WorldWideScience

Sample records for haematoporphyrin derivative photosensitized

  1. Analysis of tumour-localizing haematoporphyrin derivative by high-performance liquid chromatography and fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, J. C.; Lim, C. K.; Lawson, A. M.; Peters, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Reversed-phase chromatography using a MOS-Hypersil (C8) column with methanol-1 M ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.6) (60:40) as mobile phase has been developed for the isolation of tumour-localizing haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD). The system effectively resolved the diastereoisomers of

  2. DFT application for chlorin derivatives photosensitizer drugs modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Neila; Carvalho, B. G.; Téllez Soto, C. A.; Martin, A. A.; Favero, P. P.

    2018-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy is an alternative form of cancer treatment that meets the desire for a less aggressive approach to the body. It is based on the interaction between a photosensitizer, activating light, and molecular oxygen. This interaction results in a cascade of reactions that leads to localized cell death. Many studies have been conducted to discover an ideal photosensitizer, which aggregates all the desirable characteristics of a potent cell killer and generates minimal side effects. Using Density Functional Theory (DFT) implemented in the program Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package, new chlorin derivatives with different functional groups were simulated to evaluate the different absorption wavelengths to permit resonant absorption with the incident laser. Gaussian 09 program was used to determine vibrational wave numbers and Natural Bond Orbitals. The chosen drug with the best characteristics for the photosensitizer was a modified model of the original chlorin, which was called as Thiol chlorin. According to our calculations it is stable and is 19.6% more efficient at optical absorption in 708 nm in comparison to the conventional chlorin e6. Vibrational modes, optical and electronic properties were predicted. In conclusion, this study is an attempt to improve the development of new photosensitizer drugs through computational methods that save time and contribute to decrease the numbers of animals for model application.

  3. Trifluoromethyl Boron Dipyrromethene Derivatives as Potential Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Yong Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two novel boron dipyrromethene-based photosensitizers (BDP3 and BDP6 substituted with three or six trifluoromethyl groups have been synthesized and characterized with various spectroscopic methods, and their photo-physical, photo-chemical, and photo-biological properties have also been explored. The two photosensitizers are highly soluble and remain nonaggregated in N,N-dimethylformamide as shown by the intense and sharp Q-band absorption. Under red light irradiation (λ = 660 nm, 1.5 J/cm2, both photosensitizers show high and comparable cytotoxicity towards HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma and HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells with IC50 values of 0.42–0.49 μM. The high photocytotoxicity of BDP3 and BDP6 can be due to their high cellular uptake and low aggregation tendency in biological media, which result in a high efficiency to generate reactive oxygen species inside the cells. Confocal laser fluorescence microscopic studies indicate that they have superior selective affinities to the mitochondria and lysosomes of HepG2 and HeLa cells. The results show that these two trifluoromethyl boron dipyrromethene derivatives are potential anticancer agents for photodynamic therapy.

  4. Photosensitive naturally derived resins toward optical 3-D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliutas, Edvinas; Kasetaite, Sigita; Jonušauskas, Linas; Ostrauskaite, Jolita; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in material engineering have shown that renewable raw materials, such as plant oils or glycerol, can be applied for synthesis of polymers due to ready availability, inherent biodegradability, limited toxicity, and existence of modifiable functional groups and eventually resulting to a potentially lower cost. After additional chemical modifications (epoxidation, acrylation, double bonds metathesis, etc.), they can be applied in such high-tech areas as stereolithography, which allows fabrication of three-dimensional (3-D) objects. "Autodesk's" 3-D optical printer "Ember" using 405-nm light was implemented for dynamic projection lithography. It enabled straightforward spatio-selective photopolymerization on demand, which allows development of various photosensitive materials. The bio-based resins' photosensitivity was compared to standard "Autodesk" "PR48" and "Formlabs" "Clear" materials. It turned out that the bioresins need a higher energy dose to be cured (a least 16 J · cm - 2 for a single layer varying from 100 to 130 μm). Despite this, submillimeter range 2.5-D structural features were formed, and their morphology was assessed by optical profilometer and scanning electron microscope. It was revealed that a higher exposition dose (up to 26 J · cm - 2) results in a linear increase in the formed structures height, proving controllability of the undergoing process. Overall, the provided results show that naturally derived resins are suitable candidates for tabletop gray-tone lithography.

  5. Photokinetic and ultrastructural studies on porphyrin photosensitization of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanesi, Carla; Sorgato, Fiorella; Jori, Giulio

    1989-01-01

    Liposome-bound haematoporphyrin or haematoporphyrin dimethylester, as well as haematoporphyrin dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline, were added to HeLa cell monolayers at a dose of 1 μg of porphyrin per 10 5 cells. After 2 min or 20 min incubation liposome-bound porphyrins were accumulated by cells in an about two-fold larger amount than the water-dissolved haematoporphyrin. This caused a more efficient photosensitization of HeLa cells by liposome-delivered porphyrins upon illumination with 366 nm light. Ultrastructural studies of HeLa cells, which had been incubated in a physiological medium for 24 h after the end of irradiation, showed that liposomal porphyrins induce an early and extensive endocytoplasmic damage, leading to mitochondrial swelling and vesiculation; changes of permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane are also evident, especially in the case of haematoporphyrin dimethylester. On the other hand, water-dissolved haematoporphyrin predominantly photosensitizes damage of the plasma membrane. The different pattern of cell photodamage probably reflects a different subcellular distribution of the photosensitizing drugs. (author)

  6. DNA alterations photosensitized by tetracycline and some of its derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piette, J.; Decuyper, J.; Van de Vorst, A.

    1986-01-01

    Bacteriophage M13 mp10 DNA were irradiated with near-UV light in the presence of tetracycline derivatives and primed with synthetic oligonucleotide to be used for DNA synthesis using Escherichia coli DNA polymerase. Chain terminations were observed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mapped precisely. All the synthesis stops occurred before or at the level of guanine residues, showing that the photoreaction mediated by tetracycline derivatives led to a preferential alteration of guanine residues. These lesions were demonstrated to be induced in DNA through a pathway involving singlet oxygen. Tetracycline derivatives also photoinduced the breakage of the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone monitored by the conversion of supercoiled phi X174 DNA to a relaxed form. This lesion was shown to be initiated by hydroxyl radicals. The production of this free radical has been confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping experiments using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide as spin trap. In addition to the EPR signal due to OH radicals trapping another unassigned signal has been detected

  7. Smart photovoltaics based on dye-sensitized solar cells using photochromic spiropyran derivatives as photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Shengbo; Ting, Hungkit; Ma, Yingzhuang; Zheng, Lingling; Zhang, Miwei; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, smart photovoltaic (SPV) devices, integrating both functions of solar cells and smart windows, was fabricated based on dye-sensitized solar cells using photochromic spiropyran derivatives SIBT as photosensitizers. SPV devices have self-regulated power conversion efficiency (PCE) and light transmission responding to the incident spectra due to the photoisomerization of SIBT. SIBT isomerize from closed-ring form to open-ring form under UV illumination, accompanied with enhanced visible light absorption and electron delocalization. Therefore, increased PCE and absorption in SPV devices were observed under UV treatment and the devices can be restored gradually to the initial status when kept in dark. The SPV devices have self-regulation of PCE and sunlight transmission responding to the changing sun spectra in different times of a day, providing a proper energy usage and a better sun-shading

  8. Helical twisting in nemato-cholesteric systems based on cholesterol derivatives and photosensitive azoxy compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serbina, M. I.; Kasian, N. A.; Lisetski, L. N., E-mail: lisetski@isma.kharkov.ua [NAS of Ukraine, Institute for Scintillation Materials, STC ' Institute for Single Crystals' (Ukraine)

    2013-01-15

    For cholesteric liquid crystal systems containing photosensitive nematic ZhK-440 and a mixture of cholesterol derivatives, changes in helical twisting induced by UV radiation were studied. The UV-induced shift of selective reflection maximum {lambda}{sub max} was shown to depend upon concentration of the nematic component. For low concentrations of ZhK-440, {lambda}{sub max} increases, which correlates with corresponding changes with increasing temperature. For higher concentrations, {lambda}{sub max} decreases, regardless of the temperature behavior of the system. A theoretical description of the available experimental data is proposed on the basis of development of molecular models of helical twisting, including an assumed possibility of ordered orientation of short molecular axes of cis-isomers formed as a result of UV irradiation, which is determined by the sense of the cholesteric helix already present in the system.

  9. Molecular Tuning of Phenylene-Vinylene Derivatives for Two-Photon Photosensitized Singlet Oxygen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian B.; Arnbjerg, Jacob; Johnsen, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Substituent-dependent features and properties of the sensitizer play an important role in the photosensitized production of singlet oxygen, O2(a1Δg). In this work, we systematically examine the effect of molecular changes in the sensitizer on the efficiency of singlet oxygen production using......, as the sensitizer, oligophenylene-vinylene derivatives designed to optimally absorb light in a nonlinear two-photon process. We demonstrate that one cannot always rely on rule-of-thumb guidelines when attempting to construct efficient two-photon singlet oxygen sensitizers. Rather, as a consequence of behavior...... that can deviate from the norm, a full investigation of the photophysical properties of the system is generally required. For example, it is acknowledged that the introduction of a ketone moiety to the sensitizer chromophore often results in more efficient production of singlet oxygen. However, we show...

  10. Smart photovoltaics based on dye-sensitized solar cells using photochromic spiropyran derivatives as photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Shengbo; Ting, Hungkit; Ma, Yingzhuang; Zheng, Lingling; Zhang, Miwei [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xiao, Lixin, E-mail: zjchen@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: lxxiao@pku.edu.cn; Chen, Zhijian, E-mail: zjchen@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: lxxiao@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Haixi Collaborative Innovation Center for New Display Devices and Systems Integration, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, smart photovoltaic (SPV) devices, integrating both functions of solar cells and smart windows, was fabricated based on dye-sensitized solar cells using photochromic spiropyran derivatives SIBT as photosensitizers. SPV devices have self-regulated power conversion efficiency (PCE) and light transmission responding to the incident spectra due to the photoisomerization of SIBT. SIBT isomerize from closed-ring form to open-ring form under UV illumination, accompanied with enhanced visible light absorption and electron delocalization. Therefore, increased PCE and absorption in SPV devices were observed under UV treatment and the devices can be restored gradually to the initial status when kept in dark. The SPV devices have self-regulation of PCE and sunlight transmission responding to the changing sun spectra in different times of a day, providing a proper energy usage and a better sun-shading.

  11. Lysosome destruction and lipoperoxide formation due to active oxygen generated from haematoporphyrin and UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torinuki, W.; Miura, T.; Seiji, M.

    1980-01-01

    The lysosomal enzymes, acid-phosphates and β-glucuronidase, were released from rat liver lysosome when exposed to 400 nm irradiation in the presence of haematoporphyrin and the release was prevented by adding vitamin E, diazabicyclo-octane, bovine serum albumin, superoxide dismutase or D-mannitol to the reaction mixture. Monochromatic irradiation with wavelengths from 380 to 410 nm caused no significant differences in the release of lysosomal enzymes, but 420 nm irradiation caused three-fifths of that of 400 nm irradiation. The malondialdeyhde level in rat liver homogenate increased after 400 nm irradiation in the presence of haematoporphyrin Reduction of nitroblue-tetrazolium was not observed when haematoporphyrin was excited by 400 nm; it was considered that superoxide anion radical (0 2 - ) was not primarily generated. The following mechanism was assumed; that porphyrin which had been excited by 400 nm, converted ground-state molecular oxygen ( 3 0 2 ) to excited singlet oxygen ( 1 0 2 ), which formed lipid peroxides in lysosomal membrane resulting in destruction of the membrane; skin changes would occur from these released lysosomal enzymes. (author)

  12. Effect of chirality on cellular uptake, imaging and photodynamic therapy of photosensitizers derived from chlorophyll-a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsan, Avinash; Pera, Paula; Joshi, Penny; Wang, Yanfang; Missert, Joseph R; Tracy, Erin C; Tabaczynski, Walter A; Yao, Rutao; Sajjad, Munawwar; Baumann, Heinz; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that the (124)I-analog of methyl 3-(1'-m-iodobenzyloxy) ethyl-3-devinyl-pyropheophorbide-a derived as racemic mixture from chlorophyll-a can be used for PET (positron emission tomography)-imaging in animal tumor models. On the other hand, as a non-radioactive analog, it showed excellent fluorescence and photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy. Thus, a single agent in a mixture of radioactive ((124)I-) and non-radioactive ((127)I) material can be used for both dual-imaging and PDT of cancer. Before advancing to Phase I human clinical trials, we evaluated the activity of the individual isomers as well as the impact of a chiral center at position-3(1) in directing in vitro/in vivo cellular uptake, intracellular localization, epithelial tumor cell-specific retention, fluorescence/PET imaging, and photosensitizing ability. The results indicate that both isomers (racemates), either as methyl ester or carboxylic acid, were equally effective. However, the methyl ester analogs, due to subcellular deposition into vesicular structures, were preferentially retained. All derivatives containing carboxylic acid at the position-17(2) were noted to be substrate for the ABCG2 (a member of the ATP binding cassette transporters) protein explaining their low retention in lung tumor cells expressing this transporter. The compounds in which the chirality at position-3 has been substituted by a non-chiral functionality showed reduced cellular uptake, retention and lower PDT efficacy in mice bearing murine Colon26 tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical-physical characterization of a binary mixture made of a photosensitive azobenzene derivative and a smectogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borello, E.; Cifelli, M.; Duce, C.; Galli, G.; Tine, M.R.; Hamplová, Věra; Ambrozic, G.; Domenici, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 614, č. 1 (2015), s. 54-61 ISSN 1542-1406 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14133S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14PL035 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101204; AVČR(CZ) M100101211 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystalline mixture * nematic * smectic A * photosensitive molecules * DSC * 2HNMR Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.532, year: 2015

  14. Decarboxylation of indole-3-acetic acid and inhibition of growth in Avena sativa seedlings by plant-derived photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.M. [Dickinson Coll., Carlisle, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-01

    A number of plant phototoxins, when supplemented with UVA (320-400 nm) radiation, are capable of sensitizing the decomposition of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), as measured by release of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from carboxyl-labeled IAA. Alpha-terthienyl ({alpha}T) and harmine caused significant rates of IAA decarboxylation at concentrations as low as 1 nM and were approximately 80% as effective as riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide. Partial inhibition by sodium azide indicates that the {alpha}T-induced decarboxylation of IAA is predominately, but not entirely, a type II reaction mediated by singlet oxygen. Based on changes in UV absorption spectra, it appears that the hormones gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine (a cytokinin) are less susceptible to photosensitized decomposition than is IAA. Alpha-terthienyl plus UVA also inhibited elongation growth and reduced endogenous IAA levels in Avena sativa L. coleoptile sections and promoted senescence in intact Avena seedlings. These results confirm the alelopathic potential of plant photosensitizers such as {alpha}T and indicate that the phytohormone IAA may represent an additional target for the action of photosensitizers. (Author).

  15. Photosensitization of liposomes by porphyrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossweiner, L I; Goyal, G C

    1984-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation was photosensitized in egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) liposomes by hematoporphyrin (HP), hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) and uroporphyrin I (Uro-I). Photosensitization by HP was type II via singlet oxygen (/sup 1/O/sub 2/) for the monomeric and dimeric states and type I for aggregated HP. Uro-I was an efficient type II /sup 1/O/sub 2/ photosensitizer. The HpD fraction enriched in the active biological component (HpD-A) was a type II /sup 1/O/sub 2/ photosensitizer at high and low concentrations. The spectral differences between HpD-A in buffer and solubilized in small EPC liposomes are attributed to a conformation change of a key dimer constituent from a folded to a planar geometry. The implications of the results for the action mechanism in photoradiation therapy of tumors with these porphyrins are discussed. 73 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  16. Photosensitive TRPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Roger C

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila "transient receptor potential" channel is the prototypical TRP channel, belonging to and defining the TRPC subfamily. Together with a second TRPC channel, trp-like (TRPL), TRP mediates the transducer current in the fly's photoreceptors. TRP and TRPL are also implicated in olfaction and Malpighian tubule function. In photoreceptors, TRP and TRPL are localised in the ~30,000 packed microvilli that form the photosensitive "rhabdomere"-a light-guiding rod, housing rhodopsin and the rest of the phototransduction machinery. TRP (but not TRPL) is assembled into multimolecular signalling complexes by a PDZ-domain scaffolding protein (INAD). TRPL (but not TRP) undergoes light-regulated translocation between cell body and rhabdomere. TRP and TRPL are also found in photoreceptor synapses where they may play a role in synaptic transmission. Like other TRPC channels, TRP and TRPL are activated by a G protein-coupled phospholipase C (PLCβ4) cascade. Although still debated, recent evidence indicates the channels can be activated by a combination of PIP2 depletion and protons released by the PLC reaction. PIP2 depletion may act mechanically as membrane area is reduced by cleavage of PIP2's bulky inositol headgroup. TRP, which dominates the light-sensitive current, is Ca(2+) selective (P Ca:P Cs >50:1), whilst TRPL has a modest Ca(2+) permeability (P Ca:P Cs ~5:1). Ca(2+) influx via the channels has profound positive and negative feedback roles, required for the rapid response kinetics, with Ca(2+) rapidly facilitating TRP (but not TRPL) and also inhibiting both channels. In trp mutants, stimulation by light results in rapid depletion of microvillar PIP2 due to lack of Ca(2+) influx required to inhibit PLC. This accounts for the "transient receptor potential" phenotype that gives the family its name and, over a period of days, leads to light-dependent retinal degeneration. Gain-of-function trp mutants with uncontrolled Ca(2+) influx also undergo retinal degeneration

  17. Pentosan-derived water-soluble carbon nano dots with substantial fluorescence: Properties and application as a photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Li, Wei; Wu, Yanjiao; Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin

    2014-10-01

    The hydrothermal carbonization of monosaccharides and polysaccharides is widely used in the production of carbonaceous material with a desired structure. However, the liquid products are regarded as waste and discarded. Here, we report a facile approach for the synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano dots (CNDs) with substantial fluorescence from the liquid by-products of the hydrothermal carbonization of pentosan, thus the by-products of pulp refining. The synthesized CNDs are monodispersed spheres with abundant oxygen-containing groups and they have an average size of 30 nm. Quantum yield measurements revealed CNDs with substantial green photoluminescence (PL) without passivation. Additionally, excitation was independent, pH-sensitive and stable. The use of CNDs as a photosensitizer in the CNDs/TiO2 system for methylene blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation is attractive. The spectral response range of the CNDs/TiO2 system can be widened from the UV region to a part of the visible light region (400-550 nm).

  18. Temporal characteristics of polarization holographic gratings formed in a photosensitive polymeric film containing N-benzylideneaniline derivative side groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Shoho, Takashi; Noda, Kohei; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    A polarization holographic grating was recorded in a transparent thin film formed from polymethacrylate with N-benzylideneaniline (NBA) derivative side groups. We measured the real time diffraction properties. The data were analyzed based on a theoretical model that accounted for the distribution of optical anisotropy caused by molecular reorientation as well as for surface relief (SR) deformation caused by molecular motion. Optical anisotropy rapidly increased and then slowly decreased, with increasing recording time. This phenomenon was described based on photoisomerization and photocleavage reactions of the NBA side groups. SR deformation was also induced in the film by polarization holographic recording, without any subsequent processes. The photoinduced optical anisotropy and SR deformation were retained after the recording was turned off.

  19. Temporal characteristics of polarization holographic gratings formed in a photosensitive polymeric film containing N-benzylideneaniline derivative side groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki, E-mail: sasaki-tomoy@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp; Shoho, Takashi; Noda, Kohei; Ono, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)

    2014-04-21

    A polarization holographic grating was recorded in a transparent thin film formed from polymethacrylate with N-benzylideneaniline (NBA) derivative side groups. We measured the real time diffraction properties. The data were analyzed based on a theoretical model that accounted for the distribution of optical anisotropy caused by molecular reorientation as well as for surface relief (SR) deformation caused by molecular motion. Optical anisotropy rapidly increased and then slowly decreased, with increasing recording time. This phenomenon was described based on photoisomerization and photocleavage reactions of the NBA side groups. SR deformation was also induced in the film by polarization holographic recording, without any subsequent processes. The photoinduced optical anisotropy and SR deformation were retained after the recording was turned off.

  20. Analysis of the in vitro and in vivo effects of photodynamic therapy on prostate cancer by using new photosensitizers, protoporphyrin IX-polyamine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidanzi-Dugas, Chloë; Liagre, Bertrand; Chemin, Guillaume; Perraud, Aurélie; Carrion, Claire; Couquet, Claude-Yves; Granet, Robert; Sol, Vincent; Léger, David Yannick

    2017-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy, using porphyrins as photosensitizers (PS), has been approved in treatment of several solid tumors. However, commonly used PS induce death but also resistance pathways in cancer cells and an alteration of surrounding normal tissues. Because polyamines (PA) are actively accumulated in cancer cells by the Polyamine Transport System (PTS), they may enable PS to specifically target cancer cells. Here, we investigated whether new protoporphyrin IX-polyamine derivatives were effective PS against prostate cancer and whether PA increased PDT specificity after 630nm irradiation. CHO and CHO-MG cells (differing in their PTS activity) were used to assess efficacy of polyamine vectorization. MTT assays were performed on human prostate non-malignant (RWPE-1) and malignant (PC-3, DU 145 and LNCaP) cell lines to test PS phototoxicity. ROS generation, DNA fragmentation and cell signalling were assessed by ELISA/EIA, western-blots and gel shift assays. Finally, PS effects were studied on tumor growth in nude mice. Our PS were more effective on cancer cells compared to non-malignant cells and more effective than PpIX alone. PpIX-PA generated ROS production involved in induction of apoptotic intrinsic pathways. Different pathways involved in apoptosis resistance were studied: PS inhibited Bcl-2, Akt, and NF-κB but activated p38/COX-2/PGE 2 pathways which were not implicated in apoptosis resistance in our model. In vivo experiments showed PpIX-PA efficacy was greater than results obtained with PpIX. All together, our results showed that PpIX-PA exerted its maximum effects without activating resistance pathways and appears to be a good candidate for prostate cancer PDT treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antiviral properties of photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.B.; Towers, G.H.N.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the antiviral properties of three different groups of photo-sensitizers, viz. (i) various furyl compounds; (ii) β-carboline alkaloids; (iii) thiophenes and their acetylene derivatives. In general the antiviral potency of the furyl compounds correlated with their ability to produce DNA photoadducts. Among the naturally occurring β-carboline alkaloids, harmine was considerably more potent (in the presence of long wavelength UV radiation, UVA) than several other harmane-related compounds. Slight alterations in chemical structure had profound effects on their antiviral activities. Harmine was shown to inactivate the DNA-virus murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) by inhibiting viral gene expression, although other targets may also exist. Several eudistomins, carboline derivatives isolated from a tunicate, were also photoactive against viruses. Various plant thiophenes and polyacetylenes were studied in detail. These compounds also required UVA for antiviral activity, and some of them were extremely potent against viruses with membranes, e.g. α-terthienyl, which showed significant activity at only 10 -5 μg/ml. When MCMV had been treated with α-terthienyl plus UVA, the virus retained its integrity and penetrated cells normally; but the virus did not replicate. (author)

  2. New Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy in Gastroenterology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SG Bown

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Most applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT in gastroenterology to date have used porfimer sodium as the photosensitizing agent. For destroying small lesions in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract in inoperable patients, it has proved to be most effective, but attempts to achieve circumferential mucosal ablation, as in the treatment of Barrett’s esophagus, have led to a high incidence of strictures, and all patients have cutaneous photosensitivity, which can last up to three months. Two new photosensitizers are of particular interest to gastroenterologists. PDT with metatetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin produces a similar biological effect as PDT with porfimer sodium, but the light doses required are much smaller, and cutaneous photosensitivity lasts only two to three weeks. Further, it can be used with percutaneous light delivery to destroy localized pancreatic cancers. The photosensitizing agent 5-amino levulinic acid, converted in vivo into the photoactive derivative protoporphyrin IX, sensitizes the mucosa much more than the underlying layers. This makes it feasible to destroy areas of abnormal mucosa without damaging the underlying muscle and is, therefore, better for treating Barrett’s esophagus. Detailed clinical studies are required to establish the real role of PDT with the use of these and other new photosensitizers.

  3. Photosensitivity to selsun shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani M

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of photosensitive dermatitis, occurring after the second application of 2.5% selenium sulphide (Selsun shampoo, Abbot, is reported. The shampoo was diluted to half strength with water, before use. The patient had pityriasis versicolor, with extensive lesions on the covered as well as exposed areas.

  4. The tryptophan-derived endogenous arylhydrocarbon receptor ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) is a nanomolar UVA-photosensitizer in epidermal keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua D.; Cabello, Christopher M.; Qiao, Shuxi; Wondrak, Georg T.

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous UVA-chromophores may act as sensitizers of oxidative stress underlying cutaneous photoaging and photocarcinogenesis, but the molecular identity of non-DNA key chromophores displaying UVA-driven photodyamic activity in human skin remains largely undefined. Here we report that 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), a tryptophan photoproduct and endogenous high affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, acts as a nanomolar photosensitizer potentiating UVA-induced oxidative stress irrespective of AhR ligand activity. In human HaCaT and primary epidermal keratinocytes, photodynamic induction of apoptosis was elicited by the combined action of solar simulated UVA and FICZ, whereas exposure to the isolated action of UVA or FICZ did not impair viability. In a human epidermal tissue reconstruct, FICZ/UVA-cotreatment caused pronounced phototoxicity inducing keratinocyte cell death, and FICZ photodynamic activity was also substantiated in a murine skin exposure model. Array analysis revealed pronounced potentiation of cellular heat shock, ER stress, and oxidative stress response gene expression observed only upon FICZ/UVA-cotreatment. FICZ photosensitization caused intracellular oxidative stress, and comet analysis revealed introduction of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive oxidative DNA lesions suppressible by antioxidant cotreatment. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the endogenous AhR ligand FICZ displays nanomolar photodynamic activity representing a molecular mechanism of UVA-induced photooxidative stress potentially operative in human skin. PMID:25431849

  5. Photosensitive Strip RETHGEM

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir; Nappi, E.; Oliveira, R.; Paic, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM like amplification structure with double layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen printing technology on the top of the metallic strips grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark protected operation at high gains - close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10cm x10cm and 10cm x20cm were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  6. Acidolysis small molecular phenolic ether used as accelerator in photosensitive diazonaphthaquinone systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haihua; Zou, Yingquan

    2006-03-01

    The photosensitive compounds in the photosensitive coatings of positive PS plates are the diazonaphthaquinone derivatives. Some acidolysis small molecular phenolic ethers, which were synthesized by some special polyhydroxyl phenols with vinyl ethyl ether, are added in the positive diazonaphthaquinone photosensitive composition to improve its sensitivity, composed with photo-acid-generators. The effects to the photosensitivity, anti-alkali property, anti-isopropyl alcohol property, dot resolution and line resolution of the coatings are studied with different additive percent of the special phenolic ethers. In the conventional photosensitive diazonaphthaquinone systems for positive PS plates, the photosensitivity is improved without negative effects to resolution, anti-alkali and anti-isopropyl alcohol properties when added about 5% of the special acidolysis phenolic ethers, EAAE or DPHE, composed with photo-acid-generators.

  7. Photosensitive graphene transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Niu, Liyong; Zheng, Zijian; Yan, Feng

    2014-08-20

    High performance photodetectors play important roles in the development of innovative technologies in many fields, including medicine, display and imaging, military, optical communication, environment monitoring, security check, scientific research and industrial processing control. Graphene, the most fascinating two-dimensional material, has demonstrated promising applications in various types of photodetectors from terahertz to ultraviolet, due to its ultrahigh carrier mobility and light absorption in broad wavelength range. Graphene field effect transistors are recognized as a type of excellent transducers for photodetection thanks to the inherent amplification function of the transistors, the feasibility of miniaturization and the unique properties of graphene. In this review, we will introduce the applications of graphene transistors as photodetectors in different wavelength ranges including terahertz, infrared, visible, and ultraviolet, focusing on the device design, physics and photosensitive performance. Since the device properties are closely related to the quality of graphene, the devices based on graphene prepared with different methods will be addressed separately with a view to demonstrating more clearly their advantages and shortcomings in practical applications. It is expected that highly sensitive photodetectors based on graphene transistors will find important applications in many emerging areas especially flexible, wearable, printable or transparent electronics and high frequency communications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Probing Photosensitization by Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) photosensitize the production of reactive oxygen species that can damage organisms by biomembrane oxidation or mediate CNTs' environmental transformations. The photosensitized nature of derivatized carbon nanotubes from various synthetic methods, and thus ...

  9. Radiation carcinogenesis: radioprotectors and photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines 1) some of the salient features of radiation carcinogenesis that are pertinent to the questions of how the carcinogenic effects might be influenced, 2) the effects of radioprotectors on ionizing radiation-induced cancer, and 3) the effect of photosensitizers on UVR-induced skin cancer

  10. Radiation carcinogenesis: radioprotectors and photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines 1) some of the salient features of radiation carcinogenesis that are pertinent to the questions of how the carcinogenic effects might be influenced, 2) the effects of radioprotectors on ionizing radiation-induced cancer, and 3) the effect of photosensitizers on UVR-induced skin cancer.

  11. Effects of hypericin and a chlorin based photosensitizer alone or in combination in squamous cell carcinoma cells in the dark.

    OpenAIRE

    Besic Gyenge Emina; Forny Patrick; Lüscher Daniel; Laass Andrea; Walt Heinrich; Maake Caroline

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The toxic influence of photosensitizers in the dark is poorly investigated. In our study we used the photosensitizers liposomal meso tetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin derivative (Foslipos(®)) and hypericin as well as their 1:1 combination on two different head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines (UMB SCC 745 and UMB SCC 969). MATERIALS AND METHODS We examined uptake efflux and localization of the photosensitizers with confocal microscopy. Fluorescence quantification was ...

  12. Photosensitivity: a current biological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkeeb, Dena; Elkeeb, Laila; Maibach, Howard

    2012-12-01

    The level of interest in photoirritation (phototoxicity) has increased because of the awareness among the scientific community of the increase in the UV portion of the solar spectrum reaching the earth. The need of new chemicals and drugs puts pressure on pre-test methods for side effects, especially interactive adverse effects with UV light. So pre-marketing clinical trials conducted before a new drug is licensed are essential, as such, at the early phases of the discovery process of the drug/chemical, developing an efficacious photosensitivity testing system is prudent to avoid such potential side effects. To review published literature and provide an overview on exogenous photosensitivity and assays used to evaluate the photosensitivity potential of drugs/chemicals. As well as testing considerations by the Regulatory bodies (namely, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the U.S Food and Drug Administration and the European Union regulatory agencies). We searched medical and scientific search engines as well as websites of the EU and US Regulatory agencies and used keywords such as cutaneous phototoxicity, phototoxicity in vitro assays, phototoxicity in vivo assays and other related terms.

  13. Singlet oxygen: photosensitized generation, detection and reaction with organic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, Atanu; Indira Priyadarsini, K; Mohan, Hari; Bajaj, P N; Sapre, A V; Mittal, J P; Mukherjee, T [Radiation and Photochemistry Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2006-10-15

    Singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) is an excited state of molecular oxygen, having antiparallel spin in the same {pi} antibonding orbital. The study of singlet oxygen production and reactivity has emerged as a rich and diverse area, with implication in diverse fields, such as synthetic chemistry, polymer chemistry, photodynamic therapy, etc. There are several known methods to produce singlet oxygen, and also various techniques employed to detect it. Out of these, photosensitization method is the most popular one. In this article, photosensitized production of singlet oxygen from triplet oxygen and photosensitizers in presence of light, and its detection by the infrared luminescence at 1270 nm have been presented. Further, some results using different types of photosensitizers, effect of solvent on singlet oxygen quantum yields and lifetime have been discussed. The quenching rate constants of singlet oxygen have been determined with different types of organic molecules such as derivatives of thiourea and its analogues, hydroxy indoles and antioxidants and the results have been presented. (author)

  14. Singlet oxygen: photosensitized generation, detection and reaction with organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, Atanu; Indira Priyadarsini, K.; Hari Mohan; Bajaj, P.N.; Sapre, A.V.; Mittal, J.P.; Mukherjee, T.

    2006-10-01

    Singlet molecular oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) is an excited state of molecular oxygen, having antiparallel spin in the same π antibonding orbital. The study of singlet oxygen production and reactivity has emerged as a rich and diverse area, with implication in diverse fields, such as synthetic chemistry, polymer chemistry, photodynamic therapy, etc. There are several known methods to produce singlet oxygen, and also various techniques employed to detect it. Out of these, photosensitization method is the most popular one. In this article, photosensitized production of singlet oxygen from triplet oxygen and photosensitizers in presence of light, and its detection by the infrared luminescence at 1270 nm have been presented. Further, some results using different types of photosensitizers, effect of solvent on singlet oxygen quantum yields and lifetime have been discussed. The quenching rate constants of singlet oxygen have been determined with different types of organic molecules such as derivatives of thiourea and its analogues, hydroxy indoles and antioxidants and the results have been presented. (author)

  15. Drug-delivery and multifunction possibilities of hypocrellin photosensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been a routine treatment of tumors and some microvascular diseases, but clinically available photosensitizers are still scarce. Among all kinds of photosensitizers, hypocrellins possess the most characteristics of ideal photosensitizers, such as, high photo-activity but low dark toxicity, fast clearance from tissues. This review is focused on two main topics, drug-delivery problem of hypocrellins and how the environment-sensitive fluorescence of hypocrellins was used for recognition of various biomolecules. Drug-delivery of hypocrellins was mainly achieved in two strategies — preparing the drug-delivery vehicles and finding quantitatively amphiphilic derivatives. Hypocrellin fluorescence originated from the intramolecular proton transfer is very distinct from other kinds of photosensitizers. Recently, it was proved that quantitative hypocrellin fluorescence could not only recognize various biomolecules, including proteins, polysaccharides and lipids, but also distinguish the specific binding from nonspecific binding with some kind of biomolecules. Meantime, hypocrellin fluorescence was pH-sensitive. It is known that tumor cells or tissues have the features of a large amount of lipid, neonatal collagen, over-expression of polysaccharides, and lower pH values compared to normal tissues. According to the relative but not absolute specificity, further studies on quantitative recognition of various biomolecules at a cellular level, may find a new clue to treat tumors by joint usage of photodynamic diagnosis (PDD and PDT.

  16. Fabrication of self-written waveguide in photosensitive polyimide resin by controlling photochemical reaction of photosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, K.; Kuro, T.; Oe, K.; Mune, K.; Tagawa, K.; Naitou, R.; Mochizuki, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated optical properties of photosensitive polyimide appropriating for long self-written waveguide fabrication. From systematic measurements of absorption properties, it was found that photochemical reaction of photosensitizer dissolved in the photosensitive polyimide resins relates to transparency after the exposure, which limits the length of the fabricated self-written waveguide. By controlling the photochemical reaction, in which the photosensitive polyimide resin has sufficient transparency during exposure, four times longer self-written waveguide core was fabricated

  17. Photosensitizing anthraquinones from Heterophyllaea lycioides (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmer, Jesica A; Núñez Montoya, Susana C; Mendoza, Caterine S; Cabrera, José L

    2017-05-01

    Seven anthraquinones were isolated from aerial parts of Heterophyllaea lycioides (Rusby) Sandwith (Rubiaceae), including three derivatives that have not been described before: a hetero-bianthraquinone identified as (R)-2-hydroxymethyl-2'methyl-1,1',6,6'-tetrahydroxy-5,5' bianthraquinone (lycionine), and two mono-chlorinated derivatives related to soranjidiol. One of them is a homo-bianthraquinone: (R)-7-chloro-2,2'-dimethyl-1,1',6,6'-tetrahydroxy-5,5' bianthraquinone (7-chlorobisoranjidiol), whereas the second halogenated derivative corresponds to a monomeric structure: 5-chloro-1,6-dihydroxy-2-methyl anthraquinone (5-chlorosoranjidiol). The four known compounds were already isolated from another species of this genus, H. pustulata, and they were identified as 5,5'-bisoranjidiol, soranjidiol, pustuline and heterophylline. Structural elucidation was performed by means of an extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR data as well as by HRMS analysis. Chemical structures of 7-chlorobisoranjidiol and 5-chlorosoranjidiol were confirmed by their synthesis from 5,5'-bisoranjidiol and soranjidiol, respectively. Type I photosensitizing properties (superoxide anion radical generation, O 2 - ) were assessed by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. When lycionine and chlorinated derivatives were irradiated, they enhanced the O 2 - production with respect to the control; 7-chlorobisoranjidiol stood out by generating an increase of 20%, whereas the other anthraquinones only produced a slight increase of 7%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Photosensitizers for radiation-curable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, W.F. III.

    1977-01-01

    2-Alkoxy-1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propanedione compounds have been found useful as photosensitizers in radiation-curable coating compositions. The novel photosensitizers of this invention have the structural formula in which R is an alkyl radical of from one eight carbon atoms. 11 claims

  19. Chlorin photosensitizers sterically designed to prevent self-aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchoa, Adjaci F; de Oliveira, Kleber T; Baptista, Mauricio S; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Serra, Osvaldo A

    2011-11-04

    The synthesis and photophysical evaluation of new chlorin derivatives are described. The Diels-Alder reaction between protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester and substituted maleimides furnishes endo-adducts that completely prevent the self-aggregation of the chlorins. Fluorescence, resonant light scattering (RLS) and (1)H NMR experiments, as well as X-ray crystallographic have demonstrated that the configurational arrangement of the synthesized chlorins prevent π-stacking interactions between macrocycles, thus indicating that it is a nonaggregating photosensitizer with high singlet oxygen (Φ(Δ)) and fluorescence (Φ(f)) quantum yields. Our results show that this type of synthetic strategy may provide the lead to a new generation of PDT photosensitizers.

  20. Photosensitized oxidation of DNA and its components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decarroz, Chantal.

    1982-09-01

    Chemical changes in DNA components during the photodynamic effect are responsible for Mutagenic and carcinogenic phenomena. Basically two competitive mechanisns involving respectively a charge transfer (type I) and singlet oxygen (type II) are implicated in reactions photo-sensitized by different agents (acridines, phenothiazines, porphyrins, flavins, psoralenes...). A study of the photosensitized oxidation of DNA itself was approached through characterization of the main final products in the case of purine nucleosides. Methyl-2 naphthoquinone - 1,4 (vitamin K 3 ) displays a special photosensitization mechanism involving a cation radical type of intermediary [fr

  1. Prospects for photosensitive dopants in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1990-12-01

    Evidence is presented that the addition of a few ppM of a photosensitive dopant to a U/liquid argon or Pb/liquid argon calorimeter will make a substantial reduction in the e/π ratio. Previous results indicating high voltage problems and no change in the e/π ratio in tests of photosensitive dopants with the Fermilab D0 experiment's U/liquid argon tests calorimeter are also explained. 13 refs., 3 figs

  2. Riboflavin photosensitized oxidation of myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippa, Juliana M; de Zawadzki, Andressa; Grossi, Alberto B; Skibsted, Leif H; Cardoso, Daniel R

    2014-02-05

    The reaction of the fresh meat pigment oxymyoglobin, MbFe(II)O₂, and its oxidized form metmyoglobin, MbFe(III), with triplet-state riboflavin involves the pigment protein, which is oxidatively cleaved or dimerized as shown by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The overall rate constant for oxidation of MbFe(II)O₂ by ³Rib is (3.0 ± 0.5) × 10⁹ L·mol⁻¹·s⁻¹ and (3.1 ± 0.4) × 10⁹ L·mol⁻¹·s⁻¹ for MbFe(III) in phosphate buffer of pH 7.4 at 25 °C as determined by laser flash photolysis. The high rates are rationalized by ground state hydrophobic interactions as detected as static quenching of fluorescence from singlet-excited state riboflavin by myoglobins using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and a Stern-Volmer approach. Binding of riboflavin to MbFe(III) has K(a) = (1.2 ± 0.2) × 10⁴ mol·L⁻¹ with ΔH° = -112 ± 22 kJ·mol⁻¹ and ΔS° = -296 ± 75 J·mol⁻¹·K⁻¹. For meat, riboflavin is concluded to be a photosensitizer for protein oxidation but not for discoloration.

  3. Hypoxia-targeting antitumor prodrugs and photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhouen; Nishimoto, S.I.

    2006-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been identified as a key subject for tumor therapy, since hypoxic tumor cells show resistance to treatment of tumor tissues by radiotherapy, chemotherapy and phototherapy. For improvement of tumor radiotherapy, we have proposed a series of radiation-activated prodrugs that could selectively release antitumor agent 5-fluorouracil or 5-fluorodeoxyuridine under hypoxic conditions. Recently, we attempted to develop two families of novel hypoxia-targeting antitumor agents, considering that tumor-hypoxic environment is favorable to biological and photochemical reductions. The first family of prodrugs was derived from camptothecin as a potent topoisomerase I inhibitor and several bioreductive motifs. These prodrugs could be activated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase or DT-diaphorase to release free camptothecin, and thereby showed hypoxia-selective cytotoxictiy towards tumor cells. These prodrugs were also applicable to the real-time monitoring of activation and antitumor effect by fluorometry. Furthermore, the camptothecin-bioreductive motif conjugates was confirmed to show an oxygen-independent DAN photocleaving activity, which could overcome a drawback of back electron transfer occurring in the photosensitized one-electron oxidation of DNA. Thus, these camptothecin derivatives could be useful to both chemotherapy and phototherapy for hypoxic tumor cells. The second family of prodrugs harnessed UV light for cancer therapy, incorporating the antitumor agent 5-fluorourcil and the photolabile 2-nitrobenzyl chromophores. The attachment of a tumor-homing cyclic peptide CNGRC was also employed to construct the prototype of tumor-targeting photoactiaved antitumor prodrug. These novel prodrugs released high yield of 5-fluorourcil upon UV irradiation at λ ex =365 nm, while being quite stable in the dark. The photoactivation mechanism was also clarified by means of nanosecond laser flash photolysis. (authors)

  4. Study of photosensitization reaction progress in a 96 well plate with photosensitizer rich condition using Talaporfin sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Emiyu; Takahashi, Mei; Arai, Tsunenori

    2013-02-01

    To quantitatively investigate photosensitization reaction in vitro against myocardial cells with photosensitizer rich condition in solution using Talaporfin sodium in the well of a 96 well plate, we studied photosensitization reaction progress in this well. We have proposed non-thermal conduction block of myocardium tissue using the photosensitization reaction with laser irradiation shortly after Talaporfin sodium injection. In above situation, the photosensitizer is located outside the myocardial cells in high concentration. To understand interaction of the photosensitization reaction in which the photosensitizer distributes outside cells, the photosensitization reaction progress in the well was studied. Talaporfin sodium (799.69 MW) solution and a 663 nm diode laser were used. The photosensitizer solution concentrations of 12.5-37.5 μM were employed. The photosensitizer fluorescence with 0.29 W/cm2 in irradiance, which was optimized in previous cell death study, was measured during the laser irradiation until 40 J/cm2. The photosensitizer solution absorbance and dissolved oxygen pressure after the laser irradiation were also measured. We found that the photosensitization reaction progress had 2 distinctive phases of different reaction rate: rapid photosensitization reaction consuming dissolved oxygen and gentle photosensitization reaction with oxygen diffusion from the solution-air boundary. The dissolved oxygen pressure and photosensitizer solution absorbance were 30% and 80% of the initial values after the laser irradiation, respectively. Therefore, oxygen was rate-controlling factor of the photosensitization reaction in the well with the photosensitizer rich condition. In the oxygen diffusion phase, the oxygen pressure was maintained around 40 mmHg until the laser irradiation of 40 J/cm2 and it is similar to that of myocardium tissue in vivo. We think that our 96 well plate in vitro system may simulate PDT in myocardial tissue with photosensitization reaction

  5. Photosensitive Gaseous Detectors for Cryogenic Temperature Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Iacobaeus, C; Lund-Jensen, B; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F

    2007-01-01

    There are several proposals and projects today for building LXe Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) for dark matter search. An important element of these TPCs are the photomultipliers operating either inside LXe or in vapors above the liquid. We have recently demonstrated that photosensitive gaseous detectors (wire type and hole-type) can operate perfectly well until temperatures of LN2. In this paper results of systematic studies of operation of the photosensitive version of these detectors (combined with reflective or semi-transparent CsI photocathodes) in the temperature interval of 300-150 K are presented. In particular, it was demonstrated that both sealed and flushed by a gas detectors could operate at a quite stable fashion in a year/time scale. Obtained results, in particular the long-term stability of photosensitive gaseous detectors, strongly indicate that they can be cheap and simple alternatives to photomultipliers or avalanche solid-state detectors in LXe TPC applications.

  6. [Pharmaceutical chemistry of drug-initiated photosensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Ákos; Tóth, Lívia

    2015-01-01

    The photosensitivity originated from drugs is a common problem in medical and pharmaceutical practice. It is of prominent importance in drug development and in regulatory issues. The photosensitizer effect of drug substances is determined by their chemical structures, and it mainly originates from aromatic chromophore systems and photo-dissociable bonds forming free radicals. The photodegradation may happen in many different types of chemical reaction pathways. Our aim is to demonstrate in this review the interrelations between structure and photodegradation. We show examples for the different reaction types, with drugs from different pharmacologic therapeutic classes. The in vivo chemical reactivity of photodegradates of pharmaceutical substances, the in vitro methods of investigation for testing photoreactivity and phototoxicity, and briefly the clinical tests for photosensitivity disorders are also discussed.

  7. Wavelength dependence of the efficiency of singlet oxygen generation upon photoexcitation of photosensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starukhin A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the efficiency of singlet oxygen (1Δg generation upon excitation of photosensitizer at different wavelength was observed for several derivatives of palladium porphyrin in carbon tetrachloride. The efficiency of singlet oxygen generation upon excitation in a blue region of the spectrum (Soret band exceeds by several times the efficiency at excitation in the red spectral region (Q band. The effect of enhancement of singlet oxygen generation upon CW photoexcitation to Soret band of photosensitizer may be explained by influence of high laying triplet states of a donor molecule on the triplet-triplet energy transfer.

  8. Water soluble {2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy} substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Dilek [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Göl, Cem [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Çakır, Volkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Durmuş, Mahmut [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya, E-mail: zekeriya_61@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kantekin, Halit [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2015-03-15

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy} substituted zinc phthalocyanines (2a and 3a) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of phthalonitrile derivatives (2 and 3). 2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy group was chosen as substituent because the quaternization of the diethylamino functionality on the structure of this group produced water soluble zinc phthalocyanines (2b and 3b). The water solubility is very important for many different applications such as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer because the water soluble photosensitizers can be injected directly to the body and they can transport to cancer cells through blood stream. The new compounds were characterized by using elemental analysis, UV–vis, IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectroscopies. The photophysical and photochemical properties of these novel photosensitizer compounds were examined in DMSO (both non-ionic and ionic complexes) and in PBS (for ionic complexes) solutions. The investigation of these properties is very important for the usage of the compounds as photosensitizers for PDT because determination of these properties is the first stage of potential of the compounds as photosensitizers. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA binding behaviour of the studied water soluble zinc (II) phthalocyanines were also investigated in PBS solutions for the determination of biological activity of these compounds. - Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble zinc phthalocyanines. • Photophysical and photochemical properties for phthalocyanines. • Photodynamic therapy studies.

  9. Water soluble {2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy} substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakır, Dilek; Göl, Cem; Çakır, Volkan; Durmuş, Mahmut; Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya; Kantekin, Halit

    2015-01-01

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy} substituted zinc phthalocyanines (2a and 3a) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of phthalonitrile derivatives (2 and 3). 2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy group was chosen as substituent because the quaternization of the diethylamino functionality on the structure of this group produced water soluble zinc phthalocyanines (2b and 3b). The water solubility is very important for many different applications such as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer because the water soluble photosensitizers can be injected directly to the body and they can transport to cancer cells through blood stream. The new compounds were characterized by using elemental analysis, UV–vis, IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and mass spectroscopies. The photophysical and photochemical properties of these novel photosensitizer compounds were examined in DMSO (both non-ionic and ionic complexes) and in PBS (for ionic complexes) solutions. The investigation of these properties is very important for the usage of the compounds as photosensitizers for PDT because determination of these properties is the first stage of potential of the compounds as photosensitizers. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA binding behaviour of the studied water soluble zinc (II) phthalocyanines were also investigated in PBS solutions for the determination of biological activity of these compounds. - Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble zinc phthalocyanines. • Photophysical and photochemical properties for phthalocyanines. • Photodynamic therapy studies

  10. A Photosensitizer-Loaded DNA Origami Nanosystem for Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Ma, Xiaowei; Xue, Xiangdong; Jiang, Qiao; Song, Linlin; Dai, Luru; Zhang, Chunqiu; Jin, Shubin; Yang, Keni; Ding, Baoquan; Wang, Paul C; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2016-03-22

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers an alternative for cancer treatment by using ultraviolet or visible light in the presence of a photosensitizer and molecular oxygen, which can produce highly reactive oxygen species that ultimately leading to the ablation of tumor cells by multifactorial mechanisms. However, this technique is limited by the penetration depth of incident light, the hypoxic environment of solid tumors, and the vulnerability of photobleaching reduces the efficiency of many imaging agents. In this work, we reported a cellular level dual-functional imaging and PDT nanosystem BMEPC-loaded DNA origami for photodynamic therapy with high efficiency and stable photoreactive property. The carbazole derivative BMEPC is a one- and two-photon imaging agent and photosensitizer with large two-photon absorption cross section, which can be fully excited by near-infrared light, and is also capable of destroying targets under anaerobic condition by generating reactive intermediates of Type I photodynamic reactions. However, the application of BMEPC was restricted by its poor solubility in aqueous environment and its aggregation caused quenching. We observed BMEPC-loaded DNA origami effectively reduced the photobleaching of BMEPC within cells. Upon binding to DNA origami, the intramolecular rotation of BMEPC became proper restricted, which intensify fluorescence emission and radicals production when being excited. After the BMEPC-loaded DNA origami are taken up by tumor cells, upon irradiation, BMEPC could generate free radicals and be released due to DNA photocleavage as well as the following partially degradation. Apoptosis was then induced by the generation of free radicals. This functional nanosystem provides an insight into the design of photosensitizer-loaded DNA origami for effective intracellular imaging and photodynamic therapy.

  11. Interfacial electron transfer dynamics of photosensitized zinc oxide nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakoshi, Kei; Yanagida, Shozo [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Capel, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    The authors have prepared and characterized photosensitized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoclusters, dispersed in methanol, using carboxylated coumarin dyes for surface adsorption. Femtosecond time-resolved emission spectroscopy allows the authors to measure the photo-induced charge carrier injection rate constant from the adsorbed photosensitizer to the n-type semiconductor nanocluster. These results are compared with other photosensitized semiconductors.

  12. Role of complex formation in the photosensitized degradation of DNA induced by N'-formylkynurenine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walrant, P.; Santus, R.; Charlier, M.

    1976-01-01

    N'-Formylkynurenine derivatives efficiently bind to DNA or polynucleotides. Homopolynucleotides and DNA displayed marked differences in the binding process. Association constants were derived which indicated that the oxidized indole ring is more strongly bound to DNA than the unoxidized one. Irradiation of such complexes with wavelengths greater than 320 nm induced pyrimidine dimer formation as well as DNA chain breaks. Complex formation is shown to play an important role in these photosensitized reactions. The photodynamic action of N-formylkynurenine on DNA constituents was negligible at neutral pH but guanine and xanthine derivatives were sensitizable at higher pH. Thymine dimer splitting can occur in aggregated frozen aqueous solutions of N'-formylkynurenine and thymine dimer but this photosensitized splitting was negligible in liquid solutions at room temperature. (author)

  13. Seneciosis in cattle associated with photosensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Giaretta,Paula R.; Panziera,Welden; Galiza,Glauco J.A.; Brum,Juliana S.; Bianchi,Ronaldo M.; Hammerschmitt,Márcia E.; Bazzi,Talissa; Barros,Claudio S.L.

    2014-01-01

    Senecio spp. poisoning is the main cause of cattle mortality in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. This paper reports an outbreak of seneciosis in cattle with high prevalence of photosensitization, where 83 out of 162 cows (51.3%) presented this clinical sign. The outbreak occurred in September 2013, affecting adult cows that were held in a 205 hectare-pasture from April to October 2013 with abundant Senecio brasiliensis infestation. Main clinical signs were weight loss, excessive lacri...

  14. Photosensitizers and radiosensitizers in dermatology and oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, V.

    1979-01-01

    Two therapeutic modalities are currently of great interest, namely photo- and radiosensitization. Whereas photosensitizers only function in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light, radiosensitizers act only in combination with ionizing radiation. Because of the small UV penetration, up to a maximum of 0,5 mm, photosensitization can take place only at the surface of the body, i.e. the skin. Photosensitizers are applied in dermatology in order to optimize and improve the UV therapy of certain diseases (mainly psoriasis, mycosis fungoides and vitiligo). Radiosensitizers lead to an increase in sensitivity of the hypoxic and therefore radioresistant parts of tumours against X- and gamma-radiation. With sufficient concentration within the tumour, they can act where the radiation can reach, even in the deeper parts of the body. They represent a modern and useful aid to radiation oncology. Because of neurotoxic effects, however, their practical use is limited. A short review of the history, mechanisms of action, application and side-effects of these photo- and radiosensitizers is presented

  15. Photosensitizers and radiosensitizers in dermatology and oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruckner, V [Stellenbosch University, Parowvallei (South Africa). Departments of Medical Physics and Radiology

    1979-09-22

    Two therapeutic modalities are currently of great interest, namely photo- and radiosensitization. Whereas photosensitizers only function in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light, radiosensitizers act only in combination with ionizing radiation. Because of the small UV penetration, up to a maximum of 0,5 mm, photosensitization can take place only at the surface of the body, i.e. the skin. Photosensitizers are applied in dermatology in order to optimize and improve the UV therapy of certain diseases (mainly psoriasis, mycosis fungoides and vitiligo). Radiosensitizers lead to an increase in sensitivity of the hypoxic and therefore radioresistant parts of tumours against X- and gamma-radiation. With sufficient concentration within the tumour, they can act where the radiation can reach, even in the deeper parts of the body. They represent a modern and useful aid to radiation oncology. Because of neurotoxic effects, however, their practical use is limited. A short review of the history, mechanisms of action, application and side-effects of these photo- and radiosensitizers is presented.

  16. Photosensitized oxidation in the ocular lens: evidence for photosensitizers endogenous to the human lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigler, J.S. Jr.; Goosey, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous investigators have attempted to associate near UV light exposure with various changes which occur to lens crystallins during aging and cataractogenesis. Recently it was shown that in vitro singlet oxygen mediated oxidation of lens crystallins produces effects very similar to those documented for crystallins from old or cataractous lenses and it was suggested that near UV photodynamic effects may play a major role in vivo in aging in the human lens. It has now been shown that certain oxidation products of tryptophan which have been identified in human lens can act as near UV photosensitizers, producing singlet oxygen. The insoluble protein fraction from human cataracts was shown to have the capacity to act as a photosensitizer. An age-related increase in photosensitizing capacity was also demonstrated in the soluble crystallins from human lens. These findings are discussed with respect to development of pigmented nuclear cataracts. (author)

  17. A novel in vitro method for the detection and characterization of photosensitizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Karschuk

    Full Text Available Photoactivation and binding of photoactive chemicals to proteins is a known prerequisite for the formation of immunogenic photoantigens and the induction of photoallergy. The intensive use of products and the availability of new chemicals, along with an increasing exposure to sun light contribute to the risk of photosensitizing adverse reactions. Dendritic cells (DC play a pivotal role in the induction of allergic contact dermatitis. Human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cells (PBMDC were thus perceived as an obvious choice for the development of a novel in vitro photosensitization assay using the modulation of cell surface protein expression in response to photosensitizing agents. In this new protocol, known chemicals with photosensitizing, allergenic or non-allergenic potential were pre-incubated with PBMDCs prior to UVA irradiation (1 J/cm(2. Following a 48 h incubation, the expression of the cell surface molecules CD86, HLA-DR and CD83 was measured by flow cytometry. All tested photosensitizers induced a significant and dose-dependent increase of CD86 expression after irradiation compared to non-irradiated controls. Moreover, the phototoxicity of the chemicals could also be determined. In contrast, (i CD86 expression was not affected by the chosen irradiation conditions, (ii increased CD86 expression induced by allergens was independent of irradiation and (iii no PBMDC activation was observed with the non-allergenic control. The assay proposed here for the evaluation of the photoallergenic potential of chemicals includes the assessment of their allergenic, phototoxic and toxic potential in a single and robust test system and is filling a gap in the in vitro photoallergenicity test battery.

  18. New photosensitive systems for volume phase holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Andrea; Colella, Letizia; Galli, Paola; Zanutta, Alessio; Bertarelli, Chiara

    2017-05-01

    Volume phase holographic elements are becoming attractive thanks to the large efficiency and good optical quality. They are based on photosensitive materials where a modulation of the refractive index is induced. In this paper, we highlight the strategies to obtain a change in the refractive index in a dielectric material, namely a change in the material density and/or in the molecular polarizability. Moreover, we show the results achieved for materials that undergo the photo-Fries reaction as function of the molecular structure and the illumination conditions. We also report the results on a system based on the diazo Meldrum's acid where volatile molecules are produced upon light exposure.

  19. Photoprocesses of photosensitizing drugs within cyclodextrin cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Sandra; Sortino, Salvatore

    2002-09-01

    Recently some interest has been focused on the photobehavior of CD-drug inclusion complexes in relation to the problem of the biological photosensitization by drugs. This review is dedicated to the illustration of the mechanistic aspects of the photoprocesses occurring in some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), with photosensitising side effects, within CD cavities. It is shown how the photobehavior of the CD-drug associates can help to model the photoreactivity of the drugs in biological sites. The limitations for the use of CDs as protective systems for the clinical administration of photosensitising drugs is also evidenced.

  20. Phototherapeutic, photobiologic, and photosensitizing properties of khellin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morliere, P.; Hoenigsmann, H.A.; Averbeck, D.; Dardalhon, M.; Hueppe, G.O.; Ortel, B.; Santus, R.; Dubertret, L.

    1988-01-01

    Khellin, whose chemical structure closely resembles that of psoralen, is reported to be an efficient drug for treating vitiligo when combined with ultraviolet A irradiation. Photobiological activity on yeast is found to be much lower than that of bifunctional psoralens such as 5-methoxypsoralen. In vitro experiments reveal that khellin is a poor photosensitizer. It behaves as a monofunctional agent with respect to DNA photoaddition. It does not photoinduce cross-links in DNA in vitro or in Chinese hamster cells in vivo. This behavior may explain the low photogenotoxicity in yeast and the lack of phototoxic erythemal response when treating vitiligo with khellin

  1. Adult-onset photosensitivity: clinical significance and epilepsy syndromes including idiopathic (possibly genetic) photosensitive occipital epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroumanidis, Michalis; Tsirka, Vasiliki; Panayiotopoulos, Chrysostomos

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical associations of adult-onset photosensitivity, we studied the clinical and EEG data of patients who were referred due to a possible first seizure and who had a photoparoxysmal response on their EEG. Patients with clinical evidence of photosensitivity before the age of 20 were excluded. Of a total of 30 patients, four had acute symptomatic seizures, two had vasovagal syncope, and 24 were diagnosed with epilepsy. Nine of the 24 patients had idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsies and predominantly generalized photoparoxysmal response, but also rare photically-induced seizures, while 15 had exclusively, or almost exclusively, reflex photically-induced occipital seizures with frequent secondary generalization and posterior photoparoxysmal response. Other important differences included a significantly older age at seizure onset and paucity of spontaneous interictal epileptic discharges in patients with photically-induced occipital seizures; only a quarter of these had occasional occipital spikes, in contrast to the idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsy patients with typically generalized epileptic discharges. On the other hand, both groups shared a positive family history of epilepsy, common seizure threshold modulators (such as tiredness and sleep deprivation), normal neurological examination and MRI, a generally benign course, and good response to valproic acid. We demonstrated that photosensitivity can first occur in adult life and manifest, either as idiopathic (possibly genetic) photosensitive occipital epilepsy with secondary generalization or as an EEG, and less often, a clinical/EEG feature of idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsies. Identification of idiopathic photosensitive occipital epilepsy fills a diagnostic gap in adult first-seizure epileptology and is clinically important because of its good response to antiepileptic drug treatment and fair prognosis.

  2. Nanobody-photosensitizer conjugates for targeted photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heukers, Raimond; van Bergen en Henegouwen, P; Oliveira, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces cell death through light activation of a photosensitizer (PS). Targeted delivery of PS via monoclonal antibodies has improved tumor selectivity. However, these conjugates have long half-lives, leading to relatively long photosensitivity in patients. In an attempt

  3. Electroluminescence and photosensitivity spectra of organic diode structures based on zinc complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplunov, M. G.; Krasnikova, S. S.; Nikitenko, S. L.; Yakushchenko, I. K.

    2017-01-01

    Devices based on zinc complexes with sulphanylaminosubstituted ligands are characterized by dual function - electroluminescence (EL) and photosensitivity. Both EL and photosensitivity are associated with the formation of exciplexes.

  4. Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael

    1997-12-01

    Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

  5. Photosensitive interaction of RSU 1069 with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.I.; Knox, R.J.; Skolimowski, I.M.; Zahoor, A.; Knight, R.C.

    1984-08-01

    RSU 1069 is a 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizer with an aziridine-containing side chain. In light (360 nm) the absorbance maximum of the nitro group at 325 nm disappears, which is accompanied by expulsion of the nitro group as the nitrite ion. This photosensitive effect was used to determine separately the damage of DNA induced by the reduced nitro group and the alkylating property of the aziridine. The aziridine-induced DNA damage is maximized in the dark when the nitro group is either absent (electrolytically reduced prior to the addition of DNA) or non functional (unreduced). In the light, damage is reduced. Typical DNA damage includes helix disruption leading to single strand breaks and the release of thymidine. Alkaline filter elution studies show evidence only for strand breakage and none for cross-linking indicating the drug is capable of mono-functional alkylation only.

  6. Photosensitive interaction of RSU 1069 with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.I.; Knox, R.J.; Skolimowski, I.M.; Zahoor, A.; Knight, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    RSU 1069 is a 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizer with an aziridine-containing side chain. In light (360 nm) the absorbance maximum of the nitro group at 325 nm disappears, which is accompanied by expulsion of the nitro group as the nitrite ion. This photosensitive effect was used to determine separately the damage of DNA induced by the reduced nitro group and the alkylating property of the aziridine. The aziridine-induced DNA damage is maximized in the dark when the nitro group is either absent (electrolytically reduced prior to the addition of DNA) or non functional (unreduced). In the light, damage is reduced. Typical DNA damage includes helix disruption leading to single strand breaks and the release of thymidine. Alkaline filter elution studies show evidence only for strand breakage and none for cross-linking indicating the drug is capable of mono-functional alkylation only

  7. Photosensitive Layer-by-Layer Assemblies Containing Azobenzene Groups: Synthesis and Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uichi Akiba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the syntheses of photosensitive layer-by-layer (LbL films and microcapsules modified with azobenzene derivatives and their biomedical applications. Photosensitive LbL films and microcapsules can be prepared by alternate deposition of azobenzene-bearing polymers and counter polymers on the surface of flat substrates and microparticles, respectively. Azobenzene residues in the films and microcapsules exhibit trans-to-cis photoisomerization under UV light, which causes changes in the physical or chemical properties of the LbL assemblies. Therefore, azobenzene-functionalized LbL films and microcapsules have been used for the construction of photosensitive biomedical devices. For instance, cell adhesion on the surface of a solid can be controlled by UV light irradiation by coating the surface with azobenzene-containing LbL films. In another example, the ion permeability of porous materials coated with LbL films can be regulated by UV light irradiation. Furthermore, azobenzene-containing LbL films and microcapsules have been used as carriers for drug delivery systems sensitive to light. UV light irradiation triggers permeability changes in the LbL films and/or decomposition of the microcapsules, which results in the release of encapsulated drugs and proteins.

  8. UV causation of melanoma in Xiphophorus is dominated by melanin photosensitized oxidant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Simon R.; Berwick, Marianne; Ley, Ronald D.; Walter, Ronald B.; Setlow, Richard B.; Timmins, Graham S.

