Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR followed by rapid weight gain during early life has been suggested to be the initial sequence promoting central adiposity and insulin resistance. However, the link between fetal and early postnatal growth and the associated anthropometric and metabolic changes have been poorly studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over the first year of post-natal life, changes in body mass index, skinfold thickness and hormonal concentrations were prospectively monitored in 94 infants in whom the fetal growth velocity had previously been measured using a repeated standardized procedure of ultrasound fetal measurements. 45 infants, thinner at birth, had experienced previous FGR (FGR+ regardless of birth weight. Growth pattern in the first four months of life was characterized by greater change in BMI z-score in FGR+ (+1.26+/-1.2 vs +0.58 +/-1.17 SD in FGR- resulting in the restoration of BMI and of fat mass to values similar to FGR-, independently of caloric intakes. Growth velocity after 4 months was similar and BMI z-score and fat mass remained similar at 12 months of age. At both time-points, fetal growth velocity was an independent predictor of fat mass in FGR+. At one year, fasting insulin levels were not different but leptin was significantly higher in the FGR+ (4.43+/-1.41 vs 2.63+/-1 ng/ml in FGR-. CONCLUSION: Early catch-up growth is related to the fetal growth pattern itself, irrespective of birth weight, and is associated with higher insulin sensitivity and lower leptin levels after birth. Catch-up growth promotes the restoration of body size and fat stores without detrimental consequences at one year of age on body composition or metabolic profile. The higher leptin concentration at one year may reflect a positive energy balance in children who previously faced fetal growth restriction.
Ljungqvist, L.; Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.
This paper examines the role for tax policies in productivity-shock driven economies with \\catching-up-with-the-Joneses" utility functions.The optimal tax policy is shown to a ect the economy countercyclically via procyclical taxes, i.e., \\cooling down" the economy with higher taxes when it is
Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Pando, Rakefet; Phillip, Moshe
Malnutrition, marked by variant nutrient deficiencies, is considered a leading cause of stunted growth worldwide. In developing countries, malnutrition is caused mainly by food shortage and infectious diseases. Malnutrition may also be found in the developed world, where it is due mostly to prematurity, chronic diseases, and anorexia nervosa. In most cases, when food consumption is corrected, spontaneous catch-up (CU) growth occurs. However, CU growth is not always complete, leading to growth deficits. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms that govern this process. Using a rat model of food restriction followed by refeeding, we established a nutrition-induced CU growth model. Levels of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found to significantly decrease when food was restricted and to increase already 1 day after refeeding. Gene expression analysis of the growth plate revealed that food restriction specifically affects transcription factors such as the hypoxia inducible factor-1 and its downstream targets on the one hand, and global gene expression, indicating epigenetic regulation, on the other. Food restriction also reduced the level of several microRNAs, including the chondrocyte-specific miR-140, which led to an increase in its target, SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase. These findings may explain the global changes in gene expression observed under nutritional manipulation. We suggest that multiple levels of regulation, including transcription factors, epigenetic mechanisms, and microRNAs respond to nutritional cues and offer a possible explanation for some of the effects of food restriction on epiphyseal growth plate growth. The means whereby these components sense changes in nutritional status are still unknown. Deciphering the role of epigenetic regulation in growth may pave the way for the development of new treatments for children with growth disorders. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
With most of the high-energy physics world on tenterhooks waiting for the startup of the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland later this year, it's a good time to catch up (if you haven't already) on what all the excitement is about.
Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira
Full Text Available Globalization and nation-states are not in contradiction, since globalization is the present stage of capitalist development, and the nation-state is the territorial political unit that organizes the space and population in the capitalist system. Since the 1980s, Global Capitalism constitutes the economic system characterized by the opening of all national markets and a fierce competition between nation-states. Developing countries tend to catch up, while rich countries try to neutralize such competitive effort, using globalism as an ideology, and conventional orthodoxy as a strategy. Middle-income countries that are catching up in the realm of globalization are the ones that count with a national development strategy. This is broadly the case of the dynamic Asian countries. In contrast, Latin American countries have no longer their own strategy, and grow less. To add data to the argument, the author conducts an econometric test comparing these two groups of countries, and three variables: the rate of investment, the current account deficit or surplus that would indicate or not a competitive exchange rate, and public deficit.
Full Text Available Malnutrition is considered a leading cause of growth attenuation in children. When food is replenished, spontaneous catch-up (CU growth usually occurs, bringing the child back to its original growth trajectory. However, in some cases, the CU growth is not complete, leading to a permanent growth deficit. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the mechanism regulating nutrition and growth, including systemic factors, such as insulin, growth hormone, insulin- like growth factor-1, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-21, etc., and local mechanisms, including autophagy, as well as regulators of transcription, protein synthesis, miRNAs and epigenetics. Studying the molecular mechanisms regulating CU growth may lead to the establishment of better nutritional and therapeutic regimens for more effective CU growth in children with malnutrition and growth abnormalities. It will be fascinating to follow this research in the coming years and to translate the knowledge gained to clinical benefit.
Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.
China’s gap in industrial labor productivity with the United States has been steadily shrinking over recent decades. In this paper we examine the main sources of gap reduction and the potential for further catch-up. Using Chinese above-scale firm-level data during 1998-2007 period and BEA industry...... -level data in the US, we first document the respective rates of growth of labor productivity, gap reduction, and contributions to overall catch-up of China’s manufacturing sector during 1998-2007. We then aggregate the firm-level data to the 3-digit industry level to estimate a productivity gap...... reduction function and find that the key drivers for the productivity convergence are the initial technology gap, increased R&D spending, firm’s ownership restructuring, and industry level entry-exit ratio, a measure of competitive dynamism. A key finding is that the catch-up dynamic entails the break out...
Awate, Snehal; Larsen, Marcus M.; Mudambi, Ram
EMNEs' focus on output capabilities need not facilitate innovation catch-up. We compare the knowledge bases of an industry-leading AMNE and a fast-follower EMNE using patent data, buttressed by qualitative information. The AMNE's knowledge base is deeper and composed of more distinct technology groups......Emerging economy multinationals (EMNEs) are catching up with advanced economy MNEs (AMNEs) even in emerging, high technology industries, where their knowledge-based disadvantages are most severe. We explain this phenomenon by distinguishing between output and innovation capabilities. Successful...
Rutt, Simon; Kettlewell, Kelly; Bernardinelli, Daniele
Catch Up® Literacy is a structured one-to-one literacy intervention for pupils between the ages of 6 and 14 who are struggling to learn to read. It teaches pupils to blend phonemes (combine letter sounds into words), segment phonemes (separate words into letter sounds), and memorise particular words so they can be understood without needing to use…
Canton JH; Linders JBHJ; Luttik R; Mensink BJWG; Panman E; Plassche EJ van de; Sparenburg PM; Tuinstra J
The "catch-up operation on old pesticides" project has resulted in a summary and RIVM conclusion of the environmental aspects of 152 pesticides which were already marketed in the Netherlands before 1975. The RIVM conclusion was subsequently rewritten to form an environmental synopsis. The
Canton JH; Linders JBHJ; Luttik R; Mensink BJWG; Panman E; van de Plassche EJ; Sparenburg PM; Tuinstra J
The "catch-up operation on old pesticides" project has resulted in a summary and RIVM conclusion of the environmental aspects of 152 pesticides which were already marketed in the Netherlands before 1975. The RIVM conclusion was subsequently rewritten to form an environmental synopsis. The present
Tian, Guihua; Zheng, Zhao
Given a null geodesic γ 0 (λ) with a point r in (p, q) conjugate to p along γ 0 (λ), up to the second variation, there will be a variation of γ 0 (λ) which will give a timelike curve from p to q. This is the well-known theory proved in the famous book (Hawking S W and Ellis G F R 1973 The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). In this paper, we prove that the timelike curves coming from the above-mentioned second variation have a proper acceleration approaching infinity as the timelike curves approach the null geodesic. This means no observer infinitesimally near the light can begin at the same point with it and finally catch up with it. Only when separated from the light path finitely, can the observer begin at the same point with it and really catch up with it
Jeffrey G. Williamson
This paper documents industrial output and labor productivity growth around the poor periphery 1870-1975 (Latin America, the European periphery, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia). Intensive and extensive industrial growth accelerated there over this critical century. The precocious poor periphery leaders underwent a surge and more poor countries joined their club. Furthermore, by the interwar the majority were catching up on Germany, the US and the UK, a process that ...
Lepère, P; Tchounga, B; Ekouevi, D-K
Digital health has the potential to strengthen health systems and empower patients to prevent ill health and manage their own care. To confirm this potential, however, it is urgent to shift from pilot studies to the implementation of programs at a sufficient scale, with interoperable solutions and integrated into the national health system, while respecting human rights. It is also important to plan for studies to demonstrate the impact and produce the necessary evidence. Francophone sub-Saharan Africa can catch up in this area.
Hoye, Julie R; Dozier, Mary
Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) is an intervention designed for vulnerable children and their parents. This intervention enhances parental sensitivity and nurturance with the goal of promoting secure, organized attachments and strong self-regulatory capabilities among children. Here, we provide a brief rationale for the need for such interventions to be delivered to parent-child dyads in the child welfare system. Next, we review specific intervention targets of ABC. We include a case example of two birth parents and their daughter who became involved in Child Protective Services due to domestic violence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Badaloo, Asha; Morris, Richard; Forrester, Terrence; Reid, Marvin; Wootton, Steve; Jackson, Alan
Full text: Background and Objectives: The use of enriched diets to promote rapid catch-up-growth and the delay in catch-up in length/height relative to catch-up in weight may be associated with excess adiposity and poor lean tissue deposition. We aimed to assess lean mass (LM) during treatment of Jamaican malnourished children and to investigate if stunted malnourished children remained stunted as adults. Methods: All participants were managed in hospital and in accordance with WHO guidelines. Diagnosis (marasmus, kwashiorkor, marasmic-kwashiorkor) was based on the Welcome Classification. LM was estimated from total body water(TBW)in 44 children (group 1), aged 3 to 32 months, during the stabilization period, mid catch-up growth and on achieving at least 90% of reference weight-for-length using deuterium dilution technique. Length-for-age (LAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) Z-scores were determined in another group of 168 malnourished children (group 2) on admission, aged 3 to 33 months, and when they attained adulthood. LAZ was calculated using recent WHO child growth standards. Results: Data are mean ± SD. The participants included moderately and severely malnourished children based on weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ). In group 1, after initial stabilization intake increased to 685 ± 101 kJ/kg/d and 3.7 ± 0.6 g protein/kg/d resulting in rapid weight gain (16.5 ± 5.1 g/kg/d) and catch-up in weight over 20 ± 10 d. Consequently, WLZ at admission (non-oedematous: -3.0 ± 0.2; oedematous: -2.1 ± 0.2) improved to -0.48 ± 0.2. At recovery in weight, LM was consistent with reported values in normal children (71% to 92 % of body weight and 11 to 15 kg/m2) but the children remained stunted (LAZ: -3.3 ± 3.2). Insecurity of TBW measurement and estimating LM in the acute malnourished state and during rapid growth limits the ability to capture changes in lean and fat during rehabilitation. Similar to group 1, WLZ in group 2 was -3.2 ± 1.3 on admission; -0.6 ± 1 at recovery
de Brouwer, Sophie; Yuksel, Demet; Blohm, Gunnar; Missal, Marcus; Lefèvre, Philippe
When tracking moving visual stimuli, primates orient their visual axis by combining two kinds of eye movements, smooth pursuit and saccades, that have very different dynamics. Yet, the mechanisms that govern the decision to switch from one type of eye movement to the other are still poorly understood, even though they could bring a significant contribution to the understanding of how the CNS combines different kinds of control strategies to achieve a common motor and sensory goal. In this study, we investigated the oculomotor responses to a large range of different combinations of position error and velocity error during visual tracking of moving stimuli in humans. We found that the oculomotor system uses a prediction of the time at which the eye trajectory will cross the target, defined as the "eye crossing time" (T(XE)). The eye crossing time, which depends on both position error and velocity error, is the criterion used to switch between smooth and saccadic pursuit, i.e., to trigger catch-up saccades. On average, for T(XE) between 40 and 180 ms, no saccade is triggered and target tracking remains purely smooth. Conversely, when T(XE) becomes smaller than 40 ms or larger than 180 ms, a saccade is triggered after a short latency (around 125 ms).
Cameron, Noël; Preece, Michael A; Cole, Tim J
An important question for policy is the extent to which catch-up growth can ease the impact of early stunting. Martorell et al. (1992) showed that stunted Guatemalan infants remain stunted into adulthood, whereas Adair (1999) found appreciable catch-up growth in Filipino children from 2-12 years. Both groups defined catch-up as an inverse correlation between early height and subsequent growth, but Martorell based the correlation on height, whereas Adair used height z scores. The statistical phenomenon of regression to the mean is much like catch-up growth, an inverse correlation between initial height and later height gain. The objective of this study was to reexamine the relationship between stunting and later catch-up growth in the context of regression to the mean. The design was a theoretical analysis showing that catch-up growth is more evident based on height z scores than on height, validated using data on 495 stunted South African children seen at 2 and 5 years of age. The correlation between height at 2 and height change from 2 to 5 was small based on height (-0.11) but large and highly significant based on height z score (-0.58), providing strong evidence of catch-up growth. We argue that catch-up growth should be estimated using height z score not height and that catch-up is present only when the change in z score exceeds that predicted by regression to the mean. This leads to a compact definition of catch-up growth: if z1 and z2 are the initial and final (mean) height z scores, and r is the correlation between them, then catch-up growth for groups or individuals is given by (z2 - rz1). Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
Darendeli, Izzet; Brandl, Kristin Martina; Hamilton, III, Robert D.
The catch-up process of emerging market economies is dependent on multiple factors, such as local governmental regulations but also global industry developments. We investigate how intellectual property (IP) protection standards affect this catch-up process. The alignment of these standards...
The requirement for aromatic amino acids, during the rapid catch-up in weight phase of recovery from severe childhood under nutrition (SCU) is not clearly established. As a first step, the present study aimed to estimate the tyrosine requirement of children with SCU during the catch-up growth phase ...
Kalu Ukpai IFEGWU
Full Text Available The paper tested the catch-up hypothesis in agricultural growth rates of twenty-six African countries. Panel data used was drawn from the Food and Agricultural Organization Statistics (FAOSTAT of the United Nations. The Data Envelopment Analysis Method for measuring productivity was used to estimate productivity growth rates. The cross-section framework consisting of sigma-convergence and beta-convergence was employed to test the catching up process. Catching up is said to exist if the value of beta is negative and significant. Since catching up does not necessarily imply narrowing of national productivity inequalities, sigma-convergence which measures inequality, was estimated for the same variables. The results showed evidence of the catch-up process, but failed to find a narrowing of productivity inequalities among countries.
Isabel Almudi; Francisco Fatas-Villafranca; Luis R. Izquierdo
In this article, we seek to shed new light on the sources of industrial leadership and catch-up in science-based industries. We propose an evolutionary model that incorporates scientists' training and migration, endogenous R&D decisions, and the possibility of funding capital accumulation through debt. The analysis of the model allows us to characterize a robust pattern of industrial catch-up. Likewise, the sensitivity analysis shows which parameters act as pro-catch-up factors or slow down t...
Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.
This paper analyses the technology development and technology transfer strategies in the aircraft manufacturing industry for four industrially developing countries. It is concluded from four case studies that technology catch-up is extremely difficult due to aircraft technology characteristics.
Jager, Nynke G. L.; Zandvliet, Anthe S.; Touw, Daniel J.; Penne, Erik L.
Online haemodiafiltration (HDF) is increasingly used in clinical practice as a routine intermittent dialysis modality. It is well known that renal impairment and renal replacement therapy can substantially affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of several drugs. However, surprisingly few data are
Jager, Nynke G L; Zandvliet, Anthe S; Touw, Daniel J; Penne, Erik L
Online haemodiafiltration (HDF) is increasingly used in clinical practice as a routine intermittent dialysis modality. It is well known that renal impairment and renal replacement therapy can substantially affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of several drugs. However, surprisingly few data are
Viktor Meerovich Polterovich
Full Text Available The article shows that institutional trajectories of catching-up development in successful countries including similar interim institutions; this similarity is explained by common technological, institutional and cultural limitations which need to be taken into account and overcome. Corporatism, indicative planning, the availability of the “general” development agency with broad mandate, undervalued exchange rate – these and some other mechanisms provide the countries of the “economic miracle” with an opportunity to initiate and maintain rapid economic growth despite the low level of human capital, underdeveloped civic culture and market failures. Institutions of catching-up development contributed to the formation of collaborative relations between the government, business and society. They eased the limitations and were gradually modified, providing a transition to modern democracies with efficient market economy. The conducted analysis helps outline a plan for an institutional reform taking into account Russia’s institutional features. The principles of administrative reform are considered. The author also sets the objective of forming a “hybrid” system of national planning which includes indicative planning and program budgeting. A combination of public-private partnership and program financing is proposed for the financing of the planned projects. The author proposes to use Japanese experience of promoting temporary association of companies for the development of modernization projects. The principles of reforming the systems of state property and science management are discussed
De Groot, Henri L.F.; Van Schaik, Anton B.T.M.
This paper develops a two-region two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market based on efficiency wages. Growth is driven by research done in the (high-tech) tradeables sector. The follower region tends to catch up in terms of labour productivity with the leader region. Differences
One reason men are catching up is because of falling smoking rates. To give an idea of the powerful effect of smoking rates on mortality, 800,000 American deaths from lung cancer have been avoided because of the decline in smoking rates between 1975 and 2000.
Zorlu, A.; Hartog, J.
Using two Dutch labour force surveys, employment assimilation of immigrants is examined. We observe marked differences between immigrants by source country. Non-western immigrants never reach parity with native Dutch. Even second generation immigrants never fully catch up. Caribbean immigrants, who
Zorlu, A.; Hartog, J.
Using two Dutch labour force surveys, employment assimilation of immigrants is examined. We observe marked differences between immigrants by source country. Non-western immigrants never reach parity with native Dutch. Even second generation immigrants never fully catch up. Caribbean immigrants, who
Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Yu Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Cho, In-Hee; Lim, Weonjeong; Lim, Wonshin
To investigate the relationship between insufficient sleep and poor attention in Korean adolescents, adjusting for potential confounding factors of depressed mood and habitual snoring. School-based cross-sectional study. Eight high schools in 3 cities in the Republic of Korea. A sample of 2638 urban high school students (42.2% male and 57.8% female; mean [SD] age, 17.3 [0.6] years [age range, 14-19 years]) completed questionnaires and computerized attention tasks during the school term. Weekend catch-up sleep. Self-reported sleep schedules and habits, including sleep duration, bedtime, wake-up time, depressed mood, and habitual snoring. Also measured were numbers of omission and commission errors on computerized attention tasks. The mean (SD) sleep duration on weekdays was 5 hours 42 minutes (1 hour 0 minutes) per day and on weekends was 8 hours 24 minutes (1 hour 36 minutes) per day. The mean (SD) weekend catch-up sleep was 2 hours 42 minutes (1 hour 42 minutes) per day. After adjusting for age, sex, depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory score, ≥10), habitual snoring, and weekday sleep duration, increased weekend catch-up sleep was significantly associated with more omission and commission errors on sustained attention tasks (P sleep as an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep is associated with poor performance on objective attention tasks. Assessment of catch-up sleep and sleep duration may be useful for physicians to evaluate sleep insufficiency and its adverse effects on attention in adolescents.
Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller
The concept of unit value is shown to be a useful tool in analysing changes in the price-quality competitiveness of the export of Poland, which, until 1996 has shown signs of a quality "catching-up" for products surviving international competition. However, the quality level of export products is...
Full Text Available Brazil (1955-2005: 25 years of catching-up, 25 years of falling behind. The present paper discusses the Brazilian industrial development under a neo-schumpeterian perspective in the period after 1955. The hypothesis is that, in the last 50 years, Brazil spent the first 25 years catching up and, next, the following 25 years falling behind. The 1955-1980 period, by means of international funding, allowed catching up with the paradigm in maturation within the fourth technological revolution. However, in this period, it was determined the main debilitating elements for the country's entrance in the new techno-economical paradigm of the fifth technological revolution which emerged in the middle of the 70s. It is in the strategy to internationalize the economy, granting the mutinational companies the key-sectors of the national economy dynamics during the catching up period, the main element of dependence in the journey that conditions the current performance, responsible for technology subordination and keeps the Brazilian economy with low dynamism.
Morrison, A.; Rabellotti, Roberta
The wine industry is an extremely interesting sector from a catch -up point of view because the latecomers in the international market have changed how wine is produced, sold and consumed and, in doing so, they have challenged the positions of incumbents. Until the end of the 1980s, the European
Richard, Stephanie A.; Black, Robert E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kang, Gagandeep; Lanata, Claudio F.; Mølbak, Kåre; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Sack, R. Bradley; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Checkley, William
Diarrhea and linear growth faltering continue to burden low-income countries and are among the most important contributors to poor health during early childhood. Diarrhea is thought to adversely affect linear growth, but catch-up growth can occur if no additional insults are experienced. We sought to characterize catch-up growth in relation to diarrhea burden in a multisite dataset of 1007 children. Using longitudinal anthropometry and diarrheal surveillance data from 7 cohort studies in 4 countries, we examined the relation between diarrhea prevalence and growth in 3- to 6-mo periods using linear mixed-effect models. Growth during each period was calculated as a function of age using linear splines. We incorporated the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea in both current and previous periods into the model. Diarrhea during the current period was associated with slower linear and ponderal growth. Faster (catch-up) growth in length was observed in children with no diarrhea in age groups immediately after an age group in which diarrhea was experienced [age group >6–12 mo: 0.03 mm/mo for each percentage diarrhea prevalence in the previous period (95% CI: 0.007, 0.06) relative to 11.3 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >12–18 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.02, 0.06) relative to 8.9 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >18–24 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.003, 0.09) relative to 7.9 mm/mo mean growth rate]. The associations were stronger in boys than in girls when separate models were run. Similar results were observed when weight was the outcome variable. When diarrheal episodes are followed by diarrhea-free periods in the first 2 y of life, catch-up growth is observed that may allow children to regain their original trajectories. The finding of a greater effect of diarrhea on linear growth in boys than in girls was unexpected and requires additional study. Diarrhea burdens are high throughout the first 2 y of life in these study sites, therefore reducing the likelihood of
Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Nielsen, Claus; Larsen, Poul Scheel
-size retention spectrum, the lower limit depends on spacing between cilia in phase, while the upper end depends on cilia length which may or may not allow particles to enter the ciliary region. On the basis of fluid mechanical considerations and literature descriptions of structure and function of the ciliary......Based on observations of feeding structures and currents in the polychaete Spirorbis tridentatus, the entoproct Loxosoma pectinaricola and the cycliophore Symbion pandora, which all possess compound cilia, it is hypothesized that their capture mechanism is based on the catch-up principle. According...... to this principle, the compound cilia constitute the pump which generates a flow with suspended particles that enters the ciliary region. In this region the same cilia, during their power stroke, catch up with suspended particles and transfer the particles to a food groove, or a mouth cavity. In the particle...
Giuliani, Elisa; Martinelli, Arianna; Rabellotti, Roberta
Firms from emerging countries such as Brazil, India, and China (BIC) are going global, and Europe is attracting around one-third of their direct outward investments. Growing internationalization constitutes an opportunity for technological catch up. In this paper we analyze BIC firms' cross-border inventions with European Union (EU-27) actors, during the period 1990-2012. Our results suggest that cross-border inventions represent an opportunity for BIC firms to accumulate technological capabi...
Beltrán-Esteve, Mercedes; Picazo-Tadeo, Andrés J.
This paper assesses environmental performance in the European Union (EU) using Luenberger productivity indicators, directional distance functions and Data Envelopment Analysis techniques. It considers four indicators of the pressures exerted by economic activity on the environment: global warming, tropospheric ozone formation, acidification and particulate formation. The change in environmental performance from the early 2000s onwards is decomposed at the levels of country and environmental pressure, and as the result of eco-innovations and catching-up with the best available environmental technologies; furthermore, we distinguish between the periods of economic growth (2001–07) and severe crisis (2007–13). Our main finding is that environmental performance improved in both periods, mainly fuelled by advances in environmental technology. Accordingly, environmental policies aimed at boosting catching-up are highly recommended, particularly in the newer member states that joined the EU from 2004 onwards, which perform further away from their respective environmental technological frontiers. In addition, re-establishing the pre-crisis eco-innovation investment levels would also be highly advisable in order to return to the rates of environmental technical progress registered in the expansion period. - Highlights: • Environmental performance has noticeably improved in the EU since the 2000's. • Eco-innovations have bolstered progress in environmental performance. • Policies aimed at boosting catching-up are highly recommended in the EU.
Т Ю Шалденкова
Full Text Available The experience of catching-up development of ASEAN countries becomes valuable in the conditions of the Russian of import substitution policy and “turn to the East” in geopolitics. The objective of the paper is revealing the prospects of native catching-up development based on the analysis of theoretical aspects of the model of “flying geese” and their practical application in the ASEAN countries and Russia. The paper presents the theoretical foundations of catching-up development in the framework of the Flying Geese paradigm in the works of K. Akamatsu, R. Vernon, K. Kojima and indicates its main stages. The author reviews the measures of industrial, trade and investment policy of the ASEAN countries on the initial stages of the model and the modern aspects of their economic development. The materials of statistical reports of IMF, UNCTAD, ASEAN, the statistical data of Federal state statistics department of Russia, Federal customs department of Russia, the programs of the Russian Government in the field of import substitution are studied. The achievements and problems of implementing the programs of import substitution in agriculture, industry, IT-technologies in Russia were analyzed. The study showed the factors, hindering the domestic development in the framework of the Flying Geese paradigm. The recommendations for solving existing problems include the stimulation of aggregate demand and the development of high-tech exports. Special attention was drawn to the possibilities of applying selected elements of the model in terms of territorial heterogeneity of Russia.
Full Text Available While the income per capita in the developing world since the turn of the Millennium has grown faster than that of the developed world, the question whether there is an ongoing process of catching up between countries remains. The notion of income convergence has provided many insights into the sources for long-run growth but has largely neglected the role of social capabilities in economic development. By social capabilities we mean the qualification of the ‘theory of convergence’ which asserts that productivity growth rates between countries tend to vary inversely with regard to productivity levels. The social capabilities approach holds that a country’s potential for rapid growth is strong when “it is technologically backward but socially advanced” (see Abramovitz, 1986:388. This means that the potential to catch up under globalization is strongest for countries in which social capabilities are developed to allow successful use of technologies and where institutional arrangements are conducive to economic progress. Yet there is no clear agreement in the literature on the main components of social capabilities or how to measure them. Our framework argues that the role of capabilities in catching up needs to understand them in terms of structural transformation, economic and social inclusion, state´s autonomy and accountability. Without progress in these dimensions within-country inequality may increase and might in turn lead to stagnating growth and slim prospects for global income convergence.
A. F. Kiosov
Full Text Available The term catch-up growth is now widely used in neonatology and pediatrics to describe the growth of preterm infants. Catch-up growth — is a compensatory strengthening of the body's growth after a period of slow growth. The lower the gestational age of the premature baby, the more intense catch-up growth in the future.Catch-up growth is considered an important criterion for evaluating nursing preterm infants. Formation of catch-up growth is seen as a favorable outcome. Evaluation of catch-up growth is carried out with the use of percentiles and standard deviations (Z-score. Catch-up growth has a positive effect on neurological outcome. Catch-up growth achieved if the growth rates are between 5 and 10 percentile. The values of growth are satisfactory if they are located at the 10th percentile and above. Catch-up growth is achieved with a standard deviation greater than minus 2 (Z-score. The optimal parameters are considered indicators located within two standard deviations of the mean.Estimation of the growth should be carried out optimally weekly. Growth curves help to determine when the catch-up growth begins. After discharge from the hospital catch-up growth continues. Catch-up growth occurs within the first year of life. The critical period for catch-up growth are considered the first 6 months. Subsequently, the growth rate decreases. The growth is not sufficient, if the values are below the 3 percentile. About 50% of the causes impaired growth is due to the shortage of supply. Premature babies can have problems with food and after discharge from the hospital. The very rapid growth may lead to the development of metabolic syndrome in later life. Low birth weight is associated with increased risk of hypertension, stroke, and diabetes. Compensatory growth often occurs with excessive deposition of fat. In assessing the growth necessary to accommodate the growth of muscle mass and fat mass. Maintaining optimal growth rate is important for the
Alves, João Guilherme; Vasconcelos, Sarita Amorim; de Almeida, Tais Sá; Lages, Raquel; Just, Eduardo
A rapid catch-up growth in very low birth weight has been associated both with a higher height growth and a higher risk to metabolic disturbances, including insulin resistance and its consequences. Abdominal fat distribution in early postnatal life may play a role in these outcomes and can help in addressing this neonatal dilemma. This study aimed to compare abdominal fat distribution among very low birth weight (VLBW) children with and without rapid catch-up growth. A cohort study followed 86 VLBW (children born in Brazil, during the first 3 years of life. Rapid catch-up growth was considered as an increased in length >2 Z score during the first year of life. Abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat thickness was determined by ultrasound. χ²-Test and Student's t-test were used to compare the groups. A total of 79 VLBW children completed the study, of whom 22 (27.8%) showed rapid catch-up growth. Abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat thickness showed no differences among children with or without rapid catch-up growth at 3.3 mm vs. 3.8 mm, respectively (p=0.79) and 4.0 mm vs. 4.0 mm (p=0.55), respectively. VLBW children with rapid catch-up growth were also taller. Rapid catch-up growth during the first year of life in VLBW children does not seem to change abdominal fat distribution until the third year of life.
Hankin-Wei, Abigail; Rein, David B.; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso; Kennedy, Mallory J.; Bulkow, Lisa; Rosenberg, Eli; Trigg, Monica; Nelson, Noele P.
Background Since 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination routinely for children aged 12–23 months to prevent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. However, a substantial proportion of US children are unvaccinated and susceptible to infection. We present results of economic modeling to assess whether a one-time catch-up HepA vaccination recommendation would be cost-effective. Methods We developed a Markov model of HAV infection that followed a single cohort from birth through death (birth to age 95 years). The model compared the health and economic outcomes from catch-up vaccination interventions for children at target ages from two through 17 years vs. outcomes resulting from maintaining the current recommendation of routine vaccination at age one year with no catch-up intervention. Results Over the lifetime of the cohort, catch-up vaccination would reduce the total number of infections relative to the baseline by 741 while increasing doses of vaccine by 556,989. Catch-up vaccination would increase net costs by $10.2 million, or $2.38 per person. The incremental cost of HepA vaccine catch-up intervention at age 10 years, the midpoint of the ages modeled, was $452,239 per QALY gained. Across age-cohorts, the cost-effectiveness of catch-up vaccination is most favorable at age 12 years, resulting in an Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio of $189,000 per QALY gained. Conclusions Given the low baseline of HAV disease incidence achieved by current vaccination recommendations, our economic model suggests that a catch-up vaccination recommendation would be less cost-effective than many other vaccine interventions, and that HepA catch-up vaccination would become cost effective at a threshold of $50,000 per QALY only when incidence of HAV rises about 5.0 cases per 100,000 population. PMID:27317459
Roselló-Díez, Alberto; Joyner, Alexandra L
The regulation of organ size is essential to human health and has fascinated biologists for centuries. Key to the growth process is the ability of most organs to integrate organ-extrinsic cues (eg, nutritional status, inflammatory processes) with organ-intrinsic information (eg, genetic programs, local signals) into a growth response that adapts to changing environmental conditions and ensures that the size of an organ is coordinated with the rest of the body. Paired organs such as the vertebrate limbs and the long bones within them are excellent models for studying this type of regulation because it is possible to manipulate one member of the pair and leave the other as an internal control. During development, growth plates at the end of each long bone produce a transient cartilage model that is progressively replaced by bone. Here, we review how proliferation and differentiation of cells within each growth plate are tightly controlled mainly by growth plate-intrinsic mechanisms that are additionally modulated by extrinsic signals. We also discuss the involvement of several signaling hubs in the integration and modulation of growth-related signals and how they could confer remarkable plasticity to the growth plate. Indeed, long bones have a significant ability for "catch-up growth" to attain normal size after a transient growth delay. We propose that the characterization of catch-up growth, in light of recent advances in physiology and cell biology, will provide long sought clues into the molecular mechanisms that underlie organ growth regulation. Importantly, catch-up growth early in life is commonly associated with metabolic disorders in adulthood, and this association is not completely understood. Further elucidation of the molecules and cellular interactions that influence organ size coordination should allow development of novel therapies for human growth disorders that are noninvasive and have minimal side effects.
Full Text Available Ongoing discussions between Russia and the EU on the formation of a Common European Economic Space bring back to mind Alexander Gerschenkron's classic essay on economic backwardness in historical perspective. This paper argues that the institutions that once produced a specific kind of catch-up economics in Czarist Russia still remain largely the same. Unless negotiations between Moscow and Brussels take into consideration such fundamental institutional incompatibility, attempts at harmonization, expressed by Brussels as an attempt tp spread Western values, will be doomed to fail. A cynical conlusion views potential convergence as adaptation by Brussels to traditional Russian institutional patterns of rule evasion, rather than a Westernization of Russia
Brams, Steven J.; Ismail, Mehmet S.; Kilgour, D. Marc; Stromquist, Walter
Service sports include two-player contests such as volleyball, badminton, and squash. We analyze four rules, including the Standard Rule (SR), in which a player continues to serve until he or she loses. The Catch-Up Rule (CR) gives the serve to the player who has lost the previous point—as opposed to the player who won the previous point, as under SR. We also consider two Trailing Rules that make the server the player who trails in total score. Surprisingly, compared with SR, only CR gives th...
Brams, Steven; Ismail, Mehmet; Kilgour, Marc; Stromquist, Walter
Service sports include two-player contests such as volleyball, badminton, and squash. We analyze four rules, including the Standard Rule (SR), in which a player continues to serve until he or she loses. The Catch-Up Rule (CR) gives the serve to the player who has lost the previous point—as opposed to the player who won the previous point, as under SR. We also consider two Trailing Rules that make the server the player who trails in total score. Surprisingly, compared with SR, only CR gives th...
Varblane, Urmas; Roolaht, Tõnu
In several parts of the world, countries are undergoing economic, social, and political transitions, enhanced and accelerated by the forces of globalization. These transition economies can serve as laboratories for understanding the innovation process. This volume features original theoretical and empirical research. It offers the first comprehensive view of innovation system development in the context of small catching-up economies. Smallness, path dependency, and latecomer status of such economies create some inherent limitations for their innovation systems, but these special characteristics can offer advantages as well. For example, smallness is often related with increased flexibility and shorter reaction times, while latecomers can benefit from earlier experiences of their more advanced neighbors. Path-dependency highlights the fact that the innovation system development processes are considerably influenced by the past experience of a particular country or region. By incorporating these features into a...
Börkan, Bengü; Ünlühisarcıklı, Özlem; Caner, H. Ayşe; Sart, Z. Hande
Turkish children between the ages of 10-14 who either never enrolled in primary education, dropped out of school, or were at least three years behind their peers had the opportunity of joining an accelerated learning programme. It was developed by the Turkish Ministry of National Education General Directorate of Primary Education as a response to the urgent need to secure these children's right to education. The programme, called "Catch-up Education Programme" (CEP), was implemented between September 2008 and 2013 in collaboration with the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to enable those children to complete several grades in a short time and then to continue their education with their peers. This paper presents the findings of a study, conducted in 2010, reviewing the challenges and opportunities experienced during the implementation process from the points of view of beneficiaries (pupils and parents) and implementers. The results are discussed in relation to educational policy and its implementation in general.
