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Sample records for hadronic electric dipole

  1. Lithium electric dipole polarizability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puchalski, M.; KePdziera, D.; Pachucki, K. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, PL-60-780 Poznan (Poland); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-11-15

    The electric dipole polarizability of the lithium atom in the ground state is calculated including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections. The obtained result {alpha}{sub E}=164.0740(5) a.u. is in good agreement with the less accurate experimental value of 164.19(1.08) a.u. The small uncertainty of about 3 parts per 10{sup 6} comes from the approximate treatment of quantum electrodynamics corrections. Our theoretical result can be considered as a benchmark for more general atomic structure methods and may serve as a reference value for the relative measurement of polarizabilities of the other alkali-metal atoms.

  2. Probing exotic phenomena at the interface of nuclear and particle physics with the electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms: A unique window to hadronic and semi-leptonic CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, N. [RIKEN, Wako, iTHES Research Group, Saitama (Japan); Far Eastern Federal University, Complex Simulation Group, School of Biomedicine, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Sahoo, B.K. [Physical Research Laboratory, Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Division, Ahmedabad (India); Yoshinaga, N. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama (Japan); Sato, T. [RIKEN, Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan); Asahi, K. [RIKEN, Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics and International Education and Research Center of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Das, B.P. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics and International Education and Research Center of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    The current status of electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms which involves the synergy between atomic experiments and three different theoretical areas, i.e. particle, nuclear and atomic, is reviewed. Various models of particle physics that predict CP violation, which is necessary for the existence of such electric dipole moments, are presented. These include the standard model of particle physics and various extensions of it. Effective hadron level combined charge conjugation (C) and parity (P) symmetry violating interactions are derived taking into consideration different ways in which a nucleon interacts with other nucleons as well as with electrons. Nuclear structure calculations of the CP-odd nuclear Schiff moment are discussed using the shell model and other theoretical approaches. Results of the calculations of atomic electric dipole moments due to the interaction of the nuclear Schiff moment with the electrons and the P and time-reversal (T) symmetry violating tensor-pseudotensor electron-nucleus are elucidated using different relativistic many-body theories. The principles of the measurement of the electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms are outlined. Upper limits for the nuclear Schiff moment and tensor-pseudotensor coupling constant are obtained combining the results of atomic experiments and relativistic many-body theories. The coefficients for the different sources of CP violation have been estimated at the elementary particle level for all the diamagnetic atoms of current experimental interest and their implications for physics beyond the standard model is discussed. Possible improvements of the current results of the measurements as well as quantum chromodynamics, nuclear and atomic calculations are suggested. (orig.)

  3. Particle electric dipole-moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendlebury, J.M. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    The incentive to detect particle electric dipole-moments, as a window on time-reversal violation, remains undiminished. Efforts to improve the measurements for the neutron, the electron and some nuclei are still making rapid progress as more powerful experimental methods are brought to bear. A new measurement for the neutron at ILL is presented. (author). 7 refs.

  4. Atomic electric dipole moments : The Schiff theorem and its corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C. -P.; Ramsey-Musolf, M. J.; Haxton, W. C.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Dieperink, A. E. L.

    Searches for the permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) of diamagnetic atoms provide powerful probes of CP-violating hadronic and semileptonic interactions. The theoretical interpretation of such experiments, however, requires careful implementation of a well-known theorem by Schiff that implies a

  5. Electric and Magnetic Dipole Moments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The stringent limit on the electric dipole moment of the neutron forced the issue on the strong CP-problem. The most elegant solution of which is the axion field proposed by Peccei and Quinn. The current limit on the QCD parameter theta coming from the limit on the neutron EDM is of order 10-10. I am going to describe the present status on the neutron EDM searches and further prospects on getting down to theta_qcd sensitivity of 10-13 with the new deuteron EDM in storage rings proposal. For completeness the current status and prospects of the muon g-2 experiment will also be given.

  6. Novel Electrically Small Spherical Electric Dipole Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel electrically small spherical meander antenna. Horizontal sections of the meander are composed of wire loops, radii of which are chosen so that the whole structure is conformal to a sphere of radius a. To form the meander the loops are connected by wires at a meridian...... plane. The antenna operates as an electric dipole, i.e. it radiates the TM10 spherical mode. The antenna is self-resonant and can be matched to a wide range of input feed lines without an external matching network. In this paper, a spherical meander antenna of the size ka = 0.27 and the input impedance...

  7. Determination of AC Characteristics of Superconducting Dipole Magnets in the Large Hadron Collider Based on Experimental Results and Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ambjørndalen, Sara; Verweij, Arjan

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) utilizes high-field superconducting Main Dipole Magnets that bend the trajectory of the beam. The LHC ring is electrically divided into eight octants, each allocating a 7 km chain of 154 Main Dipole Magnets. Dedicated de- tection and protection systems prevent irreversible magnet damage caused by quenches. Quench is a local transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state. Triggering of such systems, along with other failure scenarios, result in fast transient phenomena. In order to analyze the consequence of such electrical transients and failures in the dipole chain, one needs a circuit model that is validated against measurements. Currently, there exists an equivalent circuit of the Main Dipole Magnet resolved at an aperture level. Each aperture model takes into account the dynamic effects occurring in the magnets, trough a lossy-inductance model and parasitic capacitances to ground. At low frequencies the Main Dipole Magnet behaves as a linear inductor. Ca...

  8. Geometrical position of the Large Hadron Collider main dipole inside the cryostat

    CERN Document Server

    La China, M; Gubello, G; Hauviller, Claude; Scandale, Walter; Todesco, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting dipole of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a cylindrical structure made of a shrinking cylinder containing iron laminations and collared coils. This 15 m long structure, weighing about 28 t, is horizontally bent by 5 mrad. Its geometrical shape should be preserved, from the assembly phase to the operational condition at cryogenic temperature. When inserted in its cryostat, the dipole cold mass is supported by three posts also providing the thermal insulation. Sliding interfaces should minimize the interference between the dipole and the cryostat during cooling down and warming up. Indeed, a possible non-linear response of the sliding interface can detrimentally affect the final dipole shape. This paper presents the results of dedicated tests investigating interferences and of specific simulations with a 3D finite element model (FEM) describing the mechanical behaviour of the dipole inside the cryostat. Comparison between measurements and FEM simulations is also discussed.

  9. Electric dipole centres and colour centres in natural sodalite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Kerssen, J.; Volger, J.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments on an electric dipole centre, exhibiting multiple relaxation, in the natural mineral sodalite, are described. The concentration of the dipole centres is reduced upon X irradiation, whereas simultaneously colour centres and paramagnetic centres arise. Thermal bleaching restores the

  10. Design Concept and Parameters of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ Dipole Demonstrator for a 100 TEV Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab; Andreev, N. [Fermilab; Barzi, E. [Fermilab; Kashikhin, V. V. [Fermilab; Novitski, I. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    FNAL has started the development of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator for a 100 TeV scale hadron collider. This paper describes the design concept and parameters of the 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator. The dipole magnetic, mechanical and quench protection concept and parameters are presented and discussed.

  11. EDM: Neutron electric dipole moment measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fierlinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An electric dipole moment (EDM of the neutron would be a clear sign of new physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. The search for this phenomenon is considered one of the most important experiments in fundamental physics and could provide key information on the excess of matter versus antimatter in the universe. With high measurement precision, this experiment aims to ultimately achieve a sensitivity of 10-28 ecm, a 100-fold improvement in the sensitivity compared to the state-of-the-art. The EDM instrument is operated by an international collaboration based at the Technische Universität München.

  12. The role of electroweak penguin and magnetic dipole QCD penguin on hadronic b Quark Decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mehrban

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research, works with the effective Hamiltonian and the quark model. Using, the decay rates of matter-antimatter of b quark was investigated. We described the effective Hamiltonian theory which was applied to the calculation of current-current (Q1,2, QCD penguin (Q3,…,6, magnetic dipole (Q8 and electroweak penguin (Q7,…,10 decay rates. The gluonic penguin structure of hadronic decays b→qkg→qkqiqj was studied through the Wilson coefficients of the effective Hamiltonian. The branching ratios of the Tree-Level, effective Hamiltonian, effective Hamiltonian including electroweak penguin, effective Hamiltonian including magnetic dipole and the effective Hamiltonian including electroweak penguin and magnetic dipole b quark decays b→qiqkqj, qi{u,c}, qk{d,s}, qj{u,c} have been calculated. It was shown that, the electroweak penguin and magnetic dipole contributions in b quark decays are small and current-current operators are dominated.

  13. Maps for electron cloud density in Large Hadron Collider dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Demma, T; Ruggiero, F; Rumolo, G; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    The generation of a quasistationary electron cloud inside the beam pipe through beam-induced multipacting processes has become an area of intensive study. The analyses performed so far have been based on heavy computer simulations taking into account photoelectron production, secondary emission, electron dynamics, and space charge effects, providing a detailed description of the electron-cloud evolution. Iriso and Peggs [U. Iriso and S. Peggs, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8, 024403 (2005)] have shown that, for the typical parameters of RHIC, the bunch-to-bunch evolution of the average electron-cloud density at a point can be represented by a cubic map. Simulations based on this map formalism are orders of magnitude faster compared to those based on standard particle tracking codes. In this communication we show that the map formalism is also applicable to the case of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and that, in particular, it reproduces the average electron-cloud densities computed using a reference code to wi...

  14. Maps for electron cloud density in Large Hadron Collider dipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Demma

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The generation of a quasistationary electron cloud inside the beam pipe through beam-induced multipacting processes has become an area of intensive study. The analyses performed so far have been based on heavy computer simulations taking into account photoelectron production, secondary emission, electron dynamics, and space charge effects, providing a detailed description of the electron-cloud evolution. Iriso and Peggs [U. Iriso and S. Peggs, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8, 024403 (2005PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.8.024403] have shown that, for the typical parameters of RHIC, the bunch-to-bunch evolution of the average electron-cloud density at a point can be represented by a cubic map. Simulations based on this map formalism are orders of magnitude faster compared to those based on standard particle tracking codes. In this communication we show that the map formalism is also applicable to the case of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC, and that, in particular, it reproduces the average electron-cloud densities computed using a reference code to within ∼15% for general LHC bunch filling patterns. We also illustrate the dependence of the polynomial map coefficients on the physical parameters affecting the electron cloud (secondary emission yield, bunch charge, bunch spacing, etc..

  15. Electric Dipole Antenna: A Source of Gravitational Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the gravitational scalar potential due to an oscillating electric dipole antenna placed in empty space is derived. The gravitational potential obtained propagates as a wave. The gravitational waves have phase velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum (c at the equatorial plane of the electric dipole antenna, unlike electromagnetic waves from the dipole antenna that cancel out at the equatorial plane due to charge symmetry.

  16. Correlation between magnetic field quality and mechanical components of the Large Hadron Collider main dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellesia, B

    2006-12-15

    The 1234 superconducting dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider, working at a cryogenic temperature of 1.9 K, must guarantee a high quality magnetic field to steer the particles inside the beam pipe. Magnetic field measurements are a powerful way to detect assembly faults that could limit magnet performances. The aim of the thesis is the analysis of these measurements performed at room temperature during the production of the dipoles. In a large scale production the ideal situation is that all the magnets produced were identical. However all the components constituting a magnet are produced with certain tolerance and the assembly procedures are optimized during the production; due to these the reality drifts away from the ideal situation. We recollected geometrical data of the main components (superconducting cables, coil copper wedges and austenitic steel coil collars) and coupling them with adequate electro-magnetic models we reconstructed a multipolar field representation of the LHC dipoles defining their critical components and assembling procedures. This thesis is composed of 3 main parts: 1) influence of the geometry and of the assembling procedures of the dipoles on the quality of the magnetic field, 2) the use of measurement performed on the dipoles in the assembling step in order to solve production issues and to understand the behaviour of coils during the assembling step, and 3) a theoretical study of the uncertain harmonic components of the magnetic field in order to assess the dipole production.

  17. Moving pointlike charges and electric and magnetic dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribarič, Marijan; Šušteršič, Luka

    1992-06-01

    Expansions of the volume integrals of strongly localized, continuous, differentiable electric charge and current densities are introduced in terms of the total charge, and variable and moving electric and magnetic dipoles, and conditions under which such expansions are applicable are determined. To enhance an understanding of the effects of external electromagnetic fields acting on very localized densities of electric charges and currents, the resulting Lorentz force, torque, and power are computed by using such expansions. To show how versatile variable and moving dipoles are for building physical models, the following are considered: (a) energy conversions by electric motors, by dielectric and induction heating, and by the magnetic drag force, and (b) relativistic effects in translational movements of steady electric and magnetic dipoles; in particular, the torque on a magnetic dipole moving parallel to a line carrying a steady current and uniformly distributed electric charges.

  18. Electric Dipole Moments in the MSSM Reloaded

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the Thallium, neutron, Mercury and deuteron electric dipole moments (EDMs) in the CP-violating Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). We take into account the complete set of one-loop graphs, the dominant Higgs-mediated two-loop diagrams, the complete CP-odd dimension-six Weinberg operator and the Higgs-mediated four-fermion operators. We improve upon earlier calculations by including the resummation effects due to CP-violating Higgs-boson mixing and to threshold corrections to the Yukawa couplings of all up- and down-type quarks and charged leptons. As an application of our study, we analyse the EDM constraints on the CPX, trimixing and Maximally CP- and Minimally Flavour-Violating (MCPMFV) scenarios. Cancellations may occur among the CP-violating contributions to the three measured EDMs arising from the 6 CP-violating phases in the MCPMFV scenario, leaving open the possibility of relatively large contributions to other CP-violating observables. The anal...

  19. Electric dipoles on magnetic monopoles in spin ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomskii, D I

    2012-06-19

    The close connection of electricity and magnetism is one of the cornerstones of modern physics. This connection has a crucial role from a fundamental point of view and in practical applications, including spintronics and multiferroic materials. A breakthrough was a recent proposal that in magnetic materials called spin ice the elementary excitations have a magnetic charge and behave as magnetic monopoles. I show that, besides magnetic charge, there should be an electric dipole attached to each magnetic monopole. This opens new possibilities to study and control such monopoles using an electric field. Thus, the electric-magnetic analogy goes even further than usually assumed: whereas electrons have electric charge and magnetic dipole (spin), magnetic monopoles in spin ice, while having magnetic charge, also have an electric dipole.

  20. Rotation Detection Using the Precession of Molecular Electric Dipole Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yi; Deng, Xiao-Bing; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2017-11-01

    We present a method to detect the rotation by using the precession of molecular electric dipole moment in a static electric field. The molecular electric dipole moments are polarized under the static electric field and a nonzero electric polarization vector emerges in the molecular gas. A resonant radio-frequency pulse electric field is applied to realize a 90° flip of the electric polarization vector of a particular rotational state. After the pulse electric field, the electric polarization vector precesses under the static electric field. The rotation induces a shift in the precession frequency which is measured to deduce the angular velocity of the rotation. The fundamental sensitivity limit of this method is estimated. This work is only a proposal and does not involve experimental results.

  1. submitter Training Behavior of the Main Dipoles in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, Ezio; Bajko, Marta; Bottura, Luca; Bruning, Oliver; De Rijk, Gijs; Fessia, Paolo; Hagen, Per; Naour, Sandrine Le; Modena, Michele; Perez, Juan Carlos; Rossi, Lucio; Schmidt, Rudiger; Siemko, Andrzej; Tock, Jean-Philippe; Tommasini, Davide; Verweij, Arjan; Willering, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the 1232 Nb-Ti dipole magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have been commissioned to 7.8 T operational field, with 172 quenches. More than 80% of these quenches occurred in the magnets of one of the three cold mass assemblers (3000 series), confirming what was already observed in 2008. In this paper, the recent analysis carried out on the quench performance of the Large Hadron Collider dipole magnets is reported, including the individual reception tests and the 2008 and 2015 commissioning campaigns, to better understand the above-mentioned anomaly and give an outlook for future operation and possible increase of the operational field. The lower part of the quench probability spectrum is compatible with Gaussian distributions; therefore, the training curve can be fit through error functions. An essential ingredient in this analysis is the estimate of the error to be associated with the training data due to sampling of rare events, allowing to test different hypothesis. Using this approach, an es...

  2. Chromaticity decay due to superconducting dipoles on the injection plateau of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Aquilina, N; Sammut, N; Strzeclzyk, M; Todesco, E

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that in a superconducting accelerator a significant chromaticity drift can be induced by the decay of the sextupolar component of the main dipoles. In this paper we give a brief overview of what was expected for the Large Hadron Collider on the grounds of magnetic measurements of individual dipoles carried out during the production. According to this analysis, the decay time constants were of the order of 200 s: since the injection in the LHC starts at least 30 minutes after the magnets are at constant current, the dynamic correction of this effect was not considered to be necessary. The first beam measurements of chromaticity showed significant decay even after few hours. For this reason, a dynamic correction of decay on the injection plateau was implemented based on beam measurements. This means that during the injection plateau the sextupole correctors are powered with a varying current to cancel out the decay of the dipoles. This strategy has been implemented successfully. A similar pheno...

  3. Chromaticity decay due to superconducting dipoles on the injection plateau of the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aquilina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that in a superconducting accelerator a significant chromaticity drift can be induced by the decay of the sextupolar component of the main dipoles. In this paper we give a brief overview of what was expected for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC on the grounds of magnetic measurements of individual dipoles carried out during the production. According to this analysis, the decay time constants were of the order of 200 s: since the injection in the LHC starts at least 30 minutes after the magnets are at constant current, the dynamic correction of this effect was not considered to be necessary. The first beam measurements of chromaticity showed significant decay even after a few hours. For this reason, a dynamic correction of decay on the injection plateau was implemented based on beam measurements. This means that during the injection plateau the sextupole correctors are powered with a varying current to cancel out the decay of the dipoles. This strategy has been implemented successfully. A similar phenomenon has been observed for the dependence of the decay amplitude on the powering history of the dipoles: according to magnetic measurements, also in this case time constants are of the order of 200 s and therefore no difference is expected between a one hour or a ten hours flattop. On the other hand, the beam measurements show a significant change of decay for these two conditions. For the moment there is no clue of the origin of these discrepancies. We give a complete overview of the two effects, and the modifications that have been done to the field model parameters to be able to obtain a final chromaticity correction within a few units.

  4. Low-Q Electrically Small Spherical Magnetic Dipole Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    Three novel electrically small antenna configurations radiating a TE10 spherical mode corresponding to a magnetic dipole are presented and investigated: multiarm spherical helix (MSH) antenna, spherical split ring resonator (S-SRR) antenna, and spherical split ring (SSR) antenna. All three antennas...... are self-resonant, with the input resistance tuned to 50 ohms by an excitation curved dipole/monopole. A prototype of the SSR antenna has been fabricated and measured, yielding results that are consistent with the numerical simulations. Radiation quality factors (Q) of these electrically small antennas (in...

  5. Electric dipole moments as a test of supersymmetric unification

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Savas K; Dimopoulos, S; Hall, L J

    1995-01-01

    In a class of supersymmetric grand unified theories, including those based on the gauge group SO(10), there are new contributions to the electric dipole moments of the neutron and electron, which arise as a heavy top quark effect. These contributions arise from CKM-like phases, not from phases of the supersymmetry breaking operators, and can be reliably computed in terms of the parameters of the weak scale supersymmetric theory. For the expected ranges of these parameters, the electric dipole moments of the neutron and the electron are predicted to be close to present experimental limits.

  6. Spread in Dipole Cable Magnetization and Consequences on the Spread of DC Persistent Currents in the Main Dipole of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Granata, V; Le Naour, S; Oberli, L R; Sanfilippo, S; Santoni, C; Scandale, Walter; Schwerg, N; Todesco, Ezio; Völlinger, C

    2004-01-01

    The production of more than 60% of superconducting cables for the main dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider has been completed. The results of the measurements of cable magnetization and the dependence on the manufacturer are presented. The strand magnetization produces field errors that have been measured in a large number of dipoles, all tested in cold conditions. We examine here the correlation between the available magnetic measurements and the large database of cable magnetization. The analysis is based on models documented in the literature. Finally, a forecast of the persistent current effects to be expected in the LHC main dipoles is presented, and the more critical parameters for beam dynamics are singled out.

  7. Theoretical Expectations for the Muon's Electric Dipole Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, J L; Shadmi, Y; Feng, Jonathan L; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Shadmi, Yael

    2001-01-01

    We examine the muon's electric dipole moment $\\dmu$ from a variety of theoretical perspectives. We point out that the reported deviation in the muon's g-2 can be due partially or even entirely to a new physics contribution to the muon's {\\em electric} dipole moment. In fact, the recent g-2 measurement provides the most stringent bound on $\\dmu$ to date. This ambiguity could be definitively resolved by the dedicated search for $\\dmu$ recently proposed. We then consider both model-independent and supersymmetric frameworks. Under the assumptions of scalar degeneracy, proportionality, and flavor conservation, the theoretical expectations for $\\dmu$ in supersymmetry fall just below the proposed sensitivity. However, non-degeneracy can give an order of magnitude enhancement, and lepton flavor violation can lead to $\\dmu$ of order $10^{-22}$ e cm, two orders of magnitude above the sensitivity of the $\\dmu$ experiment. We present compact expressions for leptonic dipole moments and lepton flavor violating amplitudes. ...

  8. Radiative Decay Rates for Electric Dipole, Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Transitions in Triply Ionized Thulium (Tm IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnin Enzonga Yoca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A new set of radiative decay parameters (oscillator strengths, transition probabilities for spectral lines in triply ionized thulium (Tm IV has been obtained within the framework of the pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR approach. The effects of configuration interaction and core-polarization have been investigated in detail and the quality of the results has been assessed through a comparison between different HFR physical models. The spectroscopic data listed in the present paper cover electric dipole as well as magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in a wide range of wavelengths from extreme ultraviolet to near infrared.

  9. An Extreme Black Hole with Electric Dipole Moment

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Tada, Tsukasa

    1996-01-01

    We construct a new extreme black hole solution in toroidally compactified heterotic string theory. The black hole saturates the Bogomol'nyi bound, has zero angular momentum, but nonzero electric dipole moment. It is obtained by starting with a higher dimensional rotating charged black hole, and compactifying one direction in the plane of rotation.

  10. Searches for permanent electric dipole moments in Radium isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Willmann, L.; Jungmann, K.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2010-01-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments are uniquely sensitive to sources of T and P violation in fundamental interactions. In particular radium isotopes offer the largest intrinsic sensitivity. We want to explore the prospects for utilizing the high intense beams from HIE-ISOLDE to boost the statistical sensitivity of search for EDMs in atomic radium.

  11. Searches for permanent electric dipole moments in Radium isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willmann, L.; Jungmann, K.; Wilschut, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments are uniquely sensitive to sources of T and P violation in fundamental interactions. In particular radium isotopes offer the largest intrinsic sensitivity. We want to explore the prospects for utilizing the high intense beams from HIE-ISOLDE to boost the statistical

  12. Quantum electric-dipole liquid on a triangular lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shi-Peng; Wu, Jia-Chuan; Song, Jun-Da; Sun, Xue-Feng; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Scott, James F; Sun, Young

    2016-02-04

    Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations may prohibit the formation of long-range ordering even at the lowest temperature, and therefore liquid-like ground states could be expected. A good example is the quantum spin liquid in frustrated magnets. Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations can happen beyond magnetic systems. Here we propose that quantum electric-dipole liquids, analogues of quantum spin liquids, could emerge in frustrated dielectrics where antiferroelectrically coupled electric dipoles reside on a triangular lattice. The quantum paraelectric hexaferrite BaFe12O19 with geometric frustration represents a promising candidate for the proposed electric-dipole liquid. We present a series of experimental lines of evidence, including dielectric permittivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity measured down to 66 mK, to reveal the existence of an unusual liquid-like quantum phase in BaFe12O19, characterized by itinerant low-energy excitations with a small gap. The possible quantum liquids of electric dipoles in frustrated dielectrics open up a fresh playground for fundamental physics.

  13. Permanent Electric Dipole Moment Search in 129Xe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasdijk, Jan; Bluemler, P.; Almendinger, F.; Heil, Werner; Jungmann, Klaus-Peter; Karpuk, S.; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Offenhaeuser, Andreas; Repetto, M.; Schmidt, Ulrich; Sobolev, Y.; Willmann, Lorenz; Zimmer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) implies breakdown of P (parity) and T (time reversal) symmetries. Provided CPT holds, this implies CP violation. Observation of an EDM at achievable experimental sensitivity would provide unambiguous evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model and limits

  14. Minimum Q Electrically Small Spherical Magnetic Dipole Antenna - Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav; Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2009-01-01

    The stored energies, radiated power, and quality factor of a magnetic-dipole antenna, consisting of a spherical electrical surface current density enclosing a magnetic core, is obtained through direct spatial integration of the internally and externally radiated field expressed in terms...... of spherical vector waves. The obtained quality factor agrees with that of Wheeler and Thal for vanishing free-space electric radius but holds also for larger radii and facilitates the optimal choice of permeability in the presence of the resonances....

  15. Effect of metallic and hyperbolic metamaterial surface on electric and magnetic dipole emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Xingjie; Naik, Gururaj V.; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous emission patterns of electric and magnetic dipoles on different material surfaces were studied numerically and experimentally. The results show the modified behavior of electric and magnetic dipoles on metallic and HMM surfaces....

  16. The electric dipole response of neutron rich tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, Andrea; Aumann, Thomas; Rossi, Dominic; Schindler, Fabia [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Johansen, Jacob [Aarhus University (Denmark); Schrock, Philipp [The University of Tokyo (Japan); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the dipole response in medium heavy and heavy neutron rich nuclei reveal valuable information about the isospin dependence of the nuclear equation of state. Therefore an experimental campaign investigating both the electric dipole response via Coulomb excitation and neutron removal along the tin isotope chain ({sup 124-134}Sn) has been carried out at the R3B (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams) setup at GSI (Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung) for which the analysis is ongoing. The E1 response was induced via relativistic Coulomb scattering by a lead target in inverse kinematics, and calls for a kinematically complete determination of all reaction products in order to reconstruct the excitation energy by means of the invariant mass method. The goal is to obtain the Coulomb excitation cross section up to the adiabatic cut-off energy, covering the giant dipole resonance (GDR) range.

  17. Electric dipole moments with and beyond flavor invariants

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Smith; Selim Touati

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the flavor structure of quark and lepton electric dipole moments in the SM and beyond is investigated using tools inspired from Minimal Flavor Violation. While Jarlskog-like flavor invariants are adequate for estimating CP-violation from closed fermion loops, non-invariant structures arise from rainbow-like processes. Our goal is to systematically construct these latter flavor structures in the quark and lepton sectors, assuming different mechanisms for generating neutrino mass...

  18. Electric dipole moments with and beyond flavor invariants

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Christopher; Touati, Selim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the flavor structure of quark and lepton electric dipole moments in the SM and beyond is investigated using tools inspired from Minimal Flavor Violation. While Jarlskog-like flavor invariants are adequate for estimating CP -violation from closed fermion loops, non-invariant structures arise from rainbow-like processes. Our goal is to systematically construct these latter flavor structures in the quark and lepton sectors, assuming different mechanisms for generating neutrino mas...

  19. Electric dipole moment searches using the isotope 129-xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchler, Florian

    2014-11-13

    Two new complementary experiments searching for a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of 129-xenon are presented. Besides demonstration of a sensitivity improvement by employing established methods and a highly sensitive SQUID detection system the progress towards a novel measurement approach is discussed. The new method introduces time-varying electric fields and a liquid hyper-polarized xenon sample with a potential improvement in sensitivity of three orders of magnitude. The search for EDMs is motivated by their symmetry-breaking nature. A non-zero EDM provides a new source of CP violation to solve the mystery of the huge excess of matter over anti-matter in our Universe.

  20. Search for electric dipole moments at storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Onderwater, Gerco

    2012-01-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) violate parity and time reversal symmetry. Within the Standard Model (SM) they are many orders of magnitude below present experimental sensitivity. Many extensions of the SM predict much larger EDMs, which are therefore an excellent probe for the existence of "new physics". Until recently it was believed that only electrically neutral systems could be used for sensitive searches of EDMs. With the introduction of a novel experimental method, high precision for charged systems will be within reach as well. The features of this method and its possibilities are discussed.

  1. The nucleon electric dipole form factor from dimension-six time-reversal violation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Mereghetti, E.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; van Kolck, U.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the electric dipole form factor of the nucleon that arises as a low-energy manifestation of time-reversal violation in quark-gluon interactions of effective dimension 6: the quark electric and chromoelectric dipole moments, and the gluon chromoelectric dipole moment. We use the

  2. Nucleon electric dipole moments in high-scale supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisano, Junji [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI),Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8584 (Japan); Kobayashi, Daiki; Kuramoto, Wataru; Kuwahara, Takumi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-11-12

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electron and nucleons are promising probes of the new physics. In generic high-scale supersymmetric (SUSY) scenarios such as models based on mixture of the anomaly and gauge mediations, gluino has an additional contribution to the nucleon EDMs. In this paper, we studied the effect of the CP-violating gluon Weinberg operator induced by the gluino chromoelectric dipole moment in the high-scale SUSY scenarios, and we evaluated the nucleon and electron EDMs in the scenarios. We found that in the generic high-scale SUSY models, the nucleon EDMs may receive the sizable contribution from the Weinberg operator. Thus, it is important to compare the nucleon EDMs with the electron one in order to discriminate among the high-scale SUSY models.

  3. Strong CP violation and the neutron electric dipole moment revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Sinya (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Inst. for Theoretical Physics); Hatsuda, Tetsuo (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory)

    1991-07-01

    The relation between the CP violating operator {theta}F{tilde F} and its effective version L{sub CP}{sup eff} is reconsidered on the basis of the anomalous Ward-Takahashi (WT) identity. The consistency of the previous phenomenological calculations of the neutron electric dipole moment (NEDM) with the WT identity is critically examined. A consistent evaluation of an O(N{sub c}{sup o}) contribution to NEDM is given and the result is compared with the leading term in the chiral expansion which is O(N{sub c}{sup {minus}1}).

  4. Magnetic Johnson Noise Constraints on Electron Electric Dipole Moment Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munger, C.

    2004-11-18

    Magnetic fields from statistical fluctuations in currents in conducting materials broaden atomic linewidths by the Zeeman effect. The constraints so imposed on the design of experiments to measure the electric dipole moment of the electron are analyzed. Contrary to the predictions of Lamoreaux [S.K. Lamoreaux, Phys. Rev. A60, 1717(1999)], the standard material for high-permeability magnetic shields proves to be as significant a source of broadening as an ordinary metal. A scheme that would replace this standard material with ferrite is proposed.

  5. On focused fields with maximum electric field components and images of electric dipoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruin, R.; Urbach, H.P.; Pereira, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    We study focused fields which, for a given total power and a given numerical aperture, have maximum electric field amplitude in some direction in the focal point and are linearly polarized along this direction. It is shown that the optimum field is identical to the image of an electric dipole with

  6. On focused fields with maximum electric field components and images of electric dipoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruin, R.; Urbach, H.P.; Pereira, S.F.

    We study focused fields which, for a given total power and a given numerical aperture, have maximum electric field amplitude in some direction in the focal point and are linearly polarized along this direction. It is shown that the optimum field is identical to the image of an electric dipole with

  7. Electric Dipole Moment Experiment Systematic from Electric Field Discharge Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, B.; Gould, Harvey

    2014-09-01

    A magnetic field, in the direction of the electric field and synchronous with the electric field reversal, will mimic an EDM signal. One might expect a discharge across the electric field plates to produce magnetic fields with only small or vanishing components parallel to the electric field, minimizing its systematic effect. Our experimental model, using simulated discharge currents, found otherwise: the discharge current may be at an angle to the normal, and thus generate a normal magnetic field. Comparison of data from the experimental model with the results from calculations will be presented, along with estimates of the time-averaged normal magnetic field seen by atoms in an electron EDM experiment using a fountain of laser-cooled francium, as a function of discharge current.

  8. Symmetry Analysis of Spin-Dependent Electric Dipole and Its Application to Magnetoelectric Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masashige; Chimata, Kosuke; Koga, Mikito

    2017-03-01

    Spin-dependent electric dipole operators are investigated group-theoretically for the emergence of an electric dipole induced by a single spin or by two spins, where the spin dependences are completely classified up to the quadratic order. For a single spin, a product of spin operators behaves as an even-parity electric quadrupole operator, which differs from an odd-parity electric dipole. The lack of the inversion symmetry allows the even- and odd-parity mixing, which leads to the electric dipole described by the electric quadruple operators. Point-group tables are given for classification of the possible spin-dependent electric dipoles and for the qualitative analysis of multiferroic properties, such as an emergent electric dipole moment coexisting with a magnetic moment, electromagnon excitation, and directional dichroism. The results can be applied to a magnetic ion in crystals or embedded in molecules at a site without the inversion symmetry. In the presence of an inversion symmetry, the electric dipole does not appear for a single spin. This is not the case for the electric dipole induced by two spins with antisymmetric spin dependence, which is known as vector spin chirality, in the presence of the inversion center between the two spins. In the absence of the inversion center, symmetric spin-dependent electric dipoles are also relevant. The detailed analysis of various symmetries of two-spin states is applied to spin dimer systems and the related multiferroic properties.

  9. 750 GeV diphoton resonance and electric dipole moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwoon Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine the implication of the recently observed 750 GeV diphoton excess for the electric dipole moments of the neutron and electron. If the excess is due to a spin zero resonance which couples to photons and gluons through the loops of massive vector-like fermions, the resulting neutron electric dipole moment can be comparable to the present experimental bound if the CP-violating angle α in the underlying new physics is of O(10−1. An electron EDM comparable to the present bound can be achieved through a mixing between the 750 GeV resonance and the Standard Model Higgs boson, if the mixing angle itself for an approximately pseudoscalar resonance, or the mixing angle times the CP-violating angle α for an approximately scalar resonance, is of O(10−3. For the case that the 750 GeV resonance corresponds to a composite pseudo-Nambu–Goldstone boson formed by a QCD-like hypercolor dynamics confining at ΛHC, the resulting neutron EDM can be estimated with α∼(750 GeV/ΛHC2θHC, where θHC is the hypercolor vacuum angle.

  10. Development of a Francium Electron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Charles T., Jr.; Feinberg, B.; Gould, Harvey; Kalnins, Juris; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Jentschura, Ulrich; Behr, John; Pearson, Matt

    2014-09-01

    An experiment to discover or rule out a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron, at a sensitivity well beyond the present experimental limit, is being developed. The experiment will use 211Fr, obtainable online at TRIUMF at rates of 109/s, in a laser-cooled fountain. The experiment is done in free space and free fall, with an electric field, but no applied magnetic field, between optical state preparation and analysis. The relation between an electron EDM and an EDM of a francium atom has recently been recalculated using field theory alone (Blundell, Griffith & Sapirstein, Phys. Rev. D 86, 025023 [2012]), confirming previous atomic physics calculations and removing any ambiguity in the experimental interpretation.

  11. Electric dipole polarizabilities of hydrogen and helium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetcu, I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Friar, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hayes, A C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quaglioni, S [LLNL

    2009-01-01

    The electric dipole polarizabilities of {sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, and {sup 4}He are calculated directly using the Schroedinger equation with the latest generation of two- and three-nucleon interactions. These quantities are necessary in order to obtain accurate nuclear-polarization corrections for transitions involving S-waves in one-and two-electron atoms. Our results are compared to previous results, and it is shown that direct calculations of the electric polarizability of {sup 4}He using modern nuclear potentials are smaller than published values calculated using experimental photoabsorption data. The status of this topic is assessed in the context of precise measurements of transitions in one- and two-electron atoms.