    2006-01-01

    Controversy continues both as to which wavelengths of sunlight cause melanoma and the mechanisms by which these different wavelengths act. Direct absorption of UVB by DNA is central in albino animal models, but melanin-pigmented models have shown major contributions by wavelengths longer than UVB that are thought to be mediated by photosensitized oxidant production. The only model for which the action spectrum of melanoma causation is known is a genetically melanoma-susceptible specific cross of Xiphophorus fish. We used electron paramagnetic resonance to quantitatively detect the UV induction of reactive melanin radicals in situ in the melanin-containing cells in the skin of this model and derived the action spectrum for melanin-photosensitized oxidant production (Φox). This action spectrum was identical to that for melanoma induction (Φmel). These results confirm the hypothesis that melanin-photosensitized radical production is the major causative step of melanoma in this model and demonstrate that the wavelengths and mechanisms of melanoma causation in different models are dependent on the presence of melanin. This approach should be applicable to humans, thus providing an accurate surrogate for Φmel for prevention studies. PMID:16537493

  9. Validation of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR Model for Photosensitizer Activity Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifuddin M. Zain

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy is a relatively new treatment method for cancer which utilizes a combination of oxygen, a photosensitizer and light to generate reactive singlet oxygen that eradicates tumors via direct cell-killing, vasculature damage and engagement of the immune system. Most of photosensitizers that are in clinical and pre-clinical assessments, or those that are already approved for clinical use, are mainly based on cyclic tetrapyrroles. In an attempt to discover new effective photosensitizers, we report the use of the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR method to develop a model that could correlate the structural features of cyclic tetrapyrrole-based compounds with their photodynamic therapy (PDT activity. In this study, a set of 36 porphyrin derivatives was used in the model development where 24 of these compounds were in the training set and the remaining 12 compounds were in the test set. The development of the QSAR model involved the use of the multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA method. Based on the method, r2 value, r2 (CV value and r2 prediction value of 0.87, 0.71 and 0.70 were obtained. The QSAR model was also employed to predict the experimental compounds in an external test set. This external test set comprises 20 porphyrin-based compounds with experimental IC50 values ranging from 0.39 µM to 7.04 µM. Thus the model showed good correlative and predictive ability, with a predictive correlation coefficient (r2 prediction for external test set of 0.52. The developed QSAR model was used to discover some compounds as new lead photosensitizers from this external test set.

  10. Is colour modulation an independent factor in human visual photosensitivity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parra, J.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Stroink, H.; Kalitzin, S.

    2007-01-01

    Considering that the role of colour in photosensitive epilepsy (PSE) remains unclear, we designed a study to determine the potential of different colours, colour combinations and white light to trigger photoparoxysmal responses (PPRs) under stringent controlled conditions. After assessing their

  11. Interaction Studies between Newly Synthesized Photosensitive Polymer and Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Tae Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this information age, different kinds of photosensitive materials have been used in the manufacture of information storage devices. But these photosensitive materials have the bane of low diffraction efficiency. In order to solve this problem, we have synthesized a novel photosensitive polymer from epoxy-based azopolymers (with three types of azochromophores. Furthermore, we have studied the interaction between this newly synthesized azopolymer and ionic liquids (ILs. For this purpose, we have used the ammonium and imidazolium families of ILs, such as diethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate (DEAP, tributylammonium methyl sulfate (TBMS, triethylammonium 4-aminotoluene-3-sulfonic acid (TASA, and 1-methylimidazolium chloride ([Mim]Cl. To investigate the molecular interaction between azopolymer and ILs, we have used the following spectroscopic methods of analysis: UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and confocal Raman spectroscopy. In this study, we have developed new photosensitive materials by combining polymer with ILs.

  12. Photosensitizing medication use and risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jeanette; Boyd, Heather A; Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Many commonly used medications, including both medications for long-term (daily) use and short-term use (treatment courses of finite duration), have photosensitizing properties. Whether use of these medications affects skin cancer risk, however, is unclear.......Many commonly used medications, including both medications for long-term (daily) use and short-term use (treatment courses of finite duration), have photosensitizing properties. Whether use of these medications affects skin cancer risk, however, is unclear....

  13. Photosensitizing Nanoparticles and The Modulation of Reactive Oxygen Species generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Batista Tada

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The association of PhotoSensitizer (PS molecules with nanoparticles (NPs forming photosensitizing NPs, has emerged as a therapeutic strategy to improve PS tumor targeting, to protect PS from deactivation reactions and to enhance both PS solubility and circulation time. Since association with NPs usually alters PS photophysical and photochemical properties, photosensitizing NPs are an important tool to modulate reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. Depending on the design of the photosensitizing NP, i.e., type of PS, the NP material and the method applied for the construction of the photosensitizing NP, the deactivation routes of the excited state can be controlled, allowing the generation of either singlet oxygen or other ROS. Controlling the type of generated ROS is desirable not only in biomedical applications, as in Photodynamic Therapy where the type of ROS affects therapeutic efficiency, but also in other technological relevant fields like energy conversion, where the electron and energy transfer processes are necessary to increase the efficiency of photoconversion cells. The current review highlights some of the recent developments in the design of Photosensitizing NPs aimed at modulating the primary photochemical events after light absorption.

  14. Primary mechanisms of photosensitization by furocoumarins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossweiner, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    A proper understanding of the PUVA therapy action mechanism requires the synthesis of concepts developed at the level of molecules, single cells and whole organisms. Although progress has been made in identifying key factors within each level of organization, the interrelationships remain obscure. Important unanswered questions at the molecular and cellular levels include: (1) Which excited states of the furocoumarin in molecule (triplet or excited singlet) are involved in the formation of DNA monoadducts, and the conversion of monoadducts to cross-links. (2) How does the spectrum of the incident radiation affect the distribution of the initial photochemical products from the PUVA sensitizers. (3) What are the relative contributions of furocoumarin-DMA monoadducts, furocoumarin-DNA cross-links and singlet oxygen to mutagenesis and lethality in cells, at the furocoumarin and UV-A dose levels corresponging to PUVA therapy. Additional information about these key aspects of furocoumarin photosensitization should lead to a more definitive relationship of the cellular level events to the endpoints observed with PUVA therapy, and suggest directions for potential improvements in the current clinical procedures

  15. Photosensitizers from Spirulina for Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a kind of blue-green algae with good photosynthetic efficiency and might be used for photovoltaic power generation. So this paper used living spirulina as novel photosensitizer to construct spirulina biosolar cell. The results showed that spirulina had the photoelectric conversion effect, and could let the spirulina biosolar cell have 70 μA photocurrent. Meanwhile, adding glucose sucrose or chitosan in the spirulina anode chamber, they could make the maxima current density of the cell greatly increased by 80 μA, 100 μA, and 84 μA, respectively, and the sucrose could improve the maximum power density of the cell to 63 mW/m−2. Phycobiliprotein played an important role in the photosynthesis of spirulina. So in this paper phycobiliprotein was extracted from spirulina to composite with squaraine dye to sensitize nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanode for building dye sensitized solar cell, and the photoelectric properties of the cell also were investigated.

  16. Seneciosis in cattle associated with photosensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Giaretta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Senecio spp. poisoning is the main cause of cattle mortality in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. This paper reports an outbreak of seneciosis in cattle with high prevalence of photosensitization, where 83 out of 162 cows (51.3% presented this clinical sign. The outbreak occurred in September 2013, affecting adult cows that were held in a 205 hectare-pasture from April to October 2013 with abundant Senecio brasiliensis infestation. Main clinical signs were weight loss, excessive lacrimation or mucopurulent ocular discharge, nasal serous discharge, ventral diphteric glossitis, crusts in the nose, teats, dorsum of ears, and vulva. Liver biopsy was performed in all the cows under risk; the histopathological findings in the liver biopsies consisted of fibrosis, megalocytosis, and biliary ductal proliferation and were present in 73.4% of the biopsied animals. Six cows had increased serum activity of gamma glutamyl transferase. Three affected cows were necropsied. The main necropsy findings were a hard liver, distended gall bladder, edema of the mesentery and abomasum. Liver histological changes in the necropsied cows were similar to those of the biopsied livers. Spongiosis was detected in the brain of necropsied cows and is characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy.

  17. Flexible and fragmentable tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, S.; Uran, C.; Bozok, B.; Gungor, K.; Kelestemur, Y.; Lesnyak, V.; Gaponik, N.; Eychmüller, A.; Demir, H. V.

    2016-02-01

    We proposed and demonstrated the first account of large-area, semi-transparent, tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins (PNSs) constructed on flexible substrates operating on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, which avoid the need for applying an external bias and circumvent the current-matching limitation between junctions. We successfully fabricated and operated the tandem PNSs composed of single monolayers of colloidal water-soluble CdTe and CdHgTe nanocrystals (NCs) in adjacent junctions on a Kapton polymer tape. Owing to the usage of a single NC layer in each junction, noise generation was significantly reduced while keeping the resulting PNS films considerably transparent. In each junction, photogenerated excitons are dissociated at the interface of the semi-transparent Al electrode and the NC layer, with holes migrating to the contact electrode and electrons trapped in the NCs. As a result, the tandem PNSs lead to an open-circuit photovoltage buildup equal to the sum of those of the two single junctions, exhibiting a total voltage buildup of 128.4 mV at an excitation intensity of 75.8 μW cm-2 at 350 nm. Furthermore, we showed that these flexible PNSs could be bent over 3.5 mm radius of curvature and cut out in arbitrary shapes without damaging the operation of individual parts and without introducing any significant loss in the total sensitivity. These findings indicate that the NC skins are promising as building blocks to make low-cost, flexible, large-area UV/visible sensing platforms with highly efficient full-spectrum conversion.We proposed and demonstrated the first account of large-area, semi-transparent, tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins (PNSs) constructed on flexible substrates operating on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, which avoid the need for applying an external bias and circumvent the current-matching limitation between junctions. We successfully fabricated and operated the tandem PNSs composed of

  18. Liposomal photosensitizers: potential platforms for anticancer photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Muehlmann

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy is a well-established and clinically approved treatment for several types of cancer. Antineoplastic photodynamic therapy is based on photosensitizers, i.e., drugs that absorb photons translating light energy into a chemical potential that damages tumor tissues. Despite the encouraging clinical results with the approved photosensitizers available today, the prolonged skin phototoxicity, poor selectivity for diseased tissues, hydrophobic nature, and extended retention in the host organism shown by these drugs have stimulated researchers to develop new formulations for photodynamic therapy. In this context, due to their amphiphilic characteristic (compatibility with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances, liposomes have proven to be suitable carriers for photosensitizers, improving the photophysical properties of the photosensitizers. Moreover, as nanostructured drug delivery systems, liposomes improve the efficiency and safety of antineoplastic photodynamic therapy, mainly by the classical phenomenon of extended permeation and retention. Therefore, the association of photosensitizers with liposomes has been extensively studied. In this review, both current knowledge and future perspectives on liposomal carriers for antineoplastic photodynamic therapy are critically discussed.

  19. Laser inactivation of periodontal bacteria using photosensitizing dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Paul S.; Maddocks, L.; King, Terence A.; Drucker, D. B.

    1996-12-01

    We demonstrate the killing of the oral bacteria Prevotella nigrescens using a photosensitizer and light from a 10 Hz, frequency doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG pumped dye laser, with modified oscillator to increase output power. This system produced light at wavelengths close to 620 nm, the absorption maximum of the photosensitizing agent, malachite green isothiocyanate, a wavelength that is not significantly absorbed by tissue. A bacterial reduction of 97.5 percent was achieved at an energy density of 0.67 J/cm2 and exposure times of 300 seconds.

  20. Electroluminescence and photosensitivity spectra of organic diode structures based on zinc complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplunov, M.G.; Krasnikova, S.S.; Nikitenko, S.L.; Yakushchenko, I.K.

    2017-01-01

    Devices based on zinc complexes with sulphanylaminosubstituted ligands are characterized by dual function – electroluminescence (EL) and photosensitivity. Both EL and photosensitivity are associated with the formation of exciplexes.

  1. Mechanism to preserve phrenic nerve function during photosensitization reaction: drug uptake and photosensitization reaction effect on electric propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Haruka; Hamada, Risa; Ogawa, Emiyu; Arai, Tsunenori

    2018-02-01

    To study a mechanism of phrenic nerve preservation phenomena during a photosensitization reaction, we investigated an uptake of talaporfin sodium and photosensitization reaction effect on an electric propagation. Right phrenic nerve was completely preserved after superior vena cava isolations using the photosensitization reaction in canine animal experiments, in spite of adjacent myocardium was electrically blocked. We predicted that low drug uptake and/or low photosensitization reaction effect on the nerve might be a mechanism of that phenomena. To investigate uptake to various nerve tissue, a healthy extracted crayfish ventral nerve cord and an extracted porcine phrenic nerve were immersed in 20 μg/ml talaporfin sodium solution for 0-240 min. The mean talaporfin sodium fluorescence brightness increased depending on the immersion time. This brightness saturated around the immersion time of 120 min. We found that talaporfin sodium uptake inside the perineurium which directly related to the electric propagation function was lower than that of outside in the porcine phrenic nerve. To investigate photosensitization reaction effect on electric propagation, the crayfish nerve was immersed into the same solution for 15 min and irradiated by a 663 nm laser light with 120 mW/cm2. Since we found the action potential disappeared when the irradiation time was 25-65 s, we consider that the crayfish nerve does not tolerant to the photosensitization reaction on electric propagation function at atmospheric pressure. From these results, we think that the low uptake of talaporfin sodium inside the perineurium and low oxygen partial pressure of nerve might be the possible mechanism to preserve phrenic nerve in vivo.

  2. Development of Smart Phthalocyanine-based Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yun Sang

    Phthalocyanines are versatile functional dyes that have shown great potential in cancer theranostics, especially in photodynamic therapy (PDT). This research work aims to develop "smart" phthalocyanine-based photosensitizers for targeted PDT. This thesis describes the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of several series of carefully designed phthalocyanine-based photosensitizers. Chapter 1 presents an overview of PDT, including its historical development, photophysical mechanisms, and biological mechanisms. Various classes of photosensitizers are introduced with emphasis putting on phthalocyanines, which exhibit ideal characteristics of photosensitizers for PDT. In recent years, several approaches have been used to develop photosensitizers with higher tumor selectivity and minimal skin photosensitivity after PDT. Activatable photosensitizers can provide a "turn on" mechanism to offer an additional control of the specificity of treatment. Photosensitizers can also work cooperatively with the tumor-targeting groups or anticancer drugs so as to achieve targeted or dual therapy, which can enhance the efficacy of PDT. The novel approaches mentioned above have been widely used and combined to form multi-functional photosensitizing agents. These novel concepts and development of PDT are discussed and illustrated with relevant examples at the end of this chapter. To minimize the prolonged skin photosensitivity, photosensitizers that can only be activated by tumor-associated stimuli have been developed. Due to the abnormal metabolism in tumor tissues, their surface usually exhibits a lower pH compared to that of the normal tissues. Also, the pH difference between the intracellular and the physiological environment provides a pH-activation mechanism. Chapter 2 presents the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of a pH-responsive zinc(II) phthalocyanine tetramer, in which the phthalocyanine units

  3. Photodynamic Inactivation of Candida albicans with Imidazoacridinones: Influence of Irradiance, Photosensitizer Uptake and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Taraszkiewicz

    Full Text Available The increasing applicability of antifungal treatments, the limited range of available drug classes and the emergence of drug resistance in Candida spp. suggest the need for new treatment options. To explore the applicability of C. albicans photoinactivation, we examined nine structurally different imidazoacridinone derivatives as photosensitizing agents. The most effective derivatives showed a >10(4-fold reduction of viable cell numbers. The fungicidal action of the three most active compounds was compared at different radiant powers (3.5 to 63 mW/cm2, and this analysis indicated that 7 mW/cm2 was the most efficient. The intracellular accumulation of these compounds in fungal cells correlated with the fungicidal activity of all 9 derivatives. The lack of effect of verapamil, an inhibitor targeting Candida ABC efflux pumps, suggests that these imidazoacridinones are not substrates for ABC transporters. Thus, unlike azoles, a major class of antifungals used against Candida, ABC transporter-mediated resistance is unlikely. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR-spin trapping data suggested that the fungicidal light-induced action of these derivatives might depend on the production of superoxide anion. The highest generation rate of superoxide anion was observed for 1330H, 1610H, and 1611. Singlet oxygen production was also detected upon the irradiation of imidazoacridinone derivatives with UV laser light, with a low to moderate yield, depending on the type of compound. Thus, imidazoacridinone derivatives examined in the present study might act via mixed type I/type II photodynamic mechanism. The presented data indicate lack of direct correlation between the structures of studied imidazoacridinones, cell killing ability, and ROS production. However, we showed for the first time that for imidazoacridinones not only intracellular accumulation is necessary prerequisite of lethal photosensitization of C. albicans, but also localization within particular

  4. 78 FR 18999 - Prospective Grant of Start-Up Exclusive License: Photosensitizing Antibody-Fluorophore Conjugates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ...-Up Exclusive License: Photosensitizing Antibody-Fluorophore Conjugates for Photoimmunotherapy AGENCY...-205-2010/0-US-01), and entitled ``Photosensitizing Antibody- Fluorophore Conjugates,'' to Aspyrian... invention. The field of use may be limited to ``use of photosensitizing antibody-fluorophore conjugate by...

  5. Photosensitive N channel MOSFET device on silicon on sapphire substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goascoz, V.; Borel, J.

    1975-01-01

    An anomalous behavior of the N channel output current characteristic in a SOS MOSFET with a floating bulk is described. Such a phenomenon can be used in a photosensitive device with internal gain. Such devices can be used on SOS substrates to achieve integrated circuits with high insulating voltages and data transmission by optical means [fr

  6. Photochemical events during photosensitization of colloidal ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photosensitization of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles with riboflavin (RF) was investigated using absorption, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements and time resolved fluorescence measurements. Riboflavin adsorbed strongly on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. Apparent association constant was obtained from the ...

  7. Solid state photosensitive devices which employ isolated photosynthetic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-09-22

    Solid state photosensitive devices including photovoltaic devices are provided which comprise a first electrode and a second electrode in superposed relation; and at least one isolated Light Harvesting Complex (LHC) between the electrodes. Preferred photosensitive devices comprise an electron transport layer formed of a first photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the first electrode and the LHC; and a hole transport layer formed of a second photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the second electrode and the LHC. Solid state photosensitive devices of the present invention may comprise at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material disposed between the first electrode and the electron transport layer; and at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material, disposed between the second electrode and the hole transport layer. Methods of generating photocurrent are provided which comprise exposing a photovoltaic device of the present invention to light. Electronic devices are provided which comprise a solid state photosensitive device of the present invention.

  8. Development of proportional counters using photosensitive gases and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-10-01

    An introduction to the history and to the principle of operation of wire chambers using photosensitive gases and liquids is presented. Their use as light sensors coupled to Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters and BaF 2 , as well as their use in Cherenkov Ring imaging, is discussed in some detail. 42 references, 21 figures

  9. Photosensitivity and double vision as initial symptoms of colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, René; Laursen, Christian Borbjerg; Graumann, Ole

    2015-01-01

    A 75-year-old man suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, myxoedema and type II diabetes mellitus, presented with occasional double vision and photosensitivity. The patient underwent an MRI of the brain showing a tumour located in the right of the sphenoid bone. A subsequent diagnostic CT scan of th...

  10. Tumor localization of boronated porphyrins in an intracerebral model of glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.S.; Kaye, A.H.; Gonzales, M.F.; Stylli, S.S.; Nakamura, Y.; Kahl, S.B.; Vardaxis, N.J.; Johnson, C.I.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of the most common cerebral tumor, cerebral glioma, is unsatisfactory as the tumor recurs due to inadequate local control. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) offer some promise as adjuvant treatments for cerebral glioma. Several clinical trials have been reported utilizing PDT and BNCT to treat the high grade glioma, glioblastoma multiforme. The authors have investigated the pharmacokinetic tissue distribution of the photosensitizer Haematoporphyrin derivative (HpD), the nido carboranyl porphyrin, boron tetraphenyl porphine (BTPP) and the closo carboranyl monomeric protoporphyrin (BOPP) in CBA mice bearing the intracerebral C6 glioma xenograft

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopy and photosensitizing properties of hydroxynitrophenyl porphyrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestrin, Ana Paula J.; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio; Neri, Claudio R.; Gandini, Maria Elisa F.; Serra, Osvaldo A.; Iamamoto, Yassuko [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: osaserra@usp.br

    2004-10-01

    The hydroxynitrophenyl porphyrins, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)porphyrin and 5-mono(carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)porphyrin described in this work were prepared through Adler's method. These compounds were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR and light absorption and emission spectroscopy in the visible region. In order to demonstrate the involvement of {sup 1}O{sub 2} production, the uric (UA) acid test was carried out, which considers the decrease in the absorbance of UA at 293 nm following laser light irradiation of a solution containing UA and a photosensitizer. The results obtained demonstrate that these hydroxynitrophenyl porphyrins can be considered as promising photosensitizers in PDT. (author)

  12. Photosensitization and phototherapy with furocoumarins: A quantum-chemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano-Perez, Juan Jose; Serrano-Andres, Luis; Merchan, Manuela

    2008-01-01

    The effect of electromagnetic radiation on biological objects extends from heating to complex photochemistry, and includes DNA alteration, that properly modified in damaged cells may entail beneficial effects. In this regard, psoralen + UV-A (PUVA) therapy, in which furocoumarins, psoralen-like chromophores, are used as photosensitizers and photoreactants with DNA bases, is one of the most promising strategies against a plethora of diseases. Understanding the underlying photochemical mechanisms is crucial to design effective drugs without undesired side effects. We have undertaken a quantum-mechanical study on the photophysics and photochemistry of furocoumarins, analyzing firstly the most efficient way in which the lowest excited triplet state, as protagonist of the photosensitizing action, is populated from the initially promoted singlet states, and secondly the basics of the formation of furocoumarin-DNA photoadducts

  13. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell function in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The activity of melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive ganglion retinal cells (ipRGC) can be assessed by a means of pupil responses to bright blue (appr.480 nm) light. Due to age related factors in the eye, particularly, structural changes of the lens, less light reaches retina. The aim...... of this study was to examine how age and in vivo measured lens transmission of blue light might affect pupil light responses, in particular, mediated by the ipRGC....

  14. Extended rhodamine photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kellie S; Linder, Michelle K; Kryman, Mark W; Detty, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Extended thio- and selenorhodamines with a linear or angular fused benzo group were prepared. The absorption maxima for these compounds fell between 640 and 700nm. The extended rhodamines were evaluated for their potential as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy in Colo-26 cells. These compounds were examined for their photophysical properties (absorption, fluorescence, and ability to generate singlet oxygen), for their dark and phototoxicity toward Colo-26 cells, and for their co-localization with mitochondrial-specific agents in Colo-26 and HUT-78 cells. The angular extended rhodamines were effective photosensitizers toward Colo-26 cells with 1.0Jcm(-2) laser light delivered at λmax±2nm with values of EC50 of (2.8±0.4)×10(-7)M for sulfur-containing analogue 6-S and (6.4±0.4)×10(-8)M for selenium-containing analogue 6-Se. The linear extended rhodamines were effective photosensitizers toward Colo-26 cells with 5 and 10Jcm(-2) of broad-band light (EC50's⩽2.4×10(-7)M). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved combination of photosensitivity elements for use in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorselaer, M.K.

    1975-01-01

    It is stated that manufacturers of photosensitive elements incorporating silver halide emulsions for use in radiography are often faced with performance requirements that place conflicting demands on the composition of the photosensitive elements. Amongst such performance requirements are a minimum photographic speed, a short processing time, and a minimum standard of image density and resolution. With a view to achieving some degree of reconciliation between maximum optical image density requirements and economy in processing time, and in particular fixing time, it is advantageous to have the total silver halide content distributed in emulsion layers on opposite sides of the emulsion layer support. Such 'double sided' elements are usually exposed between two intensifying screens, that may be separate elements of integral parts of a single element that also incorporates the silver halide emulsion layers. During exposure of these 'double sided' elements light from one intensifying screen irradiates the adjacent emulsion layer and also that on the opposite side of the support; this is referred to as 'cross over'. Due to refraction and other light deflection processes within the photosensitive element this, however, impairs image definition. In commercial systems a relatively high concentration of siver halide is usually employed in order to obtain good contrast and maximum image density, but this adversely affects processing time. Instead of such high silver halide concentrations emulsions of small silver halide grain size may be used, but this lowers the photographic speed. Elements having properties that mitigate these difficulties are described, and examples of their application are given. (U.K.)

  16. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Rai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51% patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11% showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis.

  17. The (6-4) Dimeric Lesion as a DNA Photosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrell-Criado, Victoria; Rodríguez-Muñiz, Gemma M; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Cuquerella, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A

    2016-07-04

    Based on our previous investigations into the photophysical properties of the 5-methyl-2-pyrimidone (Pyo) chromophore, we now extend our studies to the photobehavior of the dimeric (6-4) thymine photoproducts (6-4 PP) to evaluate their capability to act as instrinsic DNA photosensitizers. The lesion presents significant absorption in the UVB/UVA region, weak fluorescence emission, a singlet-excited-state energy of approximately 351 kJ mol(-1) , and a triplet-excited-state energy of 297 kJ mol(-1) . Its triplet transient absorption has a maximum at 420-440 nm, a lifetime of around 7 μs, and a high formation quantum yield, ΦISC =0.86. This species is efficiently quenched by thymidine. Its DNA photosensitizing properties are demonstrated by a series of experiments run on a pBR322 plasmid. The lesion photoinduces both single-strand breaks and the formation of cyclobutane thymine dimers. Altogether, these results show that, the substitution of the pyrimidone ring at C4 by a 5-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine does not cancel out the photosensitization properties of the chromophore. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Singlet Oxygen Detection Using Red Wine Extracts as Photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunes, Irene; Vázquez-Ortega, Fernanda; Trigos, Ángel

    2017-09-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine provides beneficial effects to health. This is attributed to polyphenol compounds present in wine such as resveratrol, quercetin, gallic acid, rutin, and vanillic acid. The amount of these antioxidants is variable; nevertheless, the main beneficial effects of red wine are attributed to resveratrol. However, it has been found that resveratrol and quercetin are able to photosensitize singlet oxygen generation and conversely, gallic acid acts as quencher. Therefore, and since resveratrol and quercetin are some of the most important antioxidants reported in red wines, the aim of this research was to evaluate the photosensitizing ability of 12 red wine extracts through photo-oxidation of ergosterol. The presence of 1 O 2 was detected by ergosterol conversion into peroxide of ergosterol through 1 H NMR analysis. Our results showed that 10 wine extracts were able to act as photosensitizers in the generation of singlet oxygen. The presence of 1 O 2 can damage other compounds of red wine and cause possible organoleptic alterations. Finally, although the reaction conditions employed in this research do not resemble the inherent conditions in wine making processing or storing, or even during its consumption, this knowledge could be useful to prevent possible pro-oxidant effects and avoid detrimental effects in red wines. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Fluorescent proteins as singlet oxygen photosensitizers: mechanistic studies in photodynamic inactivation of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-González, Rubén.; White, John H.; Cortajarena, Aitziber L.; Agut, Montserrat; Nonell, Santi; Flors, Cristina

    2013-02-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) combines a photosensitizer, light and oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly singlet oxygen (1O2), to photo-oxidize important biomolecules and induce cell death. aPDT is a promising alternative to standard antimicrobial strategies, but its mechanisms of action are not well understood. One of the reasons for that is the lack of control of the photosensitizing drugs location. Here we report the use of geneticallyencoded fluorescent proteins that are also 1O2 photosensitizers to address the latter issue. First, we have chosen the red fluorescent protein TagRFP as a photosensitizer, which unlike other fluorescent proteins such as KillerRed, is able to produce 1O2 but not other ROS. TagRFP photosensitizes 1O2 with a small, but not negligible, quantum yield. In addition, we have used miniSOG, a more efficient 1O2 photosensitizing fluorescent flavoprotein that has been recently engineered from phototropin 2. We have genetically incorporated these two photosensitizers into the cytosol of E. coli and demonstrated that intracellular 1O2 is sufficient to kill bacteria. Additional assays have provided further insight into the mechanism of cell death. Photodamage seems to occur primarily in the inner membrane, and extends to the outer membrane if the photosensitizer's efficiency is high enough. These observations are markedly different to those reported for external photosensitizers, suggesting that the site where 1O2 is primarily generated proves crucial for inflicting different types of cell damage.

  20. Photodynamic mechanisms induced by a combination of hypericin and a chlorin based-photosensitizer in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenge Emina Besic; Lüscher Daniel; Forny Patrick; Antoniol Martina; Geisberger Georg; Walt Heinrich; Patzke Greta; Maake Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate photodynamic therapy (PDT) effects mediated by hypericin and a liposomal meso tetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin (mTHPC) derivative with focus on their 1:1 mixture on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Absorption excitation and photobleaching were monitored using fluorescence spectrometry showing the same spectral patterns for the mixture as measured for single photosensitizers. In the mixture mTHPC showed a prolonged photo stability. Singlet oxyg...

  1. Electrospun photosensitive nanofibers: potential for photocurrent therapy in skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guorui; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Kai, Dan; Kotaki, Masaya; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2013-01-01

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is one of the most promising photovoltaic (PV) polymers in photocurrent therapy. A novel photosensitive scaffold for skin tissue engineering was fabricated by blending P3HT with polycaprolactone (PCL) and electrospun to obtain composite PCL/P3HT nanofibers with three different weight ratios of PCL : P3HT (w/w) of 150 : 2 [PCL/P3HT(2)], 150 : 10 [PCL/P3HT(10)] and 150 : 20 [PCL/P3HT(20)]. The photosensitive properties of the blend solutions and the composite nanofibers of PCL/P3HT were investigated. The incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies of the PCL/P3HT(2), PCL/P3HT(10), PCL/P3HT(20) were identified as 2.0 × 10(-6), 1.6 × 10(-5) and 2.9 × 10(-5), respectively, which confirm the photosensitive ability of the P3HT-containing scaffolds. The biocompatibility of the scaffold was evaluated by culturing human dermal fibroblasts and the results showed that the proliferation of HDFs under light stimulation on PCL/P3HT(10) was 12.8%, 11.9%, and 11.6% (p ≤ 0.05) higher than the cell growth on PCL, PCL/P3HT(2) and PCL/P3HT(20), respectively. Human dermal fibroblasts cultured under light stimulation on PCL/P3HT(10) not only showed better cell proliferation but also retained cell morphology similar to the phenotype observed on tissue culture plates (control). Our experimental results suggest novel and potential application of an optimized amount of P3HT-containing scaffold, especially PCL/P3HT(10) nanofibrous scaffold in photocurrent therapy for skin regeneration.

  2. High-Efficiency Iron Photosensitizer Explained with Quantum Wavepacket Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pápai, Mátyás Imre; Vankó, György; Rozgonyi, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    designed to destabilize the MC states. Using first-principles quantum nuclear wavepacket simulations we achieve a detailed understanding of the photoexcited decay mechanism, demonstrating that it is dominated by an ultrafast intersystem crossing from 1MLCT–3MLCT proceeded by slower kinetics associated...... with the conversion into the 3MC states. The slowest component of the 3MLCT decay, important in the context of photosensitizers, is much longer than related Fe(II) complexes because the population transfer to the 3MC states occurs in a region of the potential where the energy gap between the 3MLCT and 3MC states...

  3. Advanced smart-photosensitizers for more effective cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wooram; Cho, Soojeong; Han, Jieun; Shin, Heejun; Na, Kun; Lee, Byeongdu; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-12-19

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) based upon the use of light and photosensitizers (PSs) has been used as a novel treatment approach for a variety of tumors. It, however, has several major limitations in the clinic: poor water solubility, long-term phototoxicity, low tumor targeting efficacy, and limited light penetration. With advances in nanotechnology, materials science, and clinical interventional imaging procedures, various smart-PSs have been developed for improving their cancer-therapeutic efficacy while reducing the adverse effects. Here, we briefly review state-of-the-art smart-PSs and discuss the future directions of PDT technology.

  4. Liquid crystal nanoparticles for delivery of photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Okhil K.; Naciri, Jawad; Delehanty, James B.

    2018-02-01

    The main principle of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is to kill malignant cells by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PDT appeared highly effective when ROS can be produced in subcellular location such as plasma membrane. The plasma membrane maintains the structural integrity of the cell and regulates multiple important cellular processes, such as endocytosis, trafficking, and apoptotic pathways, could be one of the best points to kill the cancer cells. Previously, we have developed a plasma membrane-targeted liquid crystal nanoparticle (LCNP) formulation that can be loaded with dyes or drugs. Here we highlight the utility of this LCNP for membrane targeted delivery and imaging for a photosensitizer (PS) for PDT applications.

  5. Photosensitive Ox/GaAs heterojunctions: Creation and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rud' , V. Yu. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Rud' , Yu. V., E-mail: yuryrud@mail.ioffe.ru; Terukov, E. I.; Ushakova, T. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    A method for the thermal oxidation of GaAs crystals in air is suggested and the first photosensitive Ox/n-GaAs heterojunctions, where Ox is a native oxide, are fabricated. The steady current-voltage characteristics and spectra of relative quantum efficiency of the new structures are studied. The features of the spectra of photoactive absorption of the obtained heterojunctions are discussed. The potential of using vacuumfree thermal oxidation of the GaAs crystals in air to fabricate broadband heterophotoconverters of optical radiation on their basis is established.

  6. The (6-4) Dimeric Lesion as a DNA Photosensitizer

    OpenAIRE

    Vendrell Criado, Victoria; Rodríguez Muñiz, Gemma María; Lhiaubet ., Virginie Lyria; Cuquerella Alabort, Maria Consuelo; Miranda Alonso, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Based on our previous investigations into the photophysical properties of the 5-methyl-2-pyrimidone (Pyo) chromophore, we now extend our studies to the photobehavior of the dimeric (6-4) thymine photoproducts (6-4 PP) to evaluate their capability to act as instrinsic DNA photosensitizers. The lesion presents significant absorption in the UVB/UVA region, weak fluorescence emission, a singlet-excited-state energy of approximately 351 kJ mol(-1), and a triplet-excited-state energy of 297 kJ...

  7. Endogenous and exogenous porphyrins as photosensitizers in the Hep-2 human carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M G; Milanesio, M; Rivarola, V; Durantini, E; Batlle, A; Fukuda, H

    2009-07-01

    The photodynamic activity of three photosensitizers (PS): AL-induced PPIX, the porphyrin derivative 5-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-10, 5, 20-tris (2,4,6- trimethoxyphenyl) porphyrin (CP) and the molecular dyad porphyrin-C(60) (P-C(60)), the last two incorporated into liposomal vesicles, was evaluated on Hep-2 human larynx carcinoma cell line. ALA-induced accumulation of the endogenous PS PPIX, reached saturation values between 5 and 24 h incubation time; the maximal PPIX content was 5.7 nmol/106 cells. The same intracellular level was accumulated when the cationic porphyrin CP was used, while the amount of P-C(60) attained was 1.5 nmol/106 cells. Under violet-blue exciting light, the fluorescence of PPIX and P-C(60) was found in the cytoplasm showing a granular appearance indicating lysosomal localization. CP was mainly detected as a filamentous pattern characteristic of mitochondrial localization. No dark cytotoxicity was observed using 1mM ALA, 5 microM CP and 1 microM P-C(60) after 24 h incubation. Cell morphology was analyzed using Hoechst-33258, toluidine blue staining, TUNEL assay and DNA fragmentation, 24 h after irradiation with 54 J/cm2. When photosensitized with ALA and P-C(60), chromatine condensation characteristic of apoptotic cell death was found; instead, 58 % of necrotic cells were observed with CP. The results show that in the Hep-2 cells, of the three PS analyzed, the molecular dyad P-C(60) was more efficient than CP and PPIX, and confirm that PDT can induce different mechanisms of cell death depending on the PS and the irradiation dose.

  8. Light-driven photosensitizer uptake increases Candida albicans photodynamic inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renan A; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Silva, Ana P da; Kurachi, Cristina; Guimarães, Francisco E G

    2017-11-01

    Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) is based on the use of a photosensitizer (PS) and light that results mainly in the production of reactive oxygen species, aiming to produce microorganism cell death. PS incubation time and light dose are key protocol parameters that influence PDI response; the correct choice of them can increase the efficiency of inactivation. The results of this study show that a minor change in the PDI protocol, namely light-driven incubation leads to a higher photosensitizer and more uniform cell uptake inside the irradiated zone. Furthermore, as the uptake increases, the damage caused by PDI also increases. The proposed light-driven incubation prior to the inactivation illumination dose has advantages when compared to the traditional PDI treatments since it can be more selective and effective. Using a violet light as pre-illumination (light-driven incubation) source and a red-light system as PDI source, it was possible to demonstrate that when compared to the traditional protocol of dark incubation, the pre-illuminated cell culture showed an inactivation increase of 7 log units. These in vitro results performed in Candida albicans cells may result in the introduction of a new protocol for PDI. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Implication for photosensitive patients of ultraviolet A exposure in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, P J; Farr, P M; Diffey, B L; Lloyd, J J

    2004-10-01

    Photosensitive patients sometimes report disease flares during journeys by car. Window glass blocks all UVB but not all UVA. All car windscreens are made from laminated glass. Side and rear windows are usually made of nonlaminated glass. To determine which types of glass provide most protection from UVA with particular reference to the implications for patients with polymorphic light eruption (PLE). The percentage transmission of UVA was determined for a selection of glass, both laminated and nonlaminated, and with differing colour tints. Laminated glass transmits less UVA than nonlaminated glass. Tinted glass transmits less UVA than clear glass. Nonlaminated clear glass transmitted the highest percentage of UVA (62.8%) and grey laminated glass the lowest (0.9%). A dose of 5 J cm(-2) UVA, enough to trigger PLE in some patients, could be transmitted through clear nonlaminated glass in 30 min but would take 50 h through grey laminated glass. Patients with severe UVA-induced PLE and other photosensitivity disorders may have disease flares from solar UVA transmission through side-window glass. Protective measures such as wearing long-sleeved clothing, keeping the arm beneath the bottom of the window aperture, or choosing tinted and laminated car windows may be helpful.

  10. Evaluation of the skin phototoxicity and photosensitivity of honeybee venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Mi; Hong, In Phyo; Woo, Soon Ok; Kim, Se Gun; Jang, He Rye; Park, Kwan Kyu

    2017-12-01

    Bee (Apis mellifera L.) venom (BV) has been used as a cosmetic ingredient owing to its anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. The aim of this study was to assess the skin safety of BV. For this purpose, skin phototoxicity and sensitization tests were conducted in healthy male Hartley guinea pigs. The animals were divided into three groups (n=5) for the phototoxicity test: G1 (negative control), G2 (BV gel treatment), and G3 (positive control). After specified treatments, the animals were irradiated with ultraviolet A (15 J/cm 2 ). The photosensitivity test was also performed in three groups: G4 (negative control, n=5), G5 (BV gel treatment, n=10), and G6 (positive control, n=5). Erythema and edema were observed after 24, 48, and 72 hours in the positive control group, but not in the negative control and BV gel groups. Application of BV to the guinea pig skin had no toxic effects on any clinical signs, body weight, or mortality. In addition, it did not evoke a skin reaction in both either the skin phototoxicity and skin photosensitization tests. Therefore, it can be concluded that BV has the potential to be developed as a drug ingredient for topical uses. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Long-wavelength photosensitivity in coral planula larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Benjamin M; Cohen, Jonathan H

    2012-04-01

    Light influences the swimming behavior and settlement of the planktonic planula larvae of coral, but little is known regarding the photosensory biology of coral at this or any life-history stage. Here we used changes in the electrical activity of coral planula tissue upon light flashes to investigate the photosensitivity of the larvae. Recordings were made from five species: two whose larvae are brooded and contain algal symbionts (Porites astreoides and Agaricia agaricites), and three whose larvae are spawned and lack algal symbionts (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata,and Montastrea faveolata). Photosensitivity originated from the coral larva rather than from, or in addition to, its algal symbionts as species with and without symbionts displayed similar tissue-level electrical responses to light. All species exhibited as much (or more) sensitivity to red stimuli as to blue/green stimuli, which is consistent with a role for long-wavelength visible light in the preference for substrata observed during settlement and in facilitating vertical positioning of larvae in the water column.

  12. The circadian response of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Zele

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC signal environmental light level to the central circadian clock and contribute to the pupil light reflex. It is unknown if ipRGC activity is subject to extrinsic (central or intrinsic (retinal network-mediated circadian modulation during light entrainment and phase shifting. Eleven younger persons (18-30 years with no ophthalmological, medical or sleep disorders participated. The activity of the inner (ipRGC and outer retina (cone photoreceptors was assessed hourly using the pupil light reflex during a 24 h period of constant environmental illumination (10 lux. Exogenous circadian cues of activity, sleep, posture, caffeine, ambient temperature, caloric intake and ambient illumination were controlled. Dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO was determined from salivary melatonin assay at hourly intervals, and participant melatonin onset values were set to 14 h to adjust clock time to circadian time. Here we demonstrate in humans that the ipRGC controlled post-illumination pupil response has a circadian rhythm independent of external light cues. This circadian variation precedes melatonin onset and the minimum ipRGC driven pupil response occurs post melatonin onset. Outer retinal photoreceptor contributions to the inner retinal ipRGC driven post-illumination pupil response also show circadian variation whereas direct outer retinal cone inputs to the pupil light reflex do not, indicating that intrinsically photosensitive (melanopsin retinal ganglion cells mediate this circadian variation.

  13. Dosimetry of photosensitization by ultraviolet in patients treated with Haloperidol and Piportil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, M. de; Araujo, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    It has been postulated that visible light on UV may induce photosensitization in chronic psycotics, under phenotiazine or butyrofenone therapy. The possible sensitization with UV, in patients with Haloperidol (Johnson and Johnson) or Piportil (Rhodia) treatments is described. Under experimental conditions, a surpassable photosensitizations in reaction groups aren't finding, when paired with the control ones. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. CHD2 variants are a risk factor for photosensitivity in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galizia, Elizabeth C.; Myers, Candace T.; Leu, Costin

    2015-01-01

    Photosensitivity is a heritable abnormal cortical response to flickering light, manifesting as particular electroencephalographic changes, with or without seizures. Photosensitivity is prominent in a very rare epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo CHD2 mutations, but is also seen in epileptic e...

  15. In-vitro singlet oxygen threshold dose at PDT with Radachlorin photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Shmakov, S. V.; Kaydanov, N. E.; Knyazev, N. A.; Kazakov, N. V.; Rusanov, A. A.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Dubina, M. V.

    2017-07-01

    In this present study we investigate the Radachlorin photosensitizer accumulation in K562 cells and Hela cells and determined the cell viability after PDT. Using the macroscopic singlet oxygen modeling and cellular photosensitizer concentration the singlet oxygen threshold doses for K562 cells and Hela cells were calculated.

  16. In situ localization of chloroquine and immunohistological studies in UVB-irradiated skin of photosensitive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjölin-Forsberg, G.; Berne, B.; Eggelte, T. A.; Karlsson-Parra, A.

    1995-01-01

    Chloroquine can prevent photosensitivity reactions, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. To investigate if the drug may interfere with inflammatory or immunological mechanisms of the UV-induced erythema of photosensitive patients, we studied the localization of chloroquine in the skin

  17. FLUORESCENT DIAGNOSTICS OF MALIGNANT SKIN TUMORS WITH CHLORIN SERIES PHOTOSENSITIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Yaroslavtseva-Isaeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows possibilities in fluorescence imaging of malignant skin tumors with chlorin series photosensitizers (PS photolon and fotoditazin. The regularities of photosensitizer accumulation from the data of local fluorescence spectroscopy depending on the PS and its dose, the clinical picture and the histological form of the malignant skin neoplasm is investigated. It is shown that the level and selectivity of PS accumulation in the tumor focus depends on the PS dose. In studies on 10 patients with basal cell skin cancer after the introduction of fotoditazin at a dose less than 1 mg/kg, fluorescent contrast between tumor and healthy tissue varied between 1.3 and 9.5, the average was 2.8±0.3; for patients who had the administered fotoditazin dose of 1 mg/kg, fluorescent contrast was 2.9±0.4, varying from 1.4 to 5. In a study with 127 patients after the introduction of photolon in the dose of 0.7-1 mg/kg, the average value of the fluorescence intensity in relative units in the intact skin was 6.9±0.3 (min 4.6, max 12.2, at a dose of 1.1 to 1.4 mg/kg – 8.0±0.3 (min 4.6, max 12.5, at a dose of 1.5-2 mg/kg – 9.9±0.7 (min 5.7, max 20.3. It is also shown that fluorescence intensity of malignant neoplasm of the skin with the same dose of the photosensitizer depends on the neoplasm’s clinical and histological forms. So, 3 hours after the introduction of photolon at a dose of 1.3 mg/kg the average fluorescent contrast in the surface type of skin cancer was 2.7±0.5, in the nodal form – 2.3±0.2, in erosive-ulcerative form – 3.6±0.3. In patients with nodular form of squamous skin cancer after the introduction of photolon at a dose of 1.3 mg/kg fluorescent contrast was significantly higher (p<0.05 (average of 2.8±0.2 than in the nodular form of basal cell carcinoma after the introduction of photolon at the same dose (average of 2.1±0.2.

  18. Holographic Spectroscopy: Wavelength-Dependent Analysis of Photosensitive Materials by Means of Holographic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay-Michael Voit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Holographic spectroscopy is highlighted as a powerful tool for the analysis of photosensitive materials with pronounced alterations of the complex permittivity over a broad range in the visible spectrum, due to the advances made both in the fields of advanced holographic media and highly tunable lasers systems. To analytically discuss consequences for in- and off-Bragg reconstruction, we revised Kogelnik’s coupled wave theory strictly on the basis of complex permittivities. We extended it to comply with modern experimental parameters such as out-of-phase mixed holograms and highly modulated gratings. A spatially modulated, wavelength-dependent permittivity that superimposes a spatially homogeneous wavelength-dependent ground state spectrum is taken into account for signal wave reconstruction with bulky elementary mixed gratings as an example. The dispersion characteristics of the respective diffraction efficiency is modelled for color-center-absorption and absorption of strongly localized carriers. As an example for the theoretical possibilities of our newly derived set of equations, we present a quantitative analysis of the Borrmann effect connected to out-of-phase gratings, providing easier and more intuitive methods for the derivation of their grating parameters.

  19. Synthesis and Evaluation of New Potential Benzo[a]phenoxazinium Photosensitizers for Anticancer Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of photodynamic therapy (PDT and development of novel photosensitizers (PSs for cancer treatment have received more and more attention nowadays. In the present work, five benzo[a]phenoxazinium derivatives have been prepared and evaluated for their in vitro anticancer photodynamic activity for the first time. They are red light absorbers and show low fluorescence quantum yield. Of these compounds, PS4 exhibited a higher quantum yield for reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. The assays with cells in vitro showed that PS1 and PS4 were not significantly toxic in the dark, but was robustly toxic against the murine breast adenocarcinoma cells 4T1 and normal murine fibroblast cells NIH-3T3 upon photoactivation. More interestingly, PS5 was particularly selective towards 4T1 cancer cells and nearly non-phototoxic to non-cancerous NIH-3T3 cells. The results described in this report suggest that these new benzo[a]phenoxazinium derivatives are potential candidates as PSs for anticancer PDT. Further investigation of benzo[a]phenoxaziniums for anticancer PDT is warranted.

  20. Combination of photosensitive elements for use in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, R.H.; Vandenabeele, H.

    1976-01-01

    A new and improved combination of photosensitive elements is proposed that can be used in radiography. The combination according to the invention is composed of an X-ray fluorescence intensifying screen and a photographic halide of silver containing a color coupler. The color coupler causes a negative silver image and a color image to be formed in the material. The fluorescent layer of the fluorescence screen contains a mixture of lanthanum oxychloride or lanthanum oxybromide activated with terbium or terbium and ytterbium. Detailed information about variants in the composition of the fluorescent substance, the grain sizes of the silver halides, variations of the color couplers and about the coating of the single layers is given. (UWI) [de

  1. Photosensitized Oxygenations of Hexamethylbenzene in Phase Contact Enhanced Microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Yi; Park, Jeong Hyeon; Lim Hyo Jin; Hwang, Geumsook; Park, Chan Pil

    2014-01-01

    Activated singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) has successfully been utilized in production of various compounds including fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and fine chemicals. However, the traditional reaction required a prolonged reaction time due to the difficulty of introducing adequate light and oxygen into the solution. Low contact probability between four species of oxygen, photosensitizer, light, and reagent is an inherent drawback of the traditional photoreaction. Molecular diffusion distance is the most important factor in the heterogeneous reactions including gas-liquid, gassolid, liquid-solid, and immiscible liquid-liquid. Therefore, rates of reaction are closely depended on the distance. Microreactor has provided a distinct advantage in the short molecular diffusion distance due to the high surface-to-volume ratio driven by narrow fluidic channels

  2. Photodynamic therapy of cancer with the photosensitizer PHOTOGEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Chissov, Valery I.; Filonenko, E. V.; Sukhin, Garry M.; Yakubovskaya, Raisa I.; Belous, T. A.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Kozlov, Dmitrij N.; Smirnov, V. V.

    1995-01-01

    The first clinical trials of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in Russia were started in P. A. Hertzen Moscow Research Oncology Institute in October of 1992. Up to now, 61 patients with primary or recurrent malignant tumors of the larynx (3), trachea (1), bronchus (11), nose (1), mouth (3), esophagus (12), vagina and uterine cervix (3), bladder (2), skin (6), and cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases of breast cancer and melanomas (6) have been treated by PDT with the photosensitizer Photogem. At least partial tumor response was observed in all of the cases, but complete remission indicating no evident tumors has been reached in 51% of the cases. Among 29 patients with early and first stage cancer 14 patients had multifocal tumors. Complete remission of tumors in this group reached 86%.

  3. Recombination and photosensitivity centres in boron nitride irradiated with ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabyshev, A.; Konusov, F.; Lopatin, V.

    2001-01-01

    The physical-chemical processes, taking place during the irradiation of dielectrics with ions distort the electron structure of the compounds and generate additional localise state in the forbidden zone (FZ). Consequently, the semiconductor layer with the specific surface density of σ ≥ 10 -10 S/ forms on the surface of the dielectric. In addition to his, the high concentration of the radiation-induced defects changes the optical and photoelectric properties of the materials and also the energy characteristics. Analysis of the photoelectric properties indicates that the recombination processes take part in electric transport. These processes restricted the increase of the photosensitivity and changing the kinetics of relaxation of photo conductivity (σ hv ). The practical application of the boron nitride (BN) the in the thermonuclear systems (for example, Ref. 7), stimulates research into the reasons for the deceleration of its properties under the effect of radiation of various types. The conductivity of non-irradiated boron nitride is of the electron-hole nature with a large fraction of the activation component in exchange of the charge carriers between the levels of the defects and the forbidden zones. On the basis of the correlation of the energy and kinetic parameters of luminescence and , the authors of Ref. 8 constructed a model of electron transfers accompanying the electric transport of the boron nitride. In addition to ion-thermal modification, the conductivity of boron nitride is also of the electron-hole nature and is accompanied by luminescence. Examination of the characteristics of luminescence may be useful for obtaining more information on the transport mechanism. In this work, in order to clarify the main parameters of the forbidden band, detailed investigations were carried out into the spectrum of the electronic states of radiation defects which determine the photoelectric and luminescence properties of the modified boron nitride. The

  4. Induction of photosensitivity in sheep with Erodium moschatum (L. L'Hérit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Stroebel

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Erodium moschatum is an exotic weed in the southern and southwestern coastal areas of the Western Cape Province (WCP, South Africa. It has been suspected as the cause of photosensitivity in sheep. However, attempts to induce photosensitivity by dosing it to sheep have thus far been unsuccessful. During August 1999, 2 sheep suffering from severe photosensitivity were presented for clinical examination to the Western Cape Provincial Veterinary Laboratory (WCPVL. One sheep was sacrificed for autopsy. Except for skin lesions associated with photosensitivity, no icterus or other lesions were present. Histopathological examination of affected skin revealed epidermal necrosis while the liver had no microscopic lesions. It was therefore concluded that the sheep might have been suffering from primary photosensitivity. The farmfrom which the sheep came, situated in the Malmesbury district, WCP, was visited to determine the source of the photodynamic agent. The flock from which the sheep originated had been grazing in a camp where E. moschatum was growing abundantly and had been heavily grazed. Some remaining Erodium in the camp was collected, pulped and dosed over a period of 7 days to an adult sheep. Another sheep was dosed simultaneously with Erodium growing on the premises of the WCPVL. Both sheep developed mild photosensitivity, which was confirmed by histopathological examination of skin biopsies. It was concluded that E. moschatum can induce photosensitivity (probably the primary type in sheep if ingested in large quantities.

  5. Light-induced antibacterial activity of electrospun chitosan-based material containing photosensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severyukhina, A.N., E-mail: severyuhina_alexandra@mail.ru [Institute of Nanostructures and Biosystems, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Petrova, N.V.; Yashchenok, A.M. [Institute of Nanostructures and Biosystems, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Bratashov, D.N. [Institute of Nanostructures and Biosystems, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Department of Nano- and Biomedical Technologies, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Smuda, K. [Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Mamonova, I.A. [Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, 410002 Saratov (Russian Federation); Yurasov, N.A. [Institute of Nanostructures and Biosystems, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Puchinyan, D.M. [Institute of Nanostructures and Biosystems, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, 410002 Saratov (Russian Federation); Georgieva, R. [Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Department of Medical Physics, Biophysics and Radiology, Medical Faculty, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora (Bulgaria); Bäumler, H. [Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Lapanje, A. [Institute of Nanostructures and Biosystems, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Josef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gorin, D.A. [Institute of Nanostructures and Biosystems, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Department of Nano- and Biomedical Technologies, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance requires the development of novel materials and approaches for treatment of various infections. Utilization of photodynamic therapy represents an advanced alternative to antibiotics and metal-based agents. Here, we report the fabrication of electrospun material that possesses benefits of both topical antimicrobial and photodynamic therapies. This material combines chitosan, as a biocompatible polymer, and a second generation photosensitizer. The incorporation of photosensitizer doesn't affect the material morphology and its nearly uniform distribution in fibers structure was observed by confocal Raman microscopy. Owing to photosensitizer the prepared material exhibits the light-induced and spatially limited antimicrobial activity that was demonstrated against Staphylococcus aureus, an important etiological infectious agent. Such material can be potentially used in antibacterial therapy of chronic wounds, infections of diabetic ulcers, and burns, as well as rapidly spreading and intractable soft-tissue infections caused by resistant bacteria. - Highlights: • Chitosan with a phthalocyanine photosensitizer was electrospun into fibers. • Photosensitizer was uniformly distributed in the electrospun material. • The incorporation of photosensitizer does not affect the fiber morphology. • Chitosan/photosensitizer composites possess light-induced antibacterial activity. • The antibacterial activity of the material is limited to the area of irradiation.

  6. A Study of the Operation of Especially Designed Photosensitive Gaseous Detectors at Cryogenic Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Lund-Jensen, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Peskov, Vladimir; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F

    2006-01-01

    In some experiments and applications there is need for large-area photosensitive detectors to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Nowadays, vacuum PMs are usually used for this purpose. We have developed special designs of planar photosensitive gaseous detectors able to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Such detectors are much cheaper PMs and are almost insensitive to magnetic fields. Results of systematic measurements of their quantum efficiencies, the maximum achievable gains and long-term stabilities will be presented. The successful operation of these detectors open realistic possibilities in replacing PMs by photosensitive gaseous detectors in some applications dealing with cryogenic liquids; for example in experiments using noble liquid TPCs or noble liquid scintillating calorimeters.

  7. Effectiveness of partially soluble photosensitizer in photodynamic microbiological inactivation: a curcumin example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Matroodi, Fatima; Pinto-Júnior, Fabio Francisco; Rastelli, Alessandra Nara Souza; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2017-07-01

    We show that partial solubility of a photosensitizer is not necessarily a bad property when dealing with microbiological control. The presence of curcumin aggregates in solution may present advantages with respect the photoand chemical stability.

  8. White matter microstructural changes of thalamocortical networks in photosensitivity and idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groppa, Sergiu; Moeller, Friederike; Siebner, Hartwig

    2012-01-01

    Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an electroencephalography trait that is highly associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs) and characterized by changes in cortical excitability in response to photic stimulation. Studying functional and structural changes of PPR ...

  9. Raman and fluorescence microscopy to study the internalization and dissolution of photosensitizer nanoparticles into living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfi-Happ, Claudia; Steiner, Rudolf; Wittig, Rainer; Graefe, Susanna; Ryabova, Anastasia; Loschenov, Victor

    2015-07-01

    In this present study we applied Raman and fluorescence microscopy to investigate the internalisation, cellular distribution and effects on cell metabolism of photosensitizer nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy in fibroblasts and macrophages.

  10. Redox reactions in micellar systems. communication 4. Eosin-photosensitized reduction of methylviologen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadtochenko, V.; Dzhabiev, T.S.; Rubtsov, I.V.

    1985-12-10

    The authors present data on photosensitized reduction of methylviologen (MV/sup 2 +/) by disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) in micellar systems modeling, in a first approximation, the structural organization of components of the chain of energy and electron transfer in natural photosynthesis. Photosensitized reduction of methylviologen by EDTA in micellar solutions can model photosystem I of plants with structure formation of reagents and transfer of excitation energy before the step of occurrence of a redox reaction in the active center.

  11. Bactericidal action of photogenerated singlet oxygen from photosensitizers used in plaque disclosing agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirika Ishiyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been suggested as an efficient clinical approach for the treatment of dental plaque in the field of dental care. In PDT, once the photosensitizer is irradiated with light of a specific wavelength, it transfers the excitation energy to molecular oxygen, which gives rise to singlet oxygen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since plaque disclosing agents usually contain photosensitizers such as rose bengal, erythrosine, and phloxine, they could be used for PTD upon photoactivation. The aim of the present study is to compare the ability of these three photosensitizers to produce singlet oxygen in relation to their bactericidal activity. The generation rates of singlet oxygen determined by applying an electron spin resonance technique were in the order phloxine > erythrosine ≒ rose bengal. On the other hand, rose bengal showed the highest bactericidal activity against Streptococcus mutans, a major causative pathogen of caries, followed by erythrosine and phloxine, both of which showed activity similar to each other. One of the reasons for the discrepancy between the singlet oxygen generating ability and bactericidal activity was the incorporation efficiency of the photosensitizers into the bacterial cells. The incorporation rate of rose bengal was the highest among the three photosensitizers examined in the present study, likely leading to the highest bactericidal activity. Meanwhile, the addition of L-histidine, a singlet oxygen quencher, cancelled the bactericidal activity of any of the three photoactivated photosensitizers, proving that singlet oxygen was responsible for the bactericidal action. CONCLUSIONS: It is strongly suggested that rose bengal is a suitable photosensitizer for the plaque disclosing agents as compared to the other two photosensitizers, phloxine and erythrosine, when used for PDT.

  12. Time-resolved luminescence measurements of the magnetic field effect on paramagnetic photosensitizers in photodynamic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermut, O.; Bouchard, J.-P.; Cormier, J.-F.; Desroches, P.; Diamond, K. R.; Fortin, M.; Gallant, P.; Leclair, S.; Marois, J.-S.; Noiseux, I.; Morin, J.-F.; Patterson, M. S.; Vernon, M.

    2008-02-01

    The development of multimodal molecular probes and photosensitizing agents for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) is vital for optimizing and monitoring cytotoxic responses. We propose a combinatorial approach utilizing photosensitizing molecules that are both paramagnetic and luminescent with multimodal functionality to perturb, control, and monitor molecular-scale reaction pathways in PDT. To this end, a time-domain single photon counting lifetime apparatus with a 400 nm excitation source has been developed and integrated with a variable low field magnet (0- 350mT). The luminescence lifetime decay function was measured in the presence of a sweeping magnetic field for a custom designed photosensitizing molecule in which photoinduced electron transfer was studied The photosensitizer studied was a donor-acceptor complex synthesized using a porphyrin linked to a fullerene molecule. The magneto-optic properties were investigated for the free-base photosensitizer complex as well as those containing either diamagnetic (paired electron) or paramagnetic (unpaired electron) metal centers, Zn(II) and Cu(II). The magnetic field was employed to affect and modify the spin states of radical pairs of the photosensitizing agents via magnetically induced hyperfine and Zeeman effects. Since the Type 1 reaction pathway of an excited triplet state photosensitizer involves the production of radical species, lifetime measurements were conducted at low dissolved oxygen concentration (0.01ppm) to elucidate the dependence of the magnetic perturbation on the photosensitization mechanistic pathway. To optimize the magnetic response, a solvent study was performed examining the dependence of the emission properties on the magnetic field in solutions of varying dielectric constants. Lastly, the cytotoxicity in murine tumor cell suspensions was investigated for the novel porphyrin-fullerene complex by inducing photodynamic treatments and determining the associated cell survival.

  13. A new probe of solvent accessibility of bound photosensitizers. 1. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) photosensitizers in sodium lauryl sulfate micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, B.L. Jr.; Dressick, W.J.; Buell, S.L.; Demas, J.N.; DeGraff, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new method of measuring solvent accessibility of photosensitizers bound to organized media is presented. In particular, the solvent accessibility of a series of ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) photosensitizers bound to sodium lauryl sulfate micelles has been determined. The method takes advantage of the large solvent deuterium effect on the excited-state lifetimes of these complexes. The solvent accessibility of the bound complexes correlates with the hydrophobicity of the ligands. The potential application of this method to a variety of other systems is mentioned

  14. Synthesis of Tumor-avid Photosensitizer-Gd(III)DTPA conjugates: impact of the number of gadolinium units in T1/T2 relaxivity, intracellular localization, and photosensitizing efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Lalit N; White, William H; Spernyak, Joseph A; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Chen, Yihui; Missert, Joseph R; Morgan, Janet; Mazurchuk, Richard; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2010-05-19

    To develop novel bifunctional agents for tumor imaging (MR) and photodynamic therapy (PDT), certain tumor-avid photosensitizers derived from chlorophyll-a were conjugated with variable number of Gd(III)aminobenzyl DTPA moieties. All the conjugates containing three or six gadolinium units showed significant T(1) and T(2) relaxivities. However, as a bifunctional agent, the 3-(1'-hexyloxyethyl)pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) containing 3Gd(III) aminophenyl DTPA was most promising with possible applications in tumor-imaging and PDT. Compared to HPPH, the corresponding 3- and 6Gd(III)aminobenzyl DTPA conjugates exhibited similar electronic absorption characteristics with a slightly decreased intensity of the absorption band at 660 nm. However, compared to HPPH, the excitation of the broad "Soret" band (near 400 nm) of the corresponding 3Gd(III)aminobenzyl-DTPA analogues showed a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity at 667 nm.

  15. The protective effect of caffeine on DNA photosensitive damage: a gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Liping; Ma Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Agarose gel electrophoresis was performed to study interaction effect of caffeine on photosensitive injury of DNA caused by anthraquinone-2-sulphonic acid disodium (AQS), a model compound of strong photosensitizer, under 254 nm or 365nm UV irradiation Photosensitive injury of DNA induced by AQS under deoxidized condition was used as control. The results show that caffeine may resist effectively the injury effect of photosensitive damage and strong UV irradiation on DNA. The effects depend on the caffeine and AQS concentration, and irradiation time. Caffeine in concentration of 0.01-3.0 μg/μL, may prevent DNA from damage induced by UV light, but caffeine in concentration of >5.0 μg/μL accelerates the DNA damage. In particular, in the aqueous solution system of DNA, caffeine and AQS, at pH 6.25-7.35, the caffeine in concentration of 2.5-4.50 μg/μL may resist the photosensitive injury of DNA caused by AQS under the deoxidized condition and exposure by 254 nm UV for 10 min. And caffeine in concentration of 5 μg/μL would present a synergetic effect on the photosensitive injury of DNA. Possible molecular mechanism also is discussed. (authors)

  16. Novel approach to control Salmonella enterica by modern biophotonic technology: photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchovec, I; Vaitonis, Z; Luksiene, Z

    2009-03-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficiency of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based photosensitization against one of food pathogens Salmonella enterica. Salmonella enterica was incubated with ALA (7.5 mmol l(-1)) for 1-4 h and afterwards illuminated with visible light. The light source used for illumination of S. enterica emitted light lambda = 400 nm with energy density 20 mW cm(-2). The illumination time varied from 0 to 20 min and subsequently a total energy dose reached 0-24 J cm(-2). The data obtained indicate that S. enterica is able to produce endogenous photosensitizer PpIX when incubated with ALA. Remarkable inactivation of micro-organisms can be achieved (6 log) after photosensitization. It is obvious that photosensitization-based inactivation of S. enterica depends on illumination as well as incubation with ALA time. ALA-based photosensitization can be an effective tool against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Experimental data and mathematical evaluations support the idea that ALA-based photosensitization can be a useful tool for the development of nonthermal food preservation technology in future.

  17. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  18. Carboranyl-Chlorin e6 as a Potent Antimicrobial Photosensitizer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena O Omarova

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation is currently being widely considered as alternative to antibiotic chemotherapy of infective diseases, attracting much attention to design of novel effective photosensitizers. Carboranyl-chlorin-e6 (the conjugate of chlorin e6 with carborane, applied here for the first time for antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation, appeared to be much stronger than chlorin e6 against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphyllococcus aureus and Mycobacterium sp. Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy and membrane leakage experiments indicated that bacteria cell death upon photodynamic treatment with carboranyl-chlorin-e6 is caused by loss of cell membrane integrity. The enhanced photobactericidal activity was attributed to the increased accumulation of the conjugate by bacterial cells, as evaluated both by centrifugation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Gram-negative bacteria were rather resistant to antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation mediated by carboranyl-chlorin-e6. Unlike chlorin e6, the conjugate showed higher (compared to the wild-type strain dark toxicity with Escherichia coli ΔtolC mutant, deficient in TolC-requiring multidrug efflux transporters.

