initio theory uses relativistic wavefunctions for cluster models of the structures; empirical or semi-empirical parameters were not used to adjust prediction to experiment. A major advantage is that it provides a transparent approach for determining how the character and extent of the covalent mixing of the relevant U and O orbitals affect the U L3-edge white line.

  15. Results on the calibration of the L3 BGO calorimeter with cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, J.A.; Barone, L.; Bay, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Boutigny, D.; Brock, I.C.; Buisson, C.; Capell, M.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; Diemoz, M.; Duchesneau, D.; El Mamouni, H.; Extermann, P.; Fay, J.; Ferroni, F.; Gailloud, M.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Gupta, V.K.; Hilgers, K.; Ille, B.; Janssen, H.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kasser, A.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Krenz, W.; Lebrun, P.; Lecoq, P.; Leonardi, E.; Linde, F.L.; Lindemann, B.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Martin, J.P.; Merk, M.; Micke, M.; Morganti, S.; Newman, H.; Organtini, G.; Piroue, P.A.; Read, K.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosselet, P.; Sauvage, G.; Schmitz, D.; Schneegans, M.; Schwenke, J.; Stickland, D.P.; Tully, C.; Valente, E.; Vivargent, M.; Vuilleumier, L.; Wang, Y.F.; Weber, A.; Weill, R.; Wenninger, J. (1. Physikalisches Inst., RWTH-Aachen (Germany) National Inst. for High Energy Physics, NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands) Lab. d' Annecy-l; L3 BGO Collaboration

    1994-04-11

    During 1991 two cosmic rays runs took place for the calibration of the L3 electromagnetic calorimeter. In this paper we present the results of the first high statistics cosmic ray calibration of the calorimeter in situ, including the end caps. Results show that the accuracy on the measurement of the calibration constants that can be achieved in one month of data taking is of 1.3%. (orig.)

  16. Single tagged 2γ events with BGO, ALR, and VSAT of L3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksay, Laszlo; Dehmelt, Klaus; Hohlmann, Marcus

    2003-11-01

    In order to extend the investigation of the Q^2 evolution of the hadronic structure function F_2^γ with L3, to Q^2 as low as 0.5GeV^2 and as high as 3850GeV^2, we will include the electromagnetic calorimeters (BGO), active lead rings (ALR), and the very small angle tagging detectors (VSAT) as tagging devices for single tagged 2γ events. Strategies for selecting events with these detector components will be presented.

  17. Spacecraft trajectories to the L3 point of the Sun-Earth three-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantardini, Marco; Fantino, Elena; Ren, Yuan; Pergola, Pierpaolo; Gómez, Gerard; Masdemont, Josep J.

    2010-11-01

    Of the three collinear libration points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem (CR3BP), L3 is that located opposite to the Earth with respect to the Sun and approximately at the same heliocentric distance. Whereas several space missions have been launched to the other two collinear equilibrium points, i.e., L1 and L2, taking advantage of their dynamical and geometrical characteristics, the region around L3 is so far unexploited. This is essentially due to the severe communication limitations caused by the distant and permanent opposition to the Earth, and by the gravitational perturbations mainly induced by Jupiter and the close passages of Venus, whose effects are more important than those due to the Earth. However, the adoption of a suitable periodic orbit around L3 to ensure the necessary communication links with the Earth, or the connection with one or more relay satellites located at L4 or L5, and the simultaneous design of an appropriate station keeping-strategy, would make it possible to perform valuable fundamental physics and astrophysics investigations from this location. Such an opportunity leads to the need of studying the ways to transfer a spacecraft (s/c) from the Earth’s vicinity to L3. In this contribution, we investigate several trajectory design methods to accomplish such a transfer, i.e., various types of two-burn impulsive trajectories in a Sun-s/c two-body model, a patched conics strategy exploiting the gravity assist of the nearby planets, an approach based on traveling on invariant manifolds of periodic orbits in the Sun-Earth CR3BP, and finally a low-thrust transfer. We examine advantages and drawbacks, and we estimate the propellant budget and time of flight requirements of each.

  18. Search for scalar leptons at LEP with the L3 detector

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Lei

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, I present a search for scalar leptons in e+e- annihilation using the L3 detector at LEP. Data collected in 1999 and 2000, at center-of-mass energies between 192 GeV and 208 GeV, was used in this analysis. This work covered the scalar lepton searches in both SUGRA and GMSB models. To achieve this analysis, a parametrized selection was developed to handle the different event signatures in SUGRA models. Improvement of the L3 simulation and reconstruction program packages was carried out so that one can simulated the scalar leptons in GMSB models correctly. The simulation of the L3 Time Expansion Chamber (TEC) dE/dx measurement was rewritten to facilitate the analysis for a stable slepton signal, which is relevant in some parts of the parameter space in GMSB models. In this analysis, we didn't abserve any significant indication of scalar lepton production of any type. We achieved the following mass exclusion limits for scalar leptons in SUGRA models, for large dM: M(scalar e) > 97 GeV (expected 97...

  19. Purification and properties of L-3-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase from pig brain mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, I R; Ragan, C I

    1980-10-15

    L-3-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.5) was purified from pig brain mitochondria by extraction with deoxycholate, ion-exchange chromatography and (NH4)2SO4 fractionation in cholate, and preparative isoelectric focusing in Triton X-100. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows that the purified enzyme consists of a single subunit of mol.wt. 75 000. The enzyme contains non-covalently bound FAD and low concentrations of iron and acid labile sulphide. No substrate reducible e.p.r. signals were detected. The conditions of purification, particularly the isoelectric focusing step, lead to considerable loss of FAD and possibly iron-sulphur centres. It is therefore not possible to decide with certainty whether the enzyme is a flavoprotein or a ferroflavoprotein. The enzyme catalyses the oxidation of L-3-glycerophosphate by a variety of electron acceptors, including ubiquinone analogues. A number if compounds known to inhibit ubiquinone oxidoreduction by other enzymes of the respiratory chain failed to inhibit L-3-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, except at very high concentrations.

  20. Determination of the masses of electrical weak gauge bosons with L3

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbleck, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the masses of the carriers of the weak force in the Standard Model of Particle Physics, the gauge bosons W and Z. The masses are determined using the kinematics of the bosons' decay products. The data were collected by the L3 experiment at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) at centre-of-mass energies, sqrt(s), between 183 GeV and 209 GeV in the years 1997 to 2000. The mass of the Z-boson, mZ, is already known very precisely: The L3 collaboration determined it to be mZ = 91.1898 +- 0.0031 GeV from a scan of the Z resonance. Therefore the main aim of this analysis is not the determination of the numerical value of mZ; instead the analysis is used to cross-check the measurement of the W boson mass since the methods are similar. Alternatively, the analysis can be used to measure the mean centre-of-mass energy at the L3 interaction point. The Z-boson mass is determined to be mZ = 91.272 +- 0.046 GeV. If interpreted as measurement of the centre-of-mass energy, this va...

  1. Ancylostoma caninum: the finger cell neurons mediate thermotactic behavior by infective larvae of the dog hookworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopale, V M; Kupprion, E K; Ashton, F T; Boston, R; Schad, G A

    2001-02-01

    Bhopale, V. M., Kupprion, E. K., Ashton, F. T., Boston, R., and Schad, G. A. 2001. Ancylostoma caninum: The finger cell neurons mediate thermotactic behavior by infective larvae of the dog hookworm. Experimental Parasitology 97, 70-76. In the amphids (anteriorly positioned, paired sensilla) of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the so-called finger cells (AFD), a pair of neurons, each of which ends in a cluster of microvilli-like projections, are known to be the primary thermoreceptors. A similar neuron pair in the amphids of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus is also known to be thermoreceptive. The hookworm of dogs, Ancylostoma caninum, has apparent structural homologs of finger cells in its amphids. The neuroanatomy of the amphids of A. caninum and H. contortus is strikingly similar, and the amphidial cell bodies in the lateral ganglia of the latter nematode have been identified and mapped. When the lateral ganglia of first-stage larvae (L1) of A. caninum are examined with differential interference contrast microscopy, positional homologs of the recognized amphidial cell bodies in the lateral ganglia of H. contortus L1 are readily identified in A. caninum. The amphidial neurons in A. caninum were consequently given the same names as those of their apparent homologs in H. contortus. It was hypothesized that the finger cell neurons (AFD) might mediate thermotaxis by the skin-penetrating infective larvae (L3) of A. caninum. Laser microbeam ablation experiments with A. caninum were conducted, using the H. contortus L1 neuronal map as a guide. A. caninum L1 were anesthetized and the paired AFD class neurons were ablated. The larvae were then cultured to L3 and assayed for thermotaxis on a thermal gradient. L3 with ablated AFD-class neuron pairs showed significantly reduced thermotaxis compared to control groups. The thermoreceptive function of the AFD-class neurons associates this neuron pair with the host-finding process of the A. caninum

  2. Predictive factors for a distal adjacent disorder with L3 as the lowest instrumented vertebra in Lenke 5C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kei; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Akito; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    To investigate what type of Lenke 5C patient benefits most from a fusion to L3 as the LIV. The subjects were 16 patients who underwent fusion surgery to L3 as the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV), and who were then observed for a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. We considered an unsatisfactory radiologic outcome for the distal adjacent curve (DAD) to be an L3 or L4 tilt angle less than 10° or L3/4 disc wedging less than 10°. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the radiologic outcome of the distal curve: the distal adjacent disorder+ (DAD+) and the distal adjacent disorder-(DAD-). We compared global balance, Cobb angles (thoracic and lumbar), L3 and L4 tilt angles and L3/4/5 disc angles between the 2 groups on preoperative, postoperative and final radiographs. Seven patients (43.8 %) met the criteria for the DAD+ group. On preoperative radiographs, there was a significant difference in the L3/4 disc angle: the DAD+ group opened to the preoperative convex side (-2.1° ± 3.0°) and the DAD- group opened to the preoperative concave side (4.7° ± 5.1°). The standing L3- and L4-CSVL and the L4-CSVL under traction were significantly different. In Lenke 5C patients who underwent fusion surgery to L3 as the LIV, preoperative LIV (L3), LIV + 1 (L4) translation and L3/4 disc angle on standing, plus LIV + 1 translation under traction were very important parameters correlating with postoperative global coronal balance.

  3. The arouser EPS8L3 gene is critical for normal memory in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly LaFerriere

    Full Text Available The genetic mechanisms that influence memory formation and sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on behavior in Drosophila have some common elements. So far, these have centered on the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, synapsin and fas2-dependent processes, pumilio-dependent regulators of translation, and a few other genes. However, there are several genes that are important for one or the other behaviors, suggesting that there is an incomplete overlap in the mechanisms that support memory and ethanol sensitive behaviors. The basis for this overlap is far from understood. We therefore examined memory in arouser (aru mutant flies, which have recently been identified as having ethanol sensitivity deficits. The aru mutant flies showed memory deficits in both short-term place memory and olfactory memory tests. Flies with a revertant aru allele had wild-type levels of memory performance, arguing that the aru gene, encoding an EPS8L3 product, has a role in Drosophila memory formation. Furthermore, and interestingly, flies with the aru(8-128 insertion allele had deficits in only one of two genetic backgrounds in place and olfactory memory tests. Flies with an aru imprecise excision allele had deficits in tests of olfactory memory. Quantitative measurements of aru EPS8L3 mRNA expression levels correlate decreased expression with deficits in olfactory memory while over expression is correlated with place memory deficits. Thus, mutations of the aru EPS8L3 gene interact with the alleles of a particular genetic background to regulate arouser expression and reveals a role of this gene in memory.

  4. Measurement of the photon structure function F2 gamma with the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Jin, B.N.; Jindal, P.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2005-01-01

    The e+e- -> e+e- hadrons reaction, where one of the two electrons is detected in a low polar-angle calorimeter, is analysed in order to measure the hadronic photon structure function F2gamma . The full high-energy and high-luminosity data set, collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies 189-209GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 608/pb is used. The Q^2 range 11-34GeV^2 and the x range 0.006-0.556 are considered. The data are compared with recent parton density functions.

  5. Inclusive $\\pi^{0}$ and $K_{S}^{0}$ in $\\gamma \\gamma$ reactions at L3

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P

    2001-01-01

    The e/sup +/e/sup -/ to e/sup +/e/sup -/ pi /sup 0/+X and e/sup +/e /sup -/ to e/sup +/e/sup -/K/sub S//sup 0/+X reactions are studied at LEP using data collected with the L3 detector at square root s =189-202 GeV. Preliminary results for the differential cross section d sigma /dp/sub T/ in the transverse momentum range 0.2 GeV1 GeV the cross sections are compared to NLO QCD calculations and to LO Monte Carlo predictions. (15 refs).

  6. After-dinner speech: the path of LISA to become ‘L3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, M. C. E.

    2017-05-01

    We describe the state of fundamental-physics experiments in space in the mid 1980s on both sides of the Atlantic, and then follow the development of this field within ESA’s Scientific Programme. The special case of LISA — a fundamental physics experiment in space also supported by astronomers, and now, following the ground-based detection of gravitational waves, the means to extend the observable spectrum of such waves towards lower frequencies and long-lasting signals — is then followed in its rise to become the ‘Large Project L3’ of ESA.

  7. L3 (sponge) phase in the very dilute regime : spontaneous tearing of the membrane ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filali, M.; Porte, G.; Appell, J.; Pfeuty, P.

    1994-02-01

    We use light scattering and conductimetry to investigate the very dilute range of the domain of existence of the sponge (L3) phase in the quaternary OBS/pentanol/brine system. In this part of the phase diagram we find a line of maximum turbidity where the scattered intensity shows a very sharp maximum and has a pure Ornstein Zernicke q-dependence. These features are not consistent with what is expected close to the symmetric asymmetric transition line. We question the possibility of the spontaneous tearing of the membrane first considered on theoretical grounds by Huse and Leibler (Phys.~Rev.~Lett. 66 (1991) 437).

  8. Mutations in the bacterial ribosomal protein l3 and their association with antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Rasmus N; Ntokou, Eleni; Nørgaard, Katrine

    2015-01-01

    Different groups of antibiotics bind to the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) in the large subunit of the bacterial ribosome. Resistance to these groups of antibiotics has often been linked with mutations or methylations of the 23S rRNA. In recent years, there has been a rise in the number...... of studies where mutations have been found in the ribosomal protein L3 in bacterial strains resistant to PTC-targeting antibiotics but there is often no evidence that these mutations actually confer antibiotic resistance. In this study, a plasmid exchange system was used to replace plasmid-carried wild...

  9. Taking L3 Learning by the Horns: Benefits of Computer-Mediated Intervention for Dyslexic School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfenninger, Simone E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the interrelation of motivation, autonomy, metacognition, and L3 gains made as a function of three months of intervention with computer software specifically designed for the private use of dyslexic Swiss German learners of Standard German as a second language (L2) and English as a third language (L3). Based on…

  10. Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Phe-Lys-Ala-NH2 (Antho-KAamide), a novel neuropeptide from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nothacker, H P; Rinehart, K L; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated and sequenced the neuropeptide L-3-phenyllactyl-Phe-Lys-Ala-NH2 from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. This neuropeptide (named Antho-KAamide) has the unusual N-terminal L-3-phenyllactyl blocking group which has recently also been discovered in 2 other neuropeptides from...

  11. 76 FR 29274 - Interstate Electronics Corp., a Subsidiary of L-3 Communications Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Interstate Electronics Corp., a Subsidiary of L-3 Communications Including On-Site Leased Workers from Bently Global Resources, Manpower Professional Huntington Beach... Electronics Corp., a subsidiary of L-3 Communications, including on-site leased workers from Bently Global...

  12. Effects of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) extract and monomers of condensed tannins on the association of abomasal nematode larvae with fundic explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, S; Jackson, F; Hoste, H

    2008-06-01

    Tannin-rich forages offer an alternative to anthelmintic chemicals to control gastrointestinal nematodes. However, the mode of action of such bioactive plants still needs to be assessed. Previous studies have shown that extracts of tannin-rich plants interfere with the first phase of host invasion, i.e., the exsheathment of infective larvae (L3s). In the current study, we examined the hypothesis that exposure to tannins could also affect the second phase of larval establishment, i.e., the tissue association/penetration of the exsheathed L3s into the digestive mucosae. An in vitro direct challenge technique using fundic explants was applied in this study. The main parasite model was Haemonchus contortus. The objectives were to verify: (i) whether a modification of the association/penetration of L3s with the mucosae occurred after contact with sainfoin extract; (ii) whether this is a dose-dependent phenomenon; (iii) whether tannins were responsible for these effects; (iv) whether these effects were dependent on the parasite species; and (v) how the biochemical structure of tannins might influence these effects. Following 3h contact with sainfoin extract at 1,200 microg/ml, the penetration of exsheathed L3s of H. contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta into fundic explants was significantly reduced. Moreover, a dose-response relationship was found for H. contortus. For both nematodes, the changes were totally alleviated after addition of polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, an inhibitor of tannins, to the sainfoin extract, suggesting that tannins play a major role in the observed effects. Comparison of results obtained with different monomers of condensed tannins confirms a relationship between structure and activity, the prodelphinidin monomers and galloyl-derivatives being more effective than the procyanidin monomers. Combined with the delay or the inhibition of larval exsheathment previously shown, these effects could explain how tanniniferous plants reduce the establishment

  13. Dynamics of the free-living stages of sheep intestinal parasites on pasture in the North Island of New Zealand. 2. Weather variables associated with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynecke, D P; Waghorn, T S; Oliver, A-M B; Miller, C M; Vlassoff, A; Leathwick, D M

    2011-11-01

    To identify weather variables associated with the development of eggs of Teladorsagia (=Ostertagia) circumcincta, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus to third-stage infective larvae (L3) under a range of climatic conditions on pasture in the North Island of New Zealand. Sheep faeces containing known numbers of eggs of all three nematode species were deposited on, or buried in, pasture plots at three sites, viz coastal Manawatu, Upper Hutt Valley, and East Cape hill country. Development was measured by recovering L3 from faeces, herbage and soil 28-31 days after deposition, on 13-18 occasions between January 2005 until July 2006. Weather data were recorded at each site, and the association between weather variables and number of L3 recovered was analysed using subsets regression to select best-fitting models from several candidate variables, after adjustment for efficiency of recovery of L3. A multiple linear regression model was then developed for each species, to select weather variables that had both significant and substantive effects on the number of L3 recovered. For all species, mean daily temperature was the best predictor of the number of L3 recovered (p=0.001). For T.circumcincta the final model included mean daily temperature and soil temperature (R²=51%), and for T. colubriformis the model only included mean daily temperature (R²=55%). For development of H. contortus, mean daily temperature was the most significant variable, but moisture in the form of rainfall entropy, i.e. the temporal distribution of rainfall, over the first 14 days was also significant in the final model (R²=34%). Temperature was the most important determinant of developmental success of free-living nematodes on pasture at the study sites, and probably also for other parts of New Zealand with similar climates. Moisture was not significant in the development of T. circumcincta or T.colubriformis, implying that under the generally moist temperate climate in New

  14. Activity of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil against L3 Anisakis larvae type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Muscolino, Daniele; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Marotta, Stefania Maria; Lo Presti, Vittorio; Chiofalo, Vincenzo; Panebianco, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate in vitro effects of Tagetes minuta L. essential oil (TEO) on L3 Anisakis larvae type 1. In order to evaluate the potential use of Tagetes minuta essential oil against L3 Anisakis larvae three different media were tested: 1) a saline solution (SS); 2) an industrial marinating solution (MS); 3) sunflower seeds oil (SO). For each media and concentrations of TEO (0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 5.0% v/v), 20 parasites were introduced into plastic Petri dishes (diameter 90 mm) and maintained at room temperature. As controls, larvae were maintained without TEO under identical experimental conditions in SS, MS and SO. A total of 900 larvae were tested. The normalized mean viability, LT100, LT50 and the percentage of inactivation at 24 h were calculated. In vitro tests revealed a complete inactivation of parasites in saline solution after 2 h with 5% and 1% of TEO. In marinating solution, a complete inactivation of parasites was observed after 4 h at all concentrations used. A slower activity for all TEO concentration was reported in SO. The results obtained, showing a strong activity against Anisakis larvae, confirm TEO as a larvicidal agent in the treatment of human anisakidosis and in the industrial marinating process. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel EWS-CREB3L3 gene fusion in a mesenteric sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Barbara; Libbrecht, Louis; Levy, Gabriel; Brichard, Benedicte; Vanspauwen, Vanessa; Sciot, Raf; Debiec-Rychter, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare, malignant fibroblastic neoplasm, morphologically composed of cords, nests or sheets of monotonous epithelioid cells within a collagenous matrix. It has been recently characterized by recurrent pathogenic EWS-CREB3L1/2 or FUS-CREB3L2 fusions and common MUC4 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Typically SEF occur in middle-aged adults and rarely have been reported within the abdominal cavity. Here we report an 18-year-old man with intraabdominal tumor and multiple disseminated liver metastases, presenting pure SEF histologic and immunophenotypic features. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed unbalanced rearrangement of Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) gene. Genomic profiling by array CGH, followed by RT-PCR and sequencing analysis, revealed a previously not reported EWSR1 translocation partner, cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3 (CREB3L3). The novel EWSR1-CREB3L3 fusion further extends the range of fusion types involving EWSR1 that are characteristic for SEF. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sublingual vein parameters, AFP, AFP-L3, and GP73 in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Guo, L-Y; Yang, J-M; Jia, J-W

    2015-06-26

    This study evaluated the diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), AFP heterogeneity 3 (AFP-L3), Golgi protein 73 (GP73), and sublingual vein parameters in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Levels of serum AFP, AFP-L3, GP73, and sublingual vein scores were measured in 34 patients with chronic hepatitis, 65 patients with post-hepatitis B cirrhosis, 71 patients with HCC, and 6 healthy controls. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore potential correlations. Sublingual vein grades in patients with HCC were higher than those in the other three groups; sublingual vein scores were also different between groups; combined diagnosis using AFP, GP73, and sublingual vein grade was superior to the individual parameters alone or when only two were used in different combinations. Thus, sublingual vein grade can be considered as an independent risk factor for diagnosis of HCC. Furthermore, combined detection with AFP, GP73, and sublingual vein grade is simple, inexpensive, and effective. It may therefore be suitable for screening high-risk populations for early diagnosis of HCC.