Full Text Available The paper will help answer the question, why only few universities managed to succeed significantly in their global ranking advancement, while most of their competitors fail. For this purpose it will introduce a new strategically entrepreneurial catch-up university framework, based on the combination of the resource based view, dynamic capabilities, strategic entrepreneurship and latecomer organization concepts. The new framework logics explains the advantages of being ambidextrous for ranking oriented universities and pursuing new potentially more favorable opportunities for research development. It will propose that substantial increase in the level of dynamic capabilities of the universities and their resource base accumulation is based on the use of the new combination of financial, human and social capital combined with strategic management of these resources in the process of identification and exploitation of greater opportunities.
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to examine the utilization of management practices in catching-up and well-developed economies. Within that framework, the paper examines the utilization of management practices in Slovenian and Croatian organizations, as both are considered the representatives of catching-up economies from Central and East Europe (CEE, while also comparing the utilization of management practices in the two selected economies to the global use of management practices. Evidences about management practices utilization reveal that in well-developed economies in the forefront are management practices aiming to support customer relationship management, strength customer relations and customer satisfaction, while in Slovenia and Croatia prevail practices that are oriented toward optimization of the business and its processes. Based on the research results and the situation in organizations, a possible future pattern of management practice utilization in organizations operating in catching up economies is outlined, with the aim to reduce the developmental lag and increase competitiveness of those organizations. The paper also provides several practical implications for future utilization of management practices in catching-up economies. The sample of catching up-countries includes 155 responses from employees in Slovenian organizations and 185 from Croatian ones. Data for samples from well-developed economies are obtained from a global survey of management practices.
The Swedish gender wage gap decreased substantially from the 1960s until the beginning of the 1980s. At the same time women had been narrowing men in employment experience and education. While women continued to catch up on men the average wage gap remained almost the same as in the 1980s. The catch-up hypothesis was obviously not the sole answer to the wage-gap. The purpose here was to discuss other factors of relevance for the evolution of the average pay gap. Data for the period 1972-2012 ...
Full Text Available There is a sort of scientific bias in the way economics literature approaches the issues of general or regional economic growth and socio-economic backwardness. The term 'catching up of socio-economic gaps' appears to be rather a contradictio in adjecto, a sort of oxymoron, than a possible evolution of the world’s countries. The very idea of ‘catching-up’ or ‘recovery’ as a consequence of ‘lagging behind’ seems to be more specific to sports competitions or post-surgery periods. Transfering the idea of ‘backwardness’ to human communities (be it tribes, villages or political-administrative entities of higher dimensions is at least questionable. The contradiction is generated by the very establishment of the benchmarks for identifying ‘backwardness’. During the last 50 years, and after 1990 especially, the appeal to such indicators as GDP/capita, HDI, Gini coefficient, convergence criteria etc. became a common place. Nowadays it appears to anyone a matter-of-course, that any geopolitical entity can be "weighed" or "measured" by reference to a set of uniform criteria. Unfortunately, the global and regional efforts made after WW II towards an accelerated socio-economic growth of both developing and less developed countries succeded only for few countries to reduce the historically shaped gaps as against developed countries. On the contrary, for the bulk of the ‘lagged behind’ regions gaps seem to have risen. This is why many questions arose about the inefficiency of the steps made towards 'catching up of socio- economic gaps', such as: “Why after about 70 years of international welfare levelling efforts, gaps between development and living standards of the world regions are still so large?” “Why do economies have to grow at any price?” “Is the forced (artificial, accelerated development beneficial? And it if so, to whom?” “Are specific historical socio-economic structures negligible under the pressure of
Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in human milk, where it is heavily concentrated in the sn-2-position (termed beta palmitate, BPA and as such is conserved in all women, regardless of their diet or ethnicity, indicating its physiological and metabolic importance. We hypothesized that BPA improves the efficiency of nutrition-induced catch up growth as compared to sn-1,3 PA, which is present in vegetable oil. Pre-pubertal male rats were subjected to a 17 days food restriction followed by re-feeding for nine days with 1,3 PA or BPA-containing diets. We measured bone length, epiphyseal growth plate height (EGP, histology, bone quality (micro-CT and 3-point bending assay, and gene expression (Affymetrix. The BPA-containing diet improved most growth parameters: humeri length and EGP height were greater in the BPA-fed animals. Further analysis of the EGP revealed that the hypertrophic zone was significantly higher in the BPA group. In addition, Affymetrix analysis revealed that the diet affected the expression of several genes in the liver and EGP. Despite the very subtle difference between the diets and the short re-feeding period, we found a small but significant improvement in most growth parameters in the BPA-fed rats. This pre-clinical study may have important implications, especially for children with growth disorders and children with special nutritional needs.
Sokolovic, N; Selvam, S; Srinivasan, K; Thankachan, P; Kurpad, A V; Thomas, T
Stunting is significantly associated with lifetime morbidity and poorer cognitive outcomes in children. Although several studies have examined the relationship between stunting, catch-up growth and cognitive performance in young populations, this relationship has not yet been explored in school-aged children. In this study, we used data from three different nutritional intervention studies conducted over a 4-year period on school-age children in Bangalore, India to assess these relationships. A battery of cognitive tests was conducted before each intervention to determine whether stunting status at baseline was related to cognitive performance across four separate domains, and repeated after a 6-month period to assess whether changes to stunting status is related to cognitive advancement. Results of independent t-tests showed that while stunted children had significantly poorer performance on short-term memory, retrieval ability and visuospatial ability tests (P=0.023, 0.026 and 0.028, respectively), there was no significant difference in the change in cognitive scores following nutritional interventions over a 6-month period between those who remained stunted and those who were no longer stunted (P>0.10). Evidently, stunting remains associated with cognitive ability in school-age children; however, the reversal of these effects in this age group may be quite difficult.
Adams, Mary; Robert, Glenn; Maben, Jill
This article examines the importance of some informal work practices among community nurses during a period of significant organizational change. Ethnographic fieldwork in two purposively selected adult community nursing services in England comprised 79 hours of observation of routine practice, 21 interviews with staff and 23 interviews with patients. We identified the informal work practice of 'catching up', informal work conversations between immediate colleagues, as an important but often invisible aspect of satisfying work relationships and of the relational care of patients. Drawing on anthropological literatures on 'communities of practice' the article examines two central issues concerning the practices of 'catching up': (1) how informal learning processes shape community nursing work; (2) how this informal learning is shaped both in relation to the ideals of community nursing work and the wider political and organizational contexts of community nursing practice. Our findings highlight the distinctive value of informal workplace 'catch ups' for nurses to manage the inherent challenges of good home care for patients and to develop a shared ethic of care and professional identity. Our findings also indicate the decline of 'catching up' between nurses along with diminishing time and opportunity for staff to care holistically for patients in present service climates.
Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, S.M. van der; Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.; Walther, F.J.; Wit, J.M.; Pal, K.M. van der
Aim: To study the effect of catch-up growth in the 1st year on cognition, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), problem behavior and growth in young adults. Methods: We included individuals without severe complications and born small for gestational age (SGA; n = 228 for weight, n = 203 for
Timmer, Marcel P.
Taiwan has undergone a process of swift industrialization after 1948. Rapid accumulation of physical and human capital enabled Taiwan to exploit new technologies and products, resulting in rapid catch up in labour productivity relative to more advanced economies. Using the industry-of-origin
Varblane, Urmas; Mets, Tonis; Ukrainski, Kadri
During the transformation process from a command economy, the extraordinary statist university-industry-government (UIG) linkages model was replaced by an extreme version of laissez-faire relationships. A more modern interaction-based UIG model could be implemented only by changing the whole national innovation system of catching-up economies. The…
Mostovaya, Ira M; Grooteman, Muriel P C; Basile, Carlo; Davenport, Andrew; de Roij van Zuijdewijn, Camiel L M; Wanner, Christoph; Nubé, Menso J; Blankestijn, Peter
Increasing evidence suggests that treatment with online post-dilution haemodiafiltration (HDF) improves clinical outcome in patients with end-stage kidney disease, if compared with haemodialysis (HD). Although the primary analyses of three large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed
Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.
Chmait, Ramen H; Chon, Andrew H; Schrager, Sheree M; Kontopoulos, Eftichia V; Quintero, Rubén A; Vanderbilt, Douglas L
To assess fetal growth after laser surgery for TTTS at the time of prenatal diagnosis, birth, and at 2years of age. Growth data were collected from surviving children treated between 2007 and 2010 as part of a study to assess neurodevelopment at 24months (±6weeks) corrected age. Fetal weights were obtained via ultrasound using Hadlock's formula at the time of preoperative assessment for laser surgery. Birth weights were recorded by the staff at the delivering institutions. Weights at 2years corrected age were recorded at the time of neurodevelopmental testing. Weights were converted into percentiles according to standard growth curves. Growth restriction was defined as demise, intrauterine growth restriction, Quintero stage, and gestational age of surgery or delivery. 48.5% were donors. The median fetal, birth, and 2-year weights for all twins were 288g, 1.9kg, and 11.8kg, respectively, and the overall prevalence of growth restriction was 28%, 22%, and 3%, respectively. Growth restriction rates at prenatal diagnosis were 56% in donors vs. 2% in recipients (OR=64.3, p<0.001); at birth, 35% vs. 10% (OR=5.0, p<0.01); and at 2years, 6% vs. 0%. Donors showed significant gains in weight percentile (B=13.1, p<0.001) and a significant decrease in growth restriction rates over time (B=-1.6, p<0.001). Weight discordance between donor and recipient pairs also significantly decreased over time (linear F(1,42)=54.34, p<0.001). After laser surgery for TTTS, donor twins exhibit significant catch-up growth by two years of age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Masarwi, Majdi; Shamir, Raanan; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia
Catch-up growth (CUG) in childhood is defined as periods of growth acceleration, after the resolution of growth attenuation causes, bringing the children back to their original growth trajectory. Sometimes, however, CUG is incomplete, leading to permanent growth deficit and short stature. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms that limit nutritional-CUG. Specifically, we focused on the crosstalk between leptin, increased by re-feeding, and sex hormones, which increase with age. In vivo studies were performed in young male Sprague Dawley rats fed ad libitum or subjected to 10/36 days of 40% food restriction followed by 90-120 days of re-feeding. In vitro studies were performed on ATDC5 cells. Analyses of mRNA and protein levels were done using qPCR and Western blot, respectively. CUG was complete in body weight and humerus length in animals that were food-restricted for 10 days but not for those food-restricted for 36 days. In vitro studies showed that leptin significantly increased aromatase gene expression and protein level as well as the expression of estrogen and leptin receptors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effect of leptin on aromatase was direct and was mediated through the MAPK/Erk, STAT3 and PI3K pathways. The crosstalk between leptin and aromatase in the growth plate suggests that re-feeding during puberty may lead to increased estrogen level and activity, and consequently, irreversible premature epiphyseal growth plate closure. These results may have important implications for the development of novel treatment strategies for short stature in children. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.
Ramani, Shyama V.; Urias, E.
Access to affordable lifesaving medicines is considered a human right. This leads to a question largely understudied in the catch-up literature on accumulation of industrial capabilities. Can the need to improve access to an essential commodity impact the sectoral catch-up trajectory of the
Im, Hee-Jin; Baek, Shin-Hye; Chu, Min Kyung; Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Won-Joo; Park, Seong-Ho; Thomas, Robert J; Yun, Chang-Ho
To determine if weekend catch-up sleep (CUS) impacts body mass index (BMI) in the general population. A stratified random sample (2156 subjects; age 19-82 years old, 43.0 ± 14.5; 1183 male) from the general population was evaluated, in 2010, using face-to-face interviews about sociodemographic characteristics, height, weight, habitual sleep duration, and time-in-bed at night on weekdays and weekend, sleep-related profiles, mood and anxiety scales, and comorbid-medical conditions. Weekend CUS was identified when nocturnal sleep extension occurred over the weekend, and this was quantified. Average sleep duration, BMI, and chronotype were determined. The association of BMI with the presence and the amount of weekend CUS was analyzed, independent of average sleep duration, chronotype, and sociodemographic factors. BMI and average sleep duration was 23.0 ± 3.0 kg/m2 and 7.3 ± 1.2 hours, respectively. The weekend CUS group consisted of 932 subjects (43.1%) who slept longer on weekend than weekdays by 1.8 ± 1.1 hours. Weekend CUS subjects had a significantly lower BMI (22.8 ± 0.19 kg/m2) than the non-CUS (23.1 ± 0.19 kg/m2) group, after adjustment for age, sex, average sleep duration, chronotype, other sociodemographic factors, and anxiety/mood status (p = .01) The relationship between weekend CUS and BMI was dose-dependent (p = 0.02): Every additional hour of weekend CUS was associated with a decrease of 0.12 kg/m2 in BMI (95% confidence interval, -0.23 to -0.02). Weekend sleep extension may have biological protective effects in preventing sleep-restriction induced or related obesity. The results suggest a simple population-level strategy to minimize effects of sleep loss. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail email@example.com.
Naryshkin, Roman; Davison, Matt
This paper analyzes popular time-nonseparable utility functions that describe "habit formation" consumer preferences comparing current consumption with the time averaged past consumption of the same individual and "catching up with the Joneses" (CuJ) models comparing individual consumption with a cross-sectional average consumption level. Few of these models give reasonable optimum consumption time series. We introduce theoretically justified utility specifications leading to a plausible cons...
Qiu, Yueming; Ortolano, Leonard; David Wang, Yi
This paper uses firm level data for the Chinese wind turbine manufacturing industry from 1998 to 2009 to quantify the effects of technology acquisition mechanisms – purchasing production licenses from foreign manufacturers, joint design with foreign design firms, joint-ventures and domestic R and D – on wind turbine manufacturers' technology levels (as measured by turbine size, in megawatts). It also examines the impacts of government policies on manufacturer technology levels. Technology upgrading (measured by increase of turbine size) and catch-up (measured by decrease in the distance to the world technology frontier in terms of turbine size) are used to measure advances in technology level. Results from econometric modeling studies indicate that firms' technology acquisition mechanisms and degree of business diversification are statistically significant factors in influencing technology upgrading. Similar results were found for the catch-up variable (i.e., distance to the world technology frontier). The influence of government policies is significant for technology upgrading but not catch-up. These and other modeling results are shown to have implications for both policymakers and wind turbine manufacturers. - Highlights: ► Technology acquired through joint design has the highest level. ► Technology acquired through purchasing production license has the lowest level. ► Technology acquired through domestic R and D has the level in between. ► A firm with related other businesses tends to have a higher level of technology. ► The influence of policies is significant for technology upgrade but not catch-up
Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna
We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.
Edwards, Jeremy S. S.
Although European economic history provides essentially no support for the view that education of the general population has a positive causal effect on economic growth, a recent paper by Becker, Hornung and Woessmann (Education and catch-up in the Industrial Revolution, 2011) claims that such education had a significant impact on Prussian industrialisation. The author shows that the instrumental variable they use to identify the causal effect of education is correlated with variables that in...
Although European economic history provides essentially no support for the view that education of the general population has a positive causal effect on economic growth, a recent paper by Becker, Hornung and Woessmann (Education and Catch-Up in the Industrial Revolution, 2011) claims that such education had a significant impact on Prussian industrialisation. The author shows that the instrumental variable BHW use to identify the causal effect of education is correlated with variables that inf...
Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between weight catch-up growth and insulin sensitivity in small for gestational age (SGA infants. Methods. Forty-four singleton SGA subjects met the inclusion criteria and finished-3-month followup. Body weight, length, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin (FI levels were measured at 3 days and 3 months. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by FI and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Results. According to the change of weight Z-score, forty-four subjects were divided into two groups: noncatch-up growth (NCUG and catch-up growth (CUG. By 3 months of age, the body weight, body length and BMI of NCUG group were significantly lower than those of CUG group. The FI and HOMA were significantly higher in NCUG group. The change of weight Z-score during 3 months was inversely related to the HOMA at 3 months. Conclusion. Our data exemplified that no weight catch-up growth during the first 3 months was associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in SGA infants.
Manikkam, Mohan; Crespi, Erica J; Doop, Douglas D; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S; Yu, Sunkyung; Brown, Morton B; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha
Alterations in the maternal endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic environment disrupt the developmental trajectory of the fetus, leading to adult diseases. Female offspring of rats, subhuman primates, and sheep treated prenatally with testosterone (T) develop reproductive/metabolic defects during adult life similar to those that occur after intrauterine growth retardation. In the present study we determined whether prenatal T treatment produces growth-retarded offspring. Cottonseed oil or T propionate (100 mg, im) was administered twice weekly to pregnant sheep between 30-90 d gestation (term = 147 d; cottonseed oil, n = 16; prenatal T, n = 32). Newborn weight and body dimensions were measured the day after birth, and postnatal weight gain was monitored for 4 months in all females and in a subset of males. Consistent with its action, prenatal T treatment produced females and males with greater anogenital distances relative to controls. Prenatal T treatment reduced body weights and heights of newborns from both sexes and chest circumference of females. Prenatally T-treated females, but not males, exhibited catch-up growth during 2-4 months of postnatal life. Plasma IGF-binding protein-1 and IGF-binding protein-2, but not IGF-I, levels of prenatally T-treated females were elevated in the first month of life, a period when the prenatally T-treated females were not exhibiting catch-up growth. This is suggestive of reduced IGF availability and potential contribution to growth retardation. These findings support the concept that fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth, early markers of future adult diseases, can also be programmed by prenatal exposure to excess sex steroids.
Boersma, B; Rikken, B; Wit, J M
Catch-up growth of 26 children with growth hormone deficiency during four years of growth hormone treatment, which was started young (< 3 years), was compared with that of 16 children with coeliac disease on a gluten free diet. In children with growth hormone deficiency mean (SD) height SD score increased from -4.3 (1.8) to -1.9 (1.4) and in patients with coeliac disease from -1.8 (0.9) to -0.1 (0.8). Height SD score after four years correlated positively with injection frequency and height S...
Conclusions: Testicular catch-up growth may not be a reliable postoperative assessment criterion by itself. Serum FSH levels may be of value in detecting suboptimal outcomes of varicocele surgery in adolescents.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008-09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5-18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008-09 UK catch-up started. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s, and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up. RESULTS: Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.87 and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.89 were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18-10.05, whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57-35.97. Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised, whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised. Older children may be
Fjeld, C R; Schoeller, D A; Brown, K H
Energy partitioned to maintenance plus activity, tissue synthesis, and storage was measured in 41 children in early recovery (W/L (wt/length) less than 5th percentile) from severe protein-energy malnutrition and in late recovery (W/L = 25th percentile) to determine energy requirements during catch-up growth. Metabolizable energy intake was measured by bomb calorimetry and metabolic collections. Energy expended (means +/- SD) for maintenance and activity estimated by the doubly labeled water method was 97 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM (fat-free mass) in early recovery and 98 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM in late recovery (p greater than 0.5). Energy stored was 5-6 kcal/g of wt gain. Tissue synthesis increased energy expenditure by 1 +/- 0.7 kcal/g gain in both early and late recovery. From these data a mathematical model was developed to predict energy requirements for children during catch-up growth as a function of initial body composition and rate and composition of wt gain. The model for predicting metabolizable energy requirements is ((98 x FFM) + A (11.1 B + 2.2 C)), kcal/kg.d, where FFM is fat-free mass expressed as a percentage of body wt, A is wt gain (g/kg.d), B and C are percentage of wt gain/100 as fat and FFM, respectively. The model was tested retrospectively in separate studies of malnourished children.
Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to (a compare healthy children in terms of sensorimotor maturity to untreated children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD and (b compare healthy children to diagnosed children following completed treatment with sensorimotor therapy. Participants were 298 children, 196 boys and 102 girls, distributed into a Norm group of healthy children (n = 99 and a group of children diagnosed with DCD (n = 199 with a total mean age of 8.77 years (SD = 2.88. Participants in both groups were assessed on instruments aimed to detect sensorimotor deviations. The children in the DCD group completed, during on average 36 months, sensorimotor therapy which comprised stereotypical fetal- and infant movements, vestibular stimulation, tactile stimulation, auditory stimulation, complementary play exercises, gross motor milestones, and sports-related gross motor skills. At the final visit a full assessment was once more performed. Results showed that the Norm group performed better on all sensorimotor tests as compared to the untreated children from the DCD group, with the exception of an audiometric test where both groups performed at the same level. Girls performed better on tests assessing proprioceptive and balance abilities. Results also showed, after controls for natural maturing effects, that the children from the DCD group after sensorimotor therapy did catch up with the healthy children. The concept of "catching-up" is used within developmental medicine but has not earlier been documented with regard to children and youth in connection with DCD.
Nubé, Menso J.; Peters, Sanne A E; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Canaud, Bernard; Davenport, Andrew; Grooteman, Muriel P C; Asci, Gulay; Locatelli, Francesco; Maduell, Francisco; Morena, Marion; Ok, Ercan; Torres, Ferran; Bots, Michiel L.; Moreso, Francesc; Pons, Mercedes; Ramos, Rosa; Mora-Macià, Josep; Carreras, Jordi; Soler, Jordi; Campistol, Josep M.; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto; Insensé, B.; Perez, C.; Feliz, T.; Barbetta, M.; Soto, C.; Mora, J.; Juan, A.; Ibrik, O.; Foraster, A.; Nin, J.; Fernández, A.; Arruche, M.; Sánchez, C.; Vidiella, J.; Barbosa, F.; Chiné, M.; Hurtado, S.; Llibre, J.; Ruiz, A.; Serra, M.; Salvó, M.; Poyuelo, T.; Maduell, F.; Carrera, M.; Fontseré, N.; Arias, M.; Merín, A.; Ribera, L.; Galceran, J. M.; Mòdol, J.; Moliner, E.; Ramirez, A.; Aguilera, J.; Alvarez, M.; De La Torre, B.; Molera, M.; Casellas, J.; Martín, G.; Andres, E.; Coll, E.; Valles, M.; Martínez, C.; Castellote, E.; Casals, J. M.; Gabàs, J.; Romero, M.; Martinez-Castelao, A.; Fulladosa, X.; Ramirez-Arellano, M.; Fulquet, M.; Pelegrí, A.; El Manouari, M.; Ramos, N.; Bartolomé, J.; Sans, R.; Fernández, E.; Sarró, F.; Compte, T.; Marco, F.; Mauri, R.; Bronsoms, J.; Arnaiz, J. A.; Beleta, H.; Pejenaute, A.; Ríos, J.; Lara, J.; Ter Wee, P. M.; Van Den Dorpel, M. A.; Dorval, M.; Lévesque, R.; Koopman, M. G.; Konings, C. J A M; Haanstra, W. P.; Kooistra, M.; Van Jaarsveld, B.; Noordzij, T.; Feith, G. W.; Peltenburg, H. G.; Van Buren, M.; Offerman, J. J G; Hoogeveen, E. K.; De Heer, F.; Van De Ven, P. J.; Kremer Hovinga, T. K.; Bax, W. A.; Groeneveld, J. O.; Lavrijssen, A. T J; Schrander-Van Der Meer, A. M.; Reichert, L. J M; Huussen, J.; Rensma, P. L.; Schrama, Y.; Van Hamersvelt, H. W.; Boer, W. H.; Van Kuijk, W. H.; Vervloet, M. G.; Wauters, I. M P M J; Sekse, I.; Toz, Huseyin; Ok, Ebru Sevinc; Kircelli, Fatih; Yilmaz, Mumtaz; Hur, Ender; Demirci, Meltem Sezis; Demirci, Cenk; Duman, Soner; Basci, Ali; Adam, Siddig Momin; Isik, Ismet Onder; Zengin, Murat; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Yilmaz, Mehmet Emin; Ergin, Mehmet Ozkahya Pinar; Sagdic, Alfert; Kayali, Erkan; Boydak, Can; Colak, Taskin; Caliskan, Sihli; Kaplan, Hakan; Ulas, Hasibe; Kirbiyik, Sait; Berktas, Hakan; Dilbaz, Necati; Cristol, Jean Paul; Leray-Moragues, Hélène; Chenine, Leïla; Picot, Marie Christine; Jaussent, Audrey; Belloc, Claire; Lagarrigue, Mélodie; Chalabi, Lotfi; Debure, Alain; Ouziala, Messaoud; Lefevre, Jean Jacques; Thibaudin, Damien; Mohey, Hesham; Broyet, Christian; Afiani, Aida; Serveaux, Marie Odile; Patrier, Laure; Maurice, François; Rivory, Jean Pierre; Nicoud, Philippe; Durand, Claude; Normand, Michel; Seigneuric, Bruno; Magnant, Eric; Azzouz, Lynda; Islam, Mohamed Shariful; Vido, Sandor; Nzeyimana, Hilaire; Simonin, Danièle; Azymah, Yamina; Farah, Ibrahim; Coindre, Jean Philippe; Puyoo, Olivier; Chabannier, Marie Hélène; Ibos, Richard; Rouleau, Fabienne; Vela, Carlos; Joule, Josiane; Combarnous, François; Turc-Baron, Cécile; Ducret, Francis; Pointet, Philippe; Rey, Isabelle; Potier, Jacky; Bendini, Jean Christophe; Perrin, Franck; Kunz, Kristian; Lefrancois, Gaëlle; Colin, Angélique; Parahy, Sophie; Dancea, Irima; Coupel, Stéphanie; Testa, Angelo; Brunet, Philippe; Lebrun, Gaétan; Jaubert, Dominique; Delcroix, Catherine; Lavainne, Frédéric; Lefebvre, Anne; Guillodo, Marie Paule; Le Grignou, Dominique; Djema, Assia; Maaz, Mehadji; Chiron, Sylvie; Hoffmann, Maxime; Depraetre, Pascale; Haddj-Elmrabet, Atman; Joyeux, Véronique; Fleury, Dominique; Vrigneaud, Laurence; Lemaitre, Vincent; Aguilera, Didier; Guerraoui, Abdallah; Cremault, Alain; Laradi, Achour; Babinet, Francois
Background. From an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis from four randomized controlled trials comparing haemodialysis (HD) with post-dilution online-haemodiafiltration (ol-HDF), previously it appeared that HDF decreases all-cause mortality by 14% (95% confidence interval 25; 1) and
Mazairac, A.H.; Blankestijn, P.J.; Grooteman, M.P.C.; Penne, E.L.; Weerd, N.C. van der; Hoedt, C.H. den; Buskens, E.; Dorpel, M.A. van den; Wee, P.M. ter; Nube, M.J.; Bots, M.L.; Wit, G.A. de; Hamersvelt, H.W. van; et al.,
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing interest in haemodiafiltration (HDF), there is no information on the costs and cost-utility of this dialysis modality yet. It was therefore our objective to study the cost-utility of HDF versus haemodialysis (HD). METHODS: A cost-utility analysis was performed using a
Mazairac, Albert H. A.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Grooteman, Muriel P. C.; Penne, E. Lars; van der Weerd, Neelke C.; den Hoedt, Claire H.; Buskens, Erik; van den Dorpel, Marinus A.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Nube, Menso J.; Bots, Michiel L.; de Wit, G. Ardine
Background. Despite the growing interest in haemodiafiltration (HDF), there is no information on the costs and cost-utility of this dialysis modality yet. It was therefore our objective to study the cost-utility of HDF versus haemodialysis (HD). Methods. A cost-utility analysis was performed using a
Chapdelaine, Isabelle; de Roij van Zuijdewijn, Camiel L M; Mostovaya, Ira M; Lévesque, Renée; Davenport, Andrew; Blankestijn, P J; Wanner, Christoph; Nubé, Menso J; Grooteman, Muriel P C; Davenport, A; Basile, C; Locatelli, F; Maduell, F; Mitra, S; Ronco, C; Shroff, R; Tattersall, J; Wanner, C
In post-dilution online haemodiafiltration (ol-HDF), a relationship has been demonstrated between the magnitude of the convection volume and survival. However, to achieve high convection volumes (>22 L per session) detailed notion of its determining factors is highly desirable. This manuscript
Full Text Available In 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination was introduced free of charge in the Swedish national school-based vaccination programme for 10-12-year-old girls, and as catch-up vaccination for young women. In Sweden, there is an ongoing discussion about including boys in the national vaccination programme. Few studies are undertaken about adolescents' knowledge, beliefs and HPV vaccination status in relation to socioeconomic status and sexual experience. Thus, the aim was to examine HPV catch-up vaccination status in adolescents in relation to 1 socioeconomic factors, 2 beliefs and knowledge about HPV prevention, and 3 sexual behaviour. The Health Belief Model was used as a theoretical framework. Upper secondary school students (n = 832 aged 16, randomly chosen from a larger sample, were invited to participate in conjunction with the general health interview with the school nurse. A total of 751/832 (90.3%, girls (n = 391, 52% and boys (n = 360, 48% completed the questionnaire. HPV vaccination was associated with ethnicity and the mothers' education level; i.e. girls with a non-European background and girls with a less educated mother were less likely to have received the vaccine (p<0.01 and p = 0.04 respectively. Vaccinated girls perceived HPV infection as more severe (p = 0.01, had more insight into women's susceptibility to the infection (p = 0.02, perceived more benefits of the vaccine as protection against cervical cancer (p<0.01 and had a higher intention to engage in HPV-preventive behaviour (p = 0.01. Furthermore, boys and girls were almost equally sexually experienced, although fewer girls had used condom during first intercourse with their latest partner (p = 0.03. Finally, HPV vaccinated girls were less likely to have unprotected sex (p<0.01. In summary, catch-up HPV vaccination among young girls was associated with a European background and high maternal education level, as well as more favourable beliefs towards HPV prevention and
To assess the catch-up growth of long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool male children who have entered foster residential care and remained 1 year after initial placement. Longitudinal study over a 7-year period (1994-2001). So that a child was eligible for the study, three selection criteria were included: (1) aged between 24 and 48 months at the time of entry into residential facility, (2) having suffered both long-term (more than 6 months) physically neglected and emotionally abused, and (3) having stayed in foster care for 1 year after initial placement. Weight, height, and head circumference were established upon entry and re-assessed 1 year after initial placement, calculating the annual growth velocity. Results were compared with normal regional longitudinal standards of reference (Z score). Student's t test was used to assess statistically significant differences. During the study period, 87 children aged between 24 and 48 months (54 male/33 female) were admitted to residential facility after having suffered both long-term physical neglect and emotional abuse. Nevertheless, only 20 children (23% of the total admissions) met the third selection criteria (having remained 1 year after initial placement). Of these children, all were males and at placement they were between the ages of 30 and 42 months, with an average age of 36 months (1.9 SD). At placement, the analyzed parameters were below the normal standards, showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = -1.29; p = .008) and weight (Z score = -.75; p = .038). The annual growth velocity for all parameters was above the normal standards showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = +1.43; p = .009). One year after initial placement, the significant differences for height (Z score = -.68; p = .102) and weight (Z score = -.31; p = .435) with respect to the normal standards disappeared, though still remained below, showing a significant
Takeuchi, Akihito; Yorifuji, Takashi; Nakamura, Kazue; Tamai, Kei; Mori, Shigehiro; Nakamura, Makoto; Kageyama, Misao; Kubo, Toshihide; Ogino, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Doi, Hiroyuki
To examine the relationship between catch-up growth of full-term, small for gestational age (SGA) children and their neurobehavioral development. Data were obtained from a population-based nationwide Japanese longitudinal survey that started in 2001. Study participants were full-term children with information on height at 2 years of age (n = 32 533). Catch-up growth for SGA infants was defined as achieving a height at 2 years of age of more than -2.0 standard deviations for chronological age. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs for the associations of SGA and catch-up growth status with neurobehavioral development at 2.5 and 8 years of age, adjusting for potential infant- and parent-related confounding factors. Fifteen percent of term SGA infants failed to catch up in height. At 2.5 years of age, SGA children without catch-up growth were more likely to be unable to climb stairs (OR, 10.42; 95% CI, 5.55-19.56) and unable to compose a 2-word sentence (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.81-7.08) compared with children with normal growth at birth. Furthermore, SGA children without catch-up growth were at increased risk for aggressive behaviors (OR, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.19-12.47) at 8 years of age. Continuous follow-up for full-term SGA infants with failure of catch-up growth or poor postnatal growth may be beneficial for early detection and intervention for behavioral problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study investigated whether and to what extent an English Language Voluntary Intensive Independent Catch-up Study (ELVIICS, a Self-Access Language Learning (SALL programme, was effective in helping first-year Greek-Cypriot students fill in the gaps in their English language learning and come closer to the required language competence level of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR B1 level. It also examined students’ perceptions of such learning. The students followed the ELVIICS at their own pace, time and space until they felt they had reached the aimed level. Analysis of the achievement test results revealed that students’ language competence improved and reached the required level. Additional quantitative data also revealed that students felt ELVIICS also helped them improve their self-confidence, computer skills and autonomous learning. Moreover, students claimed that ELVIICS assisted them in getting through and successfully completing their compulsory course.
Kang, Seung-Gul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju; Lim, Weonjeong; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Park, Young-Min; Cho, In Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo
The current study aims to determine the associations of insufficient sleep with suicide attempts and self-injury in a large, school-based Korean adolescent sample. A sample of 4553 middle- and high-school students (grades 7-10) was recruited in this study. Finally, 4145 students completed self-report questionnaires including items on sleep duration (weekday/weekend), self-injury, suicide attempts during the past year, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A multiple linear regression model showed that higher SIQ scores were associated with longer weekend catch-up sleep duration (p=0.009), higher BDI score (psleep duration (p=0.011), higher BDI score (psleep duration--which is an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep--might be associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents. © 2014.
Cristina Duran Fernandez-Feijoo
Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and rapid postnatal weight gain or catch up growth (CUG increase the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome during adult life. Longitudinal studies have also revealed a high incidence of learning difficulties in children with IUGR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrition and CUG on learning memory in an IUGR animal model. We hypothesized that synaptic protein expression and transcription, an essential mechanism for memory consolidation, might be affected by intrauterine undernutrition.IUGR was induced by 50% maternal caloric undernutrition throughout late gestation. During the suckling period, dams were either fed ad libitum or food restricted. The pups were divided into: Normal prenatal diet-Normal postnatal diet (NN, Restricted prenatal diet- Normal postnatal diet + catch up growth (RN+, Normal prenatal diet-Restricted postnatal diet (NR and Restricted prenatal diet-Restricted postnatal diet (RR. At 4 weeks of age, memory was assessed via a water maze test. To evaluate synaptic function, 2 specific synaptic proteins (postsynaptic density-95 [PSD95], synaptophysin as well as insulin receptors (IR were tested by Western Blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and serum insulin levels were also studied.The RN+ group presented a learning curve similar to the NN animals. The RR animals without CUG showed learning disabilities. PSD95 was lower in the RR group than in the NN and RN+ mice. In contrast, synaptophysin was similar in all groups. IR showed an inverse expression pattern to that of the PSD95. In conclusion, perinatal nutrition plays an important role in learning. CUG after a period of prenatal malnutrition seems to improve learning skills. The functional alterations observed might be related to lower PSD95 activity and a possible dysfunction in the hormone regulation of synaptic plasticity.
Wasniewska, Malgorzata; De Luca, Filippo; Bergamaschi, Rosalba; Guarneri, Maria Pia; Mazzanti, Laura; Matarazzo, Patrizia; Petri, Antonella; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Salzano, Giuseppina; Lombardo, Fortunato
In order to ascertain the advantages of early GH treatment in Turner syndrome (TS), we started a prospective study aimed at evaluating prepubertal height gain in a cohort of 29 girls who were treated with the same pro-kilo GH dose (1.0 IU/kg per week) since they were less than 6 years old and for at least 5 years before entering puberty. Following a minimum of 6 months of baseline observations, 29 girls with TS were enrolled for this prospective study provided that they (a) were less than 6 years old, (b) were below -1.0 standard deviation score (SDS) for height, (c) had a projected adult height (PAH) lower than the respective target height (TH) and (d) had a height velocity (HV) lower than -1.0 SDS. All the selected girls underwent a 5-year treatment with biosynthetic GH at a stable dose of 1.0 IU/kg per week and were periodically measured during the treatment period in order to evaluate height, HV and PAH. After a dramatic acceleration during the 1st year, HV was attenuated during the subsequent years, reaching its nadir at the 5th year. Height deficiency under therapy progressively decreased from entry onwards, shifting from -2.4+/-0.7 to -1.0+/-1.2 SDS. In the same period, mean PAH progressively increased, although after 5 years it remained lower than the average TH. (a) An effective growth-promoting strategy in TS should be based on early GH treatment, as suggested by our results. (b) This strategy could result in a prepubertal normalization of height, thus allowing the appropriate timing for the induction of puberty. (c) An initial GH dose of 1.0 IU/kg per week may be suitable during the first years of therapy, as shown by our data documenting an important waning effect of GH therapy only after the 4th year of treatment. (d) No acceleration of bone maturation was observed under this treatment regimen.