  19. Photophysical and photochemical properties of Bauhinia megalandra (Caesalpinaceae) extracts as new PDT photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Tovar, Franklin R.; Rivas, C.; Estrada, O.; Marcano O., Aristides A.; Echevarria, Lorenzo; Diaz, Yrene; Alexander, I.; Rodriguez, L.; Padron, L.; Rivera, I. R.

    2004-10-01

    Recently new photosensitizers, chlorophyll "a and b" derivatives, for photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been presented. It already passed complete pre-clinical investigations. This prompted us to carry out an extensive study of photophysical properties of chlorine derivatives, important both for optimization of their clinic applications and for study of mechanisms of chlorine PDT&. The fresh leaves of Bauhinia megalandra (Caesalpinaceae) were extracted with methanol by percolation, and re-extract with a mixture of methanol-water (1:1), the insoluble fraction was then separated by column chromatography [RP18/hexane-ethylacetate (9:1)] to obtain four fractions named 1 to 4. These compounds were identified by NMR data. We found that 3 and 4 efficiently generates singlet oxygen when irradiated with visible light. Detection of the singlet oxygen was fulfilled by its reaction with histidine and detected by bleaching p-nitrosodimethylaniline under 440 nm irradiation. The quantum yields of singlet oxygen determined by us were 0.088 (1), 0.151 (2), 0.219 (3) and 0.301 (4). We measured absorption and fluorescence spectra of compounds 1 to 4 (Mg-chlorophyll-a, Pheophytin, Mg-chlorophyll-b and chlorophyll-b respectively) in different media and in aqueous solutions of human serum albumin. The association constant of the compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the presence of HSA were estimated. The binding and quenching studies suggest that only 1 and 3 may serve as a useful fluorescence probe for structure/function studies of different chlorophyll binding proteins. No photoinduced binding was observed after irradiation by all the studied compounds in presence of human serum albumin.

  20. Identification of singlet oxygen photosensitizes in lambs drinking water in an alveld risk area in West Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne Hjorth; Mysterud, Ivar; Karlsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Alveld is a hepatogenous photosensitivity disorder in lambs. Although alveld has been known in Norway for more than 100years, there are still questions related to the cause of the disease. Phytoporphyrin has long been incriminated as the photosensitizer in hepatogenous photosensitivity diseases...... but previous findings suggest that the photosensitizing mechanism in alveld is more complex, possibly involving other co-factors. The current work investigates the presence of non-hepatogenous photosensitizers originating in lamb's drinking water from various sources. In addition samples of two....... Meteorological data indicate a warm and wet May with a high radiation exposure leading up to a colder and wet June with an even higher solar irradiance. The seasonal variation in the amount of photosensitizers in lamb's drinking water combined meteorological data can be important to predict the outbreak...

  1. Microbial control of food-related surfaces: Na-Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Zivile; Paskeviciute, Egle

    2011-10-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efficiency of photosensitization as surface sanitation alternative using model systems when food pathogens, their spores and biofilms were attached to the food-related surface (polyolefine). In addition it was important to compare antibacterial efficiency of Na-Chlorophyllin (Na-Chl)-based photosensitization with conventional sanitizers. Obtained results indicate that Bacilluscereus ATCC 12826 and Listeriamonocytogenes ATCC 7644 as well as their thermoresistant strains B.cereus SV90 and L.monocytogenes 56LY were effectively inactivated (7 log) by Na-Chl-based photosensitization in vitro. Inactivation rate of thermoresistant strains was slower. The number of attached to the surface B.cereus ATCC 12826 and L.monocytogenes ATCC 7644 was reduced from 4-4.5 log to 0 log after photosensitization treatment. To achieve adequate inactivation of thermoresistant strains the higher Na-Chl concentration and longer illumination times had to be used. Comparison of different surface decontamination treatments reveal that photosensitization is much more effective against all surface-attached B.cereus and L.monocytogenes strains than washing with water or 200 ppm Na-hypochlorite. It is important to note, that surface-attached B.cereus spores and L.monocytogenes biofilms can be eliminated from it by photosensitization as well. Our data support the idea that Na-Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization has high antibacterial potential which may serve in the future for the development of human and environment friendly, non-thermal surface decontamination technique. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Vibrational spectroscopy of photosensitizer dyes for organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Leon, C.

    2005-11-18

    Ruthenium(II) complexes containing polypyridyl ligands are intensely investigated as potential photosensitizers in organic solar cells. Of particular interest is their use in dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanocrystalline films of TiO{sub 2}. Functional groups of the dye allow for efficient anchoring on the semiconductor surface and promote the electronic communication between the donor orbital of the dye and the conduction band of the semiconductor. In the present work a new dye, [Ru(dcbpyH{sub 2}){sub 2}(bpy-TPA{sub 2})](PF6{sub )2}, and the well known (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}[Ru(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] complex were spectroscopically characterized. The electronic transitions of both dyes showed solvatochromic shifts due to specific interactions of the ligands with the solvent molecules. The surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra of the dyes dissolved in water, ethanol, and acetonitrile were measured in silver and gold colloidal solutions. The results demonstrate that the dyes were adsorbed on the metallic nanoparticles in different ways for different solvents. It was also found that in the gold colloid, the aqueous solutions of both dyes did not produce any SERS signal, whereas in ethanolic solution the SERS effect was very weak. Deprotonation, H-bonding, and donor-acceptor interactions seem to determine these different behaviors. Our results indicate the important role of the charge transfer mechanism in SERS. The adsorption of the dye on two different TiO{sub 2} substrates, anatase paste films and anatase nanopowder, was also studied to clarify the role of the carboxylate groups in the anchoring process of the dyes on the semiconductor surface. The recorded spectra indicate a strong dependence of the anchoring configuration on the morphology of the semiconductor. (orig.)

  3. Effective photosensitized energy transfer of nonanuclear terbium clusters using methyl salicylate derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omagari, Shun; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Seki, Tomohiro; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Takahata, Yumie; Fushimi, Koji; Ito, Hajime; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2015-03-12

    The photophysical properties of the novel nonanuclear Tb(III) clusters Tb-L1 and Tb-L2 involving the ligands methyl 4-methylsalicylate (L1) and methyl 5-methylsalicylate (L2) are reported. The position of the methyl group has an effect on their photophysical properties. The prepared nonanuclear Tb(III) clusters were identified by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and powder X-ray diffraction. Characteristic photophysical properties, including photoluminescence spectra, emission lifetimes, and emission quantum yields, were determined. The emission quantum yield of Tb-L1 (Φ(ππ*) = 31%) was found to be 13 times larger than that of Tb-L2 (Φ(ππ*) = 2.4%). The photophysical characterization and DFT calculations reveal the effect of the methyl group on the electronic structure of methylsalicylate ligand. In this study, the photophysical properties of the nonanuclear Tb(III) clusters are discussed in relation to the methyl group on the aromatic ring of the methylsalicylate ligand.

  4. How predictive are photosensitive epilepsy models as proof of principle trials for epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Eunice S M; Sims, John R

    2014-06-01

    Human photosensitive epilepsy models have been used as proof of principle (POP) trials for epilepsy. Photosensitive patients are exposed to intermittent photic stimulation and the reduction in sensitivity to the number of standard visual stimulation frequencies is used as an endpoint. The aim of this research was to quantify the predictive capabilities of photosensitive POP trials, through a survey of current literature. A literature search was undertaken to identify articles describing photosensitive POP trials. Minimally efficacious doses (MEDs) in epilepsy were compared to doses in the POP trials that produced 50-100% response (ED50-100). Ratios of these doses were calculated and summarised statistically. The search identified ten articles describing a total of 17 anti-epileptic drugs. Of these, data for both MED and ED50-100 were available for 13 anti-epileptic drugs. The average ratio of MED to ED50-100 was 0.95 (95% CI 0.60-1.30). The difference in MED to ED50-100 ratios between partial epilepsy (0.82) was not significantly different from that of generalised epilepsy (1.08) (p=0.51). Photosensitive POP trials are a useful tool to quantitatively predict efficacy in epilepsy, and can be useful as early and informative indicators in anti-epileptic drug discovery and development. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In Vitro Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Against Trichophyton mentagrophytes Using New Methylene Blue as the Photosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Chicón, P; Gulías, Ò; Nonell, S; Agut, M

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combines the use of a photosensitizing drug with light and oxygen to eradicate pathogens. Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a dermatophytic fungus able to invade the skin and keratinized tissues. We have investigated the use of new methylene blue as the photosensitizing agent for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to produce the in vitro inactivation of T mentagrophytes. A full factorial design was employed to optimize the parameters for photoinactivation of the dermatophyte. The parameters studied were new methylene blue concentration, contact time between the photosensitizing agent and the fungus prior to light treatment, and the fluence of red light (wavelength, 620-645nm) applied. The minimum concentration of new methylene blue necessary to induce the death of all T. mentagrophytes cells in the initial suspension (approximate concentration, 10 6 colony forming units per milliliter) was 50μM for a fluence of 81J/cm 2 after a contact time of 10minutes with the photosensitizing-agent. Increasing the concentration to 100μM allowed the fluence to be decreased to 9J/cm 2 . Comparison of our data with other published data shows that the susceptibility of T. mentagrophytes to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with new methylene blue is strain-dependent. New methylene blue is a photosensitizing agent that should be considered for the treatment of fungal skin infections caused by this dermatophyte. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Photobleaching-induced changes in photosensitizing properties of dissolved organic matter

    KAUST Repository

    Niu, Xi-Zhi; Liu, Chao; Gutié rrez, Leonardo A.; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Photosensitizing properties of different dissolved organic matter (DOM) were investigated according to their performance in singlet oxygen (1O2), triplet state of DOM (3DOM*), and hydroxyl radical (·OH) productions. The photobleaching of DOM solutions after irradiation was characterized by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photosensitizing properties of pre-irradiated DOM solutions were changed in a sunlight simulator. The performance of DOMs in photosensitized degradation of several contaminants was investigated. For a 20h exposure, the observed degradation rate constant (kobs) of some contaminants decreased as a function of exposure time, and highly depended on the properties of both DOM and contaminant. Degradation of contaminants with lower kobs was more susceptible to DOM photobleaching-induced decrease in kobs. Under the current experimental conditions, the photobleaching-induced decrease of DOM photo-reactivity in contaminant degradation was mainly attributed to indirect phototransformation of DOM caused by the interactions between photo-inductive DOM moieties and photochemically-produced reactive species. Reactive contaminants can inhibit DOM indirect photobleaching by scavenging reactive species, photosensitized degradation of these contaminants exhibited a stable kobs as a result. This is the first study to report DOM photobleaching-induced changes in the simultaneous DOM photosensitized degradation of contaminants and the inhibitory effect of reactive contaminants on DOM photobleaching.

  7. Photobleaching-induced changes in photosensitizing properties of dissolved organic matter

    KAUST Repository

    Niu, Xi-Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Photosensitizing properties of different dissolved organic matter (DOM) were investigated according to their performance in singlet oxygen (1O2), triplet state of DOM (3DOM*), and hydroxyl radical (·OH) productions. The photobleaching of DOM solutions after irradiation was characterized by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photosensitizing properties of pre-irradiated DOM solutions were changed in a sunlight simulator. The performance of DOMs in photosensitized degradation of several contaminants was investigated. For a 20h exposure, the observed degradation rate constant (kobs) of some contaminants decreased as a function of exposure time, and highly depended on the properties of both DOM and contaminant. Degradation of contaminants with lower kobs was more susceptible to DOM photobleaching-induced decrease in kobs. Under the current experimental conditions, the photobleaching-induced decrease of DOM photo-reactivity in contaminant degradation was mainly attributed to indirect phototransformation of DOM caused by the interactions between photo-inductive DOM moieties and photochemically-produced reactive species. Reactive contaminants can inhibit DOM indirect photobleaching by scavenging reactive species, photosensitized degradation of these contaminants exhibited a stable kobs as a result. This is the first study to report DOM photobleaching-induced changes in the simultaneous DOM photosensitized degradation of contaminants and the inhibitory effect of reactive contaminants on DOM photobleaching.

  8. Effect of zinc insertion and hydrophobicity on the membrane interactions and PDT activity of porphyrin photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, Christiane; Uchoa, Adjaci F; Oliveira, Carla S; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Baptista, Maurício S

    2009-02-01

    A series of photosensitizers (PS), which are meso-substituted tetra-cationic porphyrins, was synthesized in order to study the role of amphiphilicity and zinc insertion in photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy. Several properties of the PS were evaluated and compared within the series including photophysical properties (absorption spectra, fluorescence quantum yield Phif, and singlet oxygen quantum yield PhiDelta), uptake by vesicles, mitochondria and HeLa cells, dark and phototoxicity in HeLa cells. The photophysical properties of all compounds are quite similar (Phifderivative (ZnTC8PyP) has the highest global uptake. The stronger membrane interaction of the zinc-substituted porphyrins is attributed to a complexing effect with phosphate groups of the phospholipids. Zinc insertion was also shown to decrease the interaction with isolated mitochondria and with the mitochondria of HeLa cells, an effect that has been explained by the particular characteristics of the mitochondrial internal membrane. Phototoxicity was shown to increase proportionally with membrane binding efficiency, which is attributed to favorable membrane interactions which allow more efficient membrane photooxidation. For this series of compounds, photodynamic efficiency is directly proportional to the membrane binding and cell uptake, but it is not totally related to mitochondrial targeting.

  9. Photosensitivity to Triflusal: Formation of a Photoadduct with Ubiquitin Demonstrated by Photophysical and Proteomic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nuin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Triflusal is a platelet aggregation inhibitor chemically related to acetylsalicylic acid, which is used for the prevention and/or treatment of vascular thromboembolisms, which acts as a prodrug. Actually, after oral administration it is absorbed primarily in the small intestine, binds to plasma proteins (99% and is rapidly biotransformed in the liver into its deacetylated active metabolite 2-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid (HTB. In healthy humans, the half-life of triflusal is ca. 0.5 h, whereas for HTB it is ca. 35 h. From a pharmacological point of view, it is interesting to note that HTB is itself highly active as a platelet anti-aggregant agent. Indeed, studies on the clinical profile of both drug and metabolite have shown no significant differences between them.It has been evidenced that HTB displays ability to induce photoallergy in humans. This phenomenon involves a cell-mediated immune response, which is initiated by covalent binding of a light-activated photosensitizer (or a species derived therefrom to a protein. In this context, small proteins like ubiquitin could be appropriate models for investigating covalent binding by means of MS/MS and peptide fingerprint analysis. In previous work, it was shown that HTB forms covalent photoadducts with isolated lysine. Interestingly, ubiquitin contains seven lysine residues that could be modified by a similar reaction. With this background, the aim of the present work is to explore adduct formation between the triflusal metabolite and ubiquitin as model protein upon sunlight irradiation, combining proteomic and photophysical (fluorescence and laser flash photolysis techniques.Photophysical and proteomic analysis demonstrate monoadduct formation as the major outcome of the reaction. Interestingly, addition can take place at any of the -amino groups of the lysine residues of the protein and involves replacement of the trifluoromethyl moiety with a new amide function. This process can in

  10. Detection of light images by simple tissues as visualized by photosensitized magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tempel-Brami

    Full Text Available In this study, we show how light can be absorbed by the body of a living rat due to an injected pigment circulating in the blood stream. This process is then physiologically translated in the tissue into a chemical signature that can be perceived as an image by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We previously reported that illumination of an injected photosynthetic bacteriochlorophyll-derived pigment leads to a generation of reactive oxygen species, upon oxygen consumption in the blood stream. Consequently, paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin accumulating in the illuminated area induces changes in image contrast, detectable by a Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD-MRI protocol, termed photosensitized (psMRI. Here, we show that laser beam pulses synchronously trigger BOLD-contrast transients in the tissue, allowing representation of the luminous spatiotemporal profile, as a contrast map, on the MR monitor. Regions with enhanced BOLD-contrast (7-61 fold were deduced as illuminated, and were found to overlap with the anatomical location of the incident light. Thus, we conclude that luminous information can be captured and translated by typical oxygen exchange processes in the blood of ordinary tissues, and made visible by psMRI (Fig. 1. This process represents a new channel for communicating environmental light into the body in certain analogy to light absorption by visual pigments in the retina where image perception takes place in the central nervous system. Potential applications of this finding may include: non-invasive intra-operative light guidance and follow-up of photodynamic interventions, determination of light diffusion in opaque tissues for optical imaging and possible assistance to the blind.

  11. Organic-inorganic hybrid rare earth complexes based on polymolybdates with intrinsic photosensitive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang

    2015-03-14

    A series of organic–inorganic hybrid rare earth complexes {[RE2(PO)2(H2O)10][H2Mo36O112(OH2)12(PO)4]}·5PO·2(CH3CN)·nH2O [n = 23–42, RE(III) = Nd(III), 1; Sm(III), 2; Eu(III), 3; Gd(III), 4; Dy(III), 5; Er(III), 6; Tm(III), 7; Yb(III), 8; Lu(III), 9; Y(III), 10; PO = piperidin-2-one] have been synthesized and fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and UV-vis spectra. Structural analysis reveals that compounds 1-10 are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic P2(1)/n space group. Each compound contains a centrosymmetric anionic cluster [Mo36O112(OH2)12(PO)4](8-), which could be described as the derivative of [Mo36O112(OH2)16](8-) with four water molecules substituted by organic PO molecules. Each {Mo18} subunit connects with one RE(III) ion via its two terminal O atoms from two independent {MoO6} octahedra. The eight coordinated RE(III) ion with a distorted tetragonal antiprism coordination geometry is also surrounded by another six oxygen atoms, five of them from five water molecules and the final one from one PO molecule. Compounds 1-10 show considerable photosensitive behavior under visible light excitation. In addition, compound 3 exhibits three emission bands at 580, 595 and 617 nm in the solid state, which could be assigned to (5)D0→(7)F0, (5)D0→(7)F1 and (5)D0→(7)F2 transitions of Eu(III) ions, respectively.

  12. 2-Bromo-5-hydroxyphenylporphyrins for photodynamic therapy: photosensitization efficiency, subcellular localization and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Mafalda; Serra, Arménio C; Abrantes, Margarida; Piñeiro, Marta; Gonçalves, Ana C; Casalta-Lopes, João; Carvalho, Lina; Sarmento-Ribeiro, Ana B; Rocha-Gonsalves, António; Botelho, Filomena

    2013-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic modality capable of inducing cell death by oxidative stress through activation of a sensitizer by light. Aryl-porphyrin with hydroxyl groups are good photosensitizers and presence of bromine atoms can enhance the photodynamic activity through heavy atom effect. These facts and our previous work made pertinent to compare the photodynamic capacity of tetraaryl brominated porphyrin (TBr4) with the corresponding diaryl (BBr2) derivative. Cell cultures were incubated with the sensitizers, ranging from 50nM to 10μM and irradiated until 10J. Cell proliferation was analysed by MTT assay. Flow cytometry studies evaluated cell death pathways, mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS. For in vivo studies Balb/c nu/nu mice were injected with 4×10(6)cells. After PDT, monitoring was carried out for 12 days to establish Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Tumours were excised and histological analysis was performed. Both sensitizers seem to accumulate in the mitochondria. The molecules have no intrinsic cytotoxicity or in non-tumour cells at therapeutic concentrations. Both sensitizers induced a significant decrease of cell proliferation and growth of xenografts of melanoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Diaryl BBr2 is more efficient than tetraaryl TBr4, concerning intracellular ROS production, mitochondrial disruption and induction of cell death. The main cell death pathway is necrosis. TBr2 and BBr4 are promising sensitizers with good photodynamic properties and have the ability to induce cell death in human melanoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo. We consider that BBr2 is a molecule that should be the subject of extensive studies towards clinical use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of polymer matrix on photo-sensitivity of CdSe polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ramneek; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the effect of three different polymer matrices (PVP, PMMA and PVK) and Ag doping on the photo-sensitivity of CdSe polymer nanocomposites. The results reveal that the photoconductivity is high for linear chain polymer nanocomposites as compared to aromatic ones with decreasing trend as: CdSe-PMMA > CdSe-PVP > CdSe-PVK. The large substituents or branches along the polymer backbone hinder the stacking sequences in CdSe-PVK nanocomposites resulting in lowest photoconductivity. On contrary, CdSe-PVK nanocomposite exhibit highest photosensitivity. The reason behind it is the low value of dark conductivity in CdSe-PVK nanocomposite and photoconductive PVK matrix. With Ag doping, no considerable effect on the value of photosensitivity has been observed. The obtained results indicate that the photo-conducting properties of these polymer nanocomposites can be tuned by using different polymer matrices.

  14. Oligolysine-conjugated zinc(II) phthalocyanines as efficient photosensitizers for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Mei-Rong; Eastel, Jennifer Mary; Ngai, Karry L K; Cheung, Yuk-Yam; Chan, Paul K S; Hui, Mamie; Ng, Dennis K P; Lo, Pui-Chi

    2014-07-01

    A series of zinc(II) phthalocyanines conjugated with an oligolysine chain (n=2, 4, and 8) were synthesized and characterized by using various spectroscopic methods. As shown by using UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods, these compounds were nonaggregated in N,N-dimethylformamide, and gave a weak fluorescence emission and high singlet oxygen quantum yield (Φ(Δ) =0.86-0.89) as a result of their di-α-substitution. They became slightly aggregated in water with 0.05 % Cremophor EL, but they could still generate singlet oxygen effectively. The antimicrobial photodynamic activities of these compounds were then examined against various bacterial strains, including the Gram-positive methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA-43, and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Generally, the dyes were much more potent toward the Gram-positive bacteria. Only 15 to 90 nM of these photosensitizers was required to induce a 4 log reduction in the cell viability of the strains. For Escherichia coli, the photocytotoxicity increased with the length of the oligolysine chain. The octalysine derivative showed the highest potency with a 4 log reduction concentration of 0.8 μM. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most resistant to the photodynamic treatment. The potency of the tetralysine derivative toward a series of clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus was also examined and found to be comparable with that toward the nonclinical counterparts. Moreover, the efficacy of these compounds in photodynamic inactivation of viruses was also examined. They were highly photocytotoxic against the enveloped viruses influenza A virus (H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), but exhibited no significant cytotoxicity against the nonenveloped viruses adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) or coxsackievirus (Cox B1). The octalysine derivative also showed the highest potency with

  15. Inactivation of Bacillus cereus by Na-chlorophyllin-based photosensitization on the surface of packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Z; Buchovec, I; Paskeviciute, E

    2010-11-01

    This study was focused on the possibility to inactivate food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus by Na-chlorophyllin (Na-Chl)-based photosensitization in vitro and after attachment to the surface of packaging material. Bacillus cereus in vitro or attached to the packaging was incubated with Na-Chl (7·5×10(-8) to 7·5×10(-5) mol l(-1) ) for 2-60min in phosphate buffer saline. Photosensitization was performed by illuminating cells under a light with a λ of 400nm and an energy density of 20mW cm(-2) . The illumination time varied 0-5min and subsequently the total energy dose was 0-6J cm(-2) . The results show that B. cereus vegetative cells in vitro or attached to the surface of packaging after incubation with 7·5×10(-7) mol l(-1) Na-Chl and following illumination were inactivated by 7log. The photoinactivation of B. cereus spores in vitro by 4log required higher (7·5×10(-6) mol l(-1) ) Na-Chl concentration. Decontamination of packaging material from attached spores by photosensitization reached 5log at 7·5×10(-5) mol l(-1) Na-Chl concentration. Comparative analysis of different packaging decontamination treatments indicates that washing with water can diminish pathogen population on the surface by packaging material. Spores are more resistant than vegetative cells to photosensitization-based inactivation. Comparison of different surface decontamination treatments indicates that Na-Chl-based photosensitization is much more effective antibacterial tool than washing with water or 200ppm Na-hypochlorite. Our data support the idea that Na-Chl-based photosensitization has great potential for future application as an environment-friendly, nonthermal surface decontamination technique. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Secondary Plant Products Causing Photosensitization in Grazing Herbivores: Their Structure, Activity and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane C. Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitivity in animals is defined as a severe dermatitis that results from a heightened reactivity of skin cells and associated dermal tissues upon their exposure to sunlight, following ingestion or contact with UV reactive secondary plant products. Photosensitivity occurs in animal cells as a reaction that is mediated by a light absorbing molecule, specifically in this case a plant-produced metabolite that is heterocyclic or polyphenolic. In sensitive animals, this reaction is most severe in non-pigmented skin which has the least protection from UV or visible light exposure. Photosensitization in a biological system such as the epidermis is an oxidative or other chemical change in a molecule in response to light-induced excitation of endogenous or exogenously-delivered molecules within the tissue. Photo-oxidation can also occur in the plant itself, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species, free radical damage and eventual DNA degradation. Similar cellular changes occur in affected herbivores and are associated with an accumulation of photodynamic molecules in the affected dermal tissues or circulatory system of the herbivore. Recent advances in our ability to identify and detect secondary products at trace levels in the plant and surrounding environment, or in organisms that ingest plants, have provided additional evidence for the role of secondary metabolites in photosensitization of grazing herbivores. This review outlines the role of unique secondary products produced by higher plants in the animal photosensitization process, describes their chemistry and localization in the plant as well as impacts of the environment upon their production, discusses their direct and indirect effects on associated animal systems and presents several examples of well-characterized plant photosensitization in animal systems.

  17. Strong memory in time series of human magnetoencephalograms can identify photosensitive epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulmetyev, R. M.; Yulmetyeva, D. G.; Haenggi, P.; Shimojo, S.; Bhattacharya, J.

    2007-01-01

    To discuss the salient role of statistical memory effects in human brain functioning, we have analyzed a set of stochastic memory quantifiers that reflects the dynamical characteristics of neuromagnetic responses of magnetoencephalographic signals to a flickering stimulus of different color combinations from a group of control subjects, and compared them with those for a patient with photosensitive epilepsy. We have discovered that the emergence of strong memory and the accompanying transition to a regular and robust regime of chaotic behavior of signals in separate areas for a patient most likely identifies the regions where the protective mechanism against the occurrence of photosensitive epilepsy is located

  18. Quenching-induced deactivation of photosensitizer by nanoencapsulation to improve phototherapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisser-Labouèbe, Magali; Mattiuzzo, Marc; Lange, Norbert; Gurny, Robert; Delie, Florence

    2009-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy has emerged as a promising alternative to current cancer treatment. However, conventional photosensitizers have several limitations due to their unsuitable pharmaceutical formulations and lack of selectivity. Our strategy was to exploit the advantages of nanoparticles and the quenching-induced deactivation of the model photosensitizer hypericin to produce "activatable" drug delivery systems. Efficient fluorescence and activity quenching were achieved by increasing the drug-loading rate of nanoparticles. In vitro assays confirmed the reversibility of hypericin deactivation, as the hypericin fluorescence and photodynamic activity were recovered upon cell internalization.

  19. Characterization of nanostructured photosensitive cadmium sulphide thin films grown by SILAR deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubale, A.U.; Bargal, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation of photosensitive nanostructured CdS thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature. To obtain good quality CdS thin films, preparative conditions such as concentration of cationic and anionic precursors, adsorption and rinsing time durations etc. are optimized. The structural, optical and electrical characterizations of the as-deposited and annealed CdS thin films were carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption and electrical resistivity methods. The photoconductivity studies showed that the annealed films are more than that photosensitive. The TEP measurement shows that deposited films are of n-type. (author)

  20. Addition of photosensitive dopants to the D0 liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, N.A.; Anderson, D.F.

    1992-10-01

    The addition of photosensitive dopants to liquid argon greatly enhances the signal from heavily ionizing particles. Since binding energy losses we correlated with the heavily ionizing component in hadronic showers, the addition of photosensitive dopants has been suggested as a mechanism to tune the e/π ratio in liquid argon calorimeters. A measurement was performed at the FNAL test beam, adding 4 ppM tetramethylgermanium to the Dφ uranium-liquid argon calorimeter. An increase in response for electromagnetic and hadronic showers was observed, with no net change in the e/π ratio

  1. Local piezoelectric response of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in a photosensitive polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prashanthi, K.; Zhang, H.; Thundat, T. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Ramgopal Rao, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai (India)

    2012-02-15

    Local piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a photo-epoxy polymer are investigated by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). Integrating ZnO NPs into a photosensitive SU-8 polymer matrix not only retains the highly desired piezoelectric properties of the ZnO, but also preserves photosensitivity and optical transparency of the SU-8 polymer. These results have strong implications for simple photolithography based low-cost fabrication of piezoelectric microelectromechanicalsystems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanicalsystems (NEMS) in both sensing and energy harvesting applications. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Effect of Pluronic F127 on the photosensitizing properties of dimegine in the presence of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, N. A.; Kardumyan, V. V.; Glagolev, N. N.; Shashkova, V. T.; Matveeva, I. A.; Timashev, P. S.; Solov'eva, A. B.

    2015-08-01

    It is shown that the activity of the water-soluble porphyrin photosensitizer dimegine (DMG) in the oxidation reaction of tryptophan, a test reaction for photodynamic therapy (PDT), can be enhanced by introducing silver, gold, and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (NP) into the reaction medium if an amphiphilic polymer (AP) with the properties of a SAS is introduced into this mixture. It is concluded that the effect of enhancing the photosensitizing activity of dimegine is due to the formation of nanoparticle-Pluronic-porphyrin triple systems in which Pluronic (PL) plays the role of a bridge, forming complex and adsorption bonds with porphyrin and nanoparticles.

  3. Photoinactivation of HIV by benzoporphyrin derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, J.; Levy, J.; Coombs, R.

    1992-01-01

    Using both the feline leukemia virus and human immunodeficiency virus it is shown that the photosensitizer benzoporphyrin derivative when activated by narrow band red light is effective in eliminating both free virus and virally infected leukocytes from spiked blood products and whole blood drawn from either virally infected animals or humans, under conditions which appear to spare red cell and uninfected leukocytes. (author). 14 refs., 7 figs

  4. Mechanisms of photosensitization by drugs: Involvement of tyrosines in the photomodification of proteins mediated by tiaprofenic acid in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, M A; Castell, J V; Sarabia, Z; Hernández, D; Puertes, I; Morera, I M; Gómez-Lechón, M J

    1997-10-01

    The photosensitizing potential of drugs must be related to their photoreactivity towards the target biomolecules. In this context, a representative photosensitizing drug (tiaprofenic acid) was co-irradiated with a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). This led to a significant degree of protein crosslinking and to the formation of trace amounts of drug-BSA photoadducts. Amino acid analysis of the hydrolysed (HC1) protein showed that His and Tyr undergo a dramatic decrease (approx. 90%) as a consequence of drug-mediated photodynamic processes. When the drug was irradiated in the presence of the pure amino acids, extensive phototransformation of the latter was observed. Other photosensitizing drugs gave rise to similar processes when irradiated in the presence of BSA or the isolated amino acids. In conclusion, histidine and tyrosine appear to be key sites for the photosensitized damage to proteins. Photodegradation of the isolated amino acids in vitro may be an indicator of the photosensitizing potential of drugs.

  5. An effective zinc phthalocyanine derivative for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuo, E-mail: zchen@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Linsen [Department of Biochemistry, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang, Liaoning 110034 (China); Hu, Ping; Chen, Song [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Mingdong, E-mail: mhuang@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial infection is a common clinical problem. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria posts a severe challenge to medical practice worldwide. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) uses laser light at specific wavelength to activate oxygen molecule in the human tissue into reactive oxygen species as antimicrobial agent. This activation of oxygen by laser light is mediated through a photosensitizer. Two key properties for potent photosensitizer are its absorbance of light in the infrared region (630–700 nm), which promotes tissue penetration depth, and the selective accumulation on bacteria instead of human tissue. We herein report a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5}) and its antimicrobial effects in vitro and in an animal infection model. This photosensitizer has strong capability to kill bacteria at 670 nm. Chemically, it is a water-soluble and cationic photosensitizer carrying positive charge under physiological pH, and can specifically target to bacteria which usually bears negative charges on its surface. Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} shows a higher phototoxicity toward bacteria. PACT studies of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} in experimental infection animal model showed a significant bacteria inhibition compared to controls, and high selectivity of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} toward bacteria. These findings suggest ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases. - Highlights: • Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine derivative offers a promising measure to deal with antibiotic resistance of bacteria. • The use of portable LED light sources that are battery-powered and with low cost may make possible the deployment of systems that can be used for wound decontamination. • ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a potent photosensitizer for treatment of infectious diseases.

  6. An effective zinc phthalocyanine derivative for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan; Li, Linsen; Hu, Ping; Chen, Song; Huang, Mingdong

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infection is a common clinical problem. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria posts a severe challenge to medical practice worldwide. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) uses laser light at specific wavelength to activate oxygen molecule in the human tissue into reactive oxygen species as antimicrobial agent. This activation of oxygen by laser light is mediated through a photosensitizer. Two key properties for potent photosensitizer are its absorbance of light in the infrared region (630–700 nm), which promotes tissue penetration depth, and the selective accumulation on bacteria instead of human tissue. We herein report a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys) 5 ) and its antimicrobial effects in vitro and in an animal infection model. This photosensitizer has strong capability to kill bacteria at 670 nm. Chemically, it is a water-soluble and cationic photosensitizer carrying positive charge under physiological pH, and can specifically target to bacteria which usually bears negative charges on its surface. Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys) 5 shows a higher phototoxicity toward bacteria. PACT studies of ZnPc-(Lys) 5 in experimental infection animal model showed a significant bacteria inhibition compared to controls, and high selectivity of ZnPc-(Lys) 5 toward bacteria. These findings suggest ZnPc-(Lys) 5 is a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases. - Highlights: • Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine derivative offers a promising measure to deal with antibiotic resistance of bacteria. • The use of portable LED light sources that are battery-powered and with low cost may make possible the deployment of systems that can be used for wound decontamination. • ZnPc-(Lys) 5 is a potent photosensitizer for treatment of infectious diseases

  7. Mechanism and efficiency of cell death of type II photosensitizers: effect of zinc chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, Christiane; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Baptista, Maurício S

    2012-01-01

    A series of meso-substituted tetra-cationic porphyrins, which have methyl and octyl substituents, was studied in order to understand the effect of zinc chelation and photosensitizer subcellular localization in the mechanism of cell death. Zinc chelation does not change the photophysical properties of the photosensitizers (all molecules studied are type II photosensitizers) but affects considerably the interaction of the porphyrins with membranes, reducing mitochondrial accumulation. The total amount of intracellular reactive species induced by treating cells with photosensitizer and light is similar for zinc-chelated and free-base porphyrins that have the same alkyl substituent. Zinc-chelated porphyrins, which are poorly accumulated in mitochondria, show higher efficiency of cell death with features of apoptosis (higher MTT response compared with trypan blue staining, specific acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, stronger cytochrome c release and larger sub-G1 cell population), whereas nonchelated porphyrins, which are considerably more concentrated in mitochondria, triggered mainly necrotic cell death. We hypothesized that zinc-chelation protects the photoinduced properties of the porphyrins in the mitochondrial environment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  8. Photosensitive bent-core liquid crystals based on methyl substituted 3-hydroxybenzoic acid.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, M.; Alaasar, M.; Poryvai, A.; Novotná, Vladimíra; Poppe, S.; Tschierske, C.; Svoboda, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 57 (2017), s. 35805-35813 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-12150S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystals * photosensitivity * bent-core liquid crystals * 3-hydroxybenzoic acid Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  9. Endogenous UVA-photosensitizers: mediators of skin photodamage and novel targets for skin photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondrak, Georg T; Jacobson, Myron K; Jacobson, Elaine L

    2006-02-01

    Endogenous chromophores in human skin serve as photosensitizers involved in skin photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Absorption of solar photons, particularly in the UVA region, induces the formation of photoexcited states of skin photosensitizers with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), organic free radicals and other toxic photoproducts that mediate skin photooxidative stress. The complexity of endogenous skin photosensitizers with regard to molecular structure, pathways of formation, mechanisms of action, and the diversity of relevant skin targets has hampered progress in this area of photobiology and most likely contributed to an underestimation of the importance of endogenous sensitizers in skin photodamage. Recently, UVA-fluorophores in extracellular matrix proteins formed posttranslationally as a consequence of enzymatic maturation or spontaneous chemical damage during chronological and actinic aging have been identified as an abundant source of light-driven ROS formation in skin upstream of photooxidative cellular stress. Importantly, sensitized skin cell photodamage by this bystander mechanism occurs after photoexcitation of sensitizers contained in skin structural proteins without direct cellular photon absorption thereby enhancing the potency and range of phototoxic UVA action in deeper layers of skin. The causative role of photoexcited states in skin photodamage suggests that direct molecular antagonism of photosensitization reactions using physical quenchers of photoexcited states offers a novel chemopreventive opportunity for skin photoprotection.

  10. Stability of bisphenol A (BPA) in oil-in water emulsions under riboflavin photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Yeong; Park, Chan Uk; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2012-08-01

    Effects of riboflavin photosensitization on the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) were determined in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or sodium azide, which are a metal chelator or a singlet oxygen quencher, respectively. Also, the distribution of BPA between the continuous and dispersed phases in O/W emulsions was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration of BPA in O/W emulsions significantly decreased by 38.6% after 2 h under visible light irradiation and in the presence of riboflavin (P riboflavin photosensitization (P riboflavin photodegradation in O/W emulsions. Concentration of BPA, an endocrine disrupting chemical, was decreased significantly in oil-in-water emulsions under riboflavin and visible light irradiation. BPA in continuous aqueous phase was major target of riboflavin photosensitization. However, BPA was distributed more densely in lipid phase and more protected from riboflavin photosensitized O/W emulsions. This study can help to decrease the level of BPA in foods made of O/W emulsions containing riboflavin, which could be displayed under visible light irradiation. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effect of a novel BODIPY photosensitizer against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlandi, Viviana Teresa; Rybtke, Morten; Caruso, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) combines the use of organic dyes (photosensitizers, PSs) and visible light in order to elicit a photo-oxidative stress which causes bacterial death. GD11, a recently synthesized PS belonging to the boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) class, was demonstrated to be efficient...

  12. Blazed vector gratings fabricated using photosensitive polymer liquid crystals and control of polarization diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Kuzuwata, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Noda, Kohei; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-03-01

    The blazed vector grating possessing antisymmetric distributions of the birefringence were fabricated by exposing the line-focused linearly polarized ultraviolet light on the photosensitive polymer liquid crystals. The polarization states of the diffraction beams can be highly and widely controlled by designing the blazed structures, and the diffraction properties were well-explained by Jones calculus.

  13. (Pheo)melanin photosensitizes UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human melanocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenczl, E.; Schans, G.P. van der; Roza, L.; Kolb, R.M.; Timmerman, A.J.; Smit, N.P.M.; Pavel, S.; Schothorst, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    The question of whether melanins are photoprotecting and/or photosensitizing in human skin cells continues to be debated. To evaluate the role of melanin upon UVA irradiation, DNA single-strand breaks (ssb) were measured in human melanocytes differing only in the amount of pigment produced by

  14. The effect of UV exposure and heat treatment on crystallization behavior of photosensitive glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıbrıslı, Orhan; Ersundu, Ali Erçin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, photosensitive glasses in the Na2O-ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2 system with photosensitizing agents (cerium, silver, tin, antimony) and halogenides (NaF and KBr) were synthesized through a conventional melt-quenching technique. The crystallization mechanism was investigated for solely heat-treated and UV-exposed + heat-treated samples using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques to understand the effect of UV exposure on crystallization behavior of photosensitive glasses. Accordingly, non-isothermal DTA measurements were performed at different heating rates to determine crystallization peak, T p, and onset, T c, temperatures. For solely heat-treated samples, the kinetic parameters such as the Avrami constant, n, and morphology index, m, were calculated as 1 from the Ozawa method indicating surface crystallization and the value of crystallization activation energy was calculated as 944 kJ/mol using modified Kissinger method. On the contrary, bulk crystallization was found to be predominant for UV exposed + heat-treated samples revealing that UV exposure is the primary cause of bulk crystallization in photosensitive glasses.

  15. Optimization of Photosensitized Tryptophan Oxidation in the Presence of Dimegin-Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Chitosan Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Anna B; Kardumian, Valeria V; Aksenova, Nadezhda A; Belovolova, Lyudmila V; Glushkov, Mikhail V; Bezrukov, Evgeny A; Sukhanov, Roman B; Kotova, Svetlana L; Timashev, Peter S

    2018-05-23

    By the example of a model process of tryptophan photooxidation in the aqueous medium in the presence of a three-component photosensitizing complex (porphyrin photosensitizer-polyvinylpyrrolidone- chitosan, PPS-PVP-CT) in the temperature range of 20-40 °С, we have demonstrated a possibility of modification of such a process by selecting different molar ratios of the components in the reaction mixture. The actual objective of this selection is the formation of a certain PPS-PVP-CT composition in which PVP macromolecules would coordinate with PPS molecules and at the same time practically block the complex binding of PPS molecules with chitosan macromolecules. Such blocking allows utilization of the bactericidal properties of chitosan to a greater extent, since chitosan is known to depress the PPS photosensitizing activity in PPS-PVP-CT complexes when using those in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The optimal composition of photosensitizing complexes appears to be dependent on the temperature at which the PDT sessions are performed. We have analyzed the correlations of the effective rate constants of tryptophan photooxidation with the photophysical characteristics of the formed complexes.

  16. Area-selective atomic layer deposition of platinum using photosensitive polyimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervuurt, R.H.J.; Sharma, A.; Jiao, Y.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bol, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) of platinum (Pt) was studied using photosensitive polyimide as a masking layer. The polyimide films were prepared by spin-coating and patterned using photolithography. AS-ALD of Pt using poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) masking layers was used as a

  17. Riboflavin and chlorophyll as photosensitizers in electroformed giant unilamellar vesicles as food models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hui Jing; Liang, Ran; du, Hui Hui

    2017-01-01

    Electroformed giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) were found to have optimal sizes (~10 µm average diameter) for studying effects of photosensitizers and antioxidants in lipid bilayers as food models. By using optical microscopy and digital image processing techniques, no membrane damage was found ...

  18. Studies of vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad for the photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Blanc, Dominique; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2005-01-01

    In this pre-clinical study, photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad (palladium-bacteriopheophorbide) is investigated as an alternative treatment modality for the ablation of prostate cancer. Canine prostate was used as the animal model. PDT was performed by interstitially irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm) to activate the IV infused photosensitizer. The effects of drug dose, drug-light interval, and light fluence rate on PDT efficacy were evaluated. The prostates and adjacent tissues were harvested at one-week post PDT and subjected to histopathological examination. The dogs recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Urinalysis showed trace blood. Histological examination showed minimal damage to the prostatic urethra. These indicated that the urethra was well preserved. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis with a clear demarcation. Maximum lesion volume of ~3 cm3 could be achieved with a single 1-cm diffuser fiber at a dose level of 1 mg/kg and 200 J/cm, suggesting the therapy is very effective in ablating prostatic tissue. PDT induced lesion could reach the capsule layers but adjacent tissues were well preserved. The novel photosensitizer is a vascular drug and cleared rapidly from the circulation. Light irradiation can be performed during drug infusion thereby eliminating waiting time. The novel vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad-mediated PDT could provide an effective alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  19. Preclinical studies of vascular acting photosensitizer bacteriopheophorbide for the treatment of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Fred W.; Chen, Qun; Luck, David; Beckers, Jill; Huang, Zheng

    2004-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with vascular acting photosensitizer pd-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad), is investigated as an alternative modality for the total ablation of prostate cancer. In vivo normal canine prostate is used as the animal model. Interstitial PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm, 150 mW/cm) to activate the IV infused photosensitizer drug. The prostate and its adjacent tissues were harvested and subjected to histopathological examination. At one-week post PDT, the animals recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Prostatic urethra and prostate adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were well preserved. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. Prostate lesions could be detected by MRI scan as early as 48 h post PDT. Maximum lesion size of 1.5 cm3 and 2.9 cm3 could be achieved at 50 J/cm and 100 J/cm, respectively, with interstitial treatment using a single 1-cm diffuser fiber, suggesting the Tookad-PDT is very effective in ablating prostatic tissue. Pharmacokinetic studies show that the photosensitizer is cleared rapidly from the circulation. In conclusion, the novel photosensitizer Tookad mediated PDT may provide an effective alternative to treat localized prostate cancer.

  20. A Closer Look at Dark Toxicity of the Photosensitizer TMPyP in Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckl, Daniel B; Dengler, Linda; Nemmert, Marina; Eichner, Anja; Bäumler, Wolfgang; Huber, Harald

    2018-01-01

    Photodynamic inactivation of bacteria (PIB) is based on photosensitizers which absorb light and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), killing cells via oxidation. PIB is evaluated by comparing viability with and without irradiation, where reduction of viability in the presence of the photosensitizer without irradiation is considered as dark toxicity. This effect is controversially discussed for photosensitizers like TMPyP (5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridinio)porphyrin tetra(p-toluensulfonate). TMPyP shows a high absorption coefficient for blue light and a high yield of ROS production, especially singlet oxygen. Escherichia coli and Bacillus atrophaeus were incubated with TMPyP and irradiated with different light sources at low radiant exposures (μW per cm²), reflecting laboratory conditions of dark toxicity evaluation. Inactivation of E. coli occurs for blue light, while no effect was detectable for wavelengths >450 nm. Being more susceptible toward PIB, growth of B. atrophaeus is even reduced for light with emission >450 nm. Decreasing the light intensities to nW per cm² for B. atrophaeus, application of TMPyP still caused bacterial killing. Toxic effects of TMPyP disappeared after addition of histidine, quenching residual ROS. Our experiments demonstrate that the evaluation of dark toxicity of a powerful photosensitizer like TMPyP requires low light intensities and if necessary additional application of substances quenching any residual ROS. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. Photosensitizer conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for simultaneous in vitro magneto-fluorescent imaging guided photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafiujjaman, Md; Revuri, Vishnu; Nurunnabi, Md; Cho, Kwang Jae; Lee, Yong-Kyu

    2015-04-04

    In this study, photosensitizer conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles were strategically designed and prepared for simultaneous PDT and dual-mode fluorescence/MR imaging. The MRI contrast agent Fe3O4 was modified by APTES to functionalize the surface and further to link with heparin-pheophorbide-A conjugates.

  2. Photodynamic therapy of early stage cancer of lung, esophagus, and stomach with two different photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chissov, Valery I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Trakhtenberg, A. K.; Mamontov, A. S.; Vaschakmadze, L. A.; Frank, George A.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Belous, T. A.; Gladunov, V. K.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Menenkov, V. D.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early-stage cancer of lung (17 patients), esophagus (8 patients) and stomach (10 patients). Fifteen patients had second primary tumors. New drugs photoheme and photosens were used as photosensitizers. Complete remission was obtained in 87%. The patients are followed up without relapses to 2.5 years.

  3. New Approach to Inactivation of Harmful and Pathogenic Microorganisms by Photosensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živile Lukšiene

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitization is a treatment involving the administration of a photoactive compound that selectively accumulates in the target cells or microorganisms and is followed by irradiation with visible light. The combination of the two absolutely nontoxic elements, drug and light, in the presence of oxygen results in the selective destruction of target microorganism. It is important to note that truly major advances have been made in photosensitized antimicrobial chemotherapy, in particular disinfection of the blood and blood products, or treating local infections. By no means, prevention of any disease by microbial control of environment, including food manufacturing, is of greatest importance. Thus, development of new antimicrobial methods is necessary. In this context, photosensitization has been shown to be really effective: different microorganisms such as drug-resistant bacteria, yeasts, viruses and parasites can be inactivated by this method. So far, a photosensitization phenomenon can open new and interesting avenues for the development of novel, effective and ecologically friendly antimicrobial treatment, which might be applied to increase food safety.

  4. Ionic compounds lamination reaction and characteristics of photosensitive copper indium sulfide on titania nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Horng-Yi, E-mail: hychang@mail.ntou.edu.tw [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Wei-Jei [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Syh-Yuh [Ceramic Microengineering Laboratory, Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung 31060, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > Only good photocurrent density under UV irradiation for TiO{sub 2} (or TiCl{sub 4}) modified titania nanotubes (T-TNAs) demonstrates the response to visible light actually due to the CuInS{sub 2} photosensitivity on T-TNAs. > The suitable CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) film thickness can be completed to achieve the well crystallinity, coverage and high photosensitivity of CIS by combining the precursor concentration with deposition cycles. > An n-type CIS with a lower band gap (<1.5 eV) extending the absorption of the large solar spectrum into the infra-red range demonstrates the inorganic CIS potentially instead of organic dye to use in photosensitive solar cells by simple ionic compounds lamination reaction (ICLR) process. - Abstract: This study investigates using an inorganic photosensitive CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) coating instead of an organic dye on TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNAs). The stoichiometric characteristics by use of various deposition parameters such as precursor concentrations (0.1 M, 0.05 M, and 0.01 M) and deposition cycles (1-60 cycles) are then analyzed in relation to the crystallinity and photosensitivity. TNAs are synthesized by anodic oxidation of Ti metal, modified by the TiO{sub 2} film, and are subsequently annealed at 450 deg. C for 30 min, producing what are named T-TNAs. They show high photocatalytic efficiency and photosensitivity under UV-illumination. The photosensitive CIS coatings on the T-TNAs are processed by an ionic compounds lamination reaction (ICLR) method. The more immersion cycles and the higher the precursor concentration of copper sulfide, the more CIS peeled off as precipitates formed, which result in less indium sulfide deposition being required for reacting with the copper sulfide to reach stoichiometry. Near stoichiometric CIS can be obtained by controlling the precursor concentration and deposition cycles of the ICLR process. Good crystallinity and n-type characteristics are achieved by controlling

  5. Tetrapyrrole-photosensitizers vectorization and plasma LDL: a physico-chemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Stéphanie; Vever-Bizet, Christine; Mojzisova, Halina; Brault, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    A photosensitizer is defined as a chemical entity able to induce, under light-irradiation effect, a chemical or physical alteration of another chemical entity. Thanks to their preferential retention in proliferating tissues, some photosensitizers are therapeutically used such as in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Besides, this method has already been approved for several indications. The selectivity of photosenzitizers for cells in proliferation involves both their association with low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and their ability to cross membranes under various pH conditions. The photosensitizers used are in most cases based on the porphyrin structure, but other compounds, of which far-red-light absorption properties are most compatible with biological tissues irradiation, have been developed, such as phthalocyanines. This paper presents physico-chemical studies of the interaction of a disulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine (AlPcS2) with human LDLs. The data obtained are compared with the parameters of the interaction of these lipoproteins with deuteroporphyrin (DP) and chlorin e6 (Ce6). A close attention is paid to the dynamic aspects of these phenomena. The data obtained on these simple systems then allowed us to interpret the sub-cellular localization of the photosensitizers on a human line of fibroblasts, and to evaluate the influence of LDLs on the intracellular distribution of the compounds. This last point is of major importance because the localization of such photosensitizers (in particular AlPcS2) in endocytic vesicles and their subsequent ability to induce a release of the contents of these vesicles - including externally added macromolecules - into the cytosol is the basis for a recent method for macromolecule activation, named photochemical internalization (PCI). PCI has been shown to potentiate the biological activity of a large variety of macromolecules. The comprehension of the mechanisms governing this particular sub-cellular localization could allow

  6. Riboflavin as a photosensitizer. Effects on human health and food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Daniel R; Libardi, Silvia H; Skibsted, Leif H

    2012-05-01

    Riboflavin, vitamin B₂, and flavins (as riboflavin building blocks or degradation products) are efficient photosensitizers inducing oxidative damage to light-exposed tissue and food by substrate-dependent mechanisms, for which protection is offered by specific nutrients. Phenolic and N-heterocyclic amino acids and their peptides and proteins deactivate triplet-excited state riboflavin in diffusion controlled processes, efficiently competing with deactivation by oxygen, resulting in direct (so called Type I) protein degradation through electron transfer or proton-coupled electron transfer. In light-exposed tissue, such often long lived protein radicals may as primary photoproducts initiate lipid and vitamin oxidation. In contrast, for lipid systems, oxygen deactivation of triplet-excited state riboflavin, resulting in formation of singlet oxygen, is under aerobic conditions faster than direct deactivation by lipids, which otherwise under anaerobic conditions occurs as hydrogen atom transfer from polyunsaturated lipids to triplet riboflavin. Singlet oxygen adds to unsaturated lipids and forms lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products or oxidizes proteins (Type II mechanism). Carotenoids seem not to deactivate triplet riboflavin, while chromanols like vitamin E and plant polyphenols are efficient in such deactivation yielding protection of proteins and lipids by these phenols. Indirect protection against the triplet reactivity of riboflavin is further important for polyphenols as riboflavin singlet excited state quenchers in effectively preventing riboflavin intersystem crossing to yield the reactive triplet state. Riboflavin photosensitization becomes critical for degradation of proteins, unsaturated lipids, and folate, thiamine, ascorbate and other vitamins during light exposure of food during storage. For skin, eye and other tissue exposed to high intensity light, dietary polyphenols like flavonoids are important in direct protection against

  7. Newly Synthesized Water Soluble Cholinium-Purpurin Photosensitizers and Their Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles as Promising Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Key Shim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available For possible future use in Photodynamic Therapy (PDT and/or Photothermal Therapy (PTT of cancer and screening of cancer cells a new type of ionic liquid photosensitizer –Cholinium-Purpurin-18 (Chol-Pu-18 – was synthesized and small gold (Au nanoparticles, stabilized by this photosensitizer were prepared without adding any particular reducing agents and CTAB. UV-Vis spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM were used for characterization of the nanoparticles and FAB-MS and NMR of the ionic liquid choline hydroxide, purpurin carboxylate and their ionic liquid type of photosensitizer were obtained.

  8. Melanin photosensitizes ultraviolet light (UVC) DNA damage in pigmented cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huselton, C.A.; Hill, H.Z.

    1990-01-01

    Melanins, pigments of photoprotection and camouflage, are very photoreactive and can both absorb and emit active oxygen species. Nevertheless, black skinned individuals rarely develop skin cancer and melanin is assumed to act as a solar screen. Since DNA is the target for solar carcinogenesis, the effect of melanin on Ultraviolet (UV)-induced thymine lesions was examined in mouse melanoma and carcinoma cells that varied in melanin content. Cells prelabeled with 14C-dThd were irradiated with UVC; DNA was isolated, purified, degraded to bases by acid hydrolysis and analyzed by HPLC. Thymine dimers were detected in all of the extracts of irradiated cells. Melanotic and hypomelanotic but not mammary carcinoma cell DNA from irradiated cells contained hydrophilic thymine derivatives. The quantity of these damaged bases was a function of both the UVC dose and the cellular melanin content. One such derivative was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy as thymine glycol. The other appears to be derived from thymine glycol by further oxidation during acid hydrolysis of the DNA. The finding of oxidative DNA damage in melanin-containing cells suggests that melanin may be implicated in the etiology of caucasian skin cancer, particularly melanoma. Furthermore, the projected decrease in stratospheric ozone could impact in an unanticipated deleterious manner on dark-skinned individuals

  9. Multispectral confocal microscopy images and artificial neural nets to monitor the photosensitizer uptake and degradation in Candida albicans cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renan A.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; da Silva, Ana P.; Kurachi, Cristina; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2017-07-01

    This study clearly demonstrates that multispectral confocal microscopy images analyzed by artificial neural networks provides a powerful tool to real-time monitoring photosensitizer uptake, as well as photochemical transformations occurred.

  10. Comparison of photosensitivity in germanium doped silica fibers using 244 nm and 266 nm continuous wave lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo; Varming, Poul; Liu, B.

    2001-01-01

    Diode pumped continuous-wave UV lasers offer an interesting alternative to frequency doubled argon-ion lasers. We report the first photosensitivity comparison using these lasers on deuterium loaded standard telecommunication fibers and unloaded experimental fibers....

  11. Photoreactivity of biologically active compounds. VIII. Photosensitized polymerization of lens proteins by antimalarial drugs in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, S; Wang, R H; Tønnesen, H H; Dillon, J; Roberts, J E

    1995-02-01

    The drugs commonly used in the treatment of malaria are photochemically unstable. Several of these compounds cause dermal and ocular toxic reactions that may be light induced. The in vitro photopolymerization of calf lens proteins in the presence of antimalarial drugs was studied as part of a screening of the photochemical properties and phototoxic capabilities of these compounds. The pseudo-first-order rate constant for the reaction was calculated, and related to the amount of light absorbed by the compounds in order to determine the relative photosensitizing effect of each drug. The reaction mechanisms were evaluated by adding a variety of quenchers to the reaction medium during irradiation. Based on the results obtained in this study and previous knowledge about the pharmacokinetic behavior of these compounds, several of the drugs investigated have to be considered as potential photosensitizers in the human lens, the retina and the skin.

  12. New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Based Photosensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,3,4-Oxadiazole based photosensitizers with biphenyl, naphthalene, anthracene, and triphenylamine as the electron-donating moiety were synthesized for solar cell applications. In these photosensitizers, cyano groups were introduced as the electron acceptor and the anchor group because of their high electron-withdrawing ability and strong bonding to the semiconductor. Oxadiazole isomers were used as the π-conjugation system, which bridges the donor-acceptor systems. The electrochemical and optical properties of the sensitizers were investigated both in their native form and upon incorporation into dye sensitized solar cells. The results of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements, and photocurrent voltage characteristics indicate that 1,3,4-oxadiazole pi-spacer with the anthracene moiety has the highest efficiency of 2.58%. Density functional theory was employed to optimize the structures of the sensitizers and the TiO2 cluster.

  13. Progress in the development of photosensitive GEMs with resistive electrodes manufactured by a screen printing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskov, V.; Martinengo, P.; Nappi, E.; Oliveira, R.; Paic, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    2009-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM-like amplification structure with double-layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen-printing technology on the top of the metallic strips's grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2-D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark-protected operation at high gains close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10x10 and 10x20 cm 2 were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large-area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  14. Progress in the development of photosensitive GEMs with resistive electrodes manufactured by a screen printing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, V; Nappi, E; Oliveira, R; Paic, G; Pietropaolo, F; Picchi, P

    2009-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM-like amplification structure with double-layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen-printing technology on the top of the metallic strips's grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2-D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark-protected operation at high gains close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10×10 and 10×20 cm2 were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large-area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  15. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 10 9 sec -1 mV -1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrents around ∼10 -5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials' photosensitivity

  16. Single Molecule Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Photosensitized Singlet Oxygen Behavior on a DNA Origami Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmig, Sarah Wendelboe; Rotaru, Alexandru; Arian, Dumitru

    2010-01-01

    DNA origami, the folding of a long single-stranded DNA sequence (scaffold strand) by hundreds of short synthetic oligonucleotides (staple strands) into parallel aligned helices, is a highly efficient method to form advanced self-assembled DNA-architectures. Since molecules and various materials can...... be conjugated to each of the short staple strands, the origami method offers a unique possibility of arranging molecules and materials in well-defined positions on a structured surface. Here we combine the action of light with AFM and DNA nanostructures to study the production of singlet oxygen from a single...... photosensitizer molecule conjugated to a selected DNA origami staple strand on an origami structure. We demonstrate a distance-dependent oxidation of organic moieties incorporated in specific positions on DNA origami by singlet oxygen produced from a single photosensitizer located at the center of each origami....

  17. Pronounced photosensitivity of molecular [Ru(bpy)2(OSO)]+ solutions based on two photoinduced linkage isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Volker; Eicke, Sebastian; Rack, Jeffrey J; Woike, Theo; Imlau, Mirco

    2009-08-17

    Photosensitive properties of [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)] PF(6) dissolved in propylene carbonate originating from photoinduced linkage isomerism have been studied by temperature and exposure dependent transmission and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. An exceeding photochromic photosensitivity of S = (63 +/- 10) x 10(3) cm l J(-1) mol(-1) is determined. It is attributed to a maximum population of 100% molecules in the photoinduced isomers, a unique absorption cross section per molecule and a very low light exposure of Q(0) = (0.25 +/- 0.03) Ws cm(-2) for isomerism. Relaxation studies of O-bonded to S-bonded isomers at different temperatures verify the existence of two distinct structures of linkage isomers determined by the activation energies of E(A,1) = (0.76 +/- 0.08) eV and E(A,2) = (1.00 +/- 0.14) eV.

  18. Effects of riboflavin photosensitization on the changes of isoflavones in soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W; Chang, P-S; Lee, J H

    2008-09-01

    Effects of riboflavin photosensitization on the distribution of isoflavones in commercially available soymilk were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total isoflavones (TI) in soymilk with riboflavin (1000 ppm, w/v) under light were significantly different from those stored in the dark for 24 h (P riboflavin were not significant from each other in dark conditions (P > 0.05). To test the effects of the concentration of riboflavin on TI, soymilk was mixed with riboflavin to make 0, 100, 250, and 500 ppm (w/v) and stored under light at 25 degrees C for 24 h. TI in soymilk with 100 ppm riboflavin under light significantly decreased by 13.5% for 24 h (P 0.05). Daidzin and genistin were predominant isoflavones in soymilk, and the rate of photo degradation of genistin was higher than that of daidzin for 24 h in soymilk under riboflavin photosensitization.

  19. Photosensitization of human diploid cell cultures by intracellular flavins and protection by antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, O.M.; Smith, J.R.; Packer, L.

    1976-01-01

    The damaging effects of near ultraviolet and visible light on WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts were investigated. WI-38 cells in culture were killed by light doses ranging from 2 to 10 x 10 3 W/m 2 h. There was an inverse correlation between culture age, i.e. population doubling level and photosensitivity. However, this effect could not be related to capacity for DNA synthesis and cell division. Flavins were clearly implicated as endogenous photosensitizers, and antioxidants such as d,l-α-tocopherol (vitamin E), BHT and ascorbic acid were found to afford the cells protection from light damage. Furthermore, products of lipid peroxidation could be detected in cell homogenates irradiated in the presence of riboflavin. (author)

  20. Effects of water temperature on photosensitization in bath-PUVA therapy with 8-methoxypsoralen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruss, C.; Kobyletzki, G. von; Reuther, T.; Husebo, L.; Altmeyer, P. [Ruhr-Univ. of Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Behrens, S.; Kerscher, M. [Univ. of Ulm, Dept. of Dermatology, Ulm (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    The pharmacokinetic aspects of bath-PUVA are not completely clarified. Therefore, we determined the phototoxic response of human skin following psoralen baths at temperatures ranging from 32 deg. C to 42 deg. C (71.6-107.6 deg. F) and UVA doses ranging from 0.5 to 5.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The highest therapeutical photosensitization (i.e. lowest minimal phototoxic dose) was assessed at temperatures of 37 deg. C (98.6 deg. F) and above. Photosensitization was significantly decreased at lower temperatures. These data indicate that a bath temperature of 37 deg. C (98.6 deg. F) should be used to gain optimal therapeutic efficiency in a clinical setting. Furthermore, in order to minimize the risk of adverse phototoxic effects in bath-PUVA, it is important to use a constant temperature during the psoralen bath. (au) 13 refs.

  1. Effects of water temperature on photosensitization in bath-PUVA therapy with 8-methoxypsoralen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruss, C.; Kobyletzki, G. von; Reuther, T.; Husebo, L.; Altmeyer, P.; Behrens, S.; Kerscher, M.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic aspects of bath-PUVA are not completely clarified. Therefore, we determined the phototoxic response of human skin following psoralen baths at temperatures ranging from 32 deg. C to 42 deg. C (71.6-107.6 deg. F) and UVA doses ranging from 0.5 to 5.5 J/cm 2 . The highest therapeutical photosensitization (i.e. lowest minimal phototoxic dose) was assessed at temperatures of 37 deg. C (98.6 deg. F) and above. Photosensitization was significantly decreased at lower temperatures. These data indicate that a bath temperature of 37 deg. C (98.6 deg. F) should be used to gain optimal therapeutic efficiency in a clinical setting. Furthermore, in order to minimize the risk of adverse phototoxic effects in bath-PUVA, it is important to use a constant temperature during the psoralen bath. (au)

  2. DNA Photosensitization by an "Insider": Photophysics and Triplet Energy Transfer of 5-Methyl-2-pyrimidone Deoxyribonucleoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignon, Emmanuelle; Gattuso, Hugo; Morell, Christophe; Dumont, Elise; Monari, Antonio

    2015-08-03

    The main chromophore of (6-4) photoproducts, namely, 5-methyl-2-pyrimidone (Pyo), is an artificial noncanonical nucleobase. This chromophore has recently been reported as a potential photosensitizer that induces triplet damage in thymine DNA. In this study, we investigate the spectroscopic properties of the Pyo unit embedded in DNA by means of explicit solvent molecular-dynamics simulations coupled to time-dependent DFT and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics techniques. Triplet-state transfer from the Pyo to the thymine unit was monitored in B-DNA by probing the propensity of this photoactive pyrimidine analogue to induce a Dexter-type triplet photosensitization and subsequent DNA damage. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Photosensitive semiconducting polymer-incorporated nanofibers for promoting the regeneration of skin wound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Guorui [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR, 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, 138634 (Singapore); The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an 710049 (China); Li, Jun [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR, 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, 138634 (Singapore); Department of Chemistry and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Li, Kai, E-mail: kai_li_cn@hotmail.com [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR, 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, 138634 (Singapore); Department of Radiology and Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, 94305 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Photosensitive semiconducting polymer (SP) combined with light stimulation has shown the capability in promoting the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). However, the high cytotoxicity of the used SP hindered its further application in bioactive scaffolds. In this contribution, we designed and synthesized a SP, poly (N,N-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-c] pyrrole-1,4-dione-alt-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PDBTT) with low cytotoxicity and strong absorbance in red and near-infrared region (600–1200 nm). The photosensitive SP was then applied in electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibrous scaffold and evaluated its proliferative effect on HDFs under the illumination from red light-emitting diode (LED) with high tissue penetration. After 9 days of continuous stimulation, the hybrid electrospun PCL/PDBTT nanofibers with low cytotoxicity showed excellent support for HDFs adhesion, proliferation and collagen secretion than neat PCL nanofibers and HDFs on the stimulated PCL/PDBTT nanofibers gained typical spindle morphology, indicating the well cell spreading on the stimulated PCL/PDBTT nanofibers. The incorporation of functional materials within synthetic biomaterials could be a novel way in improving the performance of engineered tissue constructs by providing multiple cues (e.g. electrical stimulation) to the attached cells. - Highlights: • A photosensitive semiconducting polymer (SP) was applied in electrospun nanofibrous scaffold. • The SP-incorporated scaffold could promote cell proliferation upon light stimulation. • The designed photosensitive SP could be applied as functional material with low cost and high durability in skin tissue engineering.