  12. Visualizing Special Relativity: The Field of An Electric Dipole Moving at Relativistic Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic field is determined for a time-varying electric dipole moving with a constant velocity that is parallel to its moment. Graphics are used to visualize this field in the rest frame of the dipole and in the laboratory frame when the dipole is moving at relativistic speed. Various phenomena from special relativity are clearly…

  13. Non-foster impedance matching sensitivity of electrically small electric and magnetic spherical dipole antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Ick-Jae; Christensen, S.; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    The impedance bandwidth (BW) improvement property of a self-resonant folded spherical helix electric dipole and a spherical split ring (SSR) magnetic dipole is compared when a negative reactance element is loaded on the parasitic resonator of the antennas. They have the same electrical size of ka...... = 0.38 and both approach each lower Q-bound. It is found that the impedance characteristic reacts more sensitively to the loaded element for the SSR antenna due to the inherent two-times higher Q of the magnetic antenna. It is also found that a conventional non-Foster circuit composed of a series...

  14. Low-energy electric dipole response in 120Sn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Krumbholz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric dipole strength distribution in 120Sn has been extracted from proton inelastic scattering experiments at Ep=295 MeV and at forward angles including 0°. It differs from the results of a Sn120(γ,γ′ experiment and peaks at an excitation energy of 8.3 MeV. The total strength corresponds to 2.3(2% of the energy-weighted sum rule and is more than three times larger than what is observed with the (γ,γ′ reaction. This implies a strong fragmentation of the E1 strength and/or small ground state branching ratios of the excited 1− states.

  15. Toward verification of electroweak baryogenesis by electric dipole moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Fuyuto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We study general aspects of the CP-violating effects on the baryon asymmetry of the Universe (BAU and electric dipole moments (EDMs in models extended by an extra Higgs doublet and a singlet, together with electroweak-interacting fermions. In particular, the emphasis is on the structure of the CP-violating interactions and dependences of the BAU and EDMs on masses of the relevant particles. In a concrete mode, we investigate a relationship between the BAU and the electron EDM for a typical parameter set. As long as the BAU-related CP violation predominantly exists, the electron EDM has a strong power in probing electroweak baryogenesis. However, once a BAU-unrelated CP violation comes into play, the direct correlation between the BAU and electron EDM can be lost. Even in such a case, we point out that verifiability of the scenario still remains with the help of Higgs physics.

  16. Minimum Q Electrically Small Spherical Magnetic Dipole Antenna - Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    Practical aspects of applying a magnetic core to approach the Chu lower bound for the radiation Q factor of an electrically small magnetic dipole antenna are considered. It is shown that although a magnetic core does reduce the Q factor, its effect is not as strong as predicted by Wheeler....... This is due to the fact that a finite size magnetic core supports multiple internal resonances, which spoil the Q factor also away from exact resonance frequencies; and in a worst case they can even significantly increase Q. The resonances in question are not only those of the TE10 spherical mode, but also...... resonances of all other modes that are not sufficiently suppressed in the antenna. Numerical results for a 4-arm spherical helix antenna filled with magnetic material demonstrate the destroying effect of the parasitic TM11 mode on the antenna Q factor. Theoretical considerations as well as numerical results...

  17. Neutron electric dipole moment and extension of the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshimo, Noriyuki [Ochanomizu Univ., Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    A nonvanishing value for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron is a prominent signature for CP violation. The EDM induced by the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism of the standard model (SM) has a small magnitude and its detection will be very difficult. However, since baryon asymmetry of the universe cannot be accounted for by the SM, there should exist some other source of CP violation, which may generate a large magnitude for the EDM. One of the most hopeful candidates for physics beyond the SM is the supersymmetric standard model, which contains such sources of CP violation. This model suggests that the EDM has a magnitude not much smaller than the present experimental bounds. Progress in measuring the EDM provides very interesting information about extension of the SM. (author)

  18. Electric field simulations and electric dipole investigations at the KATRIN main spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Hilk, Daniel Franz Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of high-accuracy electric field simulation methods and experimental background investigations with the electric dipole method for the KATRIN experiment. Both fields of work are of crucial importance to obtain the targeted background level of 10 mcps for the investigation of the absolute neutrino mass scale with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c² at 90% C.L.

  19. Quality factor of an electrically small magnetic dipole antenna with magneto-dielectric core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the radiation Q of electrically small magnetic dipole antennas with magneto-dielectric core versus the antenna electrical size, permittivity and permeability of the core. The investigation is based on the exact theory for a spherical magnetic dipole antenna...

  20. A Hall Plate Based Instrument to Measure the Snapback in the Large Hadron Collider Superconducting Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Sammut, Nicholas J

    2007-01-01

    The decay and snapback of the magnetic field multipoles in superconducting particle accelerators like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could result in a significant particle beam loss unless adequately compensated. Whilst standard instrumentation used to measure the field quality of the superconducting magnets is good enough to measure the harmonic decay, it is not fast enough to measure the snapback. Therefore, a state of the art instrument was recently developed at CERN to measure the most important harmonics with a high measurement frequency and hence improve the understanding of the snapback phenomenon. In this paper we describe the instrument's principle of operation, its mechanical arrangement, its compensation system and its digital acquisition system. We also compare the performance of two different techniques implemented to achieve the necessary measurement resolution of 6 orders of magnitude lower than the main superimposed dipole field.

  1. Study of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance with Hadronic and Electromagnetic Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, J.; Zilges, A.; Litvinova, E.; Savran, D.; Butler, P. A.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Harakeh, M. N.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; Harissopulos, S.; Lagoyannis, A.; Krücken, R.; Ring, P.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Scheck, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Popescu, L.

    2013-03-01

    The structure of the pygmy dipole resonance has been investigated in the nuclei 140Ce, 138Ba, 124Sn, and 94Mo by performing experiments using different probes. On the one hand, real-photon scattering experiments have been conducted using the nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method. On the other hand, α-scattering experiments have been done using the (α, α', γ) coincidence technique. An unexpected difference in the excitation cross sections of the dipole strength below the particle threshold has been observed. While a group of PDR states could be excited in both kinds of experiments, a group of energetically higher-lying states could only be excited in NRF. In order to understand this phenomenon, theoretical calculations using the quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM) and the relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation (RQTBA) have been performed for the nucleus 124Sn. A possible explanation for the observed splitting was found.

  2. Effective field theory, electric dipole moments and electroweak baryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Csaba; White, Graham; Yue, Jason

    2017-03-01

    Negative searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) heavily constrain models of baryogenesis utilising various higher dimensional charge and parity violating (CPV) operators. Using effective field theory, we create a model independent connection between these EDM constraints and the baryon asymmetry of the universe (BAU) produced during a strongly first order electroweak phase transition. The thermal aspects of the high scale physics driving the phase transition are paramaterised by the usual kink solution for the bubble wall profile. We find that operators involving derivatives of the Higgs field yield CPV contributions to the BAU containing derivatives of the Higgs vacuum expectation value (vev), while non-derivative operators lack such contributions. Consequently, derivative operators cannot be eliminated in terms of non-derivative operators (via the equations of motion) if one is agnostic to the new physics that leads to the phase transition. Thus, we re-classify the independent dimension six operators, restricting ourselves to third generation quarks, gauge bosons and the Higgs. Finally, we calculate the BAU (as a function of the bubble wall width and the cutoff) for a derivative and a non-derivative operator, and relate it to the EDM constraints.

  3. Detecting a heavy neutrino electric dipole moment at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Marc; Stevens, Justin R.

    2018-02-01

    The milliQan Collaboration has proposed to search for millicharged particles by looking for very weakly ionizing tracks in a detector installed in a cavern near the CMS experiment at the LHC. We note that another form of exotica can also yield weakly ionizing tracks. If a heavy neutrino has an electric dipole moment (EDM), then the milliQan experiment may be sensitive to it as well. In particular, writing the general dimension-5 operator for an EDM with a scale of a TeV and a one-loop factor, one finds a potential EDM as high as a few times 10-17 e-cm, and models exist where it is an order of magnitude higher. Redoing the Bethe calculation of ionization energy loss for an EDM, it is found that the milliQan detector is sensitive to EDMs as small as 10-17 e-cm. Using the production cross-section and analyzing the acceptance of the milliQan detector, we find the expected 95% exclusion and 3σ sensitivity over the range of neutrino masses from 5-1000 GeV for integrated luminosities of 300 and 3000 fb-1 at the LHC.

  4. Lepton electric dipole moment and strong CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Diptimoy; Sato, Ryosuke

    2018-02-01

    Contribution of the strong CP angle, θ bar , to the Wilson Coefficients of electron and muon electric dipole moment (EDM) operators are discussed. Previously, θ bar contribution to the electron EDM operator was calculated by Choi and Hong [1]. However, the effect of CP-violating three meson coupling was missing in [1]. We include this missing contribution for the first time in the literature, and reevaluate the Wilson coefficients of the lepton EDM operator. We obtain de = - (2.2 - 8.6) ×10-28 θ bar e-cm which is 15-70% of the result obtained in [1]. We also estimated the muon EDM as dμ = - (0.5 - 1.8) ×10-25 θ bar e-cm. Using | θ bar | ≲10-10 suggested by the neutron EDM measurements, we obtain |de | ≲ 8.6 ×10-38e-cm and |dμ | ≲ 1.8 ×10-35e-cm. The θ bar contribution to the muon EDM is much below the sensitivities of the current and near future experiments. Our result shows that the θ bar contribution to de,μ can be larger than the CKM contributions by many orders of magnitude.

  5. Cancellation mechanism in the predictions of electric dipole moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Ligong; Chen, Ning

    2017-06-01

    The interpretation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe necessitates the C P violation beyond the Standard Model (SM). We present a general cancellation mechanism in the theoretical predictions of the electron electric dipole moments (EDM), quark chromo-EDMs, and Weinberg operators. A relative large C P violation in the Higgs sector is allowed by the current electron EDM constraint released by the ACME collaboration in 2013, and the recent 199Hg EDM experiment. The cancellation mechanism can be induced by the mass splitting of heavy Higgs bosons around ˜O (0.1 - 1 ) GeV , and the extent of the mass degeneracy determines the magnitude of the C P -violating phase. We explicate this point by investigating the C P -violating two-Higgs-doublet model and the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. The cancellation mechanism is general when there are C P violation and mixing in the Higgs sector of new physics models. The C P -violating phases in this scenario can be excluded or detected by the projected 225Ra EDM experiments with precision reaching ˜10-28 e .cm , as well as the future colliders.

  6. Quantum Scattering of an Electric Dipole by a Charged Screw Dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Ribeiro, C. A.; de M. Carvalho, A. M.; Furtado, C.

    2010-10-01

    In this contribution we present a study of the quantum scattering of a neutral particle with an induced electric dipole moment in the presence of a charged topological defect exposed to an uniform magnetic field. We consider a geometric modification in the Hamiltonian provoked by charged screw dislocation and a repulsive potential originated from deformation potential theory. We analyze the quantum scattering for this electric dipole by this topological defect. We determine the condition for which it is possible to find a geometric phase acquired by the wave function of the electric dipole.

  7. New Experiment to Measure the Electron Electric Dipole Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    An electron can possess an electric dipole moment (edm) only if time reversal symmetry (T) is violated. No edm of any particle has yet been discovered. CP-violation, equivalent to T-violation by the CPT theorem, does occur in Kaon decays and can be accounted for by the standard model. However, this mechanism leads to an electron edm d(sub e) of the order of 10(exp -38) e cm, whereas the current experimental bound on d(sub e) is about 10(exp -27) e cm. However, well-motivated extensions of the standard model such as supersymmetric theories do predict that de could be as large as the current bound. In addition, CP violation in the early universe is required to explain the preponderance of matter over anti-matter, but the exact mechanism of this CP violation is unclear. For these reasons, we are undertaking a new experimental program to determine de to an improved accuracy of 10(exp -29) e cm. Our experiment will use laser-cooled, trapped Cesium atoms to measure the atomic edm d(sub Cs) that occurs if d(sub e) is not zero. In order to do this, we will measure the energy splitting between the atoms spin states in parallel electric and magnetic fields. The signature of an edm would be a linear dependence of the splitting on the electric field E due to the interaction - d(sub Cs) dot E. Our measurement will be much more sensitive than previous measurements because atoms can be stored in the trap for tens of seconds, allowing for much narrower Zeeman resonance linewidths. Also, our method eliminates the most important systematic errors, proportional to atomic velocity, which have limited previous experiments. In this presentation, we will describe the design of our new apparatus, which is presently under construction. An important feature of our experimental apparatus is that magnetic field noise will be suppressed to a very low value of the order of 1 fT/(Hz)1/2. This requires careful attention to the Johnson noise currents in the chamber, which have not been important

  8. Elasticity of nuclear medium as a principal macrodynamical promoter of electric pygmy dipole resonance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bastrukov, S.I; Molodtsova, I.V; Podgainy, D.V; Mişicu, Ş; Chang, H.-K

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by arguments of the nuclear core-layer model formulated in [S.I. Bastrukov, J.A. Maruhn, Z. Phys. A 335 (1990) 139], the macroscopic excitation mechanism of the electric pygmy dipole resonance...

  9. Electric Dipole Antennas With Magnetic-Coated PEC Cores: Reaching the Chu Lower Bound on Q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2012-01-01

    The radiation properties of spherical electric dipole antennas with electric current excitation and material-coated perfectly electrically conducting (PEC) cores are investigated analytically using vector spherical wave functions. Closed-form expressions for electric and magnetic stored energy...... as well as the radiation quality factor $Q$ are derived. Using these, it is shown that properly selected magnetic coating and radius of the PEC core vastly reduce the internal stored energy, and thus make the $Q$ of an electric dipole antenna approach the Chu lower bound....

  10. Self-Consistent Calculations of the Electric Giant Dipole Resonances in Light and Heavy Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutorovich, N.; Tselyaev, V. I.; Speth, J.; Krewald, S.; Grümmer, F.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2012-08-01

    While bulk properties of stable nuclei are successfully reproduced by mean-field theories employing effective interactions, the dependence of the centroid energy of the electric giant dipole resonance on the nucleon number A is not. This problem is cured by considering many-particle correlations beyond mean-field theory, which we do within the quasiparticle time blocking approximation. The electric giant dipole resonances in O16, Ca40, and Pb208 are calculated using two new Skyrme interactions.

  11. Standard model contribution to the electric dipole moment of the deuteron, {sup 3}H, and {sup 3}He nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Nodoka [iTHES Research Group, RIKEN,Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hiyama, Emiko [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN,Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-02-10

    We calculate for the first time the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the deuteron, {sup 3}H, and {sup 3}He nuclei generated by the one-meson exchange CP-odd nuclear force in the standard model. The effective |ΔS|=1 four-quark operators are matched to the |ΔS|=1 standard model processes involving the CP phase of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix at the electroweak scale and run down to the hadronic scale μ=1 GeV according to the renormalization group evolution in the next-to-leading logarithmic order. At the hadronic scale, the hadron matrix elements are modeled in the factorization approach. We then obtain the one-meson (pion, eta meson, and kaon) exchange CP-odd nuclear force, which is the combination of the |ΔS|=1 meson-baryon vertices which issue from the penguin operator and the hyperon-nucleon transition. From this CP-odd nuclear force, the nuclear EDM is calculated with the realistic Argonne v18 interaction and the CP-odd nuclear force using the Gaussian expansion method. It is found that the EDMs of light nuclear systems are of order O(10{sup −31})e cm. We also estimate the standard model contribution to other hadronic CP violating observables such as the EDMs of {sup 6}Li, {sup 9}Be nuclei, and the atomic EDMs of {sup 129}Xe, {sup 199}Hg, {sup 211}Rn, and {sup 225}Ra generated through the nuclear Schiff moment. We then analyze the source of theoretical uncertainties and show some possible ways to overcome them.

  12. Reply to “Comment on ‘Axion induced oscillating electric dipole moments’”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Christopher T.

    2017-03-28

    A recent paper of Flambaum, Roberts and Stadnik, [1], claims there is no induced oscillating electric dipole moment (OEDM), eg, for the electron, arising from the oscillating cosmic axion background via the anomaly. This claim is based upon the assumption that electric dipoles always be defined by their coupling to static (constant in time) electric fields. The relevant Feynman diagram, as computed by [1], then becomes a total divergence, and vanishes in momentum space. However, an OEDM does arise from the anomaly, coupled to time dependent electric fields. It shares the decoupling properties with the anomaly. The full action, in an arbitrary gauge, was computed in [2], [3]. It is nonvanishing with a time dependent outgoing photon, and yields physics, eg, electric dipole radiation of an electron immersed in a cosmic axion field.

  13. Electrically Small Magnetic Dipole Antennas with Magnetic Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    This work extends the theory of a spherical magnetic dipole antenna with magnetic core by numerical results for practical antenna configurations that excite higher-order modes besides the main TE10 spherical mode. The multiarm spherical helix (MSH) and the spherical split ring (SSR) antennas...

  14. Update on electron-cloud power deposition for the Large Hadron Collider arc dipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Furman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the estimation of the power deposited by the electron cloud (EC in the arc dipoles of the Large Haydron Collider, by means of simulations. We adopt, as simulation input, a set of electron-related parameters closely resembling those used in recent simulations at CERN [F. Zimmermann, in LTC Meeting No. 40, CERN, 2005]. We explore values for the bunch population N_{b} in the range 0.4×10^{11}≤N_{b}≤1.6×10^{11}, peak secondary electron yield δ_{max} in the range 1.0≤δ_{max}≤2.0, and bunch spacing t_{b} either 25 or 75 ns. For t_{b}=25  ns we find that the EC average power deposition per unit length of beam pipe, dP[over ¯]/dz, will exceed the available cooling capacity, which we take to be 1.7   W/m at nominal N_{b} [F. Zimmermann, in LHC MAC Meeting No. 17, 2005], if δ_{max} exceeds ∼1.3, but dP[over ¯]/dz will be comfortably within the cooling capacity if δ_{max}≤1.2. For t_{b}=75  ns dP[over ¯]/dz exceeds the cooling capacity only when δ_{max}>2 and N_{b}>1.5×10^{11} taken in combination. The rediffused component of the secondary electron emission spectrum plays a significant role: if we artificially suppress this component while keeping δ_{max} fixed, dP[over ¯]/dz is roughly cut in half for most values of N_{b} explored here, and in this case we find good agreement with earlier results [F. Zimmermann, in LTC Meeting No. 40, CERN, 2005], as expected. We provide a fairly detailed explanation of the mechanism responsible for such a relatively large effect. We assess the sensitivity of our results to numerical simulation parameters, and to physical parameters such as the photoelectric yield, bunch train length, etc. Owing to the lack of detailed knowledge of the electron emission spectrum, the sensitivity of dP[over ¯]/dz to the rediffused component appears to be the most significant source of uncertainty in our results. Nevertheless, taking our results as a whole, the condition δ_{max}≤1

  15. A class of Fourier integrals based on the electric potential of an elongated dipole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skianis, Georgios Aim

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper the closed expressions of a class of non tabulated Fourier integrals are derived. These integrals are associated with a group of functions at space domain, which represent the electric potential of a distribution of elongated dipoles which are perpendicular to a flat surface. It is shown that the Fourier integrals are produced by the Fourier transform of the Green's function of the potential of the dipole distribution, times a definite integral in which the distribution of the polarization is involved. Therefore the form of this distribution controls the expression of the Fourier integral. Introducing various dipole distributions, the respective Fourier integrals are derived. These integrals may be useful in the quantitative interpretation of electric potential anomalies produced by elongated dipole distributions, at spatial frequency domain.

  16. Studies into equine electrocardiography and vectorcardiography: I. Cardiac electric forces and the dipole vector theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J R; Alps, B J

    1967-04-01

    Theoretical consideration has been given in two horses to the properties of the electric field created by the equine heart acting as a simple electric generator. The principles of the vectorial theory have been applied to test the validity of application of the dipole concept. The cardiac electric forces, althrough complex in the immediate region of the heart, appear at the body surface in a similar form to those arising from a relatively immobile, single equivalent dipole. The potential value of the technique of vectorcardiography in cardiological investigations is briefly discussed.

  17. Lower Bound for the Radiation $Q$ of Electrically Small Magnetic Dipole Antennas With Solid Magnetodielectric Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    A new lower bound for the radiation $Q$ of electrically small spherical magnetic dipole antennas with solid magnetodielectric core is derived in closed form using the exact theory. The new bound approaches the Chu lower bound from above as the antenna electrical size decreases. For $ka, the new...

  18. Electric dipole moments, cluster metallicity, and the magnetism of rare earth clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlan, John

    One of the fundamental properties of bulk metals is the cancellation of electric fields. The free charges inside of a metal will move until they find an arrangement where the internal electric field is zero. This implies that the electric dipole moment of a metal particle should be exactly zero, because an electric dipole moment requires a net separation of charge and thus a nonzero internal electric field. This thesis is an experimental study to see if this property continues to hold for tiny subnanometer metal particles called clusters (2--200 atom, R beam electric deflection technique. We find that the observed dipole moments vary a great deal across the periodic table. Alkali metals have zero dipole moments, while transition metals and lanthanides all have dipole moments which are highly size dependent. In most cases, the measured dipole moments are independent of temperature (T = 20--50 K), and when there is a strong temperature dependence this suggests that there is a new state of matter present. Our interpretation of these results are that those clusters which have a nonzero dipole moment are non-metallic, in the sense that their electrons must be localized and prevented from moving to screen the internal field associated with a permanent dipole moment. This interpretation gives insight to several related phenomena and applications. We briefly discuss an example cluster system RhN where the measured electric dipole moments appear to be correlated with a the N2O reactivity. Finally, we discuss a series of magnetic deflection experiments on lanthanide clusters (Pr, Ho, Tb, and Tm). The magnetic response of these clusters is very complex and highly sensitive to size and temperature. We find that PrN (which is non-magnetic in the bulk) becomes magnetic in clusters and Tm N clusters have magnetic moments lower than the atomic value as well as the bulk saturation value implying that the magnetic order in the cluster involves non-collinear or antiferromagnetic

  19. Microscopic description of the low lying and high lying electric dipole strength in stable Ca isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertychny, G. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Tselyaev, V. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Physics St. Petersburg University (Russian Federation); Kamerdzhiev, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Gruemmer, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Krewald, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Speth, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany) and Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: j.speth@fz-juelich.de; Avdeenkov, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Litvinova, E. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-05

    The properties of the low lying and high lying electric dipole strength in the stable {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ca and {sup 48}Ca isotopes have been calculated within the Extended Theory of Finite Fermi Systems (ETFFS). This approach is based on the random phase approximation (RPA) and includes the single particle continuum as well as the coupling to low lying collective states which are considered in a consistent microscopic way. For {sup 44}Ca we also include pairing correlations. We obtain good agreement with the existing experimental data for the gross properties of the low lying and high lying strength. It is demonstrated that the recently measured A-dependence of the electric dipole strength below 10 MeV is well understood in our model: due to the phonon coupling some of the strength in {sup 48}Ca is simply shifted beyond 10 MeV. The predicted fragmentation of the strength can be investigated in (e,e{sup '}) and ({gamma},{gamma}{sup '}) experiments. The isovector dipole strength below 10 MeV is small in all Ca isotopes. Surprisingly, the proton and neutron transition densities of these low lying electric dipole states are in phase, which indicate isoscalar structure. We conclude that for the detailed understanding of the structure of excited nuclei e.g. the low lying and high lying electric dipole strength an approach like the present one is absolutely necessary.

  20. Effect of metallic and hyperbolic metamaterial surfaces on electric and magnetic dipole emission transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, X.; Naik, G. V.; Kildishev, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous emission patterns of electric and magnetic dipoles on different metallic surfaces and a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) surface were simulated using the dyadic Green’s function technique. The theoretical approach was verified by experimental results obtained by measuring angular-depende......-dependent emission spectra of europium ions on top of different films. The results show the modified behavior of electric and magnetic dipoles on metallic and HMM surfaces. The results of numerical calculations agree well with experimental data.......Spontaneous emission patterns of electric and magnetic dipoles on different metallic surfaces and a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) surface were simulated using the dyadic Green’s function technique. The theoretical approach was verified by experimental results obtained by measuring angular...

  1. Amine-hydrogen halide complexes: experimental electric dipole moments and a theoretical decomposition of dipole moments and binding energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Carolyn S; Craddock, Matthew B; Kilian, Jacob; Grumstrup, Erik M; Orilall, M Christopher; Mo, Yirong; Gao, Jiali; Leopold, Kenneth R

    2006-08-24

    The Stark effect has been observed in the rotational spectra of several gas-phase amine-hydrogen halide complexes and the following electric dipole moments have been determined: H(3)(15)N-H(35)Cl (4.05865 +/- 0.00095 D), (CH(3))(3)(15)N-H(35)Cl (7.128 +/- 0.012 D), H(3)(15)N-H(79)Br (4.2577 +/- 0.0022 D), and (CH(3))(3)(15)N-H(79)Br (8.397 +/- 0.014 D). Calculations of the binding energies and electric dipole moments for the full set of complexes R(n)()(CH(3))(3)(-)(n)()N-HX (n = 0-3; X = F, Cl, Br) at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level are also reported. The block localized wave function (BLW) energy decomposition method has been used to partition the binding energies into contributions from electrostatic, exchange, distortion, polarization, and charge-transfer terms. Similarly, the calculated dipole moments have been decomposed into distortion, polarization, and charge-transfer components. The complexes studied range from hydrogen-bonded systems to proton-transferred ion pairs, and the total interaction energies vary from 7 to 17 kcal/mol across the series. The individual energy components show a much wider variation than this, but cancellation of terms accounts for the relatively narrow range of net binding energies. For both the hydrogen-bonded complexes and the proton-transferred ion pairs, the electrostatic and exchange terms have magnitudes that increase with the degree of proton transfer but are of opposite sign, leaving most of the net stabilization to arise from polarization and charge transfer. In all of the systems studied, the polarization terms contribute the most to the induced dipole moment, followed by smaller but still significant contributions from charge transfer. A significant contribution to the induced moment of the ion pairs also arises from distortion of the HX monomer.

  2. Commissioning and First Operation of the Low-Beta Triplets and Their Electrical Feed Boxes at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C; Casas-Cubillos, J; Claudet, S; Feher, S; Ferlin, G; Kerby, J; Metral, L; Perin, A; Peterson, T; Prin, H; Rabehl, R; Vauthier, N; Wagner, U; van Weelderen, R

    2010-01-01

    The insertion regions located around the four interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are mainly composed of the low-b triplets, the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-b triplets are Nb-Ti superconductor quadrupole magnets, which operate at 215 T/m in superfluid helium at a temperature of 1.9 K. The commissioning and the first operation of these components have been performed. The thermo-mechanical behavior of the low-b triplets and DFBX were studied. Cooling and control systems were tuned to optimize the cryogenic operation of the insertion regions. Hardware commissioning also permitted to test the system response. This paper summarizes the performance results and the lessons learned.

  3. Spectral approach to the inverse problem for the field of arbitrary changing electric dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Epp, V

    2013-01-01

    The inverse problem for electromagnetic field produced by arbitrary altered charge distribution in dipole approximation is solved. The charge distribution is represented by its dipole moment. It is assumed that the spectral properties of magnetic field of the dipole are known. The position of the dipole and its Fourier components are considered as the unknown quantities. It is assumed that relative increments of amplitude and phase of magnetic field in the vicinity of the observation point are known. The derived results can be used for study of phenomena concerned with occurrence and variation of localized electric charge distribution, when the position and the dynamics of a localized source of electromagnetic field are to be defined.

  4. Analysis of large effective electric fields of weakly polar molecules for electron electric dipole moment searches

    CERN Document Server

    Sunaga, A; Hada, M; Das, B P

    2016-01-01

    The electric dipole moment of an electron (eEDM) is one of the sensitive probes of physics beyond the standard model. The possible existence of the eEDM gives rise to an experimentally observed energy shift, which is proportional to the effective electric field (Eeff) of a target molecule. Hence, an analysis of the quantities that enhance Eeff is necessary to identify suitable molecules for eEDM searches. In the context of such searches, it is generally believed that a molecule with larger electric polarization also has a larger value of Eeff. However, our Dirac-Fock and relativistic coupled-cluster singles and doubles calculations show that the hydrides of Yb and Hg have larger Eeff than those of fluorides, even though their polarizations are smaller. This is due to significant mixing of valence s and p orbitals of the heavy atom in the molecules. This mixing has been attributed to the energy differences of the valence atomic orbitals and the overlap of the two atomic orbitals based on the orbital interactio...

  5. Electric dipole strength and dipole polarizability in 48Ca within a fully self-consistent second random-phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacurta, D.; Grasso, M.; Vasseur, O.

    2018-02-01

    The second random-phase-approximation model corrected by a subtraction procedure designed to cure double counting, instabilities, and ultraviolet divergences, is employed for the first time to analyze the dipole strength and polarizability in 48Ca. All the terms of the residual interaction are included, leading to a fully self-consistent scheme. Results are illustrated with two Skyrme parametrizations, SGII and SLy4. Those obtained with the SGII interaction are particularly satisfactory. In this case, the low-lying strength below the neutron threshold is well reproduced and the giant dipole resonance is described in a very satisfactory way especially in its spreading and fragmentation. Spreading and fragmentation are produced in a natural way within such a theoretical model by the coupling of 1 particle-1 hole and 2 particle-2 hole configurations. Owing to this feature, we may provide for the electric polarizability as a function of the excitation energy a curve with a similar slope around the centroid energy of the giant resonance compared to the corresponding experimental results. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to previous theoretical predictions obtained with the random-phase approximation or with several ab-initio models. In such cases, the spreading width of the excitation cannot be reproduced and the polarizability as a function of the excitation energy displays a stiff increase around the predicted centroid energy of the giant resonance.

  6. A robust limit for the electric dipole moment of the electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Electric dipole moments constitute a competitive method to search for new physics, being particularly sensitive to new CP -violating phases. Given the experimental and theoretical progress in this field and more generally in particle physics, the necessity for more reliable bounds than the ones usually employed emerges. We therefore propose an improved extraction of the electric dipole moment of the electron and the relevant coefficient of the electron-nucleon coupling, taking into account theoretical uncertainties and possible cancellations, to be used in model-dependent analyses. Specifically, we obtain at 95% C.L. | d e | ≤ 0.14 × 10-26 e cm with present data, which is very similar to the bound typically quoted from the YbF molecule, but obtained in a more conservative manner. We examine furthermore in detail the prospects for improvements and derive upper limits for the dipole moments of several paramagnetic systems presently under investigation, i.e. cesium, rubidium and francium.

  7. Electric Dipole Polarizability of 48Ca and Implications for the Neutron Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhan, J.; Miorelli, M.; Bacca, S.; Bassauer, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Hagen, G.; Matsubara, H.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Papenbrock, T.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Schwenk, A.; Tamii, A.

    2017-06-01

    The electric dipole strength distribution in 48Ca between 5 and 25 MeV has been determined at RCNP, Osaka from proton inelastic scattering experiments at forward angles. Combined with photoabsorption data at higher excitation energy, this enables the first extraction of the electric dipole polarizability αD(48Ca)=2.07 (22 ) fm3 . Remarkably, the dipole response of 48Ca is found to be very similar to that of 40Ca, consistent with a small neutron skin in 48Ca. The experimental results are in good agreement with ab initio calculations based on chiral effective field theory interactions and with state-of-the-art density-functional calculations, implying a neutron skin in 48Ca of 0.14-0.20 fm.

  8. Spherical active coated nano-particles – impact of the electric Hertzian dipole orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Mostafavi, M.; Malureanu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    Spherical active coated nano-particles comprised of a silica nano-cylinder core covered with a plasmonic nano-shell are investigated with regard to their near- and far-field properties. The source of excitation is taken to be that of a tangential or a radial electric Hertizan dipole while three...

  9. Compact storage ring to search for the muon electric dipole moment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelmann, A.; Kirch, K.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Schietinger, T.

    We present the concept of a compact storage ring of less than 0.5 m orbit radius to search for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the muon (d(mu)) by adapting the 'frozen spin' method. At existing muon facilities a statistics limited sensitivity of d(mu) similar to 7 x 10(-23) e cm can be achieved

  10. A storage ring experiment to detect a proton electric dipole moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastassopoulos, V. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras, Greece; Andrianov, S. [Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Control Processes, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T2A3, Canada; Baessler, S. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA; Bai, M. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Benante, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Berz, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA; Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Bowcock, T. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Brown, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Casey, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Conte, M. [Physics Department and INFN Section of Genoa, 16146 Genoa, Italy; Crnkovic, J. D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; D’Imperio, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Fanourakis, G. [Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics NCSR Demokritos, GR-15310 Aghia Paraskevi Athens, Greece; Fedotov, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Fierlinger, P. [Technical University München, Physikdepartment and Excellence-Cluster “Universe,” Garching, Germany; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Gaisser, M. O. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Giomataris, Y. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France; Grosse-Perdekamp, M. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA; Guidoboni, G. [University of Ferrara, INFN of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Hacıömeroğlu, S. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Hoffstaetter, G. [Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Incagli, M. [Physics Department, University and INFN Pisa, Pisa, Italy; Ivanov, A. [Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Control Processes, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; Kawall, D. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA; Kim, Y. I. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; King, B. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Koop, I. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia; Lazarus, D. M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Lebedev, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Lee, M. J. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Lee, S. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Lee, Y. H. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Lehrach, A. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; RWTH Aachen University and JARA-Fame, III. Physikalisches Institut B, Physikzentrum, 52056 Aachen, Germany; Lenisa, P. [University of Ferrara, INFN of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Levi Sandri, P. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, I-00044 Frascati, Rome, Italy; Luccio, A. U. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Lyapin, A. [Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom; MacKay, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Maier, R. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Makino, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA; Malitsky, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Marciano, W. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Meng, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Metodiev, E. M. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Harvard College, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; Miceli, L. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Moricciani, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Univ. di Roma “Tor Vergata” and INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; Morse, W. M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Nagaitsev, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Nayak, S. K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Orlov, Y. F. [Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; Ozben, C. S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469, Turkey; Park, S. T. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Pesce, A. [University of Ferrara, INFN of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Petrakou, E. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Podobedov, B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Polychronakos, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Pretz, J. [RWTH Aachen University and JARA-Fame, III. Physikalisches Institut B, Physikzentrum, 52056 Aachen, Germany; Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Ramberg, E. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Raparia, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Rathmann, F. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Rescia, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Kamal Sayed, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Semertzidis, Y. K. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Senichev, Y. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Sidorin, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region, Russia; Silenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region, Russia; Research Institute for Nuclear Problems of Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus; Simos, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Stahl, A. [RWTH Aachen University and JARA-Fame, III. Physikalisches Institut B, Physikzentrum, 52056 Aachen, Germany; Stephenson, E. J. [Indiana University Center for Spacetime Symmetries, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA; Ströher, H. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Syphers, M. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA; Talman, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Talman, R. M. [Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; Tishchenko, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Touramanis, C. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Venanzoni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, I-00044 Frascati, Rome, Italy; Vetter, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA; Vlassis, S. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras, Greece; Won, E. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Physics Department, Korea University, Seoul 02841, South Korea; Zavattini, G. [University of Ferrara, INFN of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Zelenski, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Zioutas, K. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras, Greece

    2016-11-01

    A new experiment is described to detect a permanent electric dipole moment of the proton with a sensitivity of $10^{-29}e\\cdot$cm by using polarized "magic" momentum $0.7$~GeV/c protons in an all-electric storage ring. Systematic errors relevant to the experiment are discussed and techniques to address them are presented. The measurement is sensitive to new physics beyond the Standard Model at the scale of 3000~TeV.