Full Text Available Background: Online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF is currently the most effective dialysis technique that also improves survival. To date, high permeability membranes with low albumin loss, such as polysulfone, polyamide and polyacrylonitrile membranes have been the most widely used. However, the initially restricted use of cellulose triacetate (CTA membranes in OL-HDF has expanded. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether the latest generation asymmetric CTA membranes are more effective in obtaining high convective transport. Patients and methods: A total of 16 patients (10 males and 6 females undergoing OL-HDF were studied. Each patient underwent 4 different sessions, with haemodialysis or OL-HDF, and/or with CTA or asymmetric CTA 1.9Â m2 membranes. Each session was assigned in a randomised order. Serum levels of urea, creatinine, Î²2-microglobulin, myoglobin, prolactin, Î±1-microglobulin, Î±1-acid glycoprotein and albumin where measured at the beginning and end of each session to obtain the reduction rate. The loss of solutes and albumin was quantified from the dialysate. Results: A significantly greater replacement volume in OL-HDF (32.1Â Â±Â 3.1 vs. 19.7Â Â±Â 4.5 l, pÂ <Â 0.001 was obtained by using asymmetrical CTA membranes compared to conventional CTA membranes. Regarding uraemic toxin removal, both membranes obtained similar results for small molecules, whereas asymmetric CTA membranes achieved better results for large molecules, increasing the reduction ratio by 29% for Î²2-microglobulin, 27.7% for myoglobin, 19.5% for prolactin, 49% for Î±1-microglobulin and double for Î±1-acid glycoprotein (pÂ <Â 0.01 in all situations. The loss of albumin was less than 2Â g for all treatment sessions. Conclusion: Latest-generation asymmetric CTA have proven to be effective in attaining OL-HDF objectives without increased albumin loss. Resumen: Antecedentes: La hemodiafiltraciÃ³n on-line (HDF-OL es actualmente
Reynolds, Gary; Dias, Cassandra; Thornley, Simon; King, Ronald; Morrison, Anne; Matson, Angela; Hoskins, Richard
To analyse the epidemiology, serology and vaccine effectiveness in a recent New Zealand measles outbreak that started in Auckland, from December, 2013 to June, 2014, to guide further preventive measures. Cases had a clinically compatible illness, which was either confirmed by PCR or serology, or were linked to a laboratory confirmed case. A total of 113 cases with 3,113 contacts were traced and managed in the Auckland region. Thirteen overseas acquired cases, produced a total of 98 locally acquired secondary cases, (plus two cases with unknown travel history). The majority of cases occurred in adolescents and young adults; 68/113 cases (60.1%) were aged 10 to 19 years. Among cases, 38.9% (44/113) were unimmunised, and 31.8% (36/113) had unknown immunisation status. A further 15.0% (17/113) of cases had received one or two doses of measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine. Of the contacts who underwent serological testing for immunity (n=735), the lowest levels of serological immunity were observed in people aged 10 to 24 years. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated for the 15-24 year age cohort at 92% (95%CI; 82-97). Results suggest that an adolescent catch-up immunisation programme would prevent further outbreaks of imported measles.
Gefenaite, Giedre; Smit, Marieke; Nijman, Hans W; Tami, Adriana; Drijfhout, Ingrid H; Pascal, Astrid; Postma, Maarten J; Wolters, Bert A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Wilschut, Jan C; Hak, Eelko
BACKGROUND: The Dutch Human Papillomavirus (HPV) catch-up vaccination program in 2009 appeared less successful than expected. We aimed to identify the most important determinants of refusing the vaccination. METHODS: Two thousand parents of girls born in 1996 targeted for HPV vaccination received an
Burger, Emily A.; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S.; Kim, Jane J.
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are ideally administered before HPV exposure; therefore, catch-up programs for girls past adolescence have not been readily funded. We evaluated the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a delayed, 1-year female catch-up vaccination program in Norway. Methods We calibrated a dynamic HPV transmission model to Norwegian data and projected the costs and benefits associated with 8 HPV-related conditions while varying the upper vaccination age limit to 20, 22, 24, or 26 years. We explored the impact of vaccine protection in women with prior vaccine-targeted HPV infections, vaccine cost, coverage, and natural- and vaccine-induced immunity. Results The incremental benefits and cost-effectiveness decreased as the upper age limit for catch-up increased. Assuming a vaccine cost of $150/dose, vaccination up to age 20 years remained below Norway's willingness-to-pay threshold (approximately $83 000/quality-adjusted life year gained); extension to age 22 years was cost-effective at a lower cost per dose ($50–$75). At high levels of vaccine protection in women with prior HPV exposure, vaccinating up to age 26 years was cost-effective. Results were stable with lower coverage. Conclusions HPV vaccination catch-up programs, 5 years after routine implementation, may be warranted; however, even at low vaccine cost per dose, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating beyond age 22 years remains uncertain. PMID:25057044
Masarwi, Majdi; Gabet, Yankel; Dolkart, Oleg; Brosh, Tamar; Shamir, Raanan; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the type of protein ingested influences the efficiency of catch-up (CU) growth and bone quality in fast-growing male rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were either fed ad libitum (controls) or subjected to 36 d of 40 % food restriction followed by 24 or 40 d of re-feeding with either standard rat chow or iso-energetic, iso-protein diets containing milk proteins - casein or whey. In terms of body weight, CU growth was incomplete in all study groups. Despite their similar food consumption, casein-re-fed rats had a significantly higher body weight and longer humerus than whey-re-fed rats in the long term. The height of the epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) in both casein and whey groups was greater than that of rats re-fed normal chow. Microcomputed tomography yielded significant differences in bone microstructure between the casein and whey groups, with the casein-re-fed animals having greater cortical thickness in both the short and long term in addition to a higher trabecular bone fraction in the short term, although this difference disappeared in the long term. Mechanical testing confirmed the greater bone strength in rats re-fed casein. Bone quality during CU growth significantly depends on the type of protein ingested. The higher EGP in the casein- and whey-re-fed rats suggests a better growth potential with milk-based diets. These results suggest that whey may lead to slower bone growth with reduced weight gain and, as such, may serve to circumvent long-term complications of CU growth.
Full Text Available Because the average students are the prevailing part of the student population, it is important but difficult for the educators to help average students by improving their learning efficiency and learning outcome in school tests. We conducted a quasi-experiment with two English classes taught by one teacher in the second term of the first year of a junior high school. The experimental class was composed of average students (N=37, while the control class comprised talented students (N=34. Therefore the two classes performed differently in English subject with mean difference of 13.48 that is statistically significant based on the independent sample T-Test analysis. We tailored the web-based intelligent English instruction system, called Computer Simulation in Educational Communication (CSIEC and featured with instant feedback, to the learning content in the experiment term, and the experimental class used it one school hour per week throughout the term. This blended learning setting with the focus on vocabulary and dialogue acquisition helped the students in the experimental class improve their learning performance gradually. The mean difference of the final test between the two classes was decreased to 3.78, while the mean difference of the test designed for the specially drilled vocabulary knowledge was decreased to 2.38 and was statistically not significant. The student interview and survey also demonstrated the students’ favor to the blended learning system. We conclude that the long-term integration of this content oriented blended learning system featured with instant feedback into ordinary class is an effective approach to assist the average students to catch up with the talented ones.
Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza los cambios morfométricos en el crecimiento postnatal de ratas RPC tratadas con GH. Ratas Wistar se dividieron en: Control (C, Sham-operado (Sh, RPC y RPC+GH. El RPC fue inducido por ligamiento de las arterias uterinas a los 14 días de gestación. La GH fue administrada desde los 21 hasta los 60 días de edad (Genotropin® 3.0 mg/kg/día. A los animales Sh se les inyectó sólo el diluyente. Los animales se radiografiaron a los 84 días de edad y se relevaron longitudes, anchos y alturas neurocraneana y esplacnocraneana y longitudes y anchos femoral, humeral y tibial, longitud de la columna y anchos pélvico inferior, medio y superior. Los datos fueron procesados mediante análisis de componentes principales (ACP y discriminante (AD. El primer componente del ACP mostró efecto tamaño y el segundo forma, separando los sexos y los tratamientos. Los valores de F del AD fueron altamente significativos. La primera función quedó definida por los anchos pélvico medio y superior y la longitud tibial, explicando el 66% de la varianza. La segunda por el ancho pélvico superior y longitud tibial, explicando un 18% más de la variación total. La longitud tibial discriminó entre sexos y el ancho pélvico superior entre tratamientos. El análisis separó a los RPC de los RPC+GH y agrupó a éstos últimos con los Sh. Se concluye que el tratamiento con GH en animales RPC permite el catch up en tamaño y forma corporal, siendo más efectivo en las hembras.
Burger, Emily A; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S; Kim, Jane J
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are ideally administered before HPV exposure; therefore, catch-up programs for girls past adolescence have not been readily funded. We evaluated the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a delayed, 1-year female catch-up vaccination program in Norway. We calibrated a dynamic HPV transmission model to Norwegian data and projected the costs and benefits associated with 8 HPV-related conditions while varying the upper vaccination age limit to 20, 22, 24, or 26 years. We explored the impact of vaccine protection in women with prior vaccine-targeted HPV infections, vaccine cost, coverage, and natural- and vaccine-induced immunity. The incremental benefits and cost-effectiveness decreased as the upper age limit for catch-up increased. Assuming a vaccine cost of $150/dose, vaccination up to age 20 years remained below Norway's willingness-to-pay threshold (approximately $83 000/quality-adjusted life year gained); extension to age 22 years was cost-effective at a lower cost per dose ($50-$75). At high levels of vaccine protection in women with prior HPV exposure, vaccinating up to age 26 years was cost-effective. Results were stable with lower coverage. HPV vaccination catch-up programs, 5 years after routine implementation, may be warranted; however, even at low vaccine cost per dose, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating beyond age 22 years remains uncertain. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Paula Bresciani M. De Andrade
Full Text Available Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3 which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3, and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2, (ii slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development.We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. Energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and likely contribute to catch-up fat.
De Andrade, Paula B M; Neff, Laurence A; Strosova, Miriam K; Arsenijevic, Denis; Patthey-Vuadens, Ophélie; Scapozza, Leonardo; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ruegg, Urs T; Dulloo, Abdul G; Dorchies, Olivier M
Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i) higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3), which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3), and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2), (ii) slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii) accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development. We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. These energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and contribute to catch-up fat.
Shahkhalili, Yasaman; Moulin, Julie; Zbinden, Irene; Aprikian, Olivier; Macé, Katherine
Two models of intrauterine growth restriction, maternal food restriction (FR), and dexamethasone (DEX) exposure were compared for early postnatal catch-up growth and later development of glucose intolerance and obesity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Mated dams were randomly divided into three groups at 10 days gestational age. Group FR was food restricted (50% of nongestating rats) during the last 11 days of gestation; Group DEX received DEX injections during the last week of gestation, and Group CON, the control group, had no intervention. Birth weight, catch-up growth, body weight, and food intake were measured in male offspring for 22 wk. Body composition, blood glucose, and plasma insulin in response to a glucose load were assessed at 8, 16, and 22 wk. Pups from both FR and DEX dams had similarly lower birth weights than CON (22% and 25%, P growth, which occurred during the suckling period, was much more rapid in FR than DEX offspring (6 vs. 25 days, 95% CI). Postweaning, there were no significant differences between groups in food intake, body weight, body fat, and plasma insulin, but baseline plasma glucose at 22 wk and 2-h glucose area-under-the-curve at 8 and 22 wk were greater only in FR vs. CON offspring (P restriction is a more sensitive model than DEX exposure for studies aimed at investigating the link between low birth weight, early postnatal catch-up growth, and later development of glucose intolerance.
Full Text Available Estonia is widely regarded as a paramount example for a successful transformation of a socialist economic system to a functioning market economy. Against the backdrop of this positive image which contrasts strongly with the crisis scenarios in Southern Europe the remaining problems of Estonia are often ignored. Estonia has hardly succeeded in catching-up economically with the richer countries of the EU. In this paper the authors raise the question why the catching-up process of Estonia is not as successful as it could have been expected from the policy performance during the last decades. It turns out that Estonia faces a serious productivity problem, particularly in the manufacturing sector producing tradable goods which is normally the driving engine behind economic and technological catching-up. The Estonian economy has failed to undergo the necessary structural change towards technologically more advanced employment structures and export patterns. Accordingly, Estonian economic policy needs to create a suitable business environment to support this kind of structural change.
Gutiérrez-Arzapalo, Perla Y; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; Ramiro-Cortijo, David; López de Pablo, Ángel L; López-Giménez, María Rosario; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis; Greenwald, Stephen E; González, Maria Del Carmen; Arribas, Silvia M
(MUN males = (1.51 ± 0.08) × 10 5 μm 2 , Control males = (2.8 ± 0.04) × 10 5 μm 2 ); during lactation MUN males and females exhibited catch-up growth and aortic hypertrophy (MUN males = (14.5 ± 0.5) × 10 5 μm 2 , Control males = (10.4 ± 0.9) × 10 5 μm 2 ), maintained until adulthood. MUN aortas were more compliant until weaning (functional stiffness: MUN males = 1.0 ± 0.04; Control males = 1.3 ± 0.03), containing less collagen with larger IEL fenestrae, returning to normal in adulthood. Purified elastin from young MUN offspring was more compliant in both sexes; only MUN adult females maintained larger elastin compliance (slope: MUN females = 24.1 ± 1.9; Control females = 33.3 ± 2.8). Fetal undernutrition induces deficient aortic development followed by hypertrophic remodelling and larger aortic compliance in the perinatal period, with similar alterations in collagen and elastin in both sexes. The observed alterations argue against an initial mechanical cause for sex differences in hypertension development. However, the maintenance of high elastin compliance in adult females might protect them against blood pressure rise. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.
Peters, Sanne A. E.; Bots, Michiel L.; Canaud, Bernard; Davenport, Andrew; Grooteman, Muriel P. C.; Kircelli, Fatih; Locatelli, Francesco; Maduell, Francisco; Morena, Marion; Nube, Menso J.; Ok, Ercan; Torres, Ferran; Woodward, Mark; Blankestijn, Peter J.
BACKGROUND: Mortality rates remain high for haemodialysis (HD) patients and simply increasing the HD dose to remove more small solutes does not improve survival. Online haemodiafiltration (HDF) provides additional clearance of larger toxins compared with standard HD. Randomized controlled trials
Choe, Young June; Eom, Hye-Eun; Cho, Sung-Il
Following the introduction of measles-rubella (MR) catch-up vaccination in 2001 and two dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR2) keep-up program in 2002, the incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella was not evaluated systematically. To describe the recent changes in epidemiology, a population-based incidence study from 2001 to 2015 using national notifiable disease surveillance data was conducted. Between 2001 and 2015, there was decrease in the incidence of measles and rubella, whereas a steady increase in mump incidence was noted. The age distribution of mumps cases has shifted to the older age group, whereas rubella became more frequent in younger age group. The incidence of mumps showed an increase in every birth cohorts, except for the decrease in incidence for catch-up vaccination cohort from 131 cases in 2007-2011 to 64 cases per 100 000 in 2012-2015. Continuing in monitoring of mumps and strengthening of the high two-dose MMR vaccination coverage should be taken place in Korea. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jesson, Julie; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Diagne, Ndeye R.; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Kouéta, Fla; Aka, Addi; Lawson-Evi, Koko; Dicko, Fatoumata; Kouakou, Kouadio; Pety, Touré; Renner, Lorna; Eboua, Tanoh; Coffie, Patrick A.; Desmonde, Sophie; Leroy, Valériane
Background We described malnutrition and the effect of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on catch-up growth over 24 months among HIV-infected children enrolled in the IeDEA West African paediatric cohort (pWADA). Methods Malnutrition was defined at ART initiation (baseline) by a Z-score malnutrition at ART initiation, ART regimen, time period and country, were compared by age at ART initiation. Cox proportional hazards regression models determined predictors of catch-up growth on ART over 24 months. Results Between 2001 and 2012, 2004 HIV-infected children Malnutrition among these children is an additional burden that has to be urgently managed. Despite a significant growth improvement after 24 months on ART, especially in children <5 years, a substantial proportion of children still never achieved catch-up growth. Nutritional care should be part of the global healthcare of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25955835
Full Text Available Amidst analyses of industrial policy’s renaissance in Latin America, Brazil is often hailed as the paragon of this movement. The mix of old and new institutions and instruments would constitute a unique effort in promoting industrial development in the post-neoliberal period. However, this experience has been followed by middling results of industrial performance. Reviewing an emerging literature about the institutionalization and results of the Brazilian industrial policy, we argue that important aspects of path-dependency have been ignored. Organizational and ideational resistance have led to a much more traditional and conservative industrial policy than would be expected. Grounded historical analysis about intra-government conflicts, combined with studies about policy and sectoral developments, could give us elements to better assess the failures and achievements of the Brazilian case. Resumen: Avances y retrocesos: Una evaluación de la política industrial brasileña en el siglo XXI A la luz de diversos análisis sobre el renacimiento de la política industrial en América Latina, Brasil es frecuentemente alabado como el país arquetipo de la mencionada coyuntura. La combinación de instituciones e instrumentos antiguos y modernos constituiría un singular esfuerzo para promover el desarrollo industrial en el periodo post-neoliberal. Sin embargo, la consecución de dicha experiencia fueron mediocres resultados de actividad industrial. Habiendo efectuado un examen de reciente literatura sobre la institucionalización y los resultados de la política industrial brasileña, sostenemos que, en dicho material, han sido ignorados importantes aspectos de la dependencia de la trayectoria (path-dependency. Resistencia organizativa y de formación de ideas han conducido a la implementación de una política industrial mucho más tradicional y conservadora de lo que se hubiera esperado. Un profundo análisis histórico acerca de conflictos
Painvin, C; Schlumberger, M; Chhem, Dy Bun; Savannarom, Dim; Phong, Phing; Gilberg, S
The impact of medical documentaries on attendance to immunization sessions is not documented in developing countries. The impact of a video and TV medical documentary on women's vaccination during a catch-up tetanus collective immunization was studied in Cambodia (2002-2004). A medical video documentary produced locally was publicly shown in 10 villages chosen at random among 63 villages to be covered by collective tetanus immunization. In each village where the video was shown, 33 women, older than age 11, were selected at random and questioned about their tetanus vaccination records, to assess if they attended the video and to evaluate their knowledge about tetanus. A second interview was conducted after the first collective vaccination to check their attendance and to record reasons for non-attendance. The same interview was conducted 10 months later, after the documentary was shown on a local TV channel and a second collective tetanus vaccination conducted. Data were collected from 323 (98%) women. Seventy-eight (24%) women saw the video documentary and only eight (2.4%) saw it on TV. Compared to farmers, shopkeepers saw significantly less the documentary (χ² of Yates: 5.77,P = 0.016; 95% CI: 0.10 Women of childbearing age with no school education were significantly more attracted by the video documentary (χ² of Yates: 5.99,P = 0.01; 95% CI: 1.10 women, although their final immunization coverage was not better. The documentary did not increase the knowledge that contamination for tetanus may come from earth and tools, but not from air and water, and that all ages are at-risk for tetanus, but it increased significantly the knowledge that vaccination can prevent the disease (χ² of Yates: 13.98;P = 0.0001; 95% CI: 1.28 Women who saw the video documentary attended the first collective session more often than those who did not (χ² of Yates: 11.00; P = 0.0006; 95% CI: 1.23 women more than 45 years of age. Women who saw the documentary either on video or on TV
Giapros, Vasileios; Vavva, Efthymia; Siomou, Ekaterini; Kolios, Georgios; Tsabouri, Sofia; Cholevas, Vasileios; Bairaktari, Eleni; Tzoufi, Meropi; Challa, Anna
To investigate the insulin resistance status in SGA infants at 12 months and its relationship with auxological and metabolic parameters. One group of 45 SGA and one of 50 appropriate for gestational age infants were followed from birth to the end of the first year of life. At 12 months, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and blood levels of glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, retinol-binding protein 4, IGFs, lipids profile were determined, and the HOMA-IR index was calculated. The SGAs had increased insulin (5.2 ± 2.7 versus 2.9 ± 2.4 μIU/ml, p = 0.012) and HOMA-IR (1.09 ± 0.9 versus 0.59 ± 0.55, p = 0.016). In multiple regression, insulin resistance indices were independently correlated with low-birth-weight (β = -2.92, p = 0.015 for insulin, β = -2.98, p = 0.011 for HOMA-IR) but not with catch-up growth in either height or weight or any other metabolic parameter. Resistin was higher in the SGAs (5.1 ± 2.1 versus 3.9 ± 2.1 ng/ml, p = 0.03) and independently correlated with low-birth-weight but not insulin resistance. Resistin was negatively correlated with total cholesterol (R = -0.33, p = 0.007) and positively with lipoprotein(a) (R = 0.49, p = 0.001). Low-birth-weight, but not catch-up growth or adiposity tissue hormones, was correlated with insulin resistance at 12 months in non-obese SGA infants. The higher resistin in SGA infants and its correlation with total cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) need further clarification.
Arya, Bikas K; Bhattacharya, Sangeeta Das; Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Saha, Malay K; Bhattacharyya, Subhasish; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Moss, William J; Panda, Samiran; Das, Ranjan Saurav; Mallick, Mausom; Mandal, Sutapa
Children living with HIV are at increased risk of disease from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Data are limited on the immunogenicity of a two-dose, catch-up schedule for Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) among HIV-infected children accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) late. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate baseline immunity to Hib and the immunogenicity and safety of two doses of HibCV among HIV-infected Indian children; and (2) document the threshold antibody level required to prevent Hib colonization among HIV-infected children following immunization. We conducted a prospective cohort study among HIV-infected children 2-15 years of age and HIV-uninfected children 2-5 years of age. HIV-infected children received two doses of HibCV and uninfected children received one. Serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies were measured at baseline and two months after immunization in the HIV-infected children. Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected at baseline and follow-up. 125 HIV-infected and 44 uninfected children participated. 40% of HIV-infected children were receiving ART and 26% had a viral load >100,000 copies/mL. The geometric mean concentration of serum anti-Hib PRP antibody increased from 0.25 μg/mL at baseline to 2.65 μg/mL after two doses of HibCV, representing a 10.6-fold increase (pchildren mounted an immune response. Moderate or severe immune suppression, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis, and lower baseline antibody levels were associated with lower post-vaccine serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies. A serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibody level ≥ 3.3 μg/mL was protective against Hib NP colonization. There were no differences in adverse events between HIV-infected and uninfected children. Including a catch-up immunization schedule for older HIV infected children in countries introducing Hib vaccines is important. Older HIV-infected children with delayed access to ART and without suppressed viral loads mounted an adequate immune response
Groeber, F; Schober, L; Schmid, F F; Traube, A; Kolbus-Hernandez, S; Daton, K; Hoffmann, S; Petersohn, D; Schäfer-Korting, M; Walles, H; Mewes, K R
To replace the Draize skin irritation assay (OECD guideline 404) several test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) have been developed and were adopted in the OECD test guideline 439. However, all validated test methods in the guideline are linked to RHE provided by only three companies. Thus, the availability of these test models is dependent on the commercial interest of the producer. To overcome this limitation and thus to increase the accessibility of in vitro skin irritation testing, an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) was introduced. To demonstrate the capacity of the OS-REp in regulatory risk assessment, a catch-up validation study was performed. The participating laboratories used in-house generated OS-REp to assess the set of 20 reference substances according to the performance standards amending the OECD test guideline 439. Testing was performed under blinded conditions. The within-laboratory reproducibility of 87% and the inter-laboratory reproducibility of 85% prove a high reliability of irritancy testing using the OS-REp protocol. In addition, the prediction capacity was with an accuracy of 80% comparable to previous published RHE based test protocols. Taken together the results indicate that the OS-REp test method can be used as a standalone alternative skin irritation test replacing the OECD test guideline 404. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Maduell, Francisco; Ojeda, Raquel; Arias-Guillen, Marta; Rossi, Florencia; Fontseré, Néstor; Vera, Manel; Rico, Nayra; Gonzalez, Leonardo Nicolás; Piñeiro, Gastón; Jiménez-Hernández, Mario; Rodas, Lida; Bedini, José Luis
New haemodialysis therapeutic regimens are required to improve patient survival. Longer and more frequent dialysis sessions have produced excellent survival and clinical advantages, while online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) provides the most efficient form of dialysis treatment. In this single-centre observational study, 57 patients on 4-5-hour thrice-weekly OL-HDF were switched to nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF. Inclusion criteria consisted of stable patients with good prospects for improved occupational, psychological and social rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to report our 8-year experience with this schedule and to evaluate analytical and clinical outcomes. Nocturnal, every-other-day OL-HDF was well tolerated and 56% of patients were working. The convective volume increased from 26.7 ± 2 litres at baseline to 46.6 ± 6.5 litres at 24 months (p every-other-day OL-HDF could be an excellent therapeutic alternative since it is well tolerated and leads to clinical and social-occupational rehabilitation with satisfactory morbidity and mortality. These encouraging results strengthen us to continue and invite other clinicians to join this initiative. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Background. Citrate has anticoagulative properties and favorable effects on inflammation, but it has the potential hazards of inducing hypocalcemia. Bicarbonate dialysate (BHD replacing citrate for acetate is now used in chronic haemodialysis but has never been tested in postdilution online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF. Methods. Thirteen chronic stable dialysis patients were enrolled in a pilot, short-term study. Patients underwent one week (3 dialysis sessions of BHD with 0.8 mmol/L citrate dialysate, followed by one week of postdilution high volume OL-HDF with standard bicarbonate dialysate, and one week of high volume OL-HDF with 0.8 mmol/L citrate dialysate. Results. In citrate OL-HDF pretreatment plasma levels of C-reactive protein and β2-microglobulin were significantly reduced; intra-treatment plasma acetate levels increased in the former technique and decreased in the latter. During both citrate techniques (OL-HDF and HD ionized calcium levels remained stable within the normal range. Conclusions. Should our promising results be confirmed in a long-term study on a wider population, then OL-HDF with citrate dialysate may represent a further step in improving dialysis biocompatibility.
Jesson, Julie; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Diagne, Ndeye R
BACKGROUND: We described malnutrition and the effect of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on catch-up growth over 24 months among HIV-infected children enrolled in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate Aids West African paediatric cohort. METHODS: Malnutrition...
Catch-up stereotactic reirradiation and cetuximab for the inoperable recurrences of head and neck cancers; Reirradiation stereotaxique de rattrapage et cetuximab pour les recidives inoperables de cancers de la tete et du cou
Comet, B.; Faivre-Pierret, M.; Dewas, S.; Coche-Dequeant, B.; Degardin, M.; Lefebvre, J.L.; Lacornerie, T.; Lartigau, E. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, 59 - Lille, (France)
The preliminary results show the efficiency of the stereotactic hypo fractionated reirradiation with or without cetuximab in catch-up situation. This curative intent treatment is possible with acceptable rate of acute toxicity and a response rate very promising. A longer follow-up is necessary to evaluate the delayed toxicity and the survival without recurrence. (N.C.)
Ragan, Kathleen R; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Butler, Scott M; Omer, Saad B
Suboptimal adolescent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates in the US highlight the need for catch-up vaccination. When teenagers enter college, there may be a shift in healthcare decision-making from parents and guardians to the students themselves. Little is known about factors influencing college students' healthcare decision-making processes. We evaluated HPV vaccine decision-making among 18-to-26-year-old college students through a self-administered, anonymous, cross-sectional survey. This survey was distributed to a sample of men and women in classroom settings at two universities. Categorical data comparisons were conducted using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to model initiation of HPV vaccine and compute prevalence ratios while controlling for key influential covariates at the 0.05 alpha level. A total of 527 students participated (response proportion=93.1%). Overall, 55.8% of participants received the HPV vaccine. Encouraging conversations with doctors and/or parents/guardians were identified as one of the most influential factors to increase vaccine uptake. Among students who received encouragement from both a doctor and parent, 95.8% received the vaccine. Campaigns about cancer prevention were viewed as more influential than those that focus on preventing genital warts. Approximately one-third of students indicated they didn't know where to get the HPV vaccine. Women were more likely to report that their parents would not let them get the HPV vaccine compared to men (26.7% vs. 2.3%). The majority of students (77.3%) indicated their parents were sometimes, equally, or mostly involved in making decisions about receiving vaccines (other than flu). Students' decision-making is greatly influenced by their parents; therefore, interventions for this population should work to increase students' control over decision-making while also addressing parental concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dutch Human Papillomavirus (HPV catch-up vaccination program in 2009 appeared less successful than expected. We aimed to identify the most important determinants of refusing the vaccination. Methods Two thousand parents of girls born in 1996 targeted for HPV vaccination received an invitation letter to participate in a questionnaire study. Two study groups were defined: the first group consisted of parents of girls who had accepted the vaccine and already received the first dose of HPV vaccination. The second group consisted of parents whose daughters were not vaccinated. The questionnaire consisted of a broad spectrum of possible determinants that were revealed after literature search and discussions with the stakeholders. Results Four hundred sixty nine questionnaires (24% were returned, 307 (31% from those who accepted and 162 (16% from those who declined the vaccine. The decision not to accept the vaccine was largely determined by: (i perception that the information provided by the government about the vaccine was limited or biased (OR 13.27; (ii limited trust, that the government would stop the vaccination program if there were serious side effects (OR 9.95; (iii lack of knowledge about the effectiveness of the vaccine (OR 7.67; (iv concerns about the side effects of the vaccine (OR 4.94; (v lack of conviction that HPV can be extremely harmful (OR 3.78; (vi perception that the government is strongly influenced by vaccine producers (OR 3.54; and (vii religious convictions (OR 2.18. Conclusions This study revealed several determinants for HPV vaccination uptake after implementation of the HPV vaccine for adolescent girls. These determinants should be taken into consideration in order to successfully implement HPV vaccination into National Immunization Programs.
Gefenaite, Giedre; Smit, Marieke; Nijman, Hans W; Tami, Adriana; Drijfhout, Ingrid H; Pascal, Astrid; Postma, Maarten J; Wolters, Bert A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Wilschut, Jan C; Hak, Eelko
The Dutch Human Papillomavirus (HPV) catch-up vaccination program in 2009 appeared less successful than expected. We aimed to identify the most important determinants of refusing the vaccination. Two thousand parents of girls born in 1996 targeted for HPV vaccination received an invitation letter to participate in a questionnaire study. Two study groups were defined: the first group consisted of parents of girls who had accepted the vaccine and already received the first dose of HPV vaccination. The second group consisted of parents whose daughters were not vaccinated. The questionnaire consisted of a broad spectrum of possible determinants that were revealed after literature search and discussions with the stakeholders. Four hundred sixty nine questionnaires (24%) were returned, 307 (31%) from those who accepted and 162 (16%) from those who declined the vaccine. The decision not to accept the vaccine was largely determined by: (i) perception that the information provided by the government about the vaccine was limited or biased (OR 13.27); (ii) limited trust, that the government would stop the vaccination program if there were serious side effects (OR 9.95); (iii) lack of knowledge about the effectiveness of the vaccine (OR 7.67); (iv) concerns about the side effects of the vaccine (OR 4.94); (v) lack of conviction that HPV can be extremely harmful (OR 3.78); (vi) perception that the government is strongly influenced by vaccine producers (OR 3.54); and (vii) religious convictions (OR 2.18). This study revealed several determinants for HPV vaccination uptake after implementation of the HPV vaccine for adolescent girls. These determinants should be taken into consideration in order to successfully implement HPV vaccination into National Immunization Programs.
Hill, Kathleen E; Kim, Susan; Crail, Susan; Elias, Tony J; Whittington, Tiffany
Haemodiafiltration (HDF) has been widely studied for evidence of superior outcomes in comparison with conventional haemodialysis (HD), and there is increasing interest in determining if HDF confers any benefit in relation to quality of life. Studies have been conducted with randomized incident patients; however, little is known regarding HDF and quality of life for prevalent patients. This study examined and compared self-reported quality of life at two time points, 12 months apart in a cohort of satellite HD and HDF patients, using a disease specific questionnaire to determine if HDF conferred an advantage. A longitudinal study with a linear mixed-effect model measuring quality of life in a cohort of 171 patients (HD, n = 85, HDF, n = 86) in seven South Australian satellite dialysis centres. Factors associated with significant reduction across the Kidney Disease Quality Of Life™ domains measured were younger age (- 20 to - 29) and comorbid diabetes (- 4.8 to - 11.1). HDF was not associated with moderation of this reduction at either time point (P > 0.05). Baseline physical functioning was reported as very low (median 33.9) and further reduced at time point two. In addition, dialysing for more than 12 h per week in a satellite dialysis unit was associated with reduced quality of life in relation to the burden of kidney disease (- 13.69). This study has demonstrated that younger age and comorbid diabetes were responsible for a statistically significant reduction in quality of life, and HDF did not confer any advantage. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
Jørgensen, Morten B; Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have increased fasting concentrations and disturbed postprandial responses of several glucoregulatory hormones. We aimed to evaluate the impact of high-flux haemodialysis (HD) and high-volume haemodiafiltration (HDF) on fasting and postpran......BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have increased fasting concentrations and disturbed postprandial responses of several glucoregulatory hormones. We aimed to evaluate the impact of high-flux haemodialysis (HD) and high-volume haemodiafiltration (HDF) on fasting...... and postprandial plasma levels of glucoregulatory pancreatic and gut peptide hormones in ESRD patients. METHODS: Ten non-diabetic HD-treated ESRD patients were included to undergo a 3-h standardized liquid mixed meal test 1 h into an HD and an HDF, respectively. On a third, optional, examination day, the meal test...... during HDF and four completed the optional meal test without dialysis. All plasma hormone concentrations declined significantly during the first fasting hour of dialysis with no differences between HD and HDF. Significant clearance of the investigated hormones was observed for both dialysis modalities...