  4. Cascading of molecular logic gates for advanced functions: a self-reporting, activatable photosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas-Cakmak, Sundus; Akkaya, Engin U

    2013-10-18

    Logical progress: Independent molecular logic gates have been designed and characterized. Then, the individual molecular logic gates were coerced to work together within a micelle. Information relay between the two logic gates was achieved through the intermediacy of singlet oxygen. Working together, these concatenated logic gates result in a self-reporting and activatable photosensitizer. GSH=glutathione. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Optimum modality for photodynamic therapy of tumors: gels containing liposomes with hydrophobic photosensitizers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvasil, Miloš; Zadinová, M.; Tahotná, Ludmila; Žáčková, Markéta; Poučková, P.; Ježek, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 5 (2007), s. 235-252 ISSN 0272-4391 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04OE152; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/026; GA MZd NC6564 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : photodynamic therapy of tumors * liposomal photosensitizer gel * hydroxyl-aluminium phtalocyanine * microfluidizacion Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 0.976, year: 2007

  6. Impact of photosensitized oxidation and singlet oxygen on degradation of stabilized polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jan; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Pilař, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 9 (2008), s. 1681-1688 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100622; GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA AV ČR IAA400500804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : photosensitized oxidation * singlet molecular oxygen * oxygenation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2008

  7. Azobenzene-containing LC polymethacrylates highly photosensitive in broad spectral range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobrovsky, A.; Shibaev, V.; Cigl, Martin; Hamplová, Věra; Pociecha, D.; Bubnov, Alexej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 18 (2016), s. 2962-2970 ISSN 0887-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-12150S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15305 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystals * polymethacrylate * photosensitive * azo group * smectic A * photo-optical properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2016

  8. Caffeine metabolites not caffeine protect against riboflavin photosensitized oxidative damage related to skin and eye health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scurachio, R. S.; Mattiucci, F.; Santos, W. G.

    2016-01-01

    . Caffeine metabolites rather than caffeine seem accordingly important for the observed protective effect against cutaneous melanoma identified for drinkers of regular but not of decaffeinated coffee. The caffeine metabolites, but not caffeine, were by time resolved single photon counting found to quench...... singlet excited riboflavin through exothermic formation of ground-state precursor complexes indicating importance of hydrogen bounding through keto-enol tautomer's for protection of oxidizable substrates and sensitive structures against riboflavin photosensitization....

  9. Tooth color change caused by photosensitizers after photodynamic therapy: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Larissa Menezes; Matos, Felipe de Souza; Correia, Ayla Macyelle de Oliveira; Carvalho, Nayane Chagas; Faria-E-Silva, André Luís; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Ribeiro, Maria Amália Gonzaga

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to perform an in vitro evaluation of the effect of photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) on tooth color change when used in combination with conventional endodontic treatment. Forty extracted human mandibular premolars were accessed and underwent root canal therapy and PDT. Photosensitizers were used in accordance with the experimental groups: MB (n=10) - PDT with Methylene Blue at 0.01%; TB (n=10) - PDT with Toluidine Blue at 0.01%; MG (n=10) - PDT with Malachite Green at 0.01%, at the concentration of 0.1mg/mL; and PC (n=10) - positive control, PDT with Endo-PTC cream stained with Methylene Blue at 25%. The samples were irradiated with 660-nm diode laser by means of a 330-μm-diameter optical fiber cable at a power density of 40mW for 120s. After light curing, the photosensitizers were removed from the specimens with 10mL sodium hypochlorite at 1%. A reflectance spectrometer was used for evaluation of color prior to and 60days after the experimental procedure based on the CIE L*a*b* system. According to ANOVA test, there were statistically significant differences between the experimental groups (p=0.003). Tukey's test showed a significant difference between PC and TB (p=0.008), as well as between MG and TB (p=0.009). However, there was no statistically significant difference between PC, MG (p=0.957) and MB (p=0.103). It was concluded that the use of PDT as an adjuvant to root canal therapy, using different photosensitizers, led to color change in tooth structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. UV causation of melanoma in Xiphophorus is dominated by melanin photosensitized oxidant production

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Simon R.; Berwick, Marianne; Ley, Ronald D.; Walter, Ronald B.; Setlow, Richard B.; Timmins, Graham S.

    2006-01-01

    Controversy continues both as to which wavelengths of sunlight cause melanoma and the mechanisms by which these different wavelengths act. Direct absorption of UVB by DNA is central in albino animal models, but melanin-pigmented models have shown major contributions by wavelengths longer than UVB that are thought to be mediated by photosensitized oxidant production. The only model for which the action spectrum of melanoma causation is known is a genetically melanoma-susceptible specific cross...

  11. Riboflavin-mediated photosensitization of Vinca alkaloids distorts drug sensitivity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzow, C; Kopun, M; Kröber, T

    1995-11-01

    Poor reproducibility of cytotoxicity tests with Vinca alkaloids has frequently been reported. A commonly presumed light sensitivity of the drugs could not be confirmed. However, we found that they are photosensitized by riboflavin (vitamin B2), an obligatory component of cell culture media. Light of wavelengths below 500 nm triggered rapid photoreactions of riboflavin with vinblastine, vincristine, and vindesine in aqueous solutions. The photoreactions altered the absorption spectra of these alkaloids and yielded degradation products that could be separated by TLC. In cell cultures, both immediate and persisting, riboflavin-mediated photoreactivity could be distinguished. They preclude reliable determinations of sensitivity and resistance to Vinca alkaloids, as exemplified on chemosensitive and multidrug-resistant mouse ascites cells. In experiments involving photosensitization, the 50% inhibitory concentration values of sensitive and resistant cells were overlapping and fluctuated in the ranges from 3 to 30 nM and 15 to 360 nM vinblastine, respectively. Corresponding values from series of experiments protected from photosensitization were 1.02 +/- 0.22 nM and 18.5 +/- 3.42 nM. Hence, riboflavin-mediated photoreactions must be fully prevented in assays of cellular drug sensitivity. Procedures for eliminating immediate as well as persisting photoreactivity were established.

  12. Study of Photosensitive Dry Films Absorption for Printed Circuit Boards by Photoacoustic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, R.; Zaragoza, J. A. Barrientos; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Orea, A. Cruz; Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the study of photosensitive dry-type films by photoacoustic technique is proposed. The dry film photoresist is resistant to chemical etching for printed circuit boards such as ferric chloride, sodium persulfate or ammonium, hydrochloric acid. It is capable of faithfully reproducing circuit pattern exposed to ultraviolet light (UV) through a negative. Once recorded, the uncured portion is removed with alkaline solution. It is possible to obtain good results in surface mount circuits with tracks of 5 mm. Furthermore, the solid resin films are formed by three layers, two protective layers and a UV-sensitive optical absorption layer in the range of 325 nm to 405 nm. By means of optical absorption of UV-visible rays emitted by a low-power Xe lamp, the films transform this energy into thermal waves generated by the absorption of optical radiation and subsequently no-radiative de-excitation occurs. The photoacoustic spectroscopy is a useful technique to measure the transmittance and absorption directly. In this study, the optical absorption spectra of the three layers of photosensitive dry-type films were obtained as a function of the wavelength, in order to have a knowledge of the absorber layer and the protective layers. These analyses will give us the physical properties of the photosensitive film, which are very important in curing the dry film for applications in printed circuit boards.

  13. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with two photosensitizers on two oral streptococci: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, S.; Fekrazad, R.; Ayremlou, S.; Taheri, S.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Kalhori, K. A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Periodontal diseases are caused by infection of tissues supporting the teeth due to complex aggregate of bacteria known as biofilm and firstly colonized by streptococci. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of Radachlorin® and Toluidine Blue O (TBO)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the viability of two oral streptococci. Bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis were subjected to either TBO or Radachlorin®, Then exposed to two different diode laser light at energy densities of 3, 6 J/cm2 at 633 nm and 6, 12 J/cm2 at 662 nm, respectively. The control groups were subjected to laser light alone, photosensitizer alone or received neither photosensitizer nor light exposure. The suspensions were then spread over specific agar mediums and viable microorganisms were counted after overnight incubation aerobically at 37°C, 5% CO2 and then reported as colony forming unit. The results indicated that photosensitization by the energy density of 6 J/cm2 with Radachlorin® and both 3 and 6 J/cm2 with TBO caused significant reduction in bacterial colony formation ( p < 0.05). Radachlorin® and TBO-mediated photodynamic therapy seem to show excellent potential in significantly killing of two oral streptococci in vitro.

  14. Measuring incident light on grape clusters using photosensitive paper and image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, S.F.; Schuette, M.L.; Tassie, E.

    1995-01-01

    Digital imaging and analysis was used to quantify and characterize the light exposure patterns of photosensitive paper tubes placed in representative cluster positions in two grape (Vitis vinifera L.) canopies: a minimally pruned and a vertically trained canopy. Blue pixel values of the captured images had a negative correlation with the log of irradiance from an integrating quantum sensor (r2 = 0.9308). The spectral response of the photosensitive paper was not measured. Histograms of incident light distribution on individual paper tubes were developed using imaging software. Histograms were able to quantify the distribution of incident light on individual tubes and were clearly related to the tube's exposure in the canopy. Average population curves of pixel light distribution of 20 tubes in each canopy were able to differentiate the typical cluster light environment in the two canopies. Tubes in the minimally pruned canopy had a larger proportion of their surface exposed to irradiances > 50 micromoles.s-1 m-2 and 65% higher average irradiance than the vertical canopy. Image analysis of photosensitive paper appears to be a workable method to record the distribution of incident light in plant canopies and may have utility in a range of ecological studies

  15. Fluorescence Imaging Assisted Photodynamic Therapy Using Photosensitizer-Linked Gold Quantum Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Lakshmi V; Nazeer, Shaiju S; Jayasree, Ramapurath S; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2015-06-23

    Fluorescence imaging assisted photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a viable two-in-one clinical tool for cancer treatment and follow-up. While the surface plasmon effect of gold nanorods and nanoparticles has been effective for cancer therapy, their emission properties when compared to gold nanoclusters are weak for fluorescence imaging guided PDT. In order to address the above issues, we have synthesized a near-infrared-emitting gold quantum cluster capped with lipoic acid (L-AuC with (Au)18(L)14) based nanoplatform with excellent tumor reduction property by incorporating a tumor-targeting agent (folic acid) and a photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX), for selective PDT. The synthesized quantum cluster based photosensitizer PFL-AuC showed 80% triplet quantum yield when compared to that of the photosensitizer alone (63%). PFL-AuC having 60 μg (0.136 mM) of protoporphyrin IX was sufficient to kill 50% of the tumor cell population. Effective destruction of tumor cells was evident from the histopathology and fluorescence imaging, which confirm the in vivo PDT efficacy of PFL-AuC.

  16. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of Photosensitive ZrO2 array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhu, R.; Kou, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Based on organic zirconium source as the starting material, by adding chemical modifiers which are made up with photosensitive ZrO2 sol. A uniformed ZrO2 array dot was fabricated with a mean diameter of around 800 nm. By using UV-vis spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis method, studies the photosensitive ZrO2 gel film of photochemical reaction process and the photosensitive mechanism, to determine the zirconium atom centered chelate structure, reaction formed by metal chelate Zr atom for the center, and to establish the molecular model of the chelate. And studied the ultraviolet light in the process of the variation of the XPS spectra, Zr3d5/2 to 184.9 eV corresponding to the binding energy of the as the combination of state peak gradually reduce; By combining with the status of Zr-O peak gradually increase; The strength of the peak is gradually decline. This suggests that in the process of ultraviolet light photo chemical reaction happened. This study is of great significance to the micro fabrication of ZrO2 array not only to the memory devices but also to the optical devices.

  17. Phototreatment of Water by Organic Photosensitizers and Comparison with Inorganic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlyn Thandu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phototreatment of water is drawing the attention of many as a promising alternative to replace methods like chlorination, ozonization, and other oxidation processes, used in current disinfection methods limiting harmful side-products and by-products that can cause damage to the fauna and flora. Porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and other related organic dyes are well known for their use in photodynamic therapy (PDT. These photosensitizers cause cell death by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS especially singlet oxygen in the presence of light. Such molecules are also being explored for photodynamically treating microbial infections, killing of unwanted pathogens in the environment, and oxidation of chemical pollutants. The process of photosensitisation (phototreatment can be applied for obtaining clean, microbe-free water, thus exploiting the versatile properties of photosensitizers. This review collects the various attempts carried out for phototreatment of water using organic photosensitizers. For comparison, some reports of semiconductors (especially TiO2 used in photocatalytic treatment of water are also mentioned.

  18. Modeling the photosensitizing properties of thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarias, Cloé; Adamo, Carlo; Perrier, Aurélie

    2016-03-21

    An accurate computational strategy for studying the structural, redox and optical properties of thiolated gold nanoclusters (GNCs) using (Time-Dependent) Density Functional Theory is proposed. The influence of the pseudopotential/basis set, solvent description and the choice of the functional has been investigated to model the structural and electronic properties of the Au25(SR)18(-) system, with R being an organic ligand. This study aims to describe with a comparable precision both the GNC and the organic ligands and rationalize the effect of coating on different GNC properties. Two differently coated GNCs have been considered: the system with R = CH2CH2Ph and the GNC coated with 17 alkyl chains (C6H13) and functionalized by one fluorophore pyrene derivative (CH2CH2(NH)(CO)Py). The computational protocol we propose should then be used to design more efficient metal cluster-sensitized solar cells.

  19. Using Photosensitive Dye To Improve Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Costanzo, Guadalupe; Goyanes, Silvia [Laboratorio de PolImeros y Materiales Compuestos, Dpto. de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina) (Argentina); Ledesma, Silvia, E-mail: ledesma@df.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Procesado de Imagenes, Dpto. de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina) (Argentina)

    2011-01-01

    As already well-known, the outstanding mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are partially lost when CNT aggregate. The fact that CNT tend to aggregate makes difficult to put them into a host matrix, for example. Until now, achieving stable dispersions of CNT is still a challenge. In the present work, we show that the addition of an azobenzene derivative, Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) to dispersions of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in the organic solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF) efficiently helps debundling MWCNT and makes dispersions stable for days. We report UV-Vis optical absorption experiments that suggest an interaction between MWCNT and DO3 molecules following the behavior qualitatively observed. Dispersions with MWCNT and DO3 in THF were observed qualitatively over time. Successful suspensions (for the higher DO3 concentrations studied) were stable for several days. Also, we prepared polymeric films doped with MWCNT non-covalent functionalized with DO3 in one of the proper DO3/MWCNT weight relation where stable supensions were obtained. In this study we show preliminary results where the optical response of these samples was also measured.

  20. Action spectra and chromophores for lethal photosensitization of Candida albicans by DNA monoadducts formed by 8-methoxypsoralen and monofunctional furocoumarins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Gibbs, N.K.; Young, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The red-shift furocoumarin action spectra, compared with their absorption spectra, has been investigated. An action spectrum for 8-methoxypsoralen (8-Mop) monoadduct formation in the yeast Candida albicans has been determined. The yeast cells were initially exposed to sublethal doses of monochromatic UV A at different wavelengths. Monoadduct formation was monitored by growth inhibition induced, after washing out any unbound 8-Mop, by re-irradiation with a constant second (non-lethal) dose of 330 nm radiation. A comparison between this action spectrum and the absorption spectrum of the dark complex of 8-Mop and DNA was made. In addition, the action spectra of monoadduct formation of five monofunctional compounds including a coumarin derivative have been determined. These action spectra were compared with their respective DNA dark complex absorption spectra. In general, the peaks of the furocoumarin DNA dark complexes show a red-shift when compared with the free furocoumarin molecule and the action spectra show peaks which correspond with the peaks of the dark complexes. Such data indicate that the DNA dark complex is the chromophore for growth inhibition in yeast rather than the free furocoumarin. The similarity of the 8-Mop monoadduct formation spectrum and 8-Mop action spectra suggests that spectral dependence for the photobiological effects (including the red-shift) is dependent on monoadduct formation rather than, as previously suggested by several authors, crosslink formation. The action spectrum for the coumarin derivative 4-methyl N-ethylpyrrolo (3,2-g) coumarin (PCNEt) correlated well with the free molecule absorption spectrum rather than DNA dark complex indicating that the free molecule is the chromophore. This was supported by studies which showed that PCNEt photosensitization is oxygen dependent. (author). 38 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  1. Ultrasonic activation and chemical modification of photosensitizers enhances the effects of photodynamic therapy against Enterococcus faecalis root-canal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennert, C; Drews, A M; Walther, V; Altenburger, M J; Karygianni, L; Wrbas, K T; Hellwig, E; Al-Ahmad, A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms in artificially infected root canals using modified photosensitizers and passive ultrasonic activation. Two hundred and seventy extracted human teeth with one root canal were instrumented utilizing ProTaper files, autoclaved, infected with E. faecalis T9 for 72 h and divided into different groups: irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 20% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), or 20% citric acid, PDT without irrigation, PDT accompanied by irrigation with NaOCl, EDTA, or citric acid, PDT using an EDTA-based photosensitizer or a citric-acid-based photosensitizer and PDT with ultrasonic activation of the photosensitizer. A 15 mg/ml toluidine blue served as the photosensitizer, activated by a 100 mW LED light source. Sterile paper points were used for sampling the root canals and dentin chips were collected to assess the remaining contamination after treatment. Samples were cultured on blood agar plates and colony forming units were quantified. PDT alone achieved a reduction in E. faecalis counts by 92.7%, NaOCl irrigation alone and combined with PDT by 99.9%. The antibacterial effects increased by the combination of irrigation using EDTA or citric acid and PDT compared to irrigation alone. More than 99% of E. faecalis were killed using PDT with the modified photosensitizers and ultrasonic activation. NaOCl based disinfection achieved the highest antimicrobial effect. Using PDT with an EDTA-based or citric-acid-based phozosensitizer or activating the photosensitizer with ultrasound resulted in a significantly higher reduction in E. faecalis counts compared to conventional PDT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro assessment of skin sensitization, photosensitization and phototoxicity potential of commercial glyphosate-containing formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ávila, Renato Ivan; Teixeira, Gabriel Campos; Veloso, Danillo Fabrini Maciel Costa; Moreira, Larissa Cleres; Lima, Eliana Martins; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of a modified Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) (OECD N° 442C, 2015) through the 10-fold reduction of reaction volume (micro-DPRA, mDPRA) for skin sensitization evaluation of six commercial glyphosate-containing formulations. In addition, another modification of DPRA was proposed by adding a UVA (5J/cm 2 ) irradiation step, namely photo-mDPRA, to better characterize (photo)sensitizer materials. The phototoxicity profile of pesticides was also evaluated using the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test (3T3-NRU-PT) (OECD N° 432, 2004). The mDPRA could represent an environmentally acceptable test approach, since it reduces costs and organic waste. Peptide depletion was greater in photo-mDPRA and changed the reactivity class of each test material, in comparison to mDPRA. Thus, the association of mDPRA with photo-mDPRA was better for correctly characterizing human (photo)sensitizer substances and pesticides. In general, cysteine depletion was greater than that of lysine for all materials tested in both mDPRA and photo-mDPRA. Furthermore, while 3T3-NRU-PT is unable to predict (photo)sensitizers, it was capable of correctly identifying the phototoxic potential of the tested agrochemical formulations. In conclusion, mDPRA plus photo-mDPRA and 3T3-NRU-PT seem to be preliminary non-animal test batteries for skin (photo)sensitization/phototoxicity assessment of chemicals, agrochemical formulations and their ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the factors influencing the performance of solar reactors for water disinfection with photosensitized singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón, Francisco; Villén, Laura; García-Fresnadillo, David; Orellana, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    Two solar reactors based on compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) were optimized for water disinfection by photosensitized singlet oxygen (1O2) production in the heterogeneous phase. Sensitizing materials containing Ru(II) complexes immobilized on porous silicone were produced, photochemically characterized, and successfully tested for the inactivation of up to 10(4) CFU mL(-1) of waterborne Escherichia coli (gram-negative) or Enterococcus faecalis (gram-positive) bacteria. The main factors determining the performance of the solar reactors are the type of photosensitizing material, the sensitizer loading, the CPC collector geometry (fin- vs coaxial-type), the fluid rheology, and the balance between concurrent photothermal--photolytic and 1O2 effects on the microorganisms' inactivation. In this way, at the 40 degrees N latitude of Spain, water can be disinfected on a sunny day (0.6-0.8 MJ m(-2) L(-1) accumulated solar radiation dose in the 360-700 nm range, typically 5-6 h of sunlight) with a fin-type reactor containing 0.6 m2 of photosensitizing material saturated with tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) (ca. 2.0 g m(-2)). The optimum rheological conditions require laminar-to-transitional water flow in both prototypes. The fin-type system showed better inactivation efficiency than the coaxial reactor due to a more important photolytic contribution. The durability of the sensitizing materials was tested and the operational lifetime of the photocatalyst is at least three months without any reduction in the bacteria inactivation efficiency. Solar water disinfection with 1O2-generating films is demonstrated to be an effective technique for use in isolated regions of developing countries with high yearly average sunshine.

  4. A novel photosensitization treatment for the inactivation of fungal spores and cells mediated by curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Fahad; Mereddy, Ram; Sultanbawa, Yasmina

    2017-08-01

    The global concerns regarding the emergence of fungicide-resistant strains and the impact of the excessive use of fungicidal practises on our health, food, and environment have increased, leading to a demand for alternative clean green technologies as treatments. Photosensitization is a treatment that utilises a photosensitiser, light and oxygen to cause cell damage to microorganisms. The effect of photosensitization mediated by curcumin on Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium griseofulvum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans and Zygosaccharomyces bailii was investigated using three methods. The viability of spores/cells suspended in aqueous buffer using different concentrations of curcumin solution (100-1000μM) and light dose (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96J/cm 2 ) were determined. Spraying curcumin solution on inoculated surfaces of agar plates followed by irradiation and soaking spores/cells in curcumin solution prior to irradiation was also investigated. In aqueous mixtures, photosensitised spores/cells of F. oxysporum and C. albicans were inhibited at all light doses and curcumin concentrations, while inactivation of A. niger, A. flavus P. griseofulvum, P. chrysogenum and Z. bailii were highly significant (Pcurcumin at 800μM showed complete inhibition for A. niger, F. oxysporum, C. albicans and Z. bailii, while A. flavus P. griseofulvum, and P. chrysogenum reduced by 75%, 80.4% and 88.5% respectively. Soaking spores/cells with curcumin solution prior to irradiation did not have a significant effect on the percentage reduction. These observations suggest that a novel photosensitization mediated curcumin treatment is effective against fungal spores/cells and the variation of percentage reduction was dependent on curcumin concentration, light dosage and fungal species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of photosensitive n-ZnO/p-InSe heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudrynskyi, Z., E-mail: kudrynskyi@gmail.com [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Chernivtsi Branch, Str. I. Vilde 5, 58001 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Khomyak, V. [Yuriy Fedkovich Chernivtsi National University, Str. Kotsubinsky 2, 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Katerynchuk, V.; Kovalyuk, M.; Netyaga, V.; Kushnir, B. [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Chernivtsi Branch, Str. I. Vilde 5, 58001 Chernivtsi (Ukraine)

    2015-05-01

    Indium monochalcogenide (InSe) with a band gap of 1.25 eV is a promising material for photovoltaic applications. In this work, photosensitive anisotype n-ZnO/p-InSe heterojunctions were fabricated by means of radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of the zinc oxide onto freshly cleaved (0001) van der Waals surface of p-InSe single-crystal. Structural properties of the obtained heterostructures were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction. Surface morphology of the grown ZnO thin films was studied by means of atomic force microscopy. The electrical and photoelectrical properties of the heterojunctions were investigated using the current-voltage characteristics measured at different temperatures, capacitance-voltage characteristics and photoresponse spectra. The dominating current transport mechanisms through the heterojunctions under investigation were determined at forward and reverse biases. It was found that the developed heterojunctions n-ZnO/p-InSe show photosensitivity in the photon energy range (1.25-3.20 eV) at room temperature. In addition, we analyzed the influence of vacuum annealing of the heterojunctions at different temperatures on their photoelectric properties. - Highlights: • Thin ZnO films were grown onto van der Waals surface of InSe substrate. • n-ZnO/p-InSe heterojunctions were fabricated. • The heterojunctions are photosensitive in photon energy range from 1.12 to 3.75 eV. • Despite the lattice mismatch of 19% the heterojunctions exhibit diode-like behavior. • Vacuum annealing improves electrical properties of the heterojunctions.

  6. UV-induced reaction kinetics in dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers with incorporated photosensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEJAN MARKOVIC

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixed insoluble monolayers (Langmuir films of 1,2-di-O-linoleoyl-3-sn-phosphatidylcholine (1,2-DLPC and incorporated benzophenone-type photosensitizers at an air-water interface were exposed to prolonged UV-irradiation. The irradiation was initiated at a particular fixed molecular packing value. Changes of the surface pressure during the UV-induced photolysis of the sensitizers were plotted against the irradiation time and the results were interpreted in terms of themolecular lipid / sensitizer ratios inside the monolayers.

  7. Prospects of radical-interacting porphyrin photosensitizers and their possible use in photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Dezso; Shuliakovskaya, T.; Vidoczy, Tamas; Elzemzam, Saleh; Vasvari, Gabor; Suemegi, L.; Kuti, Zsolt

    1994-03-01

    Based on literature data obtained in various fields with respect to studies on the role of free radicals in biology and on the kinetics of triplet-doublet interactions, it is suggested that excited photosensitizers react in vivo with free radicals formed in malignant tissues during photodynamic therapy (PDT) and this interaction competes with sensitizer-radical + molecule and the singlet oxygen mediated effects. Experimental results by laser flash photolysis and electron spin resonance revealed that sensitizer applied in PDT react with stable free radicals presumably both by energy transfer and electron transfer.

  8. FIBER OPTICS: Role of point defects in the photosensitivity of hydrogen-loaded phosphosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, Yu V.

    2010-08-01

    It is shown that point defect modifications in hydrogen-loaded phosphosilicate glass (PSG) do not play a central role in determining its photosensitivity. Photochemical reactions that involve a two-step point defect modification and pre-exposure effect are incapable of accounting for photoinduced refractive index changes. It seems likely that a key role in UV-induced refractive index modifications is played by structural changes in the PSG network. Experimental data are presented that demonstrate intricate network rearrangement dynamics during UV exposure of PSG.

  9. Design and syntheses of MMP inhibitors and photosensitive lipid nanoparticle formulations for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Rajesh

    Drug administration without any compromise to the quality of life and lifespan is the ideal goal for disease management. The molecular mechanisms of several pathologies have shown that site-specific delivery of target-specific drugs seems to be a promising avenue to achieve this goal. This thesis describes the initial steps that we have taken toward that goal. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of about 23 isozymes in humans that were actively targeted for treating a multitude of pathologies. Clinical studies carried out on cancer patients have revealed the complexity of the working of this enzyme family and necessitated the development of isozyme-specific MMP inhibitors. Our studies toward the development of isozyme-specific inhibitors have resulted in the development of several inhibitors that seem to be selective toward some MMP isozymes. Our understanding on the molecular mechanism that confers this selectivity is documented in this thesis. Another aspect of discussion in the thesis is the development of photosensitive liposomes for drug delivery that could be triggered to release the drug by irradiation with light of appropriate wavelength. Development of such delivery vehicles, in principle, would confer external spatiotemporal control on drug delivery. This could potentially lead to better disease management by minimizing side effects and enhancing patient compatibility. The thesis discusses our attempts toward the development of photosensitive liposomes. These liposomes incorporated a photosensitive lipid (PSL) that would be cleaved upon irradiation with UV light, causing liposomal destabilization and release of the enclosed drug. The discussion includes: (i) the syntheses of the PSLs, (ii) formulation of the photosensitive liposomes that contained a model drug, (iii) light-mediated release of the drug and (iv) the mechanism of photocleavage of the PSL that leads to content release from liposomes. The thesis concludes with suggestions toward the

  10. Clinical evaluation of direct and photosensitized ultraviolet radiation damage to the lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockwin, O.; Lerman, S.

    1982-01-01

    We are reporting a new, objective, and quantitative method for monitoring age-related molecular changes in the human ocular lens in vivo, as expressed by increases in at least two (nontryptophan) fluorescence wavelengths. These fluorescence wavelengths appear to be caused by photochemically induced changes in the lens, and they reflect the ultraviolet (UV) filtering capacity of the patients' ocular lenses. These data correlate with previously reported in vitro lens fluorescence changes that are associated with the aging process. This method will also detect alterations in lenticular fluorescence caused by photosensitized as well as direct UV radiation damage

  11. Imaging of Volume Phase Gratings in a Photosensitive Polymer, Recorded in Transmission and Reflection Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sabel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Volume phase gratings, recorded in a photosensitive polymer by two-beam interference exposure, are studied by means of optical microscopy. Transmission gratings and reflection gratings, with periods in the order of 10 μm down to 130 nm, were investigated. Mapping of holograms by means of imaging in sectional view is introduced to study reflection-type gratings, evading the resolution limit of classical optical microscopy. In addition, this technique is applied to examine so-called parasitic gratings, arising from interference from the incident reference beam and the reflected signal beam. The appearance and possible avoidance of such unintentionally recorded secondary structures is discussed.

  12. Bromorhodamines - new singlet oxygen photosensitizers for oxidative water and wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slivka, L.; Alekseeva, V.; Kuznetsova, N.; Marinina, L.; Savvina, L.; Kaliya, O.; Lukyanets, E.; Vorozhtsov, G. [Organic Intermediates and Dyes Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasnovsky, A.; Butorina, D. [Inst. of Biochemistry RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    The cationic mono-, di- and tetrabromoderivatives of rhodamine 123 have been synthesized and studied as sensitizers for singlet oxygen formation in application for oxidative water treatment. Singlet oxygen quantum yields for compounds under investigation have been determined by using its near IR luminescence at 1270 nm. Bromorhodamines123 have been shown to sensitize the formation of singlet oxygen in aqueous solution with high quantum yields. Efficient oxidation of tryptophan in aqueous solutions sensitized by dibromorhodamine 123 has been demonstrated. This dye was tested as sensitizer for photodynamic treatment of water contaminated with coliform bacteria. It was shown to participate in the photosensitization of coliform bacteria, resulting in their efficient killing. (orig.)

  13. The Covalent Binding of Photosensitive Dyes to Monocrystalline Silicon Surface and Their Spectral Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志新; 郝纪祥; 张祖训; 曹子祥

    1993-01-01

    A chemical method is proposed to bond photo-sensitive dyes directly to the surface of polished monocrystalline silicon. A methincyanine dye and a trimethincyanine dye have been bonded covalently onto silicon surface through Si—N bond, which are characterized by XPS technique and laser Raman spectra. Photovoltaic effect has been observed with the In/dye/n-Si sandwich devices composed of the dye-bonded n-Si wafers. Significant spectral response shows the characteristic absorptance maxima of the bonded dyes.

  14. Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jradi, S; Zeng, X H; Plain, J; Royer, P; Bachelot, R; Akil, S [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, ICD CNRS FRE 2848, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Balan, L; Lougnot, D J; Soppera, O; Vidal, L, E-mail: lavinia.balan@uha.fr [Institut de Science des Materiaux de Mulhouse CNRS LRC 7228, 15 rue Jean Starcky, 68057 Mulhouse (France)

    2010-03-05

    The present paper reports on the spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles (NPs) and silver nanowires by photosensitized reduction. In a first approach, direct photogeneration of silver NPs at the end of an optical fiber was carried out. Control of both size and density of silver NPs was possible by changing the photonic conditions. In a further development, a photochemically assisted procedure allowing silver to be deposited at the surface of a polymer microtip was implemented. Finally, polymer tips terminated by silver nanowires were fabricated by simultaneous photopolymerization and silver photoreduction. The silver NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Effect of molecular surrounding to spectral characteristics of chlorophylls - the perspective photodynamic therapy photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhidov, E. A.; Kokhkharov, A. M.; Nematov, Sh. Q.

    2011-01-01

    In the paper the absorption and fluorescence spectra of biomolecules of natural origin a chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll have been analysed. The possibility of gigantic (up to several thousand sm -1 ) frequency shifts of the maxima of absorption and fluorescence bands of these molecules depending on physical characteristics their molecular surrounding is shown. Expressions describing dependence of the frequency shift from electron polarizability and ionization potentials of the molecules are discussed. The molecules studied are considered as effective photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy in long wavelength range of the spectra. (authors)

  16. Inactivation of Neurospora crassa conidia by singlet molecular oxygen generated by a photosensitized reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.; Egashira, T.; Takahama, U.

    1979-01-01

    Photodynamic damage of Neurospora crassa conidia was studied in the presence of the photosensitizing dye, toluidine blue O. Conidia which germinated to form colonies decreased in number as irradiation time became longer. The photoinactivation of conidia was suppressed by azide, bovine serum albumin, and histidine, and was stimulated in deuterium oxide. Wild-type conidia were less sensitive to the irradiation that albino conidia. In the wild type, carotenoid-enriched conidia were more resistant against the lethal damage than the conidia which contained small amounts of carotenoids. These results suggest that singlet molecular oxygen causes photodynamic lethal damage to N. crassa conidia and that singlet molecular oxygen is quenched by endogenous carotenoids

  17. The application of PS printing plate with Biimidazole photosensitive initiating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lidong; Xu Jinqi; Gao Fang; Yang Yongyuan

    1999-01-01

    The ultraviolet photosensitive initiating system is composed of 4,4'-bis(N,N'-dimethyl-amino)benzophenone(MK), 2-chlorohexaarylbiimidazole(o-C1-HABI) and a hydrogen donor co-initiator n-dodecyl mercaptan(SH). Under the irradiation by high pressure mercury lamp, the relationship between the photo-polymerization rate of MMA and the concentration of each component of the system, including MK, o-C1-HABI and SH, was studied. The excellent results have been obtained through studying the system's application on PS lithographic printing plate

  18. Photodynamic mechanisms induced by a combination of hypericin and a chlorin based-photosensitizer in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, Emina Besic; Lüscher, Daniel; Forny, Patrick; Antoniol, Martina; Geisberger, Georg; Walt, Heinrich; Patzke, Greta; Maake, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate photodynamic therapy (PDT) effects mediated by hypericin and a liposomal meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin (mTHPC) derivative, with focus on their 1:1 mixture, on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Absorption, excitation and photobleaching were monitored using fluorescence spectrometry, showing the same spectral patterns for the mixture as measured for single photosensitizers. In the mixture mTHPC showed a prolonged photo-stability. Singlet oxygen yield for light-activated mTHPC was Φ(Δ) = 0.66, for hypericin Φ(Δ) = 0.25 and for the mixture Φ(Δ) = ~0.4. A linear increase of singlet oxygen yield for mTHPC and the mixture was found, whereas hypericin achieved saturation after 35 min. Reactive oxygen species fluorescence was only visible after hypericin and mixture-induced PDT. Cell viability was also more affected with these two treatment options under the selected conditions. Examination of death pathways showed that hypericin-mediated cell death was apoptotic, with mTHPC necrotic and the 1:1 mixture showed features of both. Changes in gene expression after PDT indicated strong up-regulation of selected heat-shock proteins. The application of photosensitizer mixtures with the features of reduced dark toxicity and combined apoptotic and necrotic cell death may be beneficial in clinical PDT. This will be the focus of our future investigations. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  19. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Murad, Waheed

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable

  20. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizullah, Azizullah, E-mail: azizswabi@gmail.com; Murad, Waheed

    2015-01-15

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable.

  1. Oxidative Stability in Oil-in-Water Emulsions with Quercetin or Rutin Under Iron Catalysis or Riboflavin Photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, BoRa; Ka, HaeJung; Kwon, YongJun; Choi, HyungSeok; Kim, Sunghwa; Kim, Jisu; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of quercetin and rutin on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were tested under riboflavin (RF) photosensitization in the presence or absence of FeCl 2 . The degree of oxidation in O/W emulsions was determined by headspace oxygen content, conjugated dienes, and lipid hydroperoxides. Quercetin chelated more metal than did rutin in iron catalyzed O/W emulsions. Generally, 0.1 mM quercetin and rutin was oxidative while 0.5 and 1.0 mM quercetin and rutin was antioxidative in O/W emulsions under RF photosensitization. Depending on the analysis method, the antioxidants had different strengths. The antioxidative or oxidative properties of quercetin and rutin vary in O/W emulsions and depend the quercetin and rutin concentrations and oxidative forces like transition metals, RF photosensitization, or a combination thereof. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Effects of riboflavin photosensitization on the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in model and real-food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dong-Oh; Jeong, Min Kyu; Park, Chan Uk; Park, Min Hee; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Lee, Jae Hwan

    2009-06-01

    Effects of riboflavin photosensitizations on the stability of bisphenol A (BPA), a well-known endocrine disrupting chemical, were studied in model and real-food systems by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration of BPA was significantly decreased under light exposure (P 0.05). Addition of 50, 100, and 200 microM sodium azide significantly increased the stability of BPA in riboflavin photosensitization with concentration dependent manner (P canned tea beverages with different phenolic contents. BPA was more stable in the beverage sample with higher total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging ability. The photodegradation of BPA in riboflavin photosensitization can be an efficient way to decrease the concentration of BPA from environmental or food systems.

  3. Water-Insoluble Photosensitizer Nanocolloids Stabilized by Supramolecular Interfacial Assembly towards Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yamei; Ma, Kai; Jiao, Tifeng; Xing, Ruirui; Shen, Guizhi; Yan, Xuehai

    2017-02-01

    Nanoengineering of hydrophobic photosensitizers (PSs) is a promising approach for improved tumor delivery and enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficiency. A variety of delivery carriers have been developed for tumor delivery of PSs through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. However, a high-performance PS delivery system with minimum use of carrier materials with excellent biocompatibility is highly appreciated. In this work, we utilized the spatiotemporal interfacial adhesion and assembly of supramolecular coordination to achieve the nanoengineering of water-insoluble photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6). The hydrophobic Ce6 nanoparticles are well stabilized in a aqueous medium by the interfacially-assembled film due to the coordination polymerization of tannic acid (TA) and ferric iron (Fe(III)). The resulting Ce6@TA-Fe(III) complex nanoparticles (referenced as Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs) significantly improves the drug loading content (~65%) and have an average size of 60 nm. The Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs are almost non-emissive as the aggregated states, but they can light up after intracellular internalization, which thus realizes low dark toxicity and excellent phototoxicity under laser irradiation. The Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs prolong blood circulation, promote tumor-selective accumulation of PSs, and enhanced antitumor efficacy in comparison to the free-carrier Ce6 in vivo evaluation.

  4. Fabrication of an inexpensive photosensitive flow through device for turbidity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morco, Ryan P.; Dawal, Micah S.; Sucgang, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the construction of a portable, simple to use, on-line photosensitive device which measures turbidity in water. The turbidity measuring device uses a light emitting diode, LED, light source shining on a light dependent resistor, LDR, which is connected in series to a circuit supplying a constant voltage and a digital voltmeter, DVM. Light shine through a tube containing the sample, and onto a photosensitive circuit. A clear tube of water is the BLANK and has zero absorbance. A fraction of the incident light that i obstructed by the turbidity of the sample can be used for calculable determination of turbidity in water. The turbidity is related to the absorbance reading, following Beer's law. The amount of incident and transmitted light are expressed in voltage units, by a voltmeter. The sample is delivered into the sampling chamber by a rubber tubing attached to a power head submersible pump which is immersed in the pool of water to be sampled. The instrument shows excellent response over the range o turbidity values (5NTU to 180 NTU). Linearity (R 2= 0.95) has been achieved using the device, working with 6 trials per particular NTU value. The NTU readings of the urbidity meter were calibrated against solutions of varying NTU's measured using a HORIBA multi-parameter probe. The other features of the device include: simplicity of operation, low-cost, rugged, handy and can be used in on-line and flow mode applications. (author)

  5. Targeted two-photon PDT photo-sensitizers for the treatment of subcutaneous tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, C. W.; Rebane, A.; Starkey, J.; Drobizhev, M.

    2009-06-01

    New porphyrin-based photo-sensitizers have been designed, synthesized and characterized that exhibit greatly enhanced intrinsic two-photon absorption. These new photo-sensitizers have been incorporated into triad formulations that also incorporate Near-infrared (NIR) imaging agents, and small-molecule targeting agents that direct the triads to cancerous tumors' over-expressed receptor sites. PDT can be initiated deep into the tissue transparency window at 780-800 nm utilizing a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser using 100-150 fs pulses of 600-800 mW. Human tumor xenografts of human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) and both small SCLC (NCI-H69) and NSCLC (A-459) have been successfully treated using octreotate targeting of over-expressed SST2 receptors. In particular, the lung cancer xenografts can be successfully treated by irradiating from the side of the mouse opposite the implanted tumor, thereby passing through ca. 2 cm of mouse skin, tissue and organs with no discernible damage to healthy tissue while causing regression in the tumors. These results suggest a new PDT paradigm for the noninvasive treatment of subcutaneous tumors, including the possibility that the targeting moiety could be matched to individual patient genetic profiles (patient-specific therapeutics).

  6. Solubilization of poorly soluble photosensitizer hypericin by polymeric micelles and polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Búzová, Diana; Kasák, Peter; Miškovský, Pavol; Jancura, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Hypericin (Hyp) is a promising photosensitizer for photodiagnostic and photodynamic therapy of cancer. However, Hyp has a large conjugated system and in aqueous solutions forms insoluble aggregates which do not possess biological activity. This makes intravenous injection of Hyp problematic and restricts its medical applications. To overcome this problem, Hyp is incorporated into drug delivery systems which can increase its solubility and bioavailability. One of the possibilities is utilization of polymeric micelles. The most used hydrophilic block for preparation of polymeric micelles is polyethylen glycol (PEG). PEG is a polymer which for its lack of immunogenicity, antigenicity and toxicity obtained approval for use in human medicine. In this work we have studied the solubilization of Hyp aggregates in the presence of PEG-PE and PEG-cholesterol micelles. The concentration of polymeric micelles which allows total monomerization of Hyp corresponds to the critical micellar concentration of these micelles (~10(-6) M). We have also investigated the effect of the molecular weight and concentration of PEG on the transition of aggregated Hyp to its monomeric form. PEGs with low molecular weight ( 2000 g/mol efficiently transform Hyp aggregates to the monomeric state of this photosensitizer.

  7. Clinical characteristics of three patients with UVs syndrome, a photosensitive disorder with defective DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, T.; Yamaizumi, M.; Hiro-oka, M.; Matsui, T.; Matsuno, M.; Ono, T.; Ichihashi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, we established a new category of photosensitive disorder termed UVsup(s) syndrome. Cells from patients with UVsup(s) syndrome have a similar UV sensitivity as xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells, but have a normal level of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) unlike XP. UVsup(s) syndrome is distinct from Cockayne syndrome (CS) or XP including XP variant (XP-V) as determined by studies of genetic factors using cell fusion, microinjection, and postreplication repair assays. In this study, we identified three japanese patients with UVsup(s) syndrome: an 11-year-old girl, a 17 year old male, and an 8-year-old boy. The first two patients were siblings, while the third was a case from a different family. All of these patients exhibited acute recurrent sunburn. Common clinical manifestations of the patients were slight erythema and dryness, a number of freckles on sun-exposed areas, and slight telangiectasia only seen on the cheek and nose. Patient 3 showed a lowered minimal erythema dose between 280 and 300 nm. The patients' fibroblasts showed similar characteristics to those in CS, such as UV sensitivity, and a failure of RNA synthesis (RRS) after UV irradiation, despite a normal level of UDS. Thus, UVsup(s) syndrome is a new hereditary photosensitive disorder with clinical manifestations similar to a mild form of Xp but showing the cellular characteristics of CS. (Author)

  8. Area-selective atomic layer deposition of platinum using photosensitive polyimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervuurt, René H J; Sharma, Akhil; Jiao, Yuqing; Kessels, Wilhelmus Erwin M M; Bol, Ageeth A

    2016-10-07

    Area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) of platinum (Pt) was studied using photosensitive polyimide as a masking layer. The polyimide films were prepared by spin-coating and patterned using photolithography. AS-ALD of Pt using poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) masking layers was used as a reference. The results show that polyimide has excellent selectivity towards the Pt deposition, after 1000 ALD cycles less than a monolayer of Pt is deposited on the polyimide surface. The polyimide film could easily be removed after ALD using a hydrogen plasma, due to a combination of weakening of the polyimide resist during Pt ALD and the catalytic activity of Pt traces on the polyimide surface. Compared to PMMA for AS-ALD of Pt, polyimide has better temperature stability. This resulted in an improved uniformity of the Pt deposits and superior definition of the Pt patterns. In addition, due to the absence of reflow contamination using polyimide the nucleation phase during Pt ALD is drastically shortened. Pt patterns down to 3.5 μm were created with polyimide, a factor of ten smaller than what is possible using PMMA, at the typical Pt ALD processing temperature of 300 °C. Initial experiments indicate that after further optimization of the polyimide process Pt features down to 100 nm should be possible, which makes AS-ALD of Pt using photosensitive polyimide a promising candidate for patterning at the nanoscale.

  9. Photosensitive response of azobenzene containing films towards pure intensity or polarization interference patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadavalli, Nataraja Sekhar; Santer, Svetlana, E-mail: santer@uni-potsdam.de [Department of Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Saphiannikova, Marina [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-08-04

    In this paper, we report on differences in the response of photosensitive azobenzene containing films upon irradiation with the intensity or polarization interference patterns. Two materials are studied differing in the molecular weight: an azobenzene-containing polymer and a molecular glass formed from a much smaller molecule consisting of three connected azobenzene units. Topography changes occurring along with the changes in irradiation conditions are recorded using a homemade set-up combining an optical part for generation and shaping of interference patterns and an atomic force microscope for acquiring the kinetics of film deformation. In this way, we could reveal the unique behavior of photosensitive materials during the first few minutes of irradiation: the change in topography is initially driven by an increase in the azobenzene free volume along with the trans-cis isomerization, followed by the mass transport finally resulting in the surface relief grating. This study demonstrates the great potential of our setup to experimentally highlight puzzling processes governing the formation of surface relief gratings.

  10. Conductivity behavior of very thin gold films ruptured by mass transport in photosensitive polymer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, Felix; Sekhar Yadavalli, Nataraja; Santer, Svetlana [Department of Experimental Physics, Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-12-16

    We report on conductivity behavior of very thin gold layer deposited on a photosensitive polymer film. Under irradiation with light interference pattern, the azobenzene containing photosensitive polymer film undergoes deformation at which topography follows a distribution of intensity, resulting in the formation of a surface relief grating. This process is accompanied by a change in the shape of the polymer surface from flat to sinusoidal together with a corresponding increase in surface area. The gold layer placed above deforms along with the polymer and ruptures at a strain of 4%. The rupturing is spatially well defined, occurring at the topographic maxima and minima resulting in periodic cracks across the whole irradiated area. We have shown that this periodic micro-rupturing of a thin metal film has no significant impact on the electrical conductivity of the films. We suggest a model to explain this phenomenon and support this by additional experiments where the conductivity is measured in a process when a single nanoscopic scratch is formed with an AFM tip. Our results indicate that in flexible electronic materials consisting of a polymer support and an integrated metal circuit, nano- and micro cracks do not alter significantly the behavior of the conductivity unless the metal is disrupted completely.

  11. Melanin photosensitization and the effect of visible light on epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Chiarelli-Neto

    Full Text Available Protecting human skin from sun exposure is a complex issue that involves unclear aspects of the interaction between light and tissue. A persistent misconception is that visible light is safe for the skin, although several lines of evidence suggest otherwise. Here, we show that visible light can damage melanocytes through melanin photosensitization and singlet oxygen (1O2 generation, thus decreasing cell viability, increasing membrane permeability, and causing both DNA photo-oxidation and necro-apoptotic cell death. UVA (355 nm and visible (532 nm light photosensitize 1O2 with similar yields, and pheomelanin is more efficient than eumelanin at generating 1O2 and resisting photobleaching. Although melanin can protect against the cellular damage induced by UVB, exposure to visible light leads to pre-mutagenic DNA lesions (i.e., Fpg- and Endo III-sensitive modifications; these DNA lesions may be mutagenic and may cause photoaging, as well as other health problems, such as skin cancer.

  12. Reactive oxygen species explicit dosimetry (ROSED) of a type 1 photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yi Hong; Kim, Michele M.; Huang, Zheng; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2018-02-01

    Type I photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the use of photochemical reactions mediated through an interaction between a tumor-selective photosensitizer, photoexcitation with a specific wavelength of light, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The goal of this study is to develop a model to calculate reactive oxygen species concentration ([ROS]rx) after Tookad®-mediated vascular PDT. Mice with radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated with different light fluence and fluence rate conditions. Explicit measurements of photosensitizer drug concentration were made via diffuse reflective absorption spectrum using a contact probe before and after PDT. Blood flow and tissue oxygen concentration over time were measured during PDT as a mean to validate the photochemical parameters for the ROSED calculation. Cure index was computed from the rate of tumor regrowth after treatment and was compared against three calculated dose metrics: total light fluence, PDT dose, reacted [ROS]rx. The tumor growth study demonstrates that [ROS]rx serves as a better dosimetric quantity for predicting treatment outcome, as a clinically relevant tumor growth endpoint.

  13. Investigating Photosensitized Properties of Natural Organic Matter and Effluent Organic Matter

    KAUST Repository

    Niu, Xi-Zhi

    2013-05-01

    The photosensitized processes significantly enhance photolysis of various chemicals in the aqueous system with dissolved organic matter (DOM) as sensitizer. The excitation of chromophores on the DOM molecule further generates reactive species as triplet states DOM, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, carbonate radical etc. We investigated the photosensitization properties of Beaufort Fulvic Acid, Suwannee River Fulvic Acid, South Platte River Fulvic Acid, and Jeddah wastewater treatment plant effluent organic matter with a sunlight simulator. DOM photochemical properties were characterized by observing their performances in 3DOM*, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical production with indirect probing protocols. Sensitized degradation of 0.1 μM and 0.02 μM 2, 4, 6- Trimethylphenol exhibited higher pseudo-first-order rate constant than that of 10 μM. Pre-irradiated DOMs were found to be depressed in photochemical properties. Photolysis of 5 different contaminants: ibuprofen, bisphenol A, acetaminophen, cimetidine, and caffeine were found to be enhanced in the presence of sensitizers. The possible reaction pathways were revealed. Long time irradiance induced change in contaminants degradation kinetics in some DOM solutions, which was proposed to be due to the irradiation initiated indirect transformation of DOMs. Key Words: Photolysis Dissolved Organic Matter, Triplet State DOM, Singlet Oxygen, Hydroxyl Radical, Contaminants Degradation.

  14. Cancer cell spheroids are a better screen for the photodynamic efficiency of glycosylated photosensitizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M R Pereira

    Full Text Available Photodynamic Therapy (PDT relies on the use of non-toxic photosensitizers that are locally and selectively activated by light to induce cell death or apoptosis through reactive oxygen species generation. The conjugation of porphyrinoids with sugars that target cancer is increasingly viewed as an effective way to increase the selectivity of PDT. To date, in vitro PDT efficacy is mostly screened using two-dimensional monolayer cultures. Compared to monolayer cultures, three-dimensional spheroid cultures have unique spatial distributions of nutrients, metabolites, oxygen and signalling molecules; therefore better mimic in vivo conditions. We obtained 0.05 mm3 spheroids with four different human tumor cell lines (HCT-116, MCF-7, UM-UC-3 and HeLa with appropriate sizes for screening PDT agents. We observed that detachment from monolayer culture and growth as tumor spheroids was accompanied by changes in glucose metabolism, endogenous ROS levels, galectin-1 and glucose transporter GLUT1 protein levels. We compared the phototoxic responses of a porphyrin conjugated with four glucose molecules (PorGlu4 in monolayer and spheroid cultures. The uptake and phototoxicity of PorGlu4 is highly dependent on the monolayer versus spheroid model used and on the different levels of GLUT1 protein expressed by these in vitro platforms. This study demonstrates that HCT-116, MCF-7, UM-UC-3 and HeLa spheroids afford a more rational platform for the screening of new glycosylated-photosensitizers compared to monolayer cultures of these cancer cells.

  15. Low-resistivity photon-transparent window attached to photo-sensitive silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a combination of a low resistivity, or electrically conducting, silicon layer that is transparent to long or short wavelength photons and is attached to the backside of a photon-sensitive layer of silicon, such as a silicon wafer or chip. The window is applied to photon sensitive silicon devices such as photodiodes, charge-coupled devices, active pixel sensors, low-energy x-ray sensors and other radiation detectors. The silicon window is applied to the back side of a photosensitive silicon wafer or chip so that photons can illuminate the device from the backside without interference from the circuit printed on the frontside. A voltage sufficient to fully deplete the high-resistivity photosensitive silicon volume of charge carriers is applied between the low-resistivity back window and the front, patterned, side of the device. This allows photon-induced charge created at the backside to reach the front side of the device and to be processed by any circuitry attached to the front side. Using the inventive combination, the photon sensitive silicon layer does not need to be thinned beyond standard fabrication methods in order to achieve full charge-depletion in the silicon volume. In one embodiment, the inventive backside window is applied to high resistivity silicon to allow backside illumination while maintaining charge isolation in CCD pixels

  16. The effects of photosensitizing antibiotics and ultraviolet irradiation on the biosynthesis of prostaglandins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, J.T.; Ziboh, V.A.; Blick, G.; Poitier, J.; Kursunoglu, I.; Penneys, N.S.

    1978-01-01

    Oxygenation of arachidonic acid in vitro by calf skin microsomal acetone powder was enhanced by UV-irradiation at wavelengths of 254 and 360 nm. Further enhancement of the oxygenation reaction was observed in the presence of two photosensitizing cyclic antibiotics, tetracycline and demethylchlortetracycline. To test whether or not the oxygenation of arachidonic acid was related to the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, [I- 14 C]-arachidonic acid was incubated with calf skin acetone powder in the presence of UV-irradiation and the cyclic antibiotics. Prostaglandin biosynthesis from arachidonic acid by the calf skin microsomal acetone powder was enhanced after exposure to UV-irradiation at 254 nm and moderately at 360 nm. Incubation in the presence of demethylchlortetra-cycline (0.2 mM) increased prostaglandin biosynthesis approximately 95% over control by UV-irradiation at 254 nm. No significant stimulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis was observed at 360 nm. Non-photosensitizing antibiotics had no effect either on the oxygenation of arachidonic acid or on the biosynthesis of prostaglandin with or without UV-irradiation. It is suggested that the inflammatory reactions associated with these photo-reactive antibiotics may in part, be via the biosynthesis and release of the prostaglandins which are known to produce cutaneous inflammatory reactions. (author)

  17. Platelet-activating factor receptor agonists mediate xeroderma pigmentosum A photosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongxue; Harrison, Kathleen A; Al-Hassani, Mohammed; Murphy, Robert C; Rezania, Samin; Konger, Raymond L; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2012-03-16

    To date, oxidized glycerophosphocholines (Ox-GPCs) with platelet-activating factor (PAF) activity produced non-enzymatically have not been definitively demonstrated to mediate any known disease processes. Here we provide evidence that these Ox-GPCs play a pivotal role in the photosensitivity associated with the deficiency of the DNA repair protein xeroderma pigmentosum type A (XPA). It should be noted that XPA-deficient cells are known to have decreased antioxidant defenses. These studies demonstrate that treatment of human XPA-deficient fibroblasts with the pro-oxidative stressor ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation resulted in increased reactive oxygen species and PAF receptor (PAF-R) agonistic activity in comparison with gene-corrected cells. The UVB irradiation-generated PAF-R agonists were inhibited by antioxidants. UVB irradiation of XPA-deficient (Xpa-/-) mice also resulted in increased PAF-R agonistic activity and skin inflammation in comparison with control mice. The increased UVB irradiation-mediated skin inflammation and TNF-α production in Xpa-/- mice were blocked by systemic antioxidants and by PAF-R antagonists. Structural characterization of PAF-R-stimulating activity in UVB-irradiated XPA-deficient fibroblasts using mass spectrometry revealed increased levels of sn-2 short-chain Ox-GPCs along with native PAF. These studies support a critical role for PAF-R agonistic Ox-GPCs in the pathophysiology of XPA photosensitivity.

  18. Photosensitivity mechanism of undoped poly(methyl methacrylate) under UV radiation at 325 nm and its spatial resolution limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sáez-Rodríguez, D.; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    that increasing strain during photo-inscription leads to an increased photosensitivity, which is evidence of photodegradation. Likewise, refractive index change in the fiber was measured to be positive, which provides evidence for further polymerization of the material. Finally, we relate the data obtained......In this Letter, we provide evidence suggesting that the main photosensitive mechanism of an undoped poly(methyl methacrylate)-based microstructured optical fiber under UV radiation at 325 nm is a competitive process of both photodegradation and polymerization. We found experimentally...

  19. Synergic phototoxic effect of visible light or Gallium-Arsenide laser in the presence of different photo-sensitizers on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Ghanbari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the synergic phototoxic effect of visible light in combination with each of the photosensitizers on P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum. However, the synergic phototoxic effect of laser exposure and hydrogen peroxide and curcumin as photosensitizers on F. nucleatum was not shown.

  20. Lower lip squamous cell carcinoma in patients with photosensitive disorders: Analysis of cases treated at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) from 1999 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, J-F-P; Lanaro, N-D; Bernardo, V-G; Albano, R-M; Dias, F; de Faria, P-A-S; Pinto, L-F-R; Lourenço, S-Q-C

    2018-01-01

    Lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (LLSCC) is a common malignancy of the head and neck, being mainly a consequence of a chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light solar radiation. Here, we evaluated the clinicopathological profile of patients with photosensitive disorders (xeroderma pigmentosum, lupus erythematosus and albinism) that developed LLSCC. Data from patients who had a diagnosed LLSCC with a prior xeroderma pigmentosum, lupus erythematosus or albinism diagnosis that were treated at INCA from 1999 to 2012 were collected from patients medical records (n=16). The control group was composed of 68 patients with LLSCC without a medical history of photosensitivity. The clinicopathological data of this study population were collected and the association between these variables was analyzed by Fisher's exact test. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS statistics package. The mean age of patients in the photosensitive and non-photosensitive groups was 42 years and 67 years, respectively (p<0.0001). A previous history of malignant diseases was more common in the photosensitive group (p=0.001). In both groups, most tumors showed a pathological stage I/II disease. Overall and cancer-specific survival were not statistically different. However, disease-free interval showed a significant difference (p=0.01) between the photosensitive and non-photosensitive patients. Photosensitive patients presented LLSCC at earlier age but it usually was not the primary tumor in these patients. Furthermore, a more aggressive pathological behavior was not seen when compared with tumors from non-photosensitive patients. The disease-free interval was lower in photosensitive patients, as expected.

  1. EGFR targeted nanobody-photosensitizer conjugates for photodynamic therapy in a pre-clinical model of head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Driel, Pieter B A A; Boonstra, Martin C.; Slooter, Maxime D.; Heukers, Raimond; Stammes, Marieke A.; Snoeks, Thomas J A; De Bruijn, Henriette S.; Van Diest, Paul J.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Van Bergen En Henegouwen, Paul M P; Van De Velde, Cornelis J H; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Robinson, Dominic J.; Oliveira, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces cell death through local light activation of a photosensitizer (PS) and has been used to treat head and neck cancers. Yet, common PS lack tumor specificity, which leads to collateral damage to normal tissues. Targeted delivery of PS via antibodies has

  2. Photosensitized oxygenation of alkenes in the presence of bisazafullerene (C59N)2 and hydroazafullerene C59HN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagmatarchis, Nikos; Shinohara, Hisanori

    2001-01-01

    Bisazafullerene (C 59 N) 2 and hydroazafullerene C 59 HN photosensitize the reaction of alkenes with oxygen. 2-methyl 2-butene and α-terpinene undergo ene and Diels-Alder photooxygenation reactions, respectively, in the presence of minute amounts of azafullerenes to produce the corresponding peroxides

  3. Composites with Photosensitive 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin Entrapped into Silica Gels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rychtáriková, Renata; Šabata, Stanislav; Hetflejš, Jiří; Kuncová, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2012), s. 119-125 ISSN 0928-0707 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 892 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : sol-gel * photosensitizer * immobilization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.660, year: 2012

  4. Irradiation- and Sensitizer-Dependent Changes in the Lifetime of Intracellular Singlet Oxygen Produced in a Photosensitized Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Elsa; Pedersen, Brian Wett; Breitenbach, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Singlet oxygen, O2(a1Δg), was produced upon pulsed-laser irradiation of an intracellular photosensitizer and detected by its 1275 nm O2(a1Δg) →O2(X3Σg-) phosphorescence in time-resolved experiments using (1) individual mammalian cells on the stage of a microscope and (2) suspensions of mammalian...

  5. Quasi Two-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized In 2 O 3 Phototransistors for Ultrahigh Responsivity and Photosensitivity Photodetector Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mottram, Alexander D.; Lin, Yen-Hung; Pattanasattayavong, Pichaya; Zhao, Kui; Amassian, Aram; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    of the light absorbing organic dye D102. The resulting transistors exhibit a preferential color photoresponse centered in the wavelength region of ∼500 nm with a maximum photosensitivity of ∼106 and a responsivity value of up to 2 × 103 A/W. The high

  6. Studies of a novel photosensitizer Pd-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad) for the prostate cancer PDT in canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Scherz, Avigdor; Salomon, Yoram; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2003-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with vascular acting photosensitizer pd-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad), is investigated as an alternative modality for the total ablation of prostate cancer. In vivo normal canine prostate is used as the animal model. Interstitial PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm, 150 mW/cm) to activate the i.v. infused photosensitizer drug. The effects of two-session PDT were evaluated. The prostate and its adjacent tissues were harvested and subjected to histopathological examination. At one-week, post second-session PDT, the animals recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Prostatic urethra and prostate adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were well preserved. Two-session PDT or one single session PDT induced a similar extent of damage. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. Maximum lesion size of over 3 cm in dimension could be achieved with a single 1-cm interstitial treatment, suggesting the therapy is very effective in ablating prostatic tissue. Pharmacokinetic studies show that the photosensitizer is cleared rapidly from the circulation. In conclusion, the novel photosensitizer Tookad mediated PDT may provide an effective alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  7. Fabrication and investigation of photosensitive MoOx/n-CdTe heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovan, M. M.; Gavaleshko, N. M.; Brus, V. V.; Mostovyi, A. I.; Maryanchuk, P. D.; Tresso, E.

    2016-10-01

    MoOx/n-CdTe photosensitive heterostructures were prepared by the deposition of molybdenum oxide thin films onto n-type single-crystal CdTe substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The obtained heterojunctions possessed sharply defined rectifying properties with the rectification ration RR ˜ 106. The temperature dependences of the height of the potential barrier and series resistance of the MoOx/CdTe heterojunctions were investigated. The dominating current transport mechanisms through the heterojunctions were determined at forward and reverse biases. The analysis of capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics, measured at different frequencies of the small amplitude AC signal and corrected by the effect of the series resistance, provided evidence of the presence of electrically charged interface states, which significantly affect the measured capacitance.

  8. Photoreactivity of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory 2-arylpropionic acids with photosensitizing side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscá, F; Marín, M L; Miranda, M A

    2001-11-01

    The photoreactivity of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory 2-arylpropionic acids benoxaprofen, carprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, tiaprofenic acid, and suprofen is reviewed with special emphasis on fundamental photophysical and photochemical properties. The absorption and emission properties of the excited states of these drugs as well as their main photodegradation routes are summarized. The photochemical mechanisms are discussed on the basis of product studies and detection of short-lived intermediates by means of laser flash photolysis. After dealing with the unimolecular processes, attention is focused on the photosensitized reactions of key biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins or nucleic acids. Finally, a short section on the photobiological effects on simple biological models is also included. Although some earlier citations are included, the literature coverage is in general limited to the last decade.