  17. The Solar Flare of the 14th of July 2000 (L3+C detector results)

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bähr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chiarusi, T; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Dela Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; De Asmundis, R; Dglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Durán, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grabosch, H J; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Herv, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, A; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jindal, P; Jing, C L; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kantserov, V A; Kaur, M; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kraber, M; Kuang, H H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Rembeczki, S; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P A M; Riemann, S; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schöneich, B; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, G; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Van Wijk, R; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Y P; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yang, X F; Yao, Z G; Yeh, S C; Yu, Z Q; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhou, S J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhu, Q Q; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M; Zwart, A N M

    2006-01-01

    Several experiments have reported observations on possible correlations between the flux of high energy muons and intense solar flares. If confirmed, these observations would have significant implications for acceleration processes in the heliosphere able to accelerate protons and other ions to energies of at least tens of GeV. The solar flare of the 14 July 2000 offers a unique opportunity for the L3+C experiment to search for a correlated enhancement in the flux of muons using the L3 precision muon spectrometer. Its capabilities for observing a directional excess in the flux of muons above 15 GeV (corresponding to primary proton energies above 40 GeV) are presented along with observations made on the 14th of July 2000. We report an excess which appeared at a time coincident with the peak increase of solar protons observed at lower energies. The probability that the excess is a background fluctuation is estimated to be 1%. No similar excess of the muon flux was observed up to 1.5 hours after the solar flare ...

  18. GAS2L3, a target gene of the DREAM complex, is required for proper cytokinesis and genomic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Patrick; Schmitt, Kathrin; Fackler, Marc; Kremling, Heidi; Probst, Leona; Hauser, Stefanie; Gruss, Oliver J; Gaubatz, Stefan

    2012-05-15

    The mammalian DREAM complex is a key regulator of cell-cycle-regulated gene transcription and drives the expression of many gene products required for mitosis and cytokinesis. In this study, we characterized GAS2L3, which belongs to the GAS2 family of proteins with putative actin- and microtubule-binding domains as a target gene of DREAM. We found that GAS2L3 localizes to the spindle midzone and the midbody during anaphase and cytokinesis, respectively. Biochemical studies show that GAS2L3 binds to and bundles microtubules as well as F-actin in vitro. Strikingly, the RNAi-mediated knockdown of GAS2L3 results in chromosome segregation defects in multinucleated cells and in cells with multi-lobed nuclei. Likewise, chronic downregulation of GAS2L3 causes chromosome loss and aneuploidy. Time-lapse videomicroscopy experiments in GAS2L3-knockdown cells reveal abnormal oscillation of chromatin and the spindle during cytokinesis. Taken together, our data reveal novel, important roles of GAS2L3 for faithful cell division. Our work thus contributes to the understanding of how DREAM regulates cytokinesis.

  19. Combined Effect of the Cfr Methyltransferase and Ribosomal Protein L3 Mutations on Resistance to Ribosome-Targeting Antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakula, Kevin K; Hansen, Lykke H; Vester, Birte

    2017-01-01

    . The presence of Cfr has a very minor influence on the growth rate. The resistance of the transformants to linezolid, tiamulin, florfenicol, and Synercid (a combination of quinupristin and dalfopristin [Q-D]) was measured by MIC assays. The resistance from Cfr was, in all cases, stronger than the effects...... of the L3 mutations, but various effects were obtained with the combinations of Cfr and L3 mutations ranging from a synergistic to an antagonistic effect. Linezolid and tiamulin susceptibility varied greatly among the L3 mutations, while no significant effects on florfenicol and Q-D susceptibility were...

  20. Proportional chambers of the barrel hadron calorimeter of the L3 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Bachmann, U.; Ball, R.C.; Boehlen, W.E.; Capell, M.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.S.; Chumakov, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.

    1989-02-01

    The design and the mass production of the proportional wire chambers for the barrel part of the uranium-gas sampling hadron calorimeter of the L3 detector at the CERN Large Electron-Positron storage ring (LEP) are described. The chambers meet the specific requirements arising from the limited space available to the calorimeter, the radioactivity of uranium, and the physics criteria of good energy and position resolution for incident hadrons. The mass production techniques employed ensured that all of the 371664 chamber cells have uniform response (with 5% accuracy) to ionizing particles. Over 8000 chambers of the same design, in 53 different sizes, were manufactured and tested at the ITEP (Moscow), at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) and at the IHEP (Beijing).

  1. Leptonic two-photon events measured with L3 at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP)

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmelt, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Virtual photons can fluctuate into diverse final states and among other processes, such fluctuations can yield muon-pairs. The fluctuation is a statistical process and can be described in terms of structure functions for photons. Apart from supplying another test of QED, purely leptonic processes provide a calibration fro the hadronic processes. We report on a measurement of dimuon events with single-tagged two-photon events from the LEP experiment L3, at c.m.s. energies between 189 GeV and 206 GeV, with an integrated luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}$ = 600 pb$^{-1}$. An overview of the fundamental physical processes, the detector and the anaytical tools, used for measuring dimuon events, and a discussion of the structure of dimuon events will be presented.

  2. 2016 CSSE L3 Milestone: Deliver In Situ to XTD End Users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchett, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nouanesengsy, Boonthanome [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fasel, Patricia Kroll [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ahrens, James Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    This report summarizes the activities in FY16 toward satisfying the CSSE 2016 L3 milestone to deliver in situ to XTD end users of EAP codes. The Milestone was accomplished with ongoing work to ensure the capability is maintained and developed. Two XTD end users used the in situ capability in Rage. A production ParaView capability was created in the HPC and Desktop environment. Two new capabilities were added to ParaView in support of an EAP in situ workflow. We also worked with various support groups at the lab to deploy a production ParaView in the LANL environment for both desktop and HPC systems. . In addition, for this milestone, we moved two VTK based filters from research objects into the production ParaView code to support a variety of standard visualization pipelines for our EAP codes.

  3. The active adenovirus protease is the intact L3 23K protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A; Kemp, G

    1993-07-01

    The L3 23K protein was isolated from adenovirus type 2 and shown to cleave purified substrates, confirming that this protein is the adenovirus protease. Separate antisera, prepared against the amino- and carboxy-terminal regions of the 23K protein react with active protease, demonstrating that, contrary to previous reports, zymogen activation is not involved in the regulation of this enzyme. Molecular exclusion chromatography indicated that the protease is active as a monomer. Purified protease was shown to be inhibited by Zn2+ and Cu2+ and by some, but not all, recognized cysteine protease inhibitors, indicating participation of a thiol group and providing additional support to the suggestion that regulation of the enzyme involves a form of thiol-disulphide interchange.

  4. Purifikasi Imunoglobulin Yolk Pada Ayam yang Divaksin terhadap Ekskretori/Sekretori Stadium L3 Ascaridia galli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawi Darmawi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Purification yolk immunoglobulin of hens vaccinated against excretory/secretory Ascaridia galli L3 larvae stage ABSTRACT. The main immunoglobulin fraction of poultry is called IgY, in order to distinguish it from the mammalian IgG. This article focus on purification yolk immunoglobulin of hens vaccinated against excretory/secretory Ascaridia galli larvae to obtained purity IgY. Active vaccinations with excretory/secretory antigen were applied intra muscularly of chickens with an initial dose of 80 μg. The vaccinations were repeated three times with dose of each 60 μg with an interval of one week. The first vaccinations were excretory/secretory antigen mixed with Fruend Adjuvant Complete and subsequently mixed with Freund Adjuvant Incomplete. Antibody response in yolk was detected at weekly intervals by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT. The chicken’s eggs were collected from 49 day after vaccinations. IgY was extracted from egg yolks by means of ammonium sulphate and purified using fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC. The purity of anti-ekscretory/secretory IgY protein was determined by Bradford method (λ = 280 nm. The result showed that antibody in yolk was begun detect with AGPT at four weeks after vaccination. IgY concentration after purification was 0,875 ± 0.251 mg/ml. This study has shown that the product released in vitro by L3 stage A. galli is capable of stimulating humoral immunity by mean of producing antibody through yolk as biologic manufacturer could be a good choice.

  5. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Photosynthetically Active Radiation Daily/3-Hour L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD18A2 Version 6 is a MODIS Terra and Aqua combined Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) gridded L3 product produced daily at 5 kilometer pixel resolution...

  6. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Surface Radiation Daily/3-Hour L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD18A1 Version 6 is a MODIS Terra and Aqua combined Downward Shortwave Radiation (DSR) gridded L3 product produced daily at 5 kilometer pixel resolution with...

  7. MODIS/Aqua 8-Day Clear Sky Radiance Bias Daily L3 Global 1Deg Zonal Bands V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "MODIS/AQUA 8 Day Clear Sky Radiance Bias Daily L3 Global 1 Deg Zonal Bands", MYDCSR_B files contain 1-degree zonal mean clear-sky biases (observed minus...

  8. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MYD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  9. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MOD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MYD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  11. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MOD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  12. Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Noon Normalized) Daily L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Noon Normalized) Daily L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones data product (MSLERNNL3zm) is derived from observations...

  13. MODIS/Aqua 8-Day Clear Sky Radiance Bias Daily L3 Global 1Deg Zonal Bands V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is dataset "MODIS/AQUA 8 Day Clear Sky Radiance Bias Daily L3 Global 1 Deg Zonal Bands". View the MODIS Science Team home page for data set information:...

  14. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer identifies EPB41L3 as a functional suppressor of epithelial ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafou, Dimitra; Grun, Barbara; Sinclair, John

    2010-01-01

    lines. Using immunohistochemistry, 66% of 794 invasive ovarian tumors showed no EPB41L3 expression compared with only 24% of benign ovarian tumors and 0% of normal ovarian epithelial tissues. EPB41L3 was extensively methylated in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors compared with normal...... (erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3, alternative names DAL-1 and 4.1B) was a candidate ovarian cancer-suppressor gene. Immunoblot analysis showed that EPB41L3 was activated in TOV21G(+18) hybrids, expressed in normal ovarian epithelial cell lines, but was absent in 15 (78%) of 19 ovarian cancer cell...... tissues (P = .00004), suggesting this may be the mechanism of gene inactivation in ovarian cancers. Constitutive reexpression of EPB41L3 in a three-dimensional multicellular spheroid model of ovarian cancer caused significant growth suppression and induced apoptosis. Transmission and scanning electron...

  15. MODIS/Terra Vegetation Cover Conversion 96-Day L3 Global 250m SIN Grid V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD44A.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 23, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Vegetation Continuous Fields Yearly L3 Global...

  16. The implications of the final L3 measurement of $\\sigma_{tot}(\\gamma\\gamma\\to b\\bar{b}$

    CERN Document Server

    Chyla, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    The excess of data on the total cross section of $\\bar{b}b$ production in $\\gamma\\gamma$ collisions over QCD predictions, observed by L3, OPAL and DELPHI Collaborations at LEP2, has so far defied explanation. The recent final analysis of L3 data has brought important new information concerning the dependence of the observed excess on the $\\gamma\\gamma$ collisions energy $W_{\\gamma\\gamma}$. The implications of this dependence are discussed.

  17. Prognostic Role of Pre-Treatment Serum AFP-L3% in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjun; Liu, Xi; Li, Muxing; Wu, Zheng; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3%) has been widely used for HCC diagnosis and follow-up surveillance as tumor serologic marker. However, the prognostic value of high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. We therefore conduct a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and clinical outcome of HCC. Methods Eligible studies were identified through systematic literature searches. A meta-analysis of fifteen studies (4,465 patients) was carried out to evaluate the association between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in HCC patients. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also conducted in this meta-analysis. Results Our analysis results showed that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% implied poor OS (HR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.45–1.89 p<0.00001) and DFS (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.49–2.17 p<0.00001) of HCC. Subgroup analysis revealed that there was association between pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and endpoint (OS and DFS) in low AFP concentration HCC patients (HR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.24–3.10, p = 0.004; HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.09–5.89, p = 0.03, respectively). Conclusion The current evidence suggests that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% levels indicated a poor prognosis for patients with HCC and AFP-L3% may have significant prognostic value in HCC patients with low AFP concentration. PMID:24498011

  18. Prognostic role of pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in hepatocellular carcinoma: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwen Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3% has been widely used for HCC diagnosis and follow-up surveillance as tumor serologic marker. However, the prognostic value of high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remains controversial. We therefore conduct a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and clinical outcome of HCC. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified through systematic literature searches. A meta-analysis of fifteen studies (4,465 patients was carried out to evaluate the association between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS in HCC patients. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also conducted in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: Our analysis results showed that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% implied poor OS (HR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.45-1.89 p<0.00001 and DFS (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.49-2.17 p<0.00001 of HCC. Subgroup analysis revealed that there was association between pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and endpoint (OS and DFS in low AFP concentration HCC patients (HR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.24-3.10, p = 0.004; HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.09-5.89, p = 0.03, respectively. CONCLUSION: The current evidence suggests that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% levels indicated a poor prognosis for patients with HCC and AFP-L3% may have significant prognostic value in HCC patients with low AFP concentration.

  19. Prognostic role of pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in hepatocellular carcinoma: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiwen; Wang, Wanli; Zhang, Yingjun; Liu, Xi; Li, Muxing; Wu, Zheng; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Serum lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3%) has been widely used for HCC diagnosis and follow-up surveillance as tumor serologic marker. However, the prognostic value of high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. We therefore conduct a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and clinical outcome of HCC. Eligible studies were identified through systematic literature searches. A meta-analysis of fifteen studies (4,465 patients) was carried out to evaluate the association between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in HCC patients. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also conducted in this meta-analysis. Our analysis results showed that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% implied poor OS (HR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.45-1.89 pAFP-L3% and endpoint (OS and DFS) in low AFP concentration HCC patients (HR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.24-3.10, p = 0.004; HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.09-5.89, p = 0.03, respectively). The current evidence suggests that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% levels indicated a poor prognosis for patients with HCC and AFP-L3% may have significant prognostic value in HCC patients with low AFP concentration.

  20. Preparation and In Vitro Evaluation of Antitumor Activity of TGFαL3-SEB as a Ligand-Targeted Superantigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Fazlollah; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Aslani, Mohammad Mehdi; Amani, Jafar; Rad, Hamid Sedighian; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani

    2016-04-01

    Tumor-targeted superantigens (TTSs) have been used to treat a variety of tumors in preclinical studies. The TTS utilizes the powerful T-cell activation strategy by means of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) as superantigens (Sags) to target tumor cells. Monoclonal antibodies and tumor-related ligands have been used as targeting molecules of Sag. In this study, we assessed the antitumor potency of tumor-targeted superantigen (TTS) strategy to design and produce fusion protein as a new antitumor candidate. The third loop (L3) of transforming growth factor α (TGF-α) was genetically conjugated to staphylococcal enterotoxin type B (TGFαL3-SEB), and its in vitro antitumor activity against murine breast cancer cells (A431 cell line) was evaluated. We designed and prepared TGFαL3-SEB chimeric protein and evaluated superantigenic activity, binding property to cancer cells, overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and in vitro antitumor activities. Cloning of tgfαl3-seb was confirmed by colony-polymerase chain reaction, enzymatic digestion, and sequencing. The recombinant TGFαL3-SEB fusion protein with molecular weight of 31 kDa was expressed and confirmed by anti-His Western-blot analysis. The TGFαL3-SEB fusion protein attached to A431 cell line with proper affinity and induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity against EGFR-expressing cancer cells in vitro. The TGFαL3-SEB chimeric protein exhibited potent in vitro antitumor activity. Our findings indicated that TGFαL3-SEB may be a promising anticancer candidate in cancer immunotherapy, and further studies are required to explore its potential in vivo therapeutic applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Phylogenetic Analysis of Nucleotide Sequences from the ITS Region and Biological Characterization of Nematophagous Fungi from Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Sarahí Castañeda-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the morphological taxonomy of eighteen nematophagous fungi (NF, as well as their in vitro predatory activity against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3. Fungi were classified into six genera and three species, the most common of which were Monacrosporium eudermatum and Arthrobotrys oligospora. We then sequenced five NF isolates using ITS4 and ITS5 primers. These sequences showed high identity with sequences from the NCBI database (98-99%. In contrast, alignments among the same genera and species demonstrated 83–97% identity. Polymorphisms observed between Arthrobotrys and Monacrosporium appear to be associated with differences in biological function, nonspecific mutations, evolutionary processes, feeding behaviour, predatory activity, and microecosystems.

  2. Activity of Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against L3 Larvae of Anisakis simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Gómez-Rincón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematicidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, commonly known as tea tree oil (TTO, was assayed in vitro against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex. The results showed a mortality of 100% for concentrations between 7 and 10 μL/mL after 48 h of incubation, obtaining an LD50 value of 4.53 μL/mL after 24 hours and 4.27 μL/mL after 48 hours. Concentration-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was observed for tea tree essential oil showing inhibition values of 100% at 100 μL/mL. This fact suggests that TTO may act as an AChE inhibitor. Terpinen-4-ol was discarded as main larvicide compound as it did not show larvicidal or anticholinesterase activity. The data obtained suggest that the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia may have a great therapeutic potential for the treatment of human anisakiasis.

  3. Attitude towards English and ESP acquisition as an L2 or L3 at university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Mikel González Ardeo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Although several researchers have already investigated whether knowing more than one language will help students acquire additional languages (Edwards, 1995; Klein, 1995; Cenoz & Genesse, 1998b, one of the still unexplored areas when considering the difference between bilingualism and trilingualism is that of linguistic behaviour referred to adults (Hoffmann, 1999. The present study reflects on the socio-cultural and sociopolitical situation in the Basque Country and its relationship with performance in English as L2 or L3. Thus, a research was carried out by testing matched groups of Monolingual (Ml (Spanish versus Bilingual (Bl (Basque/Spanish university students, acquiring English for Specific Purposes (ESP within the following fields: Engineering "mechanical branch", Business Administration, and Nursing. Participants were tested on acquisition of specific technical vocabulary from their fields of study, and they were invited to complete a questionnaire on attitudes towards English. The Bls as a whole outperformed slightly the Mls, suggesting that Bls' immediate/academic aims are somewhat more easily achieved but the differences were not statistically significant. As far as their attitudes towards English are concerned, the differences between Mls and Bls were not significant either, both groups showing overall positive attitudes towards English.

  4. Charm and bottom production in two photon collisions at LEP with the L3 detector

    CERN Document Server

    Saremi, S

    2001-01-01

    Inclusive c and b quark production in gamma gamma collisions are studied with the L3 detector at the LEP collider. Data were collected at centre of mass energies from 189 GeV to 202 GeV for a total integrated luminosity of 410 pb/sup -1/. Hadronic final states containing c and b quarks are identified by detecting electrons or muons from their semileptonic decays. The cross section sigma ( gamma gamma to ccX) is measured as a function of the two photon centre of mass energy in the interval 5 GeV

  5. Complete suppression of Pfirsch-Schlueter current in a toroidal l=3 stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yasuhiko; Wakatani, Masahiro [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Yokoyama, Masayuki [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Pustovitov, V.D. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-10-01

    Pfirsch-Schlueter (P-S) current is an inherent property of a finite pressure toroidal equilibrium of tokamak and stellarator. However, it was pointed out recently (V.D. Pustovitov, Nuclear Fusion 36 (1996) 583) that the P-S current would be suppressed completely if the external vertical field could be adjusted to satisfy the condition {omega}=<{omega}> in an l=3 stellarator. Here {omega}=/B{sub 0}{sup 2}-2{epsilon} cos{theta}, l is a pole number, |B tilde| the vacuum helical magnetic field, B{sub 0} the toroidal field, {epsilon} the inverse aspect ratio, {theta} the poloidal angle and <...> denotes the average over the toroidal angle. An example of such a stellarator equilibrium is presented in this paper. For this stellarator equilibrium, behavior of rotational transform and Boozer magnetic spectrum is clarified when the pressure is increased. Both formation of helical magnetic axis and reduction of toroidal curvature are important ingredients to reduce the P-S current. However, the collisionless particle confinement is not improved in this example. (author)

  6. Electronic and phonon excitations in α -RuC l3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, S.; Mayr, F.; Wang, Zhe; Do, Seung-Hwan; Choi, K.-Y.; Loidl, A.

    2017-10-01

    We report on terahertz (THz), infrared reflectivity, and transmission experiments for wavenumbers from 10 to 8000 c m-1 (˜1 meV -1 eV ) and for temperatures from 5 to 295 K on the Kitaev candidate material α -RuC l3 . As reported earlier, the compound under investigation passes through a first-order structural phase transition, from a monoclinic high-temperature to a rhombohedral low-temperature phase. The phase transition shows an extreme and unusual hysteretic behavior, which extends from 60 to 166 K. In passing this phase transition, in the complete frequency range investigated, we found a significant reflectance change, which amounts to almost a factor of two. We provide a broadband spectrum of dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and optical conductivity from the THz to the mid-infrared regime and study in detail the phonon response and the low-lying electronic density of states. We provide evidence for the onset of an optical energy gap, which is on the order of 200 meV, in good agreement with the gap derived from measurements of the dc electrical resistivity. Remarkably, the onset of the gap exhibits a strong blue shift on increasing temperatures.