Maduell, Francisco; Arias, Marta; Durán, Carlos E; Vera, Manel; Fontseré, Néstor; Azqueta, Manel; Rico, Nayra; Pérez, Nuria; Sentis, Alexis; Elena, Montserrat; Rodriguez, Néstor; Arcal, Carola; Bergadá, Eduardo; Cases, Aleix; Bedini, Jose Luis; Campistol, Josep M
Longer and more frequent dialysis sessions have demonstrated excellent survival and clinical advantages, while online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) provides the most efficient form of dialysis treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of a longer (nocturnal) and more frequent (every-other-day) dialysis schedule with OL-HDF at the same or the highest convective volume. This prospective, in-centre crossover study was carried out in 26 patients, 18 males and 8 females, 49.2±14 years old, on 4-5 h thrice-weekly post-dilution OL-HDF, switched to nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF. Patient inclusion criteria consisted of stable patients with good vascular access and with good prospects for improved occupational, psychological and social rehabilitation. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups: Group A received the same convective volume as previously for 6 months followed by a higher convective volume for a further 6 months, while Group B received the same schedule in reverse order. Nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF was well tolerated and 56% of patients who were working during the baseline period continued to work throughout the study with practically no absenteeism. The convective volume was 26.7±2 L at baseline, 27.5±2 with the unchanged volume and 42.9±4 L with the higher volume. eKt/V increased from 1.75±0.4 to 3.37±0.9. Bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine values decreased, while phosphate levels fell markedly with a 90% reduction in phosphate binders. Blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) improved and the use of anti-hypertensive drugs decreased. In both groups, BUN, creatinine and β2-microglobulin reduction ratios improved. Different removal patterns were observed for myoglobin, prolactin and α1-acid glycoprotein. Nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF could be an excellent therapeutic alternative since good tolerance and occupational rehabilitation, marked improvement in dialysis dose
Spooner, Almath M
Abstract Background The study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and the adequacy of 400 mg every 12 hours in critically ill Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients on continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) with particular reference to the effect of achieved flow rates on drug clearance. Methods This was an open prospective study conducted in the intensive care unit and research unit of a university teaching hospital. The study population was seven critically ill patients with sepsis requiring CVVHDF. Blood and ultrafiltrate samples were collected and assayed for ciprofloxacin by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to calculate the model independent pharmacokinetic parameters; total body clearance (TBC), half-life (t1\\/2) and volume of distribution (Vd). CVVHDF was performed at prescribed dialysate rates of 1 or 2 L\\/hr and ultrafiltration rate of 2 L\\/hr. The blood flow rate was 200 ml\\/min, achieved using a Gambro blood pump and Hospal AN69HF haemofilter. Results Seventeen profiles were obtained. CVVHDF resulted in a median ciprofloxacin t1\\/2 of 13.8 (range 5.15-39.4) hr, median TBC of 9.90 (range 3.10-13.2) L\\/hr, a median Vdss of 125 (range 79.5-554) L, a CVVHDF clearance of 2.47+\\/-0.29 L\\/hr and a clearance of creatinine (Clcr) of 2.66+\\/-0.25 L\\/hr. Thus CVVHDF, at an average flow rate of ~3.5 L\\/hr, was responsible for removing 26% of ciprofloxacin cleared. At the dose rate of 400 mg every 12 hr, the median estimated Cpmax\\/MIC and AUC0-24\\/MIC ratios were 10.3 and 161 respectively (for a MIC of 0.5 mg\\/L) and exceed the proposed criteria of >10 for Cpmax\\/MIC and > 100 for AUC0-24\\/MIC. There was a suggestion towards increased ciprofloxacin clearance by CVVHDF with increasing effluent flow rate. Conclusions Given the growing microbial resistance to ciprofloxacin our results suggest that a dose rate of 400 mg every 12 hr, may be necessary to achieve the desired pharmacokinetic
Kandouz, Sakina; Mohamed, Ali Shendi; Zheng, Yishan; Sandeman, Susan; Davenport, Andrew
Introduction Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p cresyl sulfate (PCS) are protein bound toxins which accumulate with chronic kidney disease. Haemodiafiltration (HDF) increases middle molecule clearances and has been suggested to increase IS and PCS clearance. We therefore wished to establish whether higher convective clearances with HDF would reduce IS and PCS concentrations. Methods We measured total plasma IS and PCS in a cohort of 138 CKD5d patients treated by On-line HDF (Ol-HDF), by high pressure liquid chromatography. Findings Mean patient age was 64.6 ± 16.5 years, 60.1% male, 57.3% diabetic, median dialysis vintage 25.9 months (12.4-62.0). The mean ICS concentration was 79.8 ± 56.4 umol/L and PCS 140.3 ± 101.8 umol/L. On multivariate analysis, IS was associated with serum albumin (β 4.31,P vegetarian diet(β-28.3, P = 0.048) and PCS negatively with log C reactive protein (β-75.8, P vegetarian diet (β-109, P = 0.001). Vegetarian patients had lower IS and PCS levels (median 41.5 (24.2-71.9) vs. 78.1 (49.5-107.5) and PCS (41.6 (14.2-178.3) vs. 127.3 (77.4-205.6) µmol/L, respectively, P Vegetarian patients had lower preOl-HDF serum urea, and phosphate (13.8 ±3.8 vs. 18.4 ± 5.2 mmol/L, and 1.33 ± 0.21 vs. 1.58 ± 0.45 mmol/L), and estimated urea nitrogen intake (1.25 ± 0.28 vs. 1.62 ± 0.5 g/kg/day), respectively, all P vegetarian diet had reduced IS and PCS concentrations. Although this could be due to differences in dietary protein intake, a vegetarian diet may also potentially reduce IS and PCS production by the intestinal microbiome. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.
Martinón-Torres, Federico; Safadi, Marco Aurelio P; Martinez, Alfonso Carmona; Marquez, Pilar Infante; Torres, Juan Carlos Tejedor; Weckx, Lily Yin; Moreira, Edson Duarte; Mensi, Ilhem; Calabresi, Marco; Toneatto, Daniela
This study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a licensed meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) administered alone according to reduced schedules in infants or catch-up series in children. In this open-label, multicentre, phase 3b study (NCT01339923), infants randomised 1:1:1 received 4CMenB: 2+1 doses at 3½-5-11months or 6-8-11months of age, 3+1 doses at ages 2½-3½-5-11months. Children aged 2-10years received 2 catch-up doses administered 2months apart. Immune responses were measured by hSBA assays against 4 strains specific for vaccine components fHbp, NadA, PorA and NHBA. Sufficiency of immune responses was defined in groups with 2+1 doses schedules as a lower limit ≥70% for the 97.5% confidence interval of the percentage of infants with hSBA titres ≥4, 1month post-dose 2 for fHbp, NadA, PorA. Adverse events were collected for 7days post-vaccination; serious adverse events (SAEs) throughout the study. 754 infants and 404 children were enrolled. Post-primary vaccination, 98-100% of infants across all groups developed hSBA titres ≥4 for fHbp, NadA, PorA, and 48-77% for NHBA. Sufficiency of immune responses in infants receiving 2+1 schedules was demonstrated for fHbp, NadA, PorA after 2 doses of 4CMenB, as pre-specified criteria were met. Following receipt of 2 catch-up doses, 95-99% of children developed hSBA titres ≥4 for 4CMenB components. Similar safety profiles were observed across groups. A total of 45 SAEs were reported, 3 of which were related to vaccination. Reduced infant schedules and catch-up series in children were immunogenic and safe, having the potential to widen 4CMenB vaccine coverage. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Boccalini, Sara; Azzari, Chiara; Resti, Massimo; Valleriani, Claudia; Cortimiglia, Martina; Tiscione, Emilia; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo
A new 13-valent conjugated polysaccharide vaccine (PCV13) against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, which replaced the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) in the regional immunization programmes for newborns and children who started but not completed the 3 doses schedule of PCV7, is available in Italy since 2010. The opportunity of administering a further dose of PCV13 to children under 5 years of age who had already completed their vaccination with PCV7, with the aim of extending the serotype coverage, triggered an animated scientific debate. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical/economic evaluation of the administration of a dose of PCV13, in a catch-up programme, for children under 5 years of age, who had already received 3 doses of PCV7. A mathematical model of the clinical/economic impact of the adoption of 4 catch-up strategies with PCV13 (children up to 24, 36, 48 and 60 months old) was set up, with a vaccination coverage of 80%, versus immunization with 3 doses of PCV7 without the catch-up programme. The time span covered by the simulation was 5.5 years. The following clinical outcomes of infection were evaluated: hospitalised meningitis/sepsis, hospitalised bacteraemic pneumonias (complicated and uncomplicated), hospitalised non-bacteraemic pneumonias, and non-hospitalised pneumonias. The administration of one dose of PCV13 to children up to 60 months of age significantly reduces the number of cases of pneumococcal diseases (especially, non-hospitalised pneumonias, 80% of all events prevented, and hospitalised cases of non-bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonias, 15% of all events prevented) and, subsequently, the relative cost for medical treatment. This results in savings for medical costs amounting to more than 1,000,000 Euros when vaccinating children under 24 months of age (up to almost 3 million Euros for children up to 60 months). More than half of those savings are attributable to avoided hospitalised cases of non-bacteraemic pneumococcal
Y. Zhang (Ying); S.Y. Yang (Sheng Yun)
textabstractChery Automobile is a top Chinese car exporter. Due to the global financial crisis, intense competition, and fast technological change, Chery has seen decreasing sales domestically and diminishing opportunities abroad. The carmaker needs to figure out the next stage of strategic
Lorenzen, Mark; Mudambi, Ram
In this article, we make two important contributions to the literature on clusters. First, we provide a broader theory of cluster connectivity that has hitherto focused on organization-based pipelines and MNE subsidiaries, by including linkages in the form of personal relationships. Second, we us...... by contrasting two emerging economy case studies: Bollywood, the Indian filmed entertainment cluster in Mumbai and the Indian software cluster in Bangalore....
Akoglu, Hadim; Dede, Fatih; Piskinpasa, Serhan; Falay, Mesude Y; Odabas, Ali Riza
We aimed to evaluate the impact of low- or high-flux haemodialysis (HD) and online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) on inflammation and the lipid profile in HD patients. 50 HD patients were assigned to two groups for HD with low-flux (n = 25) or high-flux (n = 25) polysulphone dialysers for 6 weeks. Subsequently, all patients were haemodialysed with a low-flux polysulphone dialyser for 6 weeks, then transferred to OL-HDF for another 6 weeks. Blood samples for lipids and inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hs-CRP) were obtained at baseline and every 6 weeks. Changes in inflammatory markers and lipids from baseline to the 6-week dialysis period did not differ between low- and high-flux groups. When patients were transferred from low-flux HD to OL-HDF, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels significantly decreased whereas HDL and LDL cholesterol significantly increased. Low- and high-flux polysulphone membranes had similar effects on lipids and inflammatory markers, whereas OL-HDF potently reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Viglio, Simona; Stolk, Jan; Iadarola, Paolo; Giuliano, Serena; Luisetti, Maurizio; Salvini, Roberta; Fumagalli, Marco; Bardoni, Anna
To improve the knowledge on a variety of severe disorders, research has moved from the analysis of individual proteins to the investigation of all proteins expressed by a tissue/organism. This global proteomic approach could prove very useful: (i) for investigating the biochemical pathways involved in disease; (ii) for generating hypotheses; or (iii) as a tool for the identification of proteins differentially expressed in response to the disease state. Proteomics has not been used yet in the field of respiratory research as extensively as in other fields, only a few reproducible and clinically applicable molecular markers, which can assist in diagnosis, having been currently identified. The continuous advances in both instrumentation and methodology, which enable sensitive and quantitative proteomic analyses in much smaller amounts of biological material than before, will hopefully promote the identification of new candidate biomarkers in this area. The aim of this report is to critically review the application over the decade 2004-2013 of very sophisticated technologies to the study of respiratory disorders. The observed changes in protein expression profiles from tissues/fluids of patients affected by pulmonary disorders opens the route for the identification of novel pathological mediators of these disorders.
This goes along with an important flow of foreign capital pouring in the region where .... among sectors in market economies, to the low rate of innovation, to ..... property rights, protection of intellectual property rights) does host ... Public Sector.
Research Directorate, Department of Basic Education, Pretoria, South Africa ..... one high-performing school with an inspiring principal in the sample .... bers) and coaches' salaries. We also ...... Executive Summary & Report Summary) for the.
Davis, Robyn; Davis, Joshua; Berg, Katherine; Berg, Dale; Morgan, Charity J; Russo, Stefani; Riesenberg, Lee Ann
Communication errors during shift-to-shift handoffs are a leading cause of preventable adverse events. Nevertheless, handoff skills are variably taught at medical schools. The authors administered questionnaires on handoffs to interns during orientation. Questions focused on medical school handoff education, experiences, and perceptions. The majority (546/718) reported having some form of education on handoffs during medical school, with 48% indicating this was 1 hour or less. Most respondents (98%) reported that they believe patients experience adverse events because of inadequate handoffs, and more than one third had witnessed a patient safety issue. Results show that medical school graduates are not receiving adequate handoff training. Yet graduates are expected to conduct safe patient handoffs at the start of residency. Given that ineffective handoffs pose a significant patient safety risk, medical school graduates should have a baseline competency in handoff skills. This will require medical schools to develop, implement, and study handoff education.
With limited resources available to us, it is crucial that we understand what research tells us about ... teachers how to use a comprehension instructional ... two English Home Language Grade Five classes .... advantages and disadvantages.
Welding onto a pipeline after it has been put into service, a practice commonly referred to as hot tap welding, is frequently required for several reasons. Repair sleeves are installed to reinforce areas of corrosion or mechanical damage, and branch connections are made for system modifications. There are often significant economic incentives to perform this welding without removing the system from service. Operations are maintained during welding and the pipe's contents are not vented into the atmosphere. Due to technological advances in in-service welding, industry needed an update to standards and recommended practices. This year, the American Petroleum Institute (API) hopes to meet that need. The 19th edition of API Standard 1104--Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities, includes a new appendix that pertains to in-service welding. Appendix B, In-Service Welding, is intended to eventually replace API Recommended Practice 1107--Pipeline Maintenance Welding Practices. API 1107, which was introduced in 1966 and updated in 1987 and 1991, is intended to provide recommended practices for pipeline maintenance welding. The current third edition approached its mandatory five-year review in 1996 by the API-AGA Joint Committee on Oil and Gas Pipeline Field Welding Practices, which also maintains API 1104. The committee saw 11078 needed to reflect the updates that had been made to 1104 as well as the technological advances for in-service welding. To alleviate redundancy between the two documents, and to alleviate lag time between updates, the committee approved a proposal to update and incorporate requirements of API 1107 into an appendix of API 1104. In the meantime, the third edition of API 1107 was reapproved for another five-year review cycle.
The rapid development of information technology in the past decade has enabled the introduction of a number of new communication tools and platforms in everyday life, such as instant messaging, podcasting, blogging and social networking. These tools offer people new ways of interacting, enabling
Kruse, Andrew W.; Alenin, Andrey S.; Vaughn, Israel J.; Tyo, J. Scott
Current visualization techniques for mapping polarization data to a color coordinates defined by the Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) color representation are analyzed in the context of perceptual uniformity. Since HSV is not designed to be perceptually uniform, the extent of non-uniformity should be evaluated by using robust color difference formulae and by comparison to the state-of-the-art uniform color space CAM02-UCS. For mapping just angle of polarization with HSV hue, the results show clear non-uniformity and implications for how this can misrepresent the data. UCS can be used to create alternative mapping techniques that are perceptually uniform. Implementing variation in lightness may increase shape discrimination within the scene. Future work will be dedicated to measuring performance of both current and proposed methods using psychophysical analysis.
South African Journal of Education, Volume 37, Number 1, February 2017 ... policy maker to know the average impact on the population as a whole, and perhaps also the ... based on a sufficiently large and representative sample from the targeted ... the article begins with an analysis of two published studies of intermediate ...
Hemodiafiltración en línea pre-dilucional, frente a post-dilucional: estudio comparativo de eficacia dialítica y tolerancia hemodinámica Pre-dilution versus post-dilution on-line haemodiafiltration: a comparative study of dialytic efficacy and haemodynamic tolerance
Raquel Menezo Viadero
-dilucional en relación a los parámetros estudiados siempre que no se tenga en cuenta la problemática de los accesos vasculares. Con dicha técnica logramos mejores resultados de KT precisando la mitad de volumen de sustitución, con el consiguiente ahorro de agua ultrapura. La hemodiafiltración pre-dilucional puede ser una alternativa para aquellos pacientes que no se consiga un flujo arterial alto.On-line haemodiafiltration is a dialysis technique which combines the advantages of high-flow haemodialysis (diffusive transport and haemofiltration (convective transport. This technique allows different alternatives depending on how the reinfusion liquid is added: pre-dilution (before the dialyser and post-dilution (after the dialyser, each of them having advantages and disadvantages. The object of this study was to compare different dialytic and haemodynamic parameters in the pre- and post-dilution haemodiafiltration modes. A transversal prospective study was conducted of a population in dialysis already being treated with on-line haemodiafiltration, using each of the modes (pre- and post-dilution with them for 4 weeks. The following values were recorded: systolic and diastolic arterial pressure and cardiac frequency pre- and post-session, blood flow, venous pressure, volume of blood dialysed and replacement volume. Dialysis dosage was measured by means of ionic dialysance. 26 patients were studied: 30% women and 70% men, with an average age of 61±13 years. The average time under renal replacement treatment was 117±124.45 months, and the average time in haemodialysis was 50±54.38 months. The haemodynamic parameters showed no significant differences between the two modes studied (pre- and post-dilution. A statistically significant higher value for KT was obtained for the post-dilution haemodiafiltration technique, requiring half the replacement volume of the pre-dilution mode. Conclusions: The on-line haemodiafiltration technique is tolerated well in both infusion modes. With
Two decades on from the abolition of the binary divide in higher education in Australia, what has happened to the relative research performance of institutions that started from quite diverse positions? We use two databases, Thomson Reuters ISI and Scopus, to measure growth rates in research output. We find that there has been some convergence in…
The South African State is mandated by Sections 28(2) and 29(1) of the South African Constitution to make provision for the education of a South African child in fulfilment of the child's constitutional rights. Teacher Unions (TUs) and provincial Departments of Basic Education (DBEs) have often promised South African high school student body, in…
Heyward, Candace B.
Examines the 15-year transformation in gender values at a Canadian independent school for girls and their effect on the students and the school structures. Gender-stereotyped, outside-world realities are still influencing the school environment and students' thinking. The author believes single-sex schools for girls are an important antidote to…
Malbergier, André; Cardoso, Luciana Roberta Donola; Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes do; Santos, Verena Castellani Vitor
To evaluate the association between gender and use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in adolescents aged 10 to 18 years in the municipalities of Jacareí and Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 971 adolescents completed the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). In our sample, 55% of adolescents were male, 33.8% reported having made use in the previous month of alcohol, 13.5% of cigarettes, and 6.4% of illicit drugs. There was no significant difference between genders in the use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs in any of the analysis (p > 0.05). The use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs was associated with the city, age, educational level, school failure, and relationship with parents (p genders. This result should be taken into account by public health professionals in developing policies for this problem.
Timothy Kehoe; Felipe Meza
In 1950 Mexico entered an economic takeoff and grew rapidly for more than 30 years. Growth stopped during the crises of 1982-1995, despite major reforms, including liberalization of foreign trade and investment. Since then growth has been modest. We analyze the economic history of Mexico 1877-2010. We conclude that the growth 1950-1981 was driven by urbanization, industrialization, and education and that Mexico would have grown even more rapidly if trade and investment had been liberalized so...
DAMEN, GM; WIT, JM; HEYMANS, HSA
The growth pattern of 28 girls and 32 boys with celiac disease was analyzed up to the ages of 10 and 12 years, respectively. Fifty-four patients (90%) were diagnosed before 4 years of age and six patients (10%) between 5 and 9 years of age. At diagnosis, 18 of 60 patients (30%) had a height SD score
Duysters, G.M.; Jacob, J.; Lemmens, C.E.A.V.; Yu, Jintian
A number of firms from China and India have in recent years been demonstrating their ability to face up to the challenges of globalization by internationalizing their operations. In this article we carry out a case study of China's Haier Group followed by a comparison of its growth and
Geert Duysters; Jojo Jacob; Charmianne Lemmens; Yu Jintian
A number of firms from China and India have in recent years been demonstrating their ability to face up to the challenges of globalization by internationalizing their operations. In this article we carry out a case study of China's Haier Group followed by a comparison of its growth and internationalization with those of India's Tata Group. We examine several aspects of their internationalization, such as the mode of internationalization and the choice of overseas destinations. The study furth...
Kramer, IJsbrand M.; Dahmani, Hassen-Reda; Delouche, Pamina; Bidabe, Marissa; Schneeberger, Patricia
The large number of experimentally determined molecular structures has led to the development of a new semiotic system in the life sciences, with increasing use of accurate molecular representations. To determine how this change impacts students' learning, we incorporated image tests into our introductory cell biology course. Groups of students…
Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Jager, Justin
The achievement gap has long been the focus of educational research, policy, and intervention. The authors took a new approach to examining the achievement gap by examining achievement trajectories within each racial group. To identify these trajectories they used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, which is a nationally…
Binz, Christian; Gosens, Jorrit; Hansen, Teis
, but were of limited importance in the early solar PV industry, and resulted only in a limited period of rapid growth in the biomass power plant industry. The relative progress achieved in these three industries is not related to top-down policy guidance alone, but also to private sector initiative......, international interdependencies, and flexibility in adapting policy mixes to each industry's technological characteristics. These results suggest that policy makers in newly industrializing countries (NICs) should avoid drafting generic sector plans, but should tailor plans to individual industries, and respond...... to changing policy support needs as technological capacities and global competitiveness develop....
Park, Seul-Gi; Choi, Ha-Neul; Yang, Hye-Ran; Yim, Jung-Eun
Although globally the numbers of children diagnosed with failure to thrive (FTT) have decreased, FTT is still a serious pediatric problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of zinc supplementation for 6 months on growth parameters of infants and children with FTT. In this retrospective study, of the 114 participants aged between 4 months and 6 years, 89 were included in the zinc supplementation group and were provided with nutrition counseling plus an oral zinc supplement for 6 months. The caregivers of the 25 participants in the control group received nutrition counseling alone. Medical data of these children, including sex, age, height, weight, serum zinc level, and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) level were analyzed. Zinc supplementation for 6 months increased weight-for-age Z-score and serum zinc levels (5.5%) in the zinc supplementation group of underweight category children. As for stunting category, height-for-age Z-score of the participants in the zinc supplementation group increased when compared with the baseline, and serum zinc levels increased in the normal or mild stunting group. Serum IGF1 levels did not change significantly in any group. Thus, zinc supplementation was more effective in children in the underweight category than those in the stunted category; this effect differed according to the degree of the FTT. These findings suggest that zinc supplementation may have beneficial effects for growth of infants and children with FTT, and zinc supplementation would be required according to degree of FTT.
Beukers, Fenny; Cranendonk, Anneke; de Vries, Johanna I. P.; Wolf, Hans; Lafeber, Harry N.; Vriesendorp, Hester C.; Ganzevoort, Wessel; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.
In preterm hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, fetal growth restriction (FGR) occurs frequently. The timing and severity of FGR impacts childhood growth and is associated with metabolic changes later in life. To examine growth and the impact of FGR in early childhood. Prospective cohort study.
Timothy J. Kehoe; Felipe Meza
In 1950 Mexico entered an economic takeoff and grew rapidly for more than 30 years. Growth stopped during the crises of 1982-1995, despite major reforms, including liberalization of foreign trade and investment. Since then growth has been modest. We analyze the economic history of Mexico 1877-2010. We conclude that the growth 1950-1981 was driven by urbanization, industrialization, and education and that Mexico would have grown even more rapidly if trade and investment had been liberalized so...
Full Text Available Although a well-established presence on the international legal scene, the economic analysis of law is still an unfamiliar concept to most Romanian scholars. While worldwide, prestigious universities offer special courses on this topic and an impressive body of legal studies continues to add up, only scant traces of this important legal school can be detected in some recent Romanian doctoral thesis and papers. This article explores the main concepts of the economic analysis of law, the recent spin-offs of this theory, especially in the area of comparative law, as well as some of the critiques addressed in the legal doctrine, concerning the consequences on law of overemphasizing “efficiency” to the expense of less quantifiable, moral and social considerations. Some explanations on why the Romanian doctrine is lagging behind with respect to the economic analysis of law will also be attempted, together with a tentative answer to whether this major legal theory will ever make an impact on local doctrinal developments in the near future.
Eliasson, Gunnar; Braunerhjelm, Pontus
Historically, the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) has been an institutionally homogeneous economy, integrated economically and culturally through the sea lanes of the Baltic. After WWII the BSR was broken up into a dual economy, consisting of a poor Soviet block of centrally planned economies, on the one hand, and the industrially advanced BSR economies Finland, Denmark, Germany and Sweden, on the other. 1990 saw the break up of the soviet political system. The liberated, but poor formerly planned ec...
Full Text Available This paper documents the evolution of my thinking in the area of interactive architecture over the past 15 years with students and my office. The work is framed within an overview of a long history of work in the area by others. My personal development has taken a number of clear steps in a relatively logical progression.In summary, the work began with kinetics as a means to facilitate adaptation. Work in this area led to integrating computation as a means of controlling the kinetics. The combination of these two areas led to the use of discrete mechanical assemblies as a systems approach to interaction design, which led to the thinking of control as bottom-up and emergent. Consequently I became fascinated with modular autonomous robotics and the notion that actual architectural space could be made of such systems. This in turn led to the exploration of biomimetics in terms of the processes, which eventually led to the idea that the parts in a system should get smaller to the point that they make up the matter itself.The paper concludes with an explanation of how technical advancements in manufacturing, fabrication and computational control will continue to expand the parameters of what is possible in robotics, and consequently influence the scale by which we understand and construct our environments. The future of interactive environments will most certainly involve re-examining the scale by which things operate to the extent that much of the operations happen within the materials themselves. This scaling down is beginning to force a reinterpretation of the mechanical paradigm of adaptation.
Flowers, R. Barri
Current statistics on arrests, convictions, and prison inmates and recent studies on violence by women indicate that the number of women who commit violent crimes is rising. Violent crimes include murder, rape, terrorism, gang participation, domestic violence, and prostitution. The first section, "Women Who Kill," discusses women who…
This paper presents a personal reflection on the nature of Chemistry, its potential areas of development in the 21st century, and the corresponding implications for chemistry education. Beyond reflecting about basic characteristics of Chemistry as a science and speculating on future research trends in this discipline, the central goal of this essay is to motivate chemistry teachers and instructors, as well as chemical educators, to question the relevance and validity of the current general ch...
Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Steele, Howard; Zeanah, Charles H.; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Vorria, Panayiota; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; Steele, Miriam; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Gunnar, Megan R.
Attachment has been assessed in the extreme environment of orphanages, but an important issue to be addressed in this chapter is whether in addition to standard assessment procedures, such as the Strange Situation, the lack of a specific attachment in some institutionalized children should be taken into account given the limits to the development of stable relationships in institutionalized care. In addition, this chapter discusses disinhibited or indiscriminately friendly behavior that is often seen in institutionalized children. Enhanced caregiving quality alone appears to be insufficient to diminish indiscriminate behavior, at least in some children, as evidenced by the persistence of indiscriminate behavior in children adopted out of institutions into adoptive families. We suggest that the etiology and function of indiscriminate friendly behavior may be different for institutionalized versus not-institutionalized children. In the first case it may reflect a distortion or disruption of early attachment relationships, in the latter case it is likely to result from the lack of expected input in the form of contingent interactions with a stable caregiver in early life. We try to delineate infant and caregiver characteristics that are associated with secure attachment in institutional settings, given the inevitable fact that large numbers of infants worldwide are being raised, and will be raised, in contexts of institutional care. We conclude that much further study is needed of the development of children’s attachments following adoption out of an institutional setting. PMID:25242826
Kramer, Ijsbrand M; Dahmani, Hassen-Reda; Delouche, Pamina; Bidabe, Marissa; Schneeberger, Patricia
The large number of experimentally determined molecular structures has led to the development of a new semiotic system in the life sciences, with increasing use of accurate molecular representations. To determine how this change impacts students' learning, we incorporated image tests into our introductory cell biology course. Groups of students used a single text dealing with signal transduction, which was supplemented with images made in one of three iconographic styles. Typically, we employed realistic renderings, using computer-generated Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures; realistic-schematic renderings, using shapes inspired by PDB structures; or schematic renderings, using simple geometric shapes to represent cellular components. The control group received a list of keywords. When students were asked to draw and describe the process in their own style and to reply to multiple-choice questions, the three iconographic approaches equally improved the overall outcome of the tests (relative to keywords). Students found the three approaches equally useful but, when asked to select a preferred style, they largely favored a realistic-schematic style. When students were asked to annotate "raw" realistic images, both keywords and schematic representations failed to prepare them for this task. We conclude that supplementary images facilitate the comprehension process and despite their visual clutter, realistic representations do not hinder learning in an introductory course.
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 34, No 1 (2018) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller
This paper investigates how the Polish transition process has expressed itself in export and inward foreign direct investments (FDI), and the relations between export and FDI. Since 1988, the number of Polish products able to compee in export markets has steadily increased. The quality level...
Lester Barry M
Full Text Available Abstract The phenomenon of substance abuse during pregnancy has fostered much controversy, specifically regarding treatment vs. punishment. Should the pregnant mother who engages in substance abuse be viewed as a criminal or as someone suffering from an illness requiring appropriate treatment? As it happens, there is a noticeably wide range of responses to this matter in the various states of the United States, ranging from a strictly criminal perspective to one that does emphasize the importance of the mother's treatment. This diversity of dramatically different responses illustrates the failure to establish a uniform policy for the management of this phenomenon. Just as there is lack of consensus among those who favor punishment, the same lack of consensus characterizes those states espousing treatment. Several general policy recommendations are offered here addressing the critical issues. It is hoped that by focusing on these fundamental issues and ultimately detailing statistics, policymakers throughout the United States will consider the course of action that views both pregnant mother and fetus/child as humanely as possible.
Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.
and Adolescent Health Promotion', Salutogenesis - from theory to practice' and Health, Stress and Coping'. More than half of all doctoral theses undertaken at NHV during these years had health promotion as their theme. As a derivative, the Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007......In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...
Iizuka, M.; Thutupalli, A.
The agricultural sector has played an important role in the provision of food, foreign exchange and sustainable energy to many developing countries. This sector, however, has not been considered as a driving force of innovation as compared to other productive sectors. However, recent economics and
From its beginning in 1885, the Hull House was beacon for social progress and urban reform. Founders Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr recruited talented, passionate partners from diverse fields to address issues from street sanitation to education in Chicago's immigrant communities. Among residents' many projects, their involvement in the…
Varblane, Urmas, 1961-
Ülevaade innovatsioonisüsteemide arengust Euroopa Liidu uutes üleminekuriikides. Rahvusliku innovatsioonisüsteemi mõiste arengust, põhilistest probleemidest rahvuslike innovatsioonisüsteemide rajamisel, soovitused innovatsioonipoliitika kujundamiseks
Krys, Kuba; Capaldi, Colin A; van Tilburg, Wijnand; Lipp, Ottmar V; Bond, Michael Harris; Vauclair, C-Melanie; Manickam, L Sam S; Domínguez-Espinosa, Alejandra; Torres, Claudio; Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Teyssier, Julien; Miles, Lynden K; Hansen, Karolina; Park, Joonha; Wagner, Wolfgang; Yu, Angela Arriola; Xing, Cai; Wise, Ryan; Sun, Chien-Ru; Siddiqui, Razi Sultan; Salem, Radwa; Rizwan, Muhammad; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Nader, Martin; Maricchiolo, Fridanna; Malbran, María; Javangwe, Gwatirera; Işık, İdil; Igbokwe, David O; Hur, Taekyun; Hassan, Arif; Gonzalez, Ana; Fülöp, Márta; Denoux, Patrick; Cenko, Enila; Chkhaidze, Ana; Shmeleva, Eleonora; Antalíková, Radka; Ahmed, Ramadan A
Inequalities between men and women are common and well-documented. Objective indexes show that men are better positioned than women in societal hierarchies-there is no single country in the world without a gender gap. In contrast, researchers have found that the women-are-wonderful effect-that women are evaluated more positively than men overall-is also common. Cross-cultural studies on gender equality reveal that the more gender egalitarian the society is, the less prevalent explicit gender stereotypes are. Yet, because self-reported gender stereotypes may differ from implicit attitudes towards each gender, we reanalysed data collected across 44 cultures, and (a) confirmed that societal gender egalitarianism reduces the women-are-wonderful effect when it is measured more implicitly (i.e. rating the personality of men and women presented in images) and (b) documented that the social perception of men benefits more from gender egalitarianism than that of women. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.
Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela
National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Camporesi, S; Bortolotti, L
After years of failure, in November 2007 primate embryonic stem cells were derived by somatic cellular nuclear transfer, also known as therapeutic cloning. The first embryo transfer for human reproductive cloning purposes was also attempted in 2006, albeit with negative results. These two events force us to think carefully about the possibility of human cloning which is now much closer to becoming a reality. In this paper we tackle this issue from two sides, first summarising what scientists have achieved so far, then discussing some of the ethical arguments in favour and against human cloning which are debated in the context of policy making and public consultation. Therapeutic cloning as a means to improve and save lives has uncontroversial moral value. As to human reproductive cloning, we consider and assess some common objections and failing to see them as conclusive. We do recognise, though, that there will be problems at the level of policy and regulation that might either impair the implementation of human reproductive cloning or make its accessibility restricted in a way that could become difficult to justify on moral grounds. We suggest using the time still available before human reproductive cloning is attempted successfully to create policies and institutions that can offer clear directives on its legitimate applications on the basis of solid arguments, coherent moral principles, and extensive public consultation.
Sabirianova Peter, K.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.
Roč. 94, č. 4 (2012), s. 981-999 ISSN 0034-6535 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : panel-data * transition economies * privatization Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2012
Derksen, B J; Duff, M C; Weldon, K; Zhang, J; Zamba, K D; Tranel, D; Denburg, N L
Learning and memory abilities tend to decline as people age. The current study examines the question of whether a learning situation that emphasises collaborative social interaction might help older persons overcome age-related learning and memory changes and thus perform similarly to younger persons. Younger and Older participants (n = 34 in each group) completed the Barrier Task (BT), a game-like social interaction where partners work together to develop labels for a set of abstract tangrams. Participants were also administered standard clinical neuropsychological measures of memory, on which the Older group showed expected inferiority to the Younger group. On the BT, the Older group performed less well than the Younger group early on, but as the task progressed, the performance of the Older group caught up and became statistically indistinguishable from that of the Younger group. These results can be taken to suggest that a learning milieu characterised by collaborative social interaction can attenuate some of the typical memory disadvantages associated with being older.
In Germany, the final storage of radioactive waste from the beginning has been a topic very much influenced by the political debate, especially by party politics. The development initiated after the 1998 change in government has greatly contributed to Germany clearly losing contact with cutting edge international developments in final storage. Here are some proposals for improving the present situation: - The political demand for a single-repository concept should be given up. - Preparatory work on the Konrad repository should be started. - Underground exploration of the Gorleben salt dome should be resumed without any strings attached. - A TSPA should be conducted for the Gorleben project. - After completion of the TSPA, an international peer review should be carried out of the Gorleben project. - An underground laboratory in salt should be established in Germany. - Repository activities should be transferred to a company organized and operating along industrial lines. - Competence for licensing radioactive waste repositories should be concentrated on a national level. (orig.)
As always, you'll have to fight for the dollars to buy systems, competing with departments who produce revenue. Financial managers and hospital boards respond most favorably to a good return on investment (ROI) presentation. Join forces with your software vendor of choice and give your board the best ROI argument they'll hear this year. Keep two things in mind: 1) today's innovations, particularly in reducing inventory, interfacing and lower hardware costs will help you make your case and 2) make sure the system is growing consistent with the industry to ensure you won't be asking for a similar purchase three years from now.
Maroto, Michelle; Aylsworth, Laura
This paper investigates wealth disparities among first-generation immigrants using data from the 2012 Survey of Financial Security. We apply logistic and linear regression models to estimate disparities in homeownership and household equivalent net worth by immigrant status, region of origin, and time since arrival. By focusing on immigrant families from different regions who entered Canada at different points in time, this research applies theories related to assimilation, human capital, and structural barriers to wealth. Our findings demonstrate that even though many immigrant families transition into homeownership and grow their wealth over time, certain first-generation immigrant groups continue to experience wealth disparities many years after their arrival to Canada. In particular, immigrant families from African, Asian, and Middle Eastern countries experienced the largest wealth gaps. Cet article examine les disparités de richesse entre les immigrants de première génération en utilisant les données de l'Enquête 2012 sur la sécurité financière. Nous appliquons des modèles de régression logistique et linéaire pour estimer les disparités dans la propriété et valeur nette des ménages équivalente par le statut d'immigrant, la région d'origine, et le temps écoulé depuis leur arrivée. En se concentrant sur les familles d'immigrants de différentes régions qui sont entrés au Canada à différents points dans le temps, cette recherche applique les théories liées à l'assimilation, le capital humain, et les obstacles structurels à la richesse. Nos résultats démontrent que même si de nombreuses familles d'immigrants transition vers la propriété et de croître leur richesse au fil du temps, certains groupes d'immigrants de première génération continuent d'éprouver des disparités de richesse de nombreuses années après leur arrivée au Canada. En particulier, les familles d'immigrants d'Afrique, d'Asie, et les pays du Moyen-Orient ont connu les plus grands écarts de richesse. © 2016 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette
A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight. Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long-run. While some studies find effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthoo...... Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time allows us to chart the evolution of health and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helps inform the nature and timing of interventions....