  11. Electrical properties of spherical dipole antennas with lossy material cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Vejle; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    and all the provided expressions are exact and valid for arbitrary core sizes, permeability, permittivity, electric and magnetic loss tangents. Arbitrary dispersion models for both permeability and permittivity can be applied. In addition, we present an investigation for an antenna of fixed electrical...... size and permittivity, focusing on the effects of magnetic core losses for a simple magnetic dispersion model, to illustrate how stored energies, efficiency and quality factor are affected. This shows that large magnetic losses can be beneficial, as these can produce a relatively high efficiency....

  12. First Measurement of the Atomic Electric Dipole Moment of $^{225}$Ra

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, R H; Kalita, M R; Lemke, N D; Bailey, K G; Bishof, M N; Greene, J P; Holt, R J; Korsch, W; Lu, Z -T; Mueller, P; O'Connor, T P; Singh, J T

    2015-01-01

    The radioactive radium-225 ($^{225}$Ra) atom is a favorable case to search for a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM). Due to its strong nuclear octupole deformation and large atomic mass, $^{225}$Ra is particularly sensitive to interactions in the nuclear medium that violate both time-reversal symmetry and parity. We have developed a cold-atom technique to study the spin precession of $^{225}$Ra atoms held in an optical dipole trap, and demonstrated the principle of this method by completing the first measurement of its atomic EDM, reaching an upper limit of $|$$d$($^{225}$Ra)$|$ $<$ $5.0\\!\\times\\!10^{-22}$ $e \\cdot$cm (95$\\%$ confidence).

  13. Elasticity of nuclear medium as a principal macrodynamical promoter of electric pygmy dipole resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrukov, S. I.; Molodtsova, I. V.; Podgainy, D. V.; Mişicu, Ş.; Chang, H.-K.

    2008-06-01

    Motivated by arguments of the nuclear core-layer model formulated in [S.I. Bastrukov, J.A. Maruhn, Z. Phys. A 335 (1990) 139], the macroscopic excitation mechanism of the electric pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) is considered as owing its origin to perturbation-induced effective decomposition of a nucleus into two spherical domains-undisturbed inner region treated as a static core and dynamical layer undergoing elastic shear vibrations. The elastic restoring force is central to the excitation mechanism under consideration and has the same physical meaning as in macroscopic model of nuclear giant resonances involving distortions of the Fermi-sphere providing unified description of isoscalar giant electric and magnetic resonances of multipole degree ℓ ⩾ 2 in terms of two fundamental vibrational modes in an elastic sphere, to wit, as spheroidal (electric) and torsional (magnetic) modes of shear elastic oscillations of the nodeless field of material displacements excited in the entire nucleus volume. In the present Letter focus is placed on the emergence of dipole overtone in the frequency spectrum of spheroidal elastic vibrations as Goldstone soft mode. To emphasis this feature of dipole resonant excitation imprinted in the core-layer model we regain spectral equation for the frequency of spheroidal elastic vibrations trapped in the finite-depth layer, derived in the above paper, but using canonical equation of an elastic continuous medium. The obtained analytic equations for the frequency of dipole vibrational state in question and its excitation strength lead to the following estimates for the PDR energy centroid EPDR (E 1) = [ 31 ± 1 ]A - 1 / 3 MeV and the total excitation probability BPDR (E 1) = [ 1.85 ± 0.05 ]10-3Z2A - 2 / 3e2fm2 throughout the nuclear chart exhibiting fundamental character of this soft dipole mode of nuclear resonant response.

  14. On the electric dipole moments of small sodium clusters from different theoretical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado, Andres, E-mail: aguado@metodos.fam.cie.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Largo, Antonio, E-mail: alargo@qf.uva.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Vega, Andres, E-mail: vega@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Balbas, Luis Carlos, E-mail: balbas@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    2012-05-03

    contribution of the core electrons to the electric dipole moments. Our new geometries possess significantly smaller electric dipole moments than previous density functional results, mostly when combined with the van der Waals exchange-correlation functional. However, although the agreement with experiment clearly improves upon previous calculations, the theoretical dipole moments are still about one order of magnitude larger than the experimental values, suggesting that the correct global minimum structures have not been located yet.

  15. Search for an Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of 199Hg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckel, Blayne

    2017-04-01

    The observation of a non-zero EDM of an atom or elementary particle, at current levels of experimental sensitivity, would imply CP violation beyond the CKM matrix of the standard model of particle physics. Additional sources of CP violation have been proposed to help explain the excess of matter over anti-matter in our universe and the magnitude of ΘQCD, the strength of CP violation in the strong interaction, remains unknown. We have recently completed a set of measurements on the EDM of 199Hg, sensitive to both new sources of CP violation and ΘQCD. The experiment compares the phase accumulated by precessing Hg spins in vapor cells with electric fields parallel and anti-parallel to a common magnetic field. Our new result represents a factor of 5 improvement over previous results. A description of the EDM experiment, data, systematic error considerations will be presented. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. 1306743 and by the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Award No. DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  16. An empirically constructed dynamic electric dipole polarizability function of magnesium and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Babb, James F

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic electric dipole polarizability function for the magnesium atom is formed by assembling the atomic electric dipole oscillator strength distribution from combinations of theoretical and experimental data for resonance oscillator strengths and for photoionization cross sections of valence and inner shell electrons. Consistency with the oscillator strength (Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn) sum rule requires the adopted principal resonance line oscillator strength to be several percent lower than the values given in two critical tabulations, though the value adopted is consistent with a number of theoretical determinations. The static polarizability is evaluated. Comparing the resulting dynamic polarizability as a function of photon energy with more elaborate calculations reveals the contributions of inner shell electron excitations. The present results are applied to calculate the long-range interactions between two and three magnesium atoms and the interaction between a magnesium atom and a perfectly conducting m...

  17. Probing the Electromagnetic Local Density of States with a Strongly Mixed Electric and Magnetic Dipole Emitter

    CERN Document Server

    Karaveli, Sinan; Zia, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We identify a solid-state quantum emitter whose room-temperature radiative decay is mediated by a nearly equal mixture of isotropic electric dipole (ED) and magnetic dipole (MD) transitions. Using energy-momentum spectroscopy, we experimentally show that the near-infrared $^3$T$_2{\\rightarrow}^3$A$_2$ emission from divalent-nickel-doped magnesium oxide (Ni$^{2+}$:MgO) is composed of $\\sim$50% MD and $\\sim$50% ED transitions. We then demonstrate that the spontaneous emission rate of these ions near planar interfaces is determined by the combined electric and magnetic local density of optical states (LDOS). This electromagnetic LDOS probes the total mode density, and thus similar to thermal emission, these unique electronic emitters effectively excite all polarizations and orientations of the electromagnetic field.

  18. The electric dipole moment of the nucleon from simulations at imaginary vacuum angle theta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, S. [RIKEN-BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton (United States)]|[Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Izubuchi, T. [RIKEN-BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton (United States)]|[Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Nakamura, Y.; Pleiter, D.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division. Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2008-07-15

    We compute the electric dipole moment of proton and neutron from lattice QCD simulations with N{sub f}=2 flavors of dynamical quarks at imaginary vacuum angle {theta}. The calculation proceeds via the CP odd form factor F{sub 3}. A novel feature of our calculation is that we use partially twisted boundary conditions to extract F{sub 3} at zero momentum transfer. As a byproduct, we test the QCD vacuum at nonvanishing {theta}. (orig.)

  19. Experimental search for the electron electric dipole moment with laser cooled francium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T.; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kawamura, H.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Asahi, K.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Yoshimi, A.; Sakemi, Y.

    2015-04-01

    A laser cooled heavy atom is one of the candidates to search for the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron due to the enhancement mechanism and its long coherence time. The laser cooled francium (Fr) factory has been constructed to perform the electron EDM search at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The present status of Fr production and the EDM measurement system is presented.

  20. Development of francium atomic beam for the search of the electron electric dipole moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoya; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kato, T.; Kawamura, H.; Nataraj, H. S.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2014-03-01

    For the measurement of the electron electric dipole moment using Fr atoms, a Fr ion-atom conversion is one of the most critical process. An ion-atom converter based on the "orthotropic" type of Fr source has been developed. This converter is able to convert a few keV Fr ion beam to a thermal atomic beam using a cycle of the surface ionization and neutralization. In this article, the development of the converter is reported.

  1. Experimental search for the electron electric dipole moment with laser cooled francium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, T., E-mail: inoue-t@cyric.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Frontier Research Institute of Interdisciplinary Sciences (Japan); Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kawamura, H.; Uchiyama, A. [Tohoku University, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (Japan); Aoki, T. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Asahi, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Physics (Japan); Hatakeyama, A. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Applied Physics (Japan); Hatanaka, K. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics (Japan); Imai, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Murakami, T. [Kyoto University, Department of Physics (Japan); Nataraj, H. S. [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India); and others

    2015-04-15

    A laser cooled heavy atom is one of the candidates to search for the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron due to the enhancement mechanism and its long coherence time. The laser cooled francium (Fr) factory has been constructed to perform the electron EDM search at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The present status of Fr production and the EDM measurement system is presented.

  2. Elasticity of nuclear medium as a principal macrodynamical promoter of electric dipole pygmy resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Bastrukov, S. I.; Molodtsova, I. V.; Podgainy, D. V.; Mişicu, Ş.; Chang, H. -K.

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by arguments of the nuclear core-layer model formulated in [S.I. Bastrukov, J.A. Maruhn, Z.Phys. A 335 (1990) 139], the macroscopic excitation mechanism of electric pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) is considered as owing its origin to perturbation-induced effective decomposition of nucleus into two spherical domains - undisturbed inner region treated as static core and dynamical layer undergoing elastic shear vibrations. The focus is placed on the imprinted in the core-layer model mecha...

  3. RESONANCE METHOD OF ELECTRIC-DIPOLE-MOMENT MEASUREMENTS IN STORAGE RINGS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORLOV, Y.F.; MORSE, W.M.; SEMERTZIDIS, Y.K.

    2006-05-10

    A ''resonance method'' of measuring the electric dipole moment (EDM) of nuclei in storage rings is described, based on two new ideas: (1) Oscillating particles velocities in resonance with spin precession, and (2) alternately producing two sub-beams with different betatron tunes--one sub-beam to amplify and thus make it easier to correct ring imperfections that produce false signals imitating EDM signals, and the other to make the EDM measurement.

  4. Cancellations Between Two-Loop Contributions to the Electron Electric Dipole Moment with a CP-Violating Higgs Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Ligong; Liu, Tao; Shu, Jing

    2015-07-10

    We present a class of cancellation conditions for suppressing the total contributions of Barr-Zee diagrams to the electron electric dipole moment (eEDM). Such a cancellation is of particular significance after the new eEDM upper limit was released by the ACME Collaboration, which strongly constrains the allowed magnitude of CP violation in Higgs couplings and hence the feasibility of electroweak baryogenesis (EWBG). Explicitly, if both the CP-odd Higgs-photon-photon (Z boson) and the CP-odd Higgs-electron-positron couplings are turned on, a cancellation may occur either between the contributions of a CP-mixing Higgs boson, with the other Higgs bosons being decoupled, or between the contributions of CP-even and CP-odd Higgs bosons. With a cancellation, large CP violation in the Higgs sector is still allowed, yielding successful EWBG. The reopened parameter regions would be probed by future neutron, mercury EDM measurements, and direct measurements of Higgs CP properties at the Large Hadron Collider Run II and future colliders.

  5. Sea quark contributions to the electric polarizability of hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Walter; Alexandru, Andrei; Lujan, Mike; Lee, Frank X.

    2014-09-01

    We present a lattice QCD calculation of the polarizability of the neutron and other neutral hadrons that includes the effects of the background field on the sea quarks. This is done by perturbatively reweighting the charges of the sea quarks to couple them to the background field. The main challenge in such a calculation is stochastic estimation of the weight factors, and we discuss the difficulties in this estimation. Here we use an extremely aggressive dilution scheme to reduce the stochastic noise to a manageable level. The pion mass in our calculation is 300 MeV and the lattice size is 3 fm. For the neutron, we find that αE=2.70(55)×10-4 fm3, which is the most precise lattice QCD determination of the polarizability to date that includes sea effects.

  6. Fluctuations of local electric field and dipole moments in water between metal walls

    OpenAIRE

    Takae, Kyohei; Onuki, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We examine the thermal fluctuations of the local electric field $E_k^{\\rm loc}$ and the dipole moment $\\mu_k$ in liquid water at $T=298$ K between metal walls in electric field applied in the perpendicular direction. We use analytic theory and molecular dynamics simulation. In this situation, there is a global electrostatic coupling between the surface charges on the walls and the polarization in the bulk. Then, the correlation function of the polarization density $p_z(r)$ along the applied f...

  7. Electric and magnetic dipoles in the Lorentz and Einstein-Laub formulations of classical electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2015-01-01

    The classical theory of electrodynamics cannot explain the existence and structure of electric and magnetic dipoles, yet it incorporates such dipoles into its fundamental equations, simply by postulating their existence and properties, just as it postulates the existence and properties of electric charges and currents. Maxwell's macroscopic equations are mathematically exact and self-consistent differential equations that relate the electromagnetic (EM) field to its sources, namely, electric charge-density 𝜌𝜌free, electric current-density 𝑱𝑱free, polarization 𝑷𝑷, and magnetization 𝑴𝑴. At the level of Maxwell's macroscopic equations, there is no need for models of electric and magnetic dipoles. For example, whether a magnetic dipole is an Amperian current-loop or a Gilbertian pair of north and south magnetic monopoles has no effect on the solution of Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic fields carry energy as well as linear and angular momenta, which they can exchange with material media—the seat of the sources of the EM field—thereby exerting force and torque on these media. In the Lorentz formulation of classical electrodynamics, the electric and magnetic fields, 𝑬𝑬 and 𝑩𝑩, exert forces and torques on electric charge and current distributions. An electric dipole is then modeled as a pair of electric charges on a stick (or spring), and a magnetic dipole is modeled as an Amperian current loop, so that the Lorentz force law can be applied to the corresponding (bound) charges and (bound) currents of these dipoles. In contrast, the Einstein-Laub formulation circumvents the need for specific models of the dipoles by simply providing a recipe for calculating the force- and torque-densities exerted by the 𝑬𝑬 and 𝑯𝑯 fields on charge, current, polarization and magnetization. The two formulations, while similar in many respects, have significant

  8. Multiple Signal Classification Algorithm Based Electric Dipole Source Localization Method in an Underwater Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel localization method based on multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm is proposed for positioning an electric dipole source in a confined underwater environment by using electric dipole-receiving antenna array. In this method, the boundary element method (BEM is introduced to analyze the boundary of the confined region by use of a matrix equation. The voltage of each dipole pair is used as spatial-temporal localization data, and it does not need to obtain the field component in each direction compared with the conventional fields based localization method, which can be easily implemented in practical engineering applications. Then, a global-multiple region-conjugate gradient (CG hybrid search method is used to reduce the computation burden and to improve the operation speed. Two localization simulation models and a physical experiment are conducted. Both the simulation results and physical experiment result provide accurate positioning performance, with the help to verify the effectiveness of the proposed localization method in underwater environments.

  9. Electrically Small Magnetic Dipole Antennas With Quality Factors Approaching the Chu Lower Bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav; Yaghjian, Arthur D.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the quality factor Q for electrically small current distributions and practical antenna designs radiating the TE10 magnetic dipole field. The current distributions and the antenna designs employ electric currents on a spherical surface enclosing a magneto-dielectric material...... with a magnetic core reach a Q that is 1.24 times the Chu lower bound for an electrical radius of 0.192....... numerically. It is found that for a given antenna size and permittivity there is an optimum permeability that ensures the lowest possible Q, and this optimum permeability is inversely proportional to the square of the antenna electrical radius. When the relative permittivity is equal to 1, the optimum...

  10. Anthranilamides as bioinspired molecular electrets: experimental evidence for a permanent ground-state electric dipole moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Bao, Duoduo; Upadhyayula, Srigokul; Jones, Guilford; Vullev, Valentine I

    2013-03-01

    As electrostatic equivalents of magnets, organic electrets offer unparalleled properties for impacting energy conversion and electronic applications. While biological systems have evolved to efficiently utilize protein α-helices as molecular electrets, the synthetic counterparts of these conjugates still remain largely unexplored. This paper describes a study of the electronic properties of anthranilamide oligomers, which proved to be electrets based on their intrinsic dipole moments as evident from their spectral and dielectric properties. NMR studies provided the means for estimating the direction of the intrinsic electric dipoles of these conjugates. This study sets the foundation for the development of a class of organic materials that are de novo designed from biomolecular motifs and possess unexplored electronic properties.

  11. A novel approach to measure the electric dipole moment of the isotope 129-Xe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchler F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Permanent electric dipole moments (EDM of fundamental systems are promising systems to find new CP violation beyond the Standard Model. Our EDM experiment is based on hyper-polarized liquid xenon droplets of sub-millimeter size on a micro-fabricated structure, placed in a low-field NMR setup. Implementation of rotating electric fields enables a conceptually new EDM measurement technique, allowing thorough investigation of systematic effects. Still, a Ramsey-type spin precession experiment with static electric field can be realized at similar sensitivity within the same setup. Employing superconducting pick-up coils and highly sensitive LTc-SQUIDs, a large array of independent measurements can be performed simultaneously. With our approach we aim to finally increase the sensitivity on the EDM of 129Xe by more than three orders of magnitude.

  12. Calculation of the neutron electric dipole moment with two dynamical flavors of domain wall fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Berruto; T. Blum; K. Orginos; A. Soni

    2005-12-08

    We present a study of the neutron electric dipole moment ({rvec d}{sub N}) within the framework of lattice QCD with two flavors of dynamical light quarks. The dipole moment is sensitive to the topological structure of the gauge fields, and accuracy can only be achieved by using dynamical, or sea quark, calculations. However, the topological charge evolves slowly in these calculations, leading to a relatively large uncertainty in {rvec d}{sub N}. It is shown, using quenched configurations, that a better sampling of the charge distribution reduces this problem, but because the CP even part of the fermion determinant is absent, both the topological charge distribution and {rvec d}{sub N} are pathological in the chiral limit. We discuss the statistical and systematic uncertainties arising from the topological charge distribution and unphysical size of the quark mass in our calculations and prospects for eliminating them. Our calculations employ the RBC collaboration two flavor domain wall fermion and DBW2 gauge action lattices with inverse lattice spacing a{sup -1} {approx} 1.7 GeV, physical volume V {approx} (2 fm){sup 3}, and light quark mass roughly equal to the strange quark mass (m{sub sea} = 0.03 and 0.04). We determine a value of the electric dipole moment that is zero within (statistical) errors, |{rvec d}{sub N}| = -0.04(20) e-{theta}-fm at the smaller sea quark mass. Satisfactory results for the magnetic and electric form factors of the proton and neutron are also obtained and presented.

  13. Unidirectional Magneto-Electric Dipole Antenna for Base Station: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idayachandran, Govindanarayanan; Nakkeeran, Rangaswamy

    2018-01-01

    Unidirectional base station antenna design using Magneto-Electric Dipole (MED) has created enormous interest among the researchers due to its excellent radiation characteristics like low back radiation, symmetrical radiation at E-plane and H-plane compared to conventional patch antenna. Generally, dual polarized antennas are used to increase channel capacity and reliability of the communication systems. In order to serve the evolving mobile communication standards like long term evolution LTE and beyond, unidirectional dual polarized MED antenna are required to have broad impedance bandwidth, broad half power beamwidth, high port isolation, low cross polarization level, high front to back ratio and high gain. In this paper, the critical electrical requirements of the base station antenna and frequently used frequency bands for modern mobile communication have been presented. It is followed by brief review on broadband patch antenna and discussion on complementary antenna concepts. Finally, the performance of linearly polarized and dual polarized magneto-electric dipole antennas along with their feeding techniques are discussed and summarized. Also, design and modeling of developed MED antenna is presented.

  14. Lattice calculation of electric dipole moments and form factors of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, M.; Aoki, S.; Blum, T.; Izubuchi, T.; Ohki, H.; Syritsyn, S.

    2017-07-01

    We analyze commonly used expressions for computing the nucleon electric dipole form factors (EDFF) $F_3$ and moments (EDM) on a lattice and find that they lead to spurious contributions from the Pauli form factor $F_2$ due to inadequate definition of these form factors when parity mixing of lattice nucleon fields is involved. Using chirally symmetric domain wall fermions, we calculate the proton and the neutron EDFF induced by the CP-violating quark chromo-EDM interaction using the corrected expression. In addition, we calculate the electric dipole moment of the neutron using background electric field that respects time translation invariance and boundary conditions, and find that it decidedly agrees with the new formula but not the old formula for $F_3$. Finally, we analyze some selected lattice results for the nucleon EDM and observe that after the correction is applied, they either agree with zero or are substantially reduced in magnitude, thus reconciling their difference from phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM.

  15. Lattice calculation of electric dipole moments and form factors of the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczyk, M.; Aoki, S.; Blum, T.; Izubuchi, T.; Ohki, H.; Syritsyn, S.

    2017-07-01

    We analyze commonly used expressions for computing the nucleon electric dipole form factors (EDFF) F3 and moments (EDM) on a lattice and find that they lead to spurious contributions from the Pauli form factor F2 due to inadequate definition of these form factors when parity mixing of lattice nucleon fields is involved. Using chirally symmetric domain wall fermions, we calculate the proton and the neutron EDFF induced by the C P -violating quark chromo-EDM interaction using the corrected expression. In addition, we calculate the electric dipole moment of the neutron using a background electric field that respects time translation invariance and boundary conditions, and we find that it decidedly agrees with the new formula but not the old formula for F3. Finally, we analyze some selected lattice results for the nucleon EDM and observe that after the correction is applied, they either agree with zero or are substantially reduced in magnitude, thus reconciling their difference from phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM.

  16. Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole responses of elliptic quantum dots in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipparini, E.; Serra, Ll.; Puente, A.

    2002-06-01

    The magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadupole (E2) responses of two-dimensional quantum dots with an elliptic shape are theoretically investigated as a function of the dot deformation and applied static magnetic field. Neglecting the electron-electron interaction we obtain analytical results which indicate the existence of four characteristic modes, with different B-dispersion of their energies and associated strengths. Interaction effects are numerically studied within the time-dependent local-spin-density and Hartree approximations, assessing the validity of the non-interacting picture.

  17. Development of francium atomic beam for the search of the electron electric dipole moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Tomoya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For the measurement of the electron electric dipole moment using Fr atoms, a Fr ion-atom conversion is one of the most critical process. An ion-atom converter based on the “orthotropic” type of Fr source has been developed. This converter is able to convert a few keV Fr ion beam to a thermal atomic beam using a cycle of the surface ionization and neutralization. In this article, the development of the converter is reported.

  18. Studies of electric dipole moments in the octupole collective regions of heavy Radiums and Bariums

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoff, P; Kaczarowski, R

    2002-01-01

    %IS386 %title\\ \\It is proposed to study the electric dipole moments in the regions of octupole collective Ra-Th and Ba-Ce nuclei by means of Advanced Time-Delayed (ATD) $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma(t)$ method with a primary goal to provide new and critical data on the properties of E1 moments. The proposal focuses on the nuclei of $^{225,226,229}$Ra, $^{229,233}$Th and $^{149,150}$Ba.\\ \\The ATD $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma$(t) method was first tested at ISOLDE as part of the IS322 study of Fr-Ra nuclei at the limits of octupole deformation region. The results have greatly increased the knowledge of electric dipole moments in the region and demonstrated that new and unique research capabilities in this field are now available at ISOLDE. Based on the experience and new systematics, we propose a specialized study with the aim to determine the missing key aspects of the E1 moment systematics. We propose : \\begin{enumerate}[a)] \\item to measure the lifetimes of the 1$_{1}^{-}$ and 3$_{1}^{-}$ states in $^{226}$Ra with $\\sim$15\\% prec...

  19. The Neutron Electric Dipole Moment using $N_f{=}2{+}1{+}1$ twisted mass fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Constantinou, M; Hadjiyiannakou, K; Jansen, K; Koutsou, G; Ottnad, K; Petschlies, M

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the neutron electric dipole moment $\\vert\\vec{d}_N\\vert$ using lattice QCD techniques. The gauge configurations analysed are produced by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration using $N_f{=}2{+}1{+}1$ twisted mass fermions at one value of the lattice spacing of $a \\simeq 0.082 \\ {\\rm fm}$ and a light quark mass corresponding to $m_{\\pi} \\simeq 373 \\ {\\rm MeV}$. Our approach to extract the neutron electric dipole moment is based on the calculation of the $CP$-odd electromagnetic form factor $F_3(Q^2)$ for small values of the vacuum angle $\\theta$ in the limit of zero Euclidean momentum transfer $Q^2$. The limit $Q^2 \\to 0$ is realised either by adopting a parameterization of the momentum dependence of $F_3(Q^2)$ and performing a fit, or by employing new position space methods, which involve the elimination of the kinematical momentum factor in front of $F_3(Q^2)$. The computation in the presence of a $CP$-violating term requires the evaluation of the topological charge ${\\cal Q}$. This is computed ...

  20. Contribution of relativistic quantum chemistry to electron’s electric dipole moment for CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, M., E-mail: minoria@tmu.ac.jp; Gopakumar, G., E-mail: gopakumargeetha@gmail.com; Hada, M., E-mail: hada@tmu.ac.jp [Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-city, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); JST, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Das, B. P., E-mail: das@iiap.ernet.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Tatewaki, H., E-mail: htatewak@nsc.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8501 (Japan); Mukherjee, D., E-mail: pcdm@iacs.res.in [Raman Center of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences, IACS, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2015-12-31

    The search for the electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) is important because it is a probe of Charge Conjugation-Parity (CP) violation. It can also shed light on new physics beyond the standard model. It is not possible to measure the eEDM directly. However, the interaction energy involving the effective electric field (E{sub eff}) acting on an electron in a molecule and the eEDM can be measured. This quantity can be combined with E{sub eff}, which is calculated by relativistic molecular orbital theory to determine eEDM. Previous calculations of E{sub eff} were not sufficiently accurate in the treatment of relativistic or electron correlation effects. We therefore developed a new method to calculate E{sub eff} based on a four-component relativistic coupled-cluster theory. We demonstrated our method for YbF molecule, one of the promising candidates for the eEDM search. Using very large basis set and without freezing any core orbitals, we obtain a value of 23.1 GV/cm for E{sub eff} in YbF with an estimated error of less than 10%. The error is assessed by comparison of our calculations and experiments for two properties relevant for E{sub eff}, permanent dipole moment and hyperfine coupling constant. Our method paves the way to calculate properties of various kinds of molecules which can be described by a single-reference wave function.

  1. Nuclear spin cooling by electric dipole spin resonance and coherent population trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Xian; Duan, Su-Qing; Zhang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear spin fluctuation suppression is a key issue in preserving electron coherence for quantum information/computation. We propose an efficient way of nuclear spin cooling in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) by the coherent population trapping (CPT) and the electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) induced by optical fields and ac electric fields. The EDSR can enhance the spin flip-flop rate and may bring out bistability under certain conditions. By tuning the optical fields, we can avoid the EDSR induced bistability and obtain highly polarized nuclear spin state, which results in long electron coherence time. With the help of CPT and EDSR, an enhancement of 1500 times of the electron coherence time can been obtained after a 500 ns preparation time.

  2. The Electric Dipole Form Factor of the Nucleon in Chiral Perturbation Theory to Sub-leading Order

    CERN Document Server

    Mereghetti, E; Hockings, W H; Maekawa, C M; van Kolck, U

    2011-01-01

    The electric dipole form factor (EDFF) of the nucleon stemming from the QCD theta term and from the quark color-electric dipole moments is calculated in chiral perturbation theory to sub-leading order. This is the lowest order in which the isoscalar EDFF receives a calculable, non-analytic contribution from the pion cloud. In the case of the theta term, the expected lower bound on the deuteron electric dipole moment is |d_d| > 1.4 10^(-4) \\theta e fm. The momentum dependence of the isovector EDFF is proportional to a non-derivative time-reversal-violating pion-nucleon coupling, and the scale for momentum variation ---appearing, in particular, in the radius of the form factor--- is the pion mass.

  3. The DC field components of horizontal and vertical electric dipole sources immersed in three-layered stratified media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Llanwyn Jones

    Full Text Available Formulas for computing the Cartesian components of the static (DC fields of horizontal electric dipoles ( HEDs and vertical electric dipoles ( VEDs located in the central zone of a three-layer horizontally stratified medium are derived and presented in a summary form suitable for immediate computation. Formulas are given for the electric and magnetic field components in the upper and central regions. In the general case the computation involves the summation of a convergent infinite series. For the particular case of an infinitely thick central region (corresponding to the two-layer problem, the analysis produces relatively simple closed-form equations for the field components which are suitable for a 'hand calculation'. Specimen calculations for dipoles in seawaters are included and the derived results are compared with computations made using an ac model.

  4. The DC field components of horizontal and vertical electric dipole sources immersed in three-layered stratified media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Llanwyn Jones

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Formulas for computing the Cartesian components of the static (DC fields of horizontal electric dipoles ( HEDs and vertical electric dipoles ( VEDs located in the central zone of a three-layer horizontally stratified medium are derived and presented in a summary form suitable for immediate computation. Formulas are given for the electric and magnetic field components in the upper and central regions. In the general case the computation involves the summation of a convergent infinite series. For the particular case of an infinitely thick central region (corresponding to the two-layer problem, the analysis produces relatively simple closed-form equations for the field components which are suitable for a 'hand calculation'. Specimen calculations for dipoles in seawaters are included and the derived results are compared with computations made using an ac model.

  5. Electromagnetic Field Analysis of an Electric Dipole Antenna Based on a Surface Integral Equation in Multilayered Dissipative Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method based on the Poggio–Miller–Chang-Harrington–Wu–Tsai (PMCHWT integral equation is presented to study the electromagnetic fields excited by vertical or horizontal electric dipoles in the presence of a layered region which consists of K-layered dissipative media and the air above. To transform the continuous integral equation into a block tridiagonal matrix with the feature of convenient solution, the Rao–Wilton–Glisson (RWG functions are introduced as expansion and testing functions. The electromagnetic fields excited by an electric dipole are calculated and compared with the available results, where the electric dipole antenna is buried in the non-planar air–sea–seabed, air–rock–earth–mine, and multilayered sphere structures. The analysis and computations demonstrate that the method exhibits high accuracy and solving performance in the near field propagation region.

  6. How the Minuscule Can Contribute to the Big Picture: The Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Project at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, Ruediger

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of a fundamental particle violates both parity (P) and time (T) reversal symmetry and combined charge and parity (CP) reversal symmetry if the combined reversal of charge, parity and time (CPT) is preserved. It is a very promising place to search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Ultracold neutrons (UCN) are the ideal tool to study the neutron electric dipole moment since they can be observed for hundreds of seconds. This article summarizes the current searches for the neutron EDM using UCN and introduces the project to measure the neutron electric dipole moment at TRIUMF using its unique accelerator driven spallation neutron and liquid helium UCN source. The aim is to reach a sensitivity for the neutron EDM of around 10-27 e·cm.

  7. Towards the Measurement of the Electric-Dipole Moment of Radioactive Francium using Laser-Cooling and Trapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hirokazu; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    An experiment to search for the electron electric dipole moment using francium is planned to test the new physics beyond the standard model. The optical lattice trapping of the francium that is produced through the nuclear fusion reaction at high heat may allow for a precise measurement of the electric dipole moment. The magneto-optical trapping of the francium is required as a precooling treatment. The factory of laser-cooled francium atoms has been developed for the magneto-optical trap. Currently, the apparatus that is able to trap a few atoms is constructed to identify the resonant frequency of francium.

  8. Laser Cooled Francium Factory for the Electron Electric Dipole Moment Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Tomohiro; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Ezure, Saki; Harada, Ken-ichi; Inoue, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Itoh, Masatoshi; Kato, Tomohiro; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Sato, Tomoya; Ando, Shun; Aoki, Takahiro; Kato, Ko; Uchiyama, Aiko; Aoki, Takatoshi; Furukawa, Takeshi; Hatakeyama, Atsushi; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Imai, Kenichi; Murakami, Tetsuya; Nataraj, Huliyar; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Wakasa, Tomotsugu; Yoshida, Hidetomo; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of an elementary particle is a candidate observable exhibiting CP violation beyond the standard model. In the present study, we plan to search for the electron EDM in francium (Fr), which is the heaviest alkali atom, captured in a far-off resonance optical trap. Since the number of Fr atoms is essential to high precision measurements, we have developed a cold Fr source called "Laser cooled Fr factory" in order to trap the radioactive Fr produced through a nuclear fusion reaction. The Fr produced was released as an ion from a gold production target in a Fr ion source, transported as an ion beam, and converted from ion to atom in a neutralizer. The neutralized Fr atom will be trapped in a magneto-optical trap(MOT) and then be transferred to an optical dipole trap. The rate of Fr atoms so far achieved was 1 × 106 ions/sec from the ion source and 1 atom/sec of the neutralized Fr atom from the neutralizer. In order to optimize performance of the Fr beam line, Rb atoms were trapped in the MOT. In addition to the beam-line experiment, in an off-line MOT system, polarization gradient cooling was applied to the trapped Rb atoms to cool them down to temperatures lower than the Rb Doppler-cooling limit. In this paper, we describe the present status of this experimental apparatus.

  9. On the search for the electric dipole moment of strange and charm baryons at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, F. J.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; Marangotto, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Merli, A.; Neri, N.; Oyanguren, A.; Ruiz Vidal, J.

    2017-03-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) of fundamental particles provide powerful probes for physics beyond the Standard Model. We propose to search for the EDM of strange and charm baryons at LHC, extending the ongoing experimental program on the neutron, muon, atoms, molecules and light nuclei. The EDM of strange Λ baryons, selected from weak decays of charm baryons produced in p p collisions at LHC, can be determined by studying the spin precession in the magnetic field of the detector tracking system. A test of CPT symmetry can be performed by measuring the magnetic dipole moment of Λ and \\overline{Λ} baryons. For short-lived {Λ} ^+c and {Ξ} ^+c baryons, to be produced in a fixed-target experiment using the 7 TeV LHC beam and channeled in a bent crystal, the spin precession is induced by the intense electromagnetic field between crystal atomic planes. The experimental layout based on the LHCb detector and the expected sensitivities in the coming years are discussed.

  10. On the search for the electric dipole moment of strange and charm baryons at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botella, F.J.; Garcia Martin, L.M.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Ruiz Vidal, J. [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Marangotto, D.; Merli, A.; Neri, N. [INFN Sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); Milano Univ., Milan (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) of fundamental particles provide powerful probes for physics beyond the Standard Model. We propose to search for the EDM of strange and charm baryons at LHC, extending the ongoing experimental program on the neutron, muon, atoms, molecules and light nuclei. The EDM of strange Λ baryons, selected from weak decays of charm baryons produced in pp collisions at LHC, can be determined by studying the spin precession in the magnetic field of the detector tracking system. A test of CPT symmetry can be performed by measuring the magnetic dipole moment of Λ and anti Λ baryons. For short-lived Λ{sup +}{sub c} and Ξ{sup +}{sub c} baryons, to be produced in a fixed-target experiment using the 7 TeV LHC beam and channeled in a bent crystal, the spin precession is induced by the intense electromagnetic field between crystal atomic planes. The experimental layout based on the LHCb detector and the expected sensitivities in the coming years are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Constraints on T-Odd, P-Even Interactions from Electric Dipole Moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Kurylov; G. C. McLaughlin; M.J. Ramsey-Musolf

    2001-03-01

    We construct the relationship between nonrenormalizable,effective, time-reversal violating (TV) parity-conserving (PC) interactions of quarks and gauge bosons and various low-energy TVPC and TV parity-violating (PV) observables. Using effective field theory methods, we delineate the scenarios under which experimental limits on permanent electric dipole moments (EDM's) of the electron, neutron, and neutral atoms as well as limits on TVPC observables provide the most stringent bounds on new TVPC interactions. Under scenarios in which parity invariance is restored at short distances, the one-loop EDM of elementary fermions generate the most severe constraints. The limits derived from the atomic EDM of {sup 199}Hg are considerably weaker. When parity symmetry remains broken at short distances, direct TVPC search limits provide the least ambiguous bounds. The direct limits follow from TVPC interactions between two quarks.