  7. Antihelmintic effects of nutmeg (Myristica fragans) on Anisakis simplex L3 larvae obtained from Micromesistius potassou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Víctor; Gerique, Javier; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; Valero, Marta Sofía; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota

    2015-06-01

    Anisakis simplex is a foodborne pathogen that can produce human infections and allergic reactions due to the high consumption of raw fish. The seeds of Myristica fragans (Myristicaceae), popularly known as nutmeg, are worldwide used as a culinary spice due to its flavour and properties in food preservation. A nutmeg extract was prepared, analyzed, screened for cytotoxicity and tested against Anisakis simplex L3 larvae. In order to detect the biologically active constituents of the extract, myristicin was tested on the larvae. An acetylcholinesterase inhibition bioassay was also carried out to investigate the antihelmintic mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that nutmeg exerts antihelmintic effects on Anisakis simplex, being myristicin one of the active compounds. The extract induced a high rate of dead anisakis at concentrations between 0.5 and 0.7 mg/ml without being considered cytotoxic; however, an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was discarded as the molecular mechanism involved in the activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Activity of Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) Essential Oil against L3 Larvae of Anisakis simplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, Elisa; Murillo, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Nematicidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, commonly known as tea tree oil (TTO), was assayed in vitro against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex. The results showed a mortality of 100% for concentrations between 7 and 10 μL/mL after 48 h of incubation, obtaining an LD50 value of 4.53 μL/mL after 24 hours and 4.27 μL/mL after 48 hours. Concentration-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was observed for tea tree essential oil showing inhibition values of 100% at 100 μL/mL. This fact suggests that TTO may act as an AChE inhibitor. Terpinen-4-ol was discarded as main larvicide compound as it did not show larvicidal or anticholinesterase activity. The data obtained suggest that the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia may have a great therapeutic potential for the treatment of human anisakiasis. PMID:24967378

  9. EPB41L3, TSP-1 and RASSF2 as new clinically relevant prognostic biomarkers in diffuse gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Janices, N; Blanco-Luquin, I; Tuñón, M T; Barba-Ramos, E; Ibáñez, B; Zazpe-Cenoz, I; Martinez-Aguillo, M; Hernandez, B; Martínez-Lopez, E; Fernández, A F; Mercado, M R; Cabada, T; Escors, D; Megias, D; Guerrero-Setas, D

    2015-01-01

    Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is one of the hallmarks in the progression of brain tumors. Our objectives were to analyze the presence of the hypermethylation of EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 genes in 132 diffuse gliomas (astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors) and in 10 cases of normal brain, and to establish their association with the patients' clinicopathological characteristics. Gene hypermethylation was analyzed by methylation-specific-PCR and confirmed by pyrosequencing (for EPB41L3 and TSP-1) and bisulfite-sequencing (for RASSF2). EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 genes were hypermethylated only in tumors (29%, 10.6%, and 50%, respectively), confirming their cancer-specific role. Treatment of cells with the DNA-demethylating-agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restores their transcription, as confirmed by quantitative-reverse-transcription-PCR and immunofluorescence. Immunohistochemistry for EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 was performed to analyze protein expression; p53, ki-67, and CD31 expression and 1p/19q co-deletion were considered to better characterize the tumors. EPB41L3 and TSP-1 hypermethylation was associated with worse (p = 0.047) and better (p = 0.037) prognosis, respectively. This observation was confirmed after adjusting the results for age and tumor grade, the role of TSP-1 being most pronounced in oligodendrogliomas (p = 0.001). We conclude that EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 genes are involved in the pathogenesis of diffuse gliomas, and that EPB41L3 and TSP-1 hypermethylation are of prognostic significance.

  10. An N-Terminal Fragment of Yeast Ribosomal Protein L3 Inhibits the Cytotoxicity of Pokeweed Antiviral Protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Di

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that ribosomal protein L3 is required for pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP, a type I ribosome inactivating protein, to bind to ribosomes and depurinate the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL in yeast. Co-expression of the N-terminal 99 amino acids of yeast L3 (L3Δ99 with PAP in transgenic tobacco plants completely abolished the toxicity of PAP. In this study, we investigated the interaction between PAP and L3Δ99 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells co-transformed with PAP and L3Δ99 showed markedly reduced growth inhibition and reduced rRNA depurination by PAP, compared to cells transformed with PAP alone. Co-transformation of yeast with PAP and L3Δ21 corresponding to the highly conserved N-terminal 21 amino acids of L3Δ99, reduced the cytotoxicity of PAP. PAP mRNA and protein levels were elevated and L3Δ99 or L3Δ21 mRNA and protein levels were reduced in yeast co-transformed with PAP and L3Δ99 or with PAP and L3Δ21, respectively. PAP interacted with L3Δ21 in yeast cells in vivo and by Biacore analysis in vitro, suggesting that the interaction between L3Δ21 and PAP may inhibit PAP-mediated depurination of the SRL, leading to a reduction in the cytotoxicity of PAP.

  11. Diagnostic value of AFP-L3 and PIVKA-II in hepatocellular carcinoma according to total-AFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Young; Jung, Seung Won; Kim, Hee Yeon; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Dong Goo; Oh, Eun-Jee

    2013-01-21

    To evaluate diagnostic value of α-fetoprotein (AFP)-L3 and prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). One hundred and sixty-eight patients during routine HCC surveillance were included in this study. Of the 168 patients, 90 (53.6%) had HCC including newly developed HCC (n = 82) or recurrent HCC after treatment (n = 8). Sera were obtained during their first evaluation for HCC development and at the time of HCC diagnosis before commencing HCC treatment. HCC was diagnosed by histological examination, appropriate imaging characteristics-computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Control sera were collected from 78 patients with benign liver disease (BLD), which were obtained during routine surveillance with a suspicion of HCC. AFP, AFP-L3 and PIVKA-II were measured in the same serum by microchip capillary electrophoresis and liquid-phase binding assay on a micro-total analysis system Wako i30 auto analyzer. The performance characteristics of three tests and combined tests for the diagnosis of HCC were obtained using receiver operating characteristic curves in all populations and subgroups with AFP AFP AFP 20-200 ng/mL and 32 (35.6%) patients had AFP > 200 ng/mL. Of the 78 BLD patients, 74 (94.9%) patients had AFP AFP-L3 levels were higher in HCC than in BLD among patients with low AFP levels (AFP, AFP-L3, PIVKA-II and the combined markers, respectively. The combined AUC for three markers showed higher value than the AUCs of individual marker (P AFP-L3 had higher AUC value than PIVKA-II for HCC detection in entire patients (P = 0.043). With combination of AFP-L3 (cut-off > 5%) and PIVKA-II (cut-off > 40 AU/L), the sensitivity were 94.4% and specificity were 75.6% in all patients. In 112 patients with low AFP levels (AFP-L3, PIVKA-II and combine AFP-L3 and PIVKA-II tests were 0.824, 0.774 and 0.939, respectively. AFP-L3 with a cut-off value of 5% showed sensitivity of 71.1% and specificity of 83.8%, and PIVKA

  12. Análise genética de isolados do Haemonchus sp de ruminantes domésticos para identificação da resistência ao anti-helmíntico Benzimidazol

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Luiz Nunes

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar geneticamente a resistência ao anti-helmíntico benzimidazol (BZ) em helmintos Haemonchus sp isolados de ruminantes. Para tanto trinta animais pertencentes a um rebanho de bovinos, um rebanho de Caprinos, um rebanho de Ovinos e um rebanho de Bubalinos, tiveram amostras de fezes coletadas e analisadas para a presença de ovos de Tricostrongilídeos. As propriedades foram avaliadas quanto ao histórico de uso de BZ para controle de nematódeos. Nos rebanhos b...

  13. Recovery after fracture dislocation of L3/L4 ASIA B: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caldera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In fracture dislocations of the lumbar region, two anatomical facts can help preserve neurological damage in patients, when compared with trauma in the cervical or thoracic region. Firstly, the spinal cord in adults extends only to the lower edge of the first lumbar vertebra, and secondly, the large vertebral space in this region gives ample space for the roots of the cauda equine. As a result, the nerve injury may be minimal, because the nerve roots in this region are accommodated in a larger area, with less content and space. This study presents the case of a 48-year-old male, a construction worker, who suffered a fall from a height of approximately 15 meters, directly hitting the lumbar region against a beam, and presenting pain and inability to move the legs. The patient was brought to the emergency room 1 hour after the accident, clinically assessed, submitted to x-rays and a CT scan, and diagnosed as having an ASIA B L3-L4 fracture dislocation. Three hours after the accident, reduction was performed via posterior transpedicular fixation. One week later, an anterior approach was performed. The patient progressed to ASIA C 24 hours after the first surgery. Three months later, the patient was functional with ASIA D and good sphincter control. The author's purpose is to show the results obtained by an intervention in the initial hours of the trauma, which helped promote the evolution from a nonfunctional injury to a functional one, with near-total recovery. Keywords: Spine fracture, Recovery, Neurological deficit, Asia scale, Dislocation

  14. Testing for clinical anaemia caused by Haemonchus spp. in goats farmed under resource-poor conditions in South Africa using an eye colour chart developed for sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, A F; Letty, B A; van der Linde, M J; van Wijk, E F; Hansen, J W; Krecek, R C

    2001-07-31

    A novel clinical assay for the assessment and subsequent treatment of Haemonchus infection in sheep to slow down the development of anthelmintic resistance--the FAMACHA system--has been developed, tested and validated in South Africa. The system is based on a colour chart with five colour categories depicting varying degrees of anaemia that are compared with the colour of the mucous membranes of the eyes of sheep. The animal is then scored from severely anaemic (pale) through anaemic to non-anaemic (red) and those animals considered in danger of succumbing to the effects of haemonchosis are treated. This method was tested in goats farmed under resource-poor conditions in South Africa. Analyses in goats performed during the summers of 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 show a test sensitivity of 76 and 85%, respectively, meaning that the system may be used to identify correctly 76-85% of those animals in need of treatment with an anthelmintic. However, the test specificity remains low at 52-55%. This means that a large proportion of those animals that would not require treatment would in fact be treated. However, when the use of the FAMACHA system is compared with conventional dosing practices where all the animals are treated, using the FAMACHA system would result in a large proportion of the animals being left untreated. The untreated animals are then able to deposit the eggs of anthelmintic-susceptible worms on the pasture, while the treated ones should pass very few ova, given an effective anthelmintic. This maintains a reservoir of susceptible larvae in refugia, and should slow down the development of anthelmintic resistance. The validation of the FAMACHA system for goats for use by resource-poor farmers, which this paper describes, may have wide application in the tropics and subtropics of sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere.

  15. Complete genome sequence of the strain Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3, isolated from a thermophilic, production-scale biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Irena; Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Stolze, Yvonne; König, Helmut; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2015-06-10

    An anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium belonging to the phylum Thermotogae was isolated from a rural, thermophilic biogas plant (54°C) producing methane-rich biogas from maize silage, barley, cattle and pig manure. Here we report the first complete genome sequence of the Defluviitoga tunisiensis strain L3, an isolate from the family Thermotogaceae. The strain L3 encodes several genes predicted to be involved in utilization of a large diversity of complex carbohydrates including cellobiose and xylan for the production of acetate, hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The genome sequence of D. tunisiensis L3 provides the basis for biotechnological exploitation of genetic determinants playing an important role in thermophilic fermentation processes utilizing renewable primary products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning minimally different words in a third language: L2 proficiency as a crucial predictor of accuracy in an L3 word learning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Escudero, P.; Broersma, M.; Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, K.; Wrembel, M.; Kul, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of proficiency in the L2 (English) and L3 (Dutch) on word learning in the L3. Learners were 92 L1 Spanish speakers with differing proficiencies in L2 and L3, and 20 native speakers of Dutch. The learners were divided into basic and advanced English and Dutch

  17. Diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein-L3 and Golgi protein 73 in hepatocellular carcinomas with low AFP levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wan-Ju; Guo, Bao-Li; Han, Yu-Gang; Shi, Lei; Ma, Wan-Shan

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical values of serum alpha-fetoprotein-L3 (AFP-L3) and Golgi protein 73 (GP73) in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with low alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). From January 2011 to December 2013, 50 low-AFP HCC patients confirmed by the color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and pathological examinations were collected. Forty-five patients with chronic liver diseases were also selected, including 29 liver cirrhosis patients, 15 chronic hepatitis B patients, and one severe hepatitis patient. Furthermore, 100 health volunteers with no evidence of benign or malignant liver diseases were included. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was applied to the GP73 quantitative assay. Serum AFP concentrations were determined using immunoassays utilizing enhanced chemiluminescence. Diagnostic accuracy of GP73 and AFP-L3 assays for low-AFP HCC was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Statistical analyses were conducted with the GraphPad Prism 5.0 software. Low-AFP HCC patients (35/50) exhibited higher positive rates of AFP-L3 than non-HCC patients (5/45) and healthy controls (2/100) (both P AFP HCC patients (40/50) compared to those of non-HCC patients (3/45) and healthy controls (1/100) (both P AFP-L3 and GP73 were observed between non-HCC patients and healthy controls (both P > 0.05). ROC curves showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of AFP-L3 for the diagnosis of low-AFP HCC was 0.6994 (sensitivity [Sen] = 70.0 %, specificity [Spe] = 95.2 %, accuracy = 88.7 %), while the AUC of GP73 was 0.8411 (Sen = 80.0 %, Spe = 97.2 %, accuracy = 92.8 %). Compared with single detection, the combination of AFP-L3 and GP73 levels for the diagnosis of low-AFP HCC showed higher Sen (94.0 %), Spe (93.1 %), and better accuracy (93.3 %). Our findings provide empirical evidence that the combination of AFP-L3 and GP73 is a good diagnostic strategy for low-AFP HCC.

  18. Kazuistika fyzioterapeutické péče o pacienta po disektomii L3/L4

    OpenAIRE

    Patríková, Jitka

    2012-01-01

    Case Study of physioterapy treatment of a patient after L3/L4 disectomy Objectives: The aim of the bachelor thesis is to create a complex perspective on a problem of herniated disc, on the course of disectomy and to propose following physiotherapy treatment after disectomy L3/L4. Methods: The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part proposes the possibilities of the examination and the treatment of the herniated disc. The second part focuses on the individual case report about a patie...

  19. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MOD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  20. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MYD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  1. LNO3 AND L3 Are Associated With Antiproliferative And Pro-Apoptotic Action In Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Campos Zanelatto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of antitumoral substances is the focus of intense biomedical research. Two structural analogues of thalidomide, LNO3 and L3, are two synthetic compounds that might possess such antitumor properties. We evaluated the toxicological effects of these substances, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in HTC cells. Additionally, the production of free radicals (nitric oxide and superoxide was investigated, and the expression of caspases genes 3, 8, and 9 were determined by RT-qPCR. The compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects that resulted in inhibited cell proliferation. LNO3 showed to be more effective and toxic than L3 in all assays. LNO3 stimulated the release of NO and superoxide, which was accompanied by the formation of peroxynitrite. Apoptosis was induced in a dose-dependent manner by both compounds; however, the expression of caspases 3, 8 and 9 was unchanged. These results suggested that L3 and LNO3 possess antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in HTC cells. Additionally, although they exhibited cytotoxicity, L3 and LNO3 might be useful coadjuvants in tumor treatment studies.

  2. The HADHSC gene encoding short-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) and type 2 diabetes susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hove, Els C; Hansen, Torben; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2006-01-01

    The short-chain l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) protein is involved in the penultimate step of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Previously, it has been shown that mutations in the corresponding gene (HADHSC) are associated with hyperinsulinism in infancy. The presumed function...

  3. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra V5 LST/E L3 Global CMG (Short name: MOD11C1) products incorporate 0.05º (5600 meters at the equator) pixels, which are derived from the MOD11B1 daily...

  4. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E L3 Global 1 km Grid (Short name: MYD11B1) products incorporate 6 km pixels (4.63 km pixels for versions prior to V005), which are produced daily...

  5. AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.3 level 3 collated (L3C) global 4km sea surface temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.3 (PFV53) L3C Sea Surface Temperature data set is a collection of global, twice-daily (Day and Night) 4km sea surface temperature...

  6. Feasibility of tumor imaging using L-3-[iodine-123]-iodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine in extracranial tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, PL; Franssen, EJF; Kool, W; Szabo, BG; Hoekstra, HJ; Groen, HJM; de Vries, EGE; van Imhoff, GW; Vaalburg, W; Piers, DA

    1998-01-01

    L-3-[I-123]-lodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine (IMT) is a modified amino acid. It is reported to be avidly taken up in brain tumors, reflecting amino acid transport and is suitable for SPECT. Methods: To determine whether tumors outside the brain can also accumulate this tracer, we injected 300-450 MBq IMT

  7. Effect of electrical stimulation of hamstrings and L3/4 dermatome on gait in spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Salm, Arjan; Veltink, Petrus H.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Nene, A.V.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of electrical stimulation of hamstrings and L3/4 dermatome on the swing phase of gait. Materials and Methods. Five subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) with spasticity were included. Two electrical stimulation methods were investigated, i.e.,

  8. Examining Teachers' Views on the Implementation of English as L3 into Primary Schools: A Case of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhetpisbayeva, Bakhytgul A.; Shelestova, Tatyana Y.; Abildina, Saltanat K.

    2016-01-01

    The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan changed the State Educational Program for primary education and the curriculum for teaching English as a third language (L3) to grades 1-4 in 2013. As with many changes in the curriculum, English language teaching has also been changed and the starting age for learning of English…

  9. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Monthly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E Monthly L3 Global CMG product (Short name: MYD11C3) is a monthly composited average, derived from the MYD11C1 daily global product, and stored...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E L3 Global 1 Km Grid (Short name: MYD11A1) products incorporate 1-km pixels, which are produced daily using the generalized split-window LST...

  11. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra V5 LST/E L3 Global 1 Km Grid (Short name: MOD11B1) products incorporate 6 km pixels, which are produced daily using the day/night LST algorithm (Wan...

  12. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua V41 LST/E L3 Global CMG (Short name: MYD11C1) products incorporate 0.05º (5600 meters at the equator) pixels, which are derived from the MOD11B1 daily...

  13. Usefulness of AFP, AFP-L3, and PIVKA-II, and their combinations in diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Joon; Jang, Jae Young; Jeong, Soung Won; Cho, Young Kyu; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cha, Sang-Woo; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung; Park, Suyeon; Bang, Hae In

    2017-03-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Lens culinaris-agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) are widely used as tumor markers for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study compared the diagnostic values of AFP, AFP-L3, and PIVKA-II individually and in combination to find the best biomarker or biomarker panel.Seventy-nine patients with newly diagnosed HCC and 77 non-HCC control patients with liver cirrhosis were enrolled. AFP, AFP-L3, and PIVKA-II were measured in the same serum samples using microchip capillary electrophoresis and a liquid-phase binding assay on an automatic analyzer. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses were also applied to all combinations of the markers.When the 3 biomarkers were analyzed individually, AFP showed the largest area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) (0.751). For combinations of the biomarkers, the AUC was highest (0.765) for "PIVKA-II > 40 mAU/mL and AFP > 10 ng/mL." The combination of "PIVKA-II > 40 mAU/mL and AFP > 10 ng/mL and AFP-L3 > 10%" had worse sensitivity and lower AUC (P = 0.001). The highest AUC of a single biomarker was highest for AFP and of a combination was "PIVKA-II > 40 mAU/mL and AFP > 10 ng/mL," with this also being the case when the cut-off value of AFP and AFP-L3 was changed.Alpha-fetoprotein showed the best diagnostic performance as a single biomarker for HCC. The diagnostic value of AFP was improved by combining it with PIVKA-II, but adding AFP-L3 did not contribute to the ability to distinguish between HCC and non-HCC liver cirrhosis. These findings were not altered when the cut-off value of AFP and AFP-L3 was changed.

  14. L(3,2,1- and L(4,3,2,1-labeling problems on interval graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Amanathulla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For a given graph G=(V,E, the L(3,2,1- and L(4,3,2,1-labeling problems assign the labels to the vertices of G. Let Z∗ be the set of non-negative integers. An L(3,2,1- and L(4,3,2,1-labeling of a graph G is a function f:V→Z∗ such that |f(x−f(y|≥k−d(x,y, for k=4,5 respectively, where d(x,y represents the distance (minimum number of edges between the vertices x and y, and 1≤d(x,y≤k−1. The L(3,2,1- and L(4,3,2,1-labeling numbers of a graph G, are denoted by λ3,2,1(G and λ4,3,2,1(G and they are the difference between highest and lowest labels used in L(3,2,1- and L(4,3,2,1-labeling respectively. In this paper, for an interval graph G, it is shown that λ3,2,1(G≤6Δ−3 and λ4,3,2,1(G≤10Δ−6, where Δ represents the maximum degree of the vertices of G. Also, two algorithms are designed to label an interval graph by maintaining L(3,2,1- and L(4,3,2,1-labeling conditions. The time complexities of both the algorithms are O(nΔ2, where n represent the number of vertices of G.