G. Draisma (Gerrit); J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost)
textabstractModels of cancer screening assume that cancers are detectable by screening before being diagnosed clinically through symptoms. The duration of this preclinical phase is called sojourn time, and it determines how much diagnosis might be advanced in time by the screening test (lead time).
Pretorius, Elizabeth J.
This paper describes an intervention programme that was originally intended to support transition to English as language of learning and teaching (LoLT) in Grade 4 in a township school, using a pre- and post-test design. Because the pre-tests revealed very poor literacy levels in both Zulu home language and English, the intervention programme was…
Sabirianova, K. Z.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.
-, č. 1 (2005), s. 1-63 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment * corporate ownership * economic development Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/21610
Sabirianova Peter, K.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, D.
-, č. 72 (2005), s. 1-62 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment * economic development * productivity * efficiency Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/61179
Sabirianova Peter, K.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.
-, č. 4868 (2005), s. 1-63 ISSN 0265-8003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : productivity * economic development * foreign direct investment Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cepr.org/pubs/dps/DP4868.asp
Sabirianova Peter, K.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.
Roč. 94, č. 4 (2012), s. 981-999 ISSN 0034-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/2130 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : panel-data * transition economies * privatization Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2012
Kilpeläinen, Leena; Ivaska, Kaisa K; Kuiri-Hänninen, Tanja
of this longitudinal study was to determine the extent to which postnatal levels of circulating cartilage (serum pro-C-type natriuretic peptide [S-proCNP]) and urinary bone metabolic markers (urinary osteocalcin [MidOC] and two forms of C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen [U-α-CTX-I and U...
Cusmano, L.; Morrison, A.; Rabellotti, R.
From a development perspective an investigation of the changes that have occurred in the wine industry is of particular interest because it provides evidence on how emerging economies have been able to acquire significant shares of the international market in a dynamic sector. Based on novel
Miyake, S; Lucas-Miyake, M
This article will describe a marketing model for the development of a role for occupational therapy in the industrial market. Health promotion activities are used as a means to diversify existing revenue bases by establishing new referral sources in industry. The technique of need satisfaction -selling or marketing one's services to a customer based on needs expressed by the customer - is reviewed, and implementation of this approach is described from two settings, one in psychiatry and the other in rehabilitation.
When the first nuclear power programme is decided upon, automatically the country has to initiate in parallel a programme to modify or add to its current industrial structure and resources. The extent of this new industrialisation depends upon many factors which both, the Government and the Industries have to consider. The Government has a vital role which includes the setting up of the background against which the industrial promotion should take place and in many cases may have also to play an active role all along this programme. Equally, the existing industries have an important role so as to achieve the most efficient participation in the nuclear programme. Invariably the industrial promotional programme will incur a certain degree of transfer of technology, the extent depending on the policies adopted. For this technology transfer to take place efficiently, both the donor and the receiver have to recognise each other's legitimate ambitions and fears. The transfer of technology is a process having a high human content and both donor and receiver have to take this into account. This can be further complicated when there is a difference in culture between them. Technology transfer is carried out within a contractual and organisational framework which will identify the donor (licensor) and the receiver (licensee). This framework may take various forms from a simple cooperative agreement, through a joint-venture organisation right to a standard contract between two separate entities. Each arrangement has its advantages and drawbacks and requires investment of different degrees. One of the keys to a successful industrial promotion is having it carried out in a timely fashion which will be parallel with the nuclear power programme. Experience in some countries has shown the problems when the industrialisation is out of phase with the programme whilst in other cases this industrialisation was at a level and scale unjustified. (author)
Pergamit, Michael R.; Veum, Jonathan R.
For a sample of young workers, "promotion" involved no change in position or duties; promotion was more likely for males than females and Whites than Blacks or Hispanics. Company training and prior promotions were important predictors. Promotion did not appear to have a direct impact on job satisfaction. (SK)
Feb 11, 2013 ... regarding a health promotion programme for families with ... to contribute to high rates of not going to school (ibid. ... sector in order, amongst other objectives, to prevent health ... exercise and mental health promotion must be incorporated ..... (2009:141) identified ignorance and misconception about the.
The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills are concei......The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills...
The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...
-promotion interventions. Directly or indirectly the articles reiterate the idea that health promotion in schools needs to be linked with the core task of the school – education, and to the values inherent to education, such as inclusion, democracy, participation and influence, critical literacy and action competence......Purpose – The editorial aims to provide a brief overview of the individual contributions to the special issue, and a commentary positioning the contributions within research relating to the health-promoting schools initiative in Europe. Design/methodology/approach – The members of the Schools...... for Health in Europe Research Group were invited to submit their work addressing processes and outcomes in school health promotion to this special issue of Health Education. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education web site. Following the traditional double blind peer...
The concept of radiation promotion was proposed in this study. The proposal of this concept was dependent upon stimulation in growth weight of survived chicks when fertile eggs were exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation. It was found that female chick (Promotive Sex) responded to this proposal concept rather than the male. Moreover, the dose level of 640 rads was found to be the Promotive Dose. It is important before applying ionizing radiation as a growth promotive to take into consideration whether you want increasing egg or meat production, as meat promotion in layers breed is bound to decrease egg production. (orig.) [de
Geiger, Sylvie; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Lebard, Thomas; Reichert, Sophie; Stier, Antoine; LE Maho, Yvon; Criscuolo, Francois
One of the reasons for animals not to grow as fast as they potentially could is that fast growth has been shown to be associated with reduced lifespan. However, we are still lacking a clear description of the reality of growth-dependent modulation of ageing mechanisms in wild animals. Using the particular growth trajectory of small king penguin chicks naturally exhibiting higher-than-normal growth rate to compensate for the winter break, we tested whether oxidative stress and telomere shortening are related to growth trajectories. Plasma antioxidant defences, oxidative damage levels and telomere length were measured at the beginning and at the end of the post-winter growth period in three groups of chicks (small chicks, which either passed away or survived the growth period, and large chicks). Small chicks that died early during the growth period had the highest level of oxidative damage and the shortest telomere lengths prior to death. Here, we show that small chicks that grew faster did it at the detriment of body maintenance mechanisms as shown by (i) higher oxidative damage and (ii) accelerated telomere loss. Our study provides the first evidence for a mechanistic link between growth and ageing rates under natural conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Goggin, P; Sauvageau, C; Gilca, V; Defay, F; Lambert, G; Mathieu-C, S; Guenoun, J; Comète, E; Coutlée, F
In Quebec, Canada, a school-based HPV vaccination for girls has been offered since 2008. The vaccine used in the program targets HPV16/18, responsible for ∼70% of cervical cancers and HPV6/11, responsible for the majority of anogenital warts. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of HPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Women aged 17-29 years were eligible to participate. Participants' age, vaccination status and diverse risk factors were assessed by a computer-assisted questionnaire. Biological specimens were obtained by self-sampling. HPV genotyping was performed by Linear Array. A total of 2,118 women were recruited. 2,042 completed the questionnaire and 1,937 provided a vaginal sample. Vaccination coverage varied from 83.5% in women aged 17-19 to 19.1% in those aged 23-29. The overall prevalence of HPV in sexually active women was 39.4% (95%CI: 37.0-41.7) and 56.7% of infected women had multiple type infections. The prevalence of vaccine HPV types varied by age and vaccination status except for women aged 23-29 for whom similar results were observed. Vaccine HPV types were detected in 0.3%, 1.4% and 10.5% of vaccinated women aged 17-19, 20-23, and 23-29 (pHPV16 or HPV18 were detected in 10 women having received at least one dose of vaccine. Nine of these women were already sexually active at the time of vaccination. Infections with HPV types included in the vaccine are rare in women aged less than 23 years and are virtually absent in those who received at least one dose of vaccine before sexual debut.
Each year more children die from moderate than severe malnutrition. Home-based therapy (HBT) using Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) has proven to successfully treat uncomplicated childhood malnutrition on an outpatient basis. This study attempts to discern if Mid-upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) ...
Knops, N.B.B.; Sneeuw, K.C.A.; Brand, R.; Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Wit, J.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
Background: Improved survival due to advances in neonatal care has brought issues such as postnatal growth and development more to the focus of our attention. Most studies report stunting in children born very preterm and/or small for gestational age. In this article we study the growth pattern of
Scientific advancement cannot occur without quality education; to achieve that quality, Africa will require significant investment at all educational levels.Worldwide, competitors have become collaborators and have enhanced their economic, technological, or academic statures by forming alliances and partnerships. For African countries to significantly advance, they must collaborate regionally or internationally. The success of those partnerships will depend on having a well-endowed leading member. Examples of partnerships include the African Materials Research Society, African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Working Group on Space Sciences in Africa, and African Laser Centre. Those initiatives, in which South Africa plays a leading role, carry the hope that expertise will be developed to create a science and technology infrastructure in Africa. The IAEA funds important activities in the fields of radiation protection and safety, nuclear medicine, and maintenance of scientific instruments, all undertaken by a consortium of countries in Africa under the African Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development, and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA). Through regional participation, intellectual and physical resources are coordinated, capabilities in the diversified areas of nuclear technology are enhanced, and the development of expertise is facilitated
Nobbenhuis, M A E; Helmerhorst, T J M; van den Brule, A J C; Rozendaal, L; Bezemer, P D; Voorhorst, F J; Meijer, C J L M
We followed 353 women referred with abnormal cervical cytology in a non-intervention cohort study. In 91 pregnant women we compared high-risk human papilloma virus rates in the subsequent trimesters and postpartum in comparison to 262 non-pregnant women. High-risk human papilloma virus clearance was compared with 179 high-risk human papilloma virus positive non-pregnant women. Our main questions were: (1) do high-risk human papilloma virus rates change during pregnancy?; and (2) is there any ...
Balfanz, Robert; Legters, Nettie; Jordan, Will
Concerns that higher standards and demanding high-stakes tests will disadvantage students who have attended weak, unsuccessful, or under-resourced schools have typically been met with the counter-claim that poorly prepared students will be provided with the extra help and support they need to succeed. Efforts to provide extra help are in their…
Balfanz, Robert; Legters, Nettie; Jordan, Will
Little is known about the feasibility and rapidity with which the academic learning of students who enter high school multiple years behind grade level can be accelerated. This study uses multiple regression analyses of standardized test and survey data from high-poverty high schools in two large urban districts to evaluate initial effects of the…
Mendilaharzu, Hernan; And Others
A boy misdiagnosed as having the sodium-losing form of virilizing adrenal hyperplasia was treated with large doses of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids from the newborn period until he was more than 4 years of age. (Author)
Kalanda, B.F.; Buuren, S. van; Verhoeff, F.H.; Brabin, B.J.
Introduction: Infant growth has not been studied in developing countries in relation to maternal factors related to malaria in pregnancy and maternal illiteracy. Objective: To describe growth patterns in infants with low and normal birthweight and determine maternal risk factors for infant
Gunzenhauser, Catherine; von Suchodoletz, Antje
Research Findings: Behavioral self-regulation is crucial for school success. Although behavioral self-regulation typically grows rapidly during the preschool period, children in this age group vary widely in their behavioral self-regulation capacities. The present study investigated 3 potential determinants of growth rates in behavioral…
Women are increasingly taking influential jobs in healthcare, whether it's Carolyn Clancy at the AHRQ helping lead the way on improving quality through IT or Risa Lavizzo-Mourey helping dole out millions of dollars in grants at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Both won spots on Modern Healthcare's inaugural list of the Top 25 Women in Healthcare.
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.
Full Text Available Objective: to unravel some theoretical and factual elements required to implement more effective health promotion strategies and practices in the field of health services whilst following the great challenges that globalization has imposed on the health systems, which are inevitably expressed in the local context (glocalization. Methodology: a narrative review taking into account the concepts of globalization and health promotion in relation to health determinants. The authors approach some courses of action and strategies for health promotion based on the social principles and universal values that guide health promotion, health service reorientation and primary healthcare, empowerment, social participation, and inter-sectoral and social mobilization. Discussion: the discussion focuses on the redirection of health promotion services in relation to the wave of health reforms that has spread throughout the world under the neoliberal rule. The author also discusses health promotion, its ineffectiveness, and the quest for renewal. Likewise, the author sets priorities for health promotion in relation to social determinants. Conclusion: the current global order, in terms of international relations, is not consistent with the ethical principles of health promotion. In this paper, the author advocates for the implementation of actions to change the social and physical life conditions of people based on changes in the use of power in society and the appropriate practice of politics in the context of globalization in order to achieve the effectiveness of the actions of health promotion.
Nijveen, H.; Matus-Garcia, M.; Passel, van M.W.J.
Anecdotal evidence shows promoters being reused separate from their downstream gene, thus providing a mechanism for the efficient and rapid rewiring of a gene’s transcriptional regulation. We have identified over 4000 groups of highly similar promoters using a conservative sequence similarity search
Liveng, Anne; Andersen, Heidi Myglegård; Lehn Christiansen, Sine
Health promotion constitutes a complex field of study, as it addresses multifaceted problems and involves a range of methods and theories. Students in the field of health promotion can find this challenging. To raise their level of reflexivity and support learning we have developed the “context m...
This revised edition of the promotion primer is to serve as a topical orientation aid for industrial firms, unions, boards and other bodies interested where the actions of governmental R and D and innovation policy are compiled and clearly arranged. It is important for the success of governmental aids that the institutions concerned are informed about all possibilities of the promotion, financing and advisory programme. Beyond the presentation of the research promotion sectors, the fiscal measures and the contractual as well as the joint research this revised edition focussess on the fields of consultative services for innovation and information. For many firms the access to qualified information and guidance is of particular importance. That is why this brochure points out the ways towards governmental research promotion. The BMFT has provided a remarkable contribution to research promotion by establishing information and consultative services for trade and industry.
Kwan, Stella Y L; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M
Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling...... them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School...... Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated...
Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)
Platt, Stephen David; Watson, Jonathan
... the progress towards developing and implementing health promotion interventions that: * * * * are theoretically grounded, socio-culturally appropriate and sustainable involve the redistribution of resources towards those most in need reflect the principles of equity, participation and empowerment incorporate rigorous, methodologically ...
Margaret A. Winker, MD
Full Text Available The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME. The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.
Olsen, O.J.; Skytte, K.
% of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....
Meertens, John H J M; Jagernath, Danny R; Eleveld, Douglas J; Zijlstra, Jan G; Franssen, Casper F M
For severe lithium intoxication haemodialysis is recommended to lower serum lithium levels rapidly. Frequently, serum lithium levels rebound after dialysis and repeated dialysis is needed. This is the first report of an adult patient with severe lithium intoxication who underwent haemodialysis (HD)
conditional using the instanceof operator and thus the cast type is redundantly mentioned twice. We propose a new typing rule for Java called Guarded Type Promotion aimed at eliminating the need for the explicit casts when guarded. This new typing rule is backward compatible and has been fully implemented...... in a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....
Full Text Available The tourism industry is unlike any other because, instead of a product, you are selling a place and all the things it has to offer. You are competing with the entire world every time you promote tourism in a given destination, and this high level of competition demands a creative and unique approach. To be successful, your marketing should constantly put forth the best possible image of your destination, while creating interest on a broad scale in as many ways as possible. Romania has to conceive an efficient promotional mix in order to attract more tourists.
Full Text Available Taking an attention to promotion as operational variable in marketing effort, author focused on so called ways of creating national images. As a case of very interesting activity paper discuss an experience of regional chamber of Croatia with activities in upgrading international recognition of national products as well as country as destination in such context.
Whillans, Ashley; Dunn, Elizabeth; Smeets, Paul M.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Norton, M.I.
Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada,
Includes 50 cost-effective ideas for promoting camp in the areas of recruiting new campers, encouraging returning campers, advertising strategies, printing brochures and other written materials, using photographs, targeting groups for camp facility rental, and effectively using the media. (LP)
Much of our social and political effort, including a portion of the research in this university, is directed towards the promotion of one goal: health. But what is health? Or rather, how should we define health so that it is an identifiable goalpost for our social policies and technological
R. Govers (Robert); F.M. Go (Frank); K. Kumar (Kuldeep)
textabstractThis article examines the role of tourism promotion as a component of destination image formation. It reports the findings of a study in which 1,100 respondents from around the globe described their previsit perceived image of seven sample destinations, as well as the information sources
Hendrickson, Gayle A.
This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and…
Launched in 1985 at Arizona State University, the Hispanic Research Center's (HRC) efforts to promote Latino and Chicano art and issues have flourished in recent years. In 2004, the HRC hosted the Arizona International Latina/o Arts Festival in collaboration with the Mesa Southwest Museum. The HRC has also founded a mentoring institute for…
Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the end of June, following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 13/2003. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2003. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions are now published on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist_2003.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2003. Final decisions will be applied retroactively to 1 July 2003. Human Resources Division Tel:...
The Gas, Electricity and Water Works Cologne (GEW) supplies 4,115 objects with district heat. The connected load totals 830,000 kJ/s, which over the last 10 years has been expanded by an average of 5.3% annually and is currently 2.2% above the national average. The extension of district heat supply has been accomplished without subsidies from the two ZIP programmes. The major objects in Cologne city are to a large extent linked to the GEW district heating network. The goal now is to win more smaller objects in the supply area. To achieve notable new connected load increases in the future, the GEW is conducting a sales promotion drive together with Cologne heating construction firms. The promotion is running under the slogan 'Magically Simple: Heating with District Heat'. Its strategy and execution are described here by the author.
Grenaa Jensen, S.
Technologies using renewable energy sources are receiving increasing interest from both public authorities and power producing companies, mainly because of the environmental advantages they procure in comparison with conventional energy sources. These technologies can be substitution for conventional energy sources and limit damage to the environment. Furthermore, several of the renewable energy technologies satisfy an increasing political goal of self-sufficiency within energy production. The subject of this thesis is promotion of renewable technologies. The primary goal is to increase understanding on how technological development takes place, and establish a theoretical framework that can assist in the construction of policy strategies including instruments for promotion of renewable energy technologies. Technological development is analysed by through quantitative and qualitative methods. (BA)
Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the beginning of July, under the new career structure scheme and following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 11/2002. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2002. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions will be published this year on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address : http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2002. Final decisions will be applied retroactivel...
Jelsøe, Erling; Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm
Objectives: Issues of governance in health promotion during the last 3-4 decades has increasingly been seen as characterized by health interventions and campaigns aimed at influencing the citizens to exhibit a certain desired behavior, that is an orientation towards generating self...... is not sufficient to ensure healthy behaviour. Such measures are used in the public as well as the private sector. In this paper we will give a number of examples of this development and a preliminary analysis of the social framework for its emergence. Methods: The paper will present a theoretical discussion...... was conducted as a case oriented search in relevant media and available documents illustrating the tendency towards using coercive measures to promote healthy behaviour. This was followed up through semi-structured interviews with actors from public authorities, organizations and companies with experience...
Fernández Gómez, Erika; Díaz-Campo, Jesús
International audience; The goal of this research was to analyse the advertising of food broadcast by the two Spanish private thematic channels aimed at children with more audience in Spain (Neox and Boing). A content analysis was made in order to study the commercials showed during the hours of children’s enhanced protection established by the normative of this country. The paper presents the increasing concern about kids´ obesity and the role of food industry. Healthy lifestyles are promote...
Brogaard Kristensen, Dorthe; Askegaard, Søren; Hauge Jeppesen, Lene
Based on an ethnographic study of 25 Danish consumers, the aim of this paper is threefold. Firstly, based on a critique of traditional approaches to consumer health campaigning, it argues for a more socially diversified approach for understanding consumer construction and pursuit of healthy...... behaviour. Secondly, it presents a typology of discourses that are employed by consumers in constructing their (health oriented) food consumption. Thirdly, it addresses certain social and moral dilemmas inherent in consumer health promotional campaigns....
Zhang Chunzhi; Guo Yang; Lv Zhonghong
Radiogenetic therapy is a heated reaseach on oncotherapy. Early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) gene promoter is a probably means in radiogenetic therapy. The article review studying on Egr-1 gene promoter and constructing regulating gene expressing system by radiation-inducible Egr-1 gene promoter. (authors)
Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)
to understand challenges to leaders in postmodern organisations. Theories about leadership has until now been occupied with the vertical relations in the organisations. To lead a team of creative people the leader has to pay attention both to the relations between leader and followers and to the relations...... to the psychodynamic understanding of families, groups and organisations. With a point of departure in a study of self-governing groups in a factory the paper introduces the concept: ‘the promoted sibling’ which provide quite some understanding of the middle managers challenges in his or her role and the challenges...
Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential component of the job description and inspirational leadership that promotes teamwork is essential.
Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) was launched in April 2015 to promote integrated medical research and development (R&D) ranging from basic research to practical applications, in order to smoothly achieve the nationwide application of research outcomes, and to establish an environment therefor. AMED consolidates budgets for R&D expenses, which had previously been allocated from different sources, such as the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. It provides funds strategically to universities, research institutions, etc. By promoting medical R&D, AMED aims to achieve the world's highest level of medical care/services to contribute to a society in which people live long and healthy lives. To achieve this mission, it is imperative that R&D funded by AMED is widely understood and supported. Maintaining and improving research integrity is a prerequisite to this end. AMED is taking various measures to ensure fair and appropriate R&D. It is asking researchers to participate in its responsible conduct in research (RCR) education program and to comply with its rules for managing conflicts of interest (COI). In addition, AMED also conducts a grant program to create and distribute a variety of educational materials on RCR and other matters. Further, AMED is establishing a platform that allows researchers to exchange information about research integrity, and it is undertaking additional measures, such as holding meetings and international symposia on research integrity.
Klamut, Marian Kazimierz
The human mind is capable of creating an internal world--the psychic sphere--including the phenomena characteristic of human nature, such as selfconsciousness, conscious experiences, conceptual thinking, symbolic language, dreams, art, creation of culture, sense of values, interest in the distant past and care about the distant future. According to the exceptionally concordant opinions of the sages and scholars of the East and the West it is just within this internal world that human happiness dwells. Happiness is a state of the spirit which consists in: internal peace, satisfaction with one's life, the joy of life, benevolence and cordiality towards oneself and towards others; sensitivity to the beauty of nature, culture and art; harmonious co-existence with the surroundings. The achievement and experiencing of the states of thus understood happiness depend mainly on ourselves and, similarly to the project of health promotion, require knowledge, willingness and possibilities. Happiness Promotion denotes the commendation and popularizing of a certain definite way of thinking and acting--showing the road which leads to the frequent experiencing of happy moments.
Full Text Available The link between serotonin (5-HT and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP, the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others.
Kettle, Keri L; Salerno, Anthony
Research suggests that certain facets of people's political ideals can be motivated by different goals. Although it is widely accepted that emotions motivate goal-directed behavior, less is known about how emotion-specific goals may influence different facets of ideology. In this research, we examine how anger affects political ideology and through what mechanisms such effects occur. Drawing on the dual-process motivational model of ideology and the functionalist perspective of emotion, we propose that anger leads people to support conservative economic ideals, which promote economic independence and discourage societal resource sharing. Four studies support our hypothesis that anger can enhance support for an election candidate espousing conservative economic ideals. We find that anger shifts people toward economic conservatism by orienting them toward competition for resources. Implications and future research on the relationship between emotions and political ideology are discussed.
Whillans, Ashley V; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Smeets, Paul; Bekkers, Rene; Norton, Michael I
Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada, Denmark, and The Netherlands ( n = 6,271), we show that individuals who spend money on time-saving services report greater life satisfaction. A field experiment provides causal evidence that working adults report greater happiness after spending money on a time-saving purchase than on a material purchase. Together, these results suggest that using money to buy time can protect people from the detrimental effects of time pressure on life satisfaction.
Ho Joong Sung
Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.
It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research
On Friday 23 April, 225 primary school children from the eight schools in Meyrin-Cointrin and their accompanying adults took part in a big game of Ethnopoly. Private individuals, associations, administrations, shopkeepers and CERN all opened their doors to them to talk about their countries, their customs and what they are doing to promote tolerance and integration. The CERN stand set up at ForumMeyrin for the Ethnopoly game. Scurrying from one place to another, the 10 and 11 year olds were made aware of the rich cultural diversity of their commune, which is home to 130 different nationalities. Physicists and engineers from CERN took up residence in the Forum Meyrin for the day in order to talk to the children about the advantages of international collaboration, a subject dear to the Organization's heart. They welcomed around fifty children in the course of the day, conveying to them a message of tolerance: despite their differences, the 10,000 scientists and other members of the CERN...
Full Text Available Introduction Scientists try to answer on the need of a long life with a full physical capability Nonagenarians, centenarians and their closest family members are characterized by a survival benefit throughout life. Moreover, twin studies of longevity suggest that around 25% of the variation in lifespan in developed countries may be inherited. It is therefore worth to examine the role of inter-relationship between nature vs nurture in longevity increment. Material and methods Articles in the EBSCO database have been analyzed using keywords: longevity, gene, behavior, environment. The available literature was subjectively selected. Then, the newest version of every paper was searched for. Results Restriction of calories as well as intake of desirable nutrients can promote adequate control of metabolic pathways and gene expression. APOE, DRD4, Paraoxonase 1, SIRT 3 and SIRT 5 genes can play an important role in longevity. Conclusions Genetic profile and environmental factors seems to both influence on the longevity. Relationships between genetic profile, behavior pattern, quality of life, years spent free from activity limitations and longevity should be examined, to be able to give a recipe on living a long and happy life.
Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla
Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food expenditure that explicitly accounts for both spatial and temporal determinants of demand. Estimates are obtained using a unique...
Sultan T Al-Otaibi
The objective of this review was to describe the scientific evidence for coordinating health promotion at the workplace and to discuss the required future research in this field. Literature review from March 1990 to November 2014 was performed. Using the keywords ′health, promotion, worksite and workplace′, literature was searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar; with no time limit. There is emerging evidence that workplace health promotion enhances the effectiv...
Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.
The origin of altruism is a fundamental problem in evolution, and the maintenance of biodiversity is a fundamental problem in ecology. These two problems combine with the fundamental microbiological question of whether it is always advantageous for a unicellular organism to grow as fast as possible. The common basis for these three themes is a trade-off between growth rate and growth yield, which in turn is based on irreversible thermodynamics. The trade-off creates an evolutionary alternative between two strategies: high growth yield at low growth rate versus high growth rate at low growth yield. High growth yield at low growth rate is a case of an altruistic strategy because it increases the fitness of the group by using resources economically at the cost of decreased fitness, or growth rate, of the individual. The group-beneficial behaviour is advantageous in the long term, whereas the high growth rate strategy is advantageous in the short term. Coexistence of species requires differences between their niches, and niche space is typically divided into four 'axes' (time, space, resources, predators). This neglects survival strategies based on cooperation, which extend the possibilities of coexistence, arguing for the inclusion of cooperation as the fifth 'axis'. Here, individual-based model simulations show that spatial structure, as in, for example, biofilms, is necessary for the origin and maintenance of this 'primitive' altruistic strategy and that the common belief that growth rate but not yield decides the outcome of competition is based on chemostat models and experiments. This evolutionary perspective on life in biofilms can explain long-known biofilm characteristics, such as the structural organization into microcolonies, the often-observed lack of mixing among microcolonies, and the shedding of single cells, as promoting the origin and maintenance of the altruistic strategy. Whereas biofilms enrich altruists, enrichment cultures, microbiology's paradigm
Full Text Available Promotion activities are very important and irreplaceable marketing instrument in placement of production goods. In contrast to final consumption goods, where advertising has an absolute priority compared to another promotion activities, personal sale and development of sale dominate during placement of production goods.
Promotion activities are very important and irreplaceable marketing instrument in placement of production goods. In contrast to final consumption goods, where advertising has an absolute priority compared to another promotion activities, personal sale and development of sale dominate during placement of production goods.
Full Text Available Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to determine and analyze the steps that are required to create a promotion strategy in the wine industry, by comparing different approaches. Secondly, to identify the instruments of the promotional mix that helps a winery to implement its promotional strategy. Bearing that in mind, the paper starts with some theoretical aspects regarding the promotion strategy and ends by providing a brief overview of the main findings.
Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte
This article discusses a model that can be used in order to analyse notions on literature promotion in public libraries. The model integrates different issues which interact with how literature promotion is understood and thought of in public libraries. Besides cultural policy we regard the logics...... of new public management (NPM) and professional logics in the field of public libraries. Cultural policy along with the identification of underlying logics present among politicians, government officials, managers and librarians/promoters of literature, play an important part in creating an understanding...... of literature promotion in Danish libraries. Thus the basic premise for the development of the model is that cultural policy (Policy) has an important influence on notions on literature promotion and other activities in public libraries, but that cultural policy must be seen in some kind of interaction...
Family planning (FP) has been promoted in China through improvements in maternal and child health (MCH) which have affected people's attitude toward childbearing. A case study of FP in Taicang County of Jiangsu Province, China is given. Total population is 446,620; natural increase is 10/1000. 99% of births have been planned in recent years. Contraceptive prevalence has reached 92.71%. Contraceptive awareness has opened people up to health education in general. The community participates in management of human wastes, improvement of water supplies, and parasite control in rural areas. MCH was begun in the early 1980s with premarital examinations, prenatal examinations, postnatal visits, and physical checkups. A systematic program has established in 1983. A pilot program integrating FP, MCH, and parasite control operated between 1984 and 1986, in 7 townships was established and MCH was institutionalized. Increases occurred in comprehensive care for women from 49.1% in 1984 to 78.3% in 1986. Children's coverage rose from 78.2% to 85.9%. Perinatal mortality dropped from 30.2/1000 to 20.8/1000. Neonatal mortality declined from 21.3/1000 to 17.3/1000. Infant mortality also decreased from 31.6/1000 to 21.5/1000. Integration of programs throughout the county was achieved after 1987. 99% of women used the MCH handbook. Between 1987 and 1990, the perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rate dropped to 12.9/1000, 9.5/1000, and 14.7/1000, respectively. MCH achievements are attributed to a strengthening of the MCH network to improve access and improve MCH workers' level of professional skill, to the availability of premarriage and couples of reproductive age services and child care, and to the contribution of research. Careful monitoring during pregnancy helped reduce the incidence of difficult labors for high risk women from 17.55 in 1984 to 11-15% in recent years. 99.9% deliver in hospitals. There were no maternal deaths in 1989 or 1990. Neonatal tetanus has been
Sultan T Al-Otaibi
Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe the scientific evidence for coordinating health promotion at the workplace and to discuss the required future research in this field. Literature review from March 1990 to November 2014 was performed. Using the keywords ′health, promotion, worksite and workplace′, literature was searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar; with no time limit. There is emerging evidence that workplace health promotion enhances the effectiveness of effort to promote and protect workers′ health. It proves both cost-effective and cost-beneficial to health promotion at the worksite and subsequently further reduces absenteeism. However, future research is needed to identify the impact of other factors such as age, gender and race on workers′ exposure. There is also a need to develop valid tests to measure the outcome of these programmes at the workplace. Health promotion should be central to workplace planning and should be recognised as an integral part of proactive occupational health. Indeed, the workplace is viewed as one of the most popular venues for promoting health and preventing diseases among employees.
Lintonen, T P; Konu, A I; Seedhouse, D
eHealth, the use of information technology to improve or enable health and health care, has recently been high on the health care development agenda. Given the vivid interest in eHealth, little reference has been made to the use of these technologies in the promotion of health. The aim of this present study was to conduct a review on recent uses of information technology in health promotion through looking at research articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen relevant journals with issues published between 2003 and June 2005 yielded altogether 1352 articles, 56 of which contained content related to the use of information technology in the context of health promotion. As reflected by this rather small proportion, research on the role of information technology is only starting to emerge. Four broad thematic application areas within health promotion were identified: use of information technology as an intervention medium, use of information technology as a research focus, use of information technology as a research instrument and use of information technology for professional development. In line with this rather instrumental focus, the concepts 'ePromotion of Health' or 'Health ePromotion' would come close to describing the role of information technology in health promotion.
This paper advocates that mental health promotion receive appropriate attention within health promotion. It is of great concern that, in practice, mental health promotion is frequently overlooked in health promotion programmes although the WHO definitions of health and the Ottawa Charter describe mental health as an integral part of health. It is suggested that more attention be given to addressing the determinants of mental health in terms of protective and risk factors for both physical and mental conditions, particularly in developing countries. Examples of evidence-based mental health programmes operating in widely diverse settings are presented to demonstrate that well designed interventions can contribute to the well-being of populations. It is advocated that particular attention be given to the intersectorial cooperation needed for this work.
Carter, Stacy M
Thinking and practising ethically requires reasoning systematically about the right thing to do. Health promotion ethics - a form of applied ethics - includes analysis of health promotion practice and how this can be ethically justified. Existing frameworks can assist in such evaluation. These acknowledge the moral value of delivering benefits. But benefits need to be weighed against burdens, harms or wrongs, and these should be minimised: they include invading privacy, breaking confidentiality, restraining liberty, undermining self-determination or people's own values, or perpetuating injustice. Thinking about the ethics of health promotion also means recognising health promotion as a normative ideal: a vision of the good society. This ideal society values health, sees citizens as active and includes them in decisions that affect them, and makes the state responsible for providing all of its citizens, no matter how advantaged or disadvantaged, with the conditions and resources they need to be healthy. Ethicists writing about health promotion have focused on this relationship between the citizen and the state. Comparing existing frameworks, theories and the expressed values of practitioners themselves, we can see common patterns. All oppose pursuing an instrumental, individualistic, health-at-all-costs vision of health promotion. And all defend the moral significance of just processes: those that engage with citizens in a transparent, inclusive and open way. In recent years, some Australian governments have sought to delegitimise health promotion, defining it as extraneous to the role of the state. Good evidence is not enough to counter this trend, because it is founded in competing visions of a good society. For this reason, the most pressing agenda for health promotion ethics is to engage with communities, in a procedurally just way, about the role and responsibilities of the citizen and the state in promoting and maintaining good health.
Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.
Full Text Available Health promotion approach is utilized to address the prevention, management and early intervention for stress management and also to promote positive mental and psychological health. Stress affects everyone and must be managed effectively to reduce its chronic and deleterious effects this study consists of two sections: in first section the principals of health promotion in different human existence levels, prevention of disease related to stress, the effect of stress on human well-being, and stress management were discussed. In second section the role of rehabilitation specialists (Medical technologist, nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, and social workers in stress management were counted.
Marino, Marianna; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario
We find evidence that workforce educational diversity promotes entrepreneurial behavior of employees as well as the formation of new firms, whereas diversity in demographics hinders transitions to selfemployment. Ethnic diversity favors entrepreneurship in financial and business services....
Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll
The respectful, appropriate use of local wisdom (LW) in health promotion increases penetration and longevity of positive behavior change. Collaborations based on mutual respect, flexibility and trust between health program organizers, traditional and local practitioners, and the communities being...... served are the goal for public health physicians in our modern, globalized world. This meta-analysis reviewed literature from the past 18 years drawn from a wide range of sources. This investigations proposes a grassroots, material shift toward regarding health promotion interventions as partnerships...... when planning, executing, and evaluating health promotion projects. This holistic approach would be based on the premise that LW is equal to expert opinion. This article endorses the integration of LW at every stage of the health promotion process concluding that it is through empowerment...
Reber, Robert J.
Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)
Cunningham, William G.; Owens, Ray C.
Social promotion is accomplishing what it was intended to do; it is relieving the various grades of over-age, floundering students. If we are to help these potential failures, we must devise new educational systems. (Editor)
Leahy, Deana; Simovska, Venka
Purpose - This Special Issue is the second in a series that aims to place the spotlight on educational research and its contribution to the field of school-based health and wellbeing promotion. The purpose of both special issues is to bring together scholars from across the world to consider...... current developments in research on curricula, interventions, policies and practices concerning health education and promotion and related professional development of teachers. Design/methodology/approach – As in the first Special Issue published in 2017 (School health education and promotion: Health...... and wellbeing promotion. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education website and on the EERA website. There was considerable interest from those such as researchers, scholars and practitioners, and as a result, we have been able to publish a second Special Issue. Findings...