  12. A Novel Wideband Magneto-Electric Dipole Antenna with Improved Feeding Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marwah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel feeding structure in magneto-electric dipole antenna is proposed and analyzed, which is simpler and better in performance than previous designs, involving differential feeding.  Due to this improved feeding structure, the antenna has achieved an impedance bandwidth of 133.3% ( 0.5 GHz – 2.5 GHz, resulting into an ultra-wide band antenna. The maximum broadside gain 7.5dBi with unidirectional radiation pattern has also been reported for the entire the range of operation. Symmetry in E-plane and H-plane radiation patterns has been observed due to the symmetry in structure and excitation of antenna. The antenna has also been able to achieve cross polarization levels.

  13. Quantum-disordered state of magnetic and electric dipoles in an organic Mott system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozawa, M; Hashimoto, K; Ueda, A; Suzuki, Y; Sugii, K; Yamada, S; Imai, Y; Kobayashi, R; Itoh, K; Iguchi, S; Naka, M; Ishihara, S; Mori, H; Sasaki, T; Yamashita, M

    2017-11-28

    Strongly enhanced quantum fluctuations often lead to a rich variety of quantum-disordered states. Developing approaches to enhance quantum fluctuations may open paths to realize even more fascinating quantum states. Here, we demonstrate that a coupling of localized spins with the zero-point motion of hydrogen atoms, that is, proton fluctuations in a hydrogen-bonded organic Mott insulator provides a different class of quantum spin liquids (QSLs). We find that divergent dielectric behavior associated with the approach to hydrogen-bond order is suppressed by the quantum proton fluctuations, resulting in a quantum paraelectric (QPE) state. Furthermore, our thermal-transport measurements reveal that a QSL state with gapless spin excitations rapidly emerges upon entering the QPE state. These findings indicate that the quantum proton fluctuations give rise to a QSL-a quantum-disordered state of magnetic and electric dipoles-through the coupling between the electron and proton degrees of freedom.

  14. Electric-dipole 5s - 5p Transitions in Promethiumlike Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2008-02-29

    The 5s-5p electric-dipole resonance transitions in highly ionized promethiumlike ions have been studied applying relativistic multi-reference Moeller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory. The transition wavelengths are determined to within 0.2 {angstrom} in the more highly charged ions, where the level degeneracies are small. For somewhat lighter ions a very large reference space was used in order to account for the many degeneracies. In order to calculate transition probabilities and lifetimes, correlation corrections have been added to the transition operator in the next order. The contributions from the higher orders of the theory, that is, frequency-dependent Breit correction, Lamb shift, and mass shifts, have been estimated. The results are used to re-assess spectroscopic data from beam-foil, electron beam ion trap, and tokamak observations.

  15. Ultralight gravitons with tiny electric dipole moment are seeping from the vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Evgeny A.

    2016-05-01

    Mass and electric dipole moment (EDM) of graviton, which is identified as dark matter particle (DMP), are estimated. This change the concept of dark matter and can help to explain the baryon asymmetry of the universe. The calculations are based on quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger) with two additional terms in the Einstein equations, which takes into account production/absorption of gravitons. In this theory, there are no Big Bang in the beginning (some local bangs during the evolution of the universe are probable), no critical density of the universe, no dark energy (no need in cosmological constant) and no inflation. The theory (without fitting) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmic data.

  16. The search for permanent electric dipole moments, in particular for the one of the neutron

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Nonzero permanent electric dipole moments (EDM) of fundamental systems like particles, nuclei, atoms or molecules violate parity and time reversal invariance. Invoking the CPT theorem, time reversal violation implies CP violation. Although CP-violation is implemented in the standard electro-weak theory, EDM generated this way remain undetectably small. However, this CP-violation also appears to fail explaining the observed baryon asymmetry of our universe. Extensions of the standard theory usually include new CP violating phases which often lead to the prediciton of larger EDM. EDM searches in different systems are complementary and various efforts worldwide are underway, but no finite value could be established yet. An improved search for the EDM of the neutron requires, among other things, much better statistics. At PSI, we are presently commissioning a new high intensity source of ultracold neutrons. At the same time, with an international collaboration, we are setting up for a new measurement of the ...

  17. The quest to find an electric dipole moment of the neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, P

    2016-01-01

    Until now no electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM) has been observed. Why it is so vanishingly small, escaping detection for the last 65 years, is not easy to explain. In general it is considered as one of the most sensitive probes for the violation of the combined symmetry of charge and parity (CP). A discovery could shed light on the poorly understood matter/antimatter asymmetry of the Universe. The neutron EDM might one day help to distinguish different sources of CP-violation in combination with measurements of paramagnetic molecules, diamagnetic atoms and other nuclei. This review presents an overview of the most important concepts in searches for an nEDM as well as a brief overview of the worldwide efforts.

  18. New search for the neutron electric dipole moment with ultracold neutrons at ILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Kolomenskiy, E. A.; Pirozhkov, A. N.; Krasnoschekova, I. A.; Vassiljev, A. V.; Polyushkin, A. O.; Lasakov, M. S.; Murashkin, A. N.; Solovey, V. A.; Fomin, A. K.; Shoka, I. V.; Zherebtsov, O. M.; Geltenbort, P.; Ivanov, S. N.; Zimmer, O.; Alexandrov, E. B.; Dmitriev, S. P.; Dovator, N. A.

    2015-11-01

    The search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron is a crucial test for theoretical particle physics models with violation of time and spatial invariance. A new experiment recently has been carried out at the High-Flux Reactor at Institut Laue-Langevin, using the upgraded double-chamber magnetic resonance spectrometer developed at Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. The result is interpreted as an upper limit on the value of the neutron EDM, | dn|<5.5 × 10-26ecm (90% C.L.). This article provides a detailed description of the setup and experimental procedures, along with a discussion of possibilities for further improvement of the experimental accuracy.

  19. Solid deuterium and UCN factory: application to the neutron electric dipole moment measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Serebrov, A P

    2000-01-01

    Present experiments which search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron use ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) and are limited by counting statistics. One way to solve this problem is to improve the source of UCN. The present article briefly reviews two possibilities which employ solid deuterium at the temperature of liquid helium. The possibility of installing a solid deuterium UCN source at the FRM-II reactor and at spallation neutron sources at PSI, LANL and KEK is discussed. An increase of the UCN density up to the level of 10 sup 3 -10 sup 4 cm sup - sup 3 is expected. Compared to existing sources, this corresponds to an improvement by two to three orders of magnitude. Such experimental facilities will make it possible to improve measurements of the EDM of the neutron down to the level of 10 sup - sup 2 sup 7 e cm.

  20. Feasibility study of a sup 3 He-magnetometer for neutron electric dipole moment experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Borisov, Y; Leduc, M; Lobashev, V; Otten, E W; Sobolev, Y

    2000-01-01

    We report on a sup 3 He-magnetometer capable of detecting tiny magnetic field fluctuations of less than 10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 T in experiments for measuring the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron. It is based on the Ramsey technique of separated oscillating fields and uses nuclear spin-polarized sup 3 He gas which is stored in two vessels of V approx =10 l in a sandwich-type arrangement around the storage bottle for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN). The gas is polarized by means of optical pumping in a separate, small discharge cell at pressures around 0.5 mbar and is then expanded into the actual magnetometer volume. To detect the polarization of sup 3 He gas at the end of the storage cycle the gas is pumped out by means of an oil-diffusion pump and compressed again into the discharge cell where optical detection of nuclear polarization is used.

  1. A SQUID magnetometry system for a cryogenic neutron electric dipole moment experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, S., E-mail: s.henry@physics.ox.ac.uk; Clarke, C.; Cottle, A.; Lynch, A.; Pipe, M.

    2014-11-01

    Precision magnetometry is an essential component of any neutron electric dipole moment experiment in order to correct shifts in the neutron precession frequency due to changes in the magnetic field. We have developed a magnetometry system using 12 SQUID sensors, designed to operate in 0.5 K superfluid helium. The pick-up loops located near the neutron cell are connected to the SQUID sensors by ∼2 m twisted wire pairs. The SQUID readout cables are run via an intermediate stage at 4.2 K. The system has been installed and tested in the cryoEDM apparatus at the ILL, Grenoble, and used to characterise the magnetic environment. Further tests in a suitable low noise environment confirm it meets our requirements.

  2. The search for electric dipole moments of light ions in storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Frank; Saleev, Artem; Nikolaev, N. N.; Jedi; srEdm Collaborations

    2013-07-01

    The Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics is not capable of accounting for the apparent matter-antimatter asymmetry of our universe. Physics beyond the SM is required and is searched for by (i) employing highest energies (e.g., at LHC), and (ii) striving for ultimate precision and sensitivity (e.g., in the search for electric dipole moments (EDMs)). Permanent EDMs of particles violate both time reversal (T) and parity (P) invariance, and are via the CPT-theorem also CP-violating. Finding an EDM would be a strong indication for physics beyond the SM, and reducing upper limits further provides crucial tests for any corresponding theoretical model, e.g., SUSY. Direct searches for proton and deuteron EDMs bear the potential to reach sensitivities beyond 10-29 e·cm. For an all-electric proton storage ring, this goal is pursued by the US-based srEDM collaboration [1], while the newly founded Jülich-based JEDI collaboration [2] is pursuing an approach using a combined electric-magnetic lattice, which shall provide access to the EDMs of protons, deuterons, and 3He ions in the same machine. In addition, JEDI has recently proposed making a direct measurement of the proton and/or deuteron EDM at COSY using resonant techniques involving Wien filters.

  3. Search for electric dipole moments of light ions in storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, F.; Saleev, A.; Nikolaev, N. N.

    2014-01-01

    The Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics is not capable to account for the apparent matterantimatter asymmetry of our Universe. Physics beyond the SM is required and is searched for by (i) employing highest energies (e.g., at LHC), and (ii) striving for ultimate precision and sensitivity (e.g., in the search for electric dipole moments (EDMs)). Permanent EDMs of particles violate both time reversal ( T) and parity ( P) invariance, and are via the CPT-theorem also CP-violating. Finding an EDM would be a strong indication for physics beyond the SM, and pushing upper limits further provides crucial tests for any corresponding theoretical model, e.g., SUSY. Direct searches of proton and deuteron EDMs bear the potential to reach sensitivities beyond 10-29 e cm. For an all-electric proton storage ring, this goal is pursued by the US-based srEDM collaboration [2], while the newly found Julich-based JEDI collaboration [1] is pursuing an approach using a combined electric-magnetic lattice which shall provide access to the EDMs of protons, deuterons, and 3He ions in the same machine. In addition, JEDI has recently proposed to perform a direct measurement of the proton and/or deuteron EDM at COSY using resonant techniques involving Wien filters.

  4. Relativistic Coupled Cluster (RCC) Computation of the Electric Dipole Moment Enhancement Factor of Francium Due to the Violation of Time Reversal Symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, Debashis; Sahoo, B. K.; Nataraj, H. S.; Das, B. P.

    2009-01-01

    A relativistic many-body theory for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms arising from the electric dipole moment of the electron is presented and implemented. The relativistic coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations (RCCSD) using the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian and

  5. Improvements to the YbF electron electric dipole moment experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, B. E.; Rabey, I. M.; Devlin, J. A.; Tarbutt, M. R.; Ho, C. J.; Hinds, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    The standard model of particle physics predicts that the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron is very nearly zero. Many extensions to the standard model predict an electron EDM just below current experimental limits. We are currently working to improve the sensitivity of the Imperial College YbF experiment. We have implemented combined laser-radiofrequency pumping techniques which both increase the number of molecules which participate in the EDM experiment and also increase the probability of detection. Combined, these techniques give nearly two orders of magnitude increase in the experimental sensitivity. At this enhanced sensitivity magnetic effects which were negligible become important. We have developed a new way to construct the electrodes for electric field plates which minimizes the effect of magnetic Johnson noise. The new YbF experiment is expected to comparable in sensitivity to the most sensitive measurements of the electron EDM to date. We will also discuss laser cooling techniques which promise an even larger increase in sensitivity.

  6. Glass-Glass Transitions by Means of an Acceptor-Donor Percolating Electric-Dipole Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Lou, Xiaojie; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Yang; Kuball, Martin; Carpenter, Michael A.; Ren, Xiaobing

    2017-11-01

    We report the ferroelectric glass-glass transitions in KN (K+/Nb5 +) -doped BaTiO3 ferroelectric ceramics, which have been proved by x-ray diffraction profile and Raman spectra data. The formation of glass-glass transitions can be attributed to the existence of cubic (C )-tetragonal (T )-orthorhombic (O )-rhombohedral (R ) ferroelectric transitions in short-range order. These abnormal glass-glass transitions can perform very small thermal hysteresis (approximately 1.0 K ) with a large dielectric constant (approximately 3000), small remanent polarization Pr , and relative high maximum polarization Pm remaining over a wide temperature range (220-350 K) under an electrical stimulus, indicating the potential applications in dielectric recoverable energy-storage devices with high thermal reliability. Further phase field simulations suggest that these glass-glass transitions are induced by the formation of a percolating electric defect-dipole network (PEDN). This proper PEDN breaks the long-range ordered ferroelectric domain pattern and results in the local phase transitions at the nanoscale. Our work may further stimulate the fundamental physical theory and accelerate the development of dielectric energy-storing devices.

  7. Reduced Limit on the Permanent Electric Dipole Moment of $^{199}$Hg

    CERN Document Server

    Graner, B; Lindahl, E G; Heckel, B R

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the most recent measurement of the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of neutral $^{199}$Hg atoms. Fused silica vapor cells containing enriched $^{199}$Hg are arranged in a stack in a common magnetic field. Optical pumping is used to spin-polarize the atoms orthogonal to the applied magnetic field, and the Faraday rotation of near-resonant light is observed to determine an electric-field-induced perturbation to the Larmor precession frequency. Our results for this frequency shift are consistent with zero; we find the corresponding $^{199}$Hg EDM $d_{Hg} = (-2.20 \\pm 2.75_{stat} \\pm 1.48_{syst}) \\times 10^{-30} e\\cdot \\text{cm}$. We use this result to place a new upper limit on the $^{199}$Hg EDM $|d_{Hg}| < 7.4\\times 10^{-30} e\\cdot \\text{cm}$ (95\\% C.L.), improving our previous limit by a factor of 4. We also discuss the implications of this result for various $CP$-violating observables as they relate to theories of physics beyond the standard model.

  8. Search for the Permanent Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron Using Cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Sudha A.

    1990-01-01

    The electric dipole moment (edm) of the ground state of cesium has been measured using optical pumping and precision polarization analyzing techniques. The measured value of d_{Cs} = ( -1.8 +/- 6.7 +/- 1.8) times 10^ {-24}e cm implies that the electron edm d_{e} = ( -1.5 +/- 5.5 +/- 1.5) times 10^ {-26}e cm. This result represents more than an order of magnitude improvement over all previous limits. The basic principle of the experiment is to spin polarize cesium atoms in a cell by optical pumping (along vec x) using a laser tuned to the 6S_{1/2}F = 3 to 6P_{1/2} transition (8944 A) in the presence of an electric field vec E along vec z. The edms oriented along vec x experience a torque due to the electric field along vec z and this results in a precession of the initial polarization in the plane perpendicular to vec E. The precessed polarization is detected along vec y using another laser tuned to the 6S_{1/2}F = 4 to 6P_{1/2}(8944 A). When the electric field is reversed, the precession is in the opposite sense. The magnetic field is maintained at zero at all times except for calibration. For small angles of precession, the change in the component of the polarization along vec y, denoted by Delta P_{y}, when the electric field is reversed is given by Delta P_{y} = 2P_ {x}omega_{E}tau = 2P_{x}[{2d_ {Cs}Eover (2I + 1)hbar}right ] tau. P_{x} is the initial polarization along vec x, omega_{E} is the precession frequency due to the electric field, tau is the characteristic decay time of the polarization and I = 7over2 the nuclear spin of the cesium atom. A measurement of such a polarization is thus a measurement of the edm of the cesium atom and the electron edm is derived from d_{Cs} = Rd_{e}, where R the enhancement factor is theoretically calculated to be 120.0 +/- 10.0.

  9. Noble Gas Leak Detector for Use in the SNS Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Chad; Huffman, Paul; Leung, Kent; Korobkina, Ekaterina; White, Christian; nEDM Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Common practice for leak-checking high vacuum systems uses helium as the probing gas. However, helium may permeate some materials at room temperature, making leak characterization difficult. The experiment to find a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM), to be conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, will employ a large volume of liquid helium housed by such a helium-permeable composite material. It is desirable to construct a leak detector that can employ alternative test gases. The purpose of this experiment is to create a leak detector that can quantify the argon gas flux in a high vacuum environment and interpret this flux as a leak-rate. This apparatus will be used to check the nEDM volumes for leaks at room temperature before cooling down to cryogenic temperatures. Our leak detector uses a residual gas analyzer and a vacuum pumping station to characterize the gas present in an evacuated volume. The introduction of argon gas into the system is interpreted as a leak-rate into the volume. The device has been calibrated with NIST certified calibrated leaks and the machine's sensitivity has been calculated using background gas analysis. As a result of the device construction and software programming, we are able to leak-check composite and polyamide volumes This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41042.

  10. Search for a permanent electric-dipole moment using atomic indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, B. K. [Theoretical Physics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad-380009 (India); Pandey, R. [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, Indian Astrophysics, Bangalore-560034 (India); School of Interdisciplinary and Transdisciplinary Studies, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi-110068 (India); Das, B. P. [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, Indian Astrophysics, Bangalore-560034 (India)

    2011-09-15

    We propose indium (In) as a possible candidate for observing the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) arising from violations of parity (P) and time-reversal (T) symmetries. This atom has been laser cooled and therefore the measurement of its EDM has the potential of improving on the current best EDM limit for a paramagnetic atom, which comes from thallium. We report the results of our calculations of the EDM enhancement factor due to the electron EDM and the ratio of the atomic EDM to the electron-nucleus scalar-pseudoscalar (S-PS) interaction coupling constant in In within the framework of the relativistic coupled cluster theory. It might be possible to get new limits for the electron EDM and the S-PS CP-violating coupling constant by combining the results of our calculations with the measured value of the EDM of In when it is available. These limits could have important implications for the standard model (SM) of particle physics.

  11. Static electric dipole polarizabilities for isoelectronic sequences. II. Open-shell S statesa2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Volker; Andrae, Dirk

    2013-07-01

    We present static electric dipole polarizabilities α d( Z,N) from numerical nonrelativistic restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) finite-field calculations for high-spin open-shell S states ( L = 0) of atoms and isoelectronic ions with N ≤ 55 electrons. All these S states result from one or more half-filled shells. For eight isoelectronic sequences, those with N = 3, 7, 11, 15, 23, 29, 33 or 41 electrons where the electronic ground state of the neutral or nearly neutral members is conserved upon increase of the nuclear charge number Z, polarizability data are given for ions with charge number Q = Z - N up to Q = 90. In addition, these data are represented in terms of rational functions of Q (with absolute value of the relative error of the fit always below 4%). The rational functions are comparable to the classical nonrelativistic result α d( Z,1) = 4.5 / Z 4 = 4.5 / ( Q + 1)4 for the polarizability of the 2S ground state of a hydrogen-like system. Our results also contribute to constitute a reference database (i) for algebraic approaches relying on basis functions, and (ii) for the discussion of relativistic and correlation effects on polarizabilities along isoelectronic sequences.

  12. A Revised Experimental Upper Limit on the Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Pendlebury, J  M; Ayres, N J; Baker, C A; Ban, G; Bison, G; Bodek, K; Burghoff, M; Geltenbort, P; Green, K; Griffith, W C; van der Grinten, M; Grujic, Z D; Harris, P G; Helaine, V; Iaydjiev, P; Ivanov, S N; Kasprzak, M; Kermaidic, Y; Kirch, K; Koch, H-C; Komposch, S; Kozela, A; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Lefort, T; Lemiere, Y; May, D J R; Musgrave, M; Musgrave, M; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Piegsa, F M; Pignol, G; Prashanth, P N; Quéméner, G; Rawlik, M; Rebreyend, D; Richardson, J D; Ries, D; Roccia, S; Rozpedzik, D; Schnabel, A; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Severijns, N; Shiers, D; Thorne, J A; Weis, A; Winston, O  J; Wursten, E; Zejma, J; Zsigmond, G

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the experimental results that set the current world sensitivity limit on the magnitude of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron. We have extended and enhanced our earlier analysis to include recent developments in the understanding of the effects of gravity in depolarizing ultracold neutrons (UCN); an improved calculation of the spectrum of the neutrons; and conservative estimates of other possible systematic errors, which are also shown to be consistent with more recent measurements undertaken with the apparatus. We obtain a net result of $d_\\mathrm{n} = -0.21 \\pm 1.82 \\times10^{-26}$ $e$cm, which may be interpreted as a slightly revised upper limit on the magnitude of the EDM of $3.0 \\times10^{-26}$ $e$cm (90% CL) or $ 3.6 \\times10^{-26}$ $e$cm (95% CL). This paper is dedicated by the remaining authors to the memory of Prof. J. Michael Pendlebury.

  13. The effect of intermolecular interactions on the electric dipole polarizabilities of nucleic acid base complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyżnikowska, Żaneta; Góra, Robert W.; Zaleśny, Robert; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter, we report on the interaction-induced electric dipole polarizabilities of 70 Watson-Crick B-DNA pairs (27 adenine-thymine and 43 guanine-cytosine complexes) and 38 structures of cytosine dimer in stacked alignment. In the case of hydrogen-bonded Watson-Crick base pairs the electrostatic as well as the induction and exchange-induction interactions, increase the average polarizability of the studied complexes, whereas the exchange-repulsion effects have the opposite effect and consistently diminish this property. On the other hand, in the case of the studied cytosine dimers in stacked alignment the dominant electrostatic contribution has generally much larger magnitude and the opposite sign, resulting in a significant reduction of the average polarizability of these complexes. As a part of this model study, we also assess the performance of recently developed LPol-ds reduced-size polarized basis set. Although being much smaller than the aug-cc-pVTZ set, the LPol-ds performs equally well as far as the excess polarizabilities of the studied hydrogen-bonded complexes are concerned.

  14. General classical and quantum-mechanical description of magnetic resonance: an application to electric-dipole-moment experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silenko, Alexander J.

    2017-05-01

    A general theoretical description of a magnetic resonance is presented. This description is necessary for a detailed analysis of spin dynamics in electric-dipole-moment experiments in storage rings. General formulas describing a behavior of all components of the polarization vector at the magnetic resonance are obtained for an arbitrary initial polarization. These formulas are exact on condition that the nonresonance rotating field is neglected. The spin dynamics is also calculated at frequencies far from resonance with allowance for both rotating fields. A general quantum-mechanical analysis of the spin evolution at the magnetic resonance is fulfilled and the full agreement between the classical and quantum-mechanical approaches is shown. Quasimagnetic resonances for particles and nuclei moving in noncontinuous perturbing fields of accelerators and storage rings are considered. Distinguishing features of quasimagnetic resonances in storage ring electric-dipole-moment experiments are investigated in detail. The exact formulas for the effect caused by the electric dipole moment are derived. The difference between the resonance effects conditioned by the rf electric-field flipper and the rf Wien filter is found and is calculated for the first time. The existence of this difference is crucial for the establishment of a consent between analytical derivations and computer simulations and for checking spin tracking programs. The main systematical errors are considered.

  15. General classical and quantum-mechanical description of magnetic resonance: an application to electric-dipole-moment experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silenko, Alexander J. [Belarusian State University, Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    A general theoretical description of a magnetic resonance is presented. This description is necessary for a detailed analysis of spin dynamics in electric-dipole-moment experiments in storage rings. General formulas describing a behavior of all components of the polarization vector at the magnetic resonance are obtained for an arbitrary initial polarization. These formulas are exact on condition that the nonresonance rotating field is neglected. The spin dynamics is also calculated at frequencies far from resonance with allowance for both rotating fields. A general quantum-mechanical analysis of the spin evolution at the magnetic resonance is fulfilled and the full agreement between the classical and quantum-mechanical approaches is shown. Quasimagnetic resonances for particles and nuclei moving in noncontinuous perturbing fields of accelerators and storage rings are considered. Distinguishing features of quasimagnetic resonances in storage ring electric-dipole-moment experiments are investigated in detail. The exact formulas for the effect caused by the electric dipole moment are derived. The difference between the resonance effects conditioned by the rf electric-field flipper and the rf Wien filter is found and is calculated for the first time. The existence of this difference is crucial for the establishment of a consent between analytical derivations and computer simulations and for checking spin tracking programs. The main systematical errors are considered. (orig.)

  16. Fluctuations of local electric field and dipole moments in water between metal walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takae, Kyohei; Onuki, Akira

    2015-10-21

    We examine the thermal fluctuations of the local electric field Ek (loc) and the dipole moment μk in liquid water at T = 298 K between metal walls in electric field applied in the perpendicular direction. We use analytic theory and molecular dynamics simulation. In this situation, there is a global electrostatic coupling between the surface charges on the walls and the polarization in the bulk. Then, the correlation function of the polarization density pz(r) along the applied field contains a homogeneous part inversely proportional to the cell volume V. Accounting for the long-range dipolar interaction, we derive the Kirkwood-Fröhlich formula for the polarization fluctuations when the specimen volume v is much smaller than V. However, for not small v/V, the homogeneous part comes into play in dielectric relations. We also calculate the distribution of Ek (loc) in applied field. As a unique feature of water, its magnitude |Ek (loc)| obeys a Gaussian distribution with a large mean value E0 ≅ 17 V/nm, which arises mainly from the surrounding hydrogen-bonded molecules. Since |μk|E0 ∼ 30kBT, μk becomes mostly parallel to Ek (loc). As a result, the orientation distributions of these two vectors nearly coincide, assuming the classical exponential form. In dynamics, the component of μk(t) parallel to Ek (loc)(t) changes on the time scale of the hydrogen bonds ∼5 ps, while its smaller perpendicular component undergoes librational motions on time scales of 0.01 ps.

  17. Addition energies and density dipole response of quantum rings under the influence of in-plane electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malet, Francesc; Pi, Martí; Barranco, Manuel; Serra, Llorenç; Lipparini, Enrico

    2007-12-01

    Within density functional theory, we address the effect of an in-plane electric field E on the ground state and the density dipole response of a many-electron quantum ring, which is also submitted to a perpendicular magnetic field B . Addition energies and density dipole spectra are discussed as a function of E . For the two-electron case, an exact numerical calculation is performed, obtaining the spin-phase diagram in the E-B plane and showing that transitions between singlet and triplet spin states can be induced by varying the fields. We also find that, in spite of the deformation that E causes in the electronic density, the spin of the ground state of a given electron number ring is very robust, changing little as the strength of the electric field is reasonably increased.

  18. Bound on the anomalous tbW coupling from two-loop contribution to neutron electric dipole moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avilez-Lopez, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Novales-Sanchez, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1152, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Tavares-Velasco, G. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1152, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)], E-mail: gtv@fcfm.buap.mx; Toscano, J.J. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-09-20

    The two-loop contribution to the electric dipole moment (EDM) and the chromo-electric dipole moment (CEDM) of an arbitrary fermion f induced by the most general renormalizable tbW coupling with complex left- and right-handed components (a{sub L} and a{sub R}) is calculated. The analytical expressions are numerically evaluated and the current experimental constraints on the electron, neutron and mercury atom EDMs are used to obtain a bound on the complex phase Im(a{sub L}*a{sub R}). It is found that the most stringent constraint, Im(a{sub L}*a{sub R})<2.33x10{sup -2}, arises from the neutron EDM.

  19. Measurement of the electric dipole moments for transitions to rubidium Rydberg states via Autler-Townes splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowicz, M J; MacCormick, C; Kowalczyk, A; Bergamini, S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK6 7AA (United Kingdom); Beterov, I I; Yakshina, E A, E-mail: c.maccormick@open.ac.uk, E-mail: s.bergamini@open.ac.uk [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrentyeva Avenue 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    We present the direct measurements of electric dipole moments for 5P{sub 3/2}{yields}nD{sub 5/2} transitions with 20electric dipole moments for transitions from low excited states of rubidium to Rydberg states. Due to its simplicity and versatility, this method can be easily extended to other transitions and other atomic species with few constraints. The good agreement seen between the experimental results and the theory proves the reliability of the measurement method.

  20. Discrete Symmetries on the Light Front and a General Relation connecting Nucleon Electric Dipole and Anomalous Magnetic Moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Gardner, Susan; /Kentucky U.; Hwang, Dae Sung; /Sejong U.

    2006-01-11

    We consider the electric dipole form factor, F{sub 3}(q{sup 2}), as well as the Dirac and Pauli form factors, F{sub 1}(q{sup 2}) and F{sub 2}(q{sup 2}), of the nucleon in the light-front formalism. We derive an exact formula for F{sub 3}(q{sup 2}) to complement those known for F{sub 1}(q{sup 2}) and F{sub 2}(q{sup 2}). We derive the light-front representation of the discrete symmetry transformations and show that time-reversal- and parity-odd effects are captured by phases in the light-front wave functions. We thus determine that the contributions to F{sub 2}(q{sup 2}) and F{sub 3}(q{sup 2}), Fock-state by Fock-state, are related, independent of the fundamental mechanism through which CP violation is generated. Our relation is not specific to the nucleon, but, rather, is true of spin-1/2 systems in general, be they lepton or baryon. The empirical values of the anomalous magnetic moments, in concert with empirical bounds on the associated electric dipole moments, can better constrain theories of CP violation. In particular, we find that the neutron and proton electric dipole moments echo the isospin structure of the anomalous magnetic moments, {kappa}{sup n} {approx} -{kappa}{sup p}.

  1. Dipole and quadrupole synthesis of electric potential fields. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    A general technique for expanding an unknown potential field in terms of a linear summation of weighted dipole or quadrupole fields is described. Computational methods were developed for the iterative addition of dipole fields. Various solution potentials were compared inside the boundary with a more precise calculation of the potential to derive optimal schemes for locating the singularities of the dipole fields. Then, the problem of determining solutions to Laplace's equation on an unbounded domain as constrained by pertinent electron trajectory data was considered.

  2. Electric dipole moment planning with a resurrected BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron electron analog ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Talman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been much recent interest in directly measuring the electric dipole moments (EDM of the proton and the electron, because of their possible importance in the present day observed matter/antimatter imbalance in the Universe. Such a measurement will require storing a polarized beam of “frozen spin” particles, 15 MeV electrons or 230 MeV protons, in an all-electric storage ring. Only one such relativistic electric accelerator has ever been built—the 10 MeV “electron analog” ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1954; it can also be referred to as the “AGS analog” ring to make clear it was a prototype for the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS proton ring under construction at that time at BNL. (Its purpose was to investigate nonlinear resonances as well as passage through “transition” with the newly invented alternating gradient proton ring design. By chance this electron ring, long since dismantled and its engineering drawings disappeared, would have been appropriate both for measuring the electron EDM and to serve as an inexpensive prototype for the arguably more promising, but 10 times more expensive, proton EDM measurement. Today it is cheaper yet to “resurrect” the electron analog ring by simulating its performance computationally. This is one purpose for the present paper. Most existing accelerator simulation codes cannot be used for this purpose because they implicitly assume magnetic bending. The new ual/eteapot code, described in detail in an accompanying paper, has been developed for modeling storage ring performance, including spin evolution, in electric rings. Illustrating its use, comparing its predictions with the old observations, and describing new expectations concerning spin evolution and code performance, are other goals of the paper. To set up some of these calculations has required a kind of “archeological physics” to reconstitute the detailed electron analog lattice design from a

  3. Electric dipole moment planning with a resurrected BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron electron analog ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Richard M.; Talman, John D.

    2015-07-01

    There has been much recent interest in directly measuring the electric dipole moments (EDM) of the proton and the electron, because of their possible importance in the present day observed matter/antimatter imbalance in the Universe. Such a measurement will require storing a polarized beam of "frozen spin" particles, 15 MeV electrons or 230 MeV protons, in an all-electric storage ring. Only one such relativistic electric accelerator has ever been built—the 10 MeV "electron analog" ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1954; it can also be referred to as the "AGS analog" ring to make clear it was a prototype for the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) proton ring under construction at that time at BNL. (Its purpose was to investigate nonlinear resonances as well as passage through "transition" with the newly invented alternating gradient proton ring design.) By chance this electron ring, long since dismantled and its engineering drawings disappeared, would have been appropriate both for measuring the electron EDM and to serve as an inexpensive prototype for the arguably more promising, but 10 times more expensive, proton EDM measurement. Today it is cheaper yet to "resurrect" the electron analog ring by simulating its performance computationally. This is one purpose for the present paper. Most existing accelerator simulation codes cannot be used for this purpose because they implicitly assume magnetic bending. The new ual/eteapot code, described in detail in an accompanying paper, has been developed for modeling storage ring performance, including spin evolution, in electric rings. Illustrating its use, comparing its predictions with the old observations, and describing new expectations concerning spin evolution and code performance, are other goals of the paper. To set up some of these calculations has required a kind of "archeological physics" to reconstitute the detailed electron analog lattice design from a 1991 retrospective report by Plotkin as well

  4. Analytical solution of electromagnetic radiation by a vertical electric dipole inside the earth and the effect of atmospheric electrical conductivity inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosayebidorcheh, Taha; Hosseinibalam, Fahimeh; Hassanzadeh, Smaeyl

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of atmospheric electrical conductivity on the electromagnetic waves radiated by a vertical electric dipole located in the earth, near the surface of the earth, is investigated. As far as electrical conductivity is concerned, the atmosphere is divided into three areas, in which the electrical conductivity changes with altitude. The Maxwell equations in these areas are investigated as well. Using the differential transform method, the differential equation is solved in a way that atmospheric electrical conductivity is variable. Solving the problem in these areas indicates that electrical conductivity in the middle and lower areas of atmosphere may be ignored. However, in the upper areas of atmosphere, the magnitude of the magnetic field in the ionosphere at a frequency of 10 kHz at night is five times smaller when electrical conductivity is considered compared to when it is neglected.

  5. Electromagnetic Simulation and Design of a Novel Waveguide RF Wien Filter for Electric Dipole Moment Measurements of Protons and Deuterons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, J.; Gebel, R.; Heberling, D.; Hinder, F.; Hölscher, D.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Mey, S.; Nass, A.; Rathmann, F.; Reifferscheidt, L.; Soltner, H.; Straatmann, H.; Trinkel, F.; Wolters, J.