  9. Inactivation of bacteria via photosensitization of vitamin K3 by UV-A light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Vostal, Jaroslav G

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated inactivation of bacteria with ultraviolet light A irradiation in combination with vitamin K3 as a photosensitizer. Six bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli suspended in vitamin K3 aqueous solution were exposed to ultraviolet light A. Five of six bacteria, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were reduced by eight logs with 1600 μM of vitamin K3 and 5.8 J cm(-2) UV-A irradiation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was reduced by four logs under these conditions. Reactive oxygen species including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical were generated in vitamin K3 aqueous solution under UV-A irradiation. These results suggest that vitamin K3 and UV-A irradiation may be effective for bacterial inactivation in environmental and medical applications. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Biomcompatible gold nanorods conjugated with photosensitizers assisted for photostability and photodestructive ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Shuo; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2012-02-01

    Light-exposure-mediated higher temperatures that markedly accelerate the degradation of indocyanine green (ICG) in aqueous solutions by thermal decomposition have been a serious medical problem. In this work, we present the example of using gold nanorods (Au NRs) simultaneously serving as photodynamic and photothermal agents to destroy malignant cells. Au NRs were successfully conjugated with hydrophilic photosensitizer, indocyanine green (ICG), to achieve photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT). We also demonstrated that Au NRs conjugated with ICG displayed high chemical stability and acted as a promising diagnostic probe. Due to its stability even via higher temperatures mediated by laser irradiation, the combination of PDT and PTT proved to be efficiently killing cancer cells as compared to PDT or PTT treatment alone and enhanced the effectiveness of photodestruction and was demonstrated to enhance its photostability.

  11. Molecular orbital evaluation of charge flow dynamics in natural pigments based photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heera, Thekinneydath Rajan; Cindrella, Louis

    2010-03-01

    The relationship between structure and photo electrochemical property of ten natural pigments from plants, insects and microbes has been analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The essential parameters for their photoelectrochemical behaviour such as ground state geometries, electronic transition energies and oxidation potentials are computed. The attachment tendency of the anchoring groups, expressed as the deprotonation order, is determined by calculating the proton affinities at different sites of the molecules. A thorough analysis of the charge flow dynamics in the molecular orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) of these molecules has been carried out and presented to emphasize the role of these orbitals in effective charge separation, the important feature of photosensitizers for DSSC. This study highlights that the flexible spatial orientation provided by the bridging aliphatic unsaturation favours the oscillator strength and the hydroxyl anchor group attached to the ring of delocalized pi electron cloud acts as the effective anchor.

  12. Photocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting on TiO2 via Photosensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saji Thomas Kochuveedu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for an alternative to replace conventional fuel has been going on for years due to the limited storage of fossil fuel and excess CO2 emission from the fuel. Using H2 as fuel has gained wide attention recently, as well as consequently splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. Seminal semiconductors such as TiO2 and ZnO have their position of CB and VB in alignment with water reduction and oxidation potential, respectively, but their wide bandgap allows them to absorb only UV light of the solar spectrum. Combining narrow bandgap semiconductors or other visible light active sensitizers with TiO2/ZnO is a facile route to exploit the visible light region of the solar spectrum. In this review, I make an attempt to summarize the various photosensitizers used in combination with TiO2 for water splitting with recent reports as examples.

  13. ZnO UV photodetector with controllable quality factor and photosensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Campos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanowires have an enormous potential for applications as ultra-violet (UV photodetectors. Their mechanism of photocurrent generation is intimately related with the presence of surface states where considerable efforts, such as surface chemical modifications, have been pursued to improve their photodetection capabilities. In this work, we report a step further in this direction demonstrating that the relative photosensitivity and quality factor (Q factor of the photodetector are entirely tunable by an applied gate voltage. This mechanism enables UV photodetection selectivity ranging from wavelengths from tens of nanometers (full width at half maximum - FWHM down to a narrow detection of 3 nm. Such control paves the way for novel applications, especially related to the detection of elements that have very sharp luminescence.

  14. Single Cell Responses to Spatially Controlled Photosensitized Production of Extracellular Singlet Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Brian Wett; Sinks, Louise E.; Breitenbach, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The response of individual HeLa cells to extracellularly produced singlet oxygen was examined. The spatial domain of singlet oxygen production was controlled using the combination of a membrane-impermeable Pd porphyrin-dendrimer, which served as a photosensitizer, and a focused laser, which served...... to localize the sensitized production of singlet oxygen. Cells in close proximity to the domain of singlet oxygen production showed morphological changes commonly associated with necrotic cell death. The elapsed post-irradiation “waiting period” before necrosis became apparent depended on (a) the distance...... between the cell membrane and the domain irradiated, (b) the incident laser fluence and, as such, the initial concentration of singlet oxygen produced, and (c) the lifetime of singlet oxygen. The data imply that singlet oxygen plays a key role in this process of light-induced cell death. The approach...

  15. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production from an MCM-41-immobilized photosensitizer-[Fe-Fe] hydrogenase mimic dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Yu, Tianjun; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Jinping; Yang, Guoqiang; Li, Yi

    2014-11-01

    A covalently linked photosensitizer-catalytic center dyad Ps-Hy, consisting of two bis(2-phenylpyridine)(2,2'-bipyridine)iridium(iii) chromophores (Ps) and a diiron hydrogenase mimic (Hy) was constructed by using click reaction. Ps-Hy was incorporated into K(+)-exchanged molecular sieve MCM-41 to form a composite (Ps-Hy@MCM-41), which has been successfully applied to the photochemical production of hydrogen. The catalytic activity of Ps-Hy@MCM-41 is ∼3-fold higher as compared with that of Ps-Hy in the absence of MCM-41. The incorporation of Ps-Hy into MCM-41 stabilizes the catalyst, and consequently, advances the photocatalysis. The present study provides a potential strategy for improving catalytic efficiency of artificial photosynthesis systems using mesoporous molecular sieves.

  16. Creation and studies of the photosensitivity of Ox/n-GaP structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rud' , V. Yu., E-mail: yuryrud@mail.ioffe.ru [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Rud' , Yu. V.; Terukov, E. I.; Ushakova, T. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    Photosensitive heterostructures Ox/n-GaP, where Ox is a native oxide, are created for the first time by thermal interaction of a GaP crystal with ambient air. The photovoltaic effect of the heterostructures, which dominates upon illumination of the structure's oxide film, is revealed. First, the spectral dependences of the relative quantum efficiency of photoconversion for the obtained heterostructures are analyzed, the character of the band-to-band transitions is determined, and the GaP band gap is estimated. A conclusion is drawn regarding the potential of using the vacuum-free thermal oxidation of homogeneous n-GaP single crystals in ambient air to fabricate broadband photoconverters of optical radiation.

  17. Stereocontrol of Methyl Methacrylate during Photoinduced Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization in the Presence of Photosensitive Alkoxyamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juahui Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitive alkoxyamine 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-(1-phenylethoxypiperidin-4-yl quinoline-2-carboxylate (PE-TEMPO-Q was synthesized. Photochemical properties of PE-TEMPO-Q were studied to develop photoinduced nitroxide-mediated polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA. Rapid and facile polymerization at ambient temperature with PE-TEMPO-Q as an initiator was confirmed to proceed in a controlled mechanism based on the linear growth in molecular weight combined with relative narrow polydispersity index (1.4–1.8 of the resulting polymers. The stereochemistry of obtained polymers was also investigated, and the syndiotacticity slightly increased compared with the typical photopolymerization. Dual-controlled photopolymerization of MMA was achieved in the presence of synthesized alkoxyamine.

  18. PHOTOINITIATED POLYMERIZATION BY ARYLIODONIUM SALT/BENZOPHENONE / TERTIARY AMINE BINARY PHOTOSENSITIZATION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Junhui; WANG Erjian

    1990-01-01

    A novel binary photosensitization system composed of benzophenone (BP) /diphenyliodonium chloride ( DPIOC )/triethylamine (TEA), exhibiting a good photoresponse at near UV and visible light regions, was used as the initiator for photopolymerization of MMA. The radical photogeneration in the binary system consists mainly of two parallel reactions, i. e., BP/TEA photohydrogen-abstraction and DPIOC/TEA complex photodecomposition, but the latter is more active than the former. The results of comparative study indicate that the rate of polymerization induced by the binary system (BDT) is remarkably higher than those by the corresponding single systems The polymerization rates are proportional to[BP] 0. 16, [ DPIOC] 0.32, [ TEA ] 0.45 and [MMA ] . The mechanism is also discussed.

  19. In-vivo remission spectroscopy on tattoos and topically applied photosensitizers in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Karsten; Beck, Gerd C.; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning; Kaufmann, Roland; Hibst, Raimund

    1994-02-01

    In-vivo remission spectra of the human skin in the spectral region of 400 nm to 800 nm were recorded using a xenon lamp as an excitation source, a fiberoptical sensor combined with a polychromator, and a multichannel analyzer. The remission of amateur tattoos before and after laser treatment (Q-switched Nd:YAG) was measured and the degree of blanching determined. It was found that the process of blanching proceeds partly reversible. In another study, the time-dependent remission of human skin after topical administration of the photosensitizer Methylene Blue was studied. The additional application of the ceratolytic agent urea promotes the penetration of the thiazine dye. The experimental data were analyzed by the Kubelka Munk theory.

  20. Photosensitized Oxidation of 9,10-Dimethylanthracene on Dye-Doped Silica Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elim Albiter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB, safranin O (SF, toluidine blue (TB, and neutral red (NR, were successfully incorporated into a silica matrix by using ultrasound irradiation during the Stöber process. Several analyses were performed, including scanning dynamic light scattering (DLS, electron microscopy (SEM, nitrogen physisorption, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-vis, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The entrapped dyes on silica were evaluated in singlet oxygen (1O2 generation under visible light irradiation, by means of the photosensitized oxidation of 9,10-dimethylanthracene (DMA. According to the results, the photocatalytic performance of the silica composites was improved, and the leakage of the dye from the particles was suppressed. Among these four different types of dye-doped silica composites, the SiO2-SF composite showed the most efficient delivery of 1O2.

  1. Bragg gratings inscription at 1550 nm in photosensitive step-index polymer optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Kinet, D.; Chah, K.; Mégret, Patrice; Caucheteur, C.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we report photo-inscription of uniform Bragg gratings in Trans-4-stilbenemethanol-doped photosensitive step-index polymer optical fiber characterized by a core diameter of 8.2 μm. Single-mode gratings were produced at ~1550 nm by the phase mask technique with a Helium-Cadmium emitting at 325 nm with an average power of 30 mW. The grating growth was monitored during the manufacturing process, showing that the reflected band is blue shifted by a few hundreds of picometers. Finally, the gratings were characterized in temperature in the range 25 - 50 °C. Their sensitivity has been computed equal to - 47 pm/°C.

  2. Astaxanthin protecting membrane integrity against photosensitized oxidation through synergism with other carotenoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Hui-Hui; Liang, Ran; Han, Rui-Min

    2015-01-01

    using optical microscopy and digital image heterogeneity analysis. The lowest initial rate of GUV budding after the lag phase was seen for GUVs with astaxanthin as the least reducing carotenoid, while the lowest final level of entropy appeared for those with lycopene or β-carotene as a more reducing...... carotenoid. The combination of astaxanthin and lycopene gave optimal protection against budding with respect to both a longer lag phase and lower final level of entropy by combining good electron acceptance and good electron donation. Quenching of singlet oxygen by carotenoids close to chlorophyll...... a in the membrane interior in parallel with scavenging of superoxide radicals by astaxanthin anchored in the surface may explain the synergism between carotenoids involving both type I and type II photosensitization by chlorophyll a....

  3. Effect of gallium-arsenic laser on photosensitized periodontopathic anaerobic organisms: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Setu; Kothiwale, Shaila Veerappa; Nag, Buddhi Prakash; Mathur, Tanu; Bhansali, Ashoka; Khatri, Rohit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The mainstay of periodontal therapy is mechanical removal of subgingival plaque. There is considerable interest in supplementing it with the use of antibiotics and antiseptics. Many drawbacks are associated with these adjunctive pharmacological regimens such as development of resistance to antibiotics and disruption of microflora of the gastrointestinal tract. Hence, alternate means of killing subgingival bacteria are clearly desirable. One such method is the use of laser. Aim: This study aimed to investigate antibacterial capabilities of gallium-arsenic (Ga-As) laser on photosensitized periodontopathic organisms. The three bacteria selected for the study were Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Prevotella intermedia. Settings: The subjects for the study were selected from the patients visiting the Department of Periodontics, Karnataka Lingayat Education Society's Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum. Design: In vitro study design. Materials and Methods: Subgingival plaque samples collected from chronic periodontitis patients were cultured anaerobically for 72 h. Predetermined number of colonies of each bacterium was taken and was then divided into cases and control groups. Both groups were photosensitized using toluidine blue O (TBO) dye and the case groups were irradiated with Ga-As laser. Bacterial colonies were then serially diluted and were incubated for subculture. After incubation period, the number of viable bacterial count was performed. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon-signed rank test was carried out to determine significance of reduction on subsequent dilution within the bacterial group. Mann–Whitney U-test was performed to determine the significance of reduction between cases and control of particular bacterial group. Results: The results revealed substantial reduction in the viable bacterial count. F. nucleatum was found to be most sensitive to killing by laser irradiation followed by P. intermedia and then P

  4. Effect of gallium-arsenic laser on photosensitized periodontopathic anaerobic organisms: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setu Mathur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mainstay of periodontal therapy is mechanical removal of subgingival plaque. There is considerable interest in supplementing it with the use of antibiotics and antiseptics. Many drawbacks are associated with these adjunctive pharmacological regimens such as development of resistance to antibiotics and disruption of microflora of the gastrointestinal tract. Hence, alternate means of killing subgingival bacteria are clearly desirable. One such method is the use of laser. Aim: This study aimed to investigate antibacterial capabilities of gallium-arsenic (Ga-As laser on photosensitized periodontopathic organisms. The three bacteria selected for the study were Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Prevotella intermedia. Settings: The subjects for the study were selected from the patients visiting the Department of Periodontics, Karnataka Lingayat Education Society's Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum. Design: In vitro study design. Materials and Methods: Subgingival plaque samples collected from chronic periodontitis patients were cultured anaerobically for 72 h. Predetermined number of colonies of each bacterium was taken and was then divided into cases and control groups. Both groups were photosensitized using toluidine blue O (TBO dye and the case groups were irradiated with Ga-As laser. Bacterial colonies were then serially diluted and were incubated for subculture. After incubation period, the number of viable bacterial count was performed. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon-signed rank test was carried out to determine significance of reduction on subsequent dilution within the bacterial group. Mann–Whitney U-test was performed to determine the significance of reduction between cases and control of particular bacterial group. Results: The results revealed substantial reduction in the viable bacterial count. F. nucleatum was found to be most sensitive to killing by laser irradiation followed by P. intermedia and

  5. EXPERIMENTAL CONFIRMATION FOR SELECTION OF IRRADIATION REGIMENS FOR INTRAPERITONEAL PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY WITH PORPHYRIN AND PHTHALOCYANINE PHOTOSENSITIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pankratov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimized irradiation regimens for intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy with porphyrin and phthalocyanine photosensitizers are determined in in vitro and in vivo studies.The experimental  study on НЕр2 cell line showed that reduce of power density for constant  light dose increased significantly the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (the reduce of power density from 20-80 mW/cm2 to 10 mW/cm2 had the same results (90% cell death for half as much concentration of the photosensitizer.The obtained results were confirmed in vivo in mice with grafted tumor S-37. For light dose of 90 J/cm2  and power density of 25 mW/cm2 none of animals in the experimental  group had total resorption of the tumor. For the same light dose and decrease  of power density to 12 mW/cm2  total tumor resorption was achieved in 34% of animals, 66% of animals died from phototoxic  shock. For twofold decrease  of light dose – to 45 J/cm2  with the same low-intensity power density (12 mW/cm2 we managed total tumor resorption in 100% of animals.In the following studies of optimized irradiation regimen for intrapleural photodynamic therapy the reaction of intact peritoneum of rats on photodynamic exposure was assessed and optimized parameters of laser irradiation, which did not cause necrosis and intense inflammatory reaction of peritoneum, were determined – light dose of 10 J/cm2  with power density of mW/cm2.Thus, the reasonability for use of low-intensity regimens of irradiation for intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy was confirmed experimentally with possibility of high efficacy of treatment without inflammatory reactions of peritoneum.

  6. Photodynamic treatment with phenothiazinium photosensitizers kills both ungerminated and germinated microconidia of the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Henrique Dantas; Tonani, Ludmilla; Bachmann, Luciano; Wainwright, Mark; Braga, Gilberto Úbida Leite; von Zeska Kress, Marcia Regina

    2016-11-01

    The search for alternatives to control microorganisms is necessary both in clinical and agricultural areas. Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) is a promising light-based approach that can be used to control both human and plant pathogenic fungi. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of photodynamic treatment with red light and four phenothiazinium photosensitizers (PS): methylene blue (MB), toluidine blue O (TBO), new methylene blue N (NMBN) and the phenothiazinium derivative S137 on ungerminated and germinated microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, and F. solani. APDT with each PS killed efficiently both the quiescent ungerminated microconidia and metabolically active germinated microconidia of the three Fusarium species. Washing away the unbound PS from the microconidia (both ungerminated and germinated) before red light exposure reduced but did not prevent the effect of APDT. Subcelullar localization of PS in ungerminated and germinated microconidia and the effects of photodynamic treatment on cell membranes were also evaluated in the three Fusarium species. APDT with MB, TBO, NMBN or S137 increased the membrane permeability in microconidia and APDT with NMBN or S137 increased the lipids peroxidation in microconidia of the three Fusarium species. These findings expand the understanding of photodynamic inactivation of filamentous fungi with phenothiazinium PS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Difunctional bacteriophage conjugated with photosensitizers for Candida albicans-targeting photodynamic inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuai; Shi, Hongxi; Zhang, Xintong; Chen, Xi; Cao, Donghui; Mao, Chuanbin; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Li

    2018-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of the human microbiota, causing infections ranging from superficial infections of the skin to life-threatening systemic infections. Due to the increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant C. albicans strains, new approaches to control this pathogen are needed. Photodynamic inactivation is an emerging alternative to treat infections based on the interactions between visible light and photosensitisers, in which pheophorbide a (PPA) is a chlorophyll-based photosensitizer that could induce cell death after light irradiation. Due to PPA's phototoxicity and low efficiency, the main challenge is to implement photosensitizer cell targeting and attacking. In this study, PPA was conjugated with JM-phage by EDC/NHS crosslinking. UV-Vis spectra was used to determine the optimum conjugation percentages of PPA and JM-phage complex for photodynamic inactivation. After photodynamic inactivation, the efficacy of PPA-JM-phage was assessed by performing in vitro experiments, such as MTS assay, scanning electron microscopy, measurement of dysfunctional mitochondria, ROS accumulation, S cell arrest and apoptotic pathway. A single-chain variable-fragment phage (JM) with high affinity to MP65 was screened from human single-fold single-chain variable-fragment libraries and designed as a binding target for C. albicans cells. Subsequently, PPa was integrated into JM phage to generate a combined nanoscale material, which was called PPA-JM-phage. After photodynamic inactivation, the growth of C. albicans was inhibited by PPA-JM-phage and apoptosis was observed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed shrinking and rupturing of C. albicans . We also found that depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were elevated significantly in C. albicans inhibited by PPA-JM-phage. Additionally, PPA-JM-phage also lead to S-phase arrest, and metacaspase activation

  8. Overcoming Multidrug Resistance via Photodestruction of ABCG2-Rich Extracellular Vesicles Sequestering Photosensitive Chemotherapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goler-Baron, Vicky; Assaraf, Yehuda G.

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a dominant impediment to curative cancer chemotherapy. Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily including ABCG2, ABCB1 and ABCC1 mediate MDR to multiple structurally and functionally distinct antitumor agents. Recently we identified a novel mechanism of MDR in which ABCG2-rich extracellular vesicles (EVs) form in between attached neighbor breast cancer cells and highly concentrate various chemotherapeutics in an ABCG2-dependent manner, thereby sequestering them away from their intracellular targets. Hence, development of novel strategies to overcome MDR modalities is a major goal of cancer research. Towards this end, we here developed a novel approach to selectively target and kill MDR cancer cells. We show that illumination of EVs that accumulated photosensitive cytotoxic drugs including imidazoacridinones (IAs) and topotecan resulted in intravesicular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and severe damage to the EVs membrane that is shared by EVs-forming cells, thereby leading to tumor cell lysis and the overcoming of MDR. Furthermore, consistent with the weak base nature of IAs, MDR cells that are devoid of EVs but contained an increased number of lysosomes, highly accumulated IAs in lysosomes and upon photosensitization were efficiently killed via ROS-dependent lysosomal rupture. Combining targeted lysis of IAs-loaded EVs and lysosomes elicited a synergistic cytotoxic effect resulting in MDR reversal. In contrast, topotecan, a bona fide transport substrate of ABCG2, accumulated exclusively in EVs of MDR cells but was neither detected in lysosomes of normal breast epithelial cells nor in non-MDR breast cancer cells. This exclusive accumulation in EVs enhanced the selectivity of the cytotoxic effect exerted by photodynamic therapy to MDR cells without harming normal cells. Moreover, lysosomal alkalinization with bafilomycin A1 abrogated lysosomal accumulation of IAs, consequently preventing

  9. Lethal photosensitization of wound-associated microbes using indocyanine green and near-infrared light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in resistance to antibiotics among disease-causing bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial approaches such as the use of light-activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs. Light of an appropriate wavelength activates the LAAA to produce cytotoxic species which can then cause bacterial cell death via loss of membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation, the inactivation of essential enzymes, and/or exertion of mutagenic effects due to DNA modification. In this study, the effect of the LAAA indocyanine green excited with high or low intensity light (808 nm from a near-infrared laser (NIR on the viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Results All species were susceptible to killing by the LAAA, the bactericidal effect being dependent on both the concentration of indocyanine green and the light dose. Indocyanine green photosensitization using both high (1.37 W cm-2 and low (0.048 W cm-2 intensity NIR laser light was able to achieve reductions of 5.6 log10 (>99.99% and 6.8 log10 (>99.99% in the viable counts of Staph. aureus and Strep. pyogenes (using starting concentrations of 106–107 CFU ml-1. Kills of 99.99% were obtained for P. aeruginosa (initial concentration 108–109 CFU ml-1 photosensitized by the high intensity light (1.37 W cm-2; while a kill of 80% was achieved using low intensity irradiation (0.07 W cm-2. The effects of L-tryptophan (a singlet oxygen scavenger and deuterium oxide (as an enhancer of the life span of singlet oxygen on the survival of Staph. aureus was also studied. L-tryptophan reduced the proportion of Staph. aureus killed; whereas deuterium oxide increased the proportion killed suggesting that singlet oxygen was involved in the killing of the bacteria. Conclusion These findings imply that indocyanine green in combination with light from a near-infrared laser may be an effective means of eradicating bacteria

  10. Difunctional bacteriophage conjugated with photosensitizers for Candida albicans-targeting photodynamic inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong S

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Shuai Dong,1,2 Hongxi Shi,1 Xintong Zhang,1,2 Xi Chen,1 Donghui Cao,2 Chuanbin Mao,3,4 Xiang Gao,1 Li Wang1 1Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of Ministry of Education, Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Northeast Normal University, 2First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 3School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; 4Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Stephenson Life Science Research Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA Background: Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of the human microbiota, causing infections ranging from superficial infections of the skin to life-threatening systemic infections. Due to the increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant C. albicans strains, new approaches to control this pathogen are needed. Photodynamic inactivation is an emerging alternative to treat infections based on the interactions between visible light and photosensitisers, in which pheophorbide a (PPA is a chlorophyll-based photosensitizer that could induce cell death after light irradiation. Due to PPA’s phototoxicity and low efficiency, the main challenge is to implement photosensitizer cell targeting and attacking. Methods: In this study, PPA was conjugated with JM-phage by EDC/NHS crosslinking. UV-Vis spectra was used to determine the optimum conjugation percentages of PPA and JM-phage complex for photodynamic inactivation. After photodynamic inactivation, the efficacy of PPA-JM-phage was assessed by performing in vitro experiments, such as MTS assay, scanning electron microscopy, measurement of dysfunctional mitochondria, ROS accumulation, S cell arrest and apoptotic pathway.Results: A single-chain variable-fragment phage (JM with high affinity to MP65 was screened from human single-fold single-chain variable-fragment libraries and designed as a binding target for C. albicans cells. Subsequently, PPa was integrated into JM phage to generate

  11. Polymer-lipid-PEG hybrid nanoparticles as photosensitizer carrier for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramual, Sasivimon; Lirdprapamongkol, Kriengsak; Svasti, Jisnuson; Bergkvist, Magnus; Jouan-Hureaux, Valérie; Arnoux, Philippe; Frochot, Céline; Barberi-Heyob, Muriel; Niamsiri, Nuttawee

    2017-08-01

    Polymer-lipid-PEG hybrid nanoparticles were investigated as carriers for the photosensitizer (PS), 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-21H,23H-porphine (pTHPP) for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT). A self-assembled nanoprecipitation technique was used for preparing two types of core polymers poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) with lipid-PEG as stabilizer. The resulting nanoparticles had an average particle size of 88.5±3.4nm for PLGA and 215.0±6.3nm for PHBV. Both nanoparticles exhibited a core-shell structure under TEM with high zeta potential and loading efficiency. X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed that the encapsulated pTHPP molecules in polymeric nanoparticles no longer had peaks of free pTHPP in the crystalline state. The pTHPP molecules encapsulated inside the polymeric core demonstrated improved photophysical properties in terms of singlet oxygen generation and cellular uptake rate in a FTC-133 human thyroid carcinoma cell line, compared to non-encapsulated pTHPP. The pTHPP-loaded polymer-lipid-PEG nanoparticles showed better in vitro phototoxicity compared to free pTHPP, in both time- and concentration-dependent manners. Overall, this study provides detailed analysis of the photophysical properties of pTHPP molecules when entrapped within either PLGA or PHBV nanoparticle cores, and demonstrates the effectiveness of these systems for delivery of photosensitizers. The two polymeric systems may have different potential benefits, when used with cancer cells. For instance, the pTHPP-loaded PLGA system requires only a short time to show a PDT effect and may be suitable for topical PDT, while the delayed photo-induced cytotoxic effect of the pTHPP-loaded PHBV system may be more suitable for cancer solid tumors. Hence, both pTHPP-encapsulated polymer-lipid-PEG nanoparticles can be considered promising delivery systems for PDT cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced sensitivity to the lethal and mutagenic effects of photosensitizing action of chlorpromazine in ethylenediaminetetraacetate-treated Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonei, S.; Todo, T.

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) treatment of Escherichia coli H/r30 (Arg - ) enhanced cell sensitivity to the lethal and mutagenic effects of the photosensitizing action of chlorpromazine (CPZ). The most obvious effect of EDTA on the fluence-survival curve was an elimination of the shoulder. In the absence of EDTA, CPZ plus near-UV radiation did not induce the reversion from arginine-auxotroph to autotroph of E. coli H/r30. However, when EDTA (5 mM)-treated cells were subjected to CPZ plus near-UV radiation, the induced reversion frequency increased with time of irradiation. It is concluded that the enhanced penetration of CPZ into E. coli cells by EDTA facilitates the drug binding to DNA within the cells upon near-UV irradiation and that this is the cause for the enhanced photosensitized lethal and mutagenic effects of CPZ. (author)

  13. Natural evolution from idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy to idiopathic generalized epilepsy in an untreated young patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; Egeo, Gabriella; Fattouch, Jinan; Fanella, Martina; Morano, Alessandra; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-04-01

    Idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy (IPOE) is an idiopathic localization-related epilepsy characterized by age-related onset, specific mode of precipitation, occipital photic-induced seizures--frequently consisting of visual symptoms--and good prognosis. This uncommon epilepsy, which usually starts in childhood or adolescence, has rarely been observed in families in which idiopathic generalized epilepsy also affects other members. We describe a nuclear family in which the proband showed electro-clinical features of idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy in childhood, which subsequently evolved into absences and a single generalized tonico-clonic seizure in early adolescence. His mother had features suggestive of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. This case illustrates a continuum between focal and generalized entities in the spectrum of the so-called idiopathic (genetically determined) epileptic syndromes. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Visible-Light-Induced Nickel-Catalyzed Negishi Cross-Couplings by Exogenous-Photosensitizer-Free Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdiaj, Irini; Fontana, Alberto; Gomez, M Victoria; de la Hoz, Antonio; Alcázar, Jesús

    2018-03-22

    The merging of photoredox and transition-metal catalysis has become one of the most attractive approaches for carbon-carbon bond formation. Such reactions require the use of two organo-transition-metal species, one of which acts as a photosensitizer and the other one as a cross-coupling catalyst. We report herein an exogenous-photosensitizer-free photocatalytic process for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds by direct acceleration of the well-known nickel-catalyzed Negishi cross-coupling that is based on the use of two naturally abundant metals. This finding will open new avenues in cross-coupling chemistry that involve the direct visible-light absorption of organometallic catalytic complexes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Fungicidal response of a novel natural photosensitizer (Beta vulgaris) on Candida albicans with low-power laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Subhangi; Srivastava, J N; Roy, Sukhdev

    2013-01-01

    We report the efficacy of an aqueous extract of Beta vulgaris as a novel, natural photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy against Candidiasis disease. This study evaluates the effect of different laser wavelengths (He–Ne: 633 nm, Nd-YAG: 532 nm), power (17, 27 mW) and duration of exposure (5, 10, 15 min) in combination with the Beta vulgaris natural photosensitizer on the viability of Candida albicans causing Candidiasis disease. Although inhibition was observed in all cases, a maximum of 51.91% inhibition takes place with the combination of Beta vulgaris exposed to 532 nm at 27 mW for 15 min by the Agar well diffusion method. The study is important in optimizing different parameters and designing a low-power, compact, non-invasive and portable device for treatment. (paper)

  16. Multilayer photosensitive structures based on porous silicon and rare-earth-element compounds: Study of spectral characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsanov, N. Yu.; Latukhina, N. V., E-mail: natalat@yandex.ru; Lizunkova, D. A.; Rogozhina, G. A. [Samara National Research University (Russian Federation); Stepikhova, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The spectral characteristics of the specular reflectance, photosensitivity, and photoluminescence (PL) of multilayer structures based on porous silicon with rare-earth-element (REE) ions are investigated. It is shown that the photosensitivity of these structures in the wavelength range of 0.4–1.0 μm is higher than in structures free of REEs. The structures with Er{sup 3+} ions exhibit a luminescence response at room temperature in the spectral range from 1.1 to 1.7 μm. The PL spectrum of the erbium impurity is characterized by a fine line structure, which is determined by the splitting of the {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} multiplet of the Er{sup 3+} ion. It is shown that the structures with a porous layer on the working surface have a much lower reflectance in the entire spectral range under study (0.2–1.0 μm).

  17. A supramolecular photosensitizer system based on the host-guest complexation between water-soluble pillar[6]arene and methylene blue for durable photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kui; Wen, Jia; Chao, Shuang; Liu, Jing; Yang, Ke; Pei, Yuxin; Pei, Zhichao

    2018-06-05

    A supramolecular photosensitizer system WP6-MB was synthesized based on water-soluble pillar[6]arene and the photosensitizer methylene blue (MB) via host-guest interaction. MB can complex with WP6 directly with a high complex constant without further modification. In particular, WP6-MB can reduce the dark toxicity of MB remarkably. Furthermore, it can efficiently overcome photobleaching and extend the time for singlet oxygen production of MB upon light irradiation, which is significant for durable photodynamic therapy.

  18. Properties of halogenated and sulfonated porphyrins relevant for the selection of photosensitizers in anticancer and antimicrobial therapies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pucelik

    Full Text Available The impact of substituents on the photochemical and biological properties of tetraphenylporphyrin-based photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy of cancer (PDT as well as photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms (PDI was examined. Spectroscopic and physicochemical properties were related with therapeutic efficacy in PDT of cancer and PDI of microbial cells in vitro. Less polar halogenated, sulfonamide porphyrins were most readily taken up by cells compared to hydrophilic and anionic porphyrins. The uptake and PDT of a hydrophilic porphyrin was significantly enhanced with incorporation in polymeric micelles (Pluronic L121. Photodynamic inactivation studies were performed against Gram-positive (S. aureus, E. faecalis, Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens and fungal yeast (C. albicans. We observed a 6 logs reduction of S. aureus after irradiation (10 J/cm2 in the presence of 20 μM of hydrophilic porphyrin, but this was not improved with incorporation in Pluronic L121. A 2-3 logs reduction was obtained for E. coli using similar doses, and a decrease of 3-4 logs was achieved for C. albicans. Rational substitution of tetraphenylporphyrins improves their photodynamic properties and informs on strategies to obtain photosensitizers for efficient PDT and PDI. However, the design of the photosensitizers must be accompanied by the development of tailored drug formulations.

  19. Effect of soybean lecithin on iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of canola oil emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jeesu; Oh, Boyoung; Choe, Eunok

    2014-11-01

    The effect of soybean lecithin addition on the iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of emulsions consisting of purified canola oil and water (1:1, w/w) was studied based on headspace oxygen consumption using gas chromatography and hydroperoxide production using the ferric thiocyanate method. Addition levels of iron sulfate, chlorophyll, and soybean lecithin were 5, 4, and 350 mg/kg, respectively. Phospholipids (PLs) during oxidation of the emulsions were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography. Addition of soybean lecithin to the emulsions significantly reduced and decelerated iron-catalyzed oil oxidation by lowering headspace oxygen consumption and hydroperoxide production. However, soybean lecithin had no significant antioxidant effect on chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of the emulsions. PLs in soybean lecithin added to the emulsions were degraded during both oxidation processes, although there was little change in PL composition. Among PLs in soybean lecithin, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were degraded the fastest in the iron-catalyzed and the chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation, respectively. The results suggest that addition of soybean lecithin as an emulsifier can also improve the oxidative stability of oil in an emulsion. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Enhanced photosensitized degradation of rhodamine B on CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenjuan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing 210044 (China); Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Life-Organic Analysis, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Cui, Xiaoli [Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Life-Organic Analysis, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Wang, Peixian; Shao, Yu [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Li, Danzhen, E-mail: dzli@fzu.edu.cn [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Teng, Fei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing 210044 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: The photosensitized degradation of RhB was largely enhanced by the synergistic effect of the RhB and CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. The composite of the two inorganic semiconductors with appropriate oxidation reduction energy levels enhanced the charge separation and extended the absorption response to visible region. - Highlights: • CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. • Samples prepared at 200 °C, 12 h, CdS/TiO{sub 2} = 12% possessed the best activity. • The photosensitized degradation of RhB was largely enhanced by the composite. • The better activity was due to the synergistic effect of the RhB and CdS/TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Visible-light-driven photocatalysts, CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. Their formation and structures were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Taking rhodamine B (RhB) as a model, their photocatalytic activities in aqueous phase under visible light irradiation (420 < λ < 800 nm) were tested. The results showed that the composite of CdS and TiO{sub 2} with appropriate oxidation reduction energy levels enhanced the charge separation and extended the absorption response into visible light region. Thus, the photosensitized degradation of RhB was largely enhanced. The degradation mechanism was explored concretely.

  1. Comparison of Riboflavin and Toluidine Blue O as Photosensitizers for Photoactivated Disinfection on Endodontic and Periodontal Pathogens In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henrik Krarup; Garcia, Javier; Væth, Michael; Schlafer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Photoactivated disinfection has a strong local antimicrobial effect. In the field of dentistry it is an emerging adjunct to mechanical debridement during endodontic and periodontal treatment. In the present study, we investigate the effect of photoactivated disinfection using riboflavin as a photosensitizer and blue LED light for activation, and compare it to photoactivated disinfection with the widely used combination of toluidine blue O and red light. Riboflavin is highly biocompatible and can be activated with LED lamps at hand in the dental office. To date, no reports are available on the antimicrobial effect of photoactivated disinfection using riboflavin/blue light on oral microorganisms. Planktonic cultures of eight organisms frequently isolated from periodontal and/or endodontic lesions (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherischia coli, Lactobacillus paracasei, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Propionibacterium acnes) were subjected to photoactivated disinfection with riboflavin/blue light and toluidine blue O/red light, and survival rates were determined by CFU counts. Within the limited irradiation time of one minute, photoactivated disinfection with riboflavin/blue light only resulted in minor reductions in CFU counts, whereas full kills were achieved for all organisms when using toluidine blue O/red light. The black pigmented anaerobes P. gingivalis and P. intermedia were eradicated completely by riboflavin/blue light, but also by blue light treatment alone, suggesting that endogenous chromophores acted as photosensitizers in these bacteria. On the basis of our results, riboflavin cannot be recommended as a photosensitizer used for photoactivated disinfection of periodontal or endodontic infections.

  2. Highly reliable photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid passivation layers for a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermundo, Juan Paolo; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yamazaki, Haruka; Nonaka, Toshiaki; Fujii, Mami N.; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2015-07-01

    We report the fabrication of a photosensitive hybrid passivation material on amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) that greatly enhance its stability and improve its electrical characteristics. The hybrid passivation based on polysilsesquioxane is transparent and fabricated using a simple solution process. Because the passivation is photosensitive, dry etching was never performed during TFT fabrication. TFTs passivated with this material had a small threshold voltage shift of 0.5 V during positive bias stress, 0.5 V during negative bias stress, and -2.5 V during negative bias illumination stress. Furthermore, TFTs passivated by this layer were stable after being subjected to high relative humidity stress — confirming the superb barrier ability of the passivation. Analysis of secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that a large amount of hydrogen, carbon, and fluorine can be found in the channel region. We show that both hydrogen and fluorine reduced oxygen vacancies and that fluorine stabilized weak oxygen and hydroxide bonds. These results demonstrate the large potential of photosensitive hybrid passivation layers as effective passivation materials.

  3. ProTEK PSB as Biotechnology Photosensitive Protection Mask on 3C-SiC-on-Si in MEMS Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsi, N.; Majlis, B. Y.; Mohd-Yasin, F.; Hamzah, A. A.; Mohd Rus, A. Z.

    2016-11-01

    This project presents the fabrication of MEMS employing a cubic silicon carbide (3C- SiC) on silicon wafer using newly developed ProTEK PSB as biotechnology photosensitive protection mask. This new biotechnology can reduce the number of processes and simplify the process flow with minimal impact on overall undercut performance. The 680 pm thick wafer is back-etched, leaving the 3C-SiC thin film with a thickness of 1.0 μm as the flexible diaphragm to detect pressure. The effect of the new coating of ProTEK PSB on different KOH solvents were investigated depending on various factors such as development time, final cure temperature and the thickness of the ProTEK PSB deposited layer. It is found that 6.174 μm thickness of ProTEK PSB offers some possibility of reducing the processing time compared to silicon nitride etch masks in KOH (55%wt, 80°C). The new ProTEK PSB biotechnology photosensitive protection mask indicates good stability and sustains its performance in different treatments under KOH and IPA for 8 hours. This work also revealed that the fabrication of MEMS sensors using the new biotechnology photosensitive protection mask provides a simple assembly approach and reduces manufacturing costs. The MEMS sensor can operate up to 500 °C as indicated under the sensitivity of 0.826 pF/MPa with nonlinearity and hysteresis of 0.61% and 3.13%, respectively.

  4. Occipital epilepsy versus progressive myoclonic epilepsy in a patient with continuous occipital spikes and photosensitivity in electroencephalogram: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yudan; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Chang; Shi, Mingchao; Sun, Li

    2018-04-01

    Progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME) is rare epilepsy syndrome. Although EEG is a useful neurophysiological technique in the evaluation of epilepsy, few EEG abnormalities have been described in PME. So, how to use EEG hints to establish the suspected diagnosis of PME as soon as possible should be addressed. We presented a case with refractory myoclonic seizures, and progressive neurological deterioration, diagnosed as PME and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis disease by gene testing. The patient manifested with a significant regression in her speech ability and motor balance. The mini-mental state examination showed poor scores of 15/30. The magnetic resonance imaging showed diffused atrophy. Her EEG showed slow background with continuous occipital small spikes and photosensitivity. The following genetic testing with mutation in CLN6 confirmed the diagnosis and excluded the occipital epilepsy. Our case showed rare manifestations and special EEG features of PME, which may be confused with occipital epilepsy or photosensitive epilepsy. Thus, if the continuous occipital spikes and photosensitivity were presented in a patient with refractory seizures and developmental regression, PME should be considered.

  5. Characterization and development of ZnO nanoparticles as a photosensitizer for diagnostic and treatment of cancer using lasers (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, S.

    2011-01-01

    For over ongoing Biophotonics research we have characterized a cost expensive, and noninvasive Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (Np) and NRs of 11-15nm and nanorods (NRs) of 60-120nm diameter to use a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Confocal microscopy and light polarization techniques were employed to characterize the samples. Confocal microscopy of well known photosensitizer 5-Aminolavlonic acid (ALA) with ZnO and ALA without ZnO significant changes were seen and verified ZnO is tissue non toxic in dark, but enhances endogenous fluorescence in human cells. The fluorescence of ZnO with ALA is prominent if compared with other images. We observed that in dark ZnO is biosafe, biocompatible but cell toxic in the presence of 635nm laser light. ZnO conjugated photo-sensitizers being toxic under exposure of suitable light for malignant cells, and can be used as cancer cell killing drug. Mechanism of cytotoxicity appears to involve the generation of singlet oxygen inside the cell. The novel findings of cell-localized toxicity indicate a potential application of ZnO NRs with and without ALA can be used as efficient drug carrier, biomarker in diagnostic clinical applications, while ZnO NRs can be an appealing candidate for the PDT treatment of malignant diseases epically cancer. (author)

  6. Evaluation of a novel photosensitizing drug having antitumor effect for advanced prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Sachiko; Inai, Mizuho; Honda, Norihiro; Hazama, Hisanao; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Awazu, Kunio

    2017-07-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer among men worldwide and a novel treatment for the disease is required. Replication-deficient virus particles, hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E), has cytotoxicity to cancer cells. To enhance the therapeutic effect of HVJ-E by photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a trigger of HVJ-E's anti-tumor effect, talaporfin sodium (Laserphyrin) used for PDT was encapsulated into HVJ-E to produce a novel photosensitizing drug, named Laserphyrin ®-HVJ-E, and its therapeutic effect for prostate cancer cells (PC-3) was evaluated. As the results, direct cytotoxicities of HVJ-E and Laserphyrin ®-HVJ-E for PC-3 after an administration time of 48 h were almost the same. Cell survival rates of PC-3, which were irradiated 2 h after administration of Laserphyrin ®-HVJ-E, were about 7.8%. Although further study is needed to find an optimal PDT condition, these results suggest that Laserphyrin ®-HVJ-E is useful for treatment of prostate cancer due to the combination of cytotoxicities of HVJ-E and PDT.

  7. Possible role for plasmalogens in protecting animal cells against photosensitized killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoeller, R.A.; Morand, O.H.; Raetz, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells incorporate 12-(1'-pyrene) dodecanoic acid (P12) into membrane lipids. Exposure of P12-labeled cells to long wavelength ultraviolet light causes cell killing, presumably because excitation of the pyrene moiety (a photosensitizer) leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Cytotoxicity is dependent upon the concentration of P12 used to label the cells, and time of UV exposure, and the presence of oxygen during irradiation. CHO mutant cells deficient in plasmalogen biosynthesis and peroxisome assembly are several orders of magnitude more sensitive to P12/UV treatment than wild-type cells, permitting direct selection of one wild-type cell in 1 X 10(4) mutant cells. A major factor responsible for the P12/UV hypersensitivity of these mutants appears to be the absence of plasmalogens. Supplementation of the mutants with 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycerol restores plasmalogen levels and nearly normal resistance to P12/UV treatment, whereas the biogenesis of peroxisomes is not restored. The P12/UV hypersensitivity of the plasmalogen-deficient mutants, together with the selective, P12/UV-induced decomposition of plasmalogens in wild-type cells, documented in the accompanying manuscript, suggest that the vinyl ether linkage of plasmalogens plays a direct role in protecting animal cell membranes against certain oxidative stresses

  8. Type IIA photosensitivity and formation of pores in optical fibers under intense ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, S. A.; Shlyagin, M. G.; Swart, P. L.; Chtcherbakov, A. A.; Osipov, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    Formation of the type IIA Bragg gratings in germanosilicate optical fibers is studied. We report the observation of such a type of gratings in the standard single-mode fiber (Corning SMF-28) under different experimental conditions. A mechanism for the type IIA photosensitivity in optical fibers is proposed which is based on nucleation and evolution of pores from vacancy-type defects in fiber areas where a high level of mechanical stress is induced under intense ultraviolet (UV) light. Evolution of fiber core temperature under influence of a single 20 ns light pulse from a KrF excimer laser was measured and compared with theoretical calculations. It was shown that transient thermoinduced stress in the fiber core can achieve a level sufficient for effective nucleation of pores. A theory describing formation of pores in optical fibers has been developed and was used to estimate the pore nucleation rate, concentration, and other parameters of pore evolution for different levels of UV fluence and fiber core stress

  9. Application of fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging in the detection of a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Lixin; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is currently an advanced optical technology in medical applications. However, the application of PDT is limited by the detection of photosensitizers. This work focuses on the application of fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging in the detection of an effective photosenzitizer, hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME). Optical properties of HMME were measured and analyzed based on its absorption and fluorescence spectra. The production mechanism of its fluorescence emission was analyzed. The detection device for HMME based on fluorescence spectroscopy was designed. Ratiometric method was applied to eliminate the influence of intensity change of excitation sources, fluctuates of excitation sources and photo detectors, and background emissions. The detection limit of this device is 6 μg/L, and it was successfully applied to the diagnosis of the metabolism of HMME in the esophageal cancer cells. To overcome the limitation of the point measurement using fluorescence spectroscopy, a two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence imaging system was established. The algorithm of the 2D fluorescence imaging system is deduced according to the fluorescence ratiometric method using bandpass filters. The method of multiple pixel point addition (MPPA) was used to eliminate fluctuates of signals. Using the method of MPPA, SNR was improved by about 30 times. The detection limit of this imaging system is 1.9 μg/L. Our systems can be used in the detection of porphyrins to improve the PDT effect.

  10. Low-stress photosensitive polyimide suspended membrane for improved thermal isolation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J.; Xing, R. Y.; Wu, W. J.; Liu, H. F.; Liu, J. Q.; Tu, L. C.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce a method of isolating thermal conduction from silicon substrate for accommodating thermal-sensitive micro-devices. This method lies in fabrication of a low-stress photosensitive polyimide (PSPI) suspension structure which has lower thermal conductivity than silicon. First, a PSPI layer was patterned on a silicon wafer and hard baked. Then, a cavity was etched from the backside of the silicon substrate to form a membrane or a bridge-shape PSPI structure. After releasing, a slight deformation of about 20 nm was observed in the suspended structures, suggesting ultralow residual stress which is essential for accommodating micro-devices. In order to investigate the thermal isolation performance of the suspended PSPI structures, micro Pirani vacuum gauges, which are thermal-sensitive, had been fabricated on the PSPI structures. The measurement results illustrated that the Pirani gauges worked as expected in the range from 1- 470 Pa. Moreover, the results of the Pirani gauges based on the membrane and bridge structures were comparable, indicating that the commonly used bridge-shape structure for further reducing thermal conduction was unnecessary. Due to the excellent thermal isolation performance of PSPI, the suspended PSPI membrane is promising to be an outstanding candidate for thermal isolation applications.

  11. Molecularly imprinted photo-sensitive polyglutamic acid nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rongli; Xu, Sheng; Luo, Jing; Liu, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    A voltammetric sensor for hemoglobin (Hb) was prepared from molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MINPs) via electrophoretic deposition. A photo-sensitive copolymer composed of poly-γ-glutamic grafted with the fluorophore 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin was converted into nanoparticles that were imprinted with Hb. The resultant MINPs were then placed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via electrophoretic deposition. Subsequent photo-crosslinking locks the recognition sites. The template was removed by extraction with a mixture of acetic acid and methanol at a ratio of 1:9 (v:v) to obtain a voltammetric sensor for Hb. The current response of the sensor at a working voltage of −260 mV is linearly related to the concentration of Hb in the range from 5 to 100 μg mL −1 , and recoveries range from 98.7 to 102.3 %. Compared to the respective non-imprinted nanoparticles, the sensor displays high recognition capability and affinity for Hb. (author)

  12. Evaluation of electrical propagation delay with cardiomyocytes by photosensitization reaction in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Marika; Ogawa, Emiyu; Arai, Tsunenori

    2017-02-01

    In order to study cardiomyocyte electrical conduction damage by a photosensitization reaction (PR) mostly comes from outside of the cells in a few minutes after the PR, we studied propagation delay of contact action potential with cardiomyocyte by the PR. To determine appropriate PR condition for tachyarrhythmia ablation, a precise electrophysiological experiment in vitro has been preferable. We measured the contact action potential using a microelectrode array system of which information may be correct than conventional Ca2+ measurement. We investigated the propagation delays of an evoked potential to evaluate the electrical conduction damage by the PR. Rat cardiomyocytes were cultivated for 5-7 days on a dish with which 64 electrodes were patterned, in an incubator controlled to 37°C, 5% CO2. The following conditions were used for the PR: 40 μg/ml talapordfin sodium and 290 mW/cm2, 40-78 J/cm2 for an irradiation. A 2D map was obtained to visualize the propagation delays of the evoked potential. The propagation speed, which was calculated based on the measured propagation delays, was decreased by about 30-50% on average of all electrodes after the PR. Therefore, we think 2D propagation delays measurement of the evoked potential with contact action potential measuring system might be available to evaluate the acute electrical conduction damage of cardiomyocyte by the PR.

  13. Kinetics of incorporation/redistribution of photosensitizer hypericin to/from high-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joniova, Jaroslava; Buriankova, Luboslava; Buzova, Diana; Miskovsky, Pavol; Jancura, Daniel

    2014-11-20

    By means of fluorescence spectroscopy we have studied the kinetics of interaction of a photosensitizer hypericin (Hyp) with high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Hyp is incorporated into HDL molecules as monomer till ratio Hyp/HDL ∼8:1 and above this ratio forms non-fluorescent aggregates. This number is different from that found in the case of Hyp incorporation into low-density lipoprotein (LDL) molecules (8:1 vs 30:1). The difference is mainly attributed to the smaller size of HDL in comparison with LDL molecule. Biphasic kinetics of Hyp association with HDL was observed. The rapid phase of incorporation is completed within seconds, while the slow one lasts several minutes. The kinetics of the association of Hyp molecules with free HDL, Hyp/HDL=10:1 complex and the redistribution of Hyp from Hyp/HDL=70:1 complex to free HDL molecules reveal a qualitative similar characteristics of these processes with those observed for the interaction of Hyp with LDL. However, the incorporation of Hyp into HDL in the "slow" phase is more rapid than to LDL and extend of Hyp penetration into lipoproteins in the fast phase is also much higher in the case of HDL. The lower concentration of cholesterol molecules in outer shell of HDL particles is probably the determining factor for the more rapid kinetics of Hyp incorporation to and redistribution from these molecules when comparing with LDL particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bovine serum albumin nanoparticles loaded with Photosens photosensitizer for effective photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanadeev, Vitaly; Khlebtsov, Boris; Packirisamy, Gopinath; Khlebtsov, Nikolai

    2017-03-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used for drug delivery applications due to high biodegradability, low toxicity and high loading capacity. The focus of this study is the development of photosensitizer Photosens (PS) loaded albumin NPs for efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT). To fabricate PS-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA-PS NPs), we used a coacervation method with glutaraldehyde followed by passive loading of PS. Successful loading of PS was confirmed by appearance of characteristic peak in absorption spectrum which allows to determine the PS loading in BSA NPs. The synthesized BSA-PS NPs demonstrated low toxicity to HeLa cells at therapeutic concentrations of loaded PS. Compared to free PS solution, the synthesized BSA-PS NPs generated the singlet oxygen more effectively under laser irradiation at 660 nm. In addition, due to presence of various chemical groups on the surface of BSA-PS NPs, they are capable to adsorb on cell surface and accumulate in cells due to cellular uptake mechanisms. Owing to combination of PD and cell uptake advantages, BSA-PS NPs demonstrated higher efficacy of photodynamic damage to cancer cells as compared to free PS at equivalent concentrations. These results suggest that non-targeted BSA-PS NPs with high PD activity and low-fabrication costs of are promising candidates for transfer to PD clinic treatments.

  15. Photosensitizer Adhered to Cell Culture Microplates Induces Phototoxicity in Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Ziegler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro experiments in plastic receptacles are the basis of characterization of new photosensitizers (PSs for the photodynamic therapy. We recently reported that lipophilic PSs adhere to cell culture microplates in a kinetic-like manner (Engelhardt et al., 2011. In the current study, we examined the interaction and phototoxic effects of the microplate-adhered PS in cancer cells. Therefore, we preloaded microplates with hypericin, Foscan, PVP-hypericin, or aluminum (III phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate chloride (AlPCS4 for 24 hours and measured the PS distribution after addition of A431 human carcinoma cells: following another 24 hours up to 68% of hypericin were detected in the cell fraction. The hydrophilic PVP-hypericin and AlPCS4 also diffused into the cells, but the quantities of PS adherence were considerably lower. Microplate-adhered Foscan appeared not to be redistributed. In contrast to the hydrophilic PSs, the cellular phototoxicity of microplate-adhered lipophilic PS was high, independent of whether the PS (i was pre-loaded onto microplates or (ii added simultaneously with the cells or (iii one day after cell seeding. Based on these results, we suggest testing lipophilic PS dyes for their adherence to microplates. Furthermore, the ability of plastic materials to (reversibly store PSs might represent a new approach for the PS delivery or the development of antimicrobial coatings.

  16. Studies on activated cytostatic fluorouracil as photosensitizer: to use in eye tumor treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Carstocea, Benone D.; Brezeanu, Mihail; Voicu, Letitia; Staicu, Angela; Gazdaru, Doina M.; Pascu, Ruxandra A.

    2004-09-01

    Hydroxypyrimidine 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) belongs to the cytostatics group known as antimetabolites. The effect of UV irradiation on 5-FU was investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The study of the photosensitizer properties of 5-FU was made since their effects could be enhanced by exposure to UV radiation at different doses. Solutions 2.5x10-4M in natural saline water (0.8% NaCl), irradiated with optical beams emitted by N2 laser and UV Hg classic lamp, were used. The 5-FU was chosen due to its strong absorption along a large spectral range which makes possible the fluorescence excitation in UV. The absorption spectra exhibit bands between 250 - 450 nm. The emission fluorescence was measured in the 400-550 nm spectral range, with λex=320 and 350 nm for samples irradiated with Hg lamp and with λex=360 nm for samples irradiated with N2 laser. The excitation fluorescence was measured in the spectral range 200-400 nm, with λem=440 nm for samples irradiated with N2 laser. The spectra reveal a fluorescence enhancement with the exposure time, with a maximum at 3 min due to the transformation of 5-FU molecule into a fluorescent tautomeric form. The destruction more rapid than usual of the neovascularisation was observed for conjunctive of rabbit eyes, when they are impregnated with 5-FU solution and exposed to incoherent UV and visible light.

  17. Photosensitizer and peptide-conjugated PAMAM dendrimer for targeted in vivo photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsireddy, Amreddy; Vijayashree, Kurra; Adimoolam, Mahesh G; Manorama, Sunkara V; Rao, Nalam M

    2015-01-01

    Challenges in photodynamic therapy (PDT) include development of efficient near infrared-sensitive photosensitizers (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphine [PS]) and targeted delivery of PS to the tumor tissue. In this study, a dual functional dendrimer was synthesized for targeted PDT. For targeting, a poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (G4) was conjugated with a PS and a nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) group. A peptide specific to human epidermal growth factor 2 was expressed in Escherichia coli with a His-tag and was specifically bound to the NTA group on the dendrimer. Reaction conditions were optimized to result in dendrimers with PS and the NTA at a fractional occupancy of 50% and 15%, respectively. The dendrimers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Using PS fluorescence, cell uptake of these particles was confirmed by confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. PS-dendrimers are more efficient than free PS in PDT-mediated cell death assays in HER2 positive cells, SK-OV-3. Similar effects were absent in HER2 negative cell line, MCF-7. Compared to free PS, the PS-dendrimers have shown significant tumor suppression in a xenograft animal tumor model. Conjugation of a PS with dendrimers and with a targeting agent has enhanced photodynamic therapeutic effects of the PS.

  18. The effect of annealing on structural, optical and photosensitive properties of electrodeposited cadmium selenide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Mahato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium selenide (CdSe thin films have been deposited on indium tin oxide coated glass substrate by simple electrodeposition method. X-ray Diffraction (XRD studies identify that the as-deposited CdSe films are highly oriented to [002] direction and they belong to nanocrystalline hexagonal phase. The films are changed to polycrystalline structure after annealing in air for temperatures up to 450 °C and begin to degrade afterwards with the occurrence of oxidation and porosity. CdSe completely ceases to exist at higher annealing temperatures. CdSe films exhibit a maximum absorbance in the violet to blue-green region of an optical spectrum. The absorbance increases while the band gap decreases with increasing annealing temperature. Surface morphology also shows that the increase of the annealing temperature caused the grain growth. In addition, a number of distinct crystals is formed on top of the film surface. Electrical characteristics show that the films are photosensitive with a maximum sensitivity at 350 °C.

  19. Patterned immobilisation of silicon dioxide nanoparticles on the surface of a photosensitive polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhr, Nina, E-mail: nina.muhr@unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Chemistry of Polymeric Materials, University of Leoben, Otto-Gloeckel-Strasse 2, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Grinschgl, Markus; Griesser, Thomas [Chair of Chemistry of Polymeric Materials, University of Leoben, Otto-Gloeckel-Strasse 2, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Kern, Wolfgang [Chair of Chemistry of Polymeric Materials, University of Leoben, Otto-Gloeckel-Strasse 2, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH, Peter-Rosegger-Strasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Schroettner, Hartmuth [Institute for Electron Microscopy, Technical University of Graz, Steyrergasse 17, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2012-01-01

    A photosensitive co-polymer of styrene and 4-vinylbenzyl thiocyanate was synthesised and employed for the immobilisation of aminofunctionalised silica nanoparticles (SiO{sub 2}-NP) at the polymer surface. Upon UV irradiation of the co-polymer, isothiocyanate groups are generated by a photo-isomerisation reaction of the thiocyanate groups. The silica nanoparticles were selectively immobilised in irradiated areas by immersing the illuminated polymer surface in a solution of SiO{sub 2}-NP. Depending on the time of immersion and the nanoparticle concentration, different amounts of silica can be deposited in the irradiated areas, whilst no immobilisation of SiO{sub 2}-NP is observed in the non-irradiated areas. By using photolithographic methods, patterned silica structures ({mu}m scale) were produced on the polymer surface. The SiO{sub 2}-NP covered surfaces are of potential interest to generate protective surface layers and to carry out further functionalisation reactions of the immobilised SiO{sub 2}-NP particles.

  20. Continuous optical measurement system of hemolysis during a photosensitization reaction using absorption spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, R.; Ogawa, E.; Arai, T.

    2018-02-01

    To investigate hemolysis phenomena during a photosensitization reaction with the reaction condition continuously and simultaneously for a safety assessment of hemolysis side effect, we constructed an optical system to measure blood sample absorption spectrum during the reaction. Hemolysis degree might be under estimated in general evaluation methods because there is a constant oxygen pressure assumption in spite of oxygen depression take place. By investigating hemoglobin oxidation and oxygen desorption dynamics obtained from the contribution of the visible absorption spectrum and multiple regression analysis, both the hemolysis phenomena and its oxygen environment might be obtained with time. A 664 nm wavelength laser beam for the reaction excitation and 475-650 nm light beam for measuring the absorbance spectrum were arranged perpendicularly crossing. A quartz glass cuvette with 1×10 mm in dimensions for the spectrum measurement was located at this crossing point. A red blood cells suspension medium was arranged with low hematocrit containing 30 μg/ml talaporfin sodium. This medium was irradiated up to 40 J/cm2 . The met-hemoglobin, oxygenatedhemoglobin, and deoxygenated-hemoglobin concentrations were calculated by a multiple regression analysis from the measured spectra. We confirmed the met-hemoglobin concentration increased and oxygen saturation decreased with the irradiation time, which seems to indicate the hemolysis progression and oxygen consumption, respectively. By using our measuring system, the hemolysis progression seems to be obtained with oxygen environment information.

  1. A computational perspective of vibrational and electronic analysis of potential photosensitizer 2-chlorothioxanthone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Narmeen; Mansha, Asim; Asim, Sadia; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Ghafoor, Sidra; Akbar, Muhammad Usman

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with combined theoretical and experimental study of geometric, electronic and vibrational properties of 2-chlorothioxanthone (CTX) molecule which is potential photosensitizer. The FT-IR spectrum of CTX in solid phase was recorded in 4000-400 cm-1 region. The UV-Vis. absorption spectrum was also recorded in the laboratory as well as computed at DFT/B3LYP level in five different phases viz. gas, water, DMSO, acetone and ethanol. The quantum mechanics based theoretical IR and Raman spectra were also calculated for the title compound employing HF and DFT functional with 3-21G+, 6-31G+ and 6-311G+, 6-311G++ basis sets, respectively, and assignment of each vibrational frequency has been done on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). A comparison has been made between theoretical and experimental vibrational spectra as well as for the UV-Vis. absorption spectra. The computed infra red & Raman spectra by DFT compared with experimental spectra along with reliable vibrational assignment based on PED. The calculated electronic properties, results of natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis, charge distribution, dipole moment and energies have been reported in the paper. Bimolecular quenching of triplet state of CTX in the presence of triethylamine, 2-propanol triethylamine and diazobicyclooctane (DABCO) reflect the interactions between them. The bimolecular quenching rate constant is fastest for interaction of 3CTX in the presence of DABCO reflecting their stronger interactions.

  2. The influence of chromatic background on the photosensitivity of tilapia erythrophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Chi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates use extraretinal photoreceptors to detect light and perform diverse non-image-forming functions. Compared to well-studied visual systems, the effect of ambient light conditions on photosensory systems of extraretinal photoreceptors is poorly understood. Chromatophores are photosensitive dermal pigment cells that play an important role in the formation of body color patterns to fit the surrounding environment. Here, we used tilapia erythrophores to investigate the relationship between environmental light and chromatophore photoresponses. All erythrophores from three spectral conditions aggregated their pigment granules in UV/short wavelengths and dispersed in middle/long wavelengths. Unlike retinal visual systems, environmental light did not change the usage of the primary opsins responsible for aggregation and dispersion. In addition, short wavelength-rich and red-shifted background conditions led to an inhibitory effect on erythrophore photoresponses. We suggest that, as extraretinal photoreceptors for non-image-forming functions, chromatophores directly adjust their photoresponse sensitivity via changes in opsin expression levels rather than opsin types when environmental light changes.

  3. Molecular imaging of tumor photoimmunotherapy: Evidence of photosensitized tumor necrosis and hemodynamic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kishimoto, Shun; Oshima, Nobu; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi

    2018-01-01

    Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR PIT) employs the photoabsorbing dye IR700 conjugated to antibodies specific for cell surface epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). NIR PIT has shown highly selective cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Cell necrosis is thought to be the main mode of cytotox......Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR PIT) employs the photoabsorbing dye IR700 conjugated to antibodies specific for cell surface epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). NIR PIT has shown highly selective cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Cell necrosis is thought to be the main mode...... of cytotoxicity based mainly on in vitro studies. To better understand the acute effects of NIR PIT, molecular imaging studies were performed to assess its cellular and vascular effects.In addition to in vitro studies for cytotoxicity of NIR PIT, the in vivo tumoricidal effects and hemodynamic changes induced....... Following NIR PIT, metabolic MRI using hyperpolarized fumarate showed the production of malate in EGFR-expressing A431 tumor xenografts, providing direct evidence for photosensitized tumor necrosis induced by NIR PIT. R2* mapping studies showed temporal changes in oxygenation, with an accompanying increase...

  4. Electrophysiology and Innervation of the Photosensitive Epistellar Body in the Lesser Octopus Eledone cirrhosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, C S; Williamson, R

    1998-08-01

    The innervation and responses to light of the cephalopod epistellar body were investigated in preparations isolated from the stellate ganglia of the lesser or northern octopus, Eledone cirrhosa. Extracellular generator potentials in response to flashes of light were recorded from these photosensitive vesicles, with the amplitude of the response being found to be dependent upon the intensity of the flash and the level of ambient illumination. Intracellular recordings from photoreceptor cells of the epistellar body showed that they had resting potentials of about -49 +/- 7 mV (mean +/- SD, n = 43) and were depolarized by flashes of white, but not red (>650 nm) light. The evoked depolarization consisted of a transient component, followed by a steady plateau in which the amplitude of the depolarization was well correlated with the log of the stimulus intensity. The evoked depolarizations induced action potentials in the photoreceptor cells, with the frequency of firing being well correlated with the stimulus intensity. The morphologies of individual photoreceptor cells were visualized by intracellular injections of the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow, and the path of the epistellar nerve across the stellate ganglion, into the pallial nerve, toward the brain was traced using the lipophilic dye Di-I. This pathway was confirmed physiologically by recording light-evoked responses from the cut end of the pallial nerve.