  15. Accuracy of manual palpation vs ultrasound for identifying the L3-L4 intervertebral space level in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jason; Borges, Bruno; Armstrong, Derek; Srinivasan, Ilavajady

    2014-05-01

    Insertion of needles into the spinal or epidural space is an important component of modern anesthetic practice. Needles are usually inserted at or below the L3-L4 intervertebral space to minimize the risk of spinal cord injury. Manual palpation is the most common method for identifying intervertebral spaces. However, anesthesiologists are increasingly using ultrasonography to guide the placement of regional, including neuraxial, anesthetic, and analgesic blocks. We undertook an observational study to compare the accuracy of manual palpation and ultrasound for determining the L3-L4 intervertebral space level. Thirty children 0-12 years of age undergoing lumbar puncture were enrolled. For each subject, an anesthesiologist, using the landmark palpation method, determined the point on a radio-opaque ruler that corresponded to the L3-L4 intervertebral space. A different anesthesiologist using the ultrasound method repeated this measurement. Fluoroscopy was then used to confirm the accuracy of each technique. The proportion of inaccurate measurements and the effects of anesthesiologists' experience, patient age, and size on the accuracy of each technique were compared. Thirty-seven percent of measurements by the landmark palpation method were inaccurate by ≥1 levels cephalad to the L3-L4 intervertebral space. However, less experienced anesthesiologists (residents and fellows) made a disproportionate number of inaccurate measurements compared to consultants. Twenty-three percent of measurements by the ultrasound method were inaccurate by ≥1 cephalad levels. The BMI-for-age percentile/weight-for-length percentile was higher in patients in whom either technique was inaccurate. This observational study found no difference in the accuracy of landmark palpation, when performed by a consultant anesthesiologist, and ultrasound for determining the L3-L4 intervertebral space in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Spatio-temporal pattern of larvae and eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle pastures in Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flota-Bañuelos, Carolina; Martínez, Imelda; López-Collado, José; Vargas Mendoza, Mónica; González Hernández, Hector; Fajersson, Pernilla

    2013-12-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle has been little studied in Mexico. Previous studies have described periods of higher larval presence, vertical and horizontal migration in grasslands, and the frequency of adult nematodes; as well as the effect of pasture trichomes on the migration and survival of Haemonchus larvae. The aim of this study was to determine the time-space layout and spread of gastrointestinal nematode larvae on pasture, and to estimate the effect of ivermectin applied to cattle on the time-dependent abundance of their eggs in a ranch in Veracruz. To determine the spatio-temporal arrangement, monthly morning grass samples were obtained from 30 sampling points from July 2008 to June 2009. Third stage larvae (L3) from each point were counted, and aggregation patterns were estimated through variance/mean and negative binomial K indices. Additionally, the number of eggs per gram in cattle feces was determined, from samples with (CI) and without ivermectin (SI), using standard techniques. A total of 20 276 L(3) larvae were recovered in the pasture, of which an 80% corresponded to Haemonchus contortus. The highest nematode density with more than 5 000L(3)/kgDM was detected in October 2008, and the lowest in February and March 2009. The L3 showed an aggregated spatial pattern of varying intensity throughout the year. The number of eggs in the stool was not reduced with the ivermectin application to cattle, which suggested a failure of control. However, the highest parasite loads were observed from July to November 2008. We concluded that the application of ivermectin was not effective to control nematodes eggs, and that L3 populations fluctuated on pasture for ten months, providing an infection source to grazing animals afterwards.

  17. Resistência de Haemonchus placei, Cooperia punctata e Oesophagostomum radiatum à ivermectina pour-on a 500mcgkg-1 em rebanhos bovinos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O amplo espectro de ação dos endectocidas e a praticidade de aplicação das suas formulações pour-on são fatores que têm estimulado uma maior frequência de utilização destes produtos na criação de bovinos. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a eficácia anti-helmíntica da ivermectina, administrada via pour-on, 500mcgkg-1, contra nematódeos de bovinos provenientes de diferentes rebanhos. Foram adquiridos 12 bezerros de cada um dos quatro rebanhos selecionados. Todos os 48 bezerros utilizados apresentavam médias de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG maiores que 500, considerando-se três contagens consecutivas. Na sequencia, os animais de cada rebanho foram divididos em dois grupos de seis bovinos cada, sendo um tratado com ivermectina 500mcgkg-1 via pour-on e outro mantido como controle. Quatorze dias depois do tratamento, os bovinos foram submetidos à eutanásia para contagem de endoparasitas. A ivermectina demonstrou resultados nulos de eficácia contra H. placei nos quatro rebanhos. Contra C. punctata, tal formulação teve eficácia nula nos rebanhos provenientes de Jaboticabal,SP, e de Formiga,MG, e eficácias de 75,8% e 58,4% nos rebanhos provenientes de São José do Rio Pardo,SP, e de São Sebastião do Paraíso,MG, respectivamente. Valores de eficácia de 94,2% (Jaboticabal, 0,0% (São José do Rio Pardo, 94,2% (Formiga e 39,2% (São Sebastião do Paraíso foram detectados contra O. radiatum. Com base nos resultados encontrados, pode-se concluir que as quatro populações de Haemonchus placei e de Cooperia punctata avaliadas foram resistentes à ivermectina, administrada via pour-on, 500mcgkg-1. Foram observadas cepas de Oesophagostomum radiatum resistentes à ivermectina em dois dos quatro rebanhos testados.

  18. Parasitisme digestif des petits ruminants dans les Antilles françaises

    OpenAIRE

    Aumont, G; Pouillot, R; Simon, R.; Hostache, G.; Varo, Hugues; Barré, N

    1997-01-01

    Les parasitoses digestives, pathologie majeure des petits ruminants de la zone Caraïbe, sont dues essentiellement à une espèce de Nématode, Haemonchus contortus et, dans une moindre mesure, à une espèce de Cestode, Moniezia sp., et un ensemble de protozoaires du genre Eimeria . Des études en station expérimentale et en fermes ont permis de définir les dynamiques des larves infestantes d’Haemonchus contortus et de Trichostrongylus colubriformis sur le pâturage. Les risques d’infestation parasi...

  19. A Distinctive Silica-Rich, Sodium-Poor Igneous Clast in the Bovedy (L3) Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, A.; Boynton, W. V.

    1992-07-01

    Description of Bo-1. One slab of the Bovedy (L3) chondrite contains a large (~ 4 x 7 mm) white object that in hand specimen resembles the generally chondritic lithic fragment studied by Rubin et al. (1981). However, SEM, and EMPA studies of this object, designated Bo-1, reveal an unusually Si-rich, Na-poor bulk composition that is manifested by the presence of a silica mineral, the complete absence of olivine, and feldspar that is less sodic than usual for ordinary chondrites. The clast is a highly crystalline igneous rock and exhibits a well-defined crystallization sequence. Orthopyroxene (opx) comprises 83.8 vol% of Bo-1 and is zoned from En(sub)92-85 Wo(sub)0.1-0.2 to En(sub)74 Wo(sub)1.9-2.9. The more magnesian, less calcic opx was the first phase to crystallize in Bo-1. A silica mineral (SiO2, 6.2 vol%), probably either tridymite or cristobalite, crystallized next and appears slightly "corroded" (and veined) by clinopyroxene, suggesting minor reaction between the silica mineral and its surroundings. A small amount (1 vol%) of euhedral-subhedral pigeonite (pig) also crystallized about this time. Plagioclase (plag) was the last phase to join the crystallization sequence and consists of a fine-scale, often lamellar, intergrowth of bytownite-labradorite (5.8 vol%, mainly An(sub)70- 75Or(sub)1-03) and oligoclase (3.1 vol%, mainly An(sub)15-24 Or(sub)13-6). The latter deviates from feldspar stoichiometry and may be partly amorphous. Volumetrically insignificant augite (aug) occurs as (exsolution?) patches within opx, as thin veinlets crossing SiO(sub)2 grains, and as thin rims at the interface of SiO(sub)2 and plag. The rimming and veining aug may have crystallized together with plag from the last liquid in the rock. Minor chromite (0.2 vol%) and trace metal and sulfide are also present. Bulk composition of Bo-1. The composition of the clast was determined by combining SEM modal data with EMPA data for each phase. The calculated composition (in wt%) is: SiO2, 57

  20. Combined Effect of the Cfr Methyltransferase and Ribosomal Protein L3 Mutations on Resistance to Ribosome-Targeting Antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakula, Kevin K; Hansen, Lykke H; Vester, Birte

    2017-01-01

    Several groups of antibiotics inhibit bacterial growth by binding to bacterial ribosomes. Mutations in ribosomal protein L3 have been associated with resistance to linezolid and tiamulin, which both bind at the peptidyl transferase center in the ribosome. Resistance to these and other antibiotics...... also occurs through methylation of 23S rRNA at position A2503 by the methyltransferase Cfr. The mutations in L3 and the cfr gene have been found together in clinical isolates, raising the question of whether they have a combined effect on antibiotic resistance or growth. We transformed a plasmid...... seen. This study underscores the complex interplay between various resistance mechanisms and cross-resistance, even from antibiotics with overlapping binding sites....

  1. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer identifies EPB41L3 as a functional suppressor of epithelial ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafou, Dimitra; Grun, Barbara; Sinclair, John

    2010-01-01

    We used a functional complementation approach to identify tumor-suppressor genes and putative therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer. Microcell-mediated transfer of chromosome 18 in the ovarian cancer cell line TOV21G induced in vitro and in vivo neoplastic suppression. Gene expression microarray...... profiling in TOV21G(+18) hybrids identified 14 candidate genes on chromosome 18 that were significantly overexpressed and therefore associated with neoplastic suppression. Further analysis of messenger RNA and protein expression for these genes in additional ovarian cancer cell lines indicated that EPB41L3...... (erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3, alternative names DAL-1 and 4.1B) was a candidate ovarian cancer-suppressor gene. Immunoblot analysis showed that EPB41L3 was activated in TOV21G(+18) hybrids, expressed in normal ovarian epithelial cell lines, but was absent in 15 (78%) of 19 ovarian cancer cell...

  2. The design and construction of a double-sided Silicon Microvertex Detector for the L3 experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, A. [Technical Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Physical Inst.; Ahlen, S.; Marin, A.; Zhou, B. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Ambrosi, G.; Babucci, E.; Bertucci, B.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G.M.; Caria, M.; Checcucci, B.; Easo, S.; Fiandrini, E.; Krastev, V.R.; Massetti, R.; Pauluzzi, M.; Santocchia, A.; Servoli, L. [INFN/Universita di Perugia (Italy); Baschirotto, A.; Bosetti, M.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rattaggi, M.; Terzi, G. [INFN/Universita di Milano (Italy); Battiston, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[INFN/Universita di Perugia (Italy); Bay, A.; Burger, W.J.; Extermann, P.; Perrin, E.; Susinno, G.F. [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); Bencze, G.Y.L.; Kornis, J.; Toth, J. [KFKI/Research Inst. for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Bobbink, G.J.; Duinker, P. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brooks, M.L.; Coan, T.E.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Kinnison, W.W.; Lee, D.M.; Mills, G.B.; Thompson, T.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Busenitz, J.; DiBitonto, D. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Camps, C.; Commichau, V.; Hangartner, K.; Schmitz, P. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany). 3. Physikalisches Institut; Castellini, G. [INFN/IROE, Firenze (Italy); Chen, A.; Hou, S.; Lin, W.T. [NCU, Chung/Li (Taiwan, Province of China); Gougas, A.; Kim, D.; Paul, T. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Hauviller, C.; Herve, A.; Josa, I. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Landi, G. [INFN/Universita di Firenze (Italy); Lebeau, M. [LAPP, Annecy (France); Lecomte, P.; Viertel, G.M.; Waldmeier, S. [ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Leiste, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[DESY-IFH, Zeuthen (Germany); Lejeune, E.; Weill, R. [Univ. of Lausanne (Switzerland); Lohmann, W.; Nowak, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Schoeniech, B.; Tonisch, F.; Trowitzsch, G.; Vogt, H. [DESY-IFH, Zeuthen (Germany); Passaleva, G. [INFN/Universita di Firenze (Italy)]|[INFN/Universita di Perugia (Italy); Yeh, S.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    1993-12-01

    A Silicon Microvertex Detector (SMD) has been commissioned for the L3 experiment at the Large Electron-Positron colliding-beam accelerator (LEP) at the European Center for Nuclear Physics, (CERN). The SMD is a 72,672 channel, two layer barrel tracker that is comprised of 96 ac-coupled, double-sided silicon detectors. Details of the design and construction are presented.

  3. Pig heart short chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase revisited: sequence analysis and crystal structure determination.

    OpenAIRE

    Barycki, J. J.; O'Brien, L. K.; Birktoft, J. J.; Strauss, A. W.; Banaszak, L. J.

    1999-01-01

    Short chain L-3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) is a soluble dimeric enzyme critical for oxidative metabolism of fatty acids. Its primary sequence has been reported to be conserved across numerous tissues and species with the notable exception of the pig heart homologue. Preliminary efforts to solve the crystal structure of the dimeric pig heart SCHAD suggested the unprecedented occurrence of three enzyme subunits within the asymmetric unit, a phenomenon that was thought to have hampere...

  4. Immunobiological characterization of Graphidium strigosum experimental infection in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuquerella, M; Alunda, J M

    2009-01-01

    An experimental infection of rabbits with a wild isolate of the gastric nematode Graphidium strigosum was carried out. Animals (3.5 months age) were infected with 1,000 L3 administered by bucoesophagic catheter (five rabbits) or kept as uninfected control group (five animals). The infection was maintained for 3 months. Along the experimental period, some parasitological, hematological and immunological parameters were determined. Prepatent period of the infection ranged from 30 to 38 days and, at necropsy, average adult helminth counts were 430.75 +/- 126.12. No significant variations were found in packed cell volume, leukocyte, and eosinophil counts along the experimental period. Infection elicited a clear serum-specific IgG response, estimated by ELISA, during patency. Pooled sera from the patent period of the infection recognized some soluble antigens, particularly, a 67-kDa protein. Experimentally infected animals did not show cross recognition between G. strigosum, Haemonchus contortus, and Teladorsagia circumcincta. However, Western blot analysis with hyperimmune sera against H. contortus raised in rabbits and lambs showed cross reactivity between this helminth species and G. strigosum.

  5. Metabolic profiling and in vitro assessment of anthelmintic fractions of Picria fel-terrae Lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasika Kumarasingha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance is widespread in gastrointestinal nematode populations, such that there is a consistent need to search for new anthelmintics. However, the cost of screening for new compounds is high and has a very low success rate. Using the knowledge of traditional healers from Borneo Rainforests (Sarawak, Malaysia, we have previously shown that some traditional medicinal plants are a rich source of potential new anthelmintic drug candidates. In this study, Picria fel-terrae Lour. plant extract, which has previously shown promising anthelmintic activities, was fractionated via the use of a solid phase extraction cartridge and each isolated fraction was then tested on free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. We found that a single fraction was enriched for nematocidal activity, killing ≥90% of C. elegans adults and inhibiting the motility of exsheathed L3 of H. contortus, while having minimal cytotoxic activity in mammalian cell culture. Metabolic profiling and chemometric analysis of the effective fraction indicated medium chained fatty acids and phenolic acids were highly represented.

  6. Final Pre-40S Maturation Depends on the Functional Integrity of the 60S Subunit Ribosomal Protein L3

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Juan J.; Rosado, Iván V.; Tollervey, David; Kressler, Dieter; de la Cruz, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal protein L3 is an evolutionarily conserved protein that participates in the assembly of early pre-60S particles. We report that the rpl3[W255C] allele, which affects the affinity and function of translation elongation factors, impairs cytoplasmic maturation of 20S pre-rRNA. This was not seen for other mutations in or depletion of L3 or other 60S ribosomal proteins. Surprisingly, pre-40S particles containing 20S pre-rRNA form translation-competent 80S ribosomes, and translation inhibition partially suppresses 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The GTP-dependent translation initiation factor Fun12 (yeast eIF5B) shows similar in vivo binding to ribosomal particles from wild-type and rpl3[W255C] cells. However, the GTPase activity of eIF5B failed to stimulate processing of 20S pre-rRNA when assayed with ribosomal particles purified from rpl3[W255C] cells. We conclude that L3 plays an important role in the function of eIF5B in stimulating 3′ end processing of 18S rRNA in the context of 80S ribosomes that have not yet engaged in translation. These findings indicate that the correct conformation of the GTPase activation region is assessed in a quality control step during maturation of cytoplasmic pre-ribosomal particles. PMID:24603549

  7. Improved BM212 MmpL3 inhibitor analogue shows efficacy in acute murine model of tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Poce

    Full Text Available 1,5-Diphenyl pyrroles were previously identified as a class of compounds endowed with high in vitro efficacy against M. tuberculosis. To improve the physical chemical properties and drug-like parameters of this class of compounds, a medicinal chemistry effort was undertaken. By selecting the optimal substitution patterns for the phenyl rings at N1 and C5 and by replacing the thiomorpholine moiety with a morpholine one, a new series of compounds was produced. The replacement of the sulfur with oxygen gave compounds with lower lipophilicity and improved in vitro microsomal stability. Moreover, since the parent compound of this family has been shown to target MmpL3, mycobacterial mutants resistant to two compounds have been isolated and characterized by sequencing the mmpL3 gene; all the mutants showed point mutations in this gene. The best compound identified to date was progressed to dose-response studies in an acute murine TB infection model. The resulting ED(99 of 49 mg/Kg is within the range of commonly employed tuberculosis drugs, demonstrating the potential of this chemical series. The in vitro and in vivo target validation evidence presented here adds further weight to MmpL3 as a druggable target of interest for anti-tubercular drug discovery.

  8. Gastrointestinal nematode larvae in the grazing land of cattle in Guwahati, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Das

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode larvae (L3 in the grazing land of cattle in Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam. Materials and Methods: Pastures were collected and examined for the presence of nematode larvae (L3 from six localities of Guwahati at monthly interval from August 2012 to July 2013. The counted larvae were then expressed as per kg dry matter of herbage (L3/kg DM. Results: Examination of pastures revealed presence of nematode larvae (L3 in pastures throughout the year which varied from 4.5 L3/kg DM in January to a maximum of 106.33 L3/kg DM in August. The L3 of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Cooperia spp., and Mecistocirrus spp. were recovered from pastures. The average pasture larval burden (PLB was 34.75±3.48 L3/kg DM. Season-wise PLB revealed the presence of 23.89±3.01, 67.54±5.41, 26.67±1.92, and 7.28±0.89 L3/kg DM during pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter seasons, respectively. Monsoon season has significant (p<0.05 effect on PLB. However, analysis of variance of different locations with respect to season revealed that there was no significant difference but season-wise it was highly significant (p<0.01. Pearson correlation of environmental variables (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall with PLB revealed correlation was statistically significant with rainfall (p<0.05. Conclusion: This study reveals the presence of five nematode larvae (L3 in the pastures of Guwahati, Assam throughout the year, statistically significant during monsoon season.

  9. Gastrointestinal nematode larvae in the grazing land of cattle in Guwahati, Assam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Meena; Deka, D. K.; Islam, S.; Sarmah, P. C.; Bhattacharjee, K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To know the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode larvae (L3) in the grazing land of cattle in Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam. Materials and Methods: Pastures were collected and examined for the presence of nematode larvae (L3) from six localities of Guwahati at monthly interval from August 2012 to July 2013. The counted larvae were then expressed as per kg dry matter of herbage (L3/kg DM). Results: Examination of pastures revealed presence of nematode larvae (L3) in pastures throughout the year which varied from 4.5 L3/kg DM in January to a maximum of 106.33 L3/kg DM in August. The L3 of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Cooperia spp., and Mecistocirrus spp. were recovered from pastures. The average pasture larval burden (PLB) was 34.75±3.48 L3/kg DM. Season-wise PLB revealed the presence of 23.89±3.01, 67.54±5.41, 26.67±1.92, and 7.28±0.89 L3/kg DM during pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter seasons, respectively. Monsoon season has significant (p<0.05) effect on PLB. However, analysis of variance of different locations with respect to season revealed that there was no significant difference but season-wise it was highly significant (p<0.01). Pearson correlation of environmental variables (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) with PLB revealed correlation was statistically significant with rainfall (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study reveals the presence of five nematode larvae (L3) in the pastures of Guwahati, Assam throughout the year, statistically significant during monsoon season. PMID:28096603

  10. Development of Graphidium strigosum (Nematoda, Haemonchidae) in its natural host, the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and comparison with several Haemonchidae parasites of ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, Julien; Cassone, Jimmy; Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude; Audebert, Fabienne

    2011-07-01

    The morphogenesis (studied for the first time) and the chronology of the life cycle of Graphidium strigosum (Dujardin, 1845) were studied in detail in its natural host, Oryctolagus cuniculus. Naive rabbits were each infected per os with G. strigosum infective larvae (L3). Animals were euthanized each day for the first 10 days after infection (DAI), then every 2 days from 12 to 40 DAI. The free living period lasted 5-8 days at 24°C. By 1 DAI, all the larvae were exsheathed in the stomach. The third molt occurred between 9 and 17 DAI. The last molt occurred between 24 and 32 DAI. The prepatent period lasted 42-44 DAI, while the patent period lasted at least 13 months. For each experiment, the morphology of the different stages of the life cycle was described. The chronology of the G. strigosum life cycle and its morphogenesis were compared to those of different Haemonchidae parasites of ruminants (Ostertagia ostertagi, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus, and Haemonchus placei) in their natural hosts.

  11. [The studies on early warning of Lens culinaris-reactive alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP-L3) detecting in primary hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-li; Ma, Hong-bin; Guo, Jing-xia; Shi, Jia-bin; Xu, Jun; Liu, Ai-xia; Yang, Li-hua; Li, Bo-an; Mao, Yuan-li

    2008-10-01

    To explore the significance of Lens culinaris-reactive alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP-L3) detection in primary hepatocellular carcinoma. AFP-L3 was isolated by using microspin column coupled with lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA), AFP and AFP-L3 were detected with chemiluminescent immunoassay, the proportion of AFP L3 levels were calculated, and the relationship between the elevated AFP-L3 (%) levels and benign and malignant liver disease was analyzed. There were significant differences in positive rate between the patients of HCC, suspected HCC and other liver disease (81.80%, 73.68%, 11.80%, respectively, P < 0.05). Among the undetermined HCC (suspected HCC, liver disease) patients, 12 out of 21 cases of AFP-13 positive were diagnosed to be HCC within 6 months, and 6 of them were diagnosed to be the single small HCC at the early stage through B-Ultrasonic Diagnosis or CT. Among 62 cases of AFP-L3 negative, 3 cases were diagnosed to be HCC within 6 months and the risk of occurrence of HCC for AFP-L3 positive increased 11.9 times. AFP-L3 has no correlation with AFP value, and it can be used as an independent HCC diagnosis factor. The detection of AFP-L3 has a significant implication for the identification of benign or malignant liver disease and the early stage predictive diagnosis of HCC while AFP increases.