    2016-08-01

    The conventional Wien filter is a device with orthogonal static magnetic and electric fields, often used for velocity separation of charged particles. Here we describe the electromagnetic design calculations for a novel waveguide RF Wien filter that will be employed to solely manipulate the spins of protons or deuterons at frequencies of about 0.1-2 MHz at the COoler SYnchrotron COSY at Jülich. The device will be used in a future experiment that aims at measuring the proton and deuteron electric dipole moments, which are expected to be very small. Their determination, however, would have a huge impact on our understanding of the universe.

  6. Measurement of a false electric dipole moment signal from $^{199}$Hg atoms exposed to an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Afach, S; Ban, G; Bison, G; Bodek, K; Chowdhuri, Z; Daum, M; Fertl, M; Franke, B; Geltenbort, P; Green, K; van der Grinten, M G D; Grujic, Z; Harris, P G; Heil, W; Hélaine, V; Henneck, R; Horras, M; Iaydjiev, P; Ivanov, S N; Kasprzak, M; Kermaïdic, Y; Kirch, K; Knowles, P; Koch, H -C; Komposch, S; Kozela, A; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Lefort, T; Lemière, Y; Mtchedlishvili, A; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Pendlebury, J M; Piegsa, F M; Pignol, G; Prashant, P N; Quéméner, G; Rebreyend, D; Ries, D; Roccia, S; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Severijns, N; Weis, A; Wursten, E; Wyszynski, G; Zejma, J; Zenner, J; Zsigmond, G

    2015-01-01

    We report on the measurement of a Larmor frequency shift proportional to the electric-field strength for $^{199}{\\rm Hg}$ atoms contained in a volume permeated with aligned magnetic and electric fields. This shift arises from the interplay between the inevitable magnetic field gradients and the motional magnetic field. The proportionality to electric-field strength makes it apparently similar to an electric dipole moment (EDM) signal, although unlike an EDM this effect is P- and T-conserving. We have used a neutron magnetic resonance EDM spectrometer, featuring a mercury co-magnetometer and an array of external cesium magnetometers, to measure the shift as a function of the applied magnetic field gradient. Our results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations.

  7. Change of electric dipole moment in charge transfer transitions of ferrocene oligomers studied by ultrafast two-photon absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, Alexander; Arias, Eduardo; Moggio, Ivana; Ziolo, Ronald; Uudsemaa, Merle; Trummal, Aleksander; Cooper, Thomas; Rebane, Aleksander

    2017-02-01

    Change of permanent electric dipole moment in the lower-energy charge transfer transitions for a series of symmetrical and non-symmetrical ferrocene-phenyleneethynylene oligomers were studied by measuring the corresponding femtosecond two-photon absorption cross section spectra, and were determined to be in the range Δμ = 3 - 10 D. Quantum-chemical calculations of Δμ for the non-symmetrical oligomers show good quantitative agreement with the experimental results, thus validating two-photon absorption spectroscopy as a viable experimental approach to study electrostatic properties of organometallics and other charge transfer systems.

  8. The one-loop contributions to c(t) electric dipole moment in the CP-violating BLMSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shu-Min; Feng, Tai-Fu; Yang, Zhong-Jun; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Dong, Xing-Xing [Hebei University, Department of Physics, Baoding (China); Guo, Tao [Hebei University of Geosciences, School of Mathematics and Science, Shijiazhuang (China)

    2017-02-15

    In the CP-violating supersymmetric extension of the standard model with local gauged baryon and lepton symmetries (BLMSSM), there are new CP-violating sources which can give new contributions to the quark electric dipole moment (EDM). Considering the CP-violating phases, we analyze the EDMs of the quarks c and t. We take into account the contributions from the one-loop diagrams. The numerical results are analyzed with some assumptions on the relevant parameter space. The numerical results for the c and t EDMs can reach large values. (orig.)

  9. Ab initio calculation of the enhancement of the electric dipole moment of an electron in the YbF molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Farid A.

    1998-04-01

    The 0953-4075/31/7/008/img1 ground state of the 0953-4075/31/7/008/img2 molecule is modelled in the unrestricted Dirac-Fock approximation. Molecular orbitals are taken to be linear combinations of kinetically balanced four-component spherical Gaussian spinors. The nuclei are assumed to be spherical distributions of charge, the radial dependences of which are taken to be Gaussian. Uncontracted basis sets with 27s, 27p, 12d and 8f exponents on the Yb centre and 15s and 10p exponents on the F centre yield an equilibrium bond length of 0953-4075/31/7/008/img3, a dissociation energy of 0953-4075/31/7/008/img4 and a dipole polarizability of 0953-4075/31/7/008/img5; the experimental values of these quantities are, respectively, 0953-4075/31/7/008/img6, 0953-4075/31/7/008/img7 or 0953-4075/31/7/008/img8, and 0953-4075/31/7/008/img9. The matrix element of the operator 0953-4075/31/7/008/img10, the interaction between an electronic electric dipole moment and the molecular electric field, is estimated to be 0953-4075/31/7/008/img11 atomic units within this approximation.

  10. External meeting - Geneva University: Proposal to measure the muon electric dipole moment with a compact storage ring at PSI

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 ? Tél : 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Wednesday 16th May  2007 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium Proposal to measure the muon electric dipole moment with a compact storage ring at PSI by Dr. Thomas Schietinger, PSI - Villigen In the Standard Model, lepton electric dipole moments (EDM) arise from the CP-violating phase in the CKM matrix at the three-loop level only, resulting in values that are many orders of magnitude below the sensitivity of current and future experiments. Lepton EDMs therefore offer an excellent opportunity to discover unambiguous evidence for new CP-violating phases, as called for by the baryon-antibaryon asymmetry of the universe. The muon EDM is one of the least constrained fundamental properties in elementary particle physics. We propose to utilize the large available flux of polarized muons at PSI to search for a muon EDM ...

  11. Experimental Verification of Isotropic Radiation from a Coherent Dipole Source via Electric-Field-Driven LC Resonator Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichit, Paul-Henri; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; de Lustrac, André

    2013-09-01

    It has long been conjectured that isotropic radiation by a simple coherent source is impossible due to changes in polarization. Though hypothetical, the isotropic source is usually taken as the reference for determining a radiator’s gain and directivity. Here, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that an isotropic radiator can be made of a simple and finite source surrounded by electric-field-driven LC resonator metamaterials designed by space manipulation. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we show the first isotropic source with omnidirectional radiation from a dipole source (applicable to all distributed sources), which can open up several possibilities in axion electrodynamics, optical illusion, novel transformation-optic devices, wireless communication, and antenna engineering. Owing to the electric- field-driven LC resonator realization scheme, this principle can be readily applied to higher frequency regimes where magnetism is usually not present.

  12. Experimental verification of isotropic radiation from a coherent dipole source via electric-field-driven LC resonator metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichit, Paul-Henri; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; de Lustrac, André

    2013-09-27

    It has long been conjectured that isotropic radiation by a simple coherent source is impossible due to changes in polarization. Though hypothetical, the isotropic source is usually taken as the reference for determining a radiator's gain and directivity. Here, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that an isotropic radiator can be made of a simple and finite source surrounded by electric-field-driven LC resonator metamaterials designed by space manipulation. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we show the first isotropic source with omnidirectional radiation from a dipole source (applicable to all distributed sources), which can open up several possibilities in axion electrodynamics, optical illusion, novel transformation-optic devices, wireless communication, and antenna engineering. Owing to the electric- field-driven LC resonator realization scheme, this principle can be readily applied to higher frequency regimes where magnetism is usually not present.

  13. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  14. Tevatron AC dipole system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; /Texas U.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is an oscillating dipole magnet which can induce large amplitude oscillations without the emittance growth and decoherence. These properties make it a good tool to measure optics of a hadron synchrotron. The vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is powered by an inexpensive high power audio amplifier since its operating frequency is approximately 20 kHz. The magnet is incorporated into a parallel resonant system to maximize the current. The use of a vertical pinger magnet which has been installed in the Tevatron made the cost relatively inexpensive. Recently, the initial system was upgraded with a more powerful amplifier and oscillation amplitudes up to 2-3{sigma} were achieved with the 980 GeV proton beam. This paper discusses details of the Tevatron AC dipole system and also shows its test results.

  15. Magnetic Fields of a Horizontal Electric Dipole in a Semi-Infinite Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    dipole subsurface to air). The output is shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4. The field is measured along the path, x = -39.5m, z = 914.4m, and 0<y- 5000m ...Annapoi’s. Maryland. A APPENDIX I Operating Instructions and Program Listings OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS The programs are intended to be run in an...interactive mode. Data which is required for each individual program is requested by the program at run time. Depending on the particular program which is

  16. Zeeman interaction in the Δ31 state of HfF+ to search for the electron electric dipole moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. N.; Skripnikov, L. V.; Titov, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    A theoretical study devoted to suppression of magnetic systematic effects in HfF+ cation for an experiment to search for the electron electric dipole moment is reported. The g factors for J =1 , F =3 /2 , | MF|=3 /2 hyperfine levels of the Δ31 state are calculated as functions of the external electric field. The minimal value for the difference between the g factors of Ω -doublet levels, Δ g =3 ×10-6 , is attained at the electric field 7 V/cm. The body-fixed g factor, G∥, was obtained both within the ab initio electronic structure calculations and with our fit of the experimental data [H. Loh, K. C. Cossel, M. C. Grau, K.-K. Ni, E. R. Meyer, J. L. Bohn, J. Ye, and E. A. Cornell, Science 342, 1220 (2013), 10.1126/science.1243683]. For the electronic structure calculations we used a combined scheme to perform correlation calculations of HfF+, which includes both the direct four-component all-electron and generalized relativistic effective core potential approaches. The electron correlation effects were treated using the coupled cluster methods. The calculated value G∥=0.0115 agrees very well with the G∥=0.0118 obtained with our fitting procedure. The calculated ab initio value D∥=-1.53 a.u. for the molecule-frame dipole moment (with the origin in the center of mass) is in agreement with the experimental datum D∥=-1.54 (1 ) a.u. [H. Loh, Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006.].

  17. Analysis of closed orbit deviations for a first direct deuteron electric dipole moment measurement at the cooler synchrotron COSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, V.; Lehrach, A.

    2017-07-01

    The Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations (JEDI) collaboration in Julich is preparing a direct EDM measurement of protons and deuterons first at the storage ring COSY (COoler SYnchrotron) and later at a dedicated storage ring. Ensuring a precise measurement, various beam and spin manipulating effects have to be considered and investigated. A distortion of the closed orbit is one of the major sources for systematic uncertainties. Therefore misalignments of magnets and residual power supply oscillations are simulated using the MAD-X code in order to analyse their effect on the orbit. The underlying model for all simulations includes the dipoles, quadrupoles and sextupoles at COSY as well as the corrector magnets and BPMs (Beam Position Monitors). Since most sextupoles are only used during beam extraction, the sextupole strengths are set to zero resulting in a linear machine. The optics is adjusted in a way that the dispersion is zero in the straight sections. The closed orbit studies are performed for deuterons with a momentum of 970 MeV/c.

  18. Basis set convergence on static electric dipole polarizability calculations of alkali-metal clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fabio A. L. de; Jorge, Francisco E., E-mail: jorge@cce.ufes.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, 29060-900 Vitoria-ES (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    A hierarchical sequence of all-electron segmented contracted basis sets of double, triple and quadruple zeta valence qualities plus polarization functions augmented with diffuse functions for the atoms from H to Ar was constructed. A systematic study of basis sets required to obtain reliable and accurate values of static dipole polarizabilities of lithium and sodium clusters (n = 2, 4, 6 and 8) at their optimized equilibrium geometries is reported. Three methods are examined: Hartree-Fock (HF), second-order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and density functional theory (DFT). By direct calculations or by fitting the directly calculated values through one extrapolation scheme, estimates of the HF, MP2 and DFT complete basis set limits were obtained. Comparison with experimental and theoretical data reported previously in the literature is done (author)

  19. Active coated nano-particle excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole — resonance and transparency effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the optical properties of active coated spherical nano-particles excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole. The nano-particles are made of specific dielectric and plasmonic materials. The spatial near-field distribution as well as the normalized...... radiation resistance is examined. Both enhanced as well as reduced radiation effects are demonstrated. In particular, it is shown that specific active coated nano-particles can be designed to be resonant, leading to much larger values of the normalized radiation resistance than is the case...... with the corresponding passive coated nano-particles, thereby overcoming the intrinsic losses present in the plasmonic materials. Moreover, it is shown that other active coated nano-particle designs can significantly reduce the normalized radiation resistance; thus both the resonant as well as non...

  20. Development of a Magneto-Optical Trap System of Francium Atoms for the Electron Electric-Dipole-Moment Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, K.; Aoki, T.; Kato, K.; Kawamura, H.; Inoue, T.; Aoki, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Ito, S.; Itoh, M.; Hayamizu, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Wakasa, T.; Sakemi, Y.

    2016-02-01

    The finite value of an electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) provides the direct evidence for the violation of time reversal symmetry. Fr atoms, whose enhancement factor is 895, trapped by laser cooling and trapping techniques are one of the strongest candidates for measuring the eEDM. We are constructing a beamline for measuring the eEDM using laser- cooled Fr atoms at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center. We have developed laser light sources including the frequency stabilization system and a magneto-optical trap system for Fr atoms. As the Fr production requires the cyclotron operation, we also use Rb atoms whose chemical properties are similar to those of the Fr atoms. Thus, the Rb beam is utilized for optimizing the operation parameters of the entire apparatus. We have also developed the laser light sources for Rb atoms and observed the beat signal for frequency stabilization of the source using the frequency offset locking method.

  1. A relation between the rotational g-factor and the electric dipole moment of a diatomic molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    1998-01-01

    The relation between the rotational g-factor and the electric dipole moment of a diatomic molecule is investigated. An explicit expression for the irreducible nonadiabatic contribution in terms of excited electronic states is derived. The importance of this expression for the analysis of vibration......-rotational spectra of diatomic molecules is discussed and explicit expressions are presented for the first two fitting parameters in an expansion of the nonadiabatic rotational term in an effective vibration-rotational Hamiltonian. Results of ab initio self-consistent field, multiconfigurational self......-consistent field and second-order polarization propagator approximation calculations of nonadiabatic contributions to rotational g-factors of hydrides and fluorides of Li, B, Al, Ga and monoxides of C, Si and Ge are presented. Problems connected with usage of finite basis sets of one-electron functions...

  2. Additional comments on 'A proposed method for measuring the electric dipole moment of the neutron using acceleration in an electric field gradient and ultracold neutron interferometry'

    CERN Document Server

    Lamoreaux, S K

    1999-01-01

    We have previously (Lamoreaux and Golub, Los Alamos archive (xxx) nucl-ex/9901007vs, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., 433 (1999)) presented an analysis, using classical, semi-classical and quantum mechanical tehniques, of the proposal of Freedman et al., (Nucl. Instr. and Meth., A 396 (1997) 181) to search for the neutron electric dipole moment by the use of acceleration of ultracold neutrons in an inhomogeneous electric field followed by amplification of the resulting displacement by several methods involving spin independent interactions (gravity) or reflection from curved (spin independent) mirrors. Following the appearance of some more recent comments (Peshkin, Los Alamos archive (xxx) nucl-ex/9903012 v2; Dombeck and Ringo, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., A 433 (1999)) it now seems reasonable to publish a revised version of our quantum mechanical treatment (Section 2 B of ) with a more detailed exposition.

  3. Quantum Dynamics in Atomic-Fountain Experiments for Measuring the Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron with Improved Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Wundt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An improved measurement of the electron electric dipole moment (EDM appears feasible using ground-state alkali atoms in an atomic fountain in which a strong electric field, which couples to a conceivable EDM, is applied perpendicular to the fountain axis. In a practical fountain, the ratio of the atomic tensor Stark shift to the Zeeman shift is a factor μ∼100. We expand the complete time-evolution operator in inverse powers of this ratio; complete results are presented for atoms of total spin F=3, 4, and 5. For a specific set of entangled hyperfine sublevels (coherent states, potential systematic errors enter only as even powers of 1/μ, making the expansion rapidly convergent. The remaining EDM-mimicking effects are further suppressed in a proposed double-differential setup, where the final state is interrogated in a differential laser configuration, and the direction of the strong electric field also is inverted. Estimates of the signal available at existing accelerator facilities indicate that the proposed apparatus offers the potential for a drastic improvement in EDM limits over existing measurements, and for constraining the parameter space of supersymmetric (SUSY extensions of the Standard Model.

  4. Accurate quantum calculations of translation-rotation eigenstates in electric-dipole-coupled H2O@C60 assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter M.; Bačić, Zlatko

    2017-09-01

    We present methodology for variational calculation of the 6 n -dimensional translation-rotation (TR) eigenstates of assemblies of n H2O@C60 moieties coupled by dipole-dipole interactions. We show that the TR Hamiltonian matrix for any n can be constructed from dipole-dipole matrix elements computed for n = 2 . We present results for linear H2O@C60 assemblies. Two classes of eigenstates are revealed. One class comprises excitations of the 111 rotational level of H2O. The lowest-energy 111 -derived eigenstate for each assembly exhibits significant dipole ordering and shifts down in energy with the assembly size.

  5. Lepton dipole moments

    CERN Document Server

    Marciano, William J

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a self-contained description of the measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of the electron and muon, along with a discussion of the measurements of the fine structure constant, and the theory associated with magnetic and electric dipole moments. Also included are the searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron, muon, neutron and atomic nuclei. The related topic of the transition moment for lepton flavor violating processes, such as neutrinoless muon or tauon decays, and the search for such processes are included as well. The papers, written by many o

  6. Electric-dipole-coupled H2O@C60 dimer: Translation-rotation eigenstates from twelve-dimensional quantum calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter M.; Bačić, Zlatko

    2017-02-01

    We report on variational solutions to the twelve-dimensional (12D) Schrödinger equation appertaining to the translation-rotation (TR) eigenstates of H2O@C60 dimer, associated with the quantized "rattling" motions of the two encapsulated H2O molecules. Both H2O and C60 moieties are treated as rigid and the cage-cage geometry is taken to be fixed. We consider the TR eigenstates of H2O@C60 monomers in the dimer to be coupled by the electric dipole-dipole interaction between water moieties and develop expressions for computing the matrix elements of that interaction in a dimer basis composed of products of monomer 6D TR eigenstates reported by us recently [P. M. Felker and Z. Bačić, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 201101 (2016)]. We use these expressions to compute TR Hamiltonian matrices of H2O@C60 dimer for two values of the water dipole moment and for various dimer geometries. 12D TR eigenstates of the dimer are then obtained by filter diagonalization. The results reveal two classes of eigenstates, distinguished by the leading order (first or second) at which dipole-dipole coupling contributes to them. The two types of eigenstates differ in the general magnitude of their dipole-induced energy shifts and in the dependence of those shifts on the value of the water dipole moment and on the distance between the H2O@C60 monomers. The dimer results are also found to be markedly insensitive to any change in the orientations of the C60 cages. Finally, the results lend some support for the interpretation that electric dipole-dipole coupling is at least partially responsible for the apparent reduced-symmetry environment experienced by H2O in the powder samples of H2O@C60 [K. S. K. Goh et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 21330 (2014)], but only if the water dipole is taken to have a magnitude close to that of free water. The methodology developed in the paper is transferable directly to the calculation of TR eigenstates of larger H2O@C60 assemblies, that will be required for more

  7. Electric-dipole-coupled H2O@C60 dimer: Translation-rotation eigenstates from twelve-dimensional quantum calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter M; Bačić, Zlatko

    2017-02-28

    We report on variational solutions to the twelve-dimensional (12D) Schrödinger equation appertaining to the translation-rotation (TR) eigenstates of H2O@C60 dimer, associated with the quantized "rattling" motions of the two encapsulated H2O molecules. Both H2O and C60 moieties are treated as rigid and the cage-cage geometry is taken to be fixed. We consider the TR eigenstates of H2O@C60 monomers in the dimer to be coupled by the electric dipole-dipole interaction between water moieties and develop expressions for computing the matrix elements of that interaction in a dimer basis composed of products of monomer 6D TR eigenstates reported by us recently [P. M. Felker and Z. Bačić, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 201101 (2016)]. We use these expressions to compute TR Hamiltonian matrices of H2O@C60 dimer for two values of the water dipole moment and for various dimer geometries. 12D TR eigenstates of the dimer are then obtained by filter diagonalization. The results reveal two classes of eigenstates, distinguished by the leading order (first or second) at which dipole-dipole coupling contributes to them. The two types of eigenstates differ in the general magnitude of their dipole-induced energy shifts and in the dependence of those shifts on the value of the water dipole moment and on the distance between the H2O@C60 monomers. The dimer results are also found to be markedly insensitive to any change in the orientations of the C60 cages. Finally, the results lend some support for the interpretation that electric dipole-dipole coupling is at least partially responsible for the apparent reduced-symmetry environment experienced by H2O in the powder samples of H2O@C60 [K. S. K. Goh et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 21330 (2014)], but only if the water dipole is taken to have a magnitude close to that of free water. The methodology developed in the paper is transferable directly to the calculation of TR eigenstates of larger H2O@C60 assemblies, that will be required for more

  8. The constant electric field effect on the dipole moment of a comb-like polymer with chromophore groups in side chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara P. Stepanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of conformational properties and tendency to association for chromophore-containing comb-like copolymer of β-(3,4-dicyanophenylazobenzenethyazole methacrylate (A and amylmethacrylate (B (1:1 has been carried out. The copolymer AB is of particular interest because of non-linear optical properties of its films. Dielectric permittivity and dipole moment temperature dependences in dilute cyclohexanone solutions in the temperature range from 20 to 70 °С, in the electric field E ≤ 104 V/cm were investigated by means of static dielectric polarization. It was shown that temperature and concentration dependences of dielectric permittivity for the solvent, copolymer AB, monomer A and polymer B were linear indicating low molecular interactions at temperatures and fields used. The invariable stoichiometry of components in solution for concentration lower than 10–3 mol/mol was proved. The values of dielectric permittivity were extrapolated to infinite dilution and increments α=(Δɛ12/Δx2x2=0 were calculated. The solvent dipole moments were calculated in terms of the Onsager theory whereas dipole moments of AB, A and B were calculated in terms of the Backingham statistical theory of dielectric polarization. Intramacromolecular conformational transition was found to be at ∼40 °C. Dipole moment of A was shown to increase with both temperature and electric field strength. Copolymer side chains trans-location takes place due to intramacromolecular association resulting in the compensation of dipole moments and Kirkwood factor g ≈ 0.6. The association of A units increases in the electric field reducing the dipole moment per monomer unit significantly and g values approximately twice.

  9. β-Decay and the electric dipole moment: Searches for time-reversal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, unifying models beyond the Standard Model predict TRV to be within reach of measurement in nuclei and atoms, thus opening an important window to search for new physics. We will discuss two complementary experiments sensitive to TRV: Correlations in the -decay of 21Na and the search for an electric ...

  10. Planning and Prototyping for a Storage Ring Measurement of the Proton Electric Dipole Moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talman, Richard [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Electron and proton EDM's can be measured in "frozen spin" (with the beam polarization always parallel to the orbit, for example) storage rings. For electrons the "magic" kinetic energy at which the beam can be frozen is 14.5 MeV. For protons the magic kinetic energy is 230 MeV. The currently measured upper limit for the electron EDM is much smaller than the proton EDM upper limit, which is very poorly known. Nevertheless, because the storage ring will be an order of magnitude cheaper, a sensible plan is to first build an all-electric electron storage ring as a prototype. Such an electron ring was successfully built at Brookhaven, in 1954, as a prototype for their AGS ring. This leaves little uncertainty concerning the cost and performance of such a ring. (This is documentedin one of the Physical Review papers mentioned above.)

  11. Nucleon electric dipole moments and the isovector parity- and time-reversal-odd pion–nucleon coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yeah Seng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The isovector time-reversal- and parity-violating pion–nucleon coupling g¯π(1 is uniquely sensitive to dimension-six interactions between right-handed light quarks and the Standard Model Higgs doublet that naturally arises in left-right symmetric models. Recent work has used the g¯π(1-induced one-loop contribution to the neutron electric dipole moment dn, together with the present experimental dn bound, to constrain the CP-violating parameters of the left-right symmetric model. We show that this and related analyses are based on an earlier meson theory dn computation that is not consistent with the power-counting appropriate for an effective field theory. We repeat the one-loop calculation using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and find that the resulting dn sensitivity to g¯π(1 is suppressed, implying more relaxed constraints on the parameter space of the left-right symmetric model. Assuming no cancellations between this loop contribution and other contributions, such as the leading order EDM low-energy constant, the present limit on dn implies |g¯π(1|≲1.1×10−10.

  12. Improving the Optical Trapping Efficiency in the 225Ra Electric Dipole Moment Experiment via Monte Carlo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Steven

    2017-09-01

    In an effort to study and improve the optical trapping efficiency of the 225Ra Electric Dipole Moment experiment, a fully parallelized Monte Carlo simulation of the laser cooling and trapping apparatus was created at Argonne National Laboratory and now maintained and upgraded at Michigan State University. The simulation allows us to study optimizations and upgrades without having to use limited quantities of 225Ra (15 day half-life) in experiment's apparatus. It predicts a trapping efficiency that differs from the observed value in the experiment by approximately a factor of thirty. The effects of varying oven geometry, background gas interactions, laboratory magnetic fields, MOT laser beam configurations and laser frequency noise were studied and ruled out as causes of the discrepancy between measured and predicted values of the overall trapping efficiency. Presently, the simulation is being used to help optimize a planned blue slower laser upgrade in the experiment's apparatus, which will increase the overall trapping efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. This work is supported by Michigan State University, the Director's Research Scholars Program at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, and the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  13. Pygmy Dipole Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewald, S.; Speth, J.

    Electric dipole strength below the particle emission threshold both in stable nuclei and short-lived isotopes has received increasing interest due to its astrophysical impact. In analogy to the giant dipole resonance, this strength is commonly referred to as pygmy resonance. Coulomb dissociation of neutron-rich unstable isotopes and nuclear resonance fluorescence photon scattering have begun to provide systematic data on electric dipole strength in various isotope chains. We review the present state of the art of theoretical approaches and point out some open problems. We emphasize the necessity of a simultaneous theoretical treatment of the nucleon separation energies and the energetically low-lying dipole strength because the presently available data do not exclude a non-collective nature of the pygmy strength.

  14. The directed self-assembly of nanostructures: Electric pressure, dipole, double layer and cracking mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salac, David

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation presents investigations into the self-assembly of a wide number of material systems. This research introduces the concept that electric fields oriented in the plane of a thin polymer film will induce surface instabilities which grow to form structures. This experimental result indicates that large scale fabrication of nano- and micro-structures in a polymer film can be affectively achieved in an easy to construct and maintain setup. Electrostatic interactions have also been presented as a possible controlling mechanism in forming nanometer sized structure in molecularly thin film. A theoretical and computational investigation presented here indicates that the use of dipolar multilayer system combined with a substrate containing embedded electrodes is capable of fabricating patterns which would be difficult to obtain otherwise. It was observed that subsequent layers in a multilayer system will undergo layer-by-layer alignment and feature size reduction. The result has been applied to the ''molecular car'' concept, by which molecules are able to migrate on a surface due to externally controllable electric field patterns. The scaling and ordering of metallic nanoclusters on semiconductor substrates has been explored computationally. Numerical techniques were implemented to calculate the total electrostatic and van der Waals energies for systems containing multiple disks. Observations show that interactions in charge clouds beneath the metallic disks led to an electrostatic repulsive force. Attraction was observed by the van der Waals energy. An energy barrier past which disk coalescence will not occur was observed. This has applications in the development of large-scale nanodot systems which require precise control over both dot location and size. Finally, this dissertation presents results of systematic investigation of nanocracking in thin films using numerical techniques. Using a level-set method to describe an arbitrary crack in a heterogeneous

  15. Relativistic coupled cluster (RCC) computation of the electric dipole moment enhancement factor of francium due to the violation of time reversal symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Debashis; Sahoo, B K; Nataraj, H S; Das, B P

    2009-11-12

    A relativistic many-body theory for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms arising from the electric dipole moment of the electron is presented and implemented. The relativistic coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations (RCCSD) using the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian and a weak parity and time reversal violating interaction to the first-order of perturbation has been employed to obtain the EDM enhancement factor for the ground state of the Fr atom due to the intrinsic EDM of the electron. The trends of different correlation effects and the leading contributions from different physical states are discussed. Our results in combination with that of the Fr EDM experiment that is currently in progress possess the potential to probe the validity of the standard model (SM) of elementary particle physics.

  16. Development of Magnetometer Based on the Nonlinear Magneto-Optical Rotation Effect Toward the Measurement of the Electron Electric Dipole Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kawamura, H.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Asahi, K.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshimi, A.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    Toward an experimental search for an electron electric dipole moment by using laser cooled francium atoms, a development of a rubidium (Rb) atomic magnetometer based on a nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) effect is presented. In order to obtain a narrow linewidth of the NMOR spectrum, a wall relaxation time of a paraffin coated glass cell, which confined the Rb atom, was experimentally confirmed. A residual field inside a magnetic shield was also evaluated.

  17. Pygmy dipole resonance and dipole polarizability in {sup 90}Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, C.; Tamii, A.; Shima, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, H.; Hatanaka, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kondo, T. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto 8-9-1, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Nakada, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kawabata, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Fujita, Y. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Matsubara, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shimbara, Y.; Nagashima, M. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-21-2 (Japan); Sakuda, M.; Mori, T. [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 900-0082 (Japan); and others

    2014-05-02

    Electric dipole (E1) reduced transition probability B(E1) of {sup 90}Zr was obtained by the inelastic proton scattering near 0 degrees using a 295 MeV proton beam and multipole decomposition analysis of the angular distribution by the distorted-wave Born approximation with the Hartree-Fock plus random-phase approximation model and inclusion of El Coulomb excitation, and the E1 strength of the pygmy dipole resonance was found in the vicinity of the neutron threshold in the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance. Using the data, we plan to determine the precise dipole polarizability α{sub D} which is defined as an inversely energy-weighted sum value of the elecrric dipole strength. The dipole polarizability is expected to constrain the symmetry energy term of the neutron matter equation of state. Thus systematical measurement of the dipole polarizability is important.

  18. From electrode charges on dielectric elastomers to trapped charges and electric dipoles in electrets and ferroelectrets: fundamental and applications-relevant aspects of diversity in electroactive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Reimund

    2016-04-01

    Some recent developments in the areas of soft and basically incompressible electro-electrets (dielectric elastomers) with large strains, of anisotropic polymer ferro- or piezo-electrets with quasi-ferroelectric behavior, of moleculardipole electrets with significant ferro-, pyro- and piezo-electricity, and of space-charge polymer electrets with locally stabilised charges are described. Such materials may be applied, e.g., in soft actuators, energy harvesters and flexible and stretchable sensors for devices such as artificial muscles, electrically controllable refractive and diffractive optics, flexible pyroelectric detectors, motion and displacement sensors, earphones and microphones, ultrasonic transducers, air filters, radiation dosimeters, etc. The performance of dielectric elastomers for actuator, energy-harvester and sensor applications relies on a high relative permittivity and a low elastic modulus. High densities of electric charges in the electrodes are required in order to provide large Maxwell stresses or high energy densities. Significant amounts of localised or trapped charges, as well as electric dipoles from pairs of charges, lead to useful electro-mechanical and mechano-electrical effects (or inverse and direct piezoelectricity, respectively) if they are properly arranged in dielectric materials with extremely low conductivities. Space-charge electret films and ferroelectret systems should exhibit thermal and long-term stability of the trapped charges within the respective materials. Ferroelectric polymers and other polar polymers show useful piezo- and pyroelectric properties if their polymer-chain conformations allow for parallel packing of the molecular dipoles. Space-charge and molecular-dipole electrets are widely applied, e.g. in microphones, air filters, radiation dosimeters, ultrasonic transducers, etc. Basically, the performance of all electro-active polymers relies on the attraction (and repulsion) of electric charges and thus directly on

  19. Characterisation of superconducting capillaries for magnetic shielding of twisted-wire pairs in a neutron electric dipole moment experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, S., E-mail: s.henry@physics.ox.ac.uk; Pipe, M.; Cottle, A.; Clarke, C.; Divakar, U.; Lynch, A.

    2014-11-01

    The cryoEDM neutron electric dipole moment experiment requires a SQUID magnetometry system with pick-up loops inside a magnetically shielded volume connected to SQUID sensors by long (up to 2 m) twisted-wire pairs (TWPs). These wires run outside the main shield, and therefore must run through superconducting capillaries to screen unwanted magnetic pick-up. We show that the average measured transverse magnetic pick-up of a set of lengths of TWPs is equivalent to a loop area of 5.0×10{sup −6} m{sup 2}/m, or 14 twists per metre. From this we set the requirement that the magnetic shielding factor of the superconducting capillaries used in the cryoEDM system must be greater than 8.0×10{sup 4}. The shielding factor—the ratio of the signal picked-up by an unshielded TWP to that induced in a shielded TWP—was measured for a selection of superconducting capillaries made from solder wire. We conclude the transverse shielding factor of a uniform capillary is greater than 10{sup 7}. The measured pick-up was equal to, or less than that due to direct coupling to the SQUID sensor (measured without any TWP attached). We show that discontinuities in the capillaries substantially impair the magnetic shielding, yet if suitably repaired, this can be restored to the shielding factor of an unbroken capillary. We have constructed shielding assemblies for cryoEDM made from lengths of single core and triple core solder capillaries, joined by a shielded Pb cylinder, incorporating a heater to heat the wires above the superconducting transition as required.

  20. Characterisation of superconducting capillaries for magnetic shielding of twisted-wire pairs in a neutron electric dipole moment experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S.; Pipe, M.; Cottle, A.; Clarke, C.; Divakar, U.; Lynch, A.

    2014-11-01

    The cryoEDM neutron electric dipole moment experiment requires a SQUID magnetometry system with pick-up loops inside a magnetically shielded volume connected to SQUID sensors by long (up to 2 m) twisted-wire pairs (TWPs). These wires run outside the main shield, and therefore must run through superconducting capillaries to screen unwanted magnetic pick-up. We show that the average measured transverse magnetic pick-up of a set of lengths of TWPs is equivalent to a loop area of 5.0×10-6 m2/m, or 14 twists per metre. From this we set the requirement that the magnetic shielding factor of the superconducting capillaries used in the cryoEDM system must be greater than 8.0×104. The shielding factor-the ratio of the signal picked-up by an unshielded TWP to that induced in a shielded TWP-was measured for a selection of superconducting capillaries made from solder wire. We conclude the transverse shielding factor of a uniform capillary is greater than 107. The measured pick-up was equal to, or less than that due to direct coupling to the SQUID sensor (measured without any TWP attached). We show that discontinuities in the capillaries substantially impair the magnetic shielding, yet if suitably repaired, this can be restored to the shielding factor of an unbroken capillary. We have constructed shielding assemblies for cryoEDM made from lengths of single core and triple core solder capillaries, joined by a shielded Pb cylinder, incorporating a heater to heat the wires above the superconducting transition as required.

  1. A novel energy transfer inducing strong enhancement of electric dipole transition in Na3Mo12PO40:xEu3+ phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jinqiao; Wang, Tianman; Luo, Zhirong; Gao, Yong; Song, Baoling; Liang, Jing; Liao, Sen; Huang, Yingheng; Zhang, Huaxin

    2017-08-01

    A series of Na3Mo12PO40:xEu3+ phosphors have been successfully synthesized by a solid-state method, and characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). The PXRD results confirm that the samples have crystal phases of Na3Mo12PO40. For PL spectra of Na3Mo12PO40:2.0Eu3+ excited by 394 and 465 nm, R (R is the peak area ratio of 5D0  →  7F2 to 5D0  →  7F1) is only 1.46 with an excitation of 394 nm, but increases to 3.03 with an excitation of 465 nm. Furthermore, a new enhancement of electric dipole transition is observed. Emission spectrum (PL) intensity at 617 nm excited by 465 nm is 1.95 times as high as the excitation spectrum (PLE) intensity at 465 nm. Thus, cooperative energy transfers from the magnetic dipole (MD) Eu3+ center to the electric dipole (ED) Eu3+ center when excited by 465 nm is demonstrated for the new fluorescent behavior.