Юрий Владимирович Тарасов
Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products market is one of the most saturated consumers’ markets. Characteristic features of it are: high competition, fierce struggle for the customer, specific technologies of promotion. In conditions of globalization and increase in competition both in world pharmaceutical market and in the market of medicines and goods of medical purpose in Russia modern marketing techniques of promotion of the products to the end consumers are the key tools for strengthening market positions – both of producers of pharmaceutical goods and their suppliers, distributors, big whole-sale companies. Among main tools of promotion are: advertising, public relations, stimulation of sales on the market of medicines, personal sales, computer technologies. The article describes different technologies of promotion of medicines: indoor-advertising, hot lines, pharmaceutical exhibitions, packing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-12-1
Chat rooms, recommendation sites, and customer review sections allow consumers to overcome geographic boundaries and to communicate based on mutual interests. However, marketers also have incentives to supply promotional chat or reviews in order to influence the consumers' evaluation of their products. Moreover, firms can disguise their promotion as consumer recommendations due to the anonymity afforded by online communities. We explore this new setting where advertising and word of mouth bec...
In order to promote effectively and smoothly development and introduction of oil substituting energies, comprehensive investigations for improving the energy demand and supply structures and investigations on development infrastructures will be conducted. Investigations will also be given on promoting improvements in overseas coal import base infrastructures, and demand/supply improvement, development and utilization of overseas energies. Investigations and guidance will be given on forming visions to improve demand/supply structures and to introduce and promote technologies thereof. In order to deepen further the understanding and recognition by the nation on oil substituting energies, such publicity activities will be carried out as provision of information, and promotion on popularization and education of energy demand/supply improving systems. For the purpose of promoting international exchanges, information exchange will be promoted on improving the energy demand/supply structures, so is on international information exchange. International cooperative operations on coal utilization, international cooperation on alcohol utilization technologies, and assistance to holding the world energy conferences will be carried out, and an Asia-Pacific Coal Demand and Supply Seminar will be held. In addition, training operations for coal engineers will be performed.
López-Dicastillo, Olga; Canga-Armayor, Navidad; Mujika, Agurtzane; Pardavila-Belio, Miren Idoia; Belintxon, Maider; Serrano-Monzó, Inmaculada; Pumar-Méndez, María J
The World Health Organization states that health promotion is a key strategy to improve health, and it is conceived as a global process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. Health promotion does not focus solely on empowering individuals dealing with their knowledge, attitudes and skills, but it also takes political, social, economic and environmental aspects influencing health and wellbeing into account. The complexity of applying these concepts is reflected in the five paradoxes in health promotion; these arise in between the rhetoric in health promotion and implementation. The detected paradoxes which are described herein involve the patient versus the person, the individual versus the group, disease professionals versus health professionals, disease indicators versus health indicators, and health as an expense versus health as an investment. Making these contradictions explicit can help determine why it is so complex to put the concepts related to health promotion into practice. It can also help to put forward aspects that need further work if health promotion is to put into practice. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Jacob, Nilan T
Over the years, the pharmaceutical industry has been at the forefront of research and innovation in drug discovery and development. The process of drug discovery extending from preclinical studies to multicentric clinical trials and postmarketing phase is a costly affair running into billions of dollars. On the flip side, not all investigational molecules clear the trial phases and get approved, which puts pressure on the manufacturers to maximize the profit from approved drugs. It is in this key area that the practice of drug promotion plays its role. The World Health Organization defines drug promotion as "all informational and persuasive activities by manufacturers and distributors, the effect of which is to influence the prescription, supply, purchase or use of medicinal drugs". With its humble intent of creating awareness among healthcare professionals and updating their knowledge on recent advances in treatment options, drug promotion has been an important tool, but gradually it has evolved to embrace aggressive marketing strategies and sometimes unethical business and scientific practices where the need for profit-making eclipses commitment to patient care and scientific exploration. In this review, we discuss the evolution of drug promotion practices, the various types, its merits and demerits, the influence of drug promotion on physician prescribing behaviour, the role of regulatory bodies, unethical promotional practices and finally summarize with future directions. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.
... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.114 Promotion. Promotion means actions such as paid advertising, sales... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1150.114 Section 1150.114 Agriculture...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1210.312 Section 1210.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1216.23 Section 1216.23 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion...
... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Holiday Mobile Shopping Promotion AGENCY: Postal Service \\TM... Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 709.3 to add a new temporary promotion during November... Promotion (``Promotion''), which will take place between November 7, 2012 and November 21, 2012 (``promotion...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1250.310 Section 1250.310 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.310 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including paid...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1260.122 Section 1260.122 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.122 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including paid...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often.... Promotion activities directed toward consummation of the employee's own sales are exempt. Promotional...
Full Text Available Promotion as most viewable marketing activity is in sports for years. Many companies invest lots of funds for promotion of sport. Investing funds in sports they can promote their companies. This is called sponsorship.
Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in universities throughout the country especially in programs focused on health and behavioral sciences, law, economics, and political science. Introduction to Global Health Promotion is a book that can be used by both instructors and students in the field of global health. The book provides theories and models, human rights, and technology relevant to the field. In addition the book is designed to share best evidence for promoting health and reducing morbidity and mortality in a variety of areas. The book can be used by health educators, public health practitioners, professors, and students as a resource for research and practice in the field of health promotion and disease prevention.
In new product development a central activity is to provide new ideas. Over the last decades experiences with stimulating employee creativity and establishing idea promoting initiatives have been made in industrial practice. Such initiatives are often labeled Idea Management – a research field...... with a growing interest. In this paper I examine three different idea promoting initiatives carried out in Grundfos, a leading pump manufacturer. In the analysis I address what understandings of idea work are inscribed in the initiatives and what role these initiatives play in the organization with respect...... understandings of idea work are inscribed in the idea promoting initiatives as they to some degree have to fit with the understandings embedded in practice in order to work....
Exceptional Parent, 2011
This article is part 2 of a 4-part series on "Health Promotion and Wellness" from the American Association on Health and Disability (AAHD). According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than 54 million people--one in five Americans--have a disability, and these Americans are more likely to report: (1) Being in poorer overall health; (2) Having less…
Edward Adekola Oladele
Full Text Available As the world is making progress towards elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, poor coverage of PMTCT services in Nigeria remains a major challenge. In order to address this, scale-up was planned with activities organized into 3 phases. This paper describes the process undertaken in eight high burden Nigerian states to rapidly close PMTCT coverage gaps at facility and population levels between February 2013 and March 2014.Activities were grouped into three phases-pre-assessment phase (engagement of a wide range of stakeholders, assessment (rapid health facility assessment, a cross sectional survey using mixed methods conducted in the various states between Feb and May 2013 and impact modelling, and post-assessment (drawing up costed state operational plans to achieve eMTCT by 2015, data-driven smart scale-up.Over a period of 10 months starting June 2013, 2044 facilities were supported to begin provision of PMTCT services. This increased facility coverage from 8% to 50%. A 246% increase was also recorded in the number of pregnant women and their families who have access to HIV testing and counselling in the context of PMTCT. Similarly, access to antiretrovirals for PMTCT has witnessed a 152% increase in these eight states between October 2013 and October 2014.A data-driven and participatory approach can be used to rapidly scale-up PMTCT services at community and facility levels in this region. These results present us with hope for real progress in Nigeria. We are confident that the efforts described here will contribute significantly to eliminating new pediatric HIV infection in Nigeria.
Wilms, Inge Linda
(a) Research findings: Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the development in mastery of preparatory reading skills at the first school year. Method: 96 children from a high income, high resource area of Denmark were tested on alphabet knowledge, phonemic awareness, word mobiliza......(a) Research findings: Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the development in mastery of preparatory reading skills at the first school year. Method: 96 children from a high income, high resource area of Denmark were tested on alphabet knowledge, phonemic awareness, word...... mobilization and word reading at the entry and exit to school (0-grade). Results: There are significant differences in preparatory reading skills in five and six year old children. The differences in performance scores are not evened out during the first school year but remain the same. Conclusion: Even...... with intensive day care and similar demographical and socio-economical factors, children will start school with different levels of preparatory reading skills depending on entry to school age. The Danish curriculum which favors standardized reading practice will not be sufficient to even out skills differences...
Full Text Available Po ponad dwudziestu latach od upadku komunizmu, żaden z byłych krajów bloku komunistycznego nie był w stanie całkowicie dogonić krajów technologiczne przodujących. Jednak, kraje postkomunistyczne można podzielić na dwie grupy: te, którym udało się zmniejszyć lukę w produkcie krajowym brutto (PKB w stosunku do krajów technologiczne przodujących, i te, którym nie udało się tego zrobić. Nasuwa się zatem pytanie, jakie uwarunkowania zadecydowały o powodzeniu lub niepowodzeniu konwergencji? Czy to było wczesne wdrożenie reform rynkowych w stylu Konsensusu waszyngtońskiego; Sąsiedztwo zaawansowanych gospodarczo krajów zamożnych; spokojny, pokojowy przebieg transformacji systemowej; przystąpienie do Unii Europejskiej, zasobność kraju w zasoby naturalne, skala suwerenności państwa przed transformacją lub interakcje między tymi czynnikami (lub inne czynniki? Ze względu na małą liczebność próby (N, analiza statystyczna nie jest odpowiednim narzędziem do testowania tych hipotez. Dlatego w artykule zastosowano jakościową analizę porównawczą identyfikując cztery zagadki w wyjaśnianiu przyczyn powodzenia lub klęski wzrostu doganiającego w krajach postkomunistycznych.
Beekink, E.; Kok, J.
This paper compares the statures of men during late adolescence, measured at age 19, with the stature in adulthood, measured at age 25, specially focusing on the influences of household situation and family stress. On average, the men studied became five centimeters taller in the interval, but there
Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal
The construction of synthetic promoter libraries has represented a major breakthrough in systems biology, enabling the subtle tuning of enzyme activities. A number of tools are now available that allow the modulation of gene expression and the detection of changes in expression patterns. But, how...
A. Schinkel (Anders)
textabstractToday, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the
Quagliata, Andrew B.
STEM education is argued as an essential ingredient in preparing our children for careers of the future. This study describes a university festival that includes the promotion of STEM-related career interests in young people among its goals. A total of 203 participants between the age of 7 and 17 completed both pre-event and post-event surveys. In…
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.
This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…
The Euro Solar Programme is financed by the European Commission's Office of Cooperation and its main goal is to promote renewable energy in eight Latin American countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay and Peru. (orig.)
Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hammer, Karin
In this article, we review some of the expression systems that are available for Metabolic Control Analysis and Metabolic Engineering, and examine their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. In a recent approach, artificial promoters for modulating gene expression in micro-organisms...
Hodges, Bonni C
The arrival of a new summer collegiate baseball league franchise to a small central New York city was seen as an opportunity for health promotion. The initiative was set up to explore two overarching questions: (1) Are summer collegiate baseball events acceptable to local public health organizations as viable places for health promotion activities addressing local health issues? (2) Are summer collegiate baseball organizations amenable to health promotion activities built in to their fan and/or player experiences? Planning and implementation were guided by precede-proceed, social cognitive theory, social marketing, and diffusion of innovations constructs. Environmental changes were implemented to support healthy eating and nontobacco use by players and fans; four health awareness nights were implemented at home games corresponding to local public health priorities and included public service announcements, between inning quizzes, information dissemination at concession and team market locations, and special guests. Sales and fan feedback support mostly healthy concession offerings and a tobacco-free ballpark; postseason evaluations from team staff and public health partners support continuing the trials of this sports event as a venue for health promotion.
B. Wierenga (Berend); H. Soethoudt (Han)
textabstractConsumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal
Wierenga, B.; Soethoudt, J.M.
Consumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal outcome for the
Today, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the development of autonomy in children, but also that this aim should…
TAX PROPOSALS: Currently, the combination of worker and employer contributions in a defined contribution plan is capped by the federal tax code at the lesser of $49,000 per year or 100 percent of a worker's compensation (participants over age 50 can make additional "catch-up" contributions). As part of the effort to lower the federal deficit and reduce federal "tax expenditures," two major reform proposals have surfaced that would change current tax policy toward retirement savings: A plan that would end the existing tax deductions for 401(k) contributions and replace them with a flat-rate refundable credit that serves as a matching contribution into a retirement savings account. The so-called "20/20 cap," included by the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform in their December 2010 report, "The Moment of Truth," which would limit the sum of employer and worker annual contributions to the lower of $20,000 or 20 percent of income, the so-called "20/20 cap." IMPACT OF PERMANENTLY MODIFYING THE EXCLUSION OF EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RETIREMENT SAVINGS PLANS FROM TAXABLE INCOME: If the current exclusion of worker contributions for retirement savings plans were ended in 2012 and the total match remains constant, the average reductions in 401(k) accounts at Social Security normal retirement age would range from a low of 11.2 percent for workers currently ages 26-35 in the highest-income groups, to a high of 24.2 percent for workers in that age range in the lowest-income group. IMPACT OF "20/20 CAP": Earlier EBRI analysis of enacting the 20/20 cap starting in 2012 showed it would, as expected, most affect those with high income. However, EBRI also found the cap would cause a significant reduction in retirement savings by the lowest-income workers as well, and younger cohorts would experience larger reductions given their increased exposure to the proposal. IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYER-SPONSORED RETIREMENT PLANS AND AUTO-ENROLLMENT: A key factor in future
... Promotion. Promotion means any action, including paid advertising, to enhance the image or desirability of... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1215.16 Section 1215.16 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...
... demand for fluid milk products. (b) Advertising, which means any advertising or promotion program... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1160.111 Section 1160.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order...
... in the United States, including paid advertising, sales promotion, and publicity. Promotion... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1219.22 Section 1219.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...
... Promotion. Promotion means any action, including but not limited to paid advertising and retail or food... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1230.22 Section 1230.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...
Peramuna, Anantha; Bae, Hansol; Rasmussen, Erling Koch
Securing a molecular toolbox including diverse promoters is essential for genome engineering. However, native promoters have limitations such as the available number or the length of the promoter. In this work, three short synthetic promoters were characterized by using the yellow fluorescent...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1218.17 Section 1218.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 532.407 Section 532.407... Administration § 532.407 Promotion. (a) An employee who is promoted is entitled to be paid at the lowest.... (c) If the promotion is to a position in a different wage area, the agency shall determine the...
... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2013-6; Order No. 1702] Temporary Mailing Promotion... offering a Technology Credit Promotion. This notice informs the public of the Postal Service's filing and... changes associated with offering a Technology Credit Promotion.\\1\\ The promotion is planned to begin on...
The widespread use of retail promotions and the magnitude of dollars spent on them call economists to examine the role of promotional costs in shaping the coordination of pricing and promotion decisions. In this study, I estimate the marginal cost of price promotion in the retail industry. The es...
Many workplace-based health promotion programmes have been reported but only a few include or focus specifically on oral health. Although certain obstacles to oral health promotion in the workplace exist from the management side, from the dental profession and from the employees, these seem...... to be of a scale that can easily be overcome: moreover, numerous potential benefits exist. From the employer's point of view, the main arguments in favour are reduced health care costs, increased productivity and reduced absenteeism. The benefits to the dental profession are possible increases in utilization...... of services and less restraint from fee payment structures and physical environments. The immediate benefit to the employees is easy access to dental services. In addition, work-related dental hazards can be compensated for or prevented and screening activities can be more easily organized. The literature...
Laird, Robert A; Schamp, Brandon S
Using a spatially explicit cellular automaton model with local competition, we investigate the potential for varied levels of competitive intransitivity (i.e., nonhierarchical competition) to promote species coexistence. As predicted, on average, increased levels of intransitivity result in more sustained coexistence within simulated communities, although the outcome of competition also becomes increasingly unpredictable. Interestingly, even a moderate degree of intransitivity within a community can promote coexistence, in terms of both the length of time until the first competitive exclusion and the number of species remaining in the community after 500 simulated generations. These results suggest that modest levels of intransitivity in nature, such as those that are thought to be characteristic of plant communities, can contribute to coexistence and, therefore, community-scale biodiversity. We explore a potential connection between competitive intransitivity and neutral theory, whereby competitive intransitivity may represent an important mechanism for "ecological equivalence."
A number of Western countries are currently adding exit programs targeting militant Islamists to their counterterrorism efforts. Drawing on research into voluntary exit from violent extremism, this article identifies themes and issues that seem to cause doubt, leading to exit. It then provides a ...... the influence attempt as subtle as possible, use narratives and self-affirmatory strategies to reduce resistance to persuasion, and consider the possibility to promote attitudinal change via behavioral change as an alternative to seek to influence beliefs directly....
South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.
Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to deter...
Full Text Available At the beginning of third millennium, the world of sport has been experiencing new marketing techniques to introduce products and services. The purpose of this study was to compare advertising and sales promotion strategies, the effects of different strategies in sport production companies to retain or to gain market share among selected firms, which were active in Iran. The method of survey was descriptive – analytical and some questionnaires were used for collecting data in Likert scale. The validity of the questionnaire were estimated by interview with professors and exports in marketing and sport marketing and the reliability was assessed by using Cronbach's alpha (α= 0.89. Statistical population of the study includes Sport Goods-Producing companies in Iran (N= 180 and 122 firms formed the study sample. For testing the hypothesis, we have used Paired Samples T-Test. The analysis of findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between using advertising and sales promotion strategies. In general, we can say, there are some limited applications of using techniques and methods of sales promotion strategies in Iranian sport industry and methods of advertising. Consequently, regarding the intense competition among companies as well as fast growth of markets and fast changes in consumer’s behavior, identifying the best methods for corresponding relationship to customer would be required.
Heil, Sarah H; Gaalema, Diann E; Herrmann, Evan S
Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dan Y Even
Full Text Available The core promoter, which is generally defined as the region to which RNA Polymerase II is recruited to initiate transcription, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression. The core promoter consists of different combinations of several short DNA sequences, termed core promoter elements or motifs, which confer specific functional properties to each promoter. Earlier studies that examined the ability to modulate gene expression levels via the core promoter, led to the design of strong synthetic core promoters, which combine different core elements into a single core promoter. Here, we designed a new core promoter, termed super core promoter 3 (SCP3, which combines four core promoter elements (the TATA box, Inr, MTE and DPE into a single promoter that drives prolonged and potent gene expression. We analyzed the effect of core promoter architecture on the temporal dynamics of reporter gene expression by engineering EGFP expression vectors that are driven by distinct core promoters. We used live cell imaging and flow cytometric analyses in different human cell lines to demonstrate that SCPs, particularly the novel SCP3, drive unusually strong long-term EGFP expression. Importantly, this is the first demonstration of long-term expression in transiently transfected mammalian cells, indicating that engineered core promoters can provide a novel non-viral strategy for biotechnological as well as gene-therapy-related applications that require potent expression for extended time periods.
Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin
The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.
Christopher J Graves
Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish
Diversity literature in general and Feminist in particular have long promoted alternatives to bureaucracy on the premise that this form of governance is far from gender- and race-neutral, and that inclusive organizing necessitate a flatter, decentralized and more ‘organic’ set-up (Ferguson 1984...... and opportunities conducive to their inclusion. Guided by Ashcraft (2001) concept of organized dissonance, this paper explores how the combination of apparent incongruent elements of stability/flexibility and formality/informality might offer a passage for inclusive organizing....
Full Text Available Modern social structures of Montenegro exist in a hypercomplex and very dynamic environment. The complexity and dynamism are, in part, a consequence of the general characteristics of the modern age, and in part, of the transition processes which have affected the Montenegrin society. The transition processes are taking place at all levels and subsystems of the community, and its sociological milieu is facing inevitability of adaptation and immersion in such processes and trends. There is no more positive promotion for a country than a sports promotion. There is no expert team, public relations agency or a lawyer than can win Montenegro a front page. We can talk about the importance of sports for the promotion of Montenegro from another point of view. If we compare the number of occurrences of names of the selected Montenegrin athletes with that of politicians, scientists or artists in different internet search engines, we will realize how great is the capacity of marketing potential that lies in Montenegrin sports and top athletes as representatives of the products and services with the label - Made in Montenegro. In addition to the success of the Montenegrin athletes globally, the promotion of Montenegro through sports is directly contributed by the major sporting events and contests, on account of which Montenegro presented itself not only as an excellent host and organizer, but also demonstrated the remarkable state and marketing capabilities and competencies. Reputation (image is not achieved overnight. Its semiological and symbolic charge includes all (visual, vocal, environmental, personal, active inputs, which need to be channelled and created. Indeed, continual work in creating and maintaining the image of Montenegro is a public relations function. With efficiently and professionally developed media and PR strategy, the modern state of Montenegro may expect to favourably position its image at the international scene, and to present its
The meeting carried out by the Group was attended by invited specialists on legislation, marketing, consumer attitudes and industry interested in the application of food irradiation. The major objectives of the meeting were to identify barriers and constraints to trade in irradiated food and to recommend actions to be carried out by the Group to promote trade in such foods. The report of the meeting and selected 9 background papers used at the meeting are presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers
In the recent surge of metal-free polymerization techniques, phosphazene bases have shown their remarkable potential as organic promoters/catalysts for the anionic polymerization of various types of monomers. By complexation with the counterion (e.g. proton or lithium cation), phosphazene base significantly improve the nucleophilicity of the initiator/chain-end resulting in rapid and usually controlled anionic/quasi-anionic polymerization. In this review, we will introduce the general mechanism, i.e. in situ activation (of initiating sites) and polymerization, and summarize the applications of such a mechanism on macromolecular engineering toward functionalized polymers, block copolymers and complex macromolecular architectures.
... Health Literacy Health Care Quality Healthy People healthfinder Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Spotlight: This ... 16/2017 This site is coordinated by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of ...
The aqueous extract of S. bryopteris possesses growth-promoting activity as ... promote growth and protect against heat shock and apoptotic activities of ..... Physical parameters .... tive stress and the use of anti-oxidants in diabetes: Linking.
... of the DOD New Investigator award indicate that Shh signaling promotes tumor growth. This proposal addresses the hypothesis that Sonic hedgehog signaling promotes tumor growth by activating stromal cell gene expression...
Foolchand, M. K.
Equality in nursing education and the profession can be promoted in the following ways: a working policy on racism and equal opportunities; curriculum content that explores stereotypes, values, attitudes, and prejudices; and multicultural health research, education, and promotion. (SK)
The thesis gives comprehensive overview on the topic of sales promotions. The special focus is devoted to activities of Procter & Gamble on the Czech market. With increasing importance of sales promotions on the Czech market, the thesis aims to introduce main academic findings concerning sales promotions and test them on brands of Procter & Gamble. The next goal is to find out whether sales promotion strategies of Procter & Gamble provide a competitive advantage for the company on the Czech m...
... promotion means any action, including paid advertising, technical assistance, and trade servicing activities... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1220.121 Section 1220.121 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...
S. Srinivasan (Shuba); K.H. Pauwels (Koen); D.M. Hanssens (Dominique); M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik)
textabstractWhile there has been strong managerial and academic interest in price promotions, much of the focus has been on the impact of such promotions on category sales, brand sales and brand choice. In contrast, little is known about the long-run impact of price promotions on manufacturer and
Epstein, Gil S.
This paper presents a model in which promotion of employees within the internal firm hierarchy is determined by the individuals' allocation of time between promotion/rent-seeking and productive activity. We consider the effect of an increase in the employer's knowledge (information) regarding the employees' productivity levels on the total time spent by the workers in non-productive promotion-seeking activities.
Okazaki, Shintaro; Rubio, Natalia; Campo, Sara
Online gossip has been recognized as small talk on social networking sites (SNSs) that influences consumer behavior, but little attention has been paid to its role. This study makes three theoretical predictions: (a) propensity to gossip online leads to greater information value, entertainment value, and friendship value; (b) upon exposure to a high-involvement product, online gossipers are more willing to spread such information through electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in search of prestige or fame as a knowledge expert; and (c) this tendency will be more pronounced when they are connected with strong ties (rather than weak ties) and belong to a large network (rather than a small network). An experimental survey was conducted with a scenario method. In total, 818 general consumers participated in the survey. A multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) provides empirical support for prediction (1). With regard to predictions (2) and (3), a series of three-way and two-way between-subjective ANOVAs were performed. When a high-involvement product is promoted, gossipers, rather than nongossipers, are more willing to participate in eWOM on an SNS. Furthermore, a significant interaction effect indicates that online gossipers' willingness to particiapte in eWOM would be more pronounced if they belonged to a large network rather than a small network. However, when a low-involvement product is promoted, no interaction effect is found between online gossip and network size. In closing, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, while important limitations are recognized.
Comprehensive promotion of energy and environmental measures are demanded in order to realize improvement in energy demand/supply structures in developing countries where increase in energy demand is anticipated. To achieve this goal, technical transfer related to energy saving technologies and clean coal as well as international energy promotion activities are implemented in China and Indonesia since fiscal 1993. In the field of energy saving, model operations are performed to improve efficiency in such energy consuming fields as steel making, power generation, and oil refining, in addition to cooperation in structuring databases and establishing master plans. In the clean coal field, model operations are conducted to reduce environmental load in coal utilizing areas, in addition to cooperation in establishing master plans for coal utilization. This paper describes feasibility studies on environmentally harmonious coal utilization systems in developing countries, assistance to introduction thereof, and joint verification operations. To rationalize international energy usage, basic surveys on energy utilization efficiency improvement and model operations are carried out mainly in the Asia-Pacific countries.
A survey was conducted on the promotion of 28 prescription drugs in the form of 40 different products marketed in the United States and Latin America by 23 multinational pharmaceutical companies. Striking differences were found in the manner in which the identical drug, marketed by the identical company or its foreign affiliate, was described to physicians in the United States and to physicians in Latin America. In the United States, the listed indications were usually few in number, while the contraindications, warnings, and potential adverse reactions were given in extensive detail. In Latin America, the listed indications were far more numerous, while the hazards were usually minimized, glossed over, or totally ignored. The differences were not simply between the United States on the one hand and all the Latin American countries on the other. There were substantial differences within Latin America, with the same global company telling one story in Mexico, another in Central America, a third in Ecuador and Colombia, and yet another in Brazil. The companies have sought to defend these practices by contending that they are not breaking any Latin American laws. In some countries, however, such promotion is in clear violation of the law. The corporate ethics and social responsibilities concerned here call for examination and action.
Cohen, L; Dobson, H; McGuire, F
To establish whether there is a role for advertising in the promotion of the Breast Screening Programme and what the role of advertising might be. Four hundred and sixty questionnaires were completed by women attending their breast screening appointment. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from the static unit at Calder Street and the mobile unit in Govan. The advertising (budget 30,000 Pounds) campaign ran over an eight week period in the Govan, Paisley Road West and Cardonald areas of Glasgow. Media used included press advertising, The Glasgow Underground, adshells, bus advertising (interiors) and poster distribution via local outlets. Forty-two per cent of the sample were aware of the campaign. Ninety-seven per cent liked the campaign images. Eighty eight per cent felt that breast screening should be advertised more. Screening uptake increased in the areas covered by the advertising campaign. Govan -58%-71% and Ibrox (Paisley Road West and Cardonald) -59%-61%. Women were very supportive of the role of advertising for the Breast Screening Programme. In particular they found the campaign images and messages reassuring, supportive and credible. Their views suggest that the role of advertising should be: To raise awareness of the service To make women more conscious of the benefits of screening To change public perceptions of the screening process However, it is recognised that a fully integrated approach is required for the promotion of the service to account for the improvement in uptake, as advertising cannot be expected to work in isolation.
Full Text Available For a project to be considered successful it is necessary, besides a proper coordination, to be also done a good and wide promotion. In view of communication, promotion and maintenance ensures the organization's image. Disturbances occurring in any type of project, as a result of poor promotion, affect the image of the team and highlight the weaknesses in its management. Therefore, the promotion should be permanently monitored and evaluated. Cause-effect analysis is one of the ways we can identify some of nonconformities of the promotion process within a project.
Larouche, Annie; Potvin, Louise
The Global Working Group on Health Promotion Research (GWG HPR) of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) presents a collection of four articles illustrating innovative avenues for health promotion research. This commentary synthesizes the contributions of these articles while attempting to define the contours of research in health promotion. We propose that innovation in research involves the adoption of a reflexive approach wherein consideration of context plays different roles. The reflexive process consists of questioning what is taken for granted in the conceptualization and operationalization of research. It involves linking research findings and its theoretical foundations to characteristics and goals of the field and observed realities, while orienting reflection on specific objects. The reflexive nature of the research activity is of paramount importance for innovation in health promotion. With the publication of this series, the GWG HPR wishes to strengthen health promotion research capacity at the global level and reaffirm health promotion as a specific research domain.
Self-tracking has become widespread in many parts of the world and is understood by many of its proponents as a way to obtain bodily control and through that to improve healthy living. As such self-tracking can be understood as a particular approach to practicing individual health promotion (even...... though this is not the only incentive for self-tracking). Even though health promotion is often seen as an activity, which resonates with a focus on individual responsibility, such a conception of health promotion contrasts with a broader critical concept of health promotion that emphasize social...... an analysis of social and community oriented dimensions of self-tracking as a form of health promotion compared to the above mentioned broad critical approach to health promotion in order to identify the contradictions as well as common traits and discuss implications for health promoting initiatives...
Watychowicz, Katarzyna; Janda, Katarzyna; Jakubczyk, Karolina; Wolska, Jolanta
Chaenomeles is a genus of deciduous spiny in the family of Rosaceae (Pomoideae subfamily). For centuries, the plant was used for a treatment of anemia, rheumatism, gout and cardiovascular diseases. The chemical composition studies of Chaenomeles showed the presence of many biologically active compounds, such as: phenolic compounds, organic acids, terpenoids, alcohols, ketones or aldehydes. Fruit of Chaenomeles has the largest applying potential due to extensive use of medicinal and high concentration of vitamin C. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that Chaenomeles fruit can help in the healing process of diabetes, tumor, allergies and liver diseases. Futhermore the plant has many positive qualities, like: hepatoprotective effect, anti-inflammatory properties, antioxidant action, antimicrobial and neuroprotective effect. Chaenomeles fruit may promote the growth of beneficial intestinal microflora and contribute to the regulation of body weight. The aim of this review was to summarize the information and data on the chemical composition and therapeutic properties of Chaenomeles.
Kirchhoff, Mary M. [American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)
Green chemistry is an important tool in achieving sustainability. The implementation of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is essential if the expanding global population is to enjoy an increased standard of living without having a negative impact on the health of the planet. Cleaner technologies will allow the chemical enterprise to provide society with the goods and services on which it depends in an environmentally responsible manner. Green chemistry provides solutions to such global challenges as climate change, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics in the environment, and the depletion of natural resources. A collaborative effort by industry, academia, and government is needed to promote the adoption of the green chemistry technologies necessary to achieve a sustainable society.
Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum
Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly.
Full Text Available Public relations give opportunity to the organization to present its image and personality to its own “public”- users, supporters, sponsors, donors, local community and other public.It is about transferring the message to the public, but that is a twoway street. You must communicate with your public, but at the same time you must give opportunity to the public to communicate easier with you. The real public relations include dialog – you should listen to the others, to see things through their perspective. This elaborate is made with the purpose to be useful for every organization, not for the sensational promotion of its achievements, but to become more critical towards its work. Seeing the organization in the way that the other see it, you can become better and sure that you are giving to your users the best service possible.
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Rubio, Natalia; Campo, Sara
Abstract Online gossip has been recognized as small talk on social networking sites (SNSs) that influences consumer behavior, but little attention has been paid to its role. This study makes three theoretical predictions: (a) propensity to gossip online leads to greater information value, entertainment value, and friendship value; (b) upon exposure to a high-involvement product, online gossipers are more willing to spread such information through electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in search of prestige or fame as a knowledge expert; and (c) this tendency will be more pronounced when they are connected with strong ties (rather than weak ties) and belong to a large network (rather than a small network). An experimental survey was conducted with a scenario method. In total, 818 general consumers participated in the survey. A multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) provides empirical support for prediction (1). With regard to predictions (2) and (3), a series of three-way and two-way between-subjective ANOVAs were performed. When a high-involvement product is promoted, gossipers, rather than nongossipers, are more willing to participate in eWOM on an SNS. Furthermore, a significant interaction effect indicates that online gossipers' willingness to particiapte in eWOM would be more pronounced if they belonged to a large network rather than a small network. However, when a low-involvement product is promoted, no interaction effect is found between online gossip and network size. In closing, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, while important limitations are recognized. PMID:23276259
Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo
The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.
Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.
Full Text Available Mining makes a positive contribution to the economy of Indonesia. Significant earnings accrue through the export of tin, coal, copper, nickel and gold. Of these commodities, gold carries the highest unit value. But not all gold mining is regulated. Indonesia has a significant Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM industry, defined as any informal and unregulated system of gold mining. These operations are often illegal, unsafe and are environmentally and socially destructive. New technology is needed to support the sustainable exploitation of gold and other precious metal resources in locations where ASGM is currently practised. This technology must be simple, cheap, easy to operate and financially rewarding. A proven option that needs to be promoted is phytoextraction. This is technology where plants are used to extract metals from waste rock, soil or water. These metals can subsequently be recovered from the plant in pure form, and sold or recycled. Gold phytoextraction is a commercially available technology, while international research has shown that phytoextraction will also work for mercury. In the context of ASGM operations, tailings could be contained in specific ‘farming areas’ and cropped using phytoextraction technology. The banning of ASGM operations is not practicable or viable. Poverty would likely become more extreme if a ban were enforced. Instead, new technology options are essential to promote the sustainable development of this industry. Phytoextraction would involve community and worker engagement, education and employment. New skills in agriculture created through application of the technology would be transferrable to the production of food, fibre and timber crops on land adjacent to the mining operations. Phytoextraction could therefore catalyse sustainable development in artisanal gold mining areas throughout Indonesia.
Heidemann, Ivonete Teresinha Schulter Buss; Alonso da Costa, Maria Fernanda Baeta Neves; Hermida, Patrícia Madalena Vieira; Marçal, Cláudia Cossentino Bruck; Antonini, Fabiano Oliveira; Cypriano, Camilla Costa
This is a descriptive-exploratory study using a qualitative approach, conducted in ten municipalities in southern Brazil. Data were obtained by talking to 21 nurses from February to November 2012, through semi-structured interviews using questions to probe their health promotion practices. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis focused on health promotion concepts. We identified four themes about health promotion practices of family health nurses in Brazil: a) training of nurses for health promotion practice was weak; b) nurses formed health promotion groups around diseases and life stages; c) nurses formed groups to meet community needs; and d) nurses used health promotion techniques in group work. These family health nurses were somewhat aware of the importance of health promotion, and how to assist the population against various ailments using some health promotion strategies. The main weaknesses were the lack of understanding about health promotion concepts, and the difficulty of understanding the relevance of its practice, probably attributable to limitations in training. We conclude that primary care groups in Brazil's unified health system could do better in applying health promotion concepts in their practice.