  12. Search for supersymmetry in 2 different topologies with the L3 detector at Lep; Recherche de supersymetrie dans les canaux avec un ou deux leptons avec le detecteur L3 a LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balandras, A

    2000-11-13

    The present thesis presents two different aspects of my work in the L3 experiment, which are on one side the search for supersymmetric particles, the scalar leptons, in two different topologies 'electron + X + E' and '2 leptons + 2 photons + E', each of them being related to two theoretical SUSY models, m-SUGRA and GMSB. On the other side my work has been completed by the study of the BGO crystal electromagnetic calorimeter of L3, and the calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter EGAP. After the essential motivations being reviewed, the production and disintegration modes are detailed concerning the scalar lepton sector at LEP. Then one presents the analysis techniques which I used to perform my selection, and also the results obtained from the data collected by L3 for center of mass energies between {radical} S =183 GeV and 202 GeV. The selection criteria that allow to isolate the events I looked for, including efficiencies but also the background rate coming from Standard Model that one can expect are presented. The final interpretations of those results in both frameworks of m-SUGRA and GMSB are detailed at the end of this thesis. I took benefit of those results to derive some limits on the masses of the scalar leptons that do not depend on the free parameters of the SUSY models, especially on the selectron mass in the framework of m-SUGRA: M{sub e}-tilde{sub R} > 71.2 GeV. (authors)

  13. Storage of gastrointestinal nematode infective larvae for species preservation and experimental infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylinski, C; Cortet, J; Sallé, G; Jacquiet, P; Cabaret, J

    2015-02-01

    Techniques to preserve the infective third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes are of considerable interest to preserve rare species and to maintain a stable source for routine experimental infections. This study compares the relative pros and cons of the two most common techniques, cryopreservation and refrigeration by comparing how they influence consequent infection outcome parameters in terms of life-history traits and fitness as a function of time using the gastrointestinal nematode of sheep Haemonchus contortus as a study species. Establishment capacity was found to be significantly reduced in cryopreserved stocks of L3 compared to refrigerated stocks, but this was followed by significant increases in their fecundity. Refrigeration did not affect L3 stocks consequent fitness by 16 months (the maximum examined) although they did incur a significant reduction in establishment, followed once again by an augmentation in fecundity. The study highlights potential areas for bias in comparing studies using L3 larvae maintained for different periods of time under different techniques.

  14. Multiplex Immunochips for High-Accuracy Detection of AFP-L3% Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: Implications for Early Liver Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hao; Sun, Xiaoying; Chen, Lei; Cheng, Weina; Han, Xiao Xia; Zhao, Bing; He, Chengyan

    2017-09-05

    α-Fetoprotein (AFP) is an important tumor biomarker. In particular, the overexpression of AFP-L3 is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accordingly, several hospitals have begun to employ the ratio of AFP-L3 to the total AFP level (AFP-L3%) as new diagnostic evidence for HCC owing to its high diagnostic accuracy. However, current methods of detection for AFP and AFP-L3 are time-consuming, require multiple samples, and lack in sensitivity and specificity. Herein, we present a novel concept for the early diagnosis of HCC based on the combination of Raman frequency shift and intensity change, and developed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based immunochips via AFP-L3%. In the first step of the study, the frequency shift of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) was applied for the quantitative determination of total AFP based on the AFP and anti-AFP interaction on MBA-modified silver chips. 5,5-Dithiobis(succinimidyl-2-nitrobenzoate) (DSNB)-modified immunogold was then incorporated with AFP-L3 antibodies for sandwich immunoreaction on the chips. As a result, we found that a typical Raman band intensity of DSNB presented an exponential linear relationship with the concentration of AFP-L3. Thus, the AFP-L3% can be calculated according to the concentrations of AFP-L3 and total AFP. The most important advantage of the proposed method is the combination of AFP-L3% and frequency shifts of SERS, which exhibits excellent reproducibility and high accuracy, and significantly simplifies the conventional detection procedure of AFP-L3%. Application of the proposed method with the serum of patients with HCC demonstrated its great potential in early liver cancer diagnosis.

  15. Capability of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to reduce infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes in goat feces in the southeastern United States: dose titration and dose time interval studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, T H; Larsen, M; Samples, O; Husted, S; Miller, J E; Kaplan, R M; Gelaye, S

    2004-04-15

    Infection with gastrointestinal nematodes, particularly Haemonchus contortus, is a major constraint to goat production in the southeastern United States. Non-anthelmintic control alternatives are needed due to increasing resistance of these nematodes to available anthelmintics. Two studies were completed in Central Georgia in August 1999, and April-May 2000, using Spanish does naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Trichostongylus colubriformis, and Cooperia spp. to evaluate effectiveness of nematode-trapping fungi as a biological control agent. In the first experiment, five levels of Duddingtonia flagrans spores were mixed with a complete diet and fed once daily to the does (three per treatment) in metabolism crates. The treatment concentrations were (1) 5 x 10(5), (2) 2.5 x 10(5), (3) 10(5), and (4) 5 x 10(4) spores per kilogram body weight (BW), and (5) no spores. Fungal spores were fed for the first 7 days of the 14-day trial, and fecal samples were collected daily from individual animals for analysis of fecal egg count and establishment of fecal cultures. Efficacy of the fungus at reducing development of infective larvae (L3) in the fecal cultures was evaluated. The mean reduction in L3 from day 2 of the treatment period until the day after treatment stopped (days 2-8) was 93.6, 80.2, 84.1, and 60.8% for animals given the highest to lowest spore doses, respectively. Within 3-6 days after termination of fungal spore feedings, reduction in L3 development was no longer apparent in any of the treated animals. In a second experiment, effectiveness of 2.5 x 10(5) spores of D. flagrans per kilogram BW fed to does every day, every second day, and every third day was evaluated. Reduction in L3 development by daily feeding was less in the second experiment than in the first experiment. Daily fungal spore feeding provided more consistent larval reduction than intermittant feeding (every second or third day). When fed daily under controlled conditions, D. flagrans

  16. ASTEROFF: A Computer Code to Deflect NEOs by Missiles shot from L1 and L3 (Earth-Moon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccone, C.

    We develop the mathematical theory for an automatic, space-based system to deflect NEOs by virtue of missiles shot from the Earth-Moon L1 and L3 Lagrangian Points. A patent application has been filed for the relevant code, dubbed ASTEROFF (= Asteroids OFF !). This code was already implemented, and a copyright for it was registered. In a paper published in Acta Astronautica, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 185-199 (2002), this author proved mathematically the following theorem (hereafter called the ``confocal conics theorem''): ``Within the sphere of influence of the Earth, any NEO could be hit by a missile at just an angle of 90 degrees, was the missile shot from Lagrangian Points L1 or L3 of the Earth-Moon system, rather than from the surface of the Earth''. As a consequence, the hitting missile would have move along a ``confocal ellipse'' (centered at the Earth) uniquely determined by the NEO's incoming hyperbola. Based on the above theorem, the author further shows in this paper that: The proposed defense system would be ideal to deflect NEOs that are small, i.e. less than one kilometer in diameter. Small NEOs are just the most difficult ones to be detected early enough and to such an orbital accuracy to be positively sure that they are indeed hazardous. The traditional theory of Keplerian orbits can successfully be applied to get an excellent first-order approximation of the (otherwise unknown) mathematical formulae of the energy/momentum requested to achieve the NEO deflection. Many engineering details about the missiles shot from L1 and L3, however, still have to be implemented into our simulations, partly because they are classified. Was one missile not enough to deflect the NEO completely, it is a great advantage of the ``confocal conics'' used here that the new, slightly deflected NEO's hyperbola would certainly be hit at nearly 90 degrees by another and slightly more eccentric elliptical missile trajectory. A sufficient number of missiles could thus be launched in a

  17. Optimal trajectories from the Earth-Moon L1 and L3 points to deflect hazardous asteroids and comets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2004-05-01

    Software code named asteroff was recently created by the author to simulate the deflection of hazardous asteroids off of their collision course with the Earth. This code was both copyrighted and patented to avoid unauthorized use of ideas that could possibly be vital to construct a planetary defense system in the vicinity of the Earth. Having so said, the basic ideas and equations underlying the asteroff simulation code are openly described in this paper. A system of two space bases housing missiles is proposed to achieve the planetary defense of the Earth against dangerous asteroids and comets, collectively called impactors herein. We show that the layout of the Earth-Moon system with the five relevant Lagrangian (or libration) points in space leads naturally to only one, unmistakable location of these two space bases within the sphere of influence of the Earth. These locations are at the two Lagrangian points L(1) (between the Earth and the Moon) and L(3) (in the direction opposite to the Moon from the Earth). We show that placing missile bases at L(1) and L(3) would enable those missiles to deflect the trajectory of impactors by hitting them orthogonally to their impact trajectory toward the Earth, so as to maximize their deflection. We show that confocal conics are the best class of trajectories fulfilling this orthogonal deflection requirement. One additional remark is that the theory developed in this paper is just a beginning for a wider set of future research. In fact, we only develop the Keplerian analytical theory for the optimal planetary defense achievable from the Earth-Moon Lagrangian points L(1) and L(3). Much more sophisticated analytical refinements would be needed to: (1) take into account many perturbation forces of all kinds acting on both the impactors and missiles shot from L(1) and L(3); (2) add more (non-optimal) trajectories of missiles shot from either the Lagrangian points L(4) and L(5) of the Earth-Moon System or from the surface of the

  18. Observation of a VHE Cosmic-Ray Flare-Signal with the L3+C Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Aziz, T; Bähr, J; Banerjee, S; Becattini, F; Bellucci, L; Betev, B L; Blaising, J J; Bobbink, G J; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Cartacci, A; Chemarin, M; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chiarusi, T; Coignet, G; Ding, L K; Duran, I; Eline, A; El Mamouni, H; Faber, G; Fay, J; Filthaut, F; Ganguli, S N; Gong, Z F; Grabosch, H J; Groenstege, H; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S; Gurtu, A; Haller, Ch; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Herve, A; Hofer, H; Hoferjun, H; Huo, A X; Ito, N; Jing, C L; Jones, L W; Kantserov, V; Kawakami, S; Kittel, W; König, A C; Kok, E; Kuang, H H; Kuijpers, J; Ladron de Guevara, P; Le Coultre, P; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Li, L; Li, Z C; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Lu, Y S; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Nowak, H; Parriaud, J -F; Pauss, F; Petersen, B; Pieri, M; Pohl, M; Pojidaev, V; Qing, C R; Ramelli, R; Ranieri, R; Ravindran, K C; Rewiersma, P; Riemann, S; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Schmitt, V; Schoeneich, B; Schotanus, D J; Shen, C Q; Spillantini, P; Sulanke, H; Tang, X W; Timmermans, C; Tonwar, S C; Trowitzsch, G; Unger, M; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vogt, H; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Wijk, R van; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Xu, Y P; Xu, J S; Xu, Z Z; Yang, C G; Yang, X F; Yao, Z G; Yu, Z Q; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhou, S J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, Q Q; Zhuang, H L; Zwart, A N M

    2010-01-01

    The data collected by the L3+C muon spectrometer at the CERN Large Electron-Positron collider, LEP, have been used to search for short duration signals emitted by cosmic point sources. A sky survey performed from July to November 1999 and from April to November 2000 has revealed one single flux enhancement (chance probability = 2.6X10^{-3}) between the 17th and 20th of August 2000 from a direction with a galactic longitude of (265.02+-0.42)^° and latitude of (55.58+-0.24)^°. The energy of the detected muons was above 15 GeV.

  19. A search for flaring Very-High-Energy cosmic-ray sources with the L3+C muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bähr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiarusi, T; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; De Asmundis, R; Dglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Durán, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, H; Grabosch, G; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jindal, P; Jing, C L; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberría, M I; Kantserov, V A; Kaur, i; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M; Kuang, H H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P A M; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saidi, R; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmitt, V; Schöneich, B; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sulanke, H; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, G; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Van Wijk, R F; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Y P; Xu, J S; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J

    2006-01-01

    The L3+C muon detector at the Cern electron-position collider, LEP, is used for the detection of very-high-energy cosmic \\gamma-ray sources through the observation of muons of energies above 20, 30, 50 and 100 GeV. Daily or monthly excesses in the rate of single-muon events pointing to some particular direction in the sky are searched for. The periods from mid July to November 1999, and April to November 2000 are considered. Special attention is also given to a selection of known \\gamma-ray sources. No statistically significant excess is observed for any direction or any particular source.

  20. English L3 Learning in a Multilingual Context: The Role of Parental Education and L2 Exposure within the Living Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Gessica

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines two factors in relation to English L3 proficiency development and school performance in a third language: (a) parental education and (b) second language exposure within the living community. Participants (n?=?50) are Italian L1 students with German L2 and English L3. All students (eighth grade, 14 years of age) were…

  1. Roles of linguistic knowledge, metacognitive knowledge and processing speed in L3, L2 and L1 reading comprehension: a structural equation modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, A.; Schoonen, R.; de Glopper, K.; Hulstijn, J.; Snellings, P.; Simis, A.; Stevenson, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present an analysis of the relationship between L3 reading comprehension and its constituent skills for bilingual Dutch students for whom English is a third language(L3) compared to monolingual Dutch students for whom English is a second language(L2). An analogous analysis is made

  2. Comparison of AFP-L3 and p53 Antigen Concentration with Alpha-Fetoprotein as Serum Markers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed M; Elshal, Mohamed F; Abass, Aymn T; El-Kafrawy, Sherif; Ezzat, Sameera; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has the worst prognosis among all major cancers, largely due to the lack of sensitive diagnostic markers. We aimed to compare three HCC tumor markers, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), p53, and AFP-L3%, to evaluate whether measuring serum p53 levels and AFP-L3% has an additive diagnostic value for detection of HCC. A total of 86 patients with chronic liver diseases were included. HCC was detected in 68 (79.1%) patients. Twenty healthy age-matched volunteers served as healthy controls. Serum concentrations of AFP, AFP-L3, and p53 protein were measured. The correlations between the three markers with status of viral hepatitis, liver function tests, and Child-Pugh scores were determined. HCC patients showed significantly higher percentages of cirrhosis and Child-Pugh grade C (p AFP-L3% and p53 levels were significantly (p AFP-L3% was found significantly correlated with Child-Pugh classification (p AFP-L3, AFP, and p53; respectively. Combining AFP-L3 and p53 improved sensitivity to 95.4% with a specificity of 85%. No significant correlation was found between AFP, AFP-L3%, and p53; however, the simultaneous determination of the three tumor markers yielded a better diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity in the detection of HCCs than each biomarker alone.

  3. Pharmacologically induced long QT type 2 can be rescued by activation of IKs with benzodiazepine R-L3 in isolated guinea pig cardiomyocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Jakob Dahl; Diness, Jonas Goldin; Diness, Thomas Goldin

    2009-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate potential antiarrhythmic effects of compound induced IKs activation using the benzodiazepine L-364,373 (R-L3). Ventricular myocytes from guinea pigs were isolated and whole-cell current clamping was performed at 35 degrees C. It was found that 1 microM R-L3 significantly reduced...

  4. Genomic characterization of Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3, a key hydrolytic bacterium in a thermophilic biogas plant and its abundance as determined by metagenome fragment recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Irena; Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Bremges, Andreas; Stolze, Yvonne; Wibberg, Daniel; Tomazetto, Geizecler; Blom, Jochen; Sczyrba, Alexander; König, Helmut; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2016-08-20

    The genome sequence of Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3 originating from a thermophilic biogas-production plant was established and recently published as Genome Announcement by our group. The circular chromosome of D. tunisiensis L3 has a size of 2,053,097bp and a mean GC content of 31.38%. To analyze the D. tunisiensis L3 genome sequence in more detail, a phylogenetic analysis of completely sequenced Thermotogae strains based on shared core genes was performed. It appeared that Petrotoga mobilis DSM 10674(T), originally isolated from a North Sea oil-production well, is the closest relative of D. tunisiensis L3. Comparative genome analyses of P. mobilis DSM 10674(T) and D. tunisiensis L3 showed moderate similarities regarding occurrence of orthologous genes. Both genomes share a common set of 1351 core genes. Reconstruction of metabolic pathways important for the biogas production process revealed that the D. tunisiensis L3 genome encodes a large set of genes predicted to facilitate utilization of a variety of complex polysaccharides including cellulose, chitin and xylan. Ethanol, acetate, hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were found as possible end-products of the fermentation process. The latter three metabolites are considered to represent substrates for methanogenic Archaea, the key organisms in the final step of the anaerobic digestion process. To determine the degree of relatedness between D. tunisiensis L3 and dominant biogas community members within the thermophilic biogas-production plant, metagenome sequences obtained from the corresponding microbial community were mapped onto the L3 genome sequence. This fragment recruitment revealed that the D. tunisiensis L3 genome is almost completely covered with metagenome sequences featuring high matching accuracy. This result indicates that strains highly related or even identical to the reference strain D. tunisiensis L3 play a dominant role within the community of the thermophilic biogas-production plant

  5. VLBI-simulations for the estimation of degree-three Love and Shida numbers h3 and l3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes Cerveira, P. J.; Boehm, J.; Wresnik, J.; Spicakova, H.; Schuh, H.

    2007-12-01

    For the displacement due to solid Earth tides, the IERS Conventions 2003 recommend several corrections to nominal values. One of these corrections is the in-phase contribution by using the real Love and Shida numbers h3 and l3 at all degree-3 tides, where only the contribution of the moon is relevant. The maximum predicted radial displacement is in the order of 1.7 mm. The nominal values are 0.292 for h3, and 0.015 for l3, respectively. Using realistic station and source catalogues, we simulated VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) group time delays, with a white noise going up to 2 cm, and taking into account the solid Earth tides displacement. Goal of this study was to investigate whether degree-3 Love and Shida numbers can be unambiguously determined from VLBI observations. Therefore, several setups w.r.t., e.g., station constellation, cutoff angle, time span, sampling interval, and different levels of white noise were tested. Attention was put into the separability and correlation between the degree-2 and degree-3 Love and Shida numbers.

  6. Examining teachers’ views on the implementation of English as L3 into primary schools: A case of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhytgul A Zhetpisbayeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan changed the State Educational Program for primary education and the curriculum for teaching English as a third language (L3 to grades 1-4in 2013. As with many changes in the curriculum, English language teaching has also been changed and the starting age for learning of English language has been lowered to 6-7 years of age (Grade 1. However, implementation of the curriculum requires readiness on the part of the teachers and teachers' views about teaching English in primary school is important for successful implementation of English language policy. Thus, this research aims to investigate the teachers’ views about the starting age for L3 learning, teachers' professional development, teaching materials and problems of implementation of a language policy in primary schools in Kazakhstan. The data for the study was gathered from 105 English teachers working in different primary schools. The study revealed that most have not yet made a transition to the organized system of teaching English languages in primary school.

  7. Combination of triple biomarkers AFP, AFP-L3, and PIVAKII for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in China: Expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianjun; Song, Peipei

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a severe health threat in China. Early tumor detection is crucial for improving the prognosis of patients. Currently, ultrasound plus biomarker alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is recommended by Chinese Liver Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines in China. However, most HCC continues to be diagnosed beyond an early stage due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity of current surveillance tools, highlighting the need for more accurate biomarkers to improve early HCC detection. In Japan, ultrasound plus triple biomarkers AFP, Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence II (PIVKA II) has been routinely used for HCC surveillance and achieved increased early HCC detection rate. Very recently, the assay of triple biomarkers AFP, AFP-L3, and PIVKA II using μTASWako i30 immuno-analyzer was brought into China. The prospect of the modality of ultrasound plus triple biomarkers for early HCC detection in China is expected in the future.