  5. Assembly of High-Potency Photosensitizer-Antibody Conjugates through Application of Dendron Multiplier Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Francesca; Maruani, Antoine; Rodrigues, João M M; Cheng, Miffy H Y; Savoie, Huguette; Beeby, Andrew; Chudasama, Vijay; Boyle, Ross W

    2018-01-17

    Exploitation of photosensitizers as payloads for antibody-based anticancer therapeutics offers a novel alternative to the small pool of commonly utilized cytotoxins. However, existing bioconjugation methodologies are incompatible with the requirement of increased antibody loading without compromising antibody function, stability, or homogeneity. Herein, we describe the first application of dendritic multiplier groups to allow the loading of more than 4 porphyrins to a full IgG antibody in a site-specific and highly homogeneous manner. Photophysical evaluation of UV-visible absorbance and singlet oxygen quantum yields highlighted porphyrin-dendron 14 as the best candidate for bioconjugation; with subsequent bioconjugation producing a HER2-targeted therapeutic with average loading ratios of 15.4:1. In vitro evaluation of conjugate 18 demonstrated a nanomolar photocytotoxic effect in a target cell line, which overexpresses HER2, with no observed photocytotoxicity at the same concentration in a control cell line which expresses native HER2 levels, or in the absence of irradiation with visible light.

  6. Photosensitive-polyimide based method for fabricating various neural electrode architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro X Kato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An extensive photosensitive polyimide (PSPI-based method for designing and fabricating various neural electrode architectures was developed. The method aims to broaden the design flexibility and expand the fabrication capability for neural electrodes to improve the quality of recorded signals and integrate other functions. After characterizing PSPI’s properties for micromachining processes, we successfully designed and fabricated various neural electrodes even on a non-flat substrate using only one PSPI as an insulation material and without the time-consuming dry etching processes. The fabricated neural electrodes were an electrocorticogram electrode, a mesh intracortical electrode with a unique lattice-like mesh structure to fixate neural tissue, and a guide cannula electrode with recording microelectrodes placed on the curved surface of a guide cannula as a microdialysis probe. In vivo neural recordings using anesthetized rats demonstrated that these electrodes can be used to record neural activities repeatedly without any breakage and mechanical failures, which potentially promises stable recordings for long periods of time. These successes make us believe that this PSPI-based fabrication is a powerful method, permitting flexible design and easy optimization of electrode architectures for a variety of electrophysiological experimental research with improved neural recording performance.

  7. Porous Silicon Nanoparticle Photosensitizers for Singlet Oxygen and Their Phototoxicity Against Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling; Gu, Luo; Howell, Stephen B.; Sailor, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Porous Si nanoparticles, prepared from electrochemically etched single crystal Si wafers, function as photosensitizers to generate 1O2 in ethanol and in aqueous media. The preparation conditions for the porous Si nanoparticles were optimized to maximize (1) the yield of material; (2) its quantum yield of 1O2 production; and (3) its in vitro degradation properties. The optimal formulation was determined to consist of nanoparticles 146 ± 7 nm in diameter, with nominal pore sizes of 12 ± 4 nm. The quantum yield for 1O2 production is 0.10 ± 0.02 in ethanol and 0.17 ± 0.01 in H2O. HeLa or NIH-3T3 cells treated with 100 µg/mL porous Si nanoparticles and exposed to 60 J/cm2 white light (infrared filtered, 100 mW/cm2 for 10 min) exhibit ~ 45% cell death, while controls containing no nanoparticles show 10% or 25% cell death, respectively. The dark control experiment yields < 10% cytotoxicity for either cell type. PMID:21452822

  8. Two different approaches in skin cancer therapy: using a photosensitizer/a natural product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Annie; Gayathri, Devi D.; Cibin, T. R.; Ramaiah, D.

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with two potential modes for the treatment of skin cancer-one a novel approach using a squaraine dye and the other using a natural product- the flavonoid fraction of Saraca asoka. Squaraine dye is a photosensitizing agent, which is preferentially taken up and retained by the tumor cells and when irradiated with high power visible light results in the selective destruction of the tumor cells by photodynamic therapy. The uniqueness of this mode of treatment lies in the selective destruction of tumor cells without affecting the neighbouring normal cells, which is much advantageous over radiation therapy now frequently used. The chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of the plant component are explored as well. The experimental models were Swiss albino mice in which skin tumor was induced by DMBA. Marked reduction in tumor volume and burden in the treated groups were observed. The reversal of biochemical enzyme markers like rhodanese, myeloperoxidase, β-D glucuronidase, lactate dehydrogenase, hexokinase and sialic acid to near normal levels were observed in the PDT and flavonoid fraction treated groups. The live photographs of the experimental animals and histopathological data further support the obtained results. The study assumes importance as it combines a traditional treatment mode and a novel aspect in cancer therapy using the same experimental models. Also this is the first report on PDT using a squaraine dye for skin cancer therapy in vivo.

  9. Clinical trials of a new chlorin photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of malignant tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privalov, Valeriy A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Seliverstov, Oleg V.; Faizrakhmanov, Alexey B.; Yarovoy, Nicolay N.; Kochneva, Elena V.; Evnevich, Michail V.; Anikina, Alla S.; Reshetnicov, Andrey V.; Zalevsky, Igor D.; Kemov, Yuriy V.

    2002-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed with a new photosensitizer, a water soluble form of chlorins (Radachlorin, Russia) possessing an absorption peak around 662 nm. As light source there was used the diode laser (ML-662-SP, Russia) with 662 nm wavelength and 2.5 W optical power. The sensitizer had passed broad pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo studies, which showed safety and efficiency of it. PDT was applied to 51 patients with basal cell cancer of the skin (about 60% of all cases), breast cancer, lip cancer, melanoma, cancer of esophagus, stomach, and rectum, cancer and leucoplacia of vulva, malignant ganglioneuroma, sarcoma of soft tissue, cancer and reticular sarcoma of thyroid gland, cancer of ductus choledochus. Most of non-basalioma patients had either forth stage or recurrence of disease. The sensitizer was injected intravenously or applied externally (Radachlorin gel). There were used surface, endoscopic, and interstitial ways of irradiation. Full tumor regression with excellent cosmetic effect was reached in 100% cases of 1-3 stage basal cell cancer patients treated with intravenous Radachlorin injection. In most other (non-basalioma) cases significant regression of tumors and improvement of life quality of patients (recanalization and regain of conductivity) was obtained.

  10. Sequence specificity of alkali-labile DNA damage photosensitized by suprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrs, S M; Davies, R J

    2000-09-01

    On irradiation at UVB wavelengths, in aerated neutral aqueous solution, the anti-inflammatory drug suprofen (SP) photosensitizes the production of alkali-labile cleavage sites in DNA much more efficiently than direct strand breaks. It is active at submillimolar concentrations despite having no significant binding affinity for DNA. Gel sequencing studies utilizing 32P-end-labeled oligonucleotides have revealed that piperidine-sensitive lesions are formed predominantly at the positions of guanine (G) bases, with the extent of modification being UV dose- and SP concentration-dependent. Quite distinct patterns of G-specific damage are observed in single-stranded and duplex DNA molecules. The uniform attack at all G residues in single-stranded DNA, which is enhanced in D2O, is compatible with a Type-II mechanism. SP is a known generator of singlet oxygen whose participation in the reaction is supported by the effects of quenchers and scavengers. In duplex DNA, piperidine-induced cleavage occurs with high selectivity at the 5'-G of GG and (less prominently) GA doublets. This behavior is characteristic of a Type-I process involving electron transfer from DNA to photoexcited SP molecules. The ability of SP to sensitize the formation of Type-I and Type-II photo-oxidation products from 2'-deoxyguanosine attests to the feasibility of competing mechanisms in DNA.

  11. Evaluation of temperature change during antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with two different photosensitizers in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaie, Mansoreh; Yassini, Esmael; Ashnagar, Sajjad; Hadadi, Azadeh; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2016-06-01

    Many attempts have been made in elimination of bacteria in infected and demineralized dentin to not only provide efficient bactericidal potential, but to have minimal damage for tooth structure. The aim of this study was to assess the temperature change during aPDT with ICG and TBO compared with conventional Diode laser irradiation. 48 premolar teeth which were selected for this study. A class I cavity was drilled in each teeth, with dimensions of 2mm width, 4mm length and depth of 2.5-3.5mm, providing a dentinal wall of approximately 0.5mm for pulp chamber. Then teeth were randomly allocated in 4 experimental groups (n=12); Group 1: TBO+LED, Group 2: ICG+Diode Laser, Group 3: Diode laser with output power of 0.5W, Group 4: Diode laser with output power of 1W. Thermocouple device was held by experimenter hand and the sensor was in pulp chamber of the teeth. Heat generated during irradiation was reported on LCD screen by NUX Plus software. Repeated measure ANOVA was used in order to compare the temperature before and after laser application. Tukey HSD was used to compare the results between groups. Temperature was risen for about 0.54±0.05°C for group 1, 1.67±0.14°C for group 2, 4.21±0.83°C for group 3, and 4. 50±0.32°C for group 4. The difference between group 1 & 2, 1 & 3 and 1 & 4 was significant (p<0.0001). According to results of this study, Diode (with or without photosensitizer- 0.5 and 1W) can be safely used as alternative approach for disinfection after caries removal in thermal point of view. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loise M. Njoki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with an aim of exploring the effectiveness of medicinal plant extracts in the control of aflatoxin production. Antifungal properties, photosensitization, and phytochemical composition of aqueous and organic extracts of fruits from Solanum aculeastrum, bark from Syzygium cordatum, and leaves from Prunus africana, Ocimum lamiifolium, Lippia kituiensis, and Spinacia oleracea were tested. Spores from four-day-old cultures of previously identified toxigenic fungi, UONV017 and UONV003, were used. Disc diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to test the antifungal activity. The spores were suspended in 2 ml of each extract separately and treated with visible light (420 nm for varying periods. Organic extracts displayed species and concentration dependent antifungal activity. Solanum aculeastrum had the highest zones of inhibition diameters in both strains: UONV017 (mean = 18.50±0.71 mm and UONV003 (mean = 11.92±0.94 mm at 600 mg/ml. Aqueous extracts had no antifungal activity because all diameters were below 8 mm. Solanum aculeastrum had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration at 25 mg/ml against A. flavus UONV017. All the plant extracts in combination with light reduced the viability of fungal conidia compared with the controls without light, without extracts, and without both extracts and light. Six bioactive compounds were analyzed in the plant extracts. Medicinal plant extracts in this study can control conidia viability and hence with further development can control toxigenic fungal spread.

  13. Photo-sensitive Ge nanocrystal based films controlled by substrate deposition temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavarache, Ionel; Maraloiu, Valentin Adrian; Negrila, Catalin; Prepelita, Petronela; Gruia, Ion; Iordache, Gheorghe

    2017-10-01

    Lowering the temperature of crystallization by deposition of thin films on a heated substrate represents the easiest way to find new means to develop and improve new working devices based on nanocrystals embedded in thin films. The improvements are strongly related with the increasing of operation speed, substantially decreasing the energy consumption and reducing unit fabrication costs of the respective semiconductor devices. This approach avoids major problems, such as those related to diffusion or difficulties in controlling nanocrystallites size, which appear during thermal treatments at high temperatures after deposition. This article reports on a significant progress given by structuring Ge nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) embedded in silicon dioxide (SiO2) thin films by heating the substrate at 400 °C during co-deposition of Ge and SiO2 by magnetron sputtering. As a proof-of-concept, a Si/Ge-NCs:SiO2 photo-sensitive structure was fabricated thereof and characterized. The structure shows superior performance on broad operation bandwidth from visible to near-infrared, as strong rectification properties in dark, significant current rise in the inversion mode when illuminated, high responsivity, high photo-detectivity of 1014 Jones, quick response and significant conversion efficiency with peak value reaching 850% at -1 V and about 1000 nm. This simple preparation approach brings an important contribution to the effort of structuring Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films at a lower temperature for the purpose of using these materials for devices in optoelectronics, solar cells and electronics on flexible substrates.

  14. Mice deficient of glutamatergic signaling from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells exhibit abnormal circadian photoentrainment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Purrier

    Full Text Available Several aspects of behavior and physiology, such as sleep and wakefulness, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion exhibit daily oscillations known as circadian rhythms. These circadian rhythms are orchestrated by an intrinsic biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN of the hypothalamus which is adjusted to the daily environmental cycles of day and night by the process of photoentrainment. In mammals, the neuronal signal for photoentrainment arises from a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs that send a direct projection to the SCN. ipRGCs also mediate other non-image-forming (NIF visual responses such as negative masking of locomotor activity by light, and the pupillary light reflex (PLR via co-release of neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP from their synaptic terminals. The relative contribution of each neurotransmitter system for the circadian photoentrainment and other NIF visual responses is still unresolved. We investigated the role of glutamatergic neurotransmission for circadian photoentrainment and NIF behaviors by selective ablation of ipRGC glutamatergic synaptic transmission in mice. Mutant mice displayed delayed re-entrainment to a 6 h phase shift (advance or delay in the light cycle and incomplete photoentrainment in a symmetrical skeleton photoperiod regimen (1 h light pulses between 11 h dark periods. Circadian rhythmicity in constant darkness also was reduced in some mutant mice. Other NIF responses such as the PLR and negative masking responses to light were also partially attenuated. Overall, these results suggest that glutamate from ipRGCs drives circadian photoentrainment and negative masking responses to light.

  15. Generation and photosensitization properties of the oxidized radical of riboflavin: a laser flash photolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zhenhui; Lu Changyuan; Wang Wenfeng; Lin Weizhen; Yao Side; Lin Nianyun

    2000-01-01

    Direct excitation of riboflavin with 248 nm laser gives rise to a transient absorption spectrum with contributions from (1) oxidized radical, (2) hydrated electron, (3) triplet state and reduced radical, and distinction between the transient species below 360 nm is difficult for the absorption overlapped. The RF ·+ or RF(-H) · has been clearly produced via direct photoionization by 248 nm laser in aqueous solution, which has been unambiguously identified by SO 4 ·- radical oxidation, although its transient absorption can not be observed clearly for both lower absorption coefficient (ε = 2000 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1 at 640 nm at pH 7.1) and overlap from others. In the present paper, electron transfer from purine and pyrimidine nucleotides to one-electron oxidized radical of riboflavin were observed for the first time in aqueous solution, and the reaction rate constants were determined respectively, which would obviously be of considerable significance in vivo and in vitro. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of oxidized radical of riboflavin in flavin photochemistry and photobiology. These reaction paths are important for the elucidation of the interaction between riboflavin and DNA nucleotides under photoexcitation. When riboflavin was excited, triplet state and oxidized radical can be formed directly or by sequence reactions of triplet state. In the presence of DNA, electron transfer can take place to form a base radical cation, then hole migration to GG step along base-stacking of DNA leads to DNA strand scission, which has been verified by many steady product analysis. This selective cleavage of DNA shows the potential application of riboflavin as a site-specify photonuclease, which has become a highlight' in the currently photochemistry, photomedicine and photobiology areas. The mechanism implies that riboflavin can be applied potentially to photosensitization of oxygen deficient or under high intensity pulsed laser irradiation. (author)

  16. Photo-sensitive Ge nanocrystal based films controlled by substrate deposition temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Stavarache, Ionel

    2017-07-21

    Lowering the temperature of crystallization by deposition of thin films on a heated substrate represents the easiest way to find new means to develop and improve new working devices based on nanocrystals embedded in thin films. The improvements are strongly related with the increasing of operation speed, substantially decreasing the energy consumption and reducing unit fabrication costs of the respective semiconductor devices. This approach avoids major problems, such as those related to diffusion or difficulties in controlling of nanocrystallites size, which appear during thermal treatments at high temperatures after deposition. It is reported here the significant progress introduced by synthesis procedure to the in-situ structuring of Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films by heating the substrate at low temperature, 400 °C during co-deposition of Ge and SiO2 by magnetron sputtering. As a proof-of-concept, a Si/Ge-NCs:SiO2 photo-sensitive structure was fabricated thereof and characterized. The structure shows superior performance on broad operation bandwidth from visible to near-infrared, as strong rectification properties in dark, significant current rise in the inversion mode when illuminated, high responsivity, high photo-detectivity of 1014 Jones, quick response and significant conversion efficiency of 850 %. This simple preparation approach brings an important contribution to the efort of structuring Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films at a lower temperature for the purpose of using these materials for devices in optoelectronics, solar cells and electronics on flexible substrates.

  17. Photodynamic inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using a new bacteriochlorin as photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Diego D.; Martins, Laura C. A.; Corrêa, Thaila Quatrini; Geralde, Mariana Carreira; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; de Oliveira, Kleber Thiago; Uliana, Marciana P.; de Souza, Clovis W.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we used bacteriochlorin as a photosensitizer, characterized by their low toxicity in the absence of light, presenting absorption around 780 nm, with the objective of evaluating their photodynamic inactivation potential on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacteriochlorins were synthesized from the extraction of bacteriochlorophylls from non-sulfurous purple bacteria and were then converted to bacteriochlorins. S. aureus and E. coli microorganisms were used in the planktonic and biofilm forms. For the formation of biofilms on glass coverslips, suspensions of the microorganisms at the concentration of 106 CFU/mL were inoculated into each well of a microplate. There was an exchange of culture medium (Tryptic Soy Broth - TSB) every 24 hours for 7 days, pre-washing the coverslips with a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), to ensure that only adhered microorganisms were grown and then incubated at (36 +/- 1)°C between the middle exchanges. After 7 days of induction, the biofilm was mature, like those normally found in nature, and then it was applied different treatments (light doses associated with FS concentrations). At the end of the treatment, the coverslips underwent an ultrasonic disintegration, and the quantitative evaluation of viable cells was performed by plate counting using the plate method in Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA), incubating at (36 +/- 1)°C for 24 hours. The results showed that the PDI for E. coli was not successful even when it was more susceptible to the planktonic form, whereas for S. aureus the results showed a reduction in cell viability 6 logs for the planktonic forms, but lower to 1 log in biofilms. Therefore, novel studies using bacteriochlorins and surfactants will be performed to verify the potential of this alternative treatment method.

  18. Photosensitivity and photodynamic events in black, red and blue tattoos are common: A 'Beach Study'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Serup, J

    2014-02-01

    To find the prevalence of complaints in people having tattoos, with emphasis on chronic complaints, photosensitivity and photodynamic events. Individuals sunbathing from June to September 2011 at the beaches of Denmark were invited to participate as they are prone to report tattoos and sun habits reliably. Sun-related and non-sun-related problems in tattoos were determined along with participants' use of sunscreen. Skin type was categorized, as were motifs and colours associated with problems. Of 467 sunbathers, 146 (31.3%) had tattoos. A total of 144 sunbathers with 301 tattoos accepted inclusion. Complaints were experienced in 60/144 (42%), of which 31/60 (52%) were sun related, such as swelling (58%), itching/stinging/pain (52%) and redness (26%). Reactions independent of sun were 29/60 (48%), such as reactions to heat 12/29 (41%) and cold 1/29 (4%). Red, blue and black tattoos predominantly caused sun-related complaints followed by the remaining colours. By number, problems in black tattoos dominated as black was far more frequent. Complaints such as swelling, itching, stinging, pain and redness are common, predominantly in black and red tattoos, but also frequent in blue tattoos, thus, not confined to one specific colour or chemical entity or class of pigment. Symptoms may switch on and off in seconds, typically not of the weal-and-flare type. Photochemical reactions to pigment or pigment-breakdown products in situ in the skin with induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is presumed to be one causative mechanism. Another possible mechanism especially relevant in black may be induction of ROS due to effects of aggregation of carbon black nanoparticles. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Photosensitizer and peptide-conjugated PAMAM dendrimer for targeted in vivo photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsireddy A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Amreddy Narsireddy,1 Kurra Vijayashree,2 Mahesh G Adimoolam,1 Sunkara V Manorama,1 Nalam M Rao21CSIR – Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, 2CSIR – Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Challenges in photodynamic therapy (PDT include development of efficient near infrared-sensitive photosensitizers (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl-21H,23H-porphine [PS] and targeted delivery of PS to the tumor tissue. In this study, a dual functional dendrimer was synthesized for targeted PDT. For targeting, a poly(amidoamine dendrimer (G4 was conjugated with a PS and a nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA group. A peptide specific to human epidermal growth factor 2 was expressed in Escherichia coli with a His-tag and was specifically bound to the NTA group on the dendrimer. Reaction conditions were optimized to result in dendrimers with PS and the NTA at a fractional occupancy of 50% and 15%, respectively. The dendrimers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Using PS fluorescence, cell uptake of these particles was confirmed by confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. PS-dendrimers are more efficient than free PS in PDT-mediated cell death assays in HER2 positive cells, SK-OV-3. Similar effects were absent in HER2 negative cell line, MCF-7. Compared to free PS, the PS-dendrimers have shown significant tumor suppression in a xenograft animal tumor model. Conjugation of a PS with dendrimers and with a targeting agent has enhanced photodynamic therapeutic effects of the PS.Keywords: photodynamic therapy, dendrimers, nanoparticle, targeted delivery, Affibody, xenograft animal model

  20. Mechanisms of tumor necrosis in photodynamic therapy with a chlorine photosensitizer: experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privalov, Valeriy A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Bigbov, Elmir N.

    2011-02-01

    A photodynamic therapy experiment on 118 inbred white mice with transplanted Ehrlich's tumor (mouse mammary gland adenocarcinoma) is performed to reveal mechanisms of necrosis formation. In 7-10 days the tumor of 1-1.5 cm diameter is formed under skin at the injection point, and PDT procedure is applied. There were used a chlorine type photosensitizer RadachlorineTM and 662 nm wavelength diode laser. The drug is injected by intravenously at the dose of 40 mg/kg; the irradiation is executed in 2-2.5 hours at the surface dose of about 200 J/cm2. Each of the mice had a photochemical reaction in form of destructive changes at the irradiation region with subsequent development of dry coagulation necrosis. After rejection of the necrosis there occurred epithelization of defect tissues in a tumor place. Histological investigations were conducted in different follow-up periods, in 5 and 30 min, 1, 3, 6, and 12 hours, 1, 3, 7 and 28 days after irradiation. They included optical microscopy, immune marker analysis, morphometry with measurements of volume density of epithelium, tumor stroma and necroses, vascular bed. The investigations showed that an important role in damaging mechanisms of photodynamic action belongs to hypoxic injuries of tumor mediated by micro vascular disorders and blood circulatory disturbances. The injuries are formed in a few stages: microcirculation angiospasm causing vessel paresis, irreversible stases in capillaries, diapedetic hemorrhages, thromboses, and thrombovasculitis. It is marked mucoid swelling and fibrinoid necrosis of vascular tissue. Progressive vasculitises result in total vessel obliteration and tumor necrosis.

  1. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  2. Exogenous indirect photoinactivation of bacterial pathogens and indicators in water with natural and synthetic photosensitizers in simulated sunlight with reduced UVB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraccini, P A; Wenk, J; Boehm, A B

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the UVB-independent and exogenous indirect photoinactivation of eight human health-relevant bacterial species in the presence of photosensitizers. Eight bacterial species were exposed to simulated sunlight with greatly reduced UVB light intensity in the presence of three synthetic photosensitizers and two natural photosensitizers. Inactivation curves were fit with shoulder log-linear or first-order kinetic models, from which the presence of a shoulder and magnitude of inactivation rate constants were compared. Eighty-four percent reduction in the UVB light intensity roughly matched a 72-95% reduction in the overall bacterial photoinactivation rate constants in sensitizer-free water. With the UVB light mostly reduced, the exogenous indirect mechanism contribution was evident for most bacteria and photosensitizers tested, although most prominently with the Gram-positive bacteria. Results confirm the importance of UVB light in bacterial photoinactivation and, with the reduction of the UVB light intensity, that the Gram-positive bacteria are more vulnerable to the exogenous indirect mechanism than Gram-negative bacteria. UVB is the most important range of the sunlight spectrum for bacterial photoinactivation. In aquatic environments where photosensitizers are present and there is high UVB light attenuation, UVA and visible wavelengths can contribute to exogenous indirect photoinactivation. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Sunlight exposure behaviour and vitamin D status in photosensitive patients: longitudinal comparative study with healthy individuals at U.K. latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, L E; Webb, A R; Berry, J L; Felton, S J; Marjanovic, E J; Wilkinson, J D; Vail, A; Kift, R

    2014-12-01

    Low vitamin D status is prevalent in wintertime in populations at northerly latitudes. Photosensitive patients are advised to practise sun avoidance, but their sunlight exposure levels, photoprotective measures and resulting vitamin D status are unknown. To examine seasonal vitamin D status in photosensitive patients relative to healthy individuals and to assess quantitatively behavioural and demographic contributors. This was a longitudinal prospective cohort study (53·5°N) examining year-round 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, sun-exposure behaviour and oral vitamin D intake in photosensitive patients diagnosed at a photoinvestigation unit (n = 53), compared with concurrently assessed healthy adults (n = 109). Photosensitive patients achieved seasonal 25(OH)D variation, but insufficient (vitamin D intake was low in both groups (photosensitive: 2·94 μg per day). Supplementation and summer surface area exposure predicted summer peak and winter trough 25(OH)D levels. A 1 μg per day increment in supplementary vitamin D raised summer and winter 25(OH)D by 5% (95% CI 3-7) and 9% (95% CI 5-12), respectively (both P vitamin D status. Guidance on oral measures should target this patient group and their physicians. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Three-dimensionally embedded indium tin oxide (ITO) films in photosensitive glass: a transparent and conductive platform for microdevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beke, S.; Sugioka, K.; Midorikawa, K.; Koroesi, L.; Dekany, I.

    2011-01-01

    A new method for embedding transparent and conductive two- and three-dimensional microstructures in glass is presented. We show that the internal surface of hollow structures fabricated by femtosecond-laser direct writing inside the photosensitive glass can be coated by indium tin oxide (Sn-doped In 2 O 3 , ITO) using a sol-gel process. The idea of combining two transparent materials with different electrical properties, i.e., insulating and conductive, is very promising and hence it opens new prospects in manufacturing cutting edge microdevices, such as lab-on-a-chips (LOCs) and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). (orig.)

  5. Inclusion of 5-[4-(1-dodecanoylpyridinium)]-10,15,20-triphenylporphine in supramolecular aggregates of cationic amphiphilic cyclodextrins: physicochemical characterization of the complexes and strengthening of the antimicrobial photosensitizing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Stefania; Jori, Giulio; Sortino, Salvatore; Stancanelli, Rosanna; Nikolov, Peter; Tognon, Giuseppe; Ricchelli, Fernanda; Mazzaglia, Antonino

    2009-09-14

    Recent findings suggest that visible light-promoted photooxidative processes mediated by sensitizers of appropriate chemical structure could represent a useful tool for properly addressing the problem of the increasing occurrence of infectious diseases caused by multiantibiotic-resistant microbial pathogens. The monocationic meso-substituted porphyrin 5-[4-(1-dodecanoylpyridinium)]-10,15,20-triphenyl-porphine (TDPyP) complexed into supramolecular aggregates of cationic amphiphilic beta-cyclodextrin (SC(6)NH(2)) (mean diameter = 20 nm) appeared to be endowed with favorable properties to act as a photosensitizing agent, including a very high quantum yield (Phi(Delta) = 0.90) for the generation of the highly reactive oxygen species, singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). Although the yield of (1)O(2) generation was comparable to that obtained after TDPyP incorporation into cationic unilamellar liposomes of N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTAP) SC(6)NH(2)-bound TDPyP was more active than DOTAP-bound TDPyP in photosensitizing the inactivation of the Gram-positive methicillin-resistant bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). At variance with DOTAP-bound TDPyP, photoactivated SC(6)NH(2)-bound TDPyP was efficient also in photokilling Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, such as Escherichia coli . These observations are in agreement with the well-known photobactericidal effect of positively charged porphyrin derivatives, which can be markedly enhanced after incorporation into carriers with multiple positive charges. In addition, transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that potentiation of the TDPyP-mediated photobactericidal effect by incorporation into SC(6)NH(2) is a consequence of the carrier's ability to promote an efficient crossing of the very tightly organized three-dimensional architecture of the bacterial outer wall by the embedded porphyrin so that a prompt interaction between the short-lived photogenerated (1)O(2) and the nearby

  6. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...... and inherently static, capital itself is unprecedentedly mobile, fluid and fungible. As such derivatives raise the specter of ‘financial weapons of mass destruction’....

  7. Financial Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Janečková, Alena

    2011-01-01

    1 Abstract/ Financial derivatives The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to financial derivatives which has been, from the legal perspective, described in a not satisfactory manner as quite little literature that can be found about this topic. The main objectives of this thesis are to define the term "financial derivatives" and its particular types and to analyse legal nature of these financial instruments. The last objective is to try to draft future law regulation of finan...

  8. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be hepato- or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Mark G; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Tapper, Brian A

    2014-07-30

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are regarded as "safe" feed for cattle during late summer and fall in the North Island of New Zealand when high Pithomyces chartarum spore counts in pastures frequently lead to sporidesmin toxicity (facial eczema). Sporadic acute severe cases of turnip photosensitization in dairy cows characteristically exhibit high γ-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase serum enzyme activities that mimic those seen in facial eczema. The two diseases can, however, be distinguished by histopathology of the liver, where lesions, in particular those affecting small bile ducts, differ. To date, the hepato-/cholangiotoxic phytochemical causing liver damage in turnip photosensitization in cattle is unknown. Of the hydrolysis products of the various glucosinolate secondary compounds found in high concentrations in turnip and rape, work has shown that nitriles and epithionitriles can be hepatotoxic (and nephro- or pancreatotoxic) in rats. These derivatives include β-hydroxy-thiiranepropanenitrile and 3-hydroxy-4-pentenenitrile from progoitrin; thiiranepropanenitrile and 4-pentenenitrile from gluconapin; thiiranebutanenitrile and 5-hexenenitrile from glucobrassicanapin; phenyl-3-propanenitrile from gluconasturtiin; and indole-3-acetonitrile from glucobrassicin. This perspective explores the possibility of the preferential formation of such derivatives, especially the epithionitriles, in acidic conditions in the bovine rumen, followed by absorption, hepatotoxicity, and secondary photosensitization.

  9. Quenching of porous silicon photoluminescence by molecular oxygen and dependence of this phenomenon on storing media and method of preparation of pSi photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, María; Matveeva, Eugenia

    2010-10-01

    The quenching of porous silicon photoluminescence (pSi PL) by molecular oxygen has been studied in different storing media in an attempt to clarify the mechanism of the energy transfer from the silicon photosensitizer to the oxygen acceptor. Luminescent materials have been prepared by two methods: electrochemical anodizing and chemical etching. Different structural forms were used: porous layers on silicon wafer and two kinds of differently prepared powder. Dry air and liquid water were employed as storing media; quenching behaviour was under observation until total degradation of quenching properties. Singlet oxygen molecules generation through energy transfer from photoluminescent pSi was the only photosensitizing mechanism observed under dry gas conditions. This PL quenching process was preferentially developed at 760 nm (1.63 eV) that corresponds to the formation of the 1Σ singlet oxygen state. Oxidation of the pSi photosensitizer was the main factor that led to its total deactivation in a time scale of few weeks. Regarding water medium, different photosensitizing behaviour was observed. In watery conditions, two preferred energy levels were found: the one detected in dry gas and another centred at approximately 2.2 eV (550 nm). Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) different from singlet oxygen, such as superoxide anion or superoxide radical, can be responsible for the second one. This second quenching process developed gradually after the initial contact of pSi photosensitizer with water and then degraded. The process lasted only several hours. Therefore, functionalization of the pSi photosensitizer is probably required to stabilize its PL and quenching properties in the watery physiological conditions required for biomedical applications.

  10. Quenching of porous silicon photoluminescence by molecular oxygen and dependence of this phenomenon on storing media and method of preparation of pSi photosensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaguer, Maria, E-mail: mabara@itq.upv.e [Technical University of Valencia, Nanophotonics Technology Center (Spain); Matveeva, Eugenia, E-mail: eumat@em-silicon.co [EM-Silicon Nano-Technologies, S.L. (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The quenching of porous silicon photoluminescence (pSi PL) by molecular oxygen has been studied in different storing media in an attempt to clarify the mechanism of the energy transfer from the silicon photosensitizer to the oxygen acceptor. Luminescent materials have been prepared by two methods: electrochemical anodizing and chemical etching. Different structural forms were used: porous layers on silicon wafer and two kinds of differently prepared powder. Dry air and liquid water were employed as storing media; quenching behaviour was under observation until total degradation of quenching properties. Singlet oxygen molecules generation through energy transfer from photoluminescent pSi was the only photosensitizing mechanism observed under dry gas conditions. This PL quenching process was preferentially developed at 760 nm (1.63 eV) that corresponds to the formation of the {sup 1{Sigma}} singlet oxygen state. Oxidation of the pSi photosensitizer was the main factor that led to its total deactivation in a time scale of few weeks. Regarding water medium, different photosensitizing behaviour was observed. In watery conditions, two preferred energy levels were found: the one detected in dry gas and another centred at approximately 2.2 eV (550 nm). Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) different from singlet oxygen, such as superoxide anion or superoxide radical, can be responsible for the second one. This second quenching process developed gradually after the initial contact of pSi photosensitizer with water and then degraded. The process lasted only several hours. Therefore, functionalization of the pSi photosensitizer is probably required to stabilize its PL and quenching properties in the watery physiological conditions required for biomedical applications.

  11. A Novel Photosensitizer 31,131-phenylhydrazine -Mppa (BPHM and Its in Vitro Photodynamic Therapy against HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has attracted widespread attention due to its potential in the treatment of various cancers. Porphyrinic pyropheophorbide-a (PPa has been shown to be a potent photosensitizer in PDT experiments. In this paper, a C-31,131 bisphenylhydrazone modified methyl pyropheophorbide-a (BPHM was designed and synthesized with the consideration that phenylhydrazone structure may extend absorption wavelength of methyl pyro-pheophorbide-a (Mppa, and make the photosensitizer potential in deep tumor treatment. The synthesis, spectral properties and in vitro photodynamic therapy (PDT against human HeLa cervical cancer cell line was studied. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay showed the title compound could achieve strong inhibition of cervical cancer cell viability under visible light (675 nm, 25 J/cm2. Cell uptake experiments were performed on HeLa cells. Morphological changes were examined and analyzed by fluorescent inverted microscope. In addition, the mechanism of the photochemical processes of PDT was investigated, which showed that the formation of singlet oxygen after treatment with PDT played a moderate important role.

  12. Effect of metal ion Fe(III on the performance of chlorophyll as photosensitizers on dye sensitized solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsasi Setyawati

    Full Text Available The energy crisis is a major problem facing the world today and will need a renewable energy source that is environmentally friendly; one of these is the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC. DSSC is photochemical electric cell that can convert solar energy into electrical energy. This research aims to study the characteristics of chlorophyll compounds with the addition of metal ions Fe(III and to determine the effect of Fe(III on the performance of chlorophyll as a photosensitizer in the DSSC. The formation of complex compounds of Fe(III-chlorophyll is shown by the phenomenon of metal ligand charge transfer (MLCT at a wavelength of 263.00 nm and absorption transition d-d at 745.00 nm. Fourier transform infrared characterization of the binding of Fe-O complex compounds appears at 486.06 cm−1. The complex compound of Fe(III-chlorophyll has a magnetic moment value of 9.62 Bohr Magneton (BM. The existence of ion Fe(III in chlorophyll can improve the performance of chlorophyll as a dye sensitizer with a maximum current of 4.00 mA/cm2, maximum voltage of 0.18 volts and efficiency values of 1.35%. Keywords: Fe(III-chlorophyll, Dye sensitized solar cell, Metal ligand charge transfer, Photosensitizer

  13. Intracellular photoinduced oxidative stress by zinc phthalocyanine photosensitization: a study of the early events in real time using confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandratou, Eleni; Yova, Dido; Handris, Panagiotis; Kletsas, Dimitris; Loukas, Spyros

    2003-10-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in several biological and pathological aspects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to act as signal transduction molecules activating reactions leading to cell rescue or to cell apoptosis/necrosis. In the present study, oxidative stress was induced by photosensitization of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) in human fibroblasts using a photodynamic dose that did not lead to apoptosis or necrosis. The induction of oxidative stress was performed at the microscope stage in preassigned time. The cascade of phenomena evoked was studied in real time and at the single cell level using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Using specific vital fluorescent probes, alterations induced by oxidative stress in mitochondria membrane potential, in intracellular pH and in calcium concentration were recorded. Image processing and analysis techniques were used to quantify the observed changes. Subcellular localization of the photosensitizer was studied in order to determine the primary and immediate ROS target. It was found that ZnPc is mainly localized in the mitochondria region.

  14. Light-triggered liposomal cargo delivery platform incorporating photosensitizers and gold nanoparticles for enhanced singlet oxygen generation and increased cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzka, Zofia; Clement, Sandhya; Goldys, Ewa M.; Deng, Wei

    2018-02-01

    We developed light-triggered liposomes incorporating gold nanoparticles and Rose Bengal (RB), a well-known photosensitizer used for photodynamic therapy. Singlet oxygen generated by these liposomes with 532 nm light illumination was characterized by adjusting the molar ratio of lipids and gold nanoparticles while keeping the amount of RB constant. Gold nanoparticles were found to enhance the singlet oxygen generation rate, with a maximum enhancement factor of 1.75 obtained for the molar ratio of HSPC: PE-NH2: gold of 57:5:17 compared with liposomes loaded with RB alone. The experimental results could be explained by the local electric field enhancement caused by gold nanoparticles. We further assessed cellular cytotoxicity of these liposomes by encapsulating an antitumor drug, doxorubicin (Dox); such Dox loaded liposomes were applied to human colorectal cancer cells, HCT116, and exposed to light. Gold-loaded liposomes containing RB and Dox where Dox release was triggered by light were found to exhibit higher cytotoxicity, compared to the liposomes loaded with RB and Dox alone. Our results indicate that gold-loaded liposomes incorporating photosensitizers may have improved therapeutic efficacy in photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy.

  15. Hybrid TiO2 -Ruthenium Nano-photosensitizer Synergistically Produces Reactive Oxygen Species in both Hypoxic and Normoxic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Rebecca C; Black, Kvar C L; Lane, Daniel D; Achilefu, Samuel

    2017-08-28

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is widely used to treat diverse diseases, but its dependence on oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) diminishes the therapeutic effect in a hypoxic environment, such as solid tumors. Herein, we developed a ROS-producing hybrid nanoparticle-based photosensitizer capable of maintaining high levels of ROS under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conjugation of a ruthenium complex (N3) to a TiO 2 nanoparticle afforded TiO 2 -N3. Upon exposure of TiO 2 -N3 to light, the N3 injected electrons into TiO 2 to produce three- and four-fold more hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, than TiO 2 at 160 mmHg. TiO 2 -N3 maintained three-fold higher hydroxyl radicals than TiO 2 under hypoxic conditions via N3-facilitated electron-hole reduction of adsorbed water molecules. The incorporation of N3 transformed TiO 2 from a dual type I and II PDT agent to a predominantly type I photosensitizer, irrespective of the oxygen content. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Controlled Vectorial Electron Transfer and Photoelectrochemical Applications of Layered Relay/Photosensitizer-Imprinted Au Nanoparticle Architectures on Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Tzuriel S; Tel-Vered, Ran; Willner, Itamar

    2016-03-23

    Two configurations of molecularly imprinted bis-aniline-bridged Au nanoparticles (NPs) for the specific binding of the electron acceptor N,N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (MV(2+) ) and for the photosensitizer Zn(II)-protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)-PP-IX) are assembled on electrodes, and the photoelectrochemical features of the two configurations are discussed. Configuration I includes the MV(2+) -imprinted Au NPs matrix as a base layer, on which the Zn(II)-PP-IX-imprinted Au NPs layer is deposited, while configuration II consists of a bilayer corresponding to the reversed imprinting order. Irradiation of the two electrodes in the presence of a benzoquinone/benzohydroquinone redox probe yields photocurrents of unique features: (i) Whereas configuration I yields an anodic photocurrent, the photocurrent generated by configuration II is cathodic. (ii) The photocurrents obtained upon irradiation of the imprinted electrodes are substantially higher as compared to the nonimprinted surfaces. The high photocurrents generated by the imprinted Au NPs-modified electrodes are attributed to the effective loading of the imprinted matrices with the MV(2+) and Zn(II)-PP-IX units and to the effective charge separation proceeding in the systems. The directional anodic/cathodic photocurrents are rationalized in terms of vectorial electron transfer processes dictated by the imprinting order and by the redox potentials of the photosensitizer/electron acceptor units associated with the imprinted sites in the two configurations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Clinical characteristics of three patients with UV{sup s} syndrome, a photosensitive disorder with defective DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, T.; Yamaizumi, M.; Hiro-oka, M.; Matsui, T.; Matsuno, M.; Ono, T. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ichihashi, M. [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-06-01

    Recently, we established a new category of photosensitive disorder termed UVsup(s) syndrome. Cells from patients with UVsup(s) syndrome have a similar UV sensitivity as xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells, but have a normal level of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) unlike XP. UVsup(s) syndrome is distinct from Cockayne syndrome (CS) or XP including XP variant (XP-V) as determined by studies of genetic factors using cell fusion, microinjection, and postreplication repair assays. In this study, we identified three japanese patients with UVsup(s) syndrome: an 11-year-old girl, a 17 year old male, and an 8-year-old boy. The first two patients were siblings, while the third was a case from a different family. All of these patients exhibited acute recurrent sunburn. Common clinical manifestations of the patients were slight erythema and dryness, a number of freckles on sun-exposed areas, and slight telangiectasia only seen on the cheek and nose. Patient 3 showed a lowered minimal erythema dose between 280 and 300 nm. The patients` fibroblasts showed similar characteristics to those in CS, such as UV sensitivity, and a failure of RNA synthesis (RRS) after UV irradiation, despite a normal level of UDS. Thus, UVsup(s) syndrome is a new hereditary photosensitive disorder with clinical manifestations similar to a mild form of Xp but showing the cellular characteristics of CS. (Author).

  18. Prooxidative and antioxidative properties of β-carotene in chlorophyll and riboflavin photosensitized oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JungWoo; Kim, Tae Soo; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2013-09-01

    Effects of β-carotene on the oxidative stability of chlorophyll or riboflavin photosensitized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were determined by analysing the depleted headspace oxygen content, lipid hydroperoxides, fluorescence intensity, and headspace volatiles. As the concentration of β-carotene increased from 0 to 10, 100, and 1000 μM, the oxidative stability of samples containing chlorophylls decreased in a concentration-dependent manner under light, indicating that β-carotene acted as a prooxidant. However, in riboflavin photosensitized O/W emulsions, 100 and 1000 μM β-carotene inhibited lipid oxidation. Although β-carotene protected both photosensitisers in O/W emulsions, β-carotene displayed antioxidative or prooxidative properties, which depended on the polarity of the photosensitisers. The development of t-2-heptenal and 1-octen-3-ol increased greatly in chlorophyll sensitised O/W emulsions with an increase in β-carotene concentration, implying that more singlet oxygen oxidation occurred due to the higher levels of remaining chlorophylls. However, the content of t-2-heptenal and 1-octen-3-ol in the riboflavin sensitised O/W emulsions was not significantly correlated with the β-carotene concentration, which indicates that β-carotene in the lipid particles effectively quenched singlet oxygen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Highly transparent ITO thin films on photosensitive glass: sol-gel synthesis, structure, morphology and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroesi, Laszlo; Papp, Szilvia; Dekany, Imre [University of Szeged, Supramolecular and Nanostructured Materials Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary); Beke, Szabolcs [Italian Institute of Technology, Department of Nanophysics, Genova (Italy); Pecz, Bela; Horvath, Robert; Petrik, Peter; Agocs, Emil [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-05-15

    Conductive and highly transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared on photosensitive glass substrates by the combination of sol-gel and spin-coating techniques. First, the substrates were coated with amorphous Sn-doped indium hydroxide, and these amorphous films were then calcined at 550 {sup circle} C to produce crystalline and electrically conductive ITO layers. The resulting thin films were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The measurements revealed that the ITO films were composed of spherical crystallites around 20 nm in size with mainly cubic crystal structure. The ITO films acted as antireflection coatings increasing the transparency of the coated substrates compared to that of the bare supports. The developed ITO films with a thickness of {proportional_to}170-330 nm were highly transparent in the visible spectrum with sheet resistances of 4.0-13.7 k{omega}/sq. By coating photosensitive glass with ITO films, our results open up new perspectives in micro- and nano-technology, for example in fabricating conductive and highly transparent 3D microreactors. (orig.)

  20. Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Schlie, Sabrina; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Haverich, Axel; Chichkov, Boris N

    2007-01-01

    We report on recent advances in the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine constructs using a two-photon polymerization technique (2PP). 2PP is a novel CAD/CAM technology allowing the fabrication of any computer-designed 3D structure from a photosensitive polymeric material. The flexibility of this technology and the ability to precisely define 3D construct geometry allows issues associated with vascularization and patient-specific tissue fabrication to be directly addressed. The fabrication of reproducible scaffold structures by 2PP is important for systematic studies of cellular processes and better understanding of in vitro tissue formation. In this study, 2PP was applied for the generation of 3D scaffold-like structures, using the photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid polymer ORMOCER (ORganically MOdified CERamics) and epoxy-based SU8 materials. By comparing the proliferation rates of cells grown on flat material surfaces and under control conditions, it was demonstrated that ORMOCER and SU8 are not cytotoxic. Additional tests show that the DNA strand breaking of GFSHR-17 granulosa cells was not affected by the presence of ORMOCER. Furthermore, gap junction conductance measurements revealed that ORMOCER did not alter the formation of cell-cell junctions, critical for functional tissue growth. The possibilities of seeding 3D structures with cells were analysed. These studies demonstrate the great potential of 2PP technique for the manufacturing of scaffolds with controlled topology and properties.

  1. Photosensitized UVA-Induced Cross-Linking between Human DNA Repair and Replication Proteins and DNA Revealed by Proteomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Long wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320–400 nm) interacts with chromophores present in human cells to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage both DNA and proteins. ROS levels are amplified, and the damaging effects of UVA are exacerbated if the cells are irradiated in the presence of UVA photosensitizers such as 6-thioguanine (6-TG), a strong UVA chromophore that is extensively incorporated into the DNA of dividing cells, or the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Both DNA-embedded 6-TG and ciprofloxacin combine synergistically with UVA to generate high levels of ROS. Importantly, the extensive protein damage induced by these photosensitizer+UVA combinations inhibits DNA repair. DNA is maintained in intimate contact with the proteins that effect its replication, transcription, and repair, and DNA–protein cross-links (DPCs) are a recognized reaction product of ROS. Cross-linking of DNA metabolizing proteins would compromise these processes by introducing physical blocks and by depleting active proteins. We describe a sensitive and statistically rigorous method to analyze DPCs in cultured human cells. Application of this proteomics-based analysis to cells treated with 6-TG+UVA and ciprofloxacin+UVA identified proteins involved in DNA repair, replication, and gene expression among those most vulnerable to cross-linking under oxidative conditions. PMID:27654267

  2. Influence of red laser irradiation and photosensitizers Photoditazine and Dimegin on the growth of methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, G. E.; Egorova, A. V.; Bugaeva, I. O.; Tuchina, E. S.; Morozov, O. A.; Ponomaryov, G. V.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of red laser irradiation on the growth of colonies of methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus and photodynamic effects of the photosensitizers Photoditazine and Dimegin were performed. It was established that the red semiconductor laser (λ - 660 nm, 100 mW/cm2) at 10-, 15- and 30-mins exposure, has a direct bacteriostatic action on the growth of S. aureus. Pre-treatment of bacterial cells by Photoditazine significantly enhances the inhibitory effect. The photosensitizing action of Dimegin does not appear at influence on methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

  3. Cellular and molecular effects of the liposomal mTHPC derivative Foslipos in prostate carcinoma cells in-vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Besic Gyenge, E; Hiestand, S; Graefe, S; Walt, H; Maake, C

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meso-tetra-hydroxyphenyl-chlorine (mTHPC) is among the most powerful photosensitizers available for photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the mechanisms leading to cell death are poorly understood. We here focused on changes at DNA and RNA levels after treatment with the liposomal mTHPC derivative Foslipos in vitro. METHODS: After determination of darktoxicity, laser conditions and uptake kinetics, PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells were subjected to PDT with Foslipos, followed by as...

  4. In vitro cross-linking of bovine lens proteins photosensitized by promazines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merville, M.P.; Decuyper, J.; Piette, J.; Calberg-Bacq, C.M.; Van de Vorst, A.

    1984-01-01

    Promazine derivatives induce cross-linking of bovine lens crystallins in vitro by irradiation with near-ultraviolet (UV) light in the presence of O 2 , as revealed by electrophoresis after denaturation. With the five derivatives tested (promazine [PZ], chlorpromazine [CPZ], triflupromazine [TFPZ], methoxypromazine [MTPZ], and acepromazine [ACPZ]), single-hit kinetics are observed. Evidence implicating the cation radicals of the PZ derivatives as the causative agent of this in vitro effect is presented. Hydroxyl radicals do not appear to be involved in the photo-cross-linking reaction. Sodium ascorbate protects against damage induced either by PZ derivatives plus light or by PZ cation radicals in the dark. These findings are discussed with respect to development of cataracts induced by these drugs in vivo

  5. Photoinduced membrane damage of E. coli and S. aureus by the photosensitizer-antimicrobial peptide conjugate eosin-(KLAKLAK2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Upon irradiation with visible light, the photosensitizer-peptide conjugate eosin-(KLAKLAK2 kills a broad spectrum of bacteria without damaging human cells. Eosin-(KLAKLAK2 therefore represents an interesting lead compound for the treatment of local infection by photodynamic bacterial inactivation. The mechanisms of cellular killing by eosin-(KLAKLAK2, however, remain unclear and this lack of knowledge hampers the development of optimized therapeutic agents. Herein, we investigate the localization of eosin-(KLAKLAK2 in bacteria prior to light treatment and examine the molecular basis for the photodynamic activity of this conjugate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By employing photooxidation of 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB, (scanning transmission electron microscopy ((STEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS methodologies, eosin-(KLAKLAK2 is visualized at the surface of E. coli and S. aureus prior to photodynamic irradiation. Subsequent irradiation leads to severe membrane damage. Consistent with these observations, eosin-(KLAKLAK2 binds to liposomes of bacterial lipid composition and causes liposomal leakage upon irradiation. The eosin moiety of the conjugate mediates bacterial killing and lipid bilayer leakage by generating the reactive oxygen species singlet oxygen and superoxide. In contrast, the (KLAKLAK2 moiety targets the photosensitizer to bacterial lipid bilayers. In addition, while (KLAKLAK2 does not disrupt intact liposomes, the peptide accelerates the leakage of photo-oxidized liposomes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, our results suggest that (KLAKLAK2 promotes the binding of eosin Y to bacteria cell walls and lipid bilayers. Subsequent light irradiation results in membrane damage from the production of both Type I & II photodynamic products. Membrane damage by oxidation is then further aggravated by the (KLAKLAK2 moiety and membrane lysis is accelerated by the peptide. These results therefore

  6. Two-Photon Irradiation of an Intracellular Singlet Oxygen Photosensitizer: Achieving Localized Sub-Cellular Excitation in Spatially-Resolved Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Brian Wett; Breitenbach, Thomas; Redmond, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    The response of a given cell to spatially-resolved sub-cellular irradiation of a singlet oxygen photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) using a focused laser was assessed. In these experiments, incident light was scattered over a volume greater than that defi ned by the dimensions of the laser...

  7. Comparison of two photosensitizers Al(III) phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulfonic acid and meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin in the photooxidation of n-butylparaben

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gmurek, M.; Kubát, Pavel; Mosinger, Jiří; Miller, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 223, č. 1 (2011), s. 50-56 ISSN 1010-6030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : photosensitization * porphyrin * phthalocyanine Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.421, year: 2011

  8. Photodynamic efficacy of liposome-delivered hypocrellin B in microvascular endothelial cells in vitro and chicken combs in vivo: a potential photosensitizer for port wine stain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H X; Zou, X B; Yang, Z F; Zhu, J G; Gu, Y; Deng, H; Zhao, J Q

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proved a successful method for port wine stain (PWS), but the prolonged skin photosensitivity induced by the photosensitizers used currently seriously limits the clinical application of PDT. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of hypocrellin B (HB), a promising second-generation photosensitizer for the treatment of PWS. The photodynamic effect of liposome-delivered HB was evaluated in vitro with microvascular endothelial cells (MEC) and in vivo with chicken combs. The dark cytotoxicity and photocytotoxicity of liposomal HB in MEC were evaluated using the MTT assay. Gross and histological examinations were performed to investigate the selective occlusion of the superficial dermal microvasculature in the chicken comb. The result showed that photocytotoxicity of liposomal HB was dependent on both light dose and drug concentration. PDT with HB (0.5–1 mg kg −1 ) and a light dose of 120 J cm −2 showed selective destruction of the superficial dermal microvasculature of the chicken comb, leaving the overlying epidermis intact. This is the first study to investigate the potential efficacy of HB-PDT as a novel modality for the treatment of PWS. These findings suggest that liposomal HB is a safe and effective photosensitizer for PWS. (paper)

  9. Derivative chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂ μ φ∂ μ φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂ μ φ∂ μ φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type

  10. Derivative chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noller, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.noller08@imperial.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  11. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivative for bacterial skin infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2014-09-01

    Folliculitis, furunculosis and acne vulgaris are very common skin disorders of the hair follicles and are associated with large grease-producing (sebaceous) glands. Although the detailed mechanisms involved these skin disorders are not fully understood, it is believed that the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are the key pathogenic factors involved. Conventional treatments targeting the pathogenic factors include a variety of topical and oral medications such as antibiotics. The wide use of antibiotics leads to bacterial resistance, and hence there is a need for new alternatives in above bacterial skin treatment. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is based on an initial photosensitization of the infected area, followed by irradiation with visible light, producing singlet oxygen which is cytotoxic to bacteria. Herein we reported a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys)5) and its PACT effect for the bacteria involved in these skin infections. Our results demonstrated strong bactericidal effects of this photosensitizer on both strains of the bacteria, suggesting ZnPc-(Lys)5 as a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by these bacteria.

  12. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  13. Irradiation- and Sensitizer-Dependent Changes in the Lifetime of Intracellular Singlet Oxygen Produced in a Photosensitized Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Elsa; Pedersen, Brian Wett; Breitenbach, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Singlet oxygen, O2(a1Δg), was produced upon pulsed-laser irradiation of an intracellular photosensitizer and detected by its 1275 nm O2(a1Δg) →O2(X3Σg-) phosphorescence in time-resolved experiments using (1) individual mammalian cells on the stage of a microscope and (2) suspensions of mammalian...... cells in a 1 cm cuvette. Data were recorded using hydrophilic and, independently, hydrophobic sensitizers. The microscope-based single cell results are consistent with a model in which the behavior of singlet oxygen reflects the environment in which it is produced; nevertheless, the data also indicate...... that a significant fraction of a given singlet oxygen population readily crosses barriers between phase-separated intracellular domains. The singlet oxygen phosphorescence signals reflect the effects of singlet-oxygen-mediated damage on cell components which, at the limit, mean that data were collected from dead...

  14. Studies of transfer reactions of photosensitized electrons involving complexes of transition metals in view of solar energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakubo, Masaaki

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis addresses electron transfer reactions occurring during photosynthesis, for example, photosensitized reaction in which chlorophyll is the sensitizer. More specifically, the author studied experimentally electron photo-transfers with type D sensitizers (riboflavin, phenoxazine and porphyrin), and various complexes of transition metals. After a presentation of these experiments, the author describes the photosensitisation process (photo-physics of riboflavin, oxygen deactivation, sensitized photo-oxidation and photo-reduction). The theoretical aspect of electron transfer is then addressed: generalities, deactivation of the riboflavin triplet, initial efficiency of electron transfer. Experimental results on three basic processes (non-radiative deactivation, energy transfer, electron transfer) are interpreted in a unified way by using the non-radiative transfer theory. Some applications are described: photo-electrochemical batteries, photo-oxidation and photo-reduction of the cobalt ion

  15. EGFR targeted nanobody-photosensitizer conjugates for photodynamic therapy in a pre-clinical model of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, Pieter B A A; Boonstra, Martin C; Slooter, Maxime D; Heukers, Raimond; Stammes, Marieke A; Snoeks, Thomas J A; de Bruijn, Henriette S; van Diest, Paul J; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; van Bergen En Henegouwen, Paul M P; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Robinson, Dominic J; Oliveira, Sabrina

    2016-05-10

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces cell death through local light activation of a photosensitizer (PS) and has been used to treat head and neck cancers. Yet, common PS lack tumor specificity, which leads to collateral damage to normal tissues. Targeted delivery of PS via antibodies has pre-clinically improved tumor selectivity. However, antibodies have long half-lives and relatively poor tissue penetration, which could limit therapeutic efficacy and lead to long photosensitivity. Here, in this feasibility study, we evaluate at the pre-clinical level a recently introduced format of targeted PDT, which employs nanobodies as targeting agents and a water-soluble PS (IRDye700DX) that is traceable through optical imaging. In vitro, the PS solely binds to cells and induces phototoxicity on cells overexpressing the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), when conjugated to the EGFR targeted nanobodies. To investigate whether this new format of targeted PDT is capable of inducing selective tumor cell death in vivo, PDT was applied on an orthotopic mouse tumor model with illumination at 1h post-injection of the nanobody-PS conjugates, as selected from quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. In parallel, and as a reference, PDT was applied with an antibody-PS conjugate, with illumination performed 24h post-injection. Importantly, EGFR targeted nanobody-PS conjugates led to extensive tumor necrosis (approx. 90%) and almost no toxicity in healthy tissues, as observed through histology 24h after PDT. Overall, results show that these EGFR targeted nanobody-PS conjugates are selective and able to induce tumor cell death in vivo. Additional studies are now needed to assess the full potential of this approach to improving PDT. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Photodynamic effect of photosensitizer-loaded hollow silica nanoparticles for hepatobiliary malignancies: an in vitro and in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaofeng; Xiong, Li; Wen, Yu; Liu, Zhongtao; Pei, Dongni; Huang, Yaxun; Miao, Xiongying

    2014-03-01

    Background and aims: Nanoparticles have been explored recently as an efficient delivery system for photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. In this study, polyhematoporphyrin (C34H38N4NaO5,) was loaded into hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNP) by one-step wet chemical-based synthetic route. We evaluate the efficacy and safety of polyhematoporphyrin-loaded HSNP with hepatobiliary malignant cells and in vivo models. Methods: Human liver cancer, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer cells were cultured with the HSNP and cellular viability was determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were measured by flow cytometry. Finally, we investigate its effect in vivo. Results: In MTT assay, the cell viability of QBC939, Huh-7, GBC-SD and HepG2 cells of the HSNP was 6.4+/-1.3%, 6.5+/-1.2%, 3.7+/-1.2% and 4.7+/-2.0%, respectively, which were significant different from that of free polyhematoporphyrin 62.4+/-4.7%, 62.5+/-6.0%, 33.4+/-6.5% and 44.3+/-1.9%. Flow cytometry demonstrated the laser-induced cell death with polyhematoporphyrin-loaded HSNP was much more severe. Similarly, in vivo results of each kind of cell revealed 14 days post-photoradiated, tumor sizes of the HSNP group were significantly smaller. Administration of the HSNP without illumination cannot cause killing effect both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Conclusions: HSNP is a desirable delivery system in photodynamic therapy for hepatobiliary malignacies, with improved aqueous solubility, stability and transport efficiency of photosensitizers.

  17. Effects of ZnS layer on the performance improvement of the photosensitive ZnO nanowire arrays solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Hafiz Muhammad Asif [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Que, Wenxiu, E-mail: wxque@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Gao, Yanping; Xing, Yonglei [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Kong, Ling Bing, E-mail: ELBKong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-08-01

    The impact of ZnS layer as an interface modification on the photosensitive ZnO nanowire arrays solar cells was studied. CdS, CdSe and ZnS were deposited on ZnO nanowire arrays by SILAR method. When a ZnS layer was deposited, the quantum dot barrier was indirectly become in contact with the electrolyte, which thus restrained the flow of electrons. The CdS sensitized solar cells has an efficiency of 0.55% with the deposition of the ZnS(3) layer, that is, with a deposition of three times, whereas the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells has an efficiency of 2.03% with the deposition of the ZnS(1) layer. It was also noted that as the thickness of the of ZnS layer was increased, V{sub oc}, I{sub sc} and efficiencies of both the solar cells were first increased and then decreased. In addition, the CdS/N719 solar cells has an efficiency of 0.75% with the deposition of the ZnS(2) layer. - Highlights: • The impact of ZnS layer on the photosensitive ZnO nanowire solar cells was studied. • ZnS layer restrained the flow of electrons to the electrolyte. • CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells have higher efficiency than CdS solar cells. • When ZnS layer was increased, V{sub oc} and I{sub sc} firstly increased and then decreased.

  18. Changes in brain peptides associated with reproduction and energy homeostasis in photosensitive and photorefractory migratory redheaded buntings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbhi; Rastogi, Ashutosh; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-05-01

    Present study examined the expression of brain peptides associated with the reproduction and energy homeostasis (GnRH/GnIH, NPY/VIP), and assessed their possible functional association in the photosensitive (non-breeding, pre-breeding), photostimulated (breeding) and photorefractory (post-breeding) migratory redheaded buntings (Emberiza bruniceps), using double-labeled immunohistochemistry. Particularly, we measured immunoreactive (-ir) cell numbers, per cent cell area and cell optical density (OD) in the preoptic area (GnRH-I), midbrain (GnRH-II), paraventricular nucleus (GnIH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, DMH and infundibular complex, INc (NPY and VIP), and lateral septal organ (VIP) of buntings kept under natural photoperiods at the wintering latitude (26°55'N). There was a significant seasonal difference in GnRH-I, not GnRH-II, with reduced -ir cells in the photosensitive and photorefractory buntings, and notably with increased cell OD between the refractory and non-breeding states with no increase in testis size. Also, increased cell OD of GnIH neurons in non-breeding state indicated its role in the maintenance of small testes during the post-refractory period. Overall, seasonal changes in GnRH-I and GnIH were found consistent with their suggested roles in reproductive regulation of absolute photorefractory birds. Further, there was a significant seasonal change in cell OD of NPY neurons in DMH, not the INc. In contrast, VIP immunoreactivity was seasonally altered, with a significantly higher VIP-ir cells in breeding than the pre-breeding state. Finally, close proximity between perikarya with fibres suggested functional interactions between the GnRH and GnIH, and NPY and VIP. Thus, seasonal plasticity of brain peptides is perhaps the part of neural regulation of seasonal reproduction and associated energy homeostasis in migratory songbirds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Higher operation temperature quadrant photon detectors of 2-11 μm wavelength radiation with large photosensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, J.; Sosna, A.; Wojnowski, D.; Koźniewski, A.; Romanis, M.; Gawron, W.; Piotrowski, J.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the quadrant photon HgCdTe detectors optimized for 2-11 μm wavelength spectral range and Peltier or no cooling, and photosensitive area of a quad-cell of 1×1 to 4×4 mm. The devices are fabricated as photoconductors or multiple photovoltaic cells connected in series (PVM). The former are characterized by a relatively uniform photosensitive area. The PVM photovoltaic cells are distributed along the wafer surface, comprising a periodical stripe structure with a period of 20 μm. Within each period, there is an insensitive gap/trench spot of size close to the period, but becomes negligible for the optimal spot size comparable to a quadrant-cell area. The photoconductors produce 1/f noise with about 10 kHz knee frequency, due to bias necessary for their operation. The PVM photodiodes are typically operated at 0 V bias, so they generate no 1/f noise and operation from DC is enabled. At 230 K, upper corner frequency of 16 to 100 MHz is obtained for photoconductor and 60 to 80 MHz for PVM, normalized detectivity D* 6×107 cm×Hz1/2/W to >1.4×108 cm×Hz1/2/W for photoconductor and >1.7×108 cm·Hz1/2/W for PVM, allowing for position control of the radiation beam with submicron accuracy at 16 MHz, 10.6 μm wavelength of pulsed radiation spot of 0.8 mm dia at the close-to-maximal input radiation power density in a range of detector linear operation.

  20. BODIPY-Au(I): A Photosensitizer for Singlet Oxygen Generation and Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçüncü, Muhammed; Karakuş, Erman; Kurulgan Demirci, Eylem; Sayar, Melike; Dartar, Suay; Emrullahoğlu, Mustafa

    2017-05-19

    Upon complexation with Au(I), a photoinactive BODIPY derivative was transformed into a highly photoactive triplet sensitizer. Along with high efficiency in singlet oxygen generation (Φ Δ = 0.84), the new BODIPY-Au(I) skeleton showed excellent photocytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines (EC 50 = 2.5 nM).

  1. Dark and Photoinduced Cytotoxic Activity of the New Chlorophyll-a Derivatives with Oligoethylene Glycol Substituents on the Periphery of Their Macrocycles

    OpenAIRE

    Yana I. Pylina; Dmitry M. Shadrin; Oksana G. Shevchenko; Olga M. Startseva; Igor O. Velegzhaninov; Dmitry V. Belykh; Ilya O. Velegzhaninov

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated the dark and photoinduced cytotoxic activity of the new chlorophyll-a derivatives which contain the substituents of oligoethylene glycol on the periphery of their macrocycles. These compounds were tested using human cell lines to estimate their potential as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy of cancer. It was shown that all the tested compounds have expressed photoinduced cytotoxic activity in vitro. Detailed study of the biological activity of one ...