  2. One step beyond the electric dipole approximation: An experiment to observe the 5p → 6p forbidden transition in atomic rubidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponciano-Ojeda, F.; Hernández-Gómez, S.; Mojica-Casique, C.; Ruiz-Martínez, E.; López-Hernández, O.; Colín-Rodríguez, R.; Ramírez-Martínez, F.; Flores-Mijangos, J.; Sahagún, D.; Jáuregui, R.; Jiménez-Mier, J.

    2018-01-01

    An advanced undergraduate experiment to study the 5 P 3 / 2 → 6 P 3 / 2 electric quadrupole transition in rubidium atoms is presented. The experiment uses two external cavity diode lasers, one operating at the D2 rubidium resonance line and the other built with commercial parts to emit at 911 nm. The lasers produce the 5 s → 5 p → 6 p excitation sequence in which the second step is the forbidden transition. Production of atoms in the 6 P 3 / 2 state is observed by detection of the 420 nm fluorescence that results from electric dipole decay into the ground state. Lines whose widths are significantly narrower than the Doppler width are used to study the hyperfine structure of the 6 P 3 / 2 state in rubidium. The spectra illustrate characteristics unique to electric dipole forbidden transitions, like the electric quadrupole selection rules; they are also used to show general aspects of two-color laser spectroscopy such as velocity selection and hyperfine pumping.

  3. The role of H bonding and dipole-dipole interactions on the electrical polarizations and charge mobilities in linear arrays of urea, thiourea, and their derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Shrinwantu; Manna, Arun K.; Pati, Swapan K.

    2008-11-01

    Computational studies using density functional theory are carried out on linear chains of urea, N,N'-dimethyl urea and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl urea, and their sulfur analogs, viz., thiourea, N,N'-dimethyl thiourea and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl thiourea with varying chain length, to understand the effect of hydrogen bonding and dipolar interactions on the optoelectronic response properties of such linear aggregates. While molecules of urea, N,N'-dimethyl urea, and the corresponding sulfur analogs, thiourea, N,N'-dimethyl thiourea, are stabilized in linear chains by hydrogen bonding, the molecules of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl urea and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl thiourea in the linear chains are stabilized by purely dipolar interactions. To understand the contributions of electrostatic and polarization effects on such intermolecular interactions, we study the effect of an external electric field on the intermolecular interactions in these systems. We find that the strength of hydrogen bonding increases while that of dipolar interactions decreases with increase in external field strength. We account for such findings by decomposing the interaction terms into charge-transfer and electrostatic interaction terms. The effects of these interactions on the linear and nonlinear optical properties together with transport properties such as carrier mobilities are estimated to understand their suitability for device applications.

  4. An exact line integral representation of the physical optics scattered field: the case of a perfectly conducting polyhedral structure illuminated by electric Hertzian dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Peter M.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    1995-01-01

    An exact line integral representation of the electric physical optics scattered field is presented. This representation applies to scattering configurations with perfectly electrically conducting polyhedral structures illuminated by a finite number of electric Hertzian dipoles. The positions...... of the source and observation points can be almost arbitrary. The line integral representation yields the exact same result as the conventional surface radiation integral; however, it is potentially less time consuming and particularly useful when the physical optics field can be augmented by a fringe wave...... contribution as calculated from physical theory of diffraction equivalent edge currents. The final expression for the line integral representation is lengthy but involves only simple functions and is thus suited for numerical calculation. To illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation...

  5. Influence of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock starting potential on the parity-nonconserving electric-dipole-transition amplitudes in cesium and thallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, W. F.; Das, B. P.

    1987-01-01

    The parity-nonconserving electric-dipole-transition amplitudes for the 6s1/2-7s1/2 transition in cesium and the 6p1/2-7p1/2 transition in thallium have been calculated by the Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. The effects of using different Dirac-Hartree-Fock atomic core potentials are examined and the transition amplitudes for both the length and velocity gauges are given. It is found that the parity-nonconserving transition amplitudes exhibit a greater dependence on the starting potential for thallium than for cesium.

  6. Rydberg Dipole Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Daniel; Rodenburg, Bradon; Pappas, Stephen; Su, Wangshen; St. John, Marc; Kunz, Paul; Simon, Matt; Gordon, Joshua; Holloway, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of microwave frequency electric fields by traditional methods (i.e. engineered antennas) have limited sensitivity and can be difficult to calibrate properly. A useful tool to address this problem are highly-excited (Rydberg) neutral atoms which have very large electric-dipole moments and many dipole-allowed transitions in the range of 1-500 GHz. Using Rydberg states, it is possible to sensitively probe the electric field in this frequency range using the combination of two quantum interference phenomena: electromagnetically induced transparency and the Autler-Townes effect. This atom-light interaction can be modeled by the classical description of a harmonically bound electron. The classical damped, driven, coupled-oscillators model yields significant insights into the deep connections between classical and quantum physics. We will present a detailed experimental analysis of the noise processes in making such measurements in the laboratory and discuss the prospects for building a practical atomic microwave receiver.

  7. Mechanism of equivalent electric dipole oscillation for high-order harmonic generation from grating-structured solid-surface by femtosecond laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Song, Hai-Ying; Liu, H.Y.; Liu, Shi-Bing, E-mail: sbliu@bjut.edu.cn

    2017-07-12

    Highlights: • Proposed a valid mechanism of high harmonic generation by laser grating target interaction: oscillation of equivalent electric dipole (OEED). • Found that there also exist harmonic emission at large emission angle but not just near-surface direction as the former researches had pointed out. • Show the process of the formation and motion of electron bunches at the grating-target surface irradiating with femtosecond laser pulse. - Abstract: We theoretically study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from relativistically driven overdense plasma targets with rectangularly grating-structured surfaces by femtosecond laser pulses. Our particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that, under the conditions of low laser intensity and plasma density, the harmonics emit principally along small angles deviating from the target surface. Further investigation of the surface electron dynamics reveals that the electron bunches are formed by the interaction between the laser field and the target surface, giving rise to the oscillation of equivalent electric-dipole (OEED), which enhances specific harmonic orders. Our work helps understand the mechanism of harmonic emissions from grating targets and the distinction from the planar harmonic scheme.

  8. Beyond the electric-dipole approximation: A formulation and implementation of molecular response theory for the description of absorption of electromagnetic field radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Kauczor, Joanna; Saue, Trond; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Norman, Patrick

    2015-06-28

    We present a formulation of molecular response theory for the description of a quantum mechanical molecular system in the presence of a weak, monochromatic, linearly polarized electromagnetic field without introducing truncated multipolar expansions. The presentation focuses on a description of linear absorption by adopting the energy-loss approach in combination with the complex polarization propagator formulation of response theory. Going beyond the electric-dipole approximation is essential whenever studying electric-dipole-forbidden transitions, and in general, non-dipolar effects become increasingly important when addressing spectroscopies involving higher-energy photons. These two aspects are examined by our study of the near K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure of the alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra) as well as the trans-polyenes. In following the series of alkaline earth metals, the sizes of non-dipolar effects are probed with respect to increasing photon energies and a detailed assessment of results is made in terms of studying the pertinent transition electron densities and in particular their spatial extension in comparison with the photon wavelength. Along the series of trans-polyenes, the sizes of non-dipolar effects are probed for X-ray spectroscopies on organic molecules with respect to the spatial extension of the chromophore.

  9. Development of the Measurement System for the Search of an Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron with Laser-Cooled Francium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T.; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kato, T.; Kawamura, H.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We plan to measure the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron, which has the sensitivity to the CP violation in theories beyond the standard model by using the laser-cooled francium (Fr) atom. This paper reports the present status of the EDM measurement system. A high voltage application system was constructed in order to produce the strong electric field (100 kV/cm) needed for the experiment. After conditioning, the leakage current was 10 pA when a high voltage of 43 kV was applied. Also, a drift of an environmental field was measured at the planned location of the Fr-EDM experiment. The drift is suppressed at present down to the level of 10 pT by installing a 4-layermagnetic shield. Improvements are still needed to reach the required field stability of 1 fT.

  10. Development of the Measurement System for the Search of an Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron with Laser-Cooled Francium Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We plan to measure the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM of the electron, which has the sensitivity to the CP violation in theories beyond the standard model by using the laser-cooled francium (Fr atom. This paper reports the present status of the EDM measurement system. A high voltage application system was constructed in order to produce the strong electric field (100 kV/cm needed for the experiment. After conditioning, the leakage current was 10 pA when a high voltage of 43 kV was applied. Also, a drift of an environmental field was measured at the planned location of the Fr-EDM experiment. The drift is suppressed at present down to the level of 10 pT by installing a 4-layermagnetic shield. Improvements are still needed to reach the required field stability of 1 fT.

  11. Metamaterial Combining Electric- and Magnetic-Dipole-Based Configurations for Unique Dual-Band Signal Enhancement in Ultrahigh-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rita; Webb, Andrew

    2017-10-11

    Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI and MRS) are both widely used techniques in medical diagnostics and research. One of the major thrusts in recent years has been the introduction of ultrahigh-field magnets in order to boost the sensitivity. Several MRI studies have examined further potential improvements in sensitivity using metamaterials, focusing on single frequency applications. However, metamaterials have yet to reach a level that is practical for routine MRI use. In this work, we explore a new metamaterial implementation for MRI, a dual-nuclei resonant structure, which can be used for both proton and heteronuclear magnetic resonance. Our approach combines two configurations, one based on a set of electric dipoles for the low frequency band, and the second based on a set of magnetic dipoles for the high frequency band. We focus on the implementation of a dual-nuclei metamaterial for phosphorus and proton imaging and spectroscopy at an ultrahigh-field strength of 7 T. In vivo scans using this flexible and compact structure show that it locally enhances both the phosphorus and proton transmit and receive sensitivities.

  12. Study of the 5p3/2 -> 6p3/2 electric dipole forbidden transition in atomic rubidium using optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ponciano-Ojeda, Francisco; López-Hernández, Oscar; Mojica-Casique, Cristian; Colín-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Ramírez-Martínez, Fernando; Flores-Mijangos, Jesús; Sahagún, Daniel; Jáuregui, Rocío; Jiménez-Mier, José

    2015-01-01

    Direct evidence of excitation of the 5p3/2 -> 6p3/2 electric dipole forbidden transition in atomic rubidium is presented. The experiments were performed in a room temperature rubidium cell with continuous wave extended cavity diode lasers. Optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy with counterpropagating beams allows the detection of the non-dipole transition free of Doppler broadening. The 5p3/2 state is prepared by excitation with a laser locked to the maximum F cyclic transition of the D2 line, and the forbidden transition is produced by excitation with a 911 nm laser. Production of the forbidden transition is monitored by detection of the 420 nm fluorescence that results from decay of the 6p3/2 state. Spectra with three narrow lines (~ 13 MHz FWHM) with the characteristic F - 1, F and F + 1 splitting of the 6p3/2 hyperfine structure in both rubidium isotopes were obtained. The results are in very good agreement with a direct calculation that takes into account the 5s -> 5p3/2 preparation dynamics, the...

  13. Neptunium octupole and hexadecapole motif in NpO sub 2 directly from electric-dipole (E1) enhanced x-ray Bragg diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Lovesey, S W; Detlefs, C; Laan, G V D; Sivia, D S; Staub, U

    2003-01-01

    The phase transition in NpO sub 2 at T sub o approx 25.5K is accompanied by the onset of superlattice reflections in the x-ray Bragg diffraction pattern, with intensity enhanced by an electric-dipole (E1) event. Additional experiments using other techniques indicate no ordering at T sub o of Np magnetic moments. Absence of long-range magnetic order below T sub o fits with the outcome of a polarization analysis of superlattice intensities at 12K; signals are observed in both the unrotated (sigma'sigma) and rotated (pi'sigma) channels of scattering while magnetic (dipole) moments would contribute only in the rotated channel. We demonstrate that these empirical findings, together with a narrow energy profile of the Bragg intensity at the Np M sub 4 edge, are consistent with magnetic and charge contributions to the El Bragg amplitude described by Np 5f multipoles of ranks 3 (octupole) and 4 (hexadecapole). Key to our understanding of the x-ray diffraction data gathered in the vicinity of the Np M sub 4 edge is re...

  14. Muon Dipole Moment Experiments Interpretation and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, J L; Shadmi, Y; Feng, Jonathan L; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Shadmi, Yael

    2001-01-01

    We examine the prospects for discovering new physics through muon dipole moments. The current deviation in $g_{\\mu}-2$ may be due entirely to the muon's {\\em electric} dipole moment. We note that the precession frequency in the proposed BNL muon EDM experiment is also subject to a similar ambiguity, but this can be resolved by up-down asymmetry measurements. We then review the theoretical expectations for the muon's electric dipole moment in supersymmetric models.

  15. Relaxed electric dipole moments of polar molecules interacting with a slow positron: H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 3}X (X=F, Cl, Br)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assafrao, Denise; Mohallem, Jose R, E-mail: rachid@fisica.ufmg.b [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de FIsica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, PO Box 702, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-08-14

    The variation in the electric dipole moments of H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}F, CH{sub 3}Cl and CH{sub 3}Br as their geometries relax due to interaction with a positron is evaluated. The results are in good agreement with a recently observed empirical dependence of the positron binding energy on molecular properties (Danielson et al 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 235203). For binding energies larger than 100 meV relaxation could alter significantly the analysis of the binding, but it is in the prospect of generating effective potentials for positron scattering by molecules that the effect can be more important.

  16. Femtosecond two-photon absorption spectra and permanent electric dipole moment change of tryptophan, 2-aminopurine and related intrinsic and synthetic fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, Alexander; Lindquist, Jake R.; Callis, Patrik R.; Kohler, Bern; Pahapill, Juri; de Reguardati, Sophie; Rammo, Matt; Uudsemaa, Merle; Trummal, Aleksander; Rebane, Aleksander

    2017-02-01

    Two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections for 2-aminopurine (2AP), 7-methyl guanosine (7MG), 6-methyl isoxanthopterin (6MI), isoxanthopterin (IXP), 3-methylindole (3MI) and tryptophan (L-trp) are measured for excitation wavelengths between 550 and 810 nm using two independent methods: femtosecond two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) and femtosecond nonlinear transmission (NLT). For all systems we find that in the long wavelength region of the lowest-energy one-photon allowed singlet-singlet transition the 2PA spectral profiles follow the one-photon absorption spectral profiles, thus indicating the strongly dipolar nature of the transition. We use the measured 2PA cross sections to estimate the corresponding permanent electric dipole moment change and find the values to vary in the range 1 to 5 D. These experimental findings are corroborated by quantum-chemical computations.

  17. Future Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Eberhard

    1998-01-01

    Plans for future hadron colliders are presented, and accelerator physics and engineering aspects common to these machines are discussed. The Tevatron is presented first, starting with a summary of the achievements in Run IB which finished in 1995, followed by performance predictions for Run II which will start in 1999, and the TeV33 project, aiming for a peak luminosity $L ~ 1 (nbs)^-1$. The next machine is the Large Hadron Collider LHC at CERN, planned to come into operation in 2005. The last set of machines are Very Large Hadron Colliders which might be constructed after the LHC. Three variants are presented: Two machines with a beam energy of 50 TeV, and dipole fields of 1.8 and 12.6 T in the arcs, and a machine with 100 TeV and 12 T. The discussion of accelerator physics aspects includes the beam-beam effect, bunch spacing and parasitic collisions, and the crossing angle. The discussion of the engineering aspects covers synchrotron radiation and stored energy in the beams, the power in the debris of the p...

  18. Effect of broken axial symmetry on the electric dipole strength and the collective enhancement of level densities in heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Wilson, J. N.

    2017-11-01

    The basic parameters for calculations of radiative neutron capture, photon strength functions and nuclear level densities near the neutron separation energy are determined based on experimental data without an ad hoc assumption about axial symmetry—at variance to previous analysis. Surprisingly few global fit parameters are needed in addition to information on nuclear deformation, taken from Hartree Fock Bogolyubov calculations with the Gogny force, and the generator coordinator method assures properly defined angular momentum. For a large number of nuclei the GDR shapes and the photon strength are described by the sum of three Lorentzians, extrapolated to low energies and normalised in accordance to the dipole sum rule. Level densities are influenced strongly by the significant collective enhancement based on the breaking of shape symmetry. The replacement of axial symmetry by the less stringent requirement of invariance against rotation by 180° leads to a novel prediction for radiative neutron capture. It compares well to recent compilations of average radiative widths and Maxwellian average cross sections for neutron capture by even target nuclei. An extension to higher spin promises a reliable prediction for various compound nuclear reactions also outside the valley of stability. Such predictions are of high importance for future nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation as well as for the understanding of the cosmic synthesis of heavy elements.

  19. Spectroscopic and electric dipole properties of Sr+Ar and SrAr systems including high excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Rafika; Abdessalem, Kawther; Dardouri, Riadh; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; Oujia, Brahim; Gadéa, Florent Xavier

    2018-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of the fundamental and several excited states of Sr+Ar and SrAr, Van der Waals systems are investigated by employing an ab initio method in a pseudo-potential approach. The potential energy curves and the spectroscopic parameters are displayed for the 1–10 2Σ+, 1–6 2Π and 1–3 2Δ electronic states of the Sr+Ar molecule and for the 1–6 1Σ+, 1–4 3Σ+, 1–3 1,3Π and 1–3 1,3Δ states of the neutral molecule SrAr. In addition, from these curves, the vibrational levels and their energy spacing are deduced for Σ+, Π and Δ symmetries. The spectra of the permanent and transition dipole moments are studied for the 1,3Σ+ states of SrAr, which are considered to be two-electron systems and 2Σ+ states of the single electron Sr+Ar ion. The spectroscopic parameters obtained for each molecular system are compared with previous theoretical and experimental works. A significant correlation revealed the accuracy of our results.

  20. Potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for HF@C60: Prediction of spectral and electric response properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalugina, Yulia N.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2017-12-01

    We present a five-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the HF@C60 system computed at the DF-LMP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. We also calculated a five-dimensional dipole moment surface (DMS) based on DFT(PBE0)/cc-pVTZ calculations. The HF and C60 molecules are considered rigid with bond length rHF = 0.9255 Å (gas phase ground rovibrational state geometry). The C60 geometry is of Ih symmetry. The ab initio points were fitted to obtain a PES in terms of bipolar spherical harmonics. The minimum of the PES corresponds to a geometry where the center of mass of HF is located 0.11 Å away from the center of the cage with an interaction energy of -6.929 kcal/mol. The DMS was also represented in terms of bipolar spherical harmonics. The PES was used to calculate the rotation-translation bound states of HF@C60, and good agreement was found relative to the available experimental data [A. Krachmalnicoff et al., Nat. Chem. 8, 953 (2016)] except for the splitting of the first rotational excitation levels. We propose an empirical adjustment to the PES in order to account for the experimentally observed symmetry breaking. The form of that effective PES is additive. We also propose an effective Hamiltonian with an adjusted rotational constant in order to quantitatively reproduce the experimental results including the splitting of the first rotational state. We use our models to compute the molecular volume polarizability of HF confined by C60 and obtain good agreement with experiment.

  1. Dipoles, unintentional antennas and EMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend Danker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiated emissions from equipment commonly originate from electronic circuits that act as electric dipoles created by the signal voltage between the signal conductors or as magnetic dipoles formed by the signal current flowing in a loop. Direct emission is mostly small, but circuits often couple to long conductors or large wiring loops which act as antennas and are efficient radiators. A comparable situation exists when short dipole antennas or small wiring loops receive ambient noise (susceptibility. Usually the amplitude of noise sources or the susceptibility of circuits is an invariable. The dipole strength increases with the distance between the conductors and the area. Shielding and proper grounding decreases the interaction via unintentional antennas. Short-circuiting and the insertion of lossy ferrite cores reduce the efficiency of unintentional antennas.

  2. Stochastic resonance in a surface dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinsalu, E., E-mail: els@ifisc.uib-csic.es [IFISC, Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos (CSIC-UIB), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Raevala 10, 15042 Tallinn (Estonia); Patriarca, M. [IFISC, Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos (CSIC-UIB), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Raevala 10, 15042 Tallinn (Estonia); Marchesoni, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)

    2010-10-05

    The dynamics of a neutral dipole diffusing on a one-dimensional symmetric periodic substrate is numerically investigated in the presence of an ac electric field. It is observed that the amplitude of the forced oscillations of the dipole can be enhanced by tuning the noise strength, i.e., the substrate temperature. Such a manifestation of stochastic resonance turns out to be extremely sensitive to the mechanical properties of the dipole. This phenomenon has immediate applications in surface physics and nanodevice technology.

  3. Dipole-dipole dispersion interactions between neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babb, James F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, ITAMP, Cambridge, MA (United States); Higa, Renato [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hussein, Mahir S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Estudos Avancados, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, CTA, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    We investigate the long-range interactions between two neutrons utilizing recent data on the neutron static and dynamic electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities. The resulting long-range potentials are used to make quantitative comparisons between the collisions of a neutron with a neutron and a neutron with a proton. We also assess the importance of the first pion production threshold and first excited state of the nucleon, the Δ-resonance (J{sup π} = +3/2, I = 3/2). We found both dynamical effects to be quite relevant for distances r between ∝ 50 fm up to ∝ 10{sup 3} fm in the nn system, the neutron-wall system and in the wall-neutron-wall system, reaching the expected asymptotic limit beyond that. Relevance of our findings to the confinement of ultra cold neutrons inside bottles is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Dipole-dipole dispersion interactions between neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, James F.; Higa, Renato; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the long-range interactions between two neutrons utilizing recent data on the neutron static and dynamic electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities. The resulting long-range potentials are used to make quantitative comparisons between the collisions of a neutron with a neutron and a neutron with a proton. We also assess the importance of the first pion production threshold and first excited state of the nucleon, the Δ-resonance (J^{π} = +3/2, I = 3/2). We found both dynamical effects to be quite relevant for distances r between ˜ 50 fm up to ˜ 103 fm in the nn system, the neutron-wall system and in the wall-neutron-wall system, reaching the expected asymptotic limit beyond that. Relevance of our findings to the confinement of ultra cold neutrons inside bottles is discussed.

  5. The Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lyndon

    2011-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most complex instrument ever built for particle physics research. It will, for the first time, provide access to the TeV-energy scale. Numerous technological innovations are necessary to achieve this goal. For example, two counterrotating proton beams are guided and focused by superconducting magnets whose novel two-in-one structure saves cost and allowed the machine to be installed in an existing tunnel. The very high (>8-T) field in the dipoles can be achieved only by cooling them below the transition temperature of liquid helium to the superfluid state. More than 80 tons of superfluid helium are needed to cool the whole machine. So far, the LHC has behaved reliably and predictably. Single-bunch currents 30% above the design value have been achieved, and the luminosity has increased by five orders of magnitude. In this review, I briefly describe the design principles of the major systems and discuss some initial results.

  6. How to Introduce the Magnetic Dipole Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V.; Farina, C.

    2012-01-01

    We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the…

  7. Improved Limits on Axionlike-Particle-Mediated P , T -Violating Interactions between Electrons and Nucleons from Electric Dipole Moments of Atoms and Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnik, Y. V.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    In the presence of P , T -violating interactions, the exchange of axionlike particles between electrons and nucleons in atoms and molecules induces electric dipole moments (EDMs) of atoms and molecules. We perform calculations of such axion-exchange-induced atomic EDMs using the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Dirac method including electron core polarization corrections. We present analytical estimates to explain the dependence of these induced atomic EDMs on the axion mass and atomic parameters. From the experimental bounds on the EDMs of atoms and molecules, including Cs 133 , Tl 205 , Xe 129 , Hg 199 , Yb 171 F 19 , Hf 180 F+ 19 , and Th 232 O 16 , we constrain the P , T -violating scalar-pseudoscalar nucleon-electron and electron-electron interactions mediated by a generic axionlike particle of arbitrary mass. Our limits improve on existing laboratory bounds from other experiments by many orders of magnitude for ma≳10-2 eV . We also place constraints on C P violation in certain types of relaxion models.

  8. Core-polarization studies of nuclear-Schiff-moment-induced permanent electric dipole moments of atomic Xe129, Yb171, and Ra225

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, S. M.; Latha, K. V. P.

    2014-10-01

    We have calculated the intrinsic electric dipole moments (EDMs) of Xe129, Yb171, Ra225 atoms induced by the nuclear Schiff moment (NSM). We use the coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock [CPHF] framework to perform this calculation. In this work, the effects of electron correlation on atomic EDMs are studied in CPHF framework by gradual inclusion of virtual orbitals of higher symmetries. Individual orbital contributions to the final magnitude of the EDM are presented. The results for the NSM-induced EDM for these atoms show a trend similar to the electron-nucleon tensor-pseudotensor (T-PT)-induced EDM, the study of which was performed elsewhere. This behavior can be attributed to the fact that the influence of virtual orbitals of higher symmetry on the magnitude of EDM is essentially the same for both T-PT and NSM-induced atomic EDMs. However, we also report in this paper, that the most dominant contribution to the atomic EDM of Xe129, Yb171, Ra225 atoms induced by the NSM arises from the s1/2-p3/2 pairings rather than the s1/2-p1/2 pairings, which were the dominantly contributing pairings for the electron-nucleon tensor-pseudotensor-induced atomic EDM.

  9. Electric-dipole absorption resonating with longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon system and its effect on dispersion relations of interface phonon polariton modes in metal/semiconductor-stripe structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Hironori; Takeuchi, Eito; Yoshida, Kouki; Morita, Ken; Ma, Bei; Ishitani, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    Interface phonon polaritons (IPhPs) in nano-structures excluding metal components are thoroughly investigated because they have lower loss in optical emission or absorption and higher quality factors than surface plasmon polaritons. In previous reports, it is found that strong infrared (IR) absorption is based on the interaction of p-polarized light and materials, and the resonance photon energy highly depends on the structure size and angle of incidence. We report the optical absorption by metal/semiconductor (bulk-GaAs and thin film-AlN)-stripe structures in THz to mid-IR region for the electric field of light perpendicular to the stripes, where both of s- and p-polarized light are absorbed. The absorption resonates with longitudinal optical (LO) phonon or LO phonon-plasmon coupling (LOPC) modes, and thus is independent of the angle of incidence or structure size. This absorption is attributed to the electric dipoles by the optically induced polarization charges at the metal/semiconductor, heterointerfaces, or interfaces of high electron density layers and depression ones. The electric permittivity is modified by the formation of these dipoles. It is found to be indispensable to utilize our form of altered permittivity to explain the experimental dispersion relations of metal/semiconductor-IPhP and SPhP in these samples. This analysis reveals that the IPhPs in the stripe structures of metal/AlN-film on a SiC substrate are highly confined in the AlN film, while the permittivity of the structures of metal/bulk-GaAs is partially affected by the electric-dipoles. The quality factors of the electric-dipole absorption are found to be 42–54 for undoped samples, and the value of 62 is obtained for Al/AlN-IPhP. It is thought that metal-contained structures are not obstacles to mode energy selectivity in phonon energy region of semiconductors.

  10. Fluctuations and Correlations of net baryon number, electric charge, and strangeness: A comparison of lattice QCD results with the hadron resonance gas model

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavov, A; DeTar, C E; Ding, H -T; Gottlieb, Steven; Gupta, Rajan; Hegde, P; Heller, Urs; Karsch, F; Laermann, E; Levkova, L; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P; Schmidt, Christian; Soltz, R A; Soeldner, W; Sugar, R; Vranas, Pavlos M

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the quadratic fluctuations of net baryon number, electric charge and strangeness as well as correlations among these conserved charges in (2+1)-flavor lattice QCD at zero chemical potential. Results in the continuum limit are obtained using calculations with tree level improved gauge and the highly improved staggered quark (HISQ) actions with almost physical light and strange quark masses at three different values of the lattice cut-off. We compare our results with the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model calculations and find agreement with HRG model results only for temperatures T < 150 MeV. We observe significant deviations in the temperature range 160 MeV < T < 170 MeV and qualitative differences in the behavior of the three conserved charge sectors. At $T \\simeq 160 MeV$ quadratic net baryon number fluctuations in QCD agree with HRG model calculations while, the net electric charge fluctuations in QCD are about 10% smaller and net strangeness fluctuations are about 20% larger. These fin...

  11. Electrical dipole polarizability and spin M1 strength from {sup 48}Ca(p,p') data under 0; Elektrische Dipol-Polarisierbarkeit und Spin-M1-Staerke aus {sup 48}Ca(p,p')-Daten unter 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkhan, Jonny Hubertus

    2016-07-01

    In this thesis, proton scattering data on the nucleus {sup 48}Ca at very forward angles had been analysed. The data stem from a measurement campaign which was launched at the Research Centre of Nuclear Physics at Osaka, Japan, in the past. One of the two objectives of this analysis was to extract a value for the static electric dipole polarisability from the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR). The second objective was to extract the total electromagnetic M1 strength B(M1) of the spin-flip transition which excites the prominent 1{sup +} state at an excitation energy of E{sub x}=10.22 MeV. The polarisability was calculated from the distribution of photo-absorption cross sections within an energy range from E{sub x}=11 MeV to E{sub x}=26 MeV. The photo-absorption cross sections had been deduced from the distribution of E1 cross sections by the method of virtual photons. For this purpose the experimental cross sections had been deconvoluted by a multipole deconvolution into an E1 part and a background part. Then, the best estimate of the polarisability is given by α{sub D}=(1.36±0.14) fm{sup 3}. If a E3 model was included into the multipole decomposition of the (p,p') data the result increased up to α{sub D}=(1.50±0.09) fm{sup 3}. The deviation between these two results is mainly due to the fact that the multipole decomposition is very sensitive on the background function. Assuming that the the IVGDR of the nuclei {sup 48}Ca and {sup 40}Ca have approximately the same structure, estimates for the polarisability of the nucleus {sup 48}Ca could be drawn from {sup 40}Ca(γ,abs) data. Additionally, data from a {sup 48}Ca(e,e'n) measurement were used to estimate the polarisability of the nucleus {sup 48}Ca. Its polarisability seems to fall within the range of α{sub D}=(1.50±0.09) fm{sup 3} and α{sub D}=(1.69±0.03) fm{sup 3}. Beside this, it could be shown by the {sup 40}Ca data that a significant contribution to the polarisability has to be expected

  12. Hadron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, S.

    1985-10-01

    Heavy quark systems and glueball candidates, the particles which are relevant to testing QCD, are discussed. The review begins with the heaviest spectroscopically observed quarks, the b anti-b bound states, including the chi state masses, spins, and hadronic widths and the non-relativistic potential models. Also, P states of c anti-c are mentioned. Other heavy states are also discussed in which heavy quarks combine with lighter ones. The gluonium candidates iota(1460), theta(1700), and g/sub T/(2200) are then covered. The very lightest mesons, pi-neutral and eta, are discussed. 133 refs., 24 figs., 16 tabs. (LEW)

  13. Multiscale dipole relaxation in dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Dipole relaxation from thermally induced perturbations is investigated on different length scales for dielectric materials. From the continuum dynamical equations for the polarisation, expressions for the transverse and longitudinal dipole autocorrelation functions are derived in the limit where...... the cross coupling between the electric field fluctuations and dipole moment fluctuations can be ignored. The peak frequencies in the spectra of the autocorrelation functions are also derived. They depend on the wave vector squared which is a fingerprint of the underlying dipole diffusion mechanism....... The theoretical predictions are compared with molecular dynamics simulation results for a model dielectric material and liquid water. For the transverse dipole autocorrelation function the agreement is excellent in the limit of small wave vectors and the presence of a diffusion mechanism is confirmed...

  14. The influence of vibrations of polyatomic molecules on dipole moment and static dipole polarizability: theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipov, Alexander S.; Loukhovitski, Boris I.; Starik, Alexander M.

    2017-08-01

    Dipole moment and static dipole polarizability surfaces for 50 polyatomic molecules, that are important for material science, combustion, and atmospheric chemistry, are explored in the vicinity of their equilibrium nuclear configurations by using density functional theory. The effective values of dipole moment and static polarizability of these molecules in individual vibrational states are determined using the calculated data on the electric properties and potential energy surfaces. Special attention is paid to the effect of the zero-point vibrations on the electric properties. The simple approximation scheme, allowing low-cost estimation of the zero-point vibrational corrections to polarizability, applicable for wide range of polyatomic compounds, are developed on the basis of the obtained data. The influence of the excitation of vibrational states on the dipole moment and dipole polarizability of polyatomic molecules are discussed with respect to the possible change of some important properties of molecular gases, such as refractive index, diffusion coefficients, and rates of chemical reactions.

  15. QCD in hadron-hadron collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, M.

    1997-03-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics provides a good description of many aspects of high energy hadron-hadron collisions, and this will be described, along with some aspects that are not yet understood in QCD. Topics include high E{sub T} jet production, direct photon, W, Z and heavy flavor production, rapidity gaps and hard diffraction.

  16. Hadrons in medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium properties of hadrons. I discuss the relevant symmetries of QCD and how they might affect the observed hadron properties. I then discuss at length the observable consequences of in-medium changes of hadronic properties in reactions with ...

  17. ATLAS-Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hall 180 work on Hadronic Calorimeter The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53 (2006) 1275-81)

  18. Comparison of Wenner and dipole-dipole arrays in the study of an underground three-dimensional cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyamadpour, Ahmad; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Taib, Samsudin; Neyamadpour, Behrang

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare Wenner and dipole-dipole configurations in delineating an underground cavity at a site near the University of Malaya, Malaysia. A three-dimensional electrical resistivity imaging survey was carried out along seven parallel lines using Wenner and dipole-dipole arrays. A three-dimensional least-squares algorithm, based on the robust inversion method, was used in the inversion of the apparent resistivity data. In the inverted model, both the horizontal and vertical extents of the anomalous zones were displayed. Results indicate the superiority of the Wenner array over the dipole-dipole array for determining the vertical distribution of the subsurface resistivity, although the dipole-dipole array produced a better lateral extent of the subsurface features. The results show that the three-dimensional electrical resistivity imaging survey using both the Wenner and dipole-dipole arrays, in combination with an appropriate three-dimensional inversion method and synthetic model analysis, can be highly useful for engineering and environmental applications, especially for underground three-dimensional cavity detection.

  19. On hadronic shower simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wellisch, J P

    1999-01-01

    The exploitation of hadronic final states played a key role in the successes of all recent HEP collider experiments, and the ability to use the hadronic final state will continue to be one of the decisive issues during the LHC era. Monte Carlo techniques to make efficient use of hadronic final states have been developed for many years, and have a technological culmination in object oriented tool-kits for hadronic shower simulation that now are becoming available. In the present paper we give a brief overview on the physics modeling underlying hadronic shower simulation, and report on advanced techniques used and developed for simulation of hadronic showers in HEP experiments. We will discuss the three basic types of modelling - data driven, parametrisation driven, and theory driven modelling - and demonstrate ways to combine them in a flexible manner for concrete applications. We will confront the different types of modelling with the stringent requirements on hadronic shower simulation posed by LHC, and inve...