  8. Prolonged response to calling songs by the L3 auditory interneuron in female crickets (Acheta domesticus): intracellular evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Benjamin; Stout, John; Atkins, Gordon

    2003-03-01

    The L3 auditory interneuron in female Acheta domesticus, produces two different responses to the male calling song: an immediate response and a prolonged response. The prolonged response exhibited spiking activity and a correlated prolonged depolarization, both of which are clearly seen in intracellular recordings. The morphology revealed by intracellular staining was clearly the L3 neuron. The amplitude of the prolonged depolarization associated with the prolonged response increased with increases in sound intensity, resulting in increased spiking rates. Both depolarization and sound presentation increased the spiking rate and the slope of pre-potentials (thus leading to spiking threshold more quickly). Injecting hyperpolarizing current had the expected opposite effect. The effects of positive current injection and sound presentation were additive, resulting in spiking rates that were approximately double the rates in response to sound alone. Short postsynaptic potentials (PSPs), whose duration ranged from 15-60 ms, which may lead to action potentials were also observed in all recordings and summated with the prolonged depolarization, increasing the probability of spiking. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Antigenicity of Anisakis simplex s.s. L3 in parasitized fish after heating conditions used in the canning processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Margarita; Olivares, Fabiola; de las Heras, Cristina; Careche, Mercedes; Solas, María Teresa; García, María Luisa; Fernandez, Agustín; Mendizábal, Angel; Navas, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana Isabel; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2015-03-30

    Some technological and food processing treatments applied to parasitized fish kill the Anisakis larvae and prevent infection and sensitization of consumers. However, residual allergenic activity of parasite allergens has been shown. The aim here was to study the effect of different heat treatments used in the fish canning processing industry on the antigen recognition of Anisakis L3. Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) were experimentally infected with live L3 Anisakis. After 48 h at 5 ± 1 °C, brine was added to the muscle, which was then canned raw (live larvae) or heated (90 °C, 30 min) (dead larvae) and treated at 113 °C for 60 min or at 115 °C for 90 min. Anisakis antigens and Ani s 4 were detected with anti-crude extract and anti-Ani s 4 antisera respectively. Ani s 4 decreased in all lots, but the muscle retained part of the allergenicity irrespective of the canning method, as observed by immunohistochemistry. Dot blot analysis showed a high loss of Ani s 4 recognition after canning, but residual antigenicity was present. The results indicate that heat treatment for sterilization under the conditions studied produces a decrease in Ani s 4 and suggest a potential exposure risk for Anisakis-sensitized patients. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Evaluation of revisited fucosylated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) with an autoanalyzer μTAS in a clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghyeon; Park, Yongjung; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-01-18

    We assessed clinical and analytical performances of AFP and fucosylated AFP (AFP-L3) assays by a newly developed automated analyzer based on liquid-phase binding (micro-total analysis systems, μTAS). A total of 239 serum samples were obtained from 120 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 119 without HCC. Precision of assays by the μTAS was evaluated, and the correlation between AFP-L3 and AFP levels was analyzed. Receiver operating characteristics curve-area under the curve (ROC-AUC) value was calculated to measure the diagnostic performance. Imprecision for AFP (ng/ml), AFP-L3 (ng/ml), and AFP-L3 (%) with 2 levels of QC materials was all within 5% coefficient of variation. AFP levels measured by the μTAS were correlated well with those by the UniCel DxI 800 Access (r=0.83). AFP-L3 concentrations in HCC patients were higher than those in control group (median 379.2 ng/ml in HCC, 1.0 ng/ml in non-HCC, PUniCel DxI 800, P<0.05 for both). AFP-L3 in HCC was significantly higher than that of control group. The μTAS showed good performances for routine uses in clinical laboratories for measuring AFP and AFP-L3. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a highly sensitive glycan microarray for quantifying AFP-L3 for early prediction of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shiou Wu

    Full Text Available The α-fetoprotein fraction L3 (AFP-L3, which is synthesized by malignant cells and incorporates a fucosylated oligosaccharide, has been investigated as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Quantification of AFP-L3 by conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA has not always produced reliable results for serum samples with low AFP, and thus we evaluated the clinical utility of quantifying AFP-L3 using a new and highly sensitive glycan microarray assay. Sera from 9 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 32 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV-related HCC were tested for AFP-L3 level using the glycan microarray. Additionally, we compared receiver operator characteristic curves for the ELISA and glycan microarray methods for determination of the AFP-L3: AFP-L1 ratio in patient samples. This ratio was calculated for 8 HCC patients who underwent transarterial embolization therapy pre- or post-treatment with AFP-L3. Glycan microarrays showed that the AFP-L3 ratio of HBV-related HCC patients was significantly higher than that measured for chronic hepatitis B patients. Overall parameters for estimating AFP-L3% in HCC samples were as follows: sensitivity, 53.13%; specificity, 88.89%; and area under the curve, 0.75. The elevated AFP-L3% in the 8 patients with HBV-related HCC was strongly associated with HCC progression. Following one month of transarterial embolization therapy, the relative mean AFP-L3% decreased significantly. In addition, we compared Fut8 gene expression between paired tumor and non-tumor tissues from 24 patients with HBV-related HCC. The Fut8 mRNA expression was significantly increased in tumorous tissues in these patients than that in non-tumor tissue controls. Higher expression of Fut8 mRNA in tumorous tissues in these patients was associated with poor differentiation than well and moderate differentiation. Our results describe a new glycan microarray for the sensitive and rapid

  12. Development of a highly sensitive glycan microarray for quantifying AFP-L3 for early prediction of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Shiou; Lee, Teng-Yu; Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Yen, Chia-Jui; Huang, Wei-Chien; Wu, Chung-Yi; Yu, Yung-Luen

    2014-01-01

    The α-fetoprotein fraction L3 (AFP-L3), which is synthesized by malignant cells and incorporates a fucosylated oligosaccharide, has been investigated as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Quantification of AFP-L3 by conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has not always produced reliable results for serum samples with low AFP, and thus we evaluated the clinical utility of quantifying AFP-L3 using a new and highly sensitive glycan microarray assay. Sera from 9 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 32 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC were tested for AFP-L3 level using the glycan microarray. Additionally, we compared receiver operator characteristic curves for the ELISA and glycan microarray methods for determination of the AFP-L3: AFP-L1 ratio in patient samples. This ratio was calculated for 8 HCC patients who underwent transarterial embolization therapy pre- or post-treatment with AFP-L3. Glycan microarrays showed that the AFP-L3 ratio of HBV-related HCC patients was significantly higher than that measured for chronic hepatitis B patients. Overall parameters for estimating AFP-L3% in HCC samples were as follows: sensitivity, 53.13%; specificity, 88.89%; and area under the curve, 0.75. The elevated AFP-L3% in the 8 patients with HBV-related HCC was strongly associated with HCC progression. Following one month of transarterial embolization therapy, the relative mean AFP-L3% decreased significantly. In addition, we compared Fut8 gene expression between paired tumor and non-tumor tissues from 24 patients with HBV-related HCC. The Fut8 mRNA expression was significantly increased in tumorous tissues in these patients than that in non-tumor tissue controls. Higher expression of Fut8 mRNA in tumorous tissues in these patients was associated with poor differentiation than well and moderate differentiation. Our results describe a new glycan microarray for the sensitive and rapid quantification of

  13. Development of a Highly Sensitive Glycan Microarray for Quantifying AFP-L3 for Early Prediction of Hepatitis B Virus–Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Yen, Chia-Jui; Huang, Wei-Chien; Wu, Chung-Yi; Yu, Yung-Luen

    2014-01-01

    The α-fetoprotein fraction L3 (AFP-L3), which is synthesized by malignant cells and incorporates a fucosylated oligosaccharide, has been investigated as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Quantification of AFP-L3 by conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has not always produced reliable results for serum samples with low AFP, and thus we evaluated the clinical utility of quantifying AFP-L3 using a new and highly sensitive glycan microarray assay. Sera from 9 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 32 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC were tested for AFP-L3 level using the glycan microarray. Additionally, we compared receiver operator characteristic curves for the ELISA and glycan microarray methods for determination of the AFP-L3: AFP-L1 ratio in patient samples. This ratio was calculated for 8 HCC patients who underwent transarterial embolization therapy pre- or post-treatment with AFP-L3. Glycan microarrays showed that the AFP-L3 ratio of HBV-related HCC patients was significantly higher than that measured for chronic hepatitis B patients. Overall parameters for estimating AFP-L3% in HCC samples were as follows: sensitivity, 53.13%; specificity, 88.89%; and area under the curve, 0.75. The elevated AFP-L3% in the 8 patients with HBV-related HCC was strongly associated with HCC progression. Following one month of transarterial embolization therapy, the relative mean AFP-L3% decreased significantly. In addition, we compared Fut8 gene expression between paired tumor and non-tumor tissues from 24 patients with HBV-related HCC. The Fut8 mRNA expression was significantly increased in tumorous tissues in these patients than that in non-tumor tissue controls. Higher expression of Fut8 mRNA in tumorous tissues in these patients was associated with poor differentiation than well and moderate differentiation. Our results describe a new glycan microarray for the sensitive and rapid quantification of

  14. Searching for artificial equilibrium points to place satellites "above and below" L3 in the Sun-Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, A. K., Jr.; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Sanchez, D. M.; Yokoyama, T.

    2017-10-01

    Regarding practical applications of L3 of the Sun-Earth system, there are few studies with the goal of placing a spacecraft at this point, or in orbit around it. One of the main problems in placing a spacecraft near this equilibrium point is the fact that it is located behind the Sun with respect to the Earth. The Sun would be blocking direct communication between the spacecraft and the Earth. The present research gives several options to solve this problem by using a solar sail to place one or two spacecraft above and/or below the Ecliptic plane. This sail could also be used for the mission itself, to collect energy or particles. By using an adequate size, location and attitude of the solar sail, the equilibrium point can be moved from its original location to allow communications between the spacecraft and the Earth. A preliminary study of a solar sail that uses this strategy is shown here.

  15. Cross section measurement of $\\tau$ pairs in two photon collisions with the L3 detector at LEP 2

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, D

    2001-01-01

    The production of tau pairs in gamma gamma collisions is studied with the L3 detector at LEP. Data were collected at square root =189-202 GeV for a total integrated luminosity of 393.0 pb/sup -1/. An exclusive decay channel is considered, with tau /sup +or-/ to e/sup +or-/ nu /sub tau / nu /sub e/ and tau /sup -or+/ to rho /sup -or+/ nu /sub tau /, with rho /sup -or+/ to pi /sup -or+/ pi /sup 0/. The cross section sigma (e/sup +/e/sup -/ to e/sup +/e/sup -/ tau /sup +/ tau /sup -/) is compared to O( alpha /sup 4/) QED calculations. The cross section of tau production is measured in gamma gamma collisions for the first time at LEP 2. (9 refs).

  16. Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16 900 in the near infrared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vico Triviño, Noelia; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Minkov, Momchil, E-mail: momchil.minkov@epfl.ch; Savona, Vincenzo [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of Nanosystems, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Urbinati, Giulia; Galli, Matteo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2014-12-08

    Photonic crystal point-defect cavities were fabricated in a GaN free-standing photonic crystal slab. The cavities are based on the popular L3 design, which was optimized using an automated process based on a genetic algorithm, in order to maximize the quality factor. Optical characterization of several individual cavity replicas resulted in an average unloaded quality factor Q = 16 900 at the resonant wavelength λ∼1.3 μm, with a maximal measured Q value of 22 500. The statistics of both the quality factor and the resonant wavelength are well explained by first-principles simulations including fabrication disorder and background optical absorption.

  17. Identification of the new UV filter compound cysteine-L-3-hydroxykynurenine O-beta-d-glucoside in human lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hains, Peter G; Mizdrak, Jasminka; Streete, Isla M; Jamie, Joanne F; Truscott, Roger J W

    2006-09-18

    UV filters protect the human lens and retina from UV light-induced damage. Here, we report the identification of a new UV filter, cysteine-l-3-hydroxykynurenine O-beta-d-glucoside, which is present in older normal human lenses. Its structure was confirmed by independent synthesis. It is likely this novel UV filter is formed in the lens by nucleophilic attack of cysteine on the unsaturated ketone derived from deamination of 3-hydroxykynurenine O-beta-d-glucoside. Quantitation studies revealed considerable variation in normal lens levels that may be traced to the marked instability of the cysteine adduct. The novel UV filter was not detected in advanced nuclear cataract lenses.

  18. Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16,900 in the near infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Triviño, Noelia Vico; Urbinati, Giulia; Galli, Matteo; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Savona, Vincenzo; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Photonic crystal point-defect cavities were fabricated in a GaN free-standing photonic crystal slab. The cavities are based on the popular L3 design, which was optimized using an automated process based on a genetic algorithm, in order to maximize the quality factor. Optical characterization of several individual cavity replicas resulted in an average unloaded quality factor Q = 16,900 at the resonant wavelength {\\lambda} $\\sim 1.3$ {\\mu}m, with a maximal measured Q value of 22,500. The statistics of both the quality factor and the resonant wavelength are well explained by first-principles simulations including fabrication disorder and background optical absorption.

  19. Hybridization gap in the heavy-fermion compound UP d2A l3 via quasiparticle scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, N. K.; Mehio, O.; Dwyer, M.; Greene, L. H.; Baumbach, R. E.; Tobash, P. H.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Park, W. K.

    2017-04-01

    We present results from point-contact spectroscopy of the antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion superconductor UP d2A l3 : Conductance spectra are taken from single crystals with two major surface orientations as a function of temperature and magnetic field and analyzed using a theory of cotunneling into an Anderson lattice. Spectroscopic signatures are clearly identified, including the distinct asymmetric double-peak structure arising from the opening of a hybridization gap when a coherent heavy-Fermi liquid is formed. Both the hybridization gap, found to be 7.2 ±0.3 meV at 4 K, and the conductance enhancement above a flat background decrease upon increasing temperature. While the hybridization gap is extrapolated to remain finite up to ˜28 K, close to the temperature around which the magnetic susceptibility displays a broad peak, the conductance enhancement vanishes at ˜18 K, slightly above the antiferromagnetic transition temperature (TN≈14 K ) . This rapid decrease of the conductance enhancement is understood as a consequence of the junction drifting away from the ballistic regime due to increased scattering off magnons associated with the localized U 5 f electrons. This shows that while the hybridization gap opening is not directly associated with the antiferromagnetic ordering, its visibility in the conductance is greatly affected by the temperature-dependent magnetic excitations. Our findings are not only consistent with the 5 f dual-nature picture in the literature but also shed new light on the interplay between the itinerant and localized electrons in UP d2A l3 .

  20. Association between FAMACHA© Scores and Fecal Egg Counts in Katahdin Lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FAMACHA system was introduced to the U.S. just over 10 yr ago in order to allow selective deworming of lambs with anemia associated with Haemonchus contortus and retard the development of anthelmintic resistance. The FAMACHA system was initially developed as a predictor of packed cell volume (PC...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aliyu, MM. Vol 7, No 1 (2008) - Articles Studies on the Leucocytic Response to Experimental Infection with Trypanosoma brucei and Haemonchus contortus in Red fronted gazelles (Gazella rufifrons) Abstract · Vol 7, No 1 (2008) - Articles Prevalence of concurrent balantidosis and giardoosis among captive chimpanzees ...

  2. of Goats Fed to Captive Animals at the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    235831546; 66.9%;. X2: 109.97) than all other gastrointestinal helmintbs. This study highlights that. Haemonchus contortus was the most prevalent gastrointestinal parasite in goats fed to animals in the University oflbadan Zoological Garden. Key words: ...

  3. In vitro anthelmintic effect of two medicinal plants (Anogeissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Accepted 12 May, 2009. A study was conducted to evaluate Anogeissus leiocarpus leaf and Daniellia oliveri stem barks as ... Key words: Anthelmintic, leaf, stem bark, extracts, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Daniellia oliveri, Haemonchus contortus. INTRODUCTION ... education of children. Unfortunately, in ...

  4. The influence of breed and dietary molybdenum on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRADLEY, R.E., RADHAKRISHNAN,. C.V.,. PUTIL-KULKARNI, V.G. & LOGGINS, P.E., 1973. Responses in Florida Native and Rambouillet lambs exposed to one and two doses of Haemonchus contortus. Am. J. vet. Res. 34, 729. DICK, A.T. 1944. Aspiration biopsy of the liver in sheep. Aust. vet. J. 20, 298. DICK, A.T., 1956.

  5. Effets strongylicides in vitro de l'extrait aqueux de feuilles de Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'extrait aqueux de feuilles de Ficus exasperata (plante tropicale de la famille des Moraceae) sur des adultes de Haemonchus contortus (parasite gastro-intestinal des ruminants). L'étude a consisté en un test de mortalité par contact. Les vers ...

  6. 21 CFR 520.905c - Fenbendazole paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole paste. 520.905c Section 520.905c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus), stomach worms (Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia ostertagi...

  7. Haematological responses of three Nigerian goat breeds to field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, single infection due to either of Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Strongyloides papilosus, Cooperia punctata, Trichuris ovis, Paramphistomum cervi and Moniezia benedini constituted 5.0%. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in mean faecal egg ...

  8. some nutritional aspects of haemonchosis in experimentally infested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nutritional aberration has been described as anorexia in both pure (Evans, Blunt & Southcott, 1963) and mixed infestations where Haemonchus contortus was prominent. (Clark, Ortlepp, Bosman, Laurence, Groenewald & Quin,. 1951; Shumard et al. 1957). Further observations on nutritional aspects of a pure infestation of ...

  9. Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Local Satellite Time) 1 day L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1 (MSLERLSTL3zm) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Local Satellite Time) 1 day L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones data product (MSLERLSTL3zm) is derived from...

  10. Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Noon Normalized) 1 day L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1 (MSLERNNL3zm) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Noon Normalized) 1 day L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones data product (MSLERNNL3zm) is derived from observations...

  11. Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Local Satellite Time) Daily L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Local Satellite Time) Daily L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones data product (MSLERLSTL3zm) is derived from...

  12. Delayed vertebral diagnosed L4 pincer vertebral fracture, L2-L3 ruptured vertebral lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasa D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An association between delayed ruptured lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture and posttraumaticL4 pincer vertebral fracture (A2.3-AO clasification at different levels is a very rare entity. We present the case of a 55 years old male who falled down from a bicycle. 2 months later because of intense and permanent vertebral lumbar and radicular L2 and L3 pain (Visual Scal Autologus of Pain7-8/10 the patient came to the hospital. He was diagnosed with pincer vertebral L4 fracture (A2.3-AO clasification and L2-L3 right ruptured lumbar disc hernia in lateral reces. The patient was operated (L2-L3 right fenestration, and resection of lumbar disc hernia, bilateral stabilisation, L3-L4-L5 with titan screws and postero-lateral bone graft L4 bilateral harvested from iliac crest.

  13. SBUV2/NOAA-17 Ozone (O3) Profile and Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar Backscattered Ultra Violet (SBUV) from NOAA-17 Level-3 monthly zonal mean (MZM) product (SBUV2N17L3zm) is derived from the Level-2 retrieved ozone...

  14. ROV Dive Products Dataset for EX1502L3: Caribbean Exploration (ROV) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between 20150409 and 20150430

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dataset of folders containing ROV dive products for each ROV dive performed during EX1502L3. The files within the folder are text, image, graph, comma-separated...

  15. GOZCARDS Source Nitrous Oxide 1 month L3 10 degree Zonal Means on a Vertical Pressure Grid V1 (GozSmlpN2O) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Nitrous Oxide 1 month L3 10 degree Zonal Averages on a Vertical Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpN2O) contains zonal means and related...

  16. GOZCARDS Merged Nitrous Oxide 1 month L3 10 degree Zonal Means on a Vertical Pressure Grid V1 (GozMmlpN2O) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Merged Data for Nitrous Oxide 1 month L3 10 degree Zonal Averages on a Vertical Pressure Grid product (GozMmlpN2O) contains zonal means and related...

  17. SBUV2/NOAA-14 Ozone (O3) Profile and Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar Backscattered Ultra Violet (SBUV) from NOAA-14 Level-3 monthly zonal mean (MZM) product (SBUV2N14L3zm) is derived from the Level-2 retrieved ozone...

  18. SBUV2/NOAA-18 Ozone (O3) Profile and Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar Backscattered Ultra Violet (SBUV) from NOAA-18 Level-3 monthly zonal mean (MZM) product (SBUV2N18L3zm) is derived from the Level-2 retrieved ozone...

  19. SBUV2/NOAA-16 Ozone (O3) Profile and Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar Backscattered Ultra Violet (SBUV) from NOAA-16 Level-3 monthly zonal mean (MZM) product (SBUV2N16L3zm) is derived from the Level-2 retrieved ozone...

  20. SBUV2/NOAA-11 Ozone (O3) Profile and Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar Backscattered Ultra Violet (SBUV) from NOAA-11 Level-3 monthly zonal mean (MZM) product (SBUV2N11L3zm) is derived from the Level-2 retrieved ozone...

  1. SBUV/Nimbus-07 Ozone (O3) Profile and Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar Backscattered Ultra Violet (SBUV) from Nimbus-7 Level-3 monthly zonal mean (MZM) product (SBUVN07L3zm) is derived from the Level-2 retrieved ozone...

  2. SBUV2/NOAA-09 Ozone (O3) Profile and Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar Backscattered Ultra Violet (SBUV) from NOAA-9 Level-3 monthly zonal mean (MZM) product (SBUV2N17L3zm) is derived from the Level-2 retrieved ozone profiles....

  3. SBUV2/NOAA-19 Ozone (O3) Profile and Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar Backscattered Ultra Violet (SBUV) from NOAA-19 Level-3 monthly zonal mean (MZM) product (SBUV2N19L3zm) is derived from the Level-2 retrieved ozone...

  4. BUV/Nimbus-04 Ozone (O3) Profile and Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar Backscattered Ultra Violet (SBUV) from Nimbus-4 Level-3 monthly zonal mean (MZM) product (BUVN04L3zm) is derived from the Level-2 retrieved ozone profiles....

  5. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  6. TMI/TRMM surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km daytime V001 (LPRM_TMI_DY_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TMI/TRMM surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km daytime V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land...

  7. TMI/TRMM surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km nighttime V001 (LPRM_TMI_NT_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TMI/TRMM surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km nighttime V001 is Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land...

  8. GOZCARDS Source Water Vapor 1 month L3 10 degree Zonal Means on a Vertical Pressure Grid V1 (GozSmlpH2O) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Water Vapor 1 month L3 10 degree Zonal Averages on a Vertical Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpH2O) contains zonal means and related...

  9. In vivo effects of monoclonal anti-L3T4 antibody on immune responsiveness of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Reduction of irradiated cercariae-induced resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, E.A.; Colley, D.G.

    1988-04-15

    Mice can be partially protected against challenge infections of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae by either single or multiple exposure to irradiated cercariae (x-cerc). The participation of L3T4+ lymphocytes on this resistance phenomenon was evaluated by selectively depleting this cell population through in vivo administration of mAb anti-L3T4 at three different times in relationship to the challenge infections. Treatment with anti-L3T4 before challenge such that depletion was effective during the time of cercarial skin penetration and dermal/s.c. residence significantly reduced the level of resistance induced by x-cerc sensitization. When treatment was delayed until after challenge, depletion of L3T4+ cells coincided with either the lung or post-lung/liver phases of schistosomular migration, and normal levels of x-cerc-induced resistance were induced. In contrast to once-immunized mice, mice hyperimmunized by five exposures to x-cerc and then depleted of L3T4+ cells at the time of challenge still expressed resistance to the challenge. These data suggest that when mice are sensitized only once with x-cerc the challenge infection provides a necessary immunologic boost which requires L3T4+ cells for effective expression of resistance. The requirement for this anamnestic effect by the challenge infection can be circumvented by hyperimmunization. Evaluation of the immune response of one-time sensitized or hyperimmunized mice demonstrated that cellular Ag-specific proliferative responses and mitogen-induced lymphokine production were abrogated after any of the various in vivo regimens of anti-L3T4 antibody. In contrast, immunoblot analysis of humoral responsiveness revealed a correlation between the expression of resistance and the ability of sera from immunized and anti-L3T4 treated mice to recognize a 75-kDa parasite antigenic component.