  2. Phosphorus dendrimers and photodynamic therapy. Spectroscopic studies on two dendrimer-photosensitizer complexes: Cationic phosphorus dendrimer with rose bengal and anionic phosphorus dendrimer with methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrzalska, Monika; Zablocka, Maria; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara

    2015-08-15

    Dendrimers due to their unique architecture may play an important role in drug delivery systems including chemotherapy, gene therapy and recently, photodynamic therapy as well. We investigated two dendrimer-photosensitizer systems in context of potential use of these systems in photodynamic therapy. The mixtures of an anionic phosphorus dendrimer of the second generation and methylene blue were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy while that of a cationic phosphorus dendrimer (third generation) and rose bengal were investigated by spectrofluorimetric methods. Spectroscopic analysis of these two systems revealed the formation of dendrimer-photosensitizer complexes via electrostatic interactions as well as π stacking. The stoichiometry of the rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex was estimated to be 7:1 and 9:1 for the methylene blue-anionic dendrimer complex. The results suggest that these polyanionic or polycationic phosphorus dendrimers can be promising candidates as carriers in photodynamic therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improvement in device performance from a mixture of a liquid crystal and photosensitive acrylic prepolymer with the photoinduced vertical alignment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czung-Yu Ho, Fa-Hsin Lin, Yu-Tai Tao and Jiunn-Yih Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a multicomponent nematic liquid crystal (NLC mixture of a liquid crystal (negative-type NLC and a photosensitive acrylic prepolymer, photopolymerization upon UV irradiation induces the separation of the LC and photosensitive acrylic prepolymer layers, thereby leading to a vertical arrangement of LC molecules. In this study, we propose a simple vertical alignment method for LC molecules, by adding a chiral smectic A (SmA* liquid crystal having homeotropic texture characteristics to an NLC mixture solution. Measurements of electro-optical properties revealed that the addition of the SmA* LC not only strengthened the anchoring force of the copolymer alignment film surface, but also significantly enhanced the contrast ratio (~73%, response time and grayscale switching performance of the device.

  4. Fabrication of ridge waveguide structure from photosensitive TiO2/ormosil hybrid films by using an ultraviolet soft imprint technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuehua; Que, Wenxiu; Chen, Jing; Gao, Tianxi; Hu, Jiaxing; Liu, Weiguo

    2013-01-01

    Photosensitive TiO 2 /organically modified silane hybrid films were prepared by combining a low-temperature sol–gel process with a spin-coating technique. Optical properties and photochemical activities of the as-prepared hybrid sol–gel films under different UV irradiation time were characterized and monitored by prism coupling technique, UV–visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface morphology of the hybrid films was also observed by an atomic force microscopy. Advantages for fabrication of ridge waveguide structure based on the photosensitive hybrid films were demonstrated by an ultraviolet soft imprint technique. Effects of imprint force, imprint time, and UV irradiation time on high replication fidelity of the ridge waveguide structure were also investigated. An altitude replication fidelity of 99.7% can be obtained when the imprint force of 2 MPa, imprint time of 30 min and UV irradiation time of 45 min were chosen. Scanning electron microscopy and surface profiler were used to characterize the morphological and surface profile properties of the as fabricated ridge waveguide structure. Results indicate that the as-prepared photosensitive hybrid materials have great applicability for the fabrication of micro-optical elements and advantage as the imprint layer under the ultraviolet soft imprint technique. - Highlights: ► Photosensitive TiO 2 /ormosil hybrid film is prepared by a sol–gel process. ► Optical properties of the films change a little with UV exposure time. ► Photo-chemical property of the film changes a lot with UV exposure time. ► The imprint force and time, and the UV exposure time affect the imprint fidelity. ► A fidelity value of 99.7% is obtained under an optimized condition

  5. Fabrication of ridge waveguide structure from photosensitive TiO{sub 2}/ormosil hybrid films by using an ultraviolet soft imprint technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuehua [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Que, Wenxiu, E-mail: wxque@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Chen, Jing; Gao, Tianxi; Hu, Jiaxing [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Liu, Weiguo [Micro-optoelectronic Systems Laboratories, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an 710032, Shaanxi (China)

    2013-03-01

    Photosensitive TiO{sub 2}/organically modified silane hybrid films were prepared by combining a low-temperature sol–gel process with a spin-coating technique. Optical properties and photochemical activities of the as-prepared hybrid sol–gel films under different UV irradiation time were characterized and monitored by prism coupling technique, UV–visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface morphology of the hybrid films was also observed by an atomic force microscopy. Advantages for fabrication of ridge waveguide structure based on the photosensitive hybrid films were demonstrated by an ultraviolet soft imprint technique. Effects of imprint force, imprint time, and UV irradiation time on high replication fidelity of the ridge waveguide structure were also investigated. An altitude replication fidelity of 99.7% can be obtained when the imprint force of 2 MPa, imprint time of 30 min and UV irradiation time of 45 min were chosen. Scanning electron microscopy and surface profiler were used to characterize the morphological and surface profile properties of the as fabricated ridge waveguide structure. Results indicate that the as-prepared photosensitive hybrid materials have great applicability for the fabrication of micro-optical elements and advantage as the imprint layer under the ultraviolet soft imprint technique. - Highlights: ► Photosensitive TiO{sub 2}/ormosil hybrid film is prepared by a sol–gel process. ► Optical properties of the films change a little with UV exposure time. ► Photo-chemical property of the film changes a lot with UV exposure time. ► The imprint force and time, and the UV exposure time affect the imprint fidelity. ► A fidelity value of 99.7% is obtained under an optimized condition.

  6. Versatile digital micromirror device-based method for the recording of multilevel optical diffractive elements in photosensitive chalcogenide layers (AMTIR-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerg, Alexandre; Vignaux, Mael; Lumeau, Julien

    2016-08-01

    A new alternative and versatile method for the production of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) with up to four phase levels in AMTIR-1 (Ge33As12Se55) layers is demonstrated. The developed method proposes the use of the photosensitive properties of the layers and a specific in situ optical monitoring coupled with a reverse engineering algorithm to control the trigger points of the writing of the different diffractive patterns. Examples of various volume DOEs are presented.

  7. Imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans samples and sub-cellular localization of new generation photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, using non-linear microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippidis, G [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas, PO Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion (Greece); Kouloumentas, C [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas, PO Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion (Greece); Kapsokalyvas, D [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas, PO Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion (Greece); Voglis, G [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation of Research and Technology, Heraklion 71110, Crete (Greece); Tavernarakis, N [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation of Research and Technology, Heraklion 71110, Crete (Greece); Papazoglou, T G [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas, PO Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion (Greece)

    2005-08-07

    Two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) are relatively new promising tools for the imaging and mapping of biological structures and processes at the microscopic level. The combination of the two image-contrast modes in a single instrument can provide unique and complementary information concerning the structure and the function of tissues and individual cells. The extended application of this novel, innovative technique by the biological community is limited due to the high price of commercial multiphoton microscopes. In this study, a compact, inexpensive and reliable setup utilizing femtosecond pulses for excitation was developed for the TPEF and SHG imaging of biological samples. Specific cell types of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were imaged. Detection of the endogenous structural proteins of the worm, which are responsible for observation of SHG signals, was achieved. Additionally, the binding of different photosensitizers in the HL-60 cell line was investigated, using non-linear microscopy. The sub-cellular localization of photosensitizers of a new generation, very promising for photodynamic therapy (PDT) (Hypericum perforatum L. extracts) was achieved. The sub-cellular localization of these novel photosensitizers was linked with their photodynamic action during PDT, and the possible mechanisms for cell killing have been elucidated.

  8. Influence of aqueous media properties on aggregation and solubility of four structurally related meso-porphyrin photosensitizers evaluated by spectrophotometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyński, J; Tønnesen, H H; Kristensen, S

    2013-02-01

    Porphyrin photosensitizers tend to aggregate in aqueous solutions even in the micromolar concentration range. This is a challenge during formulation of e.g., parenteral preparations for photodynamic cancer therapy, or preparations for local or topical administration in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. Monomerization is essential to achieve biocompatible drug formulations of high bioavailability and physiological response (i.e., photoreactivity) and low toxicity. The aggregation and solubilization of four structurally related meso-tetraphenyl porphyrin photosensitizers with nonionic (4-hydroxy), anionic (4-sulphonate; 4-carboxy) and cationic (4-trimethylanilinium) substituents were evaluated in various vehicles by use of UV-Vis spectroscopy. Substituents, overall charge and charge distribution influenced the pKa-values and interaction of the porphyrins with different solvents, excipients and impurities. Modification of medium polarity and solubilization by the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 adjusted the acid-base equilibria and increased the solubility by reduction of porphyrin aggregation. The selected porphyrins were sensitive towards ionic strength, temperature and inorganic impurities to various extents. The results will be further used during development of parenteral and topical formulations of porphyrin photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy of cancer and bacterial infections.

  9. Towards PDT with Genetically Encoded Photosensitizer KillerRed: A Comparison of Continuous and Pulsed Laser Regimens in an Animal Tumor Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Shirmanova

    Full Text Available The strong phototoxicity of the red fluorescent protein KillerRed allows it to be considered as a potential genetically encoded photosensitizer for the photodynamic therapy (PDT of cancer. The advantages of KillerRed over chemical photosensitizers are its expression in tumor cells transduced with the appropriate gene and direct killing of cells through precise damage to any desired cell compartment. The ability of KillerRed to affect cell division and to induce cell death has already been demonstrated in cancer cell lines in vitro and HeLa tumor xenografts in vivo. However, the further development of this approach for PDT requires optimization of the method of treatment. In this study we tested the continuous wave (593 nm and pulsed laser (584 nm, 10 Hz, 18 ns modes to achieve an antitumor effect. The research was implemented on CT26 subcutaneous mouse tumors expressing KillerRed in fusion with histone H2B. The results showed that the pulsed mode provided a higher rate of photobleaching of KillerRed without any temperature increase on the tumor surface. PDT with the continuous wave laser was ineffective against CT26 tumors in mice, whereas the pulsed laser induced pronounced histopathological changes and inhibition of tumor growth. Therefore, we selected an effective regimen for PDT when using the genetically encoded photosensitizer KillerRed and pulsed laser irradiation.

  10. Development and Applications Of Photosensitive Device Systems To Studies Of Biological And Organic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruner, Sol

    2012-01-20

    The primary focus of the grant is the development of new x-ray detectors for biological and materials work at synchrotron sources, especially Pixel Array Detectors (PADs), and the training of students via research applications to problems in biophysics and materials science using novel x-ray methods. This Final Progress Report provides a high-level overview of the most important accomplishments. These major areas of accomplishment include: (1) Development and application of x-ray Pixel Array Detectors; (2) Development and application of methods of high pressure x-ray crystallography as applied to proteins; (3) Studies on the synthesis and structure of novel mesophase materials derived from block co-polymers.

  11. Imaging of activated caspase-3 in living cell by fluorescence resonance energy transfer during photosensitization-induced apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunxia; Xing, Da; Chen, Qun; Tang, Yonghong

    2005-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel and promising cancer treatment that employs a combination of a photosensitizing chemical and visible light, induces apoptosis in cell, and activation of caspase-3 is considered to be the final step in many apoptosis pathways. The changes of caspase-3 activation in cell during TNFα- and photodynamic therapy-induced apoptosis was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. FRET probe consisting of fusions of an enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), Venus and a linker peptide containing the caspase-3 cleavage sequence DEVD was utilized. Therefore, activated caspase-3 cleaved the linker peptide of FRET probe and disrupted the FRET signal. Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (ASTC-a-1) were stably transfected with the plasmid (ECFP-DEVD-Venus) and then were treated by TNF-α and PDT, respectively. Experimental results indicated that caspase-3 activation resulted in cleavage of linker peptide and subsequent disruption of the FRET signal during TNFα- and photodynamic therapy-induced apoptosis, and that the activation of caspase-3 induced by photodynamic therapy was faster than that induce by TNF-α. The study supports that using FRET technique and different recombinant substrates as FRET probes could be used to detect the process of PDT-induced apoptosis and provide a new means to investigate apoptotic mechanism of PDT.

  12. Evaluation of post-curing and laser manufacturing parameters on the properties of SOMOS 7110 photosensitive resin used in stereolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmoria, G.V.; Ahrens, C.H.; Beal, V.E.; Pires, A.T.N.; Soldi, V.

    2009-01-01

    The degree of cure of parts produced by stereolithography (SL) depends on laser power, manufacturing parameters, resin photosensitivity characteristics, and so on. Usually parts require a post-cure process, such as ultraviolet radiation and/or thermal treatment to improve their degree of cure, and thermal, mechanical and chemical properties. In this study, we evaluated the influence of line hatch spacing, an important manufacturing parameter, in relation to the calorimetric, dilatometric and hardness behavior of SL parts. The post-cure processes of ultraviolet radiation, microwave irradiation and conventional heating were also investigated. A higher degree of cure in green specimens was obtained with a line hatch spacing of 0.05 mm. However, the utilization of line hatch spacings of 0.15 and 0.10 mm induced an inhomogeneous curing process in relation to the internal and surface specimen structure, and remarkable cure shrinkage. The post-cure processes, especially the thermal treatment, improved the degree of cure of green specimens built using line hatch spacing of 0.10 mm, minimizing the anisotropy inherent to this rapid manufacturing method, which permits a better control over the dimensional behavior of SOMOS 7110 parts

  13. Towards increased selectivity of drug delivery to cancer cells: development of a LDL-based nanodelivery system for hydrophobic photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzova, Diana; Huntosova, Veronika; Kasak, Peter; Petrovajova, Dana; Joniova, Jaroslava; Dzurova, Lenka; Nadova, Zuzana; Sureau, Franck; Midkovsky, Pavol; Jancura, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), a natural in vivo carrier of cholesterol in the vascular system, play a key role in the delivery of hydrophobic photosensitizers (pts) to tumor cells in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. To make this delivery system even more efficient, we have constructed a nano-delivery system by coating of LDL surface by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran. Fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging were used to characterize redistribution of hypericin (Hyp), a natural potent pts, loaded in LDL/PEG and LDL/dextran complexes to free LDL molecules as well as to monitor cellular uptake of Hyp by U87-MG cells. It was shown than the redistribution process of Hyp between LDL molecules is significantly suppressed by dextran coating of LDL surface. On the other hand, PEG does not significantly influence this process. The modification of LDL molecules by the polymers does not inhibit their recognition by cellular LDL receptors. U-87 MG cellular uptake of Hyp loaded in LDL/PEG and LDL/dextran complexes appears to be similar to that one observed for Hyp transported by unmodified LDL particles. It is proposed that by polymers modified LDL molecules could be used as a basis for construction of a drug transport system for targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs to cancer cells expressing high level of LDL receptors.

  14. Effects of pH and ionic strength on the thermodynamics of human serum albumin-photosensitizer binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Cecil L.; Dickson, TiReJe; Hayes, Ronald; Thomas, Lana

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The pH dependence of entropy and enthalpy changes was determined for zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid, ZnPcS 4 binding to human serum albumin, HSA. ► The ionic strength dependence of entropy and enthalpy changes was determined for ZnPcS 4 acid binding to HSA. ► The primary driving force governing the interaction between ZnPcS 4 and HSA over the range of pH and ionic strength was solution dynamics. ► The interplay between entropy and enthalpy changes was demonstrated. - Abstract: Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to measure the effects of pH and ionic strength on thermodynamic parameters governing the interaction of human serum albumin with zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid. Fluorescence emission of zinc phthalocyanine increases at 686 nm with increasing concentrations of the protein. The non-linear correlation between protein concentration and emission of the photosensitizer was fitted using Chipman's analysis to calculate the binding affinities. The standard enthalpy and entropy changes were estimated from van’t Hoff analysis of data that were acquired from temperature ramping studies. Results show that reaction is primarily driven by solution dynamics and that the change in enthalpy for the system becomes increasingly unfavorable with increasing pH and ionic strength. The effect of ionic strength on the entropy change for binding is shown to be significantly greater than the effects of pH. The interplay between entropy and enthalpy changes is demonstrated.

  15. Photosensitivity and Acute Liver Insufficiency in Late-Onset Erythropoietic Protoporphyria with a Chromosome 18q Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Oshikawa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Late-onset erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP is rare, and it is usually associated with an acquired somatic mutation of the ferrochelatase gene secondary to hematological malignancy such as myelodysplastic syndrome or myeloproliferative disorder. In 0.5–1% of patients with EPP, deposition of protoporphyrin in the liver leads to progressive liver insufficiency. Herein, we report the case of a 67-year-old female who developed EPP with typical photosensitivity and hemolytic anemia. Six months later, she was admitted with acute liver damage with a rapidly progressing course, and developed liver insufficiency. She recovered from the liver insufficiency after undergoing plasmapheresis and red blood cell exchange transfusion. A bone marrow examination revealed normal features; however, a cytogenetic analysis identified an abnormal clone of cells with a translocation between chromosomes 13q12 and 18q21.1. This is the first report of a patient who recovered from liver insufficiency. The results of this report suggest that plasmapheresis and red blood cell exchange transfusion are effective for treating liver insufficiency in patients with late-onset EPP.

  16. Photosensitization of InP/ZnS quantum dots for anti-cancer and anti-microbial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jay; Chibli, Hicham; Carlini, Lina

    2012-03-01

    Cadmium-free quantum dots (QDs), such as those made from InP, show similar optical properties to those containing toxic heavy metals and thus provide a promising alternative for imaging and therapeutics. The band gap of InP is similar to that of CdTe, so photosensitization of InP QDs with porphyrins or other dyes should lead to generation of reactive oxygen species, useful for targeted destruction of malignant cells or pathogenic bacteria. Here we show the results of measurements of singlet oxygen and superoxide generation from InP QDs with single and double ZnS shells compared with CdTe and CdSe/ZnS. Reactive oxygen species are measured using colorimetric or fluorescent reporter assays and spin-trap electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. We find that the size of the InP QDs and the thickness of the ZnS shell both strongly influence ROS generation. These results suggest future approaches to the design of therapeutic nanoparticles.

  17. Studies on Preparation of Photosensitizer Loaded Magnetic Silica Nanoparticles and Their Anti-Tumor Effects for Targeting Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhi-Long

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a fast developing alternative of traditional therapeutics, photodynamic therapy (PDT is an effective, noninvasive, nontoxic therapeutics for cancer, senile macular degeneration, and so on. But the efficacy of PDT was compromised by insufficient selectivity and low solubility. In this study, novel multifunctional silica-based magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs were strategically designed and prepared as targeting drug delivery system to achieve higher specificity and better solubility. 2,7,12,18-Tetramethyl-3,8-di-(1-propoxyethyl-13,17-bis-(3-hydroxypropyl porphyrin, shorted as PHPP, was used as photosensitizer, which was first synthesized by our lab with good PDT effects. Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 and PHPP were incorporated into silica nanoparticles by microemulsion and sol–gel methods. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were approximately spherical with 20–30 nm diameter. Intense fluorescence of PHPP was monitored in the cytoplasm of SW480 cells. The nanoparticles possessed good biocompatibility and could generate singlet oxygen to cause remarkable photodynamic anti-tumor effects. These suggested that PHPP-SMNPs had great potential as effective drug delivery system in targeting photodynamic therapy, diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic hyperthermia therapy.

  18. Flow Injection Photosensitized Chemiluminescence of Luminol with Cu(II-Rose Bengal: Mechanistic Approach and Vitamin A and C Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asgher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal photosensitized flow injection chemiluminescence method is reported using luminol-Cu(II for the determination of vitamins A and C in pharmaceutical formulations. The reaction is based on the enhancement effect of analyte in the production of anion radicals of Rose Bengal (RB•− which rapidly interact with dissolved oxygen and generate superoxide anions radicals (O2•− and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (•OH were produced via dismutation of H2O2 by catalyst (Cu2+. The generated superoxide anions radicals and hydroxyl radicals thus oxidize luminol in alkaline medium to generate strong chemiluminescence. The limit of detection (3s of the blank, n=6 of vitamins A and C and RB was found to be 0.008, 0.005, and 0.05 μg mL−1, respectively. The sample throughput of 70 h−1 for vitamins A and C and 30 h−1 for RB was found. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05–15, 0.01–20, and 0.1–50 μg mL−1 for vitamins A and C and RB, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs; n=3 in the range 1.6–3.6%. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulations and the results obtained were in good agreement with the labeled values.

  19. A wafer-level multi-chip module process with thick photosensitive benzocyclobutene as the dielectric for microwave application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Jiajie; Sun, Xiaowei; Luo, Le

    2011-01-01

    A wafer-level microwave multi-chip module (MMCM) packaging process is presented. Thick photosensitive-benzocyclobutene (photo-BCB) polymer (about 25 µm/layer) is used as the dielectric for its simplified process and the capability of obtaining desirable electrical, chemical and mechanical properties at high frequencies. The MMCM packaging structure contains a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chip embedded in a lossy-silicon wafer, a microwave band-pass filter (BPF) and two layers of BCB/Au interconnection. Key processes of fabrication are described in detail. The non-uniformity of BCB film and the sidewall angle of the via-holes for inter-layer connection are tested. Via-chains prepared by metal/BCB multilayer structures are tested through the Kelvin test structure to investigate the resistances of inter-layer connection. The average value is measured to be 73.5 mΩ. The electrical characteristic of this structure is obtained by a microwave transmission performance test from 15 to 30 GHz. The measurement results show good consistency between the bare MMIC die and the packaged die in the test frequency band. The gain of the MMIC chip after packaging is better than 18 dB within the designed operating frequency range (from 23 to 25 GHz). When the packaged MMIC chip is connected to a BPF, the maximum gain is still measured to reach 11.95 dB at 23.8 GHz

  20. Co-expression of two subtypes of melatonin receptor on rat M1-type intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Long Sheng

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs are involved in circadian and other non-image forming visual responses. An open question is whether the activity of these neurons may also be under the regulation mediated by the neurohormone melatonin. In the present work, by double-staining immunohistochemical technique, we studied the expression of MT1 and MT2, two known subtypes of mammalian melatonin receptors, in rat ipRGCs. A single subset of retinal ganglion cells labeled by the specific antibody against melanopsin exhibited the morphology typical of M1-type ipRGCs. Immunoreactivity for both MT1 and MT2 receptors was clearly seen in the cytoplasm of all labeled ipRGCs, indicating that these two receptors were co-expressed in each of these neurons. Furthermore, labeling for both the receptors were found in neonatal M1 cells as early as the day of birth. It is therefore highly plausible that retinal melatonin may directly modulate the activity of ipRGCs, thus regulating non-image forming visual functions.

  1. Quasi Two-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized In 2 O 3 Phototransistors for Ultrahigh Responsivity and Photosensitivity Photodetector Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mottram, Alexander D.

    2016-02-10

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. We report the development of dye-sensitized thin-film phototransistors consisting of an ultrathin layer (<10 nm) of indium oxide (In2O3) the surface of which is functionalized with a self-assembled monolayer of the light absorbing organic dye D102. The resulting transistors exhibit a preferential color photoresponse centered in the wavelength region of ∼500 nm with a maximum photosensitivity of ∼106 and a responsivity value of up to 2 × 103 A/W. The high photoresponse is attributed to internal signal gain and more precisely to charge carriers generated upon photoexcitation of the D102 dye which lead to the generation of free electrons in the semiconducting layer and to the high photoresponse measured. Due to the small amount of absorption of visible photons, the hybrid In2O3/D102 bilayer channel appears transparent with an average optical transmission of >92% in the wavelength range 400-700 nm. Importantly, the phototransistors are processed from solution-phase at temperatures below 200 °C hence making the technology compatible with inexpensive and temperature sensitive flexible substrate materials such as plastic.

  2. Thermographic analysis of photodynamic therapy with intense pulsed light and needle-free injection photosensitizer delivery: an animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Michelle B.; Stringasci, Mirian D.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Vollet-Filho, José Dirceu; de Nardi, Andrigo B.; Escobar, Andre; da Rocha, Rozana W.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; de Menezes, Priscila F. C.

    2018-02-01

    The photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic modality that depends mostly on photosensitizer (PS), light and molecular oxygen species. However, there are still technical limitations in clinical PDT that are under constant development, particularly concerning PS and light delivery. Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) sources are systems able to generate pulses of high energy with polychromatic light. IPL is a technique mainly used in the cosmetic area to perform various skin treatments for therapeutic and aesthetic applications. The goals of this study were to determine temperature variance during the application of IPL in porcine skin model, and the PDT effects using this light source with PS delivery by a commercial high pressure, needle-free injection system. The PSs tested were Indocyanine Green (ICG) and Photodithazine (PDZ), and the results showed an increase bellow 10 °C in the skin surface using a thermographic camera to measure. In conclusion, our preliminary study demonstrated that IPL associated with needle-free injection PS delivery could be a promising alternative to PDT.

  3. Photosensitized inactivation of DNA by monochromatic 334-nm radiation in the presence of 2-thiouracil: genetic activity and backbone breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, M.J.; Ito, A.; Peak, J.G.; Foote, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Monochromatic 334-nm radiation delivered under aerobic conditions inactivates the genetic activity (ability to transform auxotrophic recipient cells to nutritional prototrophy) of isolated transforming Bacillus subtilis DNA. The presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and mannitol reduces the 334-nm inactivation. The rate of inactivation of the genetic activity by 334-nm radiation is enhanced fivefold by the sensitizer 2-thiouracil (s 2 Ura). This enhancement is substantially reversed when the irradiations are performed in the presence of mannitol, and, to a lesser extent, SOD. Catalase slightly reduces the s 2 Ura enhancement of 334-nm inactivation of transforming activity. Backbone breaks induced in the same DNA by aerobic 334-nm radiation were also enhanced markedly by the presence of s 2 Ura; this enhancement was reversed by the presence of mannitol and, to a lesser extent, SOD during irradiation. Catalase had no effect upon s 2 Ura-enhanced, 334-nm-induced SSBs. Whereas DNA breakage may be responsible for a portion of the inactivation of the DNA by the photosensitized reaction between s 2 Ura and 334-nm radiation, it is not the only inactivating lesion, because the yield of SSBs per lethal hit per unit length of DNA is not constant for all the irradiation conditions studied. (author)

  4. Exocytosis of gold nanoparticle and photosensitizer from cancer cells and their effects on photodynamic and photothermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yulu; Hua, Wei-Hsiang; Low, Meng-Chun; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Cai, Cheng-Jin; Chiang, Hsin-Chun; Yu, Jian-He; Hsiao, Jen-Hung; Tseng, Po-Hao; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C. C.; Zhang, Zhenxi

    2018-06-01

    We first illustrate the faster decrease of the photothermal (PT) effect with the delay time of laser treatment, in which the illumination of a 1064 nm laser effectively excites the localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance of cell-up-taken gold nanoring (NRI) linked with a photosensitizer (PS), when compared with the photodynamic (PD) effect produced by the illumination of a 660 nm laser for effective PS excitation. The measurement results of the metal contents of Au NRI and PS based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and the PS fluorescence intensity based on flow cytometry show that the linkage of NRI and PS is rapidly broken for releasing PS through the effect of glutathione in lysosome after cell uptake. Meanwhile, NRI escapes from a cell with a high rate such that the PT effect decays fast while the released PS can stay inside a cell longer for producing a prolonged PD effect. The effective delivery of PS through the linkage with Au NRI for cell uptake and the advantageous effect of LSP resonance at a PS absorption wavelength on the PD process are also demonstrated.

  5. A novel chlorine derivative of Meso-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-4-pyridyl porphyrin: synthesis, photophysics and photochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestrin, Ana Paula J.; Ribeiro, Anderson O.; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio; Neri, Claudio R.; Vinhado, Fabio S.; Serra, Osvaldo A.; Martins, Patricia R.; Iamamoto, Yassuko [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: oaserra@ffclrp.usp.br; Silva, Ana Margarida G.; Tome, Augusto C.; Neves, Maria G.P.M.S.; Cavaleiro, Jose A.S. [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: jcavaleiro@dq.ua.pt

    2004-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the accumulation of a photosensitizer, such as a porphyrin or a chlorine, in a malignant tissue after its administration. Chlorins exhibit photophysical properties similar to those of the porphyrin macrocycles, but with intensified and red-shifted Q bands, making chlorine-containing systems even better candidates for PDT. In this contribution, we report the synthesis of 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-20-(4-pyridyl)porphyrin, (2) and its transformation to the novel chlorine derivatives 4, (5,10,20-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-15-(4-pyridyl)-tetrahydro-1H- N-methyl-pyrrolo [3,4-b]porphyrin and 5, (5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-20-(4-pyridyl)-tetrahydro-1H- N-methyl-pyrrolo[3,4-b]porphyrin) by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with an azomethine ylide. The new products have been characterized by UV-Vis, {sup 1}H NMR and FAB-MS. The photophysics, photochemical and photobleaching properties of chlorine 4 have been evaluated. Its quantum yield of photobleaching ({phi}{sub Pb}, mol Einstein{sup -1}) was 0.047{+-}0.014. In order to demonstrate the production of {sup 1}O{sub 2} when 4 is used as a photosensitizer, uric acid tests have been carried out. The results indicate that chlorine 4 can be considered a promising photosensitizer in PDT. (author)

  6. A novel chlorine derivative of Meso-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-4-pyridyl porphyrin: synthesis, photophysics and photochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestrin, Ana Paula J.; Ribeiro, Anderson O.; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio; Neri, Claudio R.; Vinhado, Fabio S.; Serra, Osvaldo A.; Martins, Patricia R.; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Silva, Ana Margarida G.; Tome, Augusto C.; Neves, Maria G.P.M.S.; Cavaleiro, Jose A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the accumulation of a photosensitizer, such as a porphyrin or a chlorine, in a malignant tissue after its administration. Chlorins exhibit photophysical properties similar to those of the porphyrin macrocycles, but with intensified and red-shifted Q bands, making chlorine-containing systems even better candidates for PDT. In this contribution, we report the synthesis of 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-20-(4-pyridyl)porphyrin, (2) and its transformation to the novel chlorine derivatives 4, (5,10,20-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-15-(4-pyridyl)-tetrahydro-1H- N-methyl-pyrrolo [3,4-b]porphyrin and 5, (5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-20-(4-pyridyl)-tetrahydro-1H- N-methyl-pyrrolo[3,4-b]porphyrin) by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with an azomethine ylide. The new products have been characterized by UV-Vis, 1 H NMR and FAB-MS. The photophysics, photochemical and photobleaching properties of chlorine 4 have been evaluated. Its quantum yield of photobleaching (φ Pb , mol Einstein -1 ) was 0.047±0.014. In order to demonstrate the production of 1 O 2 when 4 is used as a photosensitizer, uric acid tests have been carried out. The results indicate that chlorine 4 can be considered a promising photosensitizer in PDT. (author)

  7. Photoelectrical Properties and Energetical Structure of Thin Films of Indandione Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira INDRIKOVA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A sandwich type structure of two dimetilaminobenziliden-1,3-indandione (DMABI derivatives placed between metal electrodes was made to investigate the photoelectrical properties of these derivatives. DMABI is an organic isolator with a wide energy gap and high quantum efficiency of the photogeneration, DMABI derivatives have received also considerable attention because of its large dipole moment and optical nonlinearities. Besides, since it is a photosensitive material, its use in solar systems is very promising. The energy gap of each material and combined system was observed from the spectral dependence of the quantum efficiency of the photoconductivity and results are compared with results of oxidation and reduction potential of the materials. The values showed a good correlation between experimental data of the photoconductivity and voltamperometry and calculated data of the HOMO and LUMO levels of the molecules.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.480

  8. Molecular mapping of QTL alleles of Brassica oleracea affecting days to flowering and photosensitivity in spring Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Habibur; Bennett, Rick A; Kebede, Berisso

    2018-01-01

    Earliness of flowering and maturity are important traits in spring Brassica napus canola-whether grown under long- or short-day condition. By use of a spring B. napus mapping population carrying the genome content of B. oleracea and testing this population under 10 to 18 h photoperiod and 18 to 20 0C (day) temperature conditions, we identified a major QTL on the chromosome C1 affecting flowering time without being influenced by photoperiod and temperature, and a major QTL on C9 affecting flowering time under a short photoperiod (10 h); in both cases, the QTL alleles reducing the number of days to flowering in B. napus were introgressed from the late flowering species B. oleracea. Additive effect of the C1 QTL allele at 14 to18 h photoperiod was 1.1 to 2.9 days; however, the same QTL allele exerted an additive effect of 6.2 days at 10 h photoperiod. Additive effect of the C9 QTL at 10 h photoperiod was 2.8 days. These two QTL also showed significant interaction in the control of flowering only under a short-day (10 h photoperiod) condition with an effect of 2.3 days. A few additional QTL were also detected on the chromosomes C2 and C8; however, none of these QTL could be detected under all photoperiod and temperature conditions. BLASTn search identified several putative flowering time genes on the chromosomes C1 and C9 and located the physical position of the QTL markers in the Brassica genome; however, only a few of these genes were found within the QTL region. Thus, the molecular markers and the genomic regions identified in this research could potentially be used in breeding for the development of early flowering photoinsensitive B. napus canola cultivars, as well as for identification of candidate genes involved in flowering time variation and photosensitivity.

  9. Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin in Oil-in-Water Emulsions with Differently-Charged Emulsifiers Under Chlorophyll Photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2018-03-01

    The antioxidative or prooxidative properties of astaxanthin at the concentrations of 0, 10, and 100 μM were determined in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing neutral, anionic, and cationic emulsifiers, which was Tween 20, sodium dodecyl sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), respectively, under chlorophyll photosensitization. The oxidative parameters and headspace volatiles were analyzed in O/W emulsions. In the 24 h period of visible light irradiation, 100 μM of astaxanthin acted as an antioxidant in O/W emulsions containing neutral and anionic emulsifiers. However, astaxanthin in O/W emulsions with a cationic emulsifier was neither an antioxidant nor a prooxidant. The profiles of volatile compounds showed that astaxanthin served as a singlet oxygen quencher in O/W emulsions containing neutral and anionic emulsifiers. However, in O/W emulsion with a cationic emulsifier, astaxanthin was neither a singlet oxygen quencher nor a free radical scavenger because prooxidant properties of CTAB overwhelmed the antioxidant effects of astaxanthin. Therefore, the antioxidant properties of astaxanthin were influenced by the emulsifier charges in O/W emulsions. Astaxanthin is a lipid-soluble pigment and has antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties and beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Many lipid-based foods are displayed on the shelves in the markets under fluorescent light. The addition of astaxanthin can extend the shelf life of O/W emulsion type foods such as beverage and dressing products under visible light irradiation. Also, oxidative stability in emulsion type foods containing astaxanthin rich natural ingredients can be predicted. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Systemic photodynamic therapy with photosensitizer photolon in the treatment of cancer patients with regional and distant metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kaplan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  The results of photodynamic therapy (PDT in 76 patients with tumors of different sites and with regional or distant metastases are represented. Sixty three patients were under combined or multimodal therapy, 13 patients had systemic PDT as monotherapy. The technique of PDT was as follows: the solution of photosensitizer photolon was administered intravenously at dose of 0.8–1.4 mg/ kg body weight. Laser blood irradiation was performed simultaneously (wavelength of 662 nm, output power of 20 mW, irradiation time of 50 min. Stabilization of the disease defined as the absence of new tumor foci was observed in 55% of treated patients: among them in 47% of patients with disseminated melanoma during 6–10 months after treatment, in 65% patients with breast cancer – for 3–6 years after treatment, and also in 100% of patients with cancer of other sites (colorectal, pancreatic, cervical, ovarian, lung and stomach cancer, retroperitoneal neuroblastoma – for 10–12 months after treatment. According to ultrasound data the shrinkage of most of metastases up to its complete disappearance was observed. The authors consider that effects of systemic PDT are due to decrease of circulating tumor cells in blood and also due to beneficial impact of this modal of treatment on immune status of cancer patient. Intravenous PDT was shown to improve treatment results and quality of life in patients with metastases of malignant tumors. The approved technique is of considerable interest and requires further investigation of its efficiency including its combination with methods of combined and multimodal treatment. 

  11. Sunlight-induced inactivation of human Wa and porcine OSU rotaviruses in the presence of exogenous photosensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Romero-Maraccini, Ofelia C.

    2013-10-01

    Human rotavirus Wa and porcine rotavirus OSU solutions were irradiated with simulated solar UV and visible light in the presence of different photosensitizers dissolved in buffered solutions. For human rotavirus, the exogenous effects were greater than the endogenous effects under irradiation with full spectrum and UVA and visible light at 25 C. For porcine rotavirus, the exogenous effects with UVA and visible light irradiation were only observed at high temperatures, >40 C. The results from dark experiments conducted at different temperatures suggest that porcine rotavirus has higher thermostability than human rotavirus. Concentrations of 3′-MAP excited triplet states of 1.8 fM and above resulted in significant human rotavirus inactivation. The measured excited triplet state concentrations of ≤0.45 fM produced by UVA and visible light irradiation of natural dissolved organic matter solutions were likely not directly responsible for rotavirus inactivation. Instead, the linear correlation for human rotavirus inactivation rate constant (kobs) with the phenol degradation rate constant (kexp) found in both 1 mM NaHCO3 and 1 mM phosphate-buffered solutions suggested that OH radical was a major reactive species for the exogenous inactivation of rotaviruses. Linear correlations between rotavirus kobs and specific UV254 nm absorbance of two river-dissolved organic matter and two effluent organic matter isolates indicated that organic matter aromaticity may help predict formation of radicals responsible for rotavirus inactivation. The results from this study also suggested that the differences in rotavirus strains should be considered when predicting solar inactivation of rotavirus in sunlit surface waters. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. RdgB2 is required for dim-light input into intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marquis T; Rupp, Alan; Elsaesser, Rebecca; Güler, Ali D; Sheng, Wenlong; Weng, Shijun; Berson, David M; Hattar, Samer; Montell, Craig

    2015-10-15

    A subset of retinal ganglion cells is intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs) and contributes directly to the pupillary light reflex and circadian photoentrainment under bright-light conditions. ipRGCs are also indirectly activated by light through cellular circuits initiated in rods and cones. A mammalian homologue (RdgB2) of a phosphoinositide transfer/exchange protein that functions in Drosophila phototransduction is expressed in the retinal ganglion cell layer. This raised the possibility that RdgB2 might function in the intrinsic light response in ipRGCs, which depends on a cascade reminiscent of Drosophila phototransduction. Here we found that under high light intensities, RdgB2(-/-) mutant mice showed normal pupillary light responses and circadian photoentrainment. Consistent with this behavioral phenotype, the intrinsic light responses of ipRGCs in RdgB2(-/-) were indistinguishable from wild-type. In contrast, under low-light conditions, RdgB2(-/-) mutants displayed defects in both circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light response. The RdgB2 protein was not expressed in ipRGCs but was in GABAergic amacrine cells, which provided inhibitory feedback onto bipolar cells. We propose that RdgB2 is required in a cellular circuit that transduces light input from rods to bipolar cells that are coupled to GABAergic amacrine cells and ultimately to ipRGCs, thereby enabling ipRGCs to respond to dim light. © 2015 Walker et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Preliminary Clinical and Pharmacologic Investigation of Photodynamic Therapy with the Silicon Phthalocyanine Photosensitizer Pc 4 for Primary or Metastatic Cutaneous Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsella, Timothy James; Baron, Elma D.; Colussi, Valdir C.; Cooper, Kevin D.; Hoppel, Charles L.; Ingalls, Stephen T.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Li, Xiaolin; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Stevens, Seth R.; Remick, Scot C.

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cutaneous malignancies has been found to be an effective treatment with a range of photosensitizers. The phthalocyanine Pc 4 was developed initially for PDT of primary or metastatic cancers in the skin. A Phase I trial was initiated to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of systemically administered Pc 4 followed by red light (Pc 4-PDT) in cutaneous malignancies. A dose-escalation study of Pc 4 (starting dose 0.135 mg/m 2 ) at a fixed light fluence (135 J/cm 2 of 675-nm light) was initiated in patients with primary or metastatic cutaneous malignancies with the aim of establishing the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Blood samples were taken at intervals over the first 60 h post-PDT for pharmacokinetic analysis, and patients were evaluated for toxicity and tumor response. A total of three patients (two females with breast cancer and one male with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) were enrolled and treated over the dose range of 0.135 mg/m 2 (first dose level) to 0.54 mg/m 2 (third dose level). Grade 3 erythema within the photoirradiated area was induced in patient 2, and transient tumor regression in patient 3, in spite of the low photosensitizer doses. Pharmacokinetic observations fit a three-compartment exponential elimination model with an initial rapid distribution phase (∼0.2 h) and relatively long terminal elimination phase (∼28 h), Because of restrictive exclusion criteria and resultant poor accrual, the trial was closed before MTD could be reached. While the limited accrual to this initial Phase I study did not establish the MTD nor establish a complete pharmacokinetic and safety profile of intravenous Pc 4-PDT, these preliminary data support further Phase I testing of this new photosensitizer.

  14. The Photosensitivity of Rhodopsin Bleaching and Light-Induced Increases of Fundus Reflectance in Mice Measured In Vivo With Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Goswami, Mayank; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Pugh, Edward N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To quantify bleaching-induced changes in fundus reflectance in the mouse retina. Methods Light reflected from the fundus of albino (Balb/c) and pigmented (C57Bl/6J) mice was measured with a multichannel scanning laser ophthalmoscopy optical coherence tomography (SLO-OCT) optical system. Serial scanning of small retinal regions was used for bleaching rhodopsin and measuring reflectance changes. Results Serial scanning generated a saturating reflectance increase centered at 501 nm with a photosensitivity of 1.4 × 10−8 per molecule μm2 in both strains, 2-fold higher than expected were irradiance at the rod outer segment base equal to that at the retinal surface. The action spectrum of the reflectance increase corresponds to the absorption spectrum of mouse rhodopsin in situ. Spectra obtained before and after bleaching were fitted with a model of fundus reflectance, quantifying contributions from loss of rhodopsin absorption with bleaching, absorption by oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) in the choroid (Balb/c), and absorption by melanin (C57Bl/6J). Both mouse strains exhibited light-induced broadband reflectance changes explained as bleaching-induced reflectivity increases at photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junctions and OS tips. Conclusions The elevated photosensitivity of rhodopsin bleaching in vivo is explained by waveguide condensing of light in propagation from rod inner segment (RIS) to rod outer segment (ROS). The similar photosensitivity of rhodopsin in the two strains reveals that little light backscattered from the sclera can enter the ROS. The bleaching-induced increases in reflectance at the IS/OS junctions and OS tips resemble results previously reported in human cones, but are ascribed to rods due to their 30/1 predominance over cones in mice and to the relatively minor amount of cone M-opsin in the regions scanned. PMID:27403994

  15. Preliminary clinical and pharmacologic investigation of photodynamic therapy with the silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 for primary or metastatic cutaneous cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy James Kinsella

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT for cutaneous malignancies has been found to be an effective treatment with a range of photosensitizers. The phthalocyanine Pc 4 was developed initially for PDT of primary or metastatic cancers in the skin. A Phase I trial was initiated to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of systemically administered Pc 4 followed by red light (Pc 4-PDT in cutaneous malignancies. A dose-escalation study of Pc 4 (starting dose 0.135 mg/m2 at a fixed light fluence (135 J/cm2 of 675-nm light was initiated in patients with primary or metastatic cutaneous malignancies with the aim of establishing the maximum tolerated dose (MTD. Blood samples were taken at intervals over the first 60 hours post-PDT for pharmacokinetic analysis, and patients were evaluated for toxicity and tumor response. A total of 3 patients (2 females with breast cancer and 1 male with cutaneous lymphoma were enrolled and treated over the dose range of 0.135 mg/m2 (first dose level to 0.54 mg/m2 (third dose level. Grade 3 erythema within the photoirradiated area was induced in patient 2, and transient tumor regression in patient 3, in spite of the low photosensitizer doses. Pharmacokinetic observations fit a 3-compartment exponential elimination model with an initial rapid distribution phase (~0.2 hrs and relatively long terminal elimination phase (~28 hrs, Because of restrictive exclusion criteria and resultant poor accrual, the trial was closed before MTD could be reached. While the limited accrual to this initial Phase I study did not establish the MTD nor establish a complete pharmacokinetic and safety profile of intravenous Pc 4-PDT, these preliminary data support further Phase I testing of this new photosensitizer.

  16. Is there any association between renal failure and hepatotoxic photosensitization caused by feeding foxtail millet (Setaria italica in sheep and goats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitivity is an abnormal skin reaction to direct sunlight exposure. Photosen sitivity occurred because of failure to excrete phylloerythrin due to hepatic dysfunction. Foxtail millet feeding can induce hepatotoxic photosensitization and influence on different organs. This study attempts to evaluate renal function and serum electrolyte status in sheep and goats experimentally feeding foxtail millet. Twelve male goats and sheep were kept in the sunlight. The animals were fed foxtail millet diet freely in a eight-week experimental period. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, hematocrit and hemoglobin were measured until last day of experiment in a weekly manner. On the last day, the animals were euthanized and kidneys were removed for pathologic examination. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement analysis by SPSS software (version 20. Three sheep showed clinical signs of photosensitivity. BUN showed a decreasing trend from the second week of the experiment. Creatinine was increased in the six and second weeks. An increase in sodium concentration in goats from fourth week was significant. Sodium levels in sheep showed a fluctuational change. Potassium and phosphorus of sheep and phosphorus in the blood of goats were increased from the second week. Potassium in goats was constant during the time. Magnesium in the blood of sheep and goats was increased from the third and fourth weeks, respectively. The hematocrit and hemoglobin increased significantly over time. Moderate to severe hyperemia with abundant deposits of blue-violet material in the collecting ducts and mild degenerative changes in the convoluted tubules in sheep kidneys and congestion in the center of the goats’ kidney were seen. In conclusion, feeding the foxtail millet can cause renal dysfunction, and changes in the balance of some serum electrolytes.

  17. Comparative kinetics of damage to the plasma and mitochondrial membranes by intra-cellularly synthesized and externally-provided photosensitizers using multi-color FACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Sara; Malik, Zvi; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer involves inflicting lethal damage to the cells of malignant tumors, primarily by singlet oxygen that is generated following light-absorption in a photosensitizer molecule. Dysfunction of cells is manifested in many ways, including peroxidation of cellular components, membrane rupture, depolarization of electric potentials, termination of mitochondrial activity, onset of apoptosis and necrosis and eventually cell lysis. These events do not necessarily occur in linear fashion and different types of damage to cell components occur, most probably, in parallel. In this report we measured the relative rates of damage to two cellular membranes: the plasma membrane and the mitochondrial membrane. We employed photosensitizers of diverse hydrophobicities and used different incubation procedures, which lead to their different intra-cellular localizations. We monitored the damage that was inflicted on these membranes, by employing optical probes of membrane integrity, in a multi-color FACS experiment. The potentiometric indicator JC-1 monitored the electric cross-membrane potential of the mitochondria and the fluorometric indicator Draq7 monitored the rupture of the plasma membrane. We show that the electric depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and the damage to the enveloping plasma membrane proceed with different kinetics that reflect the molecular character and intracellular location of the sensitizer: PpIX that is synthesized in the cells from ALA causes rapid mitochondrial damage and very slow damage to the plasma membrane, while externally added PpIX has an opposite effect. The hydrophilic sensitizer HypS4 can be taken up by the cells by different incubation conditions, and these affect its intracellular location, and as a consequence either the plasma membrane or the mitochondria is damaged first. A similar correlation was found for additional extracellularly-provided photosensitizers HP and PpIX.

  18. X-ray induced singlet oxygen generation by nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates for photodynamic therapy: determination of singlet oxygen quantum yield

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sandhya; Deng, Wei; Camilleri, Elizabeth; Wilson, Brian C.; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2016-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is a primary cytotoxic agent in photodynamic therapy. We show that CeF3 nanoparticles, pure as well as conjugated through electrostatic interaction with the photosensitizer verteporfin, are able to generate singlet oxygen as a result of UV light and 8?keV X-ray irradiation. The X-ray stimulated singlet oxygen quantum yield was determined to be 0.79???0.05 for the conjugate with 31 verteporfin molecules per CeF3 nanoparticle, the highest conjugation level used. From this result ...

  19. Apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by a new targeting photosensitizer-based PDT via a mitochondrial pathway and ER stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donghong Li,1 Lei Li,2 Pengxi Li,1 Yi Li,3 Xiangyun Chen1 1State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury, The Second Department of Research Institute of Surgery, 2The First Department of Research Institute of Surgery, 3Cancer Center, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Photodynamic therapy (PDT is emerging as a viable treatment for many cancers. To decrease the cutaneous photosensitivity induced by PDT, many attempts have been made to search for a targeting photosensitizer; however, few reports describe the molecular mechanism of PDT mediated by this type of targeting photosensitizer. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of PDT induced by a new targeting photosensitizer (PS I, reported previously by us, on HeLa cells. Apoptosis is the primary mode of HeLa cell death in our system, and apoptosis occurs in a manner dependent on concentration, irradiation dose, and drug–light intervals. After endocytosis mediated by the folate receptor, PS I was primarily localized to the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of HeLa cells. PS I PDT resulted in rapid increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production and Ca2+ concentration, both of which reached a peak nearly simultaneously at 15 minutes, followed by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential at 30 minutes, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm, downregulation of Bcl-2 expression, and upregulation of Bax expression. Meanwhile, activation of caspase-3, -9, and -12, as well as induction of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP and glucose-regulated protein (GRP78, in HeLa cells after PS I PDT was also detected. These results suggest that apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by PS I PDT is not only triggered by ROS but is also regulated by Ca2+ overload. Mitochondria and the ER serve as the subcellular targets of PS I PDT, the effective activation of which

  20. Analysis of photogem (hematoporphyrin derivative) and blood interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Thaila Quatrini; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2017-07-01

    Sepsis is a potentially fatal condition that occurs when an infectious agent, such as bacteria, gets in a person's bloodstream. The infection affects the immune system, which then triggers a reaction that can cause uncontrolled inflammation in the body1 . All blood components may present the contamination. Once inoculated bacteria in a blood component, it can proliferate rapidly reaching high levels within few hours and, in a short period, it may lead to several basal changes in the individual and even death2 . Studies have shown an increase in the incidence of sepsis over the years, and it is mainly due to the growing resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics since these drugs are still sold and used improperly3 . The photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been one of the most promising alternatives for microbiological control and other diseases. Its principle of action is based on a photosensitizer (PS) activated by light at the correct wavelength to oxidize organic substrates, resulting in cytotoxic effects4,5. The technique is being applied to a large variety of microorganisms and decontaminating blood. Some studies have investigated the action of PDI in blood6-9, and even then, there is a need to understand better what happens when we apply PS and light in blood in an attempt to eliminate the microorganisms. Photogem is a hematoporphyrin derivative that has been used with success in many clinical cases such as skin cancer and inactivation of bacteria10,11. Previous studies have shown that PDI using Photogem as a photosensitizing molecule is a good alternative for blood decontamination12,13. In the previous studies were observed hemolysis when red blood cells (RBCs) were submitted to PS concentration and light dose tested. This study has been conducted to further understand through absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence confocal microscope the PS-blood interaction. This is important because the PDI damage needs to be restricted to the bacteria and the blood

  1. Bodipy–C60 triple hydrogen bonding assemblies as heavy atom-free triplet photosensitizers: preparation and study of the singlet/triplet energy transfer† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Syntheses, structure characterization data, and UV/vis absorption and emission spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc03865g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Song; Xu, Liang; Xu, Kejing; Küçüköz, Betül; Karatay, Ahmet; Yaglioglu, Halime Gul; Hayvali, Mustafa; Elmali, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    Supramolecular triplet photosensitizers based on hydrogen bonding-mediated molecular assemblies were prepared. Three thymine-containing visible light-harvesting Bodipy derivatives (B-1, B-2 and B-3, which show absorption at 505 nm, 630 nm and 593 nm, respectively) were used as H-bonding modules, and 1,6-diaminopyridine-appended C60 was used as the complementary hydrogen bonding module (C-1), in which the C60 part acts as a spin converter for triplet formation. Visible light-harvesting antennae with methylated thymine were prepared as references (B-1-Me, B-2-Me and B-3-Me), which are unable to form strong H-bonds with C-1. Triple H-bonds are formed between each Bodipy antenna (B-1, B-2 and B-3) and the C60 module (C-1). The photophysical properties of the H-bonding assemblies and the reference non-hydrogen bond-forming mixtures were studied using steady state UV/vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, electrochemical characterization, and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Singlet energy transfer from the Bodipy antenna to the C60 module was confirmed by fluorescence quenching studies. The intersystem crossing of the latter produced the triplet excited state. The nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy showed that the triplet state is either localized on the C60 module (for assembly B-1·C-1), or on the styryl-Bodipy antenna (for assemblies B-2·C-1 and B-3·C-1). Intra-assembly forward–backward (ping-pong) singlet/triplet energy transfer was proposed. In contrast to the H-bonding assemblies, slow triplet energy transfer was observed for the non-hydrogen bonding mixtures. As a proof of concept, these supramolecular assemblies were used as triplet photosensitizers for triplet–triplet annihilation upconversion. PMID:29218142

  2. Photosensitization by iodinated DNA minor groove binding ligands: Evaluation of DNA double-strand break induction and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Benjamin; Ververis, Katherine; Rodd, Annabelle L; Foong, Laura J L; Silva, Fernando M Da; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-05-03

    Iodinated DNA minor groove binding bibenzimidazoles represent a unique class of UVA photosensitizer and their extreme photopotency has been previously characterized. Earlier studies have included a comparison of three isomers, referred to as ortho-, meta- and para-iodoHoechst, which differ only in the location of the iodine substituent in the phenyl ring of the bibenzimidazole. DNA breakage and clonogenic survival studies in human erythroleukemic K562 cells have highlighted the higher photo-efficiency of the ortho-isomer (subsequently designated UV(A)Sens) compared to the meta- and para-isomers. In this study, the aim was to compare the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by the three isomers in K562 cells. Further, we examined the effects of the prototypical broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A, on ortho-iodoHoechst/UVA-induced double-strand breaks in K562 cells. Using γH2AX as a molecular marker of the DNA lesions, our findings indicate a disparity in the induction and particularly, in the repair kinetics of double-strand breaks for the three isomers. The accumulation of γH2AX foci induced by the meta- and para-isomers returned to background levels within 24 and 48 h, respectively; the number of γH2AX foci induced by ortho-iodoHoechst remained elevated even after incubation for 96 h post-irradiation. These findings provide further evidence that the extreme photopotency of ortho-iodoHoechst is due to not only to the high quantum yield of dehalogenation, but also to the severity of the DNA lesions which are not readily repaired. Finally, our findings which indicate that Trichostatin A has a remarkable potentiating effect on ortho-iodoHoechst/UVA-induced DNA lesions are encouraging, particularly in the context of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, for which a histone deacetylase inhibitor is already approved for therapy. This finding prompts further evaluation of the potential of combination therapies. Copyright © 2011

  3. Assessment of Rod, Cone, and Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cell Contributions to the Canine Chromatic Pupillary Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Connie Y; Koehl, Kristin L; Harman, Christine D; Iwabe, Simone; Guzman, José M; Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Kardon, Randy H; Komáromy, András M

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a chromatic pupillometry protocol for specific functional assessment of rods, cones, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in dogs. Chromatic pupillometry was tested and compared in 37 dogs in different stages of primary loss of rod, cone, and combined rod/cone and optic nerve function, and in 5 wild-type (WT) dogs. Eyes were stimulated with 1-s flashes of dim (1 cd/m2) and bright (400 cd/m2) blue light (for scotopic conditions) or bright red (400 cd/m2) light with 25-cd/m2 blue background (for photopic conditions). Canine retinal melanopsin/Opn4 was cloned, and its expression was evaluated using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Mean ± SD percentage of pupil constriction amplitudes induced by scotopic dim blue (scDB), scotopic bright blue (scBB), and photopic bright red (phBR) lights in WT dogs were 21.3% ± 10.6%, 50.0% ± 17.5%, and 19.4% ± 7.4%, respectively. Melanopsin-mediated responses to scBB persisted for several minutes (7.7 ± 4.6 min) after stimulus offset. In dogs with inherited retinal degeneration, loss of rod function resulted in absent scDB responses, followed by decreased phBR responses with disease progression and loss of cone function. Primary loss of cone function abolished phBR responses but preserved those responses to blue light (scDB and scBB). Although melanopsin/Opn4 expression was diminished with retinal degeneration, melanopsin-expressing ipRGCs were identified for the first time in both WT and degenerated canine retinas. Pupil responses elicited by light stimuli of different colors and intensities allowed differential functional assessment of canine rods, cones, and ipRGCs. Chromatic pupillometry offers an effective tool for diagnosing retinal and optic nerve diseases.

  4. The role of nitrite and nitrate ions as photosensitizers in the phototransformation of phenolic compounds in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, P., E-mail: paola.calza@unito.it [Universita degli Studi di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via P. Giuria 5, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vione, D. [Universita degli Studi di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via P. Giuria 5, 10125 Torino (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Torino, Centro Interdipartimentale NatRisk, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Novelli, A. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Pelizzetti, E.; Minero, C. [Universita degli Studi di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via P. Giuria 5, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    Nitrite and nitrate are known to be involved in photochemical processes occurring in natural waters. In this study we have investigated the role played by these photosensitizers towards the transformation of xenobiotic organic matter in marine water, with the goal of assessing the typical transformation routes induced in seawater by irradiated nitrite/nitrate. For this purpose, phenol was chosen as model molecule. Phenol transformation was investigated under simulated solar radiation in the presence of nitrite (in the range of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}-1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M) or nitrate ions, in pure water at pH 8, in artificial seawater (containing same dissolved salts as seawater but no organic matter), and in natural seawater. In all experiments, phenol degradation rate and formation of intermediates were assessed. As expected, phenol disappearance rate decreased with decreasing nitrite concentration and was slightly reduced by the presence of chloride. Other salts present in artificial seawater (e.g. HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and Br{sup -}) had a more marked effect on phenol transformation. Analysis of intermediates formed in the different matrices under study showed generation of hydroxyl-, nitro- and chloroderivatives of phenol, to a different extent depending on experimental conditions. 1,4-Benzoquinone prevailed in all cases, nitroderivatives were only formed with nitrite but were not detected in nitrate-spiked solutions. Competition was observed between halogenation and nitration of phenol, with variable outcome depending on nitrite concentration. The most likely reason is competition between nitrating and halogenating species for reaction with the phenoxyl radical. A kinetic model able to justify the occurrence of different intermediates under the adopted conditions is presented and discussed. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrite and nitrate-mediated solar-driven transformations of pollutant in seawater were

  5. The role of nitrite and nitrate ions as photosensitizers in the phototransformation of phenolic compounds in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, P.; Vione, D.; Novelli, A.; Pelizzetti, E.; Minero, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrite and nitrate are known to be involved in photochemical processes occurring in natural waters. In this study we have investigated the role played by these photosensitizers towards the transformation of xenobiotic organic matter in marine water, with the goal of assessing the typical transformation routes induced in seawater by irradiated nitrite/nitrate. For this purpose, phenol was chosen as model molecule. Phenol transformation was investigated under simulated solar radiation in the presence of nitrite (in the range of 1 × 10 −5 –1 × 10 −2 M) or nitrate ions, in pure water at pH 8, in artificial seawater (containing same dissolved salts as seawater but no organic matter), and in natural seawater. In all experiments, phenol degradation rate and formation of intermediates were assessed. As expected, phenol disappearance rate decreased with decreasing nitrite concentration and was slightly reduced by the presence of chloride. Other salts present in artificial seawater (e.g. HCO 3 − , CO 3 2− and Br − ) had a more marked effect on phenol transformation. Analysis of intermediates formed in the different matrices under study showed generation of hydroxyl-, nitro- and chloroderivatives of phenol, to a different extent depending on experimental conditions. 1,4-Benzoquinone prevailed in all cases, nitroderivatives were only formed with nitrite but were not detected in nitrate-spiked solutions. Competition was observed between halogenation and nitration of phenol, with variable outcome depending on nitrite concentration. The most likely reason is competition between nitrating and halogenating species for reaction with the phenoxyl radical. A kinetic model able to justify the occurrence of different intermediates under the adopted conditions is presented and discussed. -- Highlights: ► Nitrite and nitrate-mediated solar-driven transformations of pollutant in seawater were studied. ► Phenol degradation rate and formation of intermediates were assessed

  6. Photosensitized herbicidal action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweig, A; Nachtigall, G W [American Cyanamid Co., Stamford, Conn.

    1975-12-01

    The herbicidal action produced by the colorless hydrocarbon fluoranthene sprayed on the leaves of growing plants did not occur when uv radiation was removed from the light to which the plants are exposed. If the uv component of the light under which the plants were grown was augmented, the herbicidal effect of fluoranthene was increased. The mechanism of this photodynamic action is discussed.

  7. A Novel Photosensitizer 3¹,13¹-phenylhydrazine -Mppa (BPHM) and Its in Vitro Photodynamic Therapy against HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenting; Tan, Guanghui; Cheng, Jianjun; Zhao, Lishuang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Jin, Yingxue

    2016-04-29

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has attracted widespread attention due to its potential in the treatment of various cancers. Porphyrinic pyropheophorbide-a (PPa) has been shown to be a potent photosensitizer in PDT experiments. In this paper, a C-3¹,13¹ bisphenylhydrazone modified methyl pyropheophorbide-a (BPHM) was designed and synthesized with the consideration that phenylhydrazone structure may extend absorption wavelength of methyl pyro-pheophorbide-a (Mppa), and make the photosensitizer potential in deep tumor treatment. The synthesis, spectral properties and in vitro photodynamic therapy (PDT) against human HeLa cervical cancer cell line was studied. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay showed the title compound could achieve strong inhibition of cervical cancer cell viability under visible light (675 nm, 25 J/cm²). Cell uptake experiments were performed on HeLa cells. Morphological changes were examined and analyzed by fluorescent inverted microscope. In addition, the mechanism of the photochemical processes of PDT was investigated, which showed that the formation of singlet oxygen after treatment with PDT played a moderate important role.

  8. A Highly Efficient and Photostable Photosensitizer with Near-Infrared Aggregation-Induced Emission for Image-Guided Photodynamic Anticancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenbo; Mao, Duo; Hu, Fang; Xu, Shidang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Chong-Jing; Cheng, Xiamin; Yuan, Youyong; Ding, Dan; Kong, Deling; Liu, Bin

    2017-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which relies on photosensitizers (PS) and light to generate reactive oxygen species to kill cancer cells or bacteria, has attracted much attention in recent years. PSs with both bright emission and efficient singlet oxygen generation have also been used for image-guided PDT. However, simultaneously achieving effective 1 O 2 generation, long wavelength absorption, and stable near-infrared (NIR) emission with low dark toxicity in a single PS remains challenging. In addition, it is well known that when traditional PSs are made into nanoparticles, they encounter quenched fluorescence and reduced 1 O 2 production. In this contribution, these challenging issues have been successfully addressed through designing the first photostable photosensitizer with aggregation-induced NIR emission and very effective 1 O 2 generation in aggregate state. The yielded nanoparticles show very effective 1 O 2 generation, bright NIR fluorescence centered at 820 nm, excellent photostability, good biocompatibility, and negligible dark in vivo toxicity. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments prove that the nanoparticles are excellent candidates for image-guided photodynamic anticancer therapy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Photodynamic inactivation of Listeria innocua biofilms with food-grade photosensitizers: a curcumin-rich extract of Curcuma longa vs commercial curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, D; Martins, C; David, B; Lemos, C; Neves, M G P M S; Almeida, A; Pinto, D C G A; Faustino, M A F; Cunha, Â

    2018-03-22

    The aim of this work is to assess the potential of curcumin in the photosensitization of biofilms of Listeria. Biofilms of Listeria innocua, were irradiated with blue light in the presence of a curcumin-rich extract of Curcuma longa or commercial curcumin. Similar experiments were conducted with planktonic cells, for comparison. A reduction of 4·9 log in the concentration of viable biofilm cells was obtained with 3·7 mg l -1 of commercial curcumin. Planktonic cells were much more susceptible (6·1 log reduction). A tetracationic porphyrin, used as a reference photosensitizer (PS), caused a very modest inactivation of the biofilm (1·1 log) and complete inactivation of the planktonic form (>8 log). Curcumin is an effective PS for the photodynamic control of Listeria biofilms and the inactivation efficiency attained with this natural compound is higher than with the porphyrin. This result may point to a better performance of type I PSs against bacterial biofilms by circumventing the limitations to singlet-oxygen diffusion imposed by the extracellular matrix. Curcumin represents a promising alternative to the control of bacteria and bacterial biofilms in food products particularly in the case of meat products in which turmeric is used as spice. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Characterization of nanostructured photosensitive (NiS)x(CdS)(1-x) composite thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubale, A.U.; Bargal, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thin films of (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) with variable composition (x = 1 to 0) were deposited onto glass substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. → The structural, surface morphological and electrical characterizations of the as deposited and annealed films were studied. → The bandgap and activation energy of annealed (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) film decrease with improvement in photosensitive nature. -- Abstract: Recently ternary semiconductor nanostructured composite materials have attracted the interest of researchers because of their photovoltaic applications. Thin films of (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) with variable composition (x = 1-0) had been deposited onto glass substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. As grown and annealed films were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDAX to investigate structural and morphological properties. The (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) films were polycrystalline in nature having mixed phase of rhombohedral and hexagonal crystal structure due to NiS and CdS respectively. The optical and electrical properties of (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) thin films were studied to determine compsition dependent bandgap, activation energy and photconductivity. The bandgap and activation energy of annealed (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) film decrease with improvement in photosensitive nature.