  20. A Line Integral Representation of the Physical Optics Far Field from Plane PEC Scatterers Illuminated by Electric or Magnetic Hertzian Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, S.; Meincke, Peter; Jørgensen, E.

    2002-01-01

    We derive a line integral representation of the physical optics (PO) scattered far field that yields the exact same result as the conventional surface radiation integral. This representation applies to a perfectly electrically conducting plane scatterer illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian...

  1. [The influence of mutual arrangement of the electric dipole and the spatial nonuniformity of brain electrical conductivity on the solution of the direct task of electroencephalography using the method of finite elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavtsev, A Iu; Ushakov, V L

    2010-01-01

    The results of comparing the solutions of the direct task of electroencephalography on a spherical model and a spherical model with one nonuniformity are discussed. The nonuniformity was simulated by two parabolas situated on the same axis of symmetry and crossing the boundary of the gray and white matters. The region between the larger and the smaller parabolas had the physical characteristics of the gray matter, and the region inside the smaller parabola had the characteristics of the cerebrospinal fluid. The task was to find a combination of the parameters (the distance between the dipole and the nonuniformity, the angle of rotation of the dipole relative to the nonuniformity, the sizes of the dipole and the nonuniformity, etc.) that provides the maximum effect of the difference of potentials on the outer surface of the scalp in the spherical model with one nonuniformity and the spherical model. The influence of the points of ground location on the value of the effect was analyzed (ground only at the right ear and ground at both ears). The data obtained show that a maximum difference of potentials is reached at the positions of dipoles close to tangential relative to the scalp surface.

  2. First Computation of Parasitic Fields in LHC Dipole Magnet Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Devred, Arnaud; Boncompagni, Yann; Ferapontov, V; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Russenschuck, Stephan; Sahner, T; Völlinger, C

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), now under construction at CERN, will rely on about 1600 main superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets and over 7400 superconducting corrector magnets distributed around the eight sectors of the machine. Each magnet type is powered by dedicated superconducting busbars running along the sectors and mounted on the iron yokes of the main dipole and quadruple magnets. In the numerous magnet interconnects, the busbars are not magnetically shielded from the beam pipes and produce parasitic fields that can affect beam optics. We review the 3-D models that have been developed with ROXIE to compute the parasitic fields and we discuss their potential impacts on machine performance.

  3. Hadron melting and QCD thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovac, A.

    2013-01-01

    We study in this paper mechanisms of hadron melting based on the spectral representation of hadronic quantum channels, and examine the hadron width dependence of the pressure. The findings are applied to a statistical hadron model of QCD thermodynamics, where hadron masses are distributed by the Hagedorn model and a uniform mechanism for producing hadron widths is assumed. According to this model the hadron - quark gluon plasma transition occurs at $T\\approx 200$-250 MeV, the numerically obse...

  4. Dynamics of nonstationary dipole vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Nycander, J.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of tilted dipole vortices in the equivalent barotropic vorticity (or Hasegawa-Mima) equation is studied. A recent theory is compared with numerical simulations and found to describe the short time behavior of dipole vortices well. In the long time limit the dipoles are found to either...... disintegrate or relax toward a steady eastward propagating dipole vortex. This relaxation is a consequence of nonviscous enstrophy loss by the dipole vortex....

  5. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S.; Maclean, E.; Tomás, R.

    2013-07-01

    In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning). The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  6. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning. The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  7. Photoelectron spectroscopy and the dipole approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmers, O.; Hansen, D.L.; Wang, H. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is a powerful technique because it directly probes, via the measurement of photoelectron kinetic energies, orbital and band structure in valence and core levels in a wide variety of samples. The technique becomes even more powerful when it is performed in an angle-resolved mode, where photoelectrons are distinguished not only by their kinetic energy, but by their direction of emission as well. Determining the probability of electron ejection as a function of angle probes the different quantum-mechanical channels available to a photoemission process, because it is sensitive to phase differences among the channels. As a result, angle-resolved photoemission has been used successfully for many years to provide stringent tests of the understanding of basic physical processes underlying gas-phase and solid-state interactions with radiation. One mainstay in the application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is the well-known electric-dipole approximation for photon interactions. In this simplification, all higher-order terms, such as those due to electric-quadrupole and magnetic-dipole interactions, are neglected. As the photon energy increases, however, effects beyond the dipole approximation become important. To best determine the range of validity of the dipole approximation, photoemission measurements on a simple atomic system, neon, where extra-atomic effects cannot play a role, were performed at BL 8.0. The measurements show that deviations from {open_quotes}dipole{close_quotes} expectations in angle-resolved valence photoemission are observable for photon energies down to at least 0.25 keV, and are quite significant at energies around 1 keV. From these results, it is clear that non-dipole angular-distribution effects may need to be considered in any application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy that uses x-ray photons of energies as low as a few hundred eV.

  8. Automating dipole subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, K.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Uwer, P. [Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    We report on automating the Catani-Seymour dipole subtraction which is a general procedure to treat infrared divergences in real emission processes at next-to-leading order in QCD. The automatization rests on three essential steps: the creation of the dipole terms, the calculation of the color linked squared Born matrix elements, and the evaluation of different helicity amplitudes. The routines have been tested for a number of complex processes, such as the real emission process gg{yields}tt-bar ggg.

  9. Automating dipole subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, K.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Uwer, P. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2008-07-15

    We report on automating the Catani-Seymour dipole subtraction which is a general procedure to treat infrared divergences in real emission processes at next-to-leading order in QCD. The automatization rests on three essential steps: the creation of the dipole terms, the calculation of the color linked squared Born matrix elements, and the evaluation of different helicity amplitudes. The routines have been tested for a number of complex processes, such as the real emission process gg{yields}t anti tggg. (orig.)

  10. Pinning down electroweak dipole operators of the top quark

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze, Markus

    2016-08-19

    We consider hadronic top quark pair production and pair production in association with a photon or a $Z$ boson to probe electroweak dipole couplings in $t\\bar{b}W$, $t\\bar{t}\\gamma$ and $t\\bar{t}Z$ interactions. We demonstrate how measurements of these processes at the 13 TeV LHC can be combined to disentangle and constrain anomalous dipole operators. The construction of cross section ratios allows us to significantly reduce various uncertainties and exploit orthogonal sensitivity between the $t\\bar{t}\\gamma$ and $t\\bar{t}Z$ couplings. In addition, we show that angular correlations in $t\\bar{t}$ production can be used to constrain the remaining $t\\bar{b}W$ dipole operator. Our approach yields excellent sensitivity to the anomalous couplings and can be a further step towards precise and direct measurements of the top quark electroweak interactions.

  11. Fragmentation and Hadronization

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data, theoretical ideas and models concerning jet fragmentation and the hadronization process are reviewed, concentrating on the following topics: factorization and small-x resummation of fragmentation functions, hadronization models, single-particle yields and spectra in Z decay, comparisons between quark and gluon jets, current and target fragmentation in deep inelastic scattering, heavy quark fragmentation, Bose-Einstein correlations and WW fragmentation.

  12. Fragmentation and Hadronization

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental data, theoretical ideas and models concerning jet fragmentation and the hadronization process are reviewed, concentrating on the following topics: factorization and small-x resummation of fragmentation functions, hadronization models, single-particle yields and spectra in Z decay, comparisons between quark and gluon jets, current and target fragmentation in deep inelastic scattering, heavy quark fragmentation, Bose-Einstein correlations and WW fragmentation.

  13. Statistical Hadronization and Holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider some issues about the statistical model of the hadronization in a holographic approach. We introduce a Rindler like horizon in the bulk and we understand the string breaking as a tunneling event under this horizon. We calculate the hadron spectrum and we get a thermal...

  14. (1) Majorana fermions in pinned vortices; (2) Manipulating and probing Majorana fermions using superconducting circuits; and (3) Controlling a nanowire spin-orbit qubit via electric-dipole spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco

    2014-03-01

    We study a heterostructure which consists of a topological insulator and a superconductor with a hole. This system supports a robust Majorana fermion state bound to the vortex core. We study the possibility of using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (i) to detect the Majorana fermion in this setup and (ii) to study excited states bound to the vortex core. The Majorana fermion manifests itself as an H-dependent zero-bias anomaly of the tunneling conductance. The excited states spectrum differs from the spectrum of a typical Abrikosov vortex, providing additional indirect confirmation of the Majorana state observation. We also study how to manipulate and probe Majorana fermions using super-conducting circuits. In we consider a semiconductor nanowire quantum dot with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which can be used to achieve a spin-orbit qubit. In contrast to a spin qubit, the spin-orbit qubit can respond to an external ac electric field, i.e., electric-dipole spin resonance. We develop a theory that can apply in the strong SOC regime. We find that there is an optimal SOC strength ηopt = √ 2/2, where the Rabi frequency induced by the ac electric field becomes maximal. Also, we show that both the level spacing and the Rabi frequency of the spin-orbit qubit have periodic responses to the direction of the external static magnetic field. These responses can be used to determine the SOC in the nanowire. FN is partly supported by the RIKEN CEMS, iTHES Project, MURI Center for Dynamic Magneto-Optics, JSPS-RFBR Contract No. 12-02-92100, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S), MEXT Kakenhi on Quantum Cybernetics, and the JSPS via its FIRST program.

  15. Applicability of the dipole-dipole method for structural studies: examples from the northern Apennines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, L.; Giudici, M. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Sezione di geofisica

    1998-08-01

    The paper presents some results of a geo electrical investigation program conducted in the Northern Apennines, namely in the Val d`Aveto and Bobbio (Italy) window and surrounding areas. Field activity included the execution of more than 50 vertical electrical soundings with continuous polar dipole-dipole spread. The study images the geometries of some deep geological structures; in particular was found a resistive background, whose resistivity is different along the geo electrical profiles. In this interpretation the resistive background consists of subligurid and tuscan units underlying the alloctone Ligurid units in the area surrounding the Val d`Aveto and Bobbio window. The resistive background was not found, at least at some depths, toward north-east. Therefore, the geo electrical survey revealed the position of the front of the subligurid and Tuscan nappes toward the plain for a depth of about one kilometer.

  16. Golden Hadron awards for the LHC's top suppliers.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The following firms have been selected to receive a GOLDEN HADRON AWARD 2003, in recognition of their outstanding achievement: JDL TECHNOLOGIES, Belgium "in producing automatic cable inspection systems", FURUKAWA ELECTRIC COMPANY, Japan "in producing high quality superconducting cable", IHI Corporation, Japan, and LINDE KRYOTECHNIK, Switzerland "in producing novel 1.8 K refrigeration units based on advanced cold compressor technology" for the Large Hadron Collider.Photos 01, 02: Recipients of the 2003 Golden Hadron awards at the presentation ceremony on 16 May.Photo 03: LHC project leader Lyn Evans updates the award recipients on work for CERN's new accelerator.Photo 04: René Joannes of JDL Technologies (left) receives a Golden Hadron award from LHC project leader Lyn Evans.Shinichiro Meguro, managing director of Furukawa Electric Company, receives a Golden Hadron award from LHC project leader Lyn Evans.Photo 06: Kirkor Kurtcuoglu of Linde Kryotechnik (left) and Motoki Yoshinaga, associate director of IHI...

  17. Carbon coating of the SPS dipole chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Pinto, P.; Chiggiato, P.; Edwards, P.; Mensi, M.; Neupert, H.; Taborelli, M.; Yin-Vallgren, C.

    2013-04-22

    The Electron Multipacting (EM) phenomenon is a limiting factor for the achievement of high luminosity in accelerators for positively charged particles and for the performance of RF devices. At CERN, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) must be upgraded in order to feed the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with 25 ns bunch spaced beams. At such small bunch spacing, EM may limit the performance of the SPS and consequently that of the LHC. To mitigate this phenomenon CERN is developing a carbon thin film coating with low Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) to coat the internal walls of the SPS dipoles beam pipes. This paper presents the progresses in the coating technology, the performance of the carbon coatings and the strategy for a large scale production.

  18. Search for the electric dipole excitations to the $3s_{1/2} \\otimes [2^{+}_{1} \\otimes 3^{-}_{1}]$ multiplet in $^{117}$Sn

    CERN Document Server

    Bryssinck, J; Bauwens, F; Beck, O; Belic, D; Von Brentano, P; De Frenne, D; Fransen, C; Herzberg, R D; Jacobs, E; Kneissl, U; Maser, H; Nord, A; Pietralla, N; Pitz, H H; Werner, V; Ponomarev, V Yu

    2000-01-01

    The odd-mass $^{117}$Sn nucleus was investigated in nuclear resonancefluorescence experiments up to an endpoint energy of the incident photonspectrum of 4.1 MeV at the bremsstrahlung facility of the Stuttgart University.More than 50 mainly hitherto unknown levels were found. From the measurement ofthe scattering cross sections model independent absolute electric dipoleexcitation strengths were extracted. The measured angular distributionssuggested the spins of 11 excited levels. Quasi-particle phonon modelcalculations including a complete configuration space were performed for thefirst time for a heavy odd-mass spherical nucleus. These calculations give aclear insight in the fragmentation and distribution of the $E1$, $M1$, and $E2$excitation strength in the low energy region. It is proven that the $1^{-}$component of the two-phonon $[2^{+}_{1} \\otimes 3^{-}_{1}]$ quintuplet built ontop of the $1/2^{+}$ ground state is strongly fragmented. The theoreticalcalculations are consistent with the experimental data.

  19. Fractal aspects of hadrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deppman Airton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The non extensive aspects of pT distributions obtained in high energy collisions are discussed in relation to possible fractal structure in hadrons, in the sense of the thermofractal structure recently introduced. The evidences of self-similarity in both theoretical and experimental works in High Energy and in Hadron Physics are discussed, to show that the idea of fractal structure of hadrons and fireballs have being under discussion for decades. The non extensive self-consistent thermodynamics and the thermofractal structure allow one to connect non extensivity to intermittence and possibly to parton distribution functions in a single theoretical framework.

  20. Structure of the pygmy dipole resonance in 124Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, J.; Savran, D.; Butler, P. A.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Krücken, R.; Lagoyannis, A.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Popescu, L.; Ring, P.; Scheck, M.; Schlüter, F.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2012-06-01

    Background: In atomic nuclei, a concentration of electric dipole strength around the particle threshold, commonly denoted as pygmy dipole resonance, may have a significant impact on nuclear structure properties and astrophysical scenarios. A clear identification of these states and the structure of this resonance is still under discussion.Purpose: We present an experimental and theoretical study of the isospin character of the pygmy dipole resonance and investigation of a splitting of the electric dipole strength previously observed in experiments on N=82 nuclei.Method: The pygmy dipole resonance has been studied in the semi-magic Z=50 nucleus 124Sn by means of the (α,α'γ) coincidence method at Eα=136MeV using the Big-Bite Spectrometer at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, The Netherlands.Results: A splitting of the low-energy part of the electric dipole strength was identified in 124Sn by comparing the differential cross sections measured in (α,α'γ) to results stemming from (γ,γ') photon-scattering experiments. While an energetically lower-lying group of states is observed in both kinds of experiments, a higher-lying group of states is only excited in the (γ,γ') reaction. In addition, theoretical calculations using the self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation and the quasiparticle-phonon model have been performed. Both calculations show a qualitative agreement with the experimental data and predict a low-lying isoscalar component that is dominated by neutron-skin oscillations as expected for the pygmy dipole resonance. Furthermore, the states at higher energies show a pronounced isovector component and a different radial dependence of the corresponding transition densities as expected for the tail of the giant dipole resonance.Conclusions: An experimental signature of the neutron-skin oscillation of the pygmy dipole resonance has been corroborated. The combination of the presented reactions might make it

  1. Dissecting an LHC dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The cold mass of a 15-metre main dipole magnet has some fifteen different components. All the main components are manufactured under CERN's direct responsibility. Four of them transit through CERN before being shipped to the dipole assembly contractors, namely the cable, which constitutes the magnet's superconducting core (see Bulletin 14/2004), the beam screens, the heat exchanger tubes and the cold bore beam tubes. The two latter components transit via Building 927 where they undergo part of the production process. The 58-mm diameter heat exchanger tubes will remove heat from the magnets using superfluid helium. The 53-mm diameter cold bore tubes will be placed under vacuum to allow the twin beams to circulate around the LHC.

  2. ALICE dipole and decoration

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE cavern receives a painting made specially to mark the 50th anniversary of CERN that is mounted on the L3 solenoid magnet, reused from the LEP experiment that ran from 1989 to 2000. The dipole, which is cooled by demineralised water, will bend the path of muons that leave the huge rectangular solenoid. These muons are heavy electrons that interact less with matter allowing them to be studied at large distances from the interaction point.

  3. The ALICE dipole magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Swoboda, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    The design and construction of the ALICE dipole magnet has been co-ordinated within the LEA group. Several teams from collaborating institutes and design and engineering resources from CERN participated in the project. The construction of the different main components was entrusted to industry in several countries. The paper highlights some of the major design features and engineering solutions. The requirements for a full preassembly are explained and the assembly procedure as well as the status of the project are summarized.

  4. Giant Primeval Magnetic Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Macroscopic magnetic dipoles are considered cosmic dark matter. Permanent magnetism in relativistic field structures can involve some form of superconductivity, one example being current-carrying string loops (“springs”) with vanishing net tension. We derive the cross-section for free classical dipoles to collide, finding it depends weakly on orientation when mutual precession is rapid. The collision rate of “spring” loops with tension { T }˜ {10}-8{c}4/G in galactic halos approaches the measured rate of fast radio bursts (FRBs) if the loops compose most of the dark matter. A large superconducting dipole (LSD) with mass ˜1020 g and size ˜1 mm will form a ˜100 km magnetosphere moving through interstellar plasma. Although hydromagnetic drag is generally weak, it is strong enough to capture some LSDs into long-lived rings orbiting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) that form by the direct collapse of massive gas clouds. Repeated collisions near young SMBHs could dominate the global collision rate, thereby broadening the dipole mass spectrum. Colliding LSDs produce tiny, hot electromagnetic explosions. The accompanying paper shows that these explosions couple effectively to propagating low-frequency electromagnetic modes, with output peaking at 0.01-1 THz. We describe several constraints on, and predictions of, LSDs as cosmic dark matter. The shock formed by an infalling LSD triggers self-sustained thermonuclear burning in a C/O (ONeMg) white dwarf (WD) of mass ≳1 M ⊙ (1.3 M ⊙). The spark is generally located off the center of the WD. The rate of LSD-induced explosions matches the observed rate of Type Ia supernovae.

  5. Topics in Hadronic Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Alfred [Univ. of Wiscon, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2002-08-01

    Hadron production cross sections are calculated in the perturbative QCD frame work. Parton distribution functions are obtained from a strip-soliton model. The fragmentation functions are derived from the Lund model of string breaking.

  6. AC losses in a prototype NbTi cable for LHC dipole magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roovers, A.J.M.; van Pelt, A.J.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper loss measurements on a prototype NbTi cable for the Large Hadron Collider dipole magnets are presented. The cable is meant to be used for the outer layer of the magnets. It is a trapezium-shaped (key-stoned) Rutherford cable. The experimental results were obtained in a Twente test

  7. Ramp rate induced quenches in the one-metre dipole model magnets for the CERN LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, A.P.; Verweij, A.P.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Leroy, D.; Oberli, L.; Siemko, A.

    1995-01-01

    During the investigation of 1 m model dipoles for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) a considerable number of quenches are performed at high ramp rate. In this paper the results are presented of these quenches which are made both at 1.7-2.1 K and at 4.3 K for ramp rates varying between 10 As/sup -1/

  8. Tune variations in the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, N.; Giovannozzi, M.; Lamont, M.; Sammut, N.; Steinhagen, R.; Todesco, E.; Wenninger, J.

    2015-04-01

    The horizontal and vertical betatron tunes of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) mainly depend on the strength of the quadrupole magnets, but are also affected by the quadrupole component in the main dipoles. In case of systematic misalignments, the sextupole component from the main dipoles and sextupole corrector magnets also affect the tunes due to the feed down effect. During the first years of operation of the LHC, the tunes have been routinely measured and corrected through either a feedback or a feed forward system. In this paper, the evolution of the tunes during injection, ramp and flat top are reconstructed from the beam measurements and the settings of the tune feedback loop and of the feed forward corrections. This gives the obtained precision of the magnetic model of the machine with respect to quadrupole and sextupole components. Measurements at the injection plateau show an unexpected large decay whose origin is not understood. This data is discussed together with the time constants and the dependence on previous cycles. We present results of dedicated experiments that show that this effect does not originate from the decay of the main dipole component. During the ramp, the tunes drift by about 0.022. It is shown that this is related to the precision of tracking the quadrupole field in the machine and this effect is reduced to about 0.01 tune units during flat top.

  9. Hadron Dragons strike again

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Dragon Boat team – the Hadron Dragons – achieved a fantastic result at the "Paddle for Cancer" Dragon Boat Festival at Lac de Joux on 6 September. CERN Hadron Dragons heading for the start line.Under blue skies and on a clear lake, the Hadron Dragons won 2nd place in a hard-fought final, following top times in the previous heats. In a close and dramatic race – neck-and-neck until the final 50 metres – the local Lac-de-Joux team managed to inch ahead at the last moment. The Hadron Dragons were delighted to take part in this festival. No one would turn down a day out in such a friendly and fun atmosphere, but the Dragons were also giving their support to cancer awareness and fund-raising in association with ESCA (English-Speaking Cancer Association of Geneva). Riding on their great success in recent competitions, the Hadron Dragons plan to enter the last Dragon Boat festival of 2009 in Annecy on 17-18 October. This will coincide with t...

  10. Pygmy dipole resonance in stable Ca isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertychny, G. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Tselyaev, V. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Physics S.Petersburg University (Russian Federation); Kamerdzhiev, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Gruemmer, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Krewald, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Speth, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Litvinova, E. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Avdeenkov, A. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    The properties of the low-lying electric dipole strength in the stable {sup 40}Ca,{sup 44}Ca and {sup 48}Ca isotopes have been calculated within the Extended Theory of Finite Fermi Systems (ETFFS). This approach is based on the random phase approximation (RPA) and includes the single-particle continuum as well as the coupling to low-lying collective states which are considered in a consistent microscopic way. For {sup 44}Ca we also include pairing correlations. A good agreement with the existing experimental data for the gross properties of the low-lying strength has been obtained. We conclude that for the detailed understanding of the low-lying dipole strength an approach like the present one is absolutely necessary.

  11. Hadron Resonances from QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, Jozef [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel πK, ηK scattering. The very recent extension to the case where an external current acts is also presented, considering the reaction πγ* → ππ, from which the unstable ρ → πγ transition form factor is extracted. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  12. Hadrons at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Mallik, Samirnath

    2016-01-01

    High energy laboratories are performing experiments in heavy ion collisions to explore the structure of matter at high temperature and density. This elementary book explains the basic ideas involved in the theoretical analysis of these experimental data. It first develops two topics needed for this purpose, namely hadron interactions and thermal field theory. Chiral perturbation theory is developed to describe hadron interactions and thermal field theory is formulated in the real-time method. In particular, spectral form of thermal propagators is derived for fields of arbitrary spin and used to calculate loop integrals. These developments are then applied to find quark condensate and hadron parameters in medium, including dilepton production. Finally, the non-equilibrium method of statistical field theory to calculate transport coefficients is reviewed. With technical details explained in the text and appendices, this book should be accessible to researchers as well as graduate students interested in thermal ...

  13. Local Hadronic Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Barillari, T; Carli, T; Erdmann, J; Giovannini, P; Grahn, K J; Issever, C; Jantsch, A; Kiryunin, A; Lohwasser, K; Maslennikov, A; Menke, S; Oberlack, H; Pospelov, G; Rauter, E; Schacht, P; Spanó, F; Speckmayer, P; Stavina, P; Strízenec, P

    2008-01-01

    The scheme of the hadronic calibration is discussed. Based on the cluster reconstruction an effective noise suppression is achieved. In a first step clusters are classified as electromagnetic or hadronic clusters. The weighting scheme to correct for the different e/pion response in the ATLAS calorimeter is presented. Dead material corrections and out of cluster corrections yield finally a signal which is rather close to the energy deposited by the final state particles in the ATLAS calorimeter. The constants and algorithms are derived from single pion MC studies and tested with jets. The validation of the scheme using testbeam data is presented as well.

  14. The Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commins, Eugene D.; Demille, David

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Overview of relevant particle theory * Electron EDM in the Standard Model * Electron EDM in extensions of the Standard Model * Introduction to experimental basis for electron EDM searches * Other sources of atomic and molecular EDMs * Theoretical Basis of Electron EDM Experiments * Proper-Lorentz-invariant EDM Lagrangian density * Schiff's theorem * Enhancement factors for paramagnetic atoms * Is there a simple intuitive explanation for the Sandars effect? * P,T-odd electron-nucleon interaction * Paramagnetic molecules * Electron EDM Experiments * General overview * A simple model experiment * Noise * Systematic errors * The Berkeley thallium atomic beam experiment * Cesium optical pumping experiments * Cesium optical trap experiments * The francium optical trap experiment * The YbF experiment * The PbO experiment * The ThO experiment * The proposed HfF+ experiment * Electron EDM solid-state experiments * Basic ideas * The Indiana GGG experiment * The Amherst GdIG experiment * Atomic T,P-odd polarizability. Molecular T,P-odd magnetic moment * Acknowledgments * References

  15. Electric Dipole Moment Measurements with Rare Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chupp, Timothy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-11-11

    The origin of matter is one of the deepest questions addressed by science and remains a mystery because our understanding of the Big Bang suggests that equal amounts of matter as antimatter would be created and annihilate leaving nothing from which stars, galaxies, planets and ultimately life as we know it was created. We know this is not the case in the universe, and so the explanation that the laws of physics can distinguish the difference of moving forward and backward in time and provide mechanisms that produce more matter that antimatter so that a little bit was left over. These same laws of physics affect our world today and would very slightly change the shape of an atom, stretching is along the direction of the spin of its nucleus. This subtle shape change has been searched in many systems - the neutron, atoms and molecules, but has not yet been detected, even as the motivation is strengthened by our understanding of their structure. We therefore look to new systems that have special features that make these effects stand out. Rare isotopes provide one possibility and specific radon atoms are our choice. We have developed techniques to make these measurements with short-lived radioactive atoms, studied the nuclei to provide deeper understanding of how these affect arise in such atoms (including radium) and developed new laser-based techniques to measure and control the magnetic fields necessary to perform these exquisitely sensitive measurements. In this work we have shown that radioactive radon atoms can be produced and transported to an apparatus that lines up the spins of the atoms. We have also shown that the nuclei of nearby radium are pear shaped and that the radon nuclei likely oscillate from one pear shape to its mirror reflection. We have also used the techniques which control nuclear spin to study the magnetic environment in a magnetically shielded room, which has the smallest magnetic field in a large volume in the universe. Measuring magnetic fields and detecting noble atoms' shapes using lasers will provide new techniques for these measurements and impact a broad range of applications including measurements of the neutron EDM. Harvesting rare isotopes at the future FRIB facility at Michigan State University will provide much stronger sources of the isotopes of radon and radium for future-generation experiments and also provide new isotopes for applications including medicine.

  16. Plasmonic functionalities based on detuned electrical dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anders Lambertus; Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2013-01-01

    with two and three differently sized gold nanorods, we show the possibility of optical transparency characterized by enhanced transmission, reduced group velocity and propagation loss. The concept of DED is further applied to plasmonic sensing of the environment, demonstrating unprecedented sensitivity...... to refractive index changes by the utilization of scattering asymmetry. By the similar concept, DED metamaterials are designed to function as nanometer-thin wave plates in reflection....

  17. Timelike Dipole-Antenna Showers with Massive Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrmann-De Ridder, Aude; Skands, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a complete formalism for final-state (timelike) dipole-antenna showers including fermion masses, but neglecting polarization and finite-width effects. We make several comparisons of tree-level expansions of this shower algorithm to fixed-order matrix elements for hadronic Z decays, up to and including Z to 6 partons, to which the algorithm can be consistently matched over all of phase space. We also compare to analytical resummations at the NLL level. The shower algorithm has been implemented in the publicly available VINCIA plugin to the PYTHIA 8 event generator, which enables us to compare to experimental data at the fully hadronized level. We also include comparisons to selected observables in b-tagged Z decays.

  18. Pinning down top dipole moments with ultra-boosted tops

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan A.; Mangano, Michelangelo L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate existing and future hadron-collider constraints on the top dipole chromomagnetic and chromoelectric moments, two quantities that are expected to be modified in the presence of new physics. We focus first on recent measurements of the inclusive top pair production cross section at the Tevatron and at the Large Hadron Collider. We then analyse the role of top-antitop events produced at very large invariant masses, in the context of the forthcoming 13-14 TeV runs of the LHC, and at a future 100 TeV proton-proton collider. In this latter case, the selection of semileptonic decays to hard muons allows to tag top quarks boosted to the multi-TeV regime, strongly reducing the QCD backgrounds and leading to a significant improvement in the sensitivity to anomalous top couplings.

  19. Bottomonium production in hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner Mariotto, C. [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia]. E-mail: mariotto@if.ufrgs.br; Gay Ducati, M.B. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fenomenologia de Particulas em Altas Energias; Ingelman, G. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). High Energy Physics

    2004-07-01

    Production of bottomonium in hadronic collisions is studied in the framework of the soft colour approach. We report some results for production of {upsilon} in the Tevatron and predictions for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC). (author)

  20. Resonances and dipole moments in dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, A.; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    An eigenfunction solution to the problem of plane wave scattering by dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders is used for a systematic investigation of their resonances. An overview of the resonances with electric and magnetic dipole moments, needed in, e.g., the synthesis of metamat......An eigenfunction solution to the problem of plane wave scattering by dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders is used for a systematic investigation of their resonances. An overview of the resonances with electric and magnetic dipole moments, needed in, e.g., the synthesis...

  1. The BINP receives its Golden Hadron award

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    On Thursday, 14 September, the LHC Project Leader, Lyn Evans, handed over a Golden Hadron award to Alexander Skrinsky of Russia's Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP). The prize is awarded in recognition of exceptional performances by suppliers and this year prizes were awarded to two firms, Cockerill-Sambre (Belgium) and Wah-Chang (United States), and to the Budker Institute, which was unable to receive the award at the same time as the two other recipients (see Bulletin No 34/2002, of 19 August 2002). The Russian institute has been rewarded for the particularly high-quality production of 360 dipole magnets and 185 quadrupole magnets for the LHC proton beam transfer lines.

  2. Backfire antennas with dipole elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Dragø; Pontoppidan, Knud

    1970-01-01

    A method is set up for a theoretical investigation of arbitrary backfire antennas based upon dipole structures. The mutual impedance between the dipole elements of the antenna is taken into account, and the field radiated due to a surface wave reflector of finite extent is determined by calculating...

  3. Hadrons in compact stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    volving Bose–Einstein condensates of antikaons within relativistic models. Also, the structures of non-rotating neutron stars are calculated using this EoS. 2. Hadrons in cold and dense medium. At normal nuclear matter density, neutron star matter mainly consists of neutrons, protons and electrons. The particle population is ...

  4. Jets in Hadron Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Seymour, Michael H

    2000-01-01

    Comment: 13 pages, 18 figures, talks given at XXXVth Rencontres de Moriond, QCD and Hadronic Interactions, Les Arcs 1800, France, March 18th-25th 2000, and DIS 2000, 8th International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering, Liverpool, UK, April 25th-30th 2000

  5. The large hadron computer

    CERN Multimedia

    Hirstius, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Plans for dealing with the torrent of data from the Large Hadron Collider's detectors have made the CERN particle-phycis lab, yet again, a pioneer in computing as well as physics. The author describes the challenges of processing and storing data in the age of petabyt science. (4 pages)

  6. Hadronic Degrees of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traini, Marco

    I report on the research activities performed under the (italian) MURST-PRIN project "Fisica Teorica del Nuc1eo e dei sistemi a piú corpi" covering part of the topics on hadronic degrees of freedom. The most recent achievements in the field are summarized focusing on the specific role of the nuclear physics community.

  7. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Wright, Alison

    2007-01-01

    "We are on the threshold of a new era in particle-physics research. In 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) - the hightest-energy accelerator ever built - will come into operation at CERN, the European labortory that straddles the French-Swiss border near Geneva." (1/2 page)

  8. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  9. Hadronic Modeling of Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidinger Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing systematic search for sources of extragalactic gamma rays has now revealed many blazars in which the very high energy output can not consistently be described as synchrotron self-Compton radiation. In this paper a self consistent hybrid model is described, explaining the very high energy radiation of those blazars as proton synchrotron radiation accompanied by photo-hadronic cascades. As the model includes all relevant radiative processes it naturally includes the synchrotron self-Compton case as well, depending on the chosen parameters. This paper focuses on rather high magnetic fields to be present within the jet, hence the hadronically dominated case. To discriminate the hadronic scenario against external photon fields being upscattered within the jet to produce the dominating gamma-ray output, the temporal behavior of blazars may be exploited with the presented model. Variability reveals both, the highly non-linear nature caused by the photohadronic cascades and typical timescales as well as fingerprints in the inter-band lightcurves of the involved hadrons. The modeling of two individual sources is shown : 1 ES 1011+496, a high frequency peaked blazar at redshift z = 0.212, which is well described within the hybrid scenario using physically reasonable parameters. The short term variability of the second example, namely 3C 454.3, a Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar at z = 0.859, reveals the limitations of the gamma-rays being highly dominated by proton synchrotron radiation.

  10. Hadron collider physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pondrom, L.

    1991-10-03

    An introduction to the techniques of analysis of hadron collider events is presented in the context of the quark-parton model. Production and decay of W and Z intermediate vector bosons are used as examples. The structure of the Electroweak theory is outlined. Three simple FORTRAN programs are introduced, to illustrate Monte Carlo calculation techniques. 25 refs.

  11. Hadron Multiplicities at HERMES

    CERN Document Server

    Hartig, M

    2005-01-01

    Hadron multiplicities of $\\pim$, $\\pip$, $\\km$ and $\\kp$ have been measured in the deep-inelastic scattering of 27.5 GeV positrons off a hydrogen target. The data used in this analysis have been collected during the 2000 HERA running period. The multiplicities were obtained for 0.15$$ = 2.5 GeV$^2$.

  12. Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "In the spring 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine at CERN (the European Particle Physics laboratory) will be switched on for the first time. The huge machine is housed in a circular tunnel, 27 km long, excavated deep under the French-Swiss border near Geneva." (1,5 page)

  13. Magnetic Light Emitters: Plasmon-enhanced Magnetic Dipole Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Rashid

    2009-03-01

    Over the past decade, advances in both negative index metamaterials and resonant optical antennas have challenged traditional assumptions about light-matter interactions. While metamaterials research has shown that metallic structures can be engineered to support strong optical frequency magnetic resonances, resonant optical antennas have been designed to amplify and re-direct the emission from electric dipole emitters. In this talk, we explore the intersection of these distinct fields and investigate how resonant optical effects may be used to challenge the electric dipole approximation. Specifically, we will show how Purcell effects may be used to enhance the natural optical frequency magnetic dipole transitions in Lanthanide ions. We will present experimental and numerical results that demonstrate enhanced magnetic dipole emission from trivalent Europium ions near metallic films and nanoparticle composites. We will explore how the varying symmetries of electric and magnetic dipoles can be used to characterize and optimize magnetic light emission. Finally, we will discuss the implications of enhancing and controlling higher-order optical transitions for optical spectroscopy and photonic devices.