  10. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD DE LOS ESTADIOS L2 Y L3 DE Phyllophaga elenans A UNA CEPA NATIVA DE Heterorhabditis sp. EN CONDICIONES DE INVERNADERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    dosis de 500 y 625 nematodos.larva-1 presentaron una mortalidad significativamente mayor que el control. La mortalidad mayor (24%, se obtuvo al día 30 con la dosis de 625 nematodos.larva-1. La diferencia observada en los porcentajes de infección entre larvas L2 y L3 puede deberse a mecanismos de defensa o escape que podrían actuar en el estadio larval L3 de P. elenans.

  11. Inter-string Bose-Einstein correlations in hadronic Z decays using the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qin

    2008-01-01

    Bose-Einstein Correlations (BEC) of identical bosons can be used for the femtoscopy of the pro- duction properties of bosons in high energy particle collisions. This quantum mechanical BEC effect is a direct consequence of the symmetrization of the wave function of a boson system and is frequently used on photons in Astophysics to measure the angular size and other properties of distant stars. In particle collisions, the effect can be observed experimentally as an enhancement of the production of identical bosons with small four-momentum difference Q relative to a production that would occur in a world without Bose-Einstein statistics. In this thesis, BEC are studied between identical pions produced in electron-positron collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 91 GeV in the LEP e+ e− Collider of CERN, near Geneva. The final-state particles of these collisions are detected in the detector of the L3 experiment, which is positioned at one of the four intersections of LEP. According to the present picture of bo...

  12. Glycosylation of phenolic compounds by the site-mutated β-galactosidase from Lactobacillus bulgaricus L3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Lu

    Full Text Available β-Galactosidases can transfer the galactosyl from lactose or galactoside donors to various acceptors and thus are especially useful for the synthesis of important glycosides. However, these enzymes have limitations in the glycosylation of phenolic compounds that have many physiological functions. In this work, the β-galactosidase from Lactobacillus bulgaricus L3 was subjected to site-saturation mutagenesis at the W980 residue. The recombinant pET-21b plasmid carrying the enzyme gene was used as the template for mutation. The mutant plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli cells for screening. One recombinant mutant, W980F, exhibited increased yield of glycoside when using hydroquinone as the screening acceptor. The enzyme was purified and the effects of the mutation on enzyme properties were determined in detail. It showed improved transglycosylation activity on novel phenolic acceptors besides hydroquinone. The yields of the glycosides produced from phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol were increased by 7.6% to 53.1%. Moreover, it generated 32.3% glycosides from the pyrogallol that could not be glycosylated by the wild-type enzyme. Chemical structures of these glycoside products were further determined by MS and NMR analysis. Thus, a series of novel phenolic galactosides were achieved by β-galactosidase for the first time. This was a breakthrough in the enzymatic galactosylation of the challenging phenolic compounds of great values.

  13. STAR-CCM+ (CFD) Calculations and Validation L3:VVI.H2L.P15.02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilkey, Lindsay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    This milestone presents a demonstration of the High-to-Low (Hi2Lo) process in the VVI focus area. Validation and additional calculations with the commercial computational fluid dynamics code, STAR-CCM+, were performed using a 5x5 fuel assembly with non-mixing geometry and spacer grids. This geometry was based on the benchmark experiment provided by Westinghouse. Results from the simulations were compared to existing experimental data and to the subchannel thermal-hydraulics code COBRA-TF (CTF). An uncertainty quantification (UQ) process was developed for the STAR-CCM+ model and results of the STAR UQ were communicated to CTF. Results from STAR-CCM+ simulations were used as experimental design points in CTF to calibrate the mixing parameter β and compared to results obtained using experimental data points. This demonstrated that CTF’s β parameter can be calibrated to match existing experimental data more closely. The Hi2Lo process for the STAR-CCM+/CTF code coupling was documented in this milestone and closely linked L3:VVI.H2LP15.01 milestone report.

  14. Measurement of the hadronic photon structure function F(2)(gamma) with the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Baksay, Liza Gyongyi

    2005-01-01

    The photon is one of the basic components of our present understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The theory of Quantum Electrodynamics describes this object as being the mediator of the electromagnetic force between charged particles. Contrary to earlier assumptions the photon turns out to have a "structure" due to quantum fluctuations into fermion anti-fermion pairs that can further interact with other particles. In this case the photon reveals its structure. The structure of the photon can be described by the concept of photon structure functions, which are studied at high energy accelerators like the Large Electron Positron Collider at the European Center for Particle Physics. With the large amount of data (L = 608 pb-1) collected with the L3 detector at center-of-mass energies 189 GeV < s < 209 GeV and the analysis method used in this dissertation, a measurement of the hadronic structure function F2gamma (x,Q2)/alpha is obtained with better precision than previous measurements....

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 05 through L3 empirical stellar spectra from SDSS (Kesseli+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesseli, A. Y.; West, A. A.; Veyette, M.; Harrison, B.; Feldman, D.; Bochanski, J. J.

    2017-08-01

    We present a library of empirical stellar spectra created using spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. The templates cover spectral types O5 through L3, are binned by metallicity from -2.0dex through +1.0dex, and are separated into main-sequence (dwarf) stars and giant stars. With recently developed M dwarf metallicity indicators, we are able to extend the metallicity bins down through the spectral subtype M8, making this the first empirical library with this degree of temperature and metallicity coverage. The wavelength coverage for the templates is from 3650 to 10200Å at a resolution of better than R~2000. Using the templates, we identify trends in color space with metallicity and surface gravity, which will be useful for analyzing large data sets from upcoming missions like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Along with the templates, we are releasing a code for automatically (and/or visually) identifying the spectral type and metallicity of a star. (3 data files).

  16. A Back-to-Back 2L-3L Grid Integration of a Marine Current Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senad Apelfröjd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a back-to-back 2L-3L grid connection topology for a marine current energy converter. A prototype marine current energy converter has been deployed by a research group at Uppsala University. The concept behind the prototype revolves around a fixed pitch vertical axis turbine directly connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. The proposed grid connection system utilizes a well known and proven two level voltage source converter generator-side combined with a three-level cascaded H-bridge (CHB multilevel converter grid-side. The multilevel converter brings benefits in terms of efficiency, power quality and DC-link utilization. The system is here presented for a single marine current energy converter but can easily be scaled up for clusters of marine current energy converters. Control schemes for both grid-side and generator-side voltage source converters are presented. The start-up, steady state and dynamic performance of the marine current energy converter are investigated and simulation results are presented in this paper.

  17. [Perforation of small intestinal during hematologic recovery in an elderly man after induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia L3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohgaki, T; Notoya, A; Mukai, M; Kohno, M

    2000-02-01

    A 67-year-old man with a 7-month history of dilated cardiomyopathy was admitted to our hospital because of general fatigue, shortness of breath, and anemia on laboratory examination. Increased blasts were observed in the bone marrow. The blasts were characterized by large cells with abundant, intensely basophilic, vacuolated cytoplasm, round nuclei, and prominent nucleoli. Chromosome analysis revealed a nonrandom t(8;22)(q24;q11) chromosomal abnormality, and surface-marker analysis disclosed a positive immunophenotype for CD10, CD19, CD20, CD38, HLA-DR, FMC7, and IgM-lambda. These findings yielded a diagnosis of L3 acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient was treated with chemotherapeutic agents. On the 39th hospital day, during hematologic recovery after induction therapy, abdominal pain developed. Abdominal X-ray films disclosed ileus with dilatation of the small bowel and Kerckring's folds. Conservative treatment was begun but the patient died. At autopsy, intestinal perforations were observed at a site 55 cm proximal to the ileocecal junction. A specimen of perforated tissue revealed a diffuse infiltration of leukemic cells through the small bowel wall. However, bone marrow specimens showed no signs of aggravation of leukemia.

  18. Terahertz spectroscopy of crystal-field transitions in magnetoelectric TmA l3(BO3)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, A. M.; Mukhin, A. A.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Komandin, G. A.; Shuvaev, A.; Pimenov, A.; Dziom, V.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Gudim, I. A.

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic magnetic properties of magnetoelectric TmA l3(BO3)4 borate have been investigated by terahertz spectroscopy. Crystal-field transitions within the ground multiplet 3H6 of T m3 + ions are observed and they are identified as magnetic-dipole transitions from the ground singlet A1 to the next excited doublet E of T m3 + ions. Unexpected fine structure of the transitions is detected at low temperatures. The new modes are assigned to local distortions of the sites with D3 symmetry by B i3 + impurities, which resulted in the splitting of the A1→E transition. Two types of locally distorted sites are identified and investigated. The main contribution to the static magnetic susceptibility is shown to be determined by the matrix elements of the observed magnetic transitions. We demonstrate that even in case of local distortions the symmetry of the undistorted crystal is recovered for magnetic and for quadratic magnetoelectric susceptibilities.

  19. Photochemical interaction between the triplet state of 8-methoxypsoralen and the melanin precursor L-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craw, M.; Truscott, T.G. (Paisley Coll. of Technology (UK)); Chedekel, M.R. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). School of Hygiene and Public Health); Land, E.J. (Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (UK). Paterson Labs.)

    1984-02-01

    The photochemical interaction between 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and the melanin precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopaH/sub 2/) has been studied using laser flash photolysis. Triplet excited 8-MOP was thus found to abstract electrons from dopaH/sub 2/ (k approx. 2 x 10/sup 9/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/) to form semireduced 8-MOP and semioxidised dopaH/sub 2/. The technique of pulse radiolysis was used to establish separately the spectra of (a) the semi-reduced form of 8-MOP at pH 6.5 and (b) the semioxidised forms of dopaH/sub 2/ at pH 6.5, 5.8, 4.6 and 3.3. The corresponding lambdasub(max) and extinction coefficients found were: for 8-MOP/sup -/ radical at pH 6.5, lambdasub(max) = 350 nm (epsilon = 9050 dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/); for dopa/sup -/ radical at pH 6.5, lambdasub(max) = 305 nm (epsilon = 12000 dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/) and for dopaH radical at pH 3.3, lambda = 305 nm (epsilon = 5900 dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/).

  20. Identification of (L)-3-hydroxykynurenine O-sulfate in the buccal gland secretion of the parasitic lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, Shoji; Ito, Naoko; Hasegawa, Mai; Uchiumi, Toshio; Hase, Sumihiro

    2012-12-01

    Parasitic lampreys are known to secrete proteins having anticoagulant and vasodilator activities from the buccal glands during feeding on their host's blood. However, small molecules in the secretion have never been explored in detail. We examined the secretion of Japanese liver lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum) for small molecules and found an intensely fluorescent substance upon gel filtration. After purification by anion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC, structure of the compound was determined to be L-3-hydroxykynurenine O-sulfate by NMR- and UV-spectrometry, complemented with enzymatic and chemical degradation. In vertebrates, the sulfate ester of 3-hydroxykynurenine is a compound that has been regarded as a urinary metabolite of tryptophan but not reported from normal tissues to date. Although the function of this molecule in the buccal glands remains to be elucidated, it is remarkable that the same substance was described in 1960s from two species of blood-sucking insects, Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans, suggesting its potential role in blood-feeding.

  1. Plankton diversity and aquatic ecology of a freshwater lake (L3 at Bharti Island, Larsemann Hills, east Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan K. Bharti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Larsemann Hills range is an ice-free oasis on the Ingrid Christensen Coast of Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, which includes Bharti Island, Fisher Island, McLeod Island, Broknes Peninsula, Stornes Peninsula, and several other islands, promontories, and nunataks. The Larsemann Hills is an ice-free area of approximately 50 km2, located halfway between the Vestfold Hills and the Amery Ice Shelf on the south-eastern coast of Prydz Bay, Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. The ice-free area consists of two major peninsulas (Stornes and Broknes, four minor peninsulas, and approximately 130 near shore islands. The Larsemann Hills area contains more than 150 lakes at different Islands and peninsulas. Bharti Island of Larsemann Hills in east Antarctica was selected as a sampling site for the present study. Water sample was collected from a freshwater lake during XXXth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA and analyzed for the physico-chemical parameters, major elements, trace metals and major plankton diversity in surface lake water by following standard methodology. The concentrations of metals Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cr were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were also assessed in the aquatic ecosystem of Lake L3 at Bharti Island, Larsemann Hills over east Antarctica. Psychrophillic bacteria were found 71 cfu in lake water, while total bacterial count was found to be 5.4 × 102cfu.

  2. Screening of the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection from Compounds Australia identifies a new chemical entity with anthelmintic activities against different developmental stages of the barber's pole worm and other parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Preston

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and development of novel anthelmintic classes is essential to sustain the control of socioeconomically important parasitic worms of humans and animals. With the aim of offering novel, lead-like scaffolds for drug discovery, Compounds Australia released the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection containing 33,999 compounds, with extensive information available on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals. In the present study, we screened 14,464 prioritised compounds from the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection against the exsheathed third-stage larvae (xL3s of Haemonchus contortus using recently developed whole-organism screening assays. We identified a hit compound, called SN00797439, which was shown to reproducibly reduce xL3 motility by ≥ 70%; this compound induced a characteristic, “coiled” xL3 phenotype (IC50 = 3.46–5.93 μM, inhibited motility of fourth-stage larvae (L4s; IC50 = 0.31–12.5 μM and caused considerable cuticular damage to L4s in vitro. When tested on other parasitic nematodes in vitro, SN00797439 was shown to inhibit (IC50 = 3–50 μM adults of Ancylostoma ceylanicum (hookworm and first-stage larvae of Trichuris muris (whipworm and eventually kill (>90% these stages. Furthermore, this compound completely inhibited the motility of female and male adults of Brugia malayi (50–100 μM as well as microfilariae of both B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm. Overall, these results show that SN00797439 acts against genetically (evolutionarily distant parasitic nematodes i.e. H. contortus and A. ceylanicum [strongyloids] vs. B. malayi and D. immitis [filarioids] vs. T. muris [enoplid], and, thus, might offer a novel, lead-like scaffold for the development of a relatively broad-spectrum anthelmintic. Our future work will focus on assessing the activity of SN00797439 against other pathogens that cause neglected

  3. Alpha-fetoprotein-L3 and Golgi protein 73 may serve as candidate biomarkers for diagnosing alpha-fetoprotein-negative hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhiguo Zhang,1 Yanying Zhang,2 Yeying Wang,1 Lingling Xu,3 Wanju Xu3 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zhangqiu Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Zhangqiu, 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zaozhuang City Wangkai Infection Hospital, Zaozhuang, 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Currently, there is no reliable biomarker for use in diagnosing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Such a biomarker would aid in making an early diagnosis of AFP-negative HCC, ensuring the timely initiation of treatment. This study examined AFP-L3 and Golgi protein 73 (GP73 as candidate biomarkers for AFP-negative HCC. The affinity adsorption method and enzyme-linked immunoassays were separately used to determine serum levels of AFP-L3 and GP73 in 50 patients with AFP-negative HCC, 30 non-HCC patients, and 50 healthy subjects. Fifty percent of patients with AFP-negative HCC tested positive for AFP-L3, while 3.33% of non-HCC patients and 2.00% of healthy subjects were AFP-L3 positive. Patients with AFP-negative HCC had significantly higher serum levels of AFP-L3 compared to non-HCC patients and healthy individuals; however, there was no significant difference in the AFP-L3 levels of non-HCC patients and healthy subjects. Sixty-six percent of patients with AFP-negative HCC tested positive for GP73, while 10% of non-HCC patients and 0% of healthy subjects were GP73-positive. Patients with AFP-negative HCC had significantly higher serum levels of GP73 compared to non-HCC patients and healthy subjects, but there was no significant difference between the GP73 levels of non-HCC patients and healthy individuals. Moreover, 20 patients with AFP-negative HCC were both AFP-L3- and GP73-positive, while no non-HCC patients or healthy subjects tested positive for both markers. Either AFP-L3 or GP73 may be used as a biomarker for diagnosing AFP-negative HCC, while their combined use

  4. The Polycomb Group Protein L3MBTL1 Represses a SMAD5-Mediated Hematopoietic Transcriptional Program in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Perna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulation of key transcriptional programs is a critical mechanism that controls hematopoietic development, and, thus, aberrant expression patterns or mutations in epigenetic regulators occur frequently in hematologic malignancies. We demonstrate that the Polycomb protein L3MBTL1, which is monoallelically deleted in 20q- myeloid malignancies, represses the ability of stem cells to drive hematopoietic-specific transcriptional programs by regulating the expression of SMAD5 and impairing its recruitment to target regulatory regions. Indeed, knockdown of L3MBTL1 promotes the development of hematopoiesis and impairs neural cell fate in human pluripotent stem cells. We also found a role for L3MBTL1 in regulating SMAD5 target gene expression in mature hematopoietic cell populations, thereby affecting erythroid differentiation. Taken together, we have identified epigenetic priming of hematopoietic-specific transcriptional networks, which may assist in the development of therapeutic approaches for patients with anemia.

  5. Do L2 French or L2 English learners write better L3 German texts? The in-fluence of prior foreign language study on L3 German writing skills: the GaE/F Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Bartelheimer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many learners of German as a foreign language (L3 are learning English or French as L2 before commencing their study of German, especially students from countries where English or French is, among other languages, the second official language or a common language in the educational system. For example: Among the approximately 219.000 non-German students who, in 2014, studied at German universities 38.000 were from China or India (L2 English and 11.000 were from Cameroon or Morocco (L2 French (DAAD 2015: 14-15. University-level German instructors at the Technische Universität Darmstadt have reported a higher level of competence in producing German texts by students who have learned French as L2 before German than those who have learned English as L2. Multilingualism researchers have investigated the impact of prior foreign language study on the learning of other languages. These influences include the learner’s personal experiences while learning a foreign language, the development of individual learning strategies and the ability to self-motivate. Just as important, however, are the structural and cultural aspects that affect the learning of additional foreign languages, namely the structural differences between the languages to be studied compared to already mastered languages, the teaching and learning culture and, last but not least, the intercultural differences in the norms governing the production of text types (cf. e.g. Herdina & Jessner 2002; Hufeisen 2002, 2010; Jessner 2006; Mißler 2000. On this basis, the project “German as a foreign language after English or French” (GaE/F [Deutsch als Fremdsprache nach Englisch oder Französisch (DaFnE/F] was initiated to investigate how the learning of L2 English or L2 French may affect the learning of L3 German, and, in particular, how it influences the production of appropriate German language texts as assessed by native speakers. It will investigate which linguistic features can be found

  6. L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) induces neuroendocrinological, physiological, and immunological regulation in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapanao, Ratchaneegorn; Kuo, Hsin-Wei; Chang, Chin-Chuan; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Cheng, Winton

    2018-01-03

    L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) is a precursor for dopamine (DA) synthesis. Assessments were conducted to analyze the effects of l-DOPA on mediating regulation of neuroendocrinological, immunological, and physiological parameters in the shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei when they were individually injected with 0.01 N HCl or l-DOPA at 0.5 or 1.0 μmol shrimp -1 for 60, 120, and 240 min. For catecholamine synthesis evaluation, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA beta hydroxylase (DBH) activities, l-DOPA, DA, and norepinephrine (NE) levels in hemolymph were determined. The total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency in response to the pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus were assessed for immune responses, and plasma glucose and lactate levels were for physiological response. Results showed that the TH activity, THC, hyaline cells (HCs), and semigranular cells (SGCs) at 120 min, DA levels at 60-240 min, PO activity in hemocytes per 50 μL of hemolymph at 60-120 min, and PO activity per granulocyte (granular cells (GCs) + SGCs) at 60 min significantly increased, but TH activity, l-DOPA levels, GCs, SGCs, and respiratory bursts in hemocytes per 10 μL of hemolymph at 60 min, respiratory bursts per hemocyte and SOD activity at 120 min, phagocytic activity at 60-240 min, and the clearance efficiency at 60-120 min significantly decreased in shrimp injected with l-DOPA at 1.0 μmol shrimp -1 . In another experiment, 60 min after shrimp had received l-DOPA at 0.5 or 1.0 μmol shrimp -1 , they were challenged with an injection of V. alginolyticus at 2 × 10 5  colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp -1 . The injection of l-DOPA at 1.0 μmol shrimp -1 also significantly increased the cumulative mortality of shrimp by 16.7%, compared to the HCl-challenged control after 120 h. These results suggest

  7. Target selected treatment with levamisole to control the development of anthelmintic resistance in a sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Gaínza, Yousmel Alemán; Barioni-Júnior, Waldomiro; Esteves, Sérgio Novita; Niciura, Simone Cristina Méo

    2016-03-01

    Levamisole phosphate, chosen based on its 100 % efficacy demonstrated by a previous fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), was used as the exclusive anthelmintic treatment in the Embrapa Southeast Livestock sheep flock from 2009 to 2014 in a target selected treatment scheme. In the present study, the effectiveness of this nematode control scheme was evaluated after 5 years by FECRT, larval development test (LDT), and a molecular test to assess the development of levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus. Animals were submitted to treatments with albendazole, levamisole, closantel, ivermectin, moxidectin, and monepantel. Eggs per gram of feces (EPG) counts and fecal cultures were performed, and anthelmintic efficacy was calculated by the RESO 4.0 program. The helminths of the flock (GIN Embrapa2014) were compared to susceptible (McMaster) and resistant (Embrapa2010) H. contortus isolates in the LDT to estimate the LC50 and LC90 of levamisole and in a molecular test to evaluate the 63-bp indel in the acr8 gene associated with levamisole resistance. In the FECRT, parasites were susceptible to monepantel (99.6 %) and closantel (98.3 %), but resistant to moxidectin (93.8 %), levamisole (70.4 %), ivermectin (48.1 %), and albendazole (0 %). In the coproculture on D14, and the control group presented 80 % H. contortus and 20 % Trichostrongylus sp., while in the monepantel group L1 were observed as well as Oesophagostomum sp. L3. LDT and resistance factors provided good separation between susceptible and resistant parasites. The genotypic frequencies of the 63-bp insertion in the acr8 gene in H. contortus were 11.9, 6.7, and 0 % in GIN Embrapa2014, Embrapa2010, and McMaster isolates, respectively. After 5 years of exclusive use, the nematodes developed resistance to levamisole, detected by FECRT and by increase in LC50 and LC90 for levamisole in the LDT. The 63-bp indel was not confirmed as a molecular marker of levamisole resistance in our isolates. The target

  8. Diagnostic value of Joint Detection of GP73 and AFP-L3 in Primary Hepatic Carcinoma with Low Concentration of AFP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei CAI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the applicative value of serum Golgi protein (GP73 and alpha-proteinvariant (AFP-L3 in the diagnosis of patients with primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC. Methods:Totally 110 patients were enrolled, including 60 PHC patients with low concentration of AFP ((1.1-108.0 μg/L and 50 patients with non-PHC digestive system diseases (20 cases of patients with chronic hepatitis, 15 patients with liver cirrhosis, 4 patients with bile duct cancer, 4 patients with gastric cancer, 4 patients with rectal cancer and 3 patients with colon cancer. In addition, 42 healthy people were selected as control group. GP73 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA trace centrifugal column method was adopted for separation of AFP-L3. Luo's chemiluminescence method was used to determine the total content of AFP and AFP-L3 in eluent for calculating the ratio of AFP-L3/ AFP. Results: The levels of serum GP73 and AFP-L3(% in PHC group were significantly higher than the other 2 groups (P<0.01 and the level of serum GP73 and AFP-L3 (% in Non-PHC group were higher than those in healthy group (P<0.01. ROC analysis showed that the area under ROC curve of single GP73 and AFP-L3(% in diagnosis of PHC and non-PHC were 0.887 and 0.860, respectively. Additionally, the ROC analysis also showed that critical value of GP73 and AFP-L3 for the diagnosis of HPC were 83.78 μg/L and 13.87%, respectively. The sensitivity of joint detection of serum GP73 or AFP-L3 was higher than detection of them alone (90.0 vs. 71.7 and 60.0, P<0.05 but the specificity was similar between single detection and joint detection (P>0.05. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of joint detection of them was higher than single detections of them and there was significant differences in negative predictive value (P<0.05 but no difference in positive predictive value (P>0.05. The overall response rate of joint detection of GP73 and AFP-L3 was higher

  9. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer...