  11. Characterization of nanostructured photosensitive (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} composite thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubale, A.U., E-mail: ashokuu@yahoo.com [Nanostructured Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, Amravati 444604, Maharashtra (India); Bargal, A.N. [Nanostructured Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, Amravati 444604, Maharashtra (India)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Thin films of (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} with variable composition (x = 1 to 0) were deposited onto glass substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. {yields} The structural, surface morphological and electrical characterizations of the as deposited and annealed films were studied. {yields} The bandgap and activation energy of annealed (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} film decrease with improvement in photosensitive nature. -- Abstract: Recently ternary semiconductor nanostructured composite materials have attracted the interest of researchers because of their photovoltaic applications. Thin films of (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} with variable composition (x = 1-0) had been deposited onto glass substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. As grown and annealed films were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDAX to investigate structural and morphological properties. The (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} films were polycrystalline in nature having mixed phase of rhombohedral and hexagonal crystal structure due to NiS and CdS respectively. The optical and electrical properties of (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} thin films were studied to determine compsition dependent bandgap, activation energy and photconductivity. The bandgap and activation energy of annealed (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} film decrease with improvement in photosensitive nature.

  12. A facial approach combining photosensitive sol–gel with self-assembly method to fabricate superhydrophobic TiO{sub 2} films with patterned surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongfan, E-mail: duanzf@xaut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Electrical Materials and Infiltration Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Zhao, Zhen; Luo, Dan; Zhao, Maiqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Zhao, Gaoyang, E-mail: Zhaogy@xaut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Electrical Materials and Infiltration Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Patterned TiO{sub 2} films were prepared by photosensitive sol–gel method. • Surface had quasi micro-lens array structure, leading to superhydrophobicity. • The surface with the lowest period exhibited the highest contact angel of 163°. • UV irradiation induced the conversion to superhydrophilicity. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic TiO{sub 2} films with micro-patterned surface structure was prepared through a facial approach combining photosensitive sol–gel method with following surface modification by 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (PFOTCS). The patterned surface possessed quasi micro-lens array structure resembling processus mastoideus of lotus, leading to excellent hydrophobicity. The relationship between hydrophobic performance and the period of the micro-patterned TiO{sub 2} surface was investigated. The water contact angles (CAs) of micro-patterned TiO{sub 2} surface increased with the decrease of the periods, and the patterned surface with the lowest period of 0.83 μm showed the highest CA of 163°. It suggests that this approach would offer an advantage to control the wettability properties of superhydrophobic surfaces by adjusting the fine pattern structure. Furthermore, the superhydrophobic state could be converted to the state of superhydrophilicity under ultraviolet (UV) illumination as a result of the photocatalytic decomposition of the PFOTCS monolayer on the micro-patterned TiO{sub 2} Surface.

  13. Photosensitive and temperature-dependent I–V characteristics of p-NiO film/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Hao; Ai, Lei [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education of China, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Li, Songzhan [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education of China, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan, Hubei 430073 (China); Huang, Huihui; Mo, Xiaoming; Wang, Haoning; Chen, Zhao; Liu, Yuping [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education of China, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Fang, Guojia, E-mail: gjfang@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education of China, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • A p-NiO film/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction was prepared. • The heterojunction shows good morphology and crystal properties. • The diode exhibits excellent rectifying behavior. • The diode exhibits strong temperature dependent I–V properties. • The hybrid diode shows good photosensitivity under the ultraviolet irradiation. - Abstract: A p-NiO film/n-ZnO nanorod (NR) array heterojunction was prepared by deposition of NiO film on ZnO NRs using radio-frequency reactive magnetron sputtering. The well-aligned ZnO NRs were fabricated by a simple and economic hydrothermal method on a ZnO:Al-coated glass substrate. Good morphology and crystal properties of the fabricated ZnO NRs and NiO film were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The p–n heterojunction exhibits excellent rectifying behaviour and strong temperature-dependent current–voltage properties in the range from −50 to 80 °C. The hybrid NR heterojunction diode shows good photosensitivity under the irradiation of 365 nm ultraviolet light. These results present potential applications in future microelectronic devices based on NiO films and the one-dimensional ZnO nanomaterials.

  14. Quantification of a Novel Photosensitizer of Chlorin e6-C15-Monomethyl Ester in Beagle Dog Plasma Using HPLC: Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuxiu Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlorin e6-C15-monomethyl ester (CMME is a novel photosensitizer, which is synthetized from the degradation products of silkworm excrement. Preclinical studies on the promising photosensitizer CMME are necessary to determine its therapeutic efficacy and druglikeness. A high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC–UV method was established for the determination of CMME in beagle dog plasma. The sample preparation involved a protein-precipitation method with acetonitrile after the addition of tanshinone IIA as an internal standard (IS. CMME and the IS were separated on a Diamonsil C18 (2 column (100 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm with a isocratic system of methanol–water containing 20 mM ammonium acetate with 0.3% glacial acetic acid (85:15, v/v. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min with UV detection using a wavelength of 400 nm. The method was sensitive enough with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ of 0.05 μg/mL and had a good linearity (r2 > 0.999 over the linear range of 0.05–5.00 μg/mL. The intra-day and inter-day accuracies ranged from 98.5% to 102.8% and precisions (RSD were within 6.8%. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of CMME after intravenous administration of single and multiple doses in beagle dogs.

  15. The effect of temperature and wavelength on production and photolysis of a UV-induced photosensitive DNA lesion which is not repaired in xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.A.; Carrier, W.L.; Regan, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet light causes a type of damage to the DNA of human cells that results in a DNA strand break upon subsequent irradiation with wavelengths around 300 nm. This DNA damage disappears from normal human fibroblasts within 5 h, but not from pyrimidine dimer excision repair deficient xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells or from excision proficient xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells. The apparent lack of repair of the ultraviolet light DNA damage described here may contribute to the cancer prone nature of xeroderma pigmentosum variant individuals. These experiments show that the same amount of damage was produced at 0 0 C and 37 0 C indicating a photodynamic effect and not an enzymatic reaction. The disappearance of the photosensitive lesions from the DNA is probably enzymatic since none of the damage was removed at 0 0 C. Both the formation of the lesion and its photolysis by near ultraviolet light were wavelength dependent. An action spectrum for the formation of photosensitive lesions was similar to that for the formation of pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts and included wavelengths found in sunlight. The DNA containing the lesions was sensitive to wavelengths from 304 to 340 nm with a maximum at 313 to 317 nm. This wavelength dependence of photolysis is similar to the absorption and photolysis spectra of the pyrimidine (6-4) photoproducts. (author)

  16. Photochemical characterization of water samples from Minnesota and Vermont sites with malformed frogs: potential influence of photosensitization by singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) and free radicals on aquatic toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.; Burkhart, J.G.; Chignell, C.F.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental pollutants activated by UV sunlight may have contributed to the recent decline in frog populations and the concomitant increase in malformations in the USA and abroad. UV radiation is able to mutate DNA and to initiate photosensitization processes that generate mutagenic and biologically disruptive oxygen transients. We have examined water from selected sites in Minnesota and Vermont using singlet molecular oxygen ( 1 O 2 ), detected by its phosphorescence and free radicals detected by spin trapping, as markers for photosensitization. Water from a pond in Minnesota with malformed frogs, which also causes malformations in the laboratory, photosensitized more 1 O 2 , even though it absorbed less UV light compared to water from a site that did not cause malformations. This suggested that unknown natural or pollutant agents were present, and that photosensitization may be involved. Although UV irradiation of the two Minnesota water samples in the presence of the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) revealed the presence of the DMPO/·OH, DMPO/·H(e aq - ) and DMPO/·C(unknown) adducts there were no qualitative or quantitative differences between them. We also examined water samples from several sites in Vermont, and compared them by measuring the quantum yield of 1 O 2 photosensitization. While all the Vermont samples produced a small amount of 1 O 2 , there was no clear correlation with the incidence of frog malformations. However, the samples differed strongly in absorption spectra and the ability to quench 1 O 2 . These factors may determine how much UV light is absorbed and converted into chemical reactions. Our results show that photochemical characterization of 1 O 2 photosensitization is possible in untreated natural water samples. Photosensitization falls into the category of global factors that may be closely associated with the effects of UV irradiation of the Earth's environments. Thus, photosensitization might be an important

  17. Photochemical characterization of water samples from Minnesota and Vermont sites with malformed frogs: potential influence of photosensitization by singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) and free radicals on aquatic toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilski, P.; Burkhart, J.G.; Chignell, C.F

    2003-11-19

    Environmental pollutants activated by UV sunlight may have contributed to the recent decline in frog populations and the concomitant increase in malformations in the USA and abroad. UV radiation is able to mutate DNA and to initiate photosensitization processes that generate mutagenic and biologically disruptive oxygen transients. We have examined water from selected sites in Minnesota and Vermont using singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}), detected by its phosphorescence and free radicals detected by spin trapping, as markers for photosensitization. Water from a pond in Minnesota with malformed frogs, which also causes malformations in the laboratory, photosensitized more {sup 1}O{sub 2}, even though it absorbed less UV light compared to water from a site that did not cause malformations. This suggested that unknown natural or pollutant agents were present, and that photosensitization may be involved. Although UV irradiation of the two Minnesota water samples in the presence of the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) revealed the presence of the DMPO/{center_dot}OH, DMPO/{center_dot}H(e{sub aq}{sup -}) and DMPO/{center_dot}C(unknown) adducts there were no qualitative or quantitative differences between them. We also examined water samples from several sites in Vermont, and compared them by measuring the quantum yield of {sup 1}O{sub 2} photosensitization. While all the Vermont samples produced a small amount of {sup 1}O{sub 2}, there was no clear correlation with the incidence of frog malformations. However, the samples differed strongly in absorption spectra and the ability to quench {sup 1}O{sub 2}. These factors may determine how much UV light is absorbed and converted into chemical reactions. Our results show that photochemical characterization of {sup 1}O{sub 2} photosensitization is possible in untreated natural water samples. Photosensitization falls into the category of global factors that may be closely associated with the effects of

  18. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  19. Separate photosensitizers mediate degradation of the 32-kDa photosystem II reaction center protein in the visible and UV spectral regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, B.M.; Gaba, V.; Canaani, O.; Malkin, S.; Mattoo, A.K.; Edelman, M.

    1989-01-01

    A component of the photosystem II reaction center, the 32-kDa protein, is rapidly turned over in the light. The mechanism of its light-dependent metabolism is largely unknown. We quantified the rate of 32-kDa protein degradation over a broad spectral range (UV, visible, and far red). The quantum yield for degradation was highest in the UVB (280-320 nm) region. Spectral evidence demonstrates two distinctly different photosensitizers for 32-kDa protein degradation. The data implicate the bulk photosynthetic pigments (primarily chlorophyll) in the visible and far red regions, and plastoquinone (in one or more of its redox states) in the UV region. A significant portion of 32-kDa protein degradation in sunlight is attributed to UVB irradiance

  20. Photosensitive thin-film In/p-Pb{sub x}Sn{sub 1-x}S Schottky barriers: Fabrication and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gremenok, V. F., E-mail: gremenok@ifttp.bas-net.by [Scientific-Practical Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus State Scientific and Production Association (Belarus); Rud' , V. Yu., E-mail: rudvas.spb@gmail.com [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Rud' , Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Bashkirov, S. A.; Ivanov, V. A. [Scientific-Practical Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus State Scientific and Production Association (Belarus)

    2011-08-15

    Thin Pb{sub x}Sn{sub 1-x}S films are obtained by the 'hot-wall' method at substrate temperatures of 210-330 Degree-Sign C. The microstructure, composition, morphology, and electrical characteristics of films are investigated. On the basis of the obtained films, photosensitive In/p-Pb{sub x}Sn{sub 1-x}S Schottky barriers are fabricated for the first time. The photosensivity spectra of these structures are investigated, and the character of interband transitions and the band-gap values are determined from them. The conclusion is drawn that Pb{sub x}Sn{sub 1-x}S thin polycrystalline films may be used in solar-energy converters.

  1. Towards the Development of Functionalized PolypyridineLigands for Ru(II Complexes as Photosensitizers inDye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale O. Adeloye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of novel ruthenium(II polypyridine complexes have been designedand synthesized for use as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs due totheir rich photophysical properties such as intense absorption, long-lived lifetimes, highemission quantum yields and unique redox characteristics. Many of these complexesexhibit photophysical behavior that can be readily controlled through a careful choice ofligands and/or substituents. With this perspective, we review the design and general syntheticmethods of some polypyridine ligands based on bipyridine, phenanthroline, terpyridine andquaterpyridine with/without anchoring groups with a view to correlate functionality ofligand structures with the observed photophysical, electroredox and power conversionefficiency of some examples of Ru(II polypyridyl complexes that have been reported andparticularly used in the DSSCs applications. The main interest, however, is focused onshowing the development of new polypyridine ligand materials containing long-rangeelectron transfer motifs such as the alkenyl, alkynyl and polyaromatic donor functionalities.

  2. Efficient photosensitized splitting of the thymine dimer/oxetane unit on its modifying beta-cyclodextrin by a binding electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen-Jian; Song, Qin-Hua; Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Jing-Yu; Guo, Qing-Xiang

    2006-07-07

    Two modified beta-cyclodextrins (beta-CDs) with a thymine dimer and a thymine oxetane adduct respectively, TD-CD and Ox-CD, have been prepared, and utilized to bind an electron-rich chromophore, indole or N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA), to form a supramolecular complex. We have examined the photosensitized splitting of the dimer/oxetane unit in TD-CD/Ox-CD by indole or DMA via an electron-transfer pathway, and observed high splitting efficiencies of the dimer/oxetane unit. On the basis of measurements of fluorescence spectra and splitting quantum yields, it is suggested that the splitting reaction occurs in a supramolecular complex by an inclusion interaction between the modified beta-CDs and DMA or indole. The back electron transfer, which leads low splitting efficiencies for the covalently-linked chromophore-dimer/oxetane compounds, is suppressed in the non-covalently-bound complex, and the mechanism has been discussed.

  3. Tunable Direct Writing of FBGs into a Non-Photosensitive Tm-Doped Fiber Core with an fs Laser and Phase Mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng-Wei, Song; Yang, Wang; Yun-Jun, Zhang; You-Lun, Ju

    2009-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are successfully written in a non-photosensitive Tm-doped single-mode fiber by a 800 nm fs laser and a 2.7 μm period phase mask. The intra-core FBGs are written using the phase mask ±1 order interference, and have a period of 1.35 μm, which responds to the second-order reflective central wavelength at 1946.4 nm. Based on the magnification tuning writing technology, the tunable writing technology is also experimentally investigated. The distance between the phase mask and the fiber, between the phase mask and the tuning lens, and the focal length of the tuning lens all have an influence on the tunable characteristics. Four different FBGs tuning refiective central wavelengths located at 1958.7 nm, 1970.8 nm, 1882.5 nm and 1899.7 nm are obtained

  4. Type I photosensitized reactions of oxopurines. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the reaction with triplet benzophenone by time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgida, Daniel H.; Erra Balsells, Rosa; Crippa, Pier Raimondo; Viappiani, Cristiano

    1998-09-01

    Benzophenone photosensitized reactions of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine were investigated in acetonitrile by time-resolved laser-induced photoacoustics. In the three cases global quenching rate constants of triplet benzophenone were measured as a function of temperature and it was observed that this is a non-activated process. Besides, for theobromine and theophylline heats for NH hydrogen abstraction reactions were determined. In agreement with semiempirical calculation predictions, hydrogen abstraction is thermodynamically more favorable and faster for theophylline (Δ H=-265 kJ mol -1, kr=9.6×10 8 M -1 s -1) than for theobromine (Δ H=-168 kJ mol -1, kr=3.7×10 8 M -1 s -1).

  5. Enhanced photosensitization process induced by the p–n junction of Bi2O2CO3/BiOCl heterojunctions on the degradation of rhodamine B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Haijing; Xu, Lingling; Wei, Bo; Zhang, Mingyi; Gao, Hong; Sun, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report the enhanced photosensitization process in the nanosheet Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 /BiOCl heterojunctions photocatalyst. The combined XRD, FT-IR and Raman results have confirmed the co-existence of Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 and BiOCl phases in the composites. Although both Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 and BiOCl are wide bandgap semiconductors, the composites showed an unexpectedly high catalytic activity in decomposing RhB (rhodamine B) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the inner electric field formed in the Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 /BiOCl p–n junction.

  6. Surface interaction between cubic phase NaNbO3 nanoflowers and Ru nanoparticles for enhancing visible-light driven photosensitized photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Hu, Yin; Ba, Mingwei

    2018-03-01

    Ru nanoparticles supported on perovskite NaNbO3 with cubic crystal structure and nanoflower-like morphology was prepared by a convenient solvothermal method combined with photo-deposition technique. Crystal structure, chemical component and surface valence states determined by XRD, XPS, TEM and SEM demonstrated the metastable cubic phase of perovskite NaNbO3, and its modified surface by Ru species. Optical and electrochemical analysis, such as UV-vis DRS, OTCS and EIS, indicated the excellent photoelectrochemical properties and the efficient electron transfer of the composites. Compared with naked and Ru-doped NaNbO3, the composite photocatalyst exhibited outstanding performance for the degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation due to the dye self-photosensitization and the surface interaction between Ru metal nanoparticles and semiconductor. In-situ reduction of surface Ru oxide species in the photocatalytic process assisted the further improvement of the photocatalytic activity and stability. Investigation of the main active species during the photocatalysis confirmed the efficient transfer of the photo-generated electrons and the positive effect of oxygen defects in NaNbO3. Finally, possible mechanism of the present visible-light driven photocatalysis was proposed in detail. This work provided an alternative strategy to enhance the visible-light photocatalytic efficiency of the catalyst with wide band gap on the basis of the synergistic effect of dye self-photosensitization, interaction between NaNbO3 and its surface Ru nanoparticles, and the "self-doping" of oxygen defects in NaNbO3.

  7. Detection of nearest neighbors to specific fluorescently tagged ligands in rod outer segment and lymphocyte plasma membranes by photosensitization of 5-iodonaphthyl 1-azide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raviv, Y.; Bercovici, T.; Gitler, C.; Salomon, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Lima bean agglutinin-fluorescein 5-isothiocyanate conjugate (FluNCS-lima bean lectin) interacts with specific receptor molecules on membranes both from the rod outer segment (ROS) of the frog retina and from S49 mouse lymphoma cells. When [125I]-5-iodonaphthyl 1-azide (125I-INA), which freely and randomly partitions into the lipid bilayer, is added to membranes and the suspension is irradiated at 480 nm, the FluNCS-conjugated lectin photosensitizes the [125I]INA but only at discrete sites. This results in the selective labeling of specific proteins: an 88-kDa protein on ROS membranes and a 56-kDa protein on S49 plasma membranes. Labeling is dependent upon the interaction of the FluNCS-lectin with glycosylated receptor sites, since N-acetylgalactosamine, but not methyl alpha-mannoside, blocked labeling of the 56-kDa protein on S49 membranes. In contrast, a random labeling pattern of membrane proteins was observed upon irradiation at 480 nm using other fluorescein conjugates, such as FluNCS-bovine serum albumin (FluNCS-BSA) or FluNCS-soybean trypsin inhibitor (FluNCS-STI), which interact with cell membranes in a nonselective manner, or with N-(fluorescein-5-thiocarbamoyl)-n-undecyclamine (FluNCS-NHC11), which is freely miscible in the membrane lipid. Random labeling was also obtained by direct photoexcitation of [125I]INA at 314 nm, with no distinct labeling of the 88- and 56-kDa proteins in the respective membranes. These results suggest that protein ligands can be used to guide sensitizers to discrete receptor sites and lead to their selective labeling by photosensitized activation of [125I]INA

  8. Ultraviolet A photosensitivity profile of dexchlorpheniramine maleate and promethazine-based creams: Anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, and skin barrier protection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Gustavo; Eberlin, Samara; Clerici, Stefano Piatto; Alves Pinheiro, Ana Lucia Tabarini; Costa, Adilson

    2017-12-01

    Unwanted side effects such as dryness, hypersensitivity, and cutaneous photosensitivity are challenge for adherence and therapeutical success for patients using treatments for inflammatory and allergic skin response. In this study, we compared the effects of two dermatological formulations, which are used in inflammatory and/or allergic skin conditions: dexchlorpheniramine maleate (DCP; 10 mg/g) and promethazine (PTZ; 20 mg/g). We evaluated both formulations for phototoxicity potential, skin irritation, anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic abilities, and skin barrier repair in vitro and ex vivo using the standard OECD test guideline n° 432, the ECVAM protocol n° 78, and cultured skin explants from a healthy patient. Ultraviolet A was chosen as exogenous agent to induce allergic and inflammatory response. Both PTZ and DCP promoted increases in interleukin-1 (IL-1) synthesis in response to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation compared to control. However, the increase observed with PTZ was significantly greater than the DCP, indicating that the latter has a lower irritant potential. DCP also demonstrated a protective effect on UVA-induced leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) synthesis. Conversely, PTZ demonstrates more robust UVA antihistaminic activity. Likewise, PTZ promoted a significantly greater increase in the production of involucrin and keratin 14, both associated with protective skin barrier property. In conclusion, these data suggest possible diverging UVA response mechanisms of DCP and PTZ, which gives greater insight into the contrasting photosensitizing potential between DCP and PTZ observed in the patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  10. Solid state synthesis of chitosan and its unsaturated derivatives for laser microfabrication of 3D scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopova, T. A.; Demina, T. S.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Bardakova, K. N.; Novikov, M. M.; Selezneva, I. I.; Istomin, A. V.; Svidchenko, E. A.; Cherkaev, G. V.; Surin, N. M.; Timashev, P. S.

    2015-07-01

    Chitosans with various degrees of deacetylation and molecular weights and their allyl substituted derivatives were obtained through a solvent-free reaction under shear deformation in an extruder. Structure and physical-chemical analysis of the samples were carried out using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), ultraviolet (UV) and infrared radiation (IR) spectroscopy. Photosensitive materials based on the synthesized polymers were successfully used for microfabrication of 3D well-defined architectonic structures by laser stereolithography. Study on the metabolic activity of NCTC L929 cultured in the presence of the cured chitosan extracts indicates that the engineered biomaterials could support adhesion, spreading and growth of adherent-dependent cells, and thus could be considered as biocompatible scaffolds.

  11. Solid state synthesis of chitosan and its unsaturated derivatives for laser microfabrication of 3D scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopova, T A; Demina, T S; Istomin, A V; Svidchenko, E A; Cherkaev, G V; Surin, N M; Bagratashvili, V N; Bardakova, K N; Novikov, M M; Selezneva, I I; Timashev, P S

    2015-01-01

    Chitosans with various degrees of deacetylation and molecular weights and their allyl substituted derivatives were obtained through a solvent-free reaction under shear deformation in an extruder. Structure and physical-chemical analysis of the samples were carried out using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), ultraviolet (UV) and infrared radiation (IR) spectroscopy. Photosensitive materials based on the synthesized polymers were successfully used for microfabrication of 3D well-defined architectonic structures by laser stereolithography. Study on the metabolic activity of NCTC L929 cultured in the presence of the cured chitosan extracts indicates that the engineered biomaterials could support adhesion, spreading and growth of adherent-dependent cells, and thus could be considered as biocompatible scaffolds. (paper)

  12. Structure Optimization of 21,23-Core-Modified Porphyrins Absorbing Long-Wavelength Light as Potential Photosensitizers Against Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Detty, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    .... The structures of two derivatives were determined unambiguously be x-ray crystallography including the structure of a cis-ABCC meso-substituted derivative and the structure of a cis-AB disubstituted derivative...

  13. A comparative study on the performance of photogalvanic cells with different photosensitizers for solar energy conversion and storage: D-Xylose-NaLS systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhimwal, Mahesh Kumar; Gangotri, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative performance of photogalvanic cells has been studied for solar energy conversion and storage by using Methyl Orange, Rose Bengal, Toluidine Blue and Brilliant Cresyl Blue as different photosensitizers with D-Xylose as reductant and Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (NaLS) as surfactant in the different systems. The photogeneration of photopotential are 890.0, 885.0, 945.0 and 940.0 mV whereas the maximum photocurrent is 625.0, 575.0, 510.0 and 480.0 μA, respectively. The short circuit current or photocurrent at equilibrium is 480.0, 460.0, 430.0 and 440.0 μA, respectively. The observed conversion efficiencies for Methyl Orange, Rose Bengal, Toluidine Blue and Brilliant Cresyl Blue with D-Xylose and Sodium Lauryl Sulphate systems are 1.6245, 1.5261, 1.4323 and 1.1057%, respectively. The fill factors 0.3244, 0.3151, 0.3120, and 0.2408 are experimentally determined at the power point of the cell where the absolute value is 1.0. The photogalvanic cells so developed can work for 160.0, 145.0, 130.0 and 140.0 min in dark if it is irradiated for 180.0, 165.0, 135.0 and 150.0 min, respectively where the percentage of storage capacity of photogalvanic cells are found 87.87%-96.29%. All observed results are the higher among the reported results so far in the literature. -- Research highlights: → The discussed photogalvanic cells have higher storage capacity and conversion efficiency of sunlight, in comparison to the present solar cells. → A comparative performance of photogalvanic cells was studied by applying different photosensitizers (dyes) systems. → A more reliable estimate of the maximum conversion efficiency and storage capacity are achieved 1.1057%-1.6245% and 96.29%, respectively. → On the basis of sunlight conversion data, the observed maximum photocurrent and photopotential are 1200.0 μA and 2360.0 mV, respectively. → The literature survey reveals that the reported results in the present research work are the highest so far.

  14. Is it photosensitization or photodegradation when UV-B irradiation is combined with BDE-47? Evidence from the growth and reproduction changes of rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunchen; Tang, Xuexi; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Yongshun; Lv, Mengchen; Zang, Yu; Wang, You

    2018-07-01

    Ecotoxicological methods were applied in the present study, and the marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis was used as the toxic endpoint to depict what occurred when 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) was combined with solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B). B. plicatilis was exposed to three different combination methods of BDE-47 and UV-B at an equal toxicity ratio, including normal rotifer co-cultured with UV-B-irradiated BDE-47 (known as Method I), UV-B-irradiated rotifer co-cultured with BDE-47 exposure (known as Method II) and normal rotifer co-cultured with the simultaneous addition of BDE-47 and UV-B irradiation (known as Method III). Acute and chronic experiments were preformed to determine the toxicity differentiation according to the growth and reproduction changes in the rotifer. Twenty-four-hour acute experiments showed that the modes of three combined methods changed from antagonism to additive, to synergistic with the concentration/dose increment, and the contribution rates of Method I and Method II to Method III were calculated by approximately 40.4% and 59.6%, respectively. Chronic exposure to either the single stressor or the combination of stressors inhibited the growth and reproduction of the rotifer, demonstrating the inhibition of the population growth rate and the decrease in the larvae production. Three combined groups presented more serious damages compared to groups with single stress exposure, and the ascending sequence of toxicity was Method Iphotosensitization and photodegradation, and the photosensitization might be more

  15. Fabrication of undoped ZnO thin film via photosensitive sol–gel method and its applications for an electron transport layer of organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luong, Chi Hieu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sarah [Central Research Division, LG Chem., Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-738 (Korea, Republic of); Surabhi, Srivathsava; Vo, Thanh Son; Lee, Kyung-Min; Yoon, Soon-Gil [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jun-Ho [Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun-Hyuk, E-mail: junhyuk@kimm.re.kr [Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jong-Ryul, E-mail: jrjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Investigated the effect of the interfacial ZnO for ETL synthesized by photochemical reaction using photosensitive 2-nitrobenzaldehyde on the inverted P3HT:PCBM OSC. • The abrupt increase of grain size and surface roughness was observed as increasing the annealing temperature above 350 °C. • The sheet resistance abruptly decreased with increasing the annealing temperature above 350 °C. • Increase of surface roughness caused by the high annealing temperature could be detrimental to the OSCs characteristics due to a high contact resistance and a large leakage current. - Abstract: We have investigated ZnO thin films prepared via photochemical reaction as the electron transport layer (ETL) of inverted organic solar cells (OSCs). Morphological and electrical properties of the ZnO thin films prepared by the photosensitive ZnO sol were studied according to the annealing temperature and their effects on the performance of the inverted poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) OSCs was characterized. It was found that the optimal annealing temperature of the ZnO thin films was 330 °C, and that devices with the ZnO ETL annealed at this temperature exhibited the largest short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 9.39 mA/cm{sup 2}, as well as the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.31%, which can be attributed to enhanced electron transport and interfacial properties. Devices containing ZnO films formed at optimal annealing condition exhibited an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.60 V and a fill factor (FF) of 41.0%. However, further increase of the annealing temperature led to degradation of the device performance, despite further improvements in electrical properties. We have found that marked increase in the surface roughness of the ZnO films occurred at temperatures above 350 °C which could be detrimental to the OSCs characteristics due to a high contact resistance and a large leakage current.

  16. Submillimeter-wave measurements of N2 and O2 pressure broadening for HO2 radical generated by Hg-photosensitized reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, A.; Yagi, T.; Kondo, K.; Sato, T.O.; Kanamori, H.

    2012-01-01

    The N 2 and O 2 pressure broadening coefficients of the pure rotational transitions at 625.66 GHz (N KaKc =10 1-9 -10 0-10 , J=10.5-10.5) and 649.70 GHz (N KaKc =10 2-9 -9 2-8 , J=9.5-8.5) in the vibronic ground state X 2 A′ of the perhydroxyl (HO 2 ) radical have been determined by precise laboratory measurements. For the production of HO 2 , the mercury-photosensitized reaction of the H 2 and O 2 precursors was used to provide an optimum condition for measurement of the pressure broadening coefficient. The Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) was designed to monitor the volume mixing ratio of trace gases including HO 2 in the Earth's upper atmosphere using these transitions. The precise measurement of pressure broadening coefficient γ in terms of the half width at half maximum is required in order to retrieve the atmospheric volume mixing ratio. In this work, γ coefficients of the 625.66 GHz transition were determined for N 2 and O 2 at room temperature as γ(N 2 )=4.085±0.049 MHz/Torr and γ(O 2 )=2.578±0.047 MHz/Torr with 3σ uncertainty. Similarly, the coefficients of the 649.70 GHz transition were determined as γ(N 2 )=3.489±0.094 MHz/Torr and γ(O 2 )=2.615±0.099 MHz/Torr. The air broadening coefficients for the 625.66 GHz and 649.70 GHz lines were estimated at γ(air)=3.769±0.067 MHz and 3.298±0.099 MHz respectively, where the uncertainty includes possible systematic errors. The newly determined coefficients are compared with previous results and we discuss the advantage of the mercury-photosensitized reaction for HO 2 generation. In comparison with those of other singlet molecules, the pressure broadening coefficients of the HO 2 radical are not much affected by the existence of an unpaired electron.

  17. Global Derivatives Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Liposomes as Carriers for Photosensitizing Drugs: Development, Validation, and Simulations with a Coarse-Grained Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jämbeck, Joakim P M; Eriksson, Emma S E; Laaksonen, Aatto; Lyubartsev, Alexander P; Eriksson, Leif A

    2014-01-14

    Liposomes are proposed as drug delivery systems and can in principle be designed so as to cohere with specific tissue types or local environments. However, little detail is known about the exact mechanisms for drug delivery and the distributions of drug molecules inside the lipid carrier. In the current work, a coarse-grained (CG) liposome model is developed, consisting of over 2500 lipids, with varying degrees of drug loading. For the drug molecule, we chose hypericin, a natural compound proposed for use in photodynamic therapy, for which a CG model was derived and benchmarked against corresponding atomistic membrane bilayer model simulations. Liposomes with 21-84 hypericin molecules were generated and subjected to 10 microsecond simulations. Distribution of the hypericins, their orientations within the lipid bilayer, and the potential of mean force for transferring a hypericin molecule from the interior aqueous "droplet" through the liposome bilayer are reported herein.

  19. Cellular and antitumor activity of a new diethylene glycol benzoporphyrin derivative (lemuteporfin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boch, Ron; Canaan, Alice J; Cho, Angela; Dolphin, David D; Hong, Lina; Jain, Ashok K; North, John R; Richter, Anna M; Smits, Claire; Sternberg, Ethan D

    2006-01-01

    A newly synthesized diethylene glycol functionalized chlorin-type photosensitizer, lemuteporfin, was characterized for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a panel of in vitro and in vivo test systems. The photosensitizer was highly potent, killing cells at low nanomolar concentrations upon exposure to activating light. The cellular uptake of lemuteporfin was rapid, with maximum levels reached within 20 min. Mitogen-activated lymphoid cells accumulated more of the lemuteporfin than their quiescent equivalents, supporting selectivity. Photosensitizer fluorescence in the skin increased rapidly within the first few minutes following intravenous administration to mice, then decreased over the next 24 h. Skin photosensitivity reactions indicated rapid clearance of the photosensitizer. Intravenous doses as low as 1.4 micromol/kg combined with exposure to 50 J/cm2 red light suppressed tumor growth in a mouse model. In conclusion, this new benzoporphyrin was found to be an effective photosensitizer, showing rapid uptake and clearance both in vitro and in vivo. This rapid photosensitization of tumors could be useful in therapies requiring a potent, rapidly accumulating photosensitizer, while minimizing the potential for skin photosensitivity reactions to sunlight following treatment.

  20. Risk and Derivative Price

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Osaki

    2007-01-01

    We consider an asset market traded three types of assets: the risk–free asset, the market portfolio and derivatives written on the market portfolio return. We determine a sufficient condition to guarantee that noise risk monotonically changes their derivatives. The condition is that Arrow–Pratt absolute risk aversion is decreasing and convex.

  1. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  2. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D 3 derivatives of high specific activity is described. These labelled vitamin D derivatives are useful in the determination of vitamin D metabolite levels in the blood and tissues of man and animals. (U.K.)

  3. iTRAQ-facilitated proteomic profiling of anthers from a photosensitive male sterile mutant and wild-type cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Song, Meizhen; Meng, Yanyan; Ma, Jianhui; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2015-08-03

    Male sterility is a common phenomenon in flowering plants, and it has been successfully developed in several crops by taking advantage of heterosis. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important economic crop, used mainly for the production of textile fiber. Using a space mutation breeding technique, a novel photosensitive genetic male sterile mutant CCRI9106 was isolated from the wild-type upland cotton cultivar CCRI040029. To use CCRI9106 in cotton hybrid breeding, it is of great importance to study the molecular mechanisms of its male sterility. Here, histological and iTRAQ-facilitated proteomic analyses of anthers were performed to explore male sterility mechanisms of the mutant. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the anthers showed that the development of pollen wall in CCRI9106 was severely defective with a lack of exine formation. At the protein level, 6121 high-confidence proteins were identified and 325 of them showed differential expression patterns between mutant and wild-type anthers. The proteins up- or down-regulated in MT anthers were mainly involved in exine formation, protein degradation, calcium ion binding,etc. These findings provide valuable information on the proteins involved in anther and pollen development, and contribute to elucidate the mechanism of male sterility in upland cotton. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Surface-Sensitive and Bulk Studies on the Complexation and Photosensitized Degradation of Catechol by Iron(III) as a Model for Multicomponent Aerosol Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abadleh, H. A.; Tofan-Lazar, J.; Situm, A.; Ruffolo, J.; Slikboer, S.

    2013-12-01

    Surface water plays a crucial role in facilitating or inhibiting surface reactions in atmospheric aerosols. Little is known about the role of surface water in the complexation of organic molecules to transition metals in multicomponent aerosol systems. We will show results from real time diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) experiments for the in situ complexation of catechol to Fe(III) and its photosensitized degradation under dry and humid conditions. Catechol was chosen as a simple model for humic-like substances (HULIS) in aerosols and aged polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It has also been detected in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed from the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with benzene. Given the importance of the iron content in aerosols and its biogeochemistry, our studies were conducted using FeCl3. For comparison, these surface-sensitive studies were complemented with bulk aqueous ATR-FTIR, UV-vis, and HPLC measurements for structural, quantitative and qualitative information about complexes in the bulk, and potential degradation products. The implications of our studies on understanding interfacial and condensed phase chemistry relevant to multicomponent aerosols, water thin islands on buildings, and ocean surfaces containing transition metals will be discussed.

  5. Anthocyanin extracted from Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa sinensis L.) as a photosensitizer on nanostructured-TiO2 dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelan, A. H.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Rosyida, N. A.; Supriyanto, E.; Saputro, S.; Hanif, Q. A.; Rinawati, L.

    2016-02-01

    Anthocyanin extracted from Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa sinensis L) as a photosensitizer in nanostructured-TiO2 dye sensitized solar cells has been fabricated. Ultravisible visible absorption spectra of anthocyanin show an ability absorbing light in the visible region. While the nanostructed-TiO2 powder in this research was prepared by sol-gel method following annealled at a temperature of 600°C. Subsequently, the TiO2 nanostructures were characterized by XRD, XRF, and SEM. The difractogram X-ray results shown that TiO2 was built from f anatase and rutile phase. Element analysis of synthesized TiO2 by X-ray Fluorecence (XRF) shown the TiO2 content of 98,67 wt%. TiO2 layer prepared at different thickness showed the average size of cavity about 0.83 µm. These several thickness of solar cells were fabricated and were immersed into anthocyanin for 24 hours to gain sensitized TiO2 photoanode for Dye sensitised solar cells (DSSCs). These DSSCS performance were measured using I-V Keithley 2602A. The results exhibited that the sample with a TiO2 layer thickness of 4.75 ± 0.8 µm has the highest efficiency.

  6. Treatment of naturally occuring hemangiopericytoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma in dogs using surgery and photodynamic therapy with HPPH as a photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, John T.; McCaw, Dudley L.; Rogers, Kevin J.; Tompson, Robert V.

    1995-05-01

    Pyropheophorbide-a-hexyl ether (HPPH) is a new photosensitizer for use with photodynamic therapy (PDT) that has shown promise in laboratory animals. PDT, using this drug, is being used to treat canine patients afflicted with hemangiopericytoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at the University of Missouri-Columbia College of Veterinary Medicine. To date, 11 dogs with hemangiopericytoma and 5 dogs with oral SCC have been treated using a combination of surgery and PDT. Thus far, there have been no serious complications attributable to the treatment. Two dogs have had recurrences of the hemangiopericytoma and there have been no recurrences of SCC with a median follow time of 5 months. Both recurrent hemangiopericytomas were in patients with large tumors that had previous surgery. This study is ongoing and no conclusions have been reached; however several observations are noted. It appears that PDT using HPPH is safe is dogs, and may decrease the recurrence rate of Hemangiopericytomas. In dogs with oral SCC, the treatment is effective is causing necrosis and sloughing of the tumor tissue, and recurrences have not been noted on follow-ups up to 6 months.

  7. Novel UV-Visible Photodetector in Photovoltaic Mode with Fast Response and Ultrahigh Photosensitivity Employing Se/TiO2 Nanotubes Heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingxia; Hu, Kai; Teng, Feng; Fang, Xiaosheng

    2017-02-01

    A feasible strategy for hybrid photodetector by integrating an array of self-ordered TiO 2 nanotubes (NTs) and selenium is demonstrated to break the compromise between the responsivity and response speed. Novel heterojunction between the TiO 2 NTs and Se in combination with the surface trap states at TiO 2 help regulate the electron transport and facilitate the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs under photovoltaic mode (at zero bias), leading to a high responsivity of ≈100 mA W -1 at 620 nm light illumination and the ultrashort rise/decay time (1.4/7.8 ms). The implanting of intrinsic p-type Se into TiO 2 NTs broadens the detection range to UV-visible (280-700 nm) with a large detectivity of over 10 12 Jones and a high linear dynamic range of over 80 dB. In addition, a maximum photocurrent of ≈10 7 A is achieved at 450 nm light illumination and an ultrahigh photosensitivity (on/off ratio up to 10 4 ) under zero bias upon UV and visible light illumination is readily achieved. The concept of employing novel heterojunction geometry holds great potential to pave a new way to realize high performance and energy-efficient optoelectronic devices for practical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Multiorganelle Localization of Metallated Phthalocyanine Photosensitizer in Colorectal Cancer Cells (DLD-1 and CaCo-2 Enhances Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palesa Rose Sekhejane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer. Amongst treatments that have been explored, photodynamic therapy (PDT is a treatment that is of interest as it poses ideal advantages such as affinity for cancer cells. This study aimed to determine the correlation between the localization site of a sulfonated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcSmix photosensitizer (PS and its associated cell death pathway in vitro in colorectal cancer cell lines (DLD-1 and CaCo-2. Visible morphological changes were observed in PDT treated cells after 24 h. Reactive oxygen species (ROS were detected and visualized 1 h after PDT. ZnPcSmix was predominantly localized in lysosomes and partially in the mitochondria. FITC Annexin V staining showed a significant decrease in the percentage of viable DLD-1 and CaCo-2 cells 24 h after PDT, with an increase in apoptotic cell population. Moreover, there was a significant increase in both cathepsin D and cytochrome C at 1 and 24 h. In conclusion, ZnPcSmix showed the ability of inducing apoptotic cell death features in PDT treated cells.

  9. Intracellular distribution and mechanisms of actions of photosensitizer Zinc(II)-phthalocyanine solubilized in Cremophor EL against human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jingwei; Dai, Yongchao; Zhao, Wenna; Xie, Jingjing; Xue, Jinping; Ye, Jianhui; Jia, Lee

    2013-03-01

    Zinc(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) is a metal photosensitizer. In the present study, we formulated the poorly-soluble ZnPc in Cremophor EL solution to enhance its solubility and determined its intracellular distribution and mechanisms of action on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. ZnPc uptake by the cells reached a plateau by 8h. ZnPc primarily located in mitochondria, lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum. The concentration-growth inhibition curves of ZnPc on the cell lines were pharmacodynamically enhanced by 10-50 folds by irradiation. Once irradiated, ZnPc produced significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, arrested cell cycle mainly at G2/M stage, and decreased membrane potential (ΔΨm) of HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the present study first elucidated cellular and molecular mechanisms of ZnPc on HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A glassy carbon electrode modified with an amphiphilic, electroactive and photosensitive polymer and with multi-walled carbon nanotubes for simultaneous determination of dopamine and paracetamole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ren; Zeng, Xuebiao; Liu, Jingcheng; Luo, Jing; Zheng, Yuanyi; Liu, Xiaoya

    2016-01-01

    The article describes an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and paracetamole (PAT). It is based on the use of an electroactive polymer (referred to as BPVCM) to functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotubes. BPVCM is a branched amphiphilic photo-sensitive and electroactive polymer that was obtained by copolymerization of a vinyl benzyl carbazole, maleic acid anhydride, 4-vinyl benzylthiol and a vinylbenzyl oxycoumarin. BPVCM efficiently disperses MWCNT in aqueous solution. The electropolymerization of the carbazole moieties of the BPVCM enhances the current response. It also facilitates electron transfer in the MWCNT-BPVCM hybrid as evidenced by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A glassy carbon electrode modified with the nanocomposite displays outstanding electrocatalytic activity towards DA and PAT. DA can be determined, best at a working voltage of 0.2 V (vs. SCE), in the 5 to 1000 μM concentration range with a 2.3 μM detection limit. PAT can be determined in parallel, at a working voltage of 0.39 V (vs. SCE), in the same concentration range with a 3.5 μM detection limit. This analytical range of this method is wider than that of most alternative methods. (author)

  11. Dye-Sensitized Molecular Charge Transfer Complexes: Magnetic and Conduction Properties in the Photoexcited States of Ni(dmit2 Salts Containing Photosensitive Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoma Yamamoto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitive dyes often induce charge transfer (CT between adjacent chemical species and themselves under irradiation of appropriate wavelengths. Because of the reversibility and selectivity of such CT, it is considered to be interesting to utilize such dyes as optically controllable trigger components for conduction and magnetism in the photoexcited states of organic materials. Based on this idea, such a type of new salts, i.e., γ- and δ-DiCC[Ni(dmit2] in addition to DiCC2[Ni(dmit2]3 have been prepared, characterized and their physical and structural properties have been examined both under dark and irradiated conditions (dmit2− = 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate, DiCC+ = 3,3′-Dihexyloxacarbocyanine monocation. Among them, under UV (254–450 nm irradiation, δ-DiCC[Ni(dmit2] exhibited photoconductivity being six times as high as its dark conductivity at room temperature. The electron spin resonance (ESR spectra have demonstrated that there are photoexcited spins on both DiCC and [Ni(dmit2] species as a result of the CT transition between them, serving as localized spins (DiCC and carriers ([Ni(dmit2], respectively. The results obtained in this work have indicated that the strategy mentioned above is effective in developing organic photoresponsive semiconductors with paramagnetism.

  12. Photosensitive nanostructured TiO{sub 2} grown at room temperature by novel 'bottom-up' approached CBD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, U.M.; Kulkarni, S.B.; Deshmukh, P.R.; Salunkhe, R.R. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India)

    2011-05-26

    Research highlights: > The TiO{sub 2} nanoflakes like morphology have been controllably synthesized by the CBD method with NH{sub 4}Cl as complexing agent. > The XRD and FTIR studies confirmed the formation of anatase TiO{sub 2} thin film. > The SEM images reveal the improvement in flower size of TiO{sub 2} as an effect of heat treatment. > The strong influence of wide band gap of this electrode in spite this, PEC performance can motivate to check its feasibility in DSSC's devices. - Abstract: The current paper incorporates with a 'bottom-up' approached chemical bath deposition method to grow titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanostructure at room temperature on glass and stainless steel substrates. The room temperature deposited TiO{sub 2} films are heat treated at 673 K for 1 h in air and the corresponding change in structural, morphological and optical properties are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. The heat-treated films are utilized as a photocathode in photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell in 1 M NaOH electrolyte. The experimental results show that, the CBD method allows formation of photosensitive, anatase TiO{sub 2} thin film, which can be potentially tuned in many functional applications with feasibility.

  13. Synthesis, characterization of a new photosensitive compound [Ru(bpy)2 (TPAD)](PF6)2 and its application for photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui-Qin; Guo, Yi-Ping; Yin, Ming-Cai; Fan, Yao-Ting

    2016-06-01

    A new photosensitive compound based on triphenylamine donor and ruthenium(II), namely [Ru(bpy)2(TPAD)](PF6)2 (PS1, bpy = 2,2‧-bipyridine, TPAD = N-(4-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline-2-yl)phenyl)-N-phenylbenzenamine), had been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, MS spectra, UV, PL and CV measurements. The target photocatalyst, PS1/0.5 wt% Pt/TiO2, was prepared by sensitizing PS1 to 0.5 wt% Pt/TiO2 and characterized by SEM and XRD. The highest hydrogen evolution reached to 9500 μmol·(g·catalyst)-1 (475 μmol, 31.7 TON and TOF 5.8 vs. PS1) under the optimal conditions with 0.05 g·L-1 of PS1, and 5% of TEOA at pH 11 with the irradiation of 5.5 h. The mechanism of hydrogen evolution was also briefly discussed in the present work.

  14. Cell-specific and pH-sensitive nanostructure hydrogel based on chitosan as a photosensitizer carrier for selective photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belali, Simin; Karimi, Ali Reza; Hadizadeh, Mahnaz

    2018-04-15

    The major problems of porphyrins as promising materials for photodynamic therapy (PDT) are their low solubility, subsequently aggregation in biological environments, and a lack of tumor selectivity. With this in mind, a chitosan-based hydrogel conjugated with tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)porphyrin (NH 2 -TPP) and 2,4,6-tris(p-formylphenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine (TRIPOD) via Schiff base linkage, functionalized with folate was designed and synthesized as a pH-sensitive, self-healable and injectable targeted PS delivery system. This new hydrogel was characterized by FT-IR, 1 H NMR, SEM, UV-vis, fluorescence spectroscopy and zeta potential. Formation of imine bonds with the aldehyde group of TRIPOD and amine group of NH 2 -TPP and chitosan, as a dynamic connection, was approved by rheological analysis. Spectroscopic characterizations revealed that aggregation of porphyrin in aqueous media was eliminated due to diminished π stacking interaction of porphyrin in 3D cross-linked hydrogel structure. Hydrogel 3D microporous structure efficiently transfers the excitation energy to the porphyrin unit, yielding improvement singlet oxygen releases. Cytotoxicity and phototoxicity analysis of the CS/NH 2 -TPP/FA hydrogels indicating an excellent capability to kill cancer cells selectively and prevent damage to normal cells. This work presents a new and efficient model for the preparation of highly efficient and targeting photosensitizer delivery system. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with....

  16. Benzoporphyrin derivative and light-emitting diode for use in photodynamic therapy: Applications of space light-emitting diode technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, Harry T.; Houle, John M.; Bajic, Dawn M.; Schmidt, Meic H.; Reichert, Kenneth W. II; Meyer, Glenn A.

    1998-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality that recently has been applied as adjuvant therapy for brain tumors. PDT consists of intravenously injecting a photosensitizer, which preferentially accumulates in tumor cells, into a patient and then activating the photosensitizer with a light source. This results in free radical generation followed by cell death. The development of more effective light sources for PDT of brain tumors has been facilitated by applications of space light-emitting diode array technology; thus permitting deeper tumor penetration of light and use of better photosensitizers. Currently, the most commonly used photosensitizer for brain tumor PDT is Photofrin registered . Photofrin registered is a heterogeneous mixture of compounds derived from hematoporphyrin. Photofrin registered is activated with a 630 nm laser light and does destroy tumor cells in animal models and humans. However, treatment failure does occur using this method. Most investigators attribute this failure to the limited penetration of brain tissue by a 630 nm laser light and to the fact that Photofrin registered has only a minor absorption peak at 630 nm, meaning that only a small fraction of the chemical is activated. Benzoporphyrin Derivative Monoacid Ring A (BPD) is a new, second generation photosensitizer that can potentially improve PDT for brain tumors. BPD has a major absorption peak at 690 nm, which gives it two distinct advantages over Photofrin registered . First, longer wavelengths of light penetrate brain tissue more easily so that larger tumors could be treated, and second, the major absorption peak means that a larger fraction of the drug is activated upon exposure to light. In the first part of this project we have studied the tumoricidal effects of BPD in vitro using 2A9 canine glioma and U373 human glioblastoma cell cultures. Using light emitting diodes (LED) with a peak emission of 688 nm as a light source, cell kill of up to 86 percent was

  17. Studies of porphyrin-containing specimens using an optical spectrometer connected to a confocal scanning laser microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepte, O; Rokahr, I; Andersson-Engels, S; Carlsson, K

    1994-12-01

    A spectrometer has been developed for use with a confocal scanning laser microscope. With this unit, spectral information from a single point or a user-defined region within the microscope specimen can be recorded. A glass prism is used to disperse the spectral components of the recorded light over a linear CCD photodiode array with 256 elements. A regulated cooling unit keeps the detector at 277 K, thereby allowing integration times of up to 60 s. The spectral resolving power, lambda/delta lambda, ranges from 350 at lambda = 400 nm to 100 at lambda = 700 nm. Since the entrance aperture of the spectrometer has the same size as the detector pinhole used during normal confocal scanning, the three-dimensional spatial resolution is equivalent to that of normal confocal scanning. Light from the specimen is deflected to the spectrometer by a solenoid controlled mirror, allowing fast and easy switching between normal confocal scanning and spectrometer readings. With this equipment, studies of rodent liver specimens containing porphyrins have been made. The subcellular localization is of interest for the mechanisms of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant tumours. Spectroscopic detection is necessary to distinguish the porphyrin signal from other fluorescent components in the specimen. Two different substances were administered to the tissue, Photofrin, a haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and delta-amino levulinic acid (ALA), a precursor to protoporphyrin IX and haem in the haem cycle. Both are substances under clinical trials for PDT of malignant tumours. Following administration of these compounds to the tissue, the potent photosensitizer and fluorescent compound Photofrin, or protoporphyrin IX, respectively, is accumulated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Superstability of Generalized Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari-Piri Esmaeil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation , where and are the mappings on Banach algebra . We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation , where .

  19. Amphetamine derivative related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A

    1997-02-28

    Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of deaths brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of death, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of deaths which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.

  20. Investigation - Derived Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.; Anderson, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Investigation-Derived Waste Program is a software application that was developed to identify the groundwater monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site that require containerization and treatment for purge water generated during sampling

  1. Development of Derivatives Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Pejčochová, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to summarise the theoretical principles, concepts and considerations pertaining to accounting for and reporting of derivatives and to describe and analyse the development of major accounting standards dealing with related issues. Sections 1 and 2 provide a basic overview of derivative instruments'categorisation, mechanics, valuation and uses. Section 3 studies the principles that ensure the provision of useful financial information, with specific focus on financial instrument...

  2. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  3. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  4. Gorenstein derived functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(􀀀;􀀀) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(􀀀;􀀀) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective...... and injective modules are replaced by Gorenstein projective and Gorenstein injective ones, respectively. Furthermore, we derive the tensor product 􀀀 R 􀀀 using Gorenstein at modules....

  5. Iron promotion of the TiO2 photosensitization process towards the photocatalytic oxidation of azo dyes under solar-simulated light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Camilo A.; Centeno, Aristobulo; Giraldo, Sonia A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Azo dye photooxidation occurs under strict combination of ultraviolet and visible irradiation of Fe-TiO 2 . → Fe 3+ enhances the TiO 2 photooxidation of azo dyes while decreases that of phenol. → UV irradiation leads to a decrease in photooxidation activity of Fe-TiO 2 photocatalysts. - Abstract: The photocatalytic oxidation of the azo dye Orange-II (Or-II) using Fe loaded TiO 2 (Fe-TiO 2 ) was studied under ultraviolet (UV), visible (vis) and simultaneous UV-vis irradiations using a solar light simulator. Photocatalysts were characterized by means of XRD, SEM-EDX, FTIR and DRS. Fe 3+ species, identified in XPS analyses, were responsible of the increased absorption of visible light. Moreover, DRS analyses showed a decrease in the bandgap due to Fe 3+ loading. Photocatalystic tests proved that Fe modification enhanced the TiO 2 photocatalytic activity towards Or-II photodegradation under simultaneous UV-vis irradiation. Even so, the performance of the Fe-TiO 2 samples towards the photodegradation of phenol, under UV irradiation, was lower than TiO 2 suggesting the recombination of the UV photogenerated electron-hole pair. Therefore, results evidence a Fe 3+ promotion of the electron caption in the photosensitization process of TiO 2 by Or-II acting as a sensitizer. Such process leads to the Or-II photooxidation under UV-vis irradiation by losing energy in electron transferring processes to sensitize TiO 2 , and, the formation of reactive oxygen species promoted by the injected electron to the TiO 2 conduction band.

  6. Exploitation of knowledge databases in the synthesis of zinc(II malonates with photo-sensitive and photo-insensitive N,N′-containing linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina N. Zorina-Tikhonova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Photoinitiated solid-state reactions are known to affect the physical properties of coordination polymers, such as fluorescence and sorption behaviour, and also afford extraordinary architectures (e.g. three-periodic structures with polyorganic ligands. However, the construction of novel photo-sensitive coordination polymers requires an understanding of the factors which govern the mutual disposition of reactive fragments. A series of zinc(II malonate complexes with 1,2-bis(pyridin-4-ylethylene and its photo-insensitive analogues has been synthesized for the purpose of systematic analysis of their underlying nets and mutual disposition of N-donor ligands. The application of a big data-set analysis for the prediction of a variety of possible complex compositions, coordination environments and networks for a four-component system has been demonstrated for the first time. Seven of the nine compounds possess one of the highly probable topologies for their underlying nets; in addition, two novel closely related four-coordinated networks were obtained. Complexes containing 1,2-bis(pyridin-4-ylethylene and 1,2-bis(pyridin-4-ylethane form isoreticular compounds more readily than those with 4,4′-bipyridine and 1,2-bis(pyridin-4-ylethylene. The effects of the precursor, either zinc(II nitrate or zinc(II acetate, on the composition and dimensionality of the resulting architecture are discussed. For three of the four novel complexes containing 1,2-bis(pyridin-4-ylethylene, the single-crystal-to-single-crystal [2 + 2] cycloaddition reactions were carried out. UV irradiation of these crystals afforded either the 0D→1D or the 3D→3D transformations, with and without network changes. One of the two 3D→3D transformations was accompanied by solvent (H2O cleavage.

  7. Comparative Study on the Efficiency of the Photodynamic Inactivation of Candida albicans Using CdTe Quantum Dots, Zn(II Porphyrin and Their Conjugates as Photosensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osnir S. Viana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of fluorescent II-VI semiconductor quantum dots (QDs as active photosensitizers in photodymanic inactivation (PDI is still being evaluated. In the present study, we prepared 3 nm size CdTe QDs coated with mercaptosuccinic acid and conjugated them electrostatically with Zn(II meso-tetrakis (N-ethyl-2-pyridinium-2-yl porphyrin (ZnTE-2-PyP or ZnP, thus producing QDs-ZnP conjugates. We evaluated the capability of the systems, bare QDs and conjugates, to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and applied them in photodynamic inactivation in cultures of Candida albicans by irradiating the QDs and testing the hypothesis of a possible combined contribution of the PDI action. Tests of in vitro cytotoxicity and phototoxicity in fibroblasts were also performed in the presence and absence of light irradiation. The overall results showed an efficient ROS production for all tested systems and a low cytotoxicity (cell viability >90% in the absence of radiation. Fibroblasts incubated with the QDs-ZnP and subjected to irradiation showed a higher cytotoxicity (cell viability <90% depending on QD concentration compared to the bare groups. The PDI effects of bare CdTe QD on Candida albicans demonstrated a lower reduction of the cell viability (~1 log10 compared to bare ZnP which showed a high microbicidal activity (~3 log10 when photoactivated. The QD-ZnP conjugates also showed reduced photodynamic activity against C. albicans compared to bare ZnP and we suggest that the conjugation with QDs prevents the transmembrane cellular uptake of the ZnP molecules, reducing their photoactivity.

  8. The use of Red Cabbage’s anthocyanine extract as a photosensitizer on a Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline TiO2 Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhiruddin Maddu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A solid-state dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cell utilizing anthocyanin extract form red cabbage as photosensitizer was fabricated. The solar cell was formed in sandwich structure, which two electrodes sandwiching polymer electrolyte containing a redox couple (I-/I3-. One of the electrodes, namely working electrode, TiO2 layer on TCO (transparent conducting oxide coated glass substrate was sensitized with anthocyanin dye as electron donor in the system. Another electrode was a carbon sheet as a counter electrode. Gel electrolyte based on PEG (polyethylene glycol containing a redox couple (I-/I3- used instead of liquid electrolyte in this photoelectrochemical cell. Two fabricated cells have an active area of 1 cm2 were soaked with anthocyanine dye for 1 hr and 24 hrs, respectively. The cells were tested by irradiation with halogen lamp of 24 Watt with intensity 4 mW/cm2 at a distance 30 cm. The testing results of the cells show an ideal I-V characteristic with output parameters: open circuit voltage (VOC of 500 mV, short circuit current (ISC of 5,6 μA and 7,2 μA for each cells, fill factor (FF of 48% for both cells, energy conversion (η of 0.023 % and 0,055 % for the cells with 1 hr and 24 hrs dye soaked, respectively.

  9. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  10. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusaro, P.C.

    1997-09-01

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  11. 4-Aminoquinoline derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailja; Agarwal, Drishti; Sharma, Kumkum

    2016-01-01

    and found them to be effective against Plasmodium falciparum under in vitro conditions. Further, we selected four most active derivatives 1m, 1o, 2c and 2j and evaluated their antimalarial potential against Plasmodium berghei in vivo. These 4-aminoquinolines cured BALB/c mice infected with P. berghei......Synthetic quinoline derivatives continue to be considered as candidates for new drug discovery if they act against CQ-resistant strains of malaria even after the widespread emergence of resistance to CQ. In this study, we explored the activities of two series of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives...... for structure activity relationship to find lead molecules for treating multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax....

  12. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    . With the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options...... financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...... the market for multivariate credit instruments, we take a step back and focus on single-name default modeling and introduce two new model classes for modeling of the default time of a company. Finally, in the third paper we propose a consistent pricing model for index and volatility derivatives...

  13. The combinatorial derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Protasov

    2013-09-01

    $\\Delta(A=\\{g\\in G:|gA\\cap A|=\\infty\\}$. The mapping $\\Delta:\\mathcal{P}_G\\rightarrow\\mathcal{P}_G$, $A\\mapsto\\Delta(A$, is called a combinatorial derivation and can be considered as an analogue of the topological derivation $d:\\mathcal{P}_X\\rightarrow\\mathcal{P}_X$, $A\\mapsto A^d$, where $X$ is a topological space and $A^d$ is the set of all limit points of $A$. Content: elementary properties, thin and almost thin subsets, partitions, inverse construction and $\\Delta$-trajectories,  $\\Delta$ and $d$.

  14. Binding of antibodies to the extractable nuclear antigens SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La is induced on the surface of human keratinocytes by ultraviolet light (UVL): Implications for the pathogenesis of photosensitive cutaneous lupus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, F.; Kashihara-Sawami, M.; Lyons, M.B.; Norris, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the non-histone nucleoprotein antigens SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP are highly associated with photosensitive cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE). In order to better understand the potential mechanisms of ultraviolet (UV) light on photosensitivity in patients with cutaneous LE, we designed immunopathologic in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate the effects of UV on the binding of such autoantibodies to the surface of human keratinocytes, one major target of immunologic damage in photosensitive LE. Short-term 2% paraformaldehyde fixation of suspensions of cultured human keratinocytes previously incubated with monospecific antiserum probes enabled the detection of ENA expression on the cell surface by flow-cytometry analysis. UVB light (280-320 nm) induced the binding of monospecific antibody probes for SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La on keratinocytes in a dose-dependent pattern with maximal induction observed at the dose of 200 mJ/cm2 UVB. Binding of SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP antibody was augmented strongly, but binding of anti-Sm was very weak. In contrast, UVA (320-400 nm) light had no effect on the induction of binding of these antibody probes. Identical results were seen by standard immunofluorescence techniques. Hydroxyurea-treated keratinocytes showed similar induction of those antigens by UVB irradiation, which suggested that ENA expression on cultured keratinocytes by UVB were cell-cycle independent. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of glycosylation of proteins, reduced UVB light effect on the SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La antigen's expression. These in vitro FACS analyses revealed that ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte cell surface was dose dependent, UVB dependent, glycosylation dependent, and cell-cycle independent. In vivo ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte surface was examined in suction blister epidermal roofs

  15. Quinazolin-4-one derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosley, Cara A; Acker, Timothy M; Hansen, Kasper Bø

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives...

  16. Metal borohydrides and derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paskevicius, Mark; Haarh Jepsen, Lars; Schouwink, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    major classes of metal borohydride derivatives have also been discovered: anion-substituted compounds where the complex borohydride anion, BH4 -, is replaced by another anion, i.e. a halide or amide ion; and metal borohydrides modified with neutral molecules, such as NH3, NH3BH3, N2H4, etc. Here, we...

  17. 78 FR 32191 - Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... rate risk. This proposed rule applies to federal credit unions and any federally insured, state... risk to the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund (NCUSIF). \\1\\ A derivative is an instrument... degrees of risk to a credit union. Accordingly, this risk calls for a more robust asset/ liability...

  18. Superstability of Generalized Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Ansari-Piri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation f(xy=xf(y+g(xy, where f and g are the mappings on Banach algebra A. We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation f(γx+βy=γf(x+βf(y, where γ,β∈ℂ.

  19. Approximate *-derivations and approximate quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Choonkil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove the stability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on Banach *-algebras. We moreover prove the superstability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 39B52; 47B47; 46L05; 39B72.

  20. Fotossensibilização primária em eqüídeos e ruminantes no semi-árido causada por Froelichia humboldtiana (Amaranthaceae Primary photosensitization in equidae and ruminants in the Brazilian semi-arid caused by Froelichia humboldtiana (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Pimentel

    2007-01-01

    another experiment, 4 sheep were tied by ropes in the same pasture, during the day, for a 29 days period. Another 4 control sheep were maintained in a neighboring pasture without F. humboldtiana. Skin lesions characteristic of photosensitization were observed after 11-25 days of F. humboldtiana grazing. Serum activities of AST and GGT, and serum levels of bilirubin were within normal ranges. At the end of the 29 days grazing F. humboldtiana, 2 sheep were euthanized, and 2 were withdrawn from the pastures. No gross or histologic liver lesions were observed on the 2 sheep euthanized; the other 2 sheep recovered within 17 and 20 days after the end of grazing. One mare and its foal grazed in the same pasture during 44 days. The mare that had a pigmented skin had no dermatitis, but the foal showed dermatitis on the white areas of the skin after 25 days of grazing. The two horses were withdrawn from the pastures after 44 days grazing, and the foal fully recovered within 15 days. These experiments indicate that F. humboldtiana causes primary photosensitization in domestic animals. The absence of lesions in animals ingesting the plant collected in the field and kept refrigerated suggests that F. humboldtiana lost toxicity after collection. The absence of lesions in the eyes of affected animal, which are characteristic of primary photosensitization caused by furocoumarins containing plants, suggests that F. humboldtiana contains a naphthodianthrone derivate, similar to those found in Fagopyrum esculentum and Hypericum perforatum which do not cause eye lesions.