Johnston, Robyn; Stafford, Julia; Pierce, Hannah; Daube, Mike
In Australia, most alcohol is sold as packaged liquor from off-premises retailers, a market increasingly dominated by supermarket chains. Competition between retailers may encourage marketing approaches, for example, discounting, that evidence indicates contribute to alcohol-related harms. This research documented the nature and variety of promotional methods used by two major supermarket retailers to promote alcohol products in their supermarket catalogues. Weekly catalogues from the two largest Australian supermarket chains were reviewed for alcohol-related content over 12 months. Alcohol promotions were assessed for promotion type, product type, number of standard drinks, purchase price and price/standard drink. Each store catalogue included, on average, 13 alcohol promotions/week, with price-based promotions most common. Forty-five percent of promotions required the purchase of multiple alcohol items. Wine was the most frequently promoted product (44%), followed by beer (24%) and spirits (18%). Most (99%) wine cask (2-5 L container) promotions required multiple (two to three) casks to be purchased. The average number of standard drinks required to be purchased to participate in catalogue promotions was 31.7 (SD = 24.9; median = 23.1). The median price per standard drink was $1.49 (range $0.19-$9.81). Cask wines had the lowest cost per standard drink across all product types. Supermarket catalogues' emphasis on low prices/high volumes of alcohol reflects that retailers are taking advantage of limited restrictions on off-premise sales and promotion, which allow them to approach market competition in ways that may increase alcohol-related harms in consumers. Regulation of alcohol marketing should address retailer catalogue promotions. [Johnston R, Stafford J, Pierce H, Daube M. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:456-463]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Kaijser, C F O
To describe a Swedish approach to occupational health and its implications for health promotion. We start business with a new customer by creating a health policy for the whole company. Every year a follow-up is presented to top management where decisions are taken on what to do for the coming period. The result from a paper mill is presented where cost savings were five times more than expected. We have found that close follow-up and the use of personalized reminders is very useful for individuals. We have also found the importance of working more with "the softer side" i.e. looking into a person's total life situation. Management training activities are essential. This training includes for instance personality, communication and conflict handling seminars and every manager has to go through those seminars. The focus is moved from sick care to health improvement. The result is measured in long-term health for individuals. To reach that level you have to be healthy and have no absences for at least two years. The Swedish occupational health system is a unique system for creating health. With a specially trained staff including MDs, nurses, physiotherapists, psychologists, management consultants and engineers, and working from prevention to treatment, they can create a total view of both individual health and customer company wealth. Working closely together in teams and in close cooperation with customers, they can initiate great changes in both these dimensions.
Gomez, Maria; Vargas, Clemencia; Lizcano, Javier
This study is based on the current scheme followed by a refinery with available Catalytic Cracking capacity to process new feedstocks such as Straight Run Naphtha and Naphthas from FCC. These feedstocks are of petrochemical interest to produce Ethane, Ethylene, Propylene, i-Butane, Toluene and Xylene. To evaluate the potential of these new streams versus the Cracking-charged Residues, it was performed a detailed chemical analysis on the structural groups in carbons [C1-C12] at the reactor product obtained in pilot plant. A catalyst with and without Propylene Promoter Additive was used. This study analyzes the differences in the chemical composition of the feedstocks, relating them to the yield of each petrochemical product. Straight Run Naphthas with a high content of Naphthenes, and Paraffines n[C5-C12] and i[C7-C12] are selective to the production of i-Butane and Propane, while Naphthas from FCC with a high content of n[C5-C12]Olefins, i-Olefins, and Aromatics are more selective to Propylene, Toluene, and Xylene. Concerning Catalytic Cracking of Naphthas, the Additive has similar selectivity for all the petrochemical products, their yields increase by about one point with 4%wt of Additive, while in cracking of Residues, the Additive increases in three points Propylene yield, corresponding to a selectivity of 50% (?C3= / ?LPG).
Muhammad Anwar; Mohammad Saeed
Promotional tools of marketing, (e.g., personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, public relations, promotional games as well as contests), play a key role in creating consumer awareness about the qualities of various products and services available on the market, and can go a long way in contributing to economic progress and social development. Muslim marketers have to be conscious of their position and role in managing marketing activities. The Qur'anic view about man and his resources...
Capps, Oral, Jr.; Williams, Gary W.
This objective of this study is to update last year’s analysis of the effectiveness of the lamb advertising and promotion program of the American Lamb Board (ALB). The main conclusion is that the lamb checkoff program is still working effectively to increase lamb consumption and sales in the United States. The analysis shows that ALB lamb promotion programs have generated roughly 8 additional pounds of total lamb consumption per dollar spent on advertising and promotion and $44.45 in addition...
Katharine G. Abraham; James L. Medoff
This study provides evidence which we believe challenges some conventional assumptions about the promotion process. Based on survey information collected from a large random sample of U.S. private sector firms, we reach two main conclusions. First,seniority independent of productivity appears to play a significant role even in nonunion promotion decisions. Second, the differences between union and nonunion promotion processes, at least with regard to the weight assigned to seniority per se, a...
Under asymmetric information conditions regarding worker productivity between current and prospective employers, a worker's promotion signals his/her productivity. In this Paper, we tested the signalling role of promotion, using Japanese micro-level data. We found that among lower-level positions, promotion seems to signal a worker's ability, and both the business cycle and foreign-capital ratio of his/her company significantly strengthen this effects. These results suggest that external labo...
Instruments of promotion as a part of marketing mix are usually associated with companies but more and more countries use this instrument in order to boost their exports. These foreign trade promotion instruments are now popular in many countries in the world since their use is not opposed to any World Trade Organization rules. Marketing instruments of trade promotions are the most important. They include National Exhibitions and National labels of origin and quality. In order to coordinate t...
Manfred G Grabherr
Full Text Available The choice of promoter is a critical step in optimizing the efficiency and stability of recombinant protein production in mammalian cell lines. Artificial promoters that provide stable expression across cell lines and can be designed to the desired strength constitute an alternative to the use of viral promoters. Here, we show how the nucleotide characteristics of highly active human promoters can be modelled via the genome-wide frequency distribution of short motifs: by overlapping motifs that occur infrequently in the genome, we constructed contiguous sequence that is rich in GC and CpGs, both features of known promoters, but lacking homology to real promoters. We show that snippets from this sequence, at 100 base pairs or longer, drive gene expression in vitro in a number of mammalian cells, and are thus candidates for use in protein production. We further show that expression is driven by the general transcription factors TFIIB and TFIID, both being ubiquitously present across cell types, which results in less tissue- and species-specific regulation compared to the viral promoter SV40. We lastly found that the strength of a promoter can be tuned up and down by modulating the counts of GC and CpGs in localized regions. These results constitute a "proof-of-concept" for custom-designing promoters that are suitable for biotechnological and medical applications.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologous genes with deep phylogenetic histories are likely to retain similar regulatory features. In this report we utilize orthology assignments for pairs of genes co-regulated by bidirectional promoters to map the ancestral history of the promoter regions. Results Our mapping of bidirectional promoters from humans to fish shows that many such promoters emerged after the divergence of chickens and fish. Furthermore, annotations of promoters in deep phylogenies enable detection of missing data or assembly problems present in higher vertebrates. The functional importance of bidirectional promoters is indicated by selective pressure to maintain the arrangement of genes regulated by the promoter over long evolutionary time spans. Characteristics unique to bidirectional promoters are further elucidated using a technique for unsupervised classification, known as ESPERR. Conclusion Results of these analyses will aid in our understanding of the evolution of bidirectional promoters, including whether the regulation of two genes evolved as a consequence of their proximity or if function dictated their co-regulation.
.... Health promotion and wellness programs positively influence the military mission readiness and force protection, increase productivity, reduce health care costs, minimize illness and non-battle...
The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987
Seghezzi, Nicolas; Amar, Patrick; Købmann, Brian
Streptomyces are bacteria of industrial interest whose genome contains more than 73% of bases GC. In order to define, in these GC-rich bacteria, specific sequence features of strong promoters, a library of synthetic promoters of various sequence composition was constructed in Streptomyces. To do so...... cloned into the promoter-probe plasmid pIJ487 just upstream of the promoter-less aphII gene that confers resistance to neomycin. This synthetic promoter library was transformed into Streptomyces lividans, and the resulting transformants were screened for their ability to grow in the presence of different...... projects. Thirty-eight promoters were sequenced, and the sequences of the 14 weakest and 14 strongest promoters were compared using the WebLogo software with small sample correction. This comparison revealed that the −10 box, the −10 extended motif as well as the spacer of the strong Streptomyces promoters...
Pål O Westermark
Full Text Available Circadian rhythms in transcription are generated by rhythmic abundances and DNA binding activities of transcription factors. Propagation of rhythms to transcriptional initiation involves the core promoter, its chromatin state, and the basal transcription machinery. Here, I characterize core promoters and chromatin states of genes transcribed in a circadian manner in mouse liver and in Drosophila. It is shown that the core promoter is a critical determinant of circadian mRNA expression in both species. A distinct core promoter class, strong circadian promoters (SCPs, is identified in mouse liver but not Drosophila. SCPs are defined by specific core promoter features, and are shown to drive circadian transcriptional activities with both high averages and high amplitudes. Data analysis and mathematical modeling further provided evidence for rhythmic regulation of both polymerase II recruitment and pause release at SCPs. The analysis provides a comprehensive and systematic view of core promoters and their link to circadian mRNA expression in mouse and Drosophila, and thus reveals a crucial role for the core promoter in regulated, dynamic transcription.
Igor V Deyneko
Full Text Available Systemically applied Salmonella enterica spp. have been shown to invade and colonize neoplastic tissues where it retards the growth of many tumors. This offers the possibility to use the bacteria as a vehicle for the tumor specific delivery of therapeutic molecules. Specificity of such delivery is solely depending on promoter sequences that control the production of a target molecule. We have established the functional structure of bacterial promoters that are transcriptionally active exclusively in tumor tissues after systemic application. We observed that the specific transcriptional activation is accomplished by a combination of a weak basal promoter and a strong FNR binding site. This represents a minimal set of control elements required for such activation. In natural promoters, additional DNA remodeling elements are found that alter the level of transcription quantitatively. Inefficiency of the basal promoter ensures the absence of transcription outside tumors. As a proof of concept, we compiled an artificial promoter sequence from individual motifs representing FNR and basal promoter and showed specific activation in a tumor microenvironment. Our results open possibilities for the generation of promoters with an adjusted level of expression of target proteins in particular for applications in bacterial tumor therapy.
Full Text Available Instruments of promotion as a part of marketing mix are usually associated with companies but more and more countries use this instrument in order to boost their exports. These foreign trade promotion instruments are now popular in many countries in the world since their use is not opposed to any World Trade Organization rules. Marketing instruments of trade promotions are the most important. They include National Exhibitions and National labels of origin and quality. In order to coordinate the application of these instruments countries have established national bodies for trade promotion. Many studies in the past had argued that national Agencies established to promote export did not had any real success, but recent studies indicate that they could have a significant impact on country export promotion. The result of this rise in impact of national export promotion agencies is due to international effort spearheaded by International Trade Center. The aim of this paper is to point out types and methods of marketing instruments application in trade promotion and to present the effectiveness of these instruments applications.
Garry, Brendan; Boran, Sue
To explore the enablers and barriers perceived by community nurses in the promotion of oral health in an adult community trust directorate. Oral health care promotion in community care settings is being neglected. England and Wales have witnessed marked improvements in periodontal disease; however, no improvements have been seen in older people. A qualitative methodology was employed, where eight nurses from Band 5 to 7 were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. The data was analysed thematically. Data analysis was organised into four themes: professional self-concept and the development of knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary in the promotion of oral health; the impact an organisation has on the promotion of oral health and an exploration of the enablers and barriers identified by the community nurses while delivering care; the relationships between the nurse and patient and the potential impact on oral health promotion; the concept of self-regard in relation to the promotion of oral health and its overall impact. A commitment to improving oral health and requests for additional educational input were apparent. Organisational enablers and barriers were identified, alongside the crucial role a positive self-regard for oral health care may play in the promotion of oral health. Nurses need relevant education, organisational support, adequate resources and support from a multidisciplinary team to deliver optimal oral health promotion.
Petrushina, Irina; Bjerrum, Niels; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen
This paper presents the results of a study on electrochemical promotion (EP) of catalytic reactions using Pt/C/polybenzimidazole(H3PO4)/Pt/C fuel cell performed by the Energy and Materials Science Group (Technical University of Denmark) during the last 6 years[1-4]. The development of our...... understanding of the nature of the electrochemical promotion is also presented....
Jones, J P
The maturing of most consumer markets in the United States has put great pressure on manufacturers in their search for growth. They have concentrated on building sales and expanding share proportions in the stagnant markets with devices like niche products, product extensions, mergers, and international ventures. They have shifted emphasis to sales promotions at the expense of advertising. But promotions, when you come right down to it, mean price reductions. Trade promotions are almost always rebates, and consumer promotions are usually temporary price reductions or coupons. The cost in reduced profit, demonstrated mathematically through calculations of price elasticity, is severe. Besides, when the promotion is over, the manufacturer has not moved forward an inch in shoring up the brand franchise. Promotions bring volatile demand, whereas the producer seeks stable demand. By sustaining a brand image and building customer loyalty, on the other hand, theme advertising can stabilize demand. Moreover, this type of advertising is less likely than promotion is to invite destructive competitive retaliation. Calculation of the advertising elasticity of a brand indicates that sometimes even modest sales increases can produce healthy profit improvement. In a well-planned marketing campaign, there is often good reason to include trade or consumer promotion--to counter a leading competitor's moves, for example. But there is no point in carrying out wild swings at rivals in a struggle for market share. Mathematical techniques can aid the efficiency of marketing planning and put on a more rational basis the decision on where to put the dollars.
Aug 8, 2011 ... FT is thought to be the florigen in plants. In this research, a new method for promoting lily flowering was introduced. The function of FT gene cloned from Arabidopsis on promoting lily flowering was analyzed. pET-30a-FT vector was constructed to indicate the expression of FT:eGFP fuse protein in.
Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…
As librarians we should be actively marketing and promoting our library services. This paper aims to demystify marketing for librarians. Practical solutions are provided on how to implement a marketing strategy, with particular emphasis on the value of using electronic information resources. It also shows the link between promoting library services and raising the profile of the library.
Promoting health underlines the right of each individual to the highest attainable standard of health. It stresses the importance of the participation of people and recognizes different sociocultural values and beliefs that are prevalent throughout the world. Working on health development has a sustainable effect only when done comprehensively: personal development, community development, organizational development, and political development. The international conferences that have marked the way of health promotion have been goal posts of an energetic movement to strengthen health worldwide. The Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion has been a worldwide source of guidance for health promotion through its five strategies: building health policy, creating supportive elements, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, and reorienting health services. Moreover, the Jakarta Declaration on "Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century" identifies five priorities in the next millennium: 1) promote social responsibility for health; 2) increase investments for health development; 3) consolidate and expand partnerships for health; 4) increase community capacity and empower the individual in matters of health; and 5) secure an infrastructure for health promotion. Increasing the investment in health development calls for the need to find new mechanisms for funding as well as reorienting existing resources towards health promotion and health education.
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1209.17 Section 1209.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...
out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in promotion of physical activity. Policies on ... highlighted. Conclusion: Although physiotherapists experience barriers to promoting physical activity, they have good physical activity .... workplace tended to vary from lack of books or articles on.
.... The mobile barcodes must be used for marketing, promotional or educational purposes. They may not be... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mobile Barcode Promotion AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final... and flats, and Standard Mail[reg] letters and flats bearing two-dimensional mobile barcodes. DATES...
Andreea Muntean; Lucian Marina
The specific character of The Fortress of Alba Iulia results from its value as anelement of historical and cultural patrimony. This value must be kept and brought into prominence,and for this it must be promoted with the help of cultural tourism. This paper presents some issuesregarding the promotional strategy of the Alba Iulia Fortress.
... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70...
Valente, Thomas W.; Pumpuang, Patchareeya
This article reviews 10 techniques used to identify opinion leaders to promote behavior change. Opinion leaders can act as gatekeepers for interventions, help change social norms, and accelerate behavior change. Few studies document the manner in which opinion leaders are identified, recruited, and trained to promote health. The authors categorize…
This paper studied the conception of intelligent promotion in cities, present situation and future trend, and reported how gas enterprises should respond. The intelligent promotion is divided into two areas, namely, that in the business buildings and that in private houses. Thia paper studied mainly for that in business buildings and then the concept of intelligent promotion in private houses was arranged. The intelligent promotion was thought by dividing four systems, that is, space and equipment system, service and management system, human system, and social system. But present intelligent promotion is carried out only a part of three systems except last one. A part of human system and social system are remained as the future problems. 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Iten, R.; Oettli, B.; Jochem, E.; Mannsbart, W.
This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories. Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion
Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas
OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...
Woodall, James; Warwick-Booth, Louise; South, Jane; Cross, Ruth
There have been concerns about the decline of health promotion as a practice and discipline and, alongside this, calls for a clearer articulation of health promotion research and what, if anything, makes it distinct. This discussion paper, based on a review of the literature, the authors' own experiences in the field, and a workshop delivered by two of the authors at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, seeks to state the reasons why health promotion research is distinctive. While by no means exhaustive, the paper suggests four distinctive features. The paper hopes to be a catalyst to enable health promotion researchers to be explicit in their practice and to begin the process of developing an agreed set of research principles.
Ringsberg, Karin C
The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 at the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV). This article aims to describe the foundation of the NHPRN, the development and the present status of the work of NHPRN. The NHPRN consists of about 50 senior and junior researchers from all Nordic countries. It is a working network that aims to develop the theoretical understanding of health promotion, to create research cooperation in health promotion from a Nordic perspective and to extend the scope of health promotion through education. Network members meet biannually to discuss and further develop research within the field and are also responsible for the Nordic conference on Health Promotion, organized every 3 years. The NHV hosted the network between 2007 and 2014; and the World Health Organisation (WHO) will assume this role in 2015. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Knudsen, Steen; Knudsen, Steen
transcription start sites. On standardized test setsconsisting of human genomic DNA, the performance of Promoter2.0 compares well with other softwaredeveloped for the same purpose. Availability : Promoter2.0 is available as a Web server at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/promoter/ Contact : email@example.com...
Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth
This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…
Chronic exposure to beta radiation has been tested as a tumor promoting or progressing agent. The dorsal skins of groups of 25 female SENCAR mice were chemically initiated with a single exposure to DMBA, and chronic exposure to strontium-90/yttrium-90 beta radiation was tested as a stage 1, stage 2 or complete skin tumor promoter. Exposure of initiated mice to 0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks produced no papillomas, indicating no action as a complete promoter. Another similar group of animals was chemically promoted through stage 1 (with TPA) followed by 0.5 gray of beta radiation twice a week for 13 weeks. Again no papillomas developed indicating no action of chronic radiation as a stage 2 tumor promoter. The same radiation exposure protocol in another DMBA initiated group receiving both stage 1 and 2 chemical promotion resulted in a decrease in papilloma frequency, compared to the control group receiving no beta irradiation, indicating a tumor preventing effect of radiation at stage 2 promotion, probably by killing initiated cells. Chronic beta radiation was tested three different ways as a stage 1 tumor promoter. When compared to the appropriate control, beta radiation given after initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks), after initiation and along with a known stage 1 chemical promoter (1.0 gray twice a week for 2 weeks), or prior to initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 4 weeks), each time showed a weak (∼ 15% stimulation) but statistically significant (p<0.01) ability to act as a stage 1 promoter. When tested as a tumor progressing agent delivered to pre-existing papillomas, beta radiation (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks) increased carcinoma frequency from 0.52 to 0.68 carcinoma/animal, but this increase was not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. We conclude that in the addition to the known initiating, progressing and complete carcinogenic action of acute exposures to ionizing
Full Text Available This data article tested whether polymorphisms within the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 gene promoter can lead to differences in the promoter activity. The variants, a 120-bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR, −906 T/C, −809 G/A, −616G/C, and −521C/T, were introduced into the DRD4 promoter and the promoter activity was measured in a neural cell line using the luciferase assay. However, no differences were detected among the haplotypes investigated, and the in vitro data obtained from our protocol could not support the involvement of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms in heritable human traits.
Costel Iliuta Negricea
Full Text Available The promotion as one of the components of the marketing mix, laying stress, în this regard,on its role în the deployment of the tourism companies’ activity, the structure of the promotional activity în thetouristic sector as well as the use of the promotional strategies în the attainment of the development targets ofthe tourism companies.So, în the paper there have been mentioned the three levels at which it is made the touristic promotionîn Romania, respectively nationally, by the Ministry of the Tourism, under whose subordination it is theTourism National Authority, the second level is the regional/local one, concerning the activity carried out bythe Centers/Offices of Touristic Information from a series of localities, and the last level refers to the microone, respectively at the level of the tourism companies, which promote their offer individually (the most often.The important role of the promotion în the deployment of the activity of the tourism companies isbeing highlighted by the fact that this makes the connection between the activity of an organization and itscustomers (effective or potential, and, în the touristic field, the content of the promotional activity is stronglystressed by the features of this type of services and of the system of creation and delivery, as well as of thepurchasing behaviour.
Ioana Ancuta Iancu
Full Text Available When we think about promotion in financial investment services companies, we have to consider, not only the offline or traditional type of promotion (personal communication, advertising, sales promotion, public relations and organization identity but online promotion as well. Due to the fact that for more and more people, Internet represents the most important mean of communication, financial investment services companies marketing specialists have a variety of tools at hand. In this study we will describe the most important online promotion tools, like: E-mail Marketing, advertising, search engines, networks socialization, M-Marketing and promotion through web pages. Specific methods of online promotion enable real-time knowledge of the investor’s behavior and can also address to them most effectively. The purpose of this theoretical study is to increase the rate of knowledge and usage of online marketing, in a very conservatory sector of the financial market: Financial Investment Services Companies Marketing. By promoting online a company, a product or a service the marketing specialists can target specific customer, segments and quantify results, which is almost impossible on such a scale and with such precision by traditional methods of promotion. Based on the literature and our own experience, methods were taken up and adapted in financial investment services companies. We show the present state of online marketing, make proposals and describe difficulties which can be encountered when an e-marketing strategy is made. The conclusion of our study is that more and more companies use online tools in their marketing strategies. There is a change in attitude by the Financial Investment Services Companies web pages: from a reserved one in 2010 to one open to innovation in 2015; we believe that SSIF Broker is an illustrative example in this regard. Instead, our opinion is that Search Engine Optimization should be used more by SSIF Broker
Heerkens, Johannes M.G.
Looks at how Europe can catch up with the United States in several critical areas of aerospace technology. Creation of a business-friendly atmosphere for civil aviation manufacturers; Promotion of cooperation between aerospace research institutes; Sponsorship of technology demonstrator programs at
Fiscal federalism can be an important complement to structural reforms and budget consolidation. Empowering sub national governments, while at the same time making them accountable to local citizens in the uses of tax money, could improve the allocation of public resources and promote catch up of the lagging regions. Italy has launched itself in…
Guarino, Cassandra M.; Buddin, Richard; Pham, Chung; Cho, Michelle
Early and accurate identification of special needs, coupled with an appropriate course of treatment and educational plan, is important to academic progress, in particular for economically disadvantaged children with fewer family resources to catch up if they fall behind. A first step in improving mechanisms to promote early identification is to…
Sheen, Gwo-Ji; Wang, Shih-Yen; Yeh, Yingchieh
This paper considers the promotion cost sharing decision between a supplier and a retailer. The customer demand is affected by both national and local promotional effects while the local promotional effect on a customer is dependent on the distance between the retailer and this customer. We propose a continuous approximation approach to modelling the sum of the customer demand in the whole market area served by the retailer. A model is provided to help managers decide on the retail price, the local advertising expenditure, the national advertising expenditure, and the supplier participation rate, with consideration of the influence of distance on the promotional effect. We also find that the supplier's promotion cost sharing rate increases as the market size increases or the influence of distance on the promotional effect decreases. A numerical example is given to show that the nature of distance-dependent promotional effect has a significant impact on the decisions and profits.
Full Text Available Contemporary marketing takes place in the field of permanent interconnection, of instant information and immediate rewards. Communication through marketing promotion will take these characteristics into account or will be just an inefficient spending. The Romanian market is no different from the global one. Marketing promotion currently has new tools that lead to new challenges in that it makes use of traditional, yet pow erful forms, but also absolute ways of communication. The Romanian promotion is helped today by these tools, but its task is more complex than it was a decade ago .
Full Text Available The paper is focused on banking sector in Serbia, particulary on promotional activities of banks in public and on media. The authors of paper tried to find cause and effect relationship between business success and working quality on the one hand and investment in promotion activities of bank on the other hand, like important instrument of bank's business policy realization. Promotional activities appear like successful instrument in order to increase satisfaction of the bank's clients, which effect the increase of successfulness of banks' business.
Full Text Available The literature abounds with articles and books on marketing and especially promoting consumer products. As consumers for these goods we are exposed each day to promotional messages of major product brands in order to attract or retain us when we are already buyers. Fewer things have been written about how to do promotion of industrial goods, which are a special category of goods, but have a very high quota in trade of goods, both nationally and internationally. This article will analy
The purpose of conducting this thesis was to study on the promotional strategy of a trekking company. The aim of this thesis was to study on current promotional strategy and suggest the case company with new and effective ideas and tools for promotion. The theoretical part of this thesis includes basic knowledge of marketing, promotion, promotional mix and promotional strategy. Also, a short overview of tourism business of Nepal and promotional strengths of the case company is also done. H...
Background: Community health promotion efforts involve communicating resource information to priority populations. Which communication strategies are most effective is largely unknown for specific populations. Objective: A random-dialed telephone survey was conducted to assess health resource comm...
Nov 2, 2009 ... phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), trans-zeatin riboside (t-zr) and abscisic acid ... soil of Pakistan and their growth promoting effects have .... adapt themselves to salty environment of Khewra salt.
... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.640 Promotional materials. For drug products being... publication within 120 days following marketing approval. After 120 days following marketing approval, unless...
Abstract Aim: The Danish National Board of Health has expressed its commitment to social equality in health, evidence-informed health promotion and public health ethics, and has issued guidelines for municipalities on health promotion, in Danish named prevention packages.The aim of this article...... is to analyse whether the Board of Health adheres to ideals of equality, evidence and ethics in these guidelines. Methods: An analysis to detect statements about equity, evidence and ethics in 10 health promotion packages directed at municipalities with the aim of guiding the municipalities towards evidence......-informed disease prevention and health promotion. Results: Despite declared intentions of prioritizing social equality in health, these intentions are largely absent from most of the packages.When health inequalities are mentioned, focus is on the disadvantaged or the marginalized. Several interventions...
Schinkel, M.P.; Spiegel, Y.
Several competition authorities have taken public interest considerations, such as promoting sustainable consumption and production, into account in cartel proceedings.We show that when consumers value sustainable products and firms choose investments in sustainability before choosing output,
Schinkel, M.P.; Spiegel, Y.
Several competition authorities consider the exemption of horizontal agreements among firms from antitrust liability if the agreements sufficiently promote public interest objectives such as sustainable consumption and production. We show that when consumers value sustainable products and firms
... sorghum. This includes paid advertising and public relations. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS.... Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the end-user...
Scriven, Angela; Hodgins, Margaret
...: www.sagepublications.comHealth Promotion Settings Principles and Practice Edited by Angela Scriven and Margaret HodginsEditorial arrangement, Introduction to Part II © Angela Scriven and Margaret...
Wills, Jane; Rudolph, Michael
Health promotion in South Africa is in its early stages and while there is some institutional development and capacity building for managers, there has been relative disregard and lack of attention of the wider health promotion workforce who carry out community-based health promotion activities. This article describes one regional education and training programme for health promoters as well as the limited available evidence on the impact of the project on learners and organizations. Marked differences before and after the implementation of the training activities were reported in relation to behaviour change communication and project planning, in addition to self-reported positive change in knowledge, confidence and a high level of participant satisfaction. Investment in individual skills development needs to be accompanied by wider workforce development with organizational/institutional development and recognised competencies frameworks.
This is the second special issue of Health Education which features research, theory and practice based perspectives on what counts as desirable outcomes of health promotion in schools in terms of health as well as education, and the effective processes in schools which lead to these outcomes....... The focus in the first special issue was on highlighting the argument that the question about the outcomes of the health-promoting schools should not be limited to narrowly defined health outcomes but needs to be closely linked with the core tasks and values of the school. Building further on this argument......, the papers in this issue feature a number of research issues of relevance for the effectiveness of the health-promoting schools approach, as well as a variety of research and evaluation methodologies contributing to the debate about what counts as reliable evidence within the health-promoting schools...
Ayurvedic Amalaki Rasayana promotes improved stress tolerance and thus ... and some otheringredients, and is used for general good health and healthy aging. ... Wild-type larvae/flies rearedon AR-supplemented food survived the various ...
Prince, Jonathan D
In order to promote life control, this proposal suggests strategies to help people who use community mental health services to access small loans or "microcredit" for entrepreneurship in self-help groups.
Hill-Mey, Patricia E.; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Merrill, Ray M.; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly; Richardson, Glenn E.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the multifaceted nature and benefits of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs), with emphasis on the college setting. An assessment of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted of articles published since 2000. Several search engines were accessed and selected key words were used. Most studies examining WHPPs have focused on return on investment and productivity. Research that targets the softer side-benefits of health promotion programs in the workplace is less available. Although the college setting offers some advantages for implementing health promotion programs. They may also have unique challenges due to their large and diverse employee population. There is little research to show the effectiveness and unique challenges of college-based health promotion programs. PMID:25861657
Rabøl, Louise Isager; McPhail, Mette Arnsfelt; Østergaard, Doris
on teamwork and communication promote safe information exchange. Lack of standard assignments and procedures, a flat hierarchy that leaves responsibility unclear, different agendas for the treatment of the patient, interruptions, and multimultitasking, inhibit safe information exchange. Conclusion: Power...
Carlsson, Monica Susanne
shows that ‘a production logic’ and economic values are emphasized in the motivation of the project and in the knowledge base underpinning the competency-framework. The discussion of the responsiveness of the formulations in relation to school health promotion points out that there are matches between......The purpose of the study is to critically explore the formulations of competencies and standards in the European project “Developing Competencies and Professional Standards for Health Promotion Capacity Building in Europe”, and to discuss them in relation to school health promotion. The analysis...... these formulations, and essential values and approaches in school health promotion. However, by underemphasizing the potential of education and learning, and reducing changes at individual and group level to behavioral change, the formulations of competencies and standards are not in concert with essential values...
Huysmans, F.; Franke, M.
Librarians and (public) libraries are active in promoting information literacy and (more recently) media literacy. After a brief historical sketch, this document describes how public libraries assist patrons and educational institutions in enhancing knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to
This chapter looks at how food and drink narratives are utilised to promote and create place identities. By exploring the concepts of heritage branding and constructed historical narratives, it illustrates how iconic cuisines are being employed to promote place and attract consumers. It argues that the marketing process is more than utilising established aspects of heritage cuisines and historical truths, as it is often about creating narratives to meet the evolving needs of destinations and ...
Mariño, R J
The emphasis of Australian Government policy is on the promotion of good health in later life and positive experiences with ageing. Conceptually, a new gerontology framework has replaced the study of disease, decline, loss and disability. Within this framework, health promotion offers a mechanism by which individuals can be assisted to create environments that offer better opportunities for continued participation in society and improved quality of health and self-care. Oral health is instrumental to older people's health, life satisfaction, quality of life and perception of self. Australia is culturally diverse, composed of numerous ethno-cultural groups coexisting within a larger, predominant culture, creating a multicultural and multiracial society. However, despite this cultural diversity, the well documented ageing profile of the Australian population and repeated calls for comprehensive geriatric assessment, the oral health of older adults remains a challenge for oral health providers and for society. A major challenge will be to translate existing knowledge and experience of disease prevention and health promotion into appropriate programmes for older adults. Health promotion is the key to improving oral health in later life as it encourages older adults to be proactive in regard to their health. Therefore, increased efforts should be directed towards identifying opportunities for health promotion activities and the development of community based models that encourage older people to improve and maintain their oral health. Ignoring opportunities for health promotion may increase inequalities in oral health and may lead to even greater demands for curative and oral rehabilitative services from these groups This article firstly provides a brief rationale for oral health promotion. Its second part explores the influence of culture on health beliefs, behaviours and outcomes in older adults and how oral health can relate to cultural background. The last section
Buljubašić, Iva; Borić, Marta
Franchising is a model of company growth, which significantly reduces uncertainty in the riskiest stages of growth: business start–up and growth phase. The impact of promotion in franchising has not been investigated in relevant literature. Therefore, this paper examines the impact of promotion on franchising through unconventional marketing on the example of private company X which is the main context of the present study. This private company X was chosen as a relevant example b...
Full Text Available An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.
Soteriades, Marios D.; Avgeli, Vasiliki A.
This paper provides an outline of principal marketing strategy issues and their application in promoting tourism destinations. It provides an overview of a report prepared for the Tourism Promotion Committee (T.P.C.) of Heraklion District, Crete. In the context of the tourist industry, the ‘product’ is an experience achieved through the combination of a diverse range of products and services. Nowadays tourism destinations face new and increasing marketing challenges arising from changing tour...
Palma, Jessica Anne
While health is defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’, physical and mental health have traditionally been separated. This paper explores the question: How can physical and mental health promotion strategies be integrated and addressed simultaneously? A literature review on why physical and mental health are separated and why these two areas need to be integrated was conducted. A conceptual framework for how to integrate physical and mental health promotion st...
Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...
M. Fariz Syahbani
ABSTRACT Do promotions through food blogger account is the way that is currently being sought after by the culinary business operators to introduce their restaurant. Bloggers have a significant impact of people searching for information through social sites before making a purchase. In other words, the food blogger become a benchmark for people in considering whether or not a restaurant worth visiting. This research aims to determine of promotion through food blogger on social media instagram towards purchase intention of college student in Bandung. This research is a quantitative research. The method used is descriptive - causal. The sampling technique used is a non-probability sample of the type of incidental sampling. The data collection was distributed with questionnaires to 400 respondents who are collage students in Bandung was using instagram and recognizing the phenomenon of food bloggers as media promotion. Data analysis technique used is multiple linear regression analysis. The research results, food blogger promotion through social media on instagram be in good category. Purchase intention of college student at Bandung in good categories. Promotion through food blogger on social media instagram partial effect consisting of context, communication, collaboration and connection to the buying interest of collage students in Bandung and simultaneously influence the buying interest of collage students in Bandung. From this study, it appears that through the instagram as an effective media campaign can provide an explanation and the message delivered effectively and efficiently for displaying a variety of contexts with good multimedia features. Keyword : Promotion, Social Media Marketing, Food Blogger, Purchase Intention
Fernando de Oliveira Santini
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the influence sales promotion types have on the relationship between perception of financial risk and perception of utilitarian and hedonic value on consumer purchase intentions. To this end, an experiment was conducted involving 589 participants divided into two groups defined by distinct scenarios in which the sales promotion type (monetary vs. non-monetary was manipulated. The working hypotheses predicted a direct and positive relationship between the perception of (hedonic and utilitarian consumption value and purchase intention for a promoted product and a negative relationship between the perception of consumption value and the perception of financial risk. In addition, it was supposed that the sales promotion type would moderate these direct relationships and that a monetary promotion would have a stronger effect on the relationship between purchase intention and perceived product utility, whereas a non-monetary promotion would have a stronger effect on the other relationships (hedonic value and financial risk perceptions. Analysis of the outcomes supported the proposed hypotheses.
Full Text Available The concept of tourism product appears as a part of the travel agencies and the tourist areas such as: Bucovina and Maramures, Danube Delta, Dobrogea etc. Tourist areas have become real brands along the sights of Romania. Associations promote tourism, tourist information centers and tourist promotion offices of Romania, together with ANAT should devise strategies to promote tourism brands representing Romania. Regarding tourism brand, it is a picture element, which identifies the products or services of a tourist zone. Customers are the ones who decide if that brand live up to their expectations or not. Travel Branding is a process of creating and maintaining a brand in the hospitality industry. Travel Branding refers to identifying and exploiting competitive advantages in our case about the strengths of your product or Bucovina tourist area. Bucovina ,,Neverland” promoting a full of beauty. I think it can awaken from the numbness Romanian tourism. Just as red Bordeaux promote France among others, as well as Voronet blue is a Romanian brand, internationally recognized, and I think that is the most important national tourism brand. After many this area is considered a wonderland of Romania, a pearl of the country that can make the most to promote the culture and traditions of this part of Europe, so-called Switzerland of Romania. It's an area where natural beauty is complemented by monasteries and hospitality of the people of the lands.