  10. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Aerosol Index Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Aerosol Index Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  11. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  12. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total...

  13. Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Local Satellite Time) 10-Day L3 Global 2.0x5.0deg Lat/Lon Grid V1

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Local Satellite Time) 10-Day L3 Global 2.0x5.0deg Lat/Lon Grid data product is derived from multi-satellite...

  14. TOMS/Earth Probe UV Reflectivity Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV Reflectivity Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this Level-3...

  15. Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Noon Normalized) 10-Day L3 Global 2.0x5.0deg Lat/Lon Grid V1

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Noon Normalized) 10-Day L3 Global 2.0x5.0deg Lat/Lon Grid data product is derived from multi-satellite Solar...

  16. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone...

  17. TOMS/Earth Probe UV Aerosol Index Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV Aerosol Index Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this...

  18. TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The...

  19. TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this...

  20. TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The...

  1. TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this...

  2. TOMS/Earth Probe UV Aerosol Index Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV Aerosol Index Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this Level-3...

  3. TOMS/Earth Probe UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this Level-3...

  4. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  5. Fracture of the L-4 vertebral body after use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device in degenerative spondylolisthesis for anterior L3-4 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yoon-Kwang; Jang, Ju-Hee; Lee, Choon-Dae; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2014-06-01

    Many studies attest to the excellent results achieved using anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for degenerative spondylolisthesis. The purpose of this report is to document a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device for L3-4 ALIF. The patient, a 55-year-old man, had suffered intractable pain of the back, right buttock, and left leg for several weeks. Initial radiographs showed Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis, with instability in the sagittal plane (upon 15° rotation) and stenosis of central and both lateral recesses at the L3-4 level. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion of the affected vertebrae was subsequently conducted using a stand-alone cage/plate system. Postoperatively, the severity of spondylolisthesis diminished, with resolution of symptoms. However, the patient returned 2 months later with both leg weakness and back pain. Plain radiographs and CT indicated device failure due to anterior fracture of the L-4 vertebral body, and the spondylolisthesis had recurred. At this point, bilateral facetectomies were performed, with reduction/fixation of L3-4 by pedicle screws. Again, degenerative spondylolisthesis improved postsurgically and symptoms eased, with eventual healing of the vertebral body fracture. This report documents a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone device for ALIF at L3-4, likely as a consequence of angular instability in degenerative spondylolisthesis. Under such conditions, additional pedicle screw fixation is advised.

  6. Prolonged response to calling songs by the L3 auditory interneuron in female crickets (Acheta domesticus): possible roles in regulating phonotactic threshold and selectiveness for call carrier frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsert, Michael; Bingol, Hilary; Atkins, Gordon; Stout, John

    2003-03-01

    L3, an auditory interneuron in the prothoracic ganglion of female crickets (Acheta domesticus) exhibited two kinds of responses to models of the male's calling song (CS): a previously described, phasically encoded immediate response; a more tonically encoded prolonged response. The onset of the prolonged response required 3-8 sec of stimulation to reach its maximum spiking rate and 6-20 sec to decay once the calling song ceased. It did not encode the syllables of the chirp. The prolonged response was sharply selective for the 4-5 kHz carrier frequency of the male's calling songs and its threshold tuning matched the threshold tuning of phonotaxis, while the immediate response of the same neuron was broadly tuned to a wide range of carrier frequencies. The thresholds for the prolonged response covaried with the changing phonotactic thresholds of 2- and 5-day-old females. Treatment of females with juvenile hormone reduced the thresholds for both phonotaxis and the prolonged response by equivalent amounts. Of the 3 types of responses to CSs provided by the ascending L1 and L3 auditory interneurons, the threshold for L3's prolonged response, on average, best matched the same females phonotactic threshold. The prolonged response was stimulated by inputs from both ears while L3's immediate response was driven only from its axon-ipsilateral ear. The prolonged response was not selective for either the CS's syllable period or chirp rate. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. The histone H4 lysine 20 monomethyl mark, set by PR-Set7 and stabilized by L(3mbt, is necessary for proper interphase chromatin organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Sakaguchi

    Full Text Available Drosophila PR-Set7 or SET8 is a histone methyltransferase that specifically monomethylates histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20. L(3MBT has been identified as a reader of methylated H4K20. It contains several conserved domains including three MBT repeats binding mono- and dimethylated H4K20 peptides. We find that the depletion of PR-Set7 blocks de novo H4K20me1 resulting in the immediate activation of the DNA damage checkpoint, an increase in the size of interphase nuclei, and drastic reduction of cell viability. L(3mbt on the other hand stabilizes the monomethyl mark, as L(3mbt-depleted S2 cells show a reduction of more than 60% of bulk monomethylated H4K20 (H4K20me1 while viability is barely affected. Ploidy and basic chromatin structure show only small changes in PR-Set7-depleted cells, but higher order interphase chromatin organization is significantly affected presumably resulting in the activation of the DNA damage checkpoint. In the absence of any other known functions of PR-Set7, the setting of the de novo monomethyl mark appears essential for cell viability in the presence or absence of the DNA damage checkpoint, but once newly assembled chromatin is established the monomethyl mark, protected by L(3mbt, is dispensable.

  8. TOMS/Meteor-3 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Meteor-3 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this Meteor-3...

  9. Migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists within Africa based on population structure of Chad Basin and phylogeography of mitochondrial L3f haplogroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulligan Connie J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chad Basin, lying within the bidirectional corridor of African Sahel, is one of the most populated places in Sub-Saharan Africa today. The origin of its settlement appears connected with Holocene climatic ameliorations (aquatic resources that started ~10,000 years before present (YBP. Although both Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo language families are encountered here, the most diversified group is the Chadic branch belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. In this article, we investigate the proposed ancient migration of Chadic pastoralists from Eastern Africa based on linguistic data and test for genetic traces of this migration in extant Chadic speaking populations. Results We performed whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of 16 L3f haplotypes, focused on clade L3f3 that occurs almost exclusively in Chadic speaking people living in the Chad Basin. These data supported the reconstruction of a L3f phylogenetic tree and calculation of times to the most recent common ancestor for all internal clades. A date ~8,000 YBP was estimated for the L3f3 sub-haplogroup, which is in good agreement with the supposed migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists and their linguistic differentiation from other Afro-Asiatic groups of East Africa. As a whole, the Afro-Asiatic language family presents low population structure, as 92.4% of mtDNA variation is found within populations and only 3.4% of variation can be attributed to diversity among language branches. The Chadic speaking populations form a relatively homogenous cluster, exhibiting lower diversification than the other Afro-Asiatic branches (Berber, Semitic and Cushitic. Conclusion The results of our study support an East African origin of mitochondrial L3f3 clade that is present almost exclusively within Chadic speaking people living in Chad Basin. Whole genome sequence-based dates show that the ancestral haplogroup L3f must have emerged soon after the Out-of-Africa migration (around

  10. Cytokine signature and antibody-mediated response against fresh and attenuated Anisakis simplex (L3) administration into Wistar rats: implication for anti-allergic reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Badr, Abeer Mahmoud; Morsy, Kareem; Ebead, Samar; El Deeb, Somaya; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    The third larval stage (L3) of Anisakis simplex (Anisakidae) is one of the zoonotic parasitic nematodes in the musculature and visceral organs of marine fishes belonging to family Moronidae. The consumption of these high-commercial-value fish is widespread in many countries around the Mediterranean Sea including Egypt. The presence of these larvae in fish muscles poses a potential consumer hazard due to the parasite's ability to cause anisakidosis. Forty-two out of 60 (70%) of the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax were found to be naturally infected by L3 of A. simplex in the form of encapsulated juveniles in the fish musculature. Morphological examination of recovered parasites by light and scanning electron microscopy showed that, in general, all specimens examined closely resembled A. simplex (L3). To evaluate the allergenicity of this nematode, white blood cell count; levels of T helper 1 (Th1) [interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α)], Th2 [IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6], and Th17 [IL-17] related cytokines; total IgE and IgG antibodies; and nitric oxide (NO) were measured in the plasma of Wistar rats sensitized by oral inoculation with fresh, frozen, and heat-treated A. simplex L3 or rats intraperitoneally injected with L3 crude extract. Rats sensitized with fresh and frozen L3 larvae produced significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-17, and total IgE as compared to control rats. Heat-treated larvae administration resulted in a significant rise of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-5, and total IgE in comparison to control rats. Intraperitoneal sensitizations enhanced release of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and total IgE. Oral sensitization led to a significant production of NO. Thereby, frozen or cooked larval L3 cannot inhibit the release of Th-related cytokines and IgE, which might impact on the overall anti-parasitic immunity.

  11. Value of serum GP73, AFP, and AFP-L3 in diagnosis of liver cancer and recurrence monitoring after radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Qin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the clinical value of three serum tumor markers, Golgi protein 73 (GP73, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and AFP-L3, in the diagnosis of liver cancer and recurrence monitoring after radio frequency ablation. MethodsA total of 174 patients who visited our hospital from July 2012 to October 2013 were included in the study, consisting of 86 patients with newly diagnosed liver cancer, 39 with liver cirrhosis, 29 with hepatitis, and 20 healthy controls. Among the patients with newly diagnosed liver cancer, 37 were followed up for three months after the radiofrequency ablation. Serum levels of GP73, AFP, and AFP-L3 were measured by ELISA, electrochemiluminescence, and affinity adsorption chromatography, respectively. Nonparametric tests were performed on the results of serum samples from the four groups which showed skewed distribution and were represented by median (quartile interval [M(P25-P75]. Overall comparison was made by Kruskal-Wallis H test, and comparison between groups was made by Mann-Whitney U test. Pair-matching rank-sum test was performed using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, and categorical data were analyzed by χ2 test. ResultsThe levels of GP73, AFP, and AFP-L3 in the liver cancer group were significantly higher than those in other groups (all P<0.05. The positive rates of GP73 and AFP-L3 in the liver cancer group were significantly higher than those in other groups (all P<0.05, and the positive rates of the two markers were significantly higher than that of AFP among patients with liver cancer (P<0.05. Thirty-seven patients with newly diagnosed liver cancer were reexamined three months after radiofrequency ablation, and the preoperational AFP-L3 level in the patients who had recurrence was significantly higher than that in the patients without recurrence (P<0.05. ConclusionSerum GP73, AFP, and AFP-L3 show great values in the diagnosis of liver cancer. AFP-L3 can be used as an indicator for the identification of

  12. Combined use of AFP, PIVKA-II, and AFP-L3 as tumor markers enhances diagnostic accuracy for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tae Seop; Kim, Do Young; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Hyon-Suk; Shin, Seung Hwan; Jung, Kyu Sik; Kim, Beom Kyung; Kim, Seung Up; Park, Jun Yong; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-03-01

    As data on the effectiveness of tumor markers in detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic patients are limited, we investigated the diagnostic accuracy of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3). This retrospective study enrolled 361 cirrhotic patients with HCC, and 276 cirrhotic patients without HCC occurrence. Most patients were men (n = 431, 67.7%); the median age was 57.0 years. The main etiology of chronic liver disease was chronic hepatitis B (n = 467, 73.3%). The sensitivity and specificity of combined three biomarkers was 87.0 and 60.1% in overall HCC, and 75.7 and 60.1% in early HCC, respectively (cutoff: 20 ng/mL for AFP, 40 mAU/mL for PIVKA-II, and 5% for AFP-L3). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for HCC diagnosis was 0.765 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.728-0.801) for AFP; 0.823 (95% CI, 0.791-0.854) for PIVKA-II; and 0.755 (95% CI, 0.718-0.792) for AFP-L3. The AUROC for early HCC diagnosis was 0.754 (95% CI, 0.691-0.816) for AFP, 0.701 (95% CI, 0.630-0.771) for PIVKA-II, and 0.670 (95% CI, 0.596-0.744) for AFP-L3. Combining the three tumor markers increased the AUROC to 0.877 (95% CI, 0.851-0.903) for HCC diagnosis, and 0.773 (95% CI, 0.704-0.841) for early HCC diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy improved upon combining the AFP, PIVKA-II, and AFP-L3 tumor markers compared to each marker alone in detecting HCC and early HCC in cirrhotic patients.

  13. Measurement of the radiative vacancy transfer probabilities from the $L_{3}$ to M and to N shells for W, Re and Pb using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonzi, E V

    2006-01-01

    The radiative vacancy transfer probabilities from L/sub 3/ to M shell, eta/sub L3/M(R) and L/sub 3/ to N shell, eta/sub L3/N(R), have been determined for W, Re and Pb. The pure elements samples were excited by monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The X-rays were generated by excitation of L/sub 3/ edge and measured using a high resolution Si(Li) detector. The experimentally determined radiative vacancy transfer probabilities were compared with the theoretical values deduced using radiative X-ray emission rates based on the relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Slater (RDHS) model. In the case of Pb, the experimental data were compared as well with experimental values of Simsek. In both cases, a good agreement was found between the datasets.

  14. Expression of Genes Encoding the Enzymes for Glycogen and Trehalose Metabolism in L3 and L4 Larvae of Anisakis simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Łopieńska-Biernat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose and glycogen metabolism plays an important role in supporting life processes in many nematodes, including Anisakis simplex. Nematodes, cosmopolitan helminths parasitizing sea mammals and humans, cause a disease known as anisakiasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of genes encoding the enzymes involved in the metabolism of trehalose and glycogen—trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS, trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP, glycogen synthase (GS, and glycogen phosphorylase (GP—in stage L3 and stage L4 larvae of A. simplex. The expression of mRNA all four genes, tps, tpp, gs, and gp, was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The A. simplex ribosomal gene (18S was used as a reference gene. Enzymatic activity was determined. The expression of trehalose enzyme genes was higher in L3 than in L4 larvae, but an inverse relationship was noted for the expression of gs and gp genes.

  15. Delocalization and occupancy effects of 5f orbitals in plutonium intermetallics using L3-edge resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C. H.; Medling, S. A.; Jiang, Yu; Bauer, E. D.; Tobash, P. H.; Mitchell, J. N.; Veirs, D. K.; Wall, M. A.; Allen, P. G.; Kas, J. J.; Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T. -C.

    2014-06-24

    Although actinide (An) L3 -edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been very effective in determining An oxidation states in insulating, ionically bonded materials, such as in certain coordination compounds and mineral systems, the technique fails in systems featuring more delocalized 5f orbitals, especially in metals. Recently, actinide L3-edge resonant X-ray emission spec- troscopy (RXES) has been shown to be an effective alternative. This technique is further demonstrated here using a parameterized partial unoccupied density of states method to quantify both occupancy and delocalization of the 5f orbital in ?-Pu, ?-Pu, PuCoGa5 , PuCoIn5 , and PuSb2. These new results, supported by FEFF calculations, highlight the effects of strong correlations on RXES spectra and the technique?s ability to differentiate between f-orbital occupation and delocalization.

  16. Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH sub 2 (Antho-RNamide), a sea anemone neuropeptide containing an unusual amino-terminal blocking group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P.; Jacob, E.; Graff, D.; Reinscheid, R.K.; Nothacker, H.P. (Univ. of Hamburg (West Germany)); Rinehart, K.L.; Staley, A.L. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay for the carboxyl-terminal sequence Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2}, the authors have purified a peptide from acetic acid extracts of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. By classical amino acid analyses, mass spectrometry, and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, the structure of this peptide was determined as 3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2}. By using reversed-phase HPLC and a chiral mobile phase, it was shown that the 3-phenyllactyl group had the L configuration. Immunocytochemical staining with antiserum against Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2} showed that L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2} (Antho-RNamide) was localized in neutrons of sea anemones. The L-3-phenyllactyl group has not been found earlier in neuropeptides of vertebrates or higher invertebrates. They propose that this residue renders Antho-RNamide resistant to nonspecific aminopeptidases, thereby increasing the stability of the peptide after neuronal release.

  17. Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2 (Antho-RNamide), a sea anemone neuropeptide containing an unusual amino-terminal blocking group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Rinehart, K L; Jacob, E

    1990-01-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay for the carboxyl-terminal sequence Arg-Asn-NH2, we have purified a peptide from acetic acid extracts of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. By classical amino acid analyses, mass spectrometry, and 1H NMR spectroscopy, the structure of this peptide was determined as 3......-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2. By using reversed-phase HPLC and a chiral mobile phase, it was shown that the 3-phenyllactyl group had the L configuration. Immunocytochemical staining with antiserum against Arg-Asn-NH2 showed that L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2 (Antho-RNamide) was localized in neurons of sea...... anemones. The L-3-phenyllactyl group has not been found earlier in neuropeptides of vertebrates or higher invertebrates. We propose that this residue renders Antho-RNamide resistant to nonspecific aminopeptidases, thereby increasing the stability of the peptide after neuronal release....

  18. Ricerca di chargini a 130 GeV < $\\sqrt{s}$ < 161 GeV, con l'esperimento L3 al LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Giagu, S

    1997-01-01

    The subject of this work is the search for charginos with the L3 detector at LEP, using the data collected by L3 during the years 1995-1996 at center of mass energies $130 GeV < \\sqrt{s} < 161 GeV$. In the thesis are described the design and realization of a new Monte Carlo generator (DFGT) for chargiNO1production and decay at $e^+e^-$ colliders, which is based on the evaluation of the full matrix elements of the process, and the realization and the results of two analysis, one cuts based conventional analysis, and a new and more advanced one based on the EPDE multivariate method. The results of this search are also compared with the predictions of the CMSSM model to obtain esclusion limits on the model parameters space and mass limits on charginos.

  19. Deletion of chromosome 12q21 affecting KCNC2 and ATXN7L3B in a family with neurodevelopmental delay and ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakulendran, Sanjeev; Roberts, Joanna; Koltzenburg, Martin; Hanna, Michael G; Stewart, Helen

    2013-11-01

    To describe the clinical and genetic findings in a family affected by neurodevelopmental delay and cerebellar ataxia. The affected mother and her two children underwent clinical assessments followed by radiological, neurophysiological and cytogenetic investigations. All three affected members exhibited varying degrees of delay in attaining motor and cognitive milestones, along with learning difficulties and cerebellar ataxia. All three harboured a new 670 kb deletion of chromosome 12q21. Two genes, KCNC2 and ATXN7L3B, lie within the deleted region. This family's complex phenotype is associated with a new chromosomal deletion, which suggests potential roles for the two genes, KCNC2 and ATXN7L3B, in human neurological disease.

  20. Retarded Onchocerca volvulus L1 to L3 larval development in the Simulium damnosum vector after anti-wolbachial treatment of the human host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albers Anna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human parasite Onchocerca volvulus harbours Wolbachia endosymbionts essential for worm embryogenesis, larval development and adult survival. In this study, the development of Wolbachia-depleted microfilariae (first stage larvae to infective third stage larvae (L3 in the insect vector Simulium damnosum was analysed. Methods Infected volunteers in Cameroon were randomly and blindly allocated into doxycycline (200 mg/day for 6 weeks or placebo treatment groups. After treatment, blackflies were allowed to take a blood meal on the volunteers, captured and dissected for larval counting and DNA extraction for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results PCR results showed a clear reduction in Wolbachia DNA after doxycycline treatment in microfilariae from human skin biopsies with > 50% reduction at one month post-treatment, eventually reaching a reduction of > 80%. Larval stages recovered from the insect vector had similar levels of reduction of endosymbiotic bacteria. Larval recoveries were analysed longitudinally after treatment to follow the kinetics of larval development. Beginning at three months post-treatment, significantly fewer L3 were seen in the blackflies that had fed on doxycycline treated volunteers. Concomitant with this, the proportion of second stage larvae (L2 was significantly increased in this group. Conclusions Doxycycline treatment and the resulting decline of Wolbachia endobacteria from the microfilaria resulted in retarded development of larvae in the insect vector. Thus, anti-wolbachial treatment could have an additive effect for interrupting transmission by reducing the number of L3 that can be transmitted by blackflies.