Heissig, Florian; Krause, Johannes; Bryk, Jaroslaw; Khaitovich, Philipp; Enard, Wolfgang; Pääbo, Svante
It has long been argued that changes in gene expression may provide an additional and crucial perspective on the evolutionary differences between humans and chimpanzees. To investigate how often expression differences seen in tissues are caused by sequence differences in the proximal promoters, we tested the expression activity in cultured cells of human and chimpanzee promoters from genes that differ in mRNA expression between human and chimpanzee tissues. Twelve promoters for which the corresponding gene had been shown to be differentially expressed between humans and chimpanzees in liver or brain were tested. Seven showed a significant difference in activity between the human promoter and the orthologous chimpanzee promoter in at least one of the two cell lines used. However, only three of them showed a difference in the same direction as in the tissues. Differences in proximal promoter activity are likely to be common between humans and chimpanzees, but are not linked in a simple fashion to gene-expression levels in tissues. This suggests that several genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees might be responsible for a single expression difference and thus that relevant expression differences between humans and chimpanzees will be difficult to predict from cell culture experiments or DNA sequences.
... program or project; and (e) No advertising or promotion programs shall use false or unwarranted claims or... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341...
... development, and marketing promotion, including paid advertising, designed to assist, improve, or promote the... direct expenditures for such marketing promotion including paid advertising as may be authorized. The... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their uses...
... (2) The evaluation of consumer education, promotion and research activities implemented under the... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion...
Sendall, Marguerite C.; Lidstone, John; Fleming, MaryLou; Domocol, Michelle
Background: The term "green health promotion" is given to health promotion underpinned by the principles of ecological health and sustainability. Green health promotion is supported philosophically by global health promotion documents such as the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the ecological public health movement. Green…
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion...
Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E
Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning.
Tung, Chen-Yin; Yin, Yun-Wen; Liu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chia-Chen; Zhou, Yi-Ping
To explore the employers' and promoters' perspective of health promotion quality according to the healthy workplace accreditation. We assessed the perspectives of 85 employers and 81 health promoters regarding the quality of health promotion at their workplaces. The method of measurement referenced the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP) quality criteria. In the large workplaces, the accredited corporation employers had a higher impression (P health promoters from different sized workplaces with or without accreditation (P > 0.05). It seems that employers' perspectives of healthy workplace accreditation surpassed employers from non-accredited workplaces. Specifically, large accredited corporations could share their successful experiences to encourage a more involved workplace in small-medium workplaces.
Oda, Ken; Terado, Shiho; Toyoura, Rieko; Fukuda, Hisashi; Kawauchi, Moriyuki; Iwashita, Kazuhiro
Promoter shutoff is a general method for analyzing essential genes, but in the fungus Aspergillus oryzae, no tightly repressed promoters have been reported. To overcome the current limitations of conditional promoters, we examined sorbitol- and galactose-responsive genes using microarrays to identify regulatable genes with only minor physiological and genetic effects. We identified two sorbitol-induced genes (designated as sorA and sorB), cloned their promoters, and built a regulated egfp and brlA expression system. Growth medium-dependent enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) fluorescence and conidiation were confirmed for egfp and brlA under the control of their respective promoters. We also used this shutoff system to regulate the essential rhoA, which demonstrated the expected growth inhibition under repressed growth conditions. Our new sorbitol promoter shutoff system developed can serve as a valuable new tool for essential gene analyses of filamentous fungi.
Bacha, S.; Khatoon, A.; Asif, M.; Bshir, A.
The promoter region of sucrose synthase (susy-Sl) was identified and isolated from tomato. The 5? deletion analysis was carried out for the identification of minimum optimal promoter. Transgenic lines of Arabidopsis thaliana were developed by floral dip method incorporating various promoter deletion cassettes controlling GUS reporter gene. GUS assay of transgenic tissues indicated that full length susy-Sl promoter and its deletion mutants were constitutively expressed in vegetative and floral tissues of A. thaliana. The expression was observed in roots, shoots and flowers of A. thaliana. Analysis of 5? deletion series of susy-Sl promoter showed that a minimum of 679 bp fragment of the promoter was sufficient to drive expression of GUS reporter gene in the major tissues of transgenic A. thaliana. (author)
FRANCISCO JAVIER VILLABA MERLO; IÑAKI PERIÁÑEZ CAÑADILLAS
Nowadays, there are many factors that have provoked a greater use of promotion by some manufacturers in the consumption markets. Traditionally, firms have used promotion as the last resource for the achievement of the goals of selling. When we analyse promotional management, this kind of performance represents an orientation to sales. In our field work we justify the breaking-off with this management philosophy, starting with a newdefinition for “sales promotion”, that includes the internal c...
Knudsen, Steen; Knudsen, Steen
Motivation : A new approach to the prediction of eukaryotic PolII promoters from DNA sequence takesadvantage of a combination of elements similar to neural networks and genetic algorithms to recognize a set ofdiscrete subpatterns with variable separation as one pattern: a promoter. The neural...... of optimization, the algorithm was able todiscriminate between vertebrate promoter and non-promoter sequences in a test set with a correlationcoefficient of 0.63. In addition, all five known transcription start sites on the plus strand of the completeadenovirus genome were within 161 bp of 35 predicted...
Rajkumar, Arun Stephen; Liu, Guodong; Bergenholm, David
Advances in synthetic biology and our understanding of the rules of promoter architecture have led to the development of diverse synthetic constitutive and inducible promoters in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, the design of promoters inducibleby specific endogenous or environmental conditions...
Hawley, D K; McClure, W R
The DNA sequence of 168 promoter regions (-50 to +10) for Escherichia coli RNA polymerase were compiled. The complete listing was divided into two groups depending upon whether or not the promoter had been defined by genetic (promoter mutations) or biochemical (5' end determination) criteria. A consensus promoter sequence based on homologies among 112 well-defined promoters was determined that was in substantial agreement with previous compilations. In addition, we have tabulated 98 promoter ...
Stoddard, S.F.; Howe, M.M.
Mu promoters active during the lytic cycle were located by isolating RNA at various times after induction of Mu prophages, radiolabeling it by capping in vitro, and hybridizing it to Mu DNA fragments on Southern blots. Signals were detected from four new promoters in addition to the previously characterized P e (early), P cM (repressor), and P mom (late) promoters. A major signal upstream of C was first observed at 12 min and intensified thereafter with RNA from cts and C amber but not replication-defective prophages; these characteristics indicate that this signal arises from a middle promoter, which we designate P m . With 20- and 40-min RNA, four additional major signals originated in the C-lys, F-G-I, N-P, and com-mom regions. These signals were missing with RNA from C amber and replication-defective prophages and therefore reflected the activity of late promoters, one of which we presume was P mom . Uninduced lysogens showed weak signals from five regions, one from the early regulatory region, three between genes B and lys, and one near the late genes K, L, and M. The first of these probably resulted from P cM activity; the others remain to be identified
Petrushina, Irina; Bandur, Viktor; Cappeln, Frederik Vilhelm
investigation was to study a possible non-Faradaic electrochemical promotion of the liquid-phase catalytic reaction. It has been shown that there are two negative potential promotion areas with maximum effects at approximately -0.1 and -0.2 V, and one positive potential promotion area with the maximum effect...... between 0.1 and 0.3 V. There were no Faradaic reactions in the negative polarization region, and there was an anodic current which was less than 16% of the theoretical value for an exclusively Faradaic SO2 oxidation. Therefore the promotion effects at negative polarization are completely non-Faradaic. All...... the promotion effects have been explained as mainly due to charging of the electric double layer at the gold electrode. The effect at -0.2 V also depends on the V2O5 concentration and is more pronounced at higher V2O5 concentrations. This has been ascribed to a destruction of the vanadium polymeric chains...
Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Andrade, Ana Cláudia dos Santos Pereira; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Arantes, Thalita Souza; Boratto, Paulo Victor Miranda; Silva, Ludmila Karen dos Santos; Dornas, Fábio Pio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; La Scola, Bernard; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos
For many years, gene expression in the three cellular domains has been studied in an attempt to discover sequences associated with the regulation of the transcription process. Some specific transcriptional features were described in viruses, although few studies have been devoted to understanding the evolutionary aspects related to the spread of promoter motifs through related viral families. The discovery of giant viruses and the proposition of the new viral order Megavirales that comprise a monophyletic group, named nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), raised new questions in the field. Some putative promoter sequences have already been described for some NCLDV members, bringing new insights into the evolutionary history of these complex microorganisms. In this review, we summarize the main aspects of the transcription regulation process in the three domains of life, followed by a systematic description of what is currently known about promoter regions in several NCLDVs. We also discuss how the analysis of the promoter sequences could bring new ideas about the giant viruses’ evolution. Finally, considering a possible common ancestor for the NCLDV group, we discussed possible promoters’ evolutionary scenarios and propose the term “MEGA-box” to designate an ancestor promoter motif (‘TATATAAAATTGA’) that could be evolved gradually by nucleotides’ gain and loss and point mutations. PMID:28117683
Graziele Pereira Oliveira
Full Text Available For many years, gene expression in the three cellular domains has been studied in an attempt to discover sequences associated with the regulation of the transcription process. Some specific transcriptional features were described in viruses, although few studies have been devoted to understanding the evolutionary aspects related to the spread of promoter motifs through related viral families. The discovery of giant viruses and the proposition of the new viral order Megavirales that comprise a monophyletic group, named nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV, raised new questions in the field. Some putative promoter sequences have already been described for some NCLDV members, bringing new insights into the evolutionary history of these complex microorganisms. In this review, we summarize the main aspects of the transcription regulation process in the three domains of life, followed by a systematic description of what is currently known about promoter regions in several NCLDVs. We also discuss how the analysis of the promoter sequences could bring new ideas about the giant viruses’ evolution. Finally, considering a possible common ancestor for the NCLDV group, we discussed possible promoters’ evolutionary scenarios and propose the term “MEGA-box” to designate an ancestor promoter motif (‘TATATAAAATTGA’ that could be evolved gradually by nucleotides’ gain and loss and point mutations.
Cook, Kay E
This article contributes to the debate about the use of reliability assessments in qualitative research in general, and health promotion research in particular. In this article, I examine the use of reliability assessments in qualitative health promotion research in response to health promotion researchers' commonly held misconception that reliability assessments improve the rigor of qualitative research. All qualitative articles published in the journal Health Promotion International from 2003 to 2009 employing reliability assessments were examined. In total, 31.3% (20/64) articles employed some form of reliability assessment. The use of reliability assessments increased over the study period, ranging from qualitative articles decreased. The articles were then classified into four types of reliability assessments, including the verification of thematic codes, the use of inter-rater reliability statistics, congruence in team coding and congruence in coding across sites. The merits of each type were discussed, with the subsequent discussion focusing on the deductive nature of reliable thematic coding, the limited depth of immediately verifiable data and the usefulness of such studies to health promotion and the advancement of the qualitative paradigm.
Full Text Available Promotional tools of marketing, (e.g., personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, public relations, promotional games as well as contests, play a key role in creating consumer awareness about the qualities of various products and services available on the market, and can go a long way in contributing to economic progress and social development. Muslim marketers have to be conscious of their position and role in managing marketing activities. The Qur'anic view about man and his resources should be the basis for designing promotional tools and media strategies. The latter are meant to inculcate Islamic values, build the characters of customers and marketers and uphold truth in the society. Ethical behavior in advertising and other promotional activities must be based on a strong foundation of Islamic tenets and injunctions. There is a need to develop not only general guidelines for achieving marketing goals and corporate objectives in a morally acceptable manner, but also to devise an Islamic code of marketing by Muslim marketers, corporate leaders, and sharīʿah experts.
Maite Monar van Vliet
Full Text Available The research implants a theoretical-practical vision of reading promotion at the educative field. On one hand, they show us the state of the issue focusing on the legislative field, the research and promotion of virtual reading and, concretely, in the País Valenciano case, a practical research location. A panoramic from the nowadays legislation is established parting from the UNESCO. The LOE and the reading plans. Specialists’ different studies enrich the vision and virtual platforms complete the established theoretical description. On the other hand, a qualitative field work is done with the objective of evaluating the benefits of webs, blogs and wikis in the classroom for reading promotion during the school year 2010-2011 with three groups in three different centres. The work consists of watching the digital platforms application for the reading promotion in the classroom and analysing its usefulness through some cases studies, a discussion group and the triangulation. The research concludes with some reflections which invite the reader to approach to the reading promotion at the educational field of virtual technology.
Falcón, Gladys Carmela Santos; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Backes, Dirce Stein
The objective of the study is to understand the meaning built by students and professors on health promotion in the teaching and learning process of health care in Nursing. It is a qualitative study using ground theory as a methodological reference. Data was collected through interviews, with three samples groups, 13 students and four professors, by classroom observation, and through meetings with nursing professors. The central subject resulting from this analysis was: constructing teaching and learning in order, disorder and self organization for a new way of caring promoting health. The teaching/learning process directed at health promotion develops in a stage of crisis, going from a state of order to a state of disorder that is uncertain and contradictory regarding what society understands about health.
A. R. Rama
Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment.
The aim of this paper is to reflect critically on the current health promotion initiatives targeting overweight individuals in Western countries. The paper’s methodological approach is to draw on analytical findings from my and other sociologists’ empirical work on how the problems of overweight...... people are being defined in various settings in Denmark, England, Australia and the US. I try to illustrate how health promotion targeting overweight individuals can not only be seen as a project aimed at securing longer lives and fewer illnesses for people carrying excess fat but also a moral project...... that, in a more general sense, aims to tell people how they ought to live their lives. I link this moral aspect of health promotion to a) the medicalization tendency in current Western society (e.g. a growing pharmaceutical industry and its economic interest in transforming the human condition of being...
Full Text Available Electrochemical promotion (EP of catalysis has already been recognized as “a valuable development in catalytic research” (J. Pritchard, 1990 and as “one of the most remarkable advances in electrochemistry since 1950” (J. O’M. Bockris, 1996. Laboratory studies have clearly elucidated the phenomenology of electrochemical promotion and have proven that EP is a general phenomenon at the interface of catalysis and electrochemistry. The major progress toward practical utilization of EP is surveyed in this paper. The focus is given on the electropromotion of industrial ammonia synthesis catalyst, the bipolar EP and the development of a novel monolithic electropromoted reactor (MEPR in conjunction with the electropromotion of thin sputtered metal films. Future perspectives of electrochemical promotion applications in the field of hydrogen technologies are discussed.
Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit; Kjærgård, Bente
reduction and how these strategies affect the prospects for promoting health and sustainable food production and consumption. Danish food waste reduction strategies are used as examples with references to selected policy documents on food waste reduction strategies launched by international organisations...... sustainability and, vice versa, sustainability conditions health. Thus, to avoid unintended, negative effects the strategies directed towards sustainable development must be correlated with strategies for health promotion. The conceptual model is used to take a closer look at the complexities of food waste...... of food as food waste is reduced. The lack of attention given to reducing the oversupply of food calls for governance initiatives directed towards reducing the overproduction of primary food produce in order to reap the environmental benefits and the health promotion benefits of reducing food waste...
Haglund, Bo J A; Tillgren, Per
Based on the storytelling tradition and analyses of conference material, this article provides an overview of the evolving Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) and its conferences over the last 20 years. The story goes from the planning of the first conference in Bergen, Norway, back in 1996 to the eighth conference in Jyväskylä, Finland, in 2016. There have been three phases of development. During the first phase, 1996-2007, the five first conferences were initiated and implemented by departments of public health in the Nordic countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative centres of Health Promotion in Bergen University and a group at Karolinska Institute, Department of Social Medicine, creating supportive environments for health in Stockholm played key roles in initiating and supporting NHPRN. During the second phase, 2007-2014, the network was strengthened and supported by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) in Gothenburg. The third phase started when NHV closed down in 2015 and networking activities were transferred to the European Office of WHO in Copenhagen. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Conference series has served several purposes and will continue to do so. They are important Nordic meeting places, stimulating Health Promotion research, as well as explicitly managing ongoing concerns in the international Health Promotion community. This is reflected in the shift of foci over time. The content of the conferences has been highly responsive to whatever challenges are particularly relevant at different points in time, while also contributing to developing Health Promotion as a discipline, given that every conference has built on the previous ones.
Perry Robert P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian ribosomes contain 79 different proteins encoded by widely scattered single copy genes. Coordinate expression of these genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels is required to ensure a roughly equimolar accumulation of ribosomal proteins. To date, detailed studies of only a very few ribosomal protein (rp promoters have been made. To elucidate the general features of rp promoter architecture, I made a detailed sequence comparison of the promoter regions of the entire set of orthologous human and mouse rp genes. Results A striking evolutionarily conserved feature of most rp genes is the separation by an intron of the sequences involved in transcriptional and translational regulation from the sequences with protein encoding function. Another conserved feature is the polypyrimidine initiator, which conforms to the consensus (Y2C+1TY(T2(Y3. At least 60 % of the rp promoters contain a largely conserved TATA box or A/T-rich motif, which should theoretically have TBP-binding capability. A remarkably high proportion of the promoters contain conserved binding sites for transcription factors that were previously implicated in rp gene expression, namely upstream GABP and Sp1 sites and downstream YY1 sites. Over 80 % of human and mouse rp genes contain a transposable element residue within 900 bp of 5' flanking sequence; very little sequence identity between human and mouse orthologues was evident more than 200 bp upstream of the transcriptional start point. Conclusions This analysis has provided some valuable insights into the general architecture of mammalian rp promoters and has identified parameters that might coordinately regulate the transcriptional activity of certain subsets of rp genes.
Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Innes-Hughes, Christine
Objective: To determine the extent to which (1) promotional characters are used on food packaging for healthful and less-healthful food and (2) different companies use this persuasive marketing strategy. Design: Cross-sectional supermarket audit of all food and beverages featuring promotional characters on the packaging. Setting: Three Australian…
Dandanell, Gert; Court, Donald L.; Hammer, Karin
We report the construction of lambda galK promoter cloning vectors for cloning and characterization of strong promoters. This phage, which contains a unique HindIII cloning site, was applied to the cloning and analysis of transcription initiations of the regulatory region of the deo-operon of...
Smith, Shannon B; Hollerbach, Ann; Donato, Annemarie Sipkes; Edlund, Barbara J; Atz, Teresa; Kelechi, Teresa J
A critical component of the progression of a successful academic career is being promoted in rank. Early-career faculty are required to have an understanding of appointment, promotion, and tenure (APT) guidelines, but many factors often impede this understanding, thwarting a smooth and planned promotion pathway for professional advancement. This article outlines the steps taken by an APT committee to improve the promotion process from instructor to assistant professor. Six sigma's DMAIC improvement model was selected as the guiding operational framework to remove variation in the promotion process. After faculty handbook revisions were made, several checklists developed, and a process review rubric was implemented; recently promoted faculty were surveyed on satisfaction with the process. Faculty opinions captured in the survey suggest increased transparency in the process and perceived support offered by the APT committee. Positive outcomes include a strengthened faculty support framework, streamlined promotion processes, and improved faculty satisfaction. Changes to the APT processes resulted in an unambiguous and standardized pathway for successful promotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc; Beyers, Wim; Ryan, Richard M.
In current research on parenting, 2 ways of conceptualizing perceived parental autonomy support can be distinguished. Parental autonomy support can be defined in terms of promotion of independence (PI) or in terms of promotion of volitional functioning (PVF). This study aimed to establish the empirical distinctiveness of both conceptualizations…
Swan, Steve; Mcnally, Richard; Grieg-Gran, Maryanne; Roe, Dilys; Mohammed, Essam Yassin
International climate and biodiversity conventions agree that to be effective in the long term, strategies to reduce emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, conservation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks, and sustainable forest management (REDD+), must not undermine biodiversity. But how do countries achieve 'high-biodiversity REDD+' in practice? At a global level, options include immediate policy strengthening in international negotiations; promotion of co-benefit standards; and financial incentives and preferences for buying countries. At a national level, developing countries can also promote high-biodiversity REDD+ through more coherent policies; integrated planning; regulatory and economic instruments; and improved monitoring of biodiversity impacts.
The rise in life expectancy requires strategies to enable healthy ageing and the promotion of a high quality of life in old age. Poor mental health including depression and social isolation can blight older people's lives. Despite the positive benefits of physical activity for both mental and physical health, only a minority of those over 65 years are attaining the recommended levels of physical activity. The evidence relating to the benefits of pet dogs as promoters of wellbeing is set out in this article, although meeting their care needs may place an additional strain on an older person and/or their carer who has limited resources and physical capabilities.
Full Text Available The paper is an effort to unknown areas identity affirmation, through collaborative development of advertising mix, with an emphasis on virtual platforms as admissible solution for increasing visibility. Based upon comparative effective analysis of categories of communication particularities, it is suggested a positioning strategic solution, via virtual advertising platform as unique, integrated, complex and very attractive tourism product promotion, fitted for the internal and international tourism circuit. The active promotion of the specified territorial identity will launch a brand with an impact among tourists by using marketing techniques and innovating technical means and prioritizing tourism as a principal vector of local and regional development.
Jan-Benedict E. M. Steenkamp; Vincent R. Nijs; Dominique M. Hanssens; Marnik G. Dekimpe
How do competitors react to each other's price-promotion and advertising attacks? What are the reasons for the observed reaction behavior? We answer these questions by performing a large-scale empirical study on the short-run and long-run reactions to promotion and advertising shocks in over 400 consumer product categories over a four-year time span. Our results clearly show that the most predominant form of competitive response is passive in nature. When a reaction does occur, it is usually ...
Scriven, A; Young, S
In 1992, at the Rio Earth Summit, many governments, including our own, committed themselves to developing local strategies for sustainable development in the form of Local Agenda 21. Sustainable development is discussed, as is the philosophy and practice of health promotion and environmental health. Common approaches are identified and the links in relation to key areas of activities, strategies, values and principles are outlined. Finally, recommendations are made and conclusions drawn in relation to the overlap between environmental health action, Agenda 21 strategies and health promotion practice.
Jones, M A; Self, D R; Owens, C A; Kline, T A
This article is an overview of the promotion function as a part of the ATM's marketing mix. It approaches various promotion decision areas from a managerial perspective, focusing upon some key components of promotion planning. Rather than provide specific operational or implementation details (how to write a brochure) it is more conceptual in nature and offers a framework for promotion planners. The article addresses promotion management, promotion objectives, analysis for promotion planning, the promotion mix, and addresses the benefits and limitations of some specific promotion tools available to the ATM manager. It treats ATMs as a service and reveals specific implications for promotion strategy dictated by services. The article also reports promotion tools employed by Alabama ATMs citing data from the Alabama study.
Tung, Chen-Yin; Yin, Yun-Wen; Liu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chia-Chen; Zhou, Yi-Ping
Objectives: To explore the employers’ and promoters’ perspective of health promotion quality according to the healthy workplace accreditation. Methods: We assessed the perspectives of 85 employers and 81 health promoters regarding the quality of health promotion at their workplaces. The method of measurement referenced the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP) quality criteria. Results: In the large workplaces, the accredited corporation employers had a higher impression (P workplace employers had a slightly higher perspective than non-accredited ones. Nevertheless, there were no differences between the perspectives of health promoters from different sized workplaces with or without accreditation (P > 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that employers’ perspectives of healthy workplace accreditation surpassed employers from non-accredited workplaces. Specifically, large accredited corporations could share their successful experiences to encourage a more involved workplace in small–medium workplaces. PMID:28691998
The primary objective of this study was to compare the different structures and mechanisms used in South Africa and Cameroon to promote gender equality and women's empowerment in leadership position. The unit of analysis was parliament, political parties and government. A purposively sample of 120 participants, ...
Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Stewart, Donald
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding…
Buchanan, David R
The article examines the limitations of a strict scientific account of the causes of unhealthy behaviors, based on the standards promoted in evidence-based medicine, where randomized controlled trials are seen to provide the gold standard for establishing the validity of different explanations. The article critiques this account based on its disputed assumption that human free will does not exist, and thus, human autonomy and moral responsibility are an illusion. By denying human autonomy, the naturalistic paradigm also denies the possibility of human dignity. In contrast, the article describes and explains a humanistic account of human agency where human beings are characterized by the capacity to choose how to live their lives based on values that matter. Based on this humanistic framework, the article explains why dignity is an essential dimension of human health and well-being and describes key research challenges in moving the field of health promotion in a more humanistic direction. The article concludes with the recommendation to expand the goal of health promotion beyond physical fitness and to reorient the methods of research toward articulating values that matter and promoting human dignity. © The Author(s) 2016.
CONCLUSIONS: Health promoting behaviors were found to be in moderate level among cement factory workers. In our country, health protection and development programs at the national level would be useful to standardize for employees in the industrial sector. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 153-162
Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph
This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the…
I argue that enrollment of a diverse student body is but a pragmatic first step toward the broader social goal of inclusion and ask whether motives for campus diversification are aligned with pedagogic goals. I address this question by focusing on inclusion, namely, organizational strategies and practices that promote meaningful social and…
Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…
Breivik, Patricia Senn; Ford, Barbara J.
Discusses information literacy and describes activities under the sponsorship of the National Forum on Information Literacy (NFIL) that promotes information literacy in schools and libraries. Activities of member organizations of the NFIL are described, including policy formation, publications, and programs; and the role of the American Library…
Jacobs, George M.
How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…
Dix, Suzanne Liacos
As advocates for reading, librarians cannot help but love a reading program. In this article, the author talks about the Battle of the Books, a reading enrichment program that had been in place since 1996. Battle of the Books promotes reading among middle school students by offering interesting books and a trivia-type competition. The author…
Brandt, K.; Christensen, L.P.; Hansen-Møller, J.
Vegetables contain unknown compounds with important health promoting effect. The described project defined and tested a two-step screening procedure for identification of such compounds. Step 1 is initial screening according to three criteria: 1.1, chemically reactive functional groups; 1...
Mining-affected communities globally, and specifically in West Africa, experience both the potential of important socio-economic development opportunities and the ... It does so through the co-production of consistent and meaningful local data on community well-being, the promotion of more transparent and inclusive local ...
The main aim of my article is to describe how deeply Professor Husimi devoted himself to promote large accelerator projects in Japan, as the establishment of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), Photon Factory and TRISTAN, in which I myself was deeply involved. In addition, some topics related that I was a student of Professor Husimi are also reported. (author)
Akcay, Behiye B.
A class activity has been designed to help fourth grade students to identify basic insect features as a means of promoting student creativity while making an imaginary insect model. The 5Es (Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend [or Elaborate], and Evaluate) learning cycle teaching model is used. The 5Es approach allows students to work in small…
Havice, Bill; Marshall, Jerry
This article describes a symposium which promotes technological literacy through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The three-day symposium titled, "The Anderson, Oconee, Pickens Symposium on Teaching and Learning STEM Standards for the 21st Century," was held August 4-6, 2008 at the Tri-County Technical College…
Sofian, Neal; Newton, Daniel; DeClaire, Joan
Highlights one strategy to improve health promotion delivery and generate better outcomes by creating "Microcultures of Meaning" (MOMs), which are intended to provide a context to help people learn and take action. The issue introduces key theoretical concepts associated with the MOM methodology, describes the scientific rationale, discusses…
Jourdan, Didier; Simar, Carine; Deasy, Christine; Carvalho, Graça S.; McNamara, Patricia Mannix
Purpose: Health and education are inextricably linked. Health promotion sits somewhat uncomfortably within schools, often remaining a marginal aspect of teachers' work. The purpose of this paper is to examine the compatibility of an HP-initiative with teacher professional identity. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research design was…
Simona Cristina Martin
Because the fact that tourism services are intangible, sales through self-service are impossible, which makes indispensable the presence of the seller or counselor at the point of sale. Unable to clearly differentiate against competitors, tourist trips wholesalers will practice a more limited range of methods of sales promotion.
Spijkerman, F.M.; Snelders, H.M.J.J.
Sales promotion wordt binnen de marketing gehanteerd als instrument om op de korte termijn direct koopgedrag in de gewenste richting te beïnvloeden. Daarbij wordt vaak voorbijgegaan aan de mogelijke effecten op de langere termijn. F.M. Spijkerman en H.M.J.J. Snelders geven evenwel aan dat sales
Bel, van D.T.; Smolders, K.C.H.J.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Kort, de Y.A.W.
The current study demonstrates that I-sharing promotes social connectedness, a key outcome of mediated interaction. This implies that mobile communication applications, which provide the sense of having the same subjective experience as another person in response to a given stimulus may specifically
Results: The findings revealed that 64% of the participants were physically active both within the work and recreation domains and 65% of the participants had good physical activity promoting practices. Discussing physical activity and giving out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in ...
Full Text Available UNHCR and its partners have been providing male condoms since the late 1990s. However, uptake remains alarmingly low. Will the agency be more successful in promoting the female condom, a female-initiated barrier method of contraception and disease prevention?
Noha M. Bakr
the study. Genotypic analysis of IL-18 promoter polymorphisms were performed using sequence- .... diabetes mellitus, heart disease, previous stroke, cigarette smok- ing. Included .... of the mutated AA genotype and A allele was observed in IS ..... factor for ischemic stroke in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis. Meta.
Cheng, Eric C. K.
This paper aims to validate a theoretical model for developing teacher collective learning by using a quasi-experimental design, and explores the management strategies that would provide a school administrator practical steps to effectively promote collective learning in the school organization. Twenty aided secondary schools in Hong Kong were…
This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior,…
Phosphate solubilizing efficiencies of the strains were analyzed using different insoluble phosphorus sources and the results show that most isolates released a substantial amount of soluble phosphate from tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate and bone meal. Screening for multiple plant growth promoting attributes ...
The promotion of health education in schools has been operated continuously in Thailand with expecting to enhance a healthy society based on the definition of health under the new trend "A comprehensive and integrated health and social dimensions of body, mind and soul into a lifestyle linked and interrelated the human relationship with a…
Bragg, Leicha A.; Widjaja, Wanty; Loong, Esther Yook-Kin; Vale, Colleen; Herbert, Sandra
Reasoning in mathematics plays a critical role in developing mathematical understandings. In this article, Bragg, Loong, Widjaja, Vale & Herbert explore an adaptation of the Magic V Task and how it was used in several classrooms to promote and develop reasoning skills.
Birnie, Billie F.
Teachers are responsible for what happens in their classrooms, and promoting civil discourse should be among their top priorities. Not only should they model civil speech and behavior, but they also should establish clear boundaries for students, create a climate that nourishes courteous exchange, and help students build vocabularies that enable…
This paper describes the activities of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) libraries have undertaken to promote reading by increasing awareness among their people. First, factors limiting reading habits in ASEAN libraries are addressed, including: we are not a reading society, but a chatting society; the management of "3…
Yuan, Jia; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Linyan; Wan, Xue-Song; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Tao
Enterprises have put more and more emphasis on data analysis so as to obtain effective management advices. Managers and researchers are trying to dig out the major factors that lead to employees' promotion and resignation. Most previous analyses are based on questionnaire survey, which usually consists of a small fraction of samples and contains biases caused by psychological defense. In this paper, we successfully collect a data set consisting of all the employees' work-related interactions (action network, AN for short) and online social connections (social network, SN for short) of a company, which inspires us to reveal the correlations between structural features and employees' career development, namely promotion and resignation. Through statistical analysis, we show that the structural features of both AN and SN are correlated and predictive to employees' promotion and resignation, and the AN has higher correlation and predictability. More specifically, the in-degree in AN is the most relevant indicator for promotion, while the k-shell index in AN and in-degree in SN are both very predictive to resignation. Our results provide a novel and actionable understanding of enterprise management and suggest that to enhance the interplays among employees, no matter work-related or social interplays, can be helpful to reduce staffs' turnover risk.
It does so through the co-production of consistent and meaningful local data on community well-being, the promotion of more transparent and inclusive local governance, and regional knowledge-sharing on development best practices in mining areas. Led by the World University Service of Canada (WUSC), with the ...
Damping off caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on cowpea results in yield losses with serious socioeconomic implication. Induction of defense responses by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is largely associated with the production of defense enzyme phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL) and oxidative enzymes like ...
Mar 2, 1974 ... experience in modern marketing techniques could develop a promotional campaign to increase drug abuse. ... Drug abuse-identity ... conforms to the same social, intellectual and cultural ... The brand names should also be chosen carefu11y. ... In this market the mass media offer the greatest coverage.
Onnela, A M; Vuokila-Oikkonen, P; Hurtig, T; Ebeling, H
The purpose of this paper is to describe a participatory action research process on the development of a professional practice model of mental health nurses in mental health promotion in a comprehensive school environment in the city of Oulu, Finland. The developed model is a new method of mental health promotion for mental health nurses working in comprehensive schools. The professional practice model has been developed in workshops together with school staff, interest groups, parents and students. Information gathered from the workshops was analysed using action research methods. Mental health promotion interventions are delivered at three levels: universal, which is an intervention that affects the whole school or community; selective, which is an intervention focusing on a certain group of students; and indicated, which is an individually focused intervention. All interventions are delivered within the school setting, which is a universal setting for all school-aged children. The interventions share the goal of promoting mental health. The purposes of the interventions are enhancing protective factors, reducing risk factors relating to mental health problems and early identification of mental health problems as well as rapid delivery of support or referral to specialized services. The common effect of the interventions on all levels is the increase in the experience of positive mental health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pátek, Miroslav; Nešvera, Jan
Roč. 154, 2-3 (2011), s. 101-113 ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC204/09/J015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Corynebacterium glutamicum * Sigma factors * Promoters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.045, year: 2011
Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett
The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.
Oct 25, 2010 ... The birds in group A received control diet during the experiment but those in ... genera displayed a growth-promoting effect that was comparable to control diet and also decreased .... Table 3. Effects of dietary probiotics on evolution of broiler weekly BW in control, Enterococcus faecium, and Bifidobacterium.
Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are
... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act by an industry member of furnishing to consumers coupons which are redeemable at a retail establishment... such coupons; and (2) An industry member may not reimburse a retailer for more than the face value of...
Gensel, J.C.; Nakamura, S.; Guan, Z.; Rooijen, van N.; Ankeny, D.P.; Popovich, P.G.
Activated macrophages can promote regeneration of CNS axons. However, macrophages also release factors that kill neurons. These opposing functions are likely induced simultaneously but are rarely considered together in the same experimental preparation. A goal of this study was to unequivocally
Burnell, P.; Gerrits, A.
This opening section briefly introduces international political party support, that is, assistance to political parties by international organizations, mostly from the US and Europe, to strengthen individual political parties, to promote peaceful interaction between parties and to help to create a
Azevedo, Elaine de; Pelicioni, Maria Cecília Focesi
Research how specialists in health promotion and agroecology understand the concepts in those areas of common guidelines and how the relationship between such concepts is conceived. METHODS. Qualitative research. Fourteen specialists in the two areas were interviewed about the relationship between the agrofood system and health, concepts of agroecology and health promotion, and the relevance of including agroecology in public health training courses and vice-versa. There is little dialogue between the fields of study that were considered similar, food quality being the main interface between the areas. agroecology appeared to be a system of healthy food production, but the study showed other connections: agroecology and empowerment, a spur to autonomy and quality of life, and better socioeconomic conditions for the farmer; agroecology and environmental health; agroecology and community involvement; agroecology, territoriality, and cultural rescue [translator's note: this is a term for measures taken to revitalize or preserve imperiled indigenous cultures]; and agroecology, local foods, and low costs of production. Health promotion already was linked in effect to practices oriented to healthy lifestyles. The specialists appeared favorable toward including knowledge about public health in agroecology and vice-versa. Agroecology and health promotion contribute to one another and are complementary, and bringing them closer together can lead to an enriched discussion about rural health and the concept of public policies that focus on this theme, thereby stimulating actions for improvement and intersectoral practices.
The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…
May 2, 2014 ... Health promotion has three main ethical issues: (i) what are the ultimate goals for public .... construction of new norms, the shaping of existing norms, the .... despite the fact that we know they are bad for people's health. There.
Küçükturan, A. Güler; Akbaba Altun, Sadegül
This study is designed to explore the reasons for sending and not sending preschool age children to preschools at an early age by exploring the motivations for and barriers towards promoting preschool education in Turkey. It aimed to determine various stakeholders' perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge related to preschool education in order to…
Associations of advertisement-promotion-sponsorship-related factors with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Zambia. ... R Zulu, S Siziya, AS Muula, E Rudatsikira. Abstract. Background : Tobacco use is the leading cause of noncommunicable disease morbidity and mortality. Most smokers initiate the ...