  14. Dynamics of two-dimensional dipole systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Kenneth I; Kalman, Gabor J; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2010-09-01

    Using a combined analytical/molecular dynamics approach, we study the current fluctuation spectra and longitudinal and transverse collective mode dispersions of the classical two-dimensional (point) dipole system (2DDS) characterized by the ϕ{D}(r)=μ{2}/r{3} repulsive interaction potential; μ is the electric dipole strength. The interest in the 2DDS is twofold. First, the quasi-long-range 1/r{3} interaction makes the system a unique classical many-body system, with a remarkable collective mode behavior. Second, the system may be a good model for a closely spaced semiconductor electron-hole bilayer, a system that is in the forefront of current experimental interest. The longitudinal collective excitations, which are of primary interest for the liquid phase, are acoustic at long wavelengths. At higher wave numbers and for sufficiently high coupling strength, we observe the formation of a deep minimum in the dispersion curve preceded by a sharp maximum; this is identical to what has been observed in the dispersion of the zero-temperature bosonic dipole system, which in turn emulates so-called roton-maxon excitation spectrum of the superfluid 4He . The analysis we present gives an insight into the emergence of this apparently universal structure, governed by strong correlations. We study both the liquid and the crystalline solid state. We also observe the excitation of combination frequencies, resembling the roton-roton, roton-maxon, etc. structures in 4He .

  15. Extracting hadron-neutron scattering amplitudes from hadron-proton and hadron-deuteron measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, V.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented for extracting hadron-neutron scattering amplitudes from hadron-proton and hadron-deuteron measurements within the framework of the Glauber approximation. This method, which involves the solution of a linear integral equation, is applied to pn collisions between 15 and 275 GeV/c. Effects arising from inelastic intermediate states are estimated.

  16. Dynamics of a nonlinear dipole vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Nielsen, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    A localized stationary dipole solution to the Euler equations with a relationship between the vorticity and streamfunction given as omega=-psi+psi(3) is presented. By numerical integration of the Euler equations this dipole is shown to be unstable. However, the initially unstable dipole reorganiz...... of increasing Newtonian viscosity on the nonlinear dipole is studied revealing that even though the nonlinearity is weakening, the dipole does not relax towards a Lamb dipole. (C) 1995 American Institute of Physics....

  17. LHC Dipoles Accelerate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Andrezej Siemko (left), Peter Sievers (centre), and Lucio Rossi (right), have the exciting challenge of preparing and testing 2000 magnets for the LHC. The LHC is going to require a lot of powerful magnets by the time it begins operation in 2006. More specifically, it is going to need 130 special magnets, 400 quadrupoles, and a whopping 1250 dipoles! Preparing and testing these magnets for the conditions they will encounter in the LHC is not an easy task. But evaluation of the most recently received magnet, from the German company Noell, is showing that while the monumental task of receiving and testing nearly 2000 magnets is going to be exhausting, the goals are definitely attainable. At the moment and over the next year, pre-series magnets (the magnets that CERN uses to fine tune performance) are arriving slowly (90 in total will arrive), but by 2003 the rate of series magnet arrival will accelerate to 9 per week, that's over 450 in a single year! And working with these magnets when they arrive is tough. ...

  18. A dipole moment study of ( Z-α,β-diaryl-acrylonitriles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, M. E.; Scarlata, G.; Curé, J.; Lumbroso, H.

    1990-04-01

    A dipole moment analysis of ( Z)-α-phenyl-β-(2-furyl)-acrylonitrile and ( Z)-α-phenyl-β-(2-thienyl)-acrylonitrile enables rotational isomerism to be elucidated in these compounds. The electric dipole moments of ( Z)-α,β-diphenyl-acrylonitrile and ( Z)-α-(4-chlorophenyl)-β-(4'-nitrophenyl)-acrylonitrile were also measured and are discussed.

  19. Large Hadron Collider manual

    CERN Document Server

    Lavender, Gemma

    2018-01-01

    What is the universe made of? How did it start? This Manual tells the story of how physicists are seeking answers to these questions using the world’s largest particle smasher – the Large Hadron Collider – at the CERN laboratory on the Franco-Swiss border. Beginning with the first tentative steps taken to build the machine, the digestible text, supported by color photographs of the hardware involved, along with annotated schematic diagrams of the physics experiments, covers the particle accelerator’s greatest discoveries – from both the perspective of the writer and the scientists who work there. The Large Hadron Collider Manual is a full, comprehensive guide to the most famous, record-breaking physics experiment in the world, which continues to capture the public imagination as it provides new insight into the fundamental laws of nature.

  20. On Closely Coupled Dipoles in a Random Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Vincent, L.

    2006-01-01

    Reception of partially correlated fields by two closely coupled electrical dipoles is discussed as a function of load impedances and open-circuit correlations. Two local maxima of the power may be achieved for two different load impedances, but in those cases the output correlations are high...

  1. QCD and Hadron Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deshpande, Abhay L.; Gao, Haiyan; McKeown, Robert D.; Meyer, Curtis A.; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Milner, Richard G.; Qiu, Jianwei; Richards, David G.; Roberts, Craig D.

    2015-02-26

    This White Paper presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in coordination with the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD and included a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. The goals of the meeting were to report and highlight progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and present a vision for the future by identifying the key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define the next decade. The introductory summary details the recommendations and their supporting rationales, as determined at the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadron Physics, and the endorsements that were voted upon. The larger document is organized as follows. Section 2 highlights major progress since the 2007 LRP. It is followed, in Section 3, by a brief overview of the physics program planned for the immediate future. Finally, Section 4 provides an overview of the physics motivations and goals associated with the next QCD frontier: the Electron-Ion-Collider.

  2. Design of undercuts and dipole stabilizer rods for the CPHS RFQ accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jin-Chi; Xing, Qing-Zi; Guan, Xia-Ling; Du, Lei

    2012-05-01

    As part of the design and machining of the RFQ accelerator in the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) project at Tsinghua University, the design process of the undercuts and dipole stabilizer rods is presented in this paper. In particular, the relationship between the inter-vane voltage slope and the local frequency of the undercut section is described quantitatively. With the identification of modes existing in the cavity, the specific parameters are optimized by the SUPERFISH and MAFIA codes. In addition, the water-cooling requirement of the dipole stabilizer rods is briefly discussed.

  3. LHC Arc Dipole Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Wyss, C

    1999-01-01

    The LHC, a 7 TeV proton collider presently under construction at CERN, requires 1232 superconducting (SC) dipole magnets, featuring a nominal field of 8.33 T inside a cold beam tube of 50 mm inner diameter and a magnetic length of 14.3 m. To achieve such high fields whilst retaining the well-proven fabrication methods of cables made with NbTi superconductors, it is necessary to operate the magnets at 1.9 K in superfluid helium. For reasons of space and economy, the two dipole apertures are incorporated into a single iron yoke and cryostat (two-in-one concept). The design considerations and the experimental results, which have led to the design adopted for series manufacture, are presented and discussed. The aims and status of the short model and full size prototype dipole programmes are subsequently reported. Finally, the major milestones of the schedule of the dipole magnets series manufacture are given and commented.

  4. The role of hadron resonances in hot hadronic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goity, Jose [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Hadron resonances can play a significant role in hot hadronic matter. Of particular interest for this workshop are the contributions of hyperon resonances. The question about how to quantify the effects of resonances is here addressed. In the framework of the hadron resonance gas, the chemically equilibrated case, relevant in the context of lattice QCD calculations, and the chemically frozen case relevant in heavy ion collisions are discussed.

  5. Applicability of the dipole-dipole method for structural studies: examples from the Northern Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alfano

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We present some results of a geoelectrical investigation program conducted in the Northern Apennines, namely in the Val d'Aveto and Bobbio window and surrounding areas. Field activity included the execution of more than 50 vertical electrical soundings with continuous polar dipole-dipole spread. We image the geometries of some deep geological structures; in particular we found a resistive background, whose resistivity is different along the geoelectrical profiles. In our interpretation the resistive background consists of subligurid and tuscan units underlying the alloctone Ligurid units in the area surrounding the Val d'Aveto and Bobbio window. The resistive background was not found, at least at the same depths, toward north-east. Therefore, the geoelectrical survey revealed the position of the front of the subligurid and Tuscan nappes toward the plain for a depth of about one kilometer.

  6. Stacked dipole line source excitation of active nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel

    This work investigates electromagnetic properties of cylindrical active coated nano-particles excited by a stac- ked electric dipole line source. The nano-particles consist of a silica nano-core, layered by silver, gold, or copper nano-shell. Attention is devoted to the influence of the source...... location and dipole orientation, the gain constant, and the nano-particle material composition on the electromagnetic field distributions and radiated powers. The results are contrasted to those for the magnetic line source illumination of the nano-particles....

  7. Quantum Electromagnetic Nonlinearity Affecting Charges and Dipole Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, T. C.; Gitman, D. M.; Shabad, A. E.; Shishmarev, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Due to the nonlinearity of QED, a static charge becomes a magnetic dipole if placed in a magnetic field, and a magnetic monopole on the background is a combination of constant electric and magnetic fields. Already without external field, the cubic Maxwell equation for the field of a point charge has a soliton solution with a finite field energy and finite potential, the energy-momentum vector of a moving soliton being the same as that of a point massive particle. Equations are given for self-coupling dipole moments. Any theoretically found value for a multipole moment of a baryon or a meson should be subjected to nonlinear renormalization.

  8. LHC dipole magnets start to roll off the production line

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The first pre-series LHC dipole magnet has been delivered to CERN, a further 1247 are due to be produced by 2005. Their production is the result of technology transfer from CERN to its suppliers. Fifteen metres long, thirty-tonnes in weight, and using several kilometres of superconducting cable, the magnet that has just arrived in hall 181 is a true colossus. It is the first pre-series dipole that will begin service in 2005 in the future Large Hadron Collider, LHC. Delivered by the French Alstom-Jeumont Industrie consortium, it is the first of 1248 magnets that will be manufactured over the coming five years. Needless to say, lavish attention has been devoted to this magnet by the engineers and technicians who accompanied it to CERN from Belfort in north east France. The task of the dipole magnets will be to steer the LHC's proton beams on a circular trajectory around the LHC's 27 kilometre circumference. A magnetic field of 8.33 Tesla is required to guide the protons, accelerated to an energy of 7 TeV, aroun...

  9. Retraining of the 1232 Main Dipole Magnets in the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verweij, A. [CERN; Auchmann, B.; Bednarek, M.; Bottura, L.; Charifoulline, Z.; Feher, S. [Fermilab; Hagen, P.; Modena, M.; Le Naour, S.; Romera, I.; Siemko, A.; Steckert, J.; Tock, J. Ph; Todesco, E.; Willering, G.; Wollmann, D.

    2016-01-05

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) contains eight main dipole circuits, each of them with 154 dipole magnets powered in series. These 15-m-long magnets are wound from Nb-Ti superconducting Rutherford cables, and have active quench detection triggering heaters to quickly force the transition of the coil to the normal conducting state in case of a quench, and hence reduce the hot spot temperature. During the reception tests in 2002-2007, all these magnets have been trained up to at least 12 kA, corresponding to a beam energy of 7.1 TeV. After installation in the accelerator, the circuits have been operated at reduced currents of up to 6.8 kA, from 2010 to 2013, corresponding to a beam energy of 4 TeV. After the first long shutdown of 2013-2014, the LHC runs at 6.5 TeV, requiring a dipole magnet current of 11.0 kA. A significant number of training quenches were needed to bring the 1232 magnets up to this current. In this paper, the circuit behavior in case of a quench is presented, as well as the quench training as compared to the initial training during the reception tests of the individual magnets.

  10. Retraining of the 1232 Main Dipole Magnets in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A; Bednarek, M; Bottura, L; Charifoulline, Z; Feher, S; Hagen, P; Modena, M; Le Naour, S; Romera, I; Siemko, A; Steckert, J; Tock, J Ph; Todesco, E; Willering, G; Wollmann, D

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) contains eight main dipole circuits, each of them with 154 dipole magnets powered in series. These 15-m-long magnets are wound from Nb-Ti superconducting Rutherford cables, and have active quench detection triggering heaters to quickly force the transition of the coil to the normal conducting state in case of a quench, and hence reduce the hot spot temperature. During the reception tests in 2002-2007, all these magnets have been trained up to at least 12 kA, corresponding to a beam energy of 7.1 TeV. After installation in the accelerator, the circuits have been operated at reduced currents of up to 6.8 kA, from 2010 to 2013, corresponding to a beam energy of 4 TeV. After the first long shutdown of 2013-2014, the LHC runs at 6.5 TeV, requiring a dipole magnet current of 11.0 kA. A significant number of training quenches were needed to bring the 1232 magnets up to this current. In this paper, the circuit behavior in case of a quench is presented, as well as the quench training as...

  11. Hadronic Resonances from STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Masayuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of resonance particle productions (ρ0, ω, K*, ϕ, Σ*, and Λ* measured by the STAR collaboration at RHIC from various colliding systems and energies are presented. Measured mass, width, 〈pT〉, and yield of those resonances are reviewed. No significant mass shifts or width broadening beyond the experiment uncertainties are observed. New measurements of ϕ and ω from leptonic decay channels are presented. The yields from leptonic decay channels are compared with the measurements from hadronic decay channels and the two results are consistent with each other.

  12. Hyperpolarizabilities for the one-dimensional infinite single-electron periodic systems: I. Analytical solutions under dipole-dipole correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shidong; Xu, Minzhong

    2005-01-01

    The analytical solutions for the general-four-wave-mixing hyperpolarizabilities $\\chi^{(3)}(-(w_1+w_2+w_3);w_1,w_2,w_3)$ on infinite chains under both Su-Shrieffer-Heeger and Takayama-Lin-Liu-Maki models of trans-polyacetylene are obtained through the scheme of dipole-dipole correlation. Analytical expressions of DC Kerr effect $\\chi^{(3)}(-w;0,0,w)$, DC-induced second harmonic generation $\\chi^{(3)}(-2w;0,w,w)$, optical Kerr effect $\\chi^{(3)}(-w;w,-w,w)$ and DC-electric-field-induced optica...

  13. Single spin asymmetries in hadron-hadron collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacchetta, A.; Bomhof, C.J.; Mulders, P.J.G.; Pijlman, F.

    2005-01-01

    We study weighted azimuthal single spin asymmetries in hadron-hadron scattering using the diagrammatic approach at leading order and assuming factorization. The effects of the intrinsic transverse momenta of the partons are taken into account. We show that the way in which T-odd functions, such as

  14. Monte Carlo event generators for hadron-hadron collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, I.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.; Protopopescu, S.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-06-01

    A brief review of Monte Carlo event generators for simulating hadron-hadron collisions is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on comparisons of the approaches used to describe physics elements and identifying their relative merits and weaknesses. This review summarizes a more detailed report.

  15. Plasmonic interferometry: probing launching dipoles in scanning-probe plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mollet, O; Genet, C; Huant, S; Drezet, A

    2014-01-01

    We develop a semi-analytical method for analyzing surface plasmon interferometry using near-field scanning optical sources. We compare our approach to Young double hole interferometry experiments using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) discussed in the literature and realize experiments with an aperture near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) source positioned near a ring like aperture slit milled in a thick gold film. In both cases the agreement between experiments and model is very good. We emphasize the role of dipole orientations and discuss the role of magnetic versus electric dipole contributions to the imaging process as well as the directionality of the effective dipoles associated with the various optical and plasmonic sources.

  16. Improved sensitivity on the electromagnetic dipole moments of the top quark in γ γ , γ γ*, and γ*γ* collisions at the CLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billur, A. A.; Köksal, M.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A.

    2017-09-01

    We realize a phenomenological study to examine the sensitivity on the magnetic moment and electric dipole moment of the top quark through the processes γ γ →t t ¯, e γ →e γ*γ →e t t ¯, and e-e+→e-γ*γ*e+→e-t t ¯e+ at the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). We find that with a center-of-mass energy of the CLIC-1.4 TeV, integrated luminosity of L =1500 fb-1 and CLIC-3 TeV, integrated luminosity of L =2000 fb-1 with systematic uncertainties of δsys=0 , 5%, 10% at the 95% C.L., it is possible the CLIC may put limits on the electromagnetic dipole moments of the top quark a^V and a^A with a sensitivity of O (10-3-10-2). Therefore, we show that the sensitivity with the CLIC data is much greater than that for the Large Hadron Collider data.

  17. Gamma-hadron families and scaling violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisser, T. K.; Stanev, T.; Wrotniak, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    For three different interaction models we have simulated gamma-hadron families, including the detector (Pamir emulsion chamber) response. Rates of gamma families, hadrons, and hadron-gamma ratios were compared with experiments.

  18. Measurement with hadron beams at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    The physics program of the COMPASS experiment at CERN focuses on the investigation of the hadron structure and spectroscopy, using both leptonic and hadronic probes. The COMPASS experiment has collected so far mostly data with polarized muon beams of 160 GeV, but also a pilot data taking with negative hadron beams of 190 GeV has been successfully completed at the end of the 2004 run. The main physics objectives of this pilot run are the study of soft pion-nuclei interactions. The predictions of the Chiral Perturbation Theory for the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the pion will be verified through the study of the Primakoff scattering of 190 GeV pions on thin lead targets. A sample corresponding to an integrated beam flux of more than 10$^{11}$ pions has been collected for this purpose, and an equivalent sample with the muon beam of 190 GeV has been collected in the same experimental conditions to correct possible systematic effects. In parallel to the polarizability measurements, first data have al...

  19. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  20. Quarkonium production in hadronic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavai, R. [Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Schuler, G.A.; Sridhar, K. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    We summarize the theoretical description of charmonium and bottonium production in hadronic collisions and compare it to the available data from hadron-nucleon interactions. With the parameters of the theory established by these data, we obtain predictions for quarkonium production at RHIC and LHC energies.

  1. Dijet imbalance in hadronic collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    The imbalance of dijets produced in hadronic collisions has been used to extract the average transverse momentum of partons inside the hadrons. In this paper we discuss new contributions to the dijet imbalance that could complicate or even hamper this extraction. They are due to polarization of

  2. Heavy hadrons in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2017-09-01

    Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia (J / ψ, ϒ), heavy-light mesons (D/ D ¯ , B ¯ / B) and heavy baryons (Λc, Λb). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in infinite nuclear matter, but also in finite-size atomic nuclei with finite baryon numbers, to serve future experiments.

  3. Instrumentation status of the low-b magnet systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Perin, A.; Vauthier, N.

    2011-01-01

    The low-beta magnet systems are located in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) insertion regions around the four interaction points. They are the key elements in the beams focusing/defocusing process allowing proton collisions at luminosity up to 10**34/cm**2s. Those systems are a contribution of the US-LHC Accelerator project. The systems are mainly composed of the quadrupole magnets (triplets), the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-beta magnet systems operate in an environment of extreme radiation, high gradient magnetic field and high heat load to the cryogenic system due to the beam dynamic effect. Due to the severe environment, the robustness of the diagnostics is primordial for the operation of the triplets. The hardware commissioning phase of the LHC was completed in February 2010. In the sake of a safer and more user-friendly operation, several consolidations and instrumentation modifications were implemented during this commissioning phase. This paper presents ...

  4. Instrumentation status of the low-b magnet systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darve, C.; /Fermilab; Balle, C.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Perin, A.; Vauthier, N.; /CERN

    2011-05-01

    The low-{beta} magnet systems are located in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) insertion regions around the four interaction points. They are the key elements in the beams focusing/defocusing process allowing proton collisions at luminosity up to 10{sup 34}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. Those systems are a contribution of the US-LHC Accelerator project. The systems are mainly composed of the quadrupole magnets (triplets), the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-{beta} magnet systems operate in an environment of extreme radiation, high gradient magnetic field and high heat load to the cryogenic system due to the beam dynamic effect. Due to the severe environment, the robustness of the diagnostics is primordial for the operation of the triplets. The hardware commissioning phase of the LHC was completed in February 2010. In the sake of a safer and more user-friendly operation, several consolidations and instrumentation modifications were implemented during this commissioning phase. This paper presents the instrumentation used to optimize the engineering process and operation of the final focusing/defocusing quadrupole magnets for the first years of operation.

  5. Instrumentation Status of the Low-β Magnet Systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C; Casas-Cubillos, J; Perin, A; Vauthier, N

    2011-01-01

    The low-β magnet systems are located in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) insertion regions around the four interaction points. They are the key elements in the beams focusing/defocusing process allowing proton collisions at luminosity up to 1034cm-2s-1. Those systems are a contribution of the US-LHC Accelerator project. The systems are mainly composed of the quadrupole magnets (triplets), the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-β magnet systems operate in an environment of extreme radiation, high gradient magnetic field and high heat load to the cryogenic system due to the beam dynamic effect. Due to the severe environment, the robustness of the diagnostics is primordial for the operation of the triplets. The hardware commissioning phase of the LHC was completed in February 2010. In the sake of a safer and more user-friendly operation, several consolidations and instrumentation modifications were implemented during this commissioning phase. This paper presents the in...

  6. Quantum Interference Contribution to the Dipole Moment of Diatomic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira de Sousa, David Wilian; Nascimento, Marco Antonio Chaer

    2018-02-08

    The interference energy partitioning analysis method developed by our group and used to study the nature of the chemical bond was extended to partition the electric dipole moment in quasi-classical and interference contributions. Our results show that interference participates in charge displacement in polar molecules, providing, directly or indirectly, a relevant contribution for the total dipole moment. A linear correlation was found between the interference contribution of the dipole moment from the bond electron group, μ INT (bond), and the difference of electronegativity of the atoms which form the bond, ΔX AB . This interesting result reinforces the fact that electronegativity is not a property of an atom alone, but rather a property of the atom in the molecule and that ΔX AB can only be associated with that part of the total charge displacement resulting from the formation of the chemical bond. The partitioning of the total dipole moment into quasi-classical and interference contributions provides new insights about the reasons for the failure of the ΔX AB criterion in predicting the correct orientation of the dipole moment in several molecules. The results of the present work also bring additional evidence for the previously proposed mechanism of formation of polar bonds.

  7. Dipole polarizability of neutron rich nuclei and the symmetry energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, Andrea; Johansen, Jacob; Miki, Kenjiro; Schindler, Fabia; Schrock, Philipp [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, Thomas [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    As a part of a systematic investigation of the dipole response of stable up to very neutron rich tin isotopes, nuclear and electromagnetic excitation of {sup 124}Sn-{sup 134}Sn has been investigated at relativistic energies in inverse kinematics induced by carbon and lead targets at the LAND-R3B setup at GSI in Darmstadt. The electric dipole response and the nuclear reaction cross section, total and charge-changing, are obtained from the kinematically complete determination of momenta of all particles on an event by event basis. The dipole polarizability is extracted from the Coulomb excitation interaction channel, in order to make use of relevant correlations of this observable with nuclear matter properties such as the symmetry energy at saturation density (J) and it's slope (L). The systematics of the low-lying ''pygmy'' dipole strength, the giant dipole resonance (GDR) and the neutron skin thickness are determined with respect to increasing isospin asymmetry. This talk also discusses the correlations and sensitivities of these variables and observables obtained within the framework of nuclear energy density functional theory.

  8. Automatic construction of dipole subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, K.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Uwer, P. [Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    An automatization of the dipole subtraction method is reported. We have completed three essential steps: the creation of the dipole terms, the calculation of the color linked squared Born matrix elements, and the evaluation of different helicity amplitudes. The routines have been tested for a number of complex processes. For example we have compared the output of our program for gg{yields}tt-bar gg with the results of Refs. [S. Dittmaier, P. Uwer and S. Weinzierl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 262002 (2007), S. Dittmaier, P. Uwer and S. Weinzierl, arXiv:0810.0452 [hep-ph

  9. Splitting of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, J.; Butler, P.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Krücken, R.; Lagoyannis, A.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Popescu, L.; Ring, P.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2011-10-01

    In recent years investigations have been made to study the electric Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) systematically, mainly in semi-magic nuclei. For this purpose the well understood high resolution (γ,γ') photon scattering method is used. In complementary (α,α'γ) coincidence experiments at Eα = 136 MeV a similar γ-energy resolution and a high selectivity to E1 transitions can be obtained at the Big-Bite Spectrometer (BBS) at KVI, Groningen. In comparison to the (γ,γ') method a structural splitting of the PDR is observed in the N = 82 nuclei 138Ba and 140Ce and in the Z = 50 nucleus 124Sn. The low energy part is excited in (γ,γ') as well as in (α,α'γ) while the high energy part is observed in (γ,γ') only. The experimental results together with theoretical QPM and RQTBA calculations on 124Sn which are able to reproduce the splitting of the PDR qualitatively are presented. The low-lying group of Jπ = 1- states seem to represent the more isoscalar neutron-skin oscillation of the PDR while the energetically higher-lying states seemingly belong to the transitional region between the PDR and the isovector Giant Dipole Resonance (IVGDR).

  10. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon

    2012-01-01

    The construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been a massive endeavour spanning almost 30 years from conception to commissioning. Building the machine with the highest possible energy (7 TeV) in the existing large electron–positron (LEP) collider tunnel of 27 km circumference and with a tunnel diameter of only 3.8 m has required considerable innovation. The first was the development of a two-in-one magnet, where the two rings are integrated into a single magnetic structure. This compact two-in-one structure was essential for the LHC owing to the limited space available in the existing LEP collider tunnel and the cost. The second was a bold move to the use of superfluid helium cooling on a massive scale, which was imposed by the need to achieve a high (8.3 T) magnetic field using an affordable Nb-Ti superconductor.

  11. Hadronic Imaging Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Alexander; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Dubbers, Dirk

    This thesis focuses on a prototype of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter at the planned International Linear Collider optimized for the Particle Flow Approach. The 5.3 nuclear interaction lengths deep sandwich calorimeter was built by the CALICE collaboration and consists of 38 active plastic scintillator layers. Steel is used as absorber material and the active layers are subdivided into small tiles. In total 7608 tiles are read out individually via embedded Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The prototype is one of the first large scale applications of these novel and very promising miniature photodetectors. The work described in this thesis comprises the commissioning of the detector and the data acquisition with test beam particles over several months at CERN and Fermilab. The calibration of the calorimeter and the analysis of the recorded data is presented. A method to correct for the temperature dependent response of the SiPM has been developed and implemented. Its successful application shows that it...

  12. Superconducting Hadron Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the main building blocks of a superconducting (SC) linac, the choice of SC resonators, their frequencies, accelerating gradients and apertures, focusing structures, practical aspects of cryomodule design, and concepts to minimize the heat load into the cryogenic system. It starts with an overview of design concepts for all types of hadron linacs differentiated by duty cycle (pulsed or continuous wave) or by the type of ion species (protons, H-, and ions) being accelerated. Design concepts are detailed for SC linacs in application to both light ion (proton, deuteron) and heavy ion linacs. The physics design of SC linacs, including transverse and longitudinal lattice designs, matching between different accelerating–focusing lattices, and transition from NC to SC sections, is detailed. Design of high-intensity SC linacs for light ions, methods for the reduction of beam losses, preventing beam halo formation, and the effect of HOMs and errors on beam quality are discussed. Examples are ta...

  13. The Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lyndon

    2012-02-28

    The construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been a massive endeavour spanning almost 30 years from conception to commissioning. Building the machine with the highest possible energy (7 TeV) in the existing large electron-positron (LEP) collider tunnel of 27 km circumference and with a tunnel diameter of only 3.8 m has required considerable innovation. The first was the development of a two-in-one magnet, where the two rings are integrated into a single magnetic structure. This compact two-in-one structure was essential for the LHC owing to the limited space available in the existing LEP collider tunnel and the cost. The second was a bold move to the use of superfluid helium cooling on a massive scale, which was imposed by the need to achieve a high (8.3 T) magnetic field using an affordable Nb-Ti superconductor.

  14. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the design principles of the LHC, which gives access to the TeV energy scale for the first time. To achieve this, a number of technological innovations have been necessary. Two counter-rotating proton beams are guided and focused by superconducting magnets with a two-in-one structure allowing the machine to be installed in an existing tunnel. The very high field (>8 T) in the dipoles can only be achieved by cooling them below the superfluid transition temperature of liquid helium. More than 80 tons of superfluid helium is needed to cool the machine. In its first year of operation, the LHC has behaved very reliably and predictably. Single-bunch currents 30% above the design value have already been achieved, and the luminosity has increased by five orders of magnitude in the first 200 days of operation. Some of the results of commissioning and first operation are also discussed.

  15. Raising the last LEP dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The last of the 3280 dipole magnets from the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider is seen on its journey to the surface on 12 February 2002. The LEP era, which began at CERN in 1989 and ended 2000, comes to an end.

  16. Hadron collider physics at UCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the research work in high energy physics by the group at the University of California, Riverside. Work has been divided between hadron collider physics and e{sup +}-e{sup {minus}} collider physics, and theoretical work. The hadron effort has been heavily involved in the startup activities of the D-Zero detector, commissioning and ongoing redesign. The lepton collider work has included work on TPC/2{gamma} at PEP and the OPAL detector at LEP, as well as efforts on hadron machines.

  17. Heavy quarks in hadronic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Peterson, C.

    1982-03-01

    It is suggested that the presence of c anti c-pairs on the 1 to 2% level in the hadron Fock state decomposition (intrinsic charm) gives a natural description of the ISR data for charm hadron production. The theoretical foundations of the intrinsic charm hypothesis together with its consequences for lepton- and hadron-induced reactions are discussed in some detail. There is no contradiction with the EMC data on F/sub 2//sup c/ provided the appropriate threshold dependence is taken into account.

  18. Fundamentals in hadronic atom theory

    CERN Document Server

    Deloff, A

    2003-01-01

    Hadronic atoms provide a unique laboratory for studying hadronic interactions essentially at threshold. This text is the first book-form exposition of hadronic atom theory with emphasis on recent developments, both theoretical and experimental. Since the underlying Hamiltonian is a non-self-adjoined operator, the theory goes beyond traditional quantum mechanics and this book covers topics that are often glossed over in standard texts on nuclear physics. The material contained here is intended for the advanced student and researcher in nuclear, atomic or elementary-particle physics. A good know

  19. Physics at Future Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Baur, U.; Parsons, J.; Albrow, M.; Denisov, D.; Han, T.; Kotwal, A.; Olness, F.; Qian, J.; Belyaev, S.; Bosman, M.; Brooijmans, G.; Gaines, I.; Godfrey, S.; Hansen, J.B.; Hauser, J.; Heintz, U.; Hinchliffe, I.; Kao, C.; Landsberg, G.; Maltoni, F.; Oleari, C.; Pagliarone, C.; Paige, F.; Plehn, T.; Rainwater, D.; Reina, L.; Rizzo, T.; Su, S.; Tait, T.; Wackeroth, D.; Vataga, E.; Zeppenfeld, D.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the physics opportunities and detector challenges at future hadron colliders. As guidelines for energies and luminosities we use the proposed luminosity and/or energy upgrade of the LHC (SLHC), and the Fermilab design of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). We illustrate the physics capabilities of future hadron colliders for a variety of new physics scenarios (supersymmetry, strong electroweak symmetry breaking, new gauge bosons, compositeness and extra dimensions). We also investigate the prospects of doing precision Higgs physics studies at such a machine, and list selected Standard Model physics rates.

  20. Descent of the last LHC dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The last of 1746 superconducting magnets is lowered into the LHC tunnel via a specially constructed pit at 12:00 on 26 April. This 15-m long dipole magnet is one of 1232 dipoles positioned around the 27-km circumference of the collider. Dipole magnets produce a magnetic field that bends the particle beams around the circular accelerator.

  1. Pulsar Pair Cascades in a Distorted Magnetic Dipole Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a distorted neutron star dipole magnetic field on pulsar pair cascade multiplicity and pair death lines. Using a simple model for a distorted dipole field that produces an offset polar cap (PC), we derive the accelerating electric field above the PC in space-charge-limited flow. We find that even a modest azimuthally asymmetric distortion can significantly increase the accelerating electric field on one side of the PC and, combined with a smaller field line radius of curvature, leads to larger pair multiplicity. The death line for producing pairs by curvature radiation moves downward in the P-P-dot diagram, allowing high pair multiplicities in a larger percentage of the radio pulsar population. These results could have important implications for the radio pulsar population, high energy pulsed emission, and the pulsar contribution to cosmic ray positrons.

  2. Excitonic giant-dipole potentials in cuprous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Markus; Grünwald, Peter; Scheel, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we predict the existence of a novel species of Wannier excitons when exposed to crossed electric and magnetic fields. In particular, we present a theory of giant-dipole excitons in Cu2O in crossed fields. Within our theoretical approach we perform a pseudoseparation of the center-of-mass motion for the field-dressed excitonic species, thereby obtaining an effective single-particle Hamiltonian for the relative motion. For arbitrary gauge fields we exactly separate the gauge-dependent kinetic-energy terms from the effective single-particle interaction potential. Depending on the applied field strengths and the specific field orientation, the potential for the relative motion of electron and hole exhibits an outer well at spatial separations up to several micrometers and depths up to 380 μ eV , leading to possible permanent excitonic electric dipole moments of around 3 ×106 D.

  3. Anomalous Effects from Dipole-Environment Quantum Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Porcelli, Elio B

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analyze anomalous effects observed in the operation of two different technological devices: a magnetic core and a parallel plate (symmetrical or asymmetrical) capacitor. From experimental measurements on both devices, we detected small raised anomalous forces that cannot be explained by known interactions in the traditional theories. As the variations of device inertia have not been completely understood by means of current theories, we here propose a theoretical framework in which the anomalous effects can consistently be explained by a preexisting state of quantum entanglement between the external environment and either magnetic dipoles of magnetic cores or electric dipoles of capacitors, so that the effects would be manifested by the application of a strong magnetic field on the former or an intense electric field on the latter. The values of the macroscopic observables calculated in such a theoretical framework revealed good agreement with the experimental measurements performed in both c...

  4. A Hadron Radiation Installation and Verification Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.J.; Bom, V.R.

    2013-01-01

    A hadron radiation installation adapted to subject a target to irradiation by a hadron radiation beam, said installation comprising: - a target support configured to support, preferably immobilize, a target: - a hadron radiation apparatus adapted to emit a hadron radiation beam along a beam axis to

  5. Critical behavior of isotropic three-dimensional systems with dipole-dipole interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belim, S. M., E-mail: sbelim@mail.ru [Dostoevsky Omsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15

    The critical behavior of Heisenberg magnets with dipole-dipole interactions near the line of second-order phase transitions directly in three-dimensional space is investigated in terms of a field-theoretic approach. The dependences of critical exponents on the dipole-dipole interaction parameter are derived. Comparison with experimental facts is made.

  6. Lattice QCD spectroscopy for hadronic CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jordy; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Seng, Chien-Yeah; Walker-Loud, André

    2017-03-01

    The interpretation of nuclear electric dipole moment (EDM) experiments is clouded by large theoretical uncertainties associated with nonperturbative matrix elements. In various beyond-the-Standard Model scenarios nuclear and diamagnetic atomic EDMs are expected to be dominated by CP-violating pion-nucleon interactions that arise from quark chromo-electric dipole moments. The corresponding CP-violating pion-nucleon coupling strengths are, however, poorly known. In this work we propose a strategy to calculate these couplings by using spectroscopic lattice QCD techniques. Instead of directly calculating the pion-nucleon coupling constants, a challenging task, we use chiral symmetry relations that link the pion-nucleon couplings to nucleon sigma terms and mass splittings that are significantly easier to calculate. In this work, we show that these relations are reliable up to next-to-next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion in both SU (2) and SU (3) chiral perturbation theory. We conclude with a brief discussion about practical details regarding the required lattice QCD calculations and the phenomenological impact of an improved understanding of CP-violating matrix elements.

  7. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  8. Lare Hadron Collider faces today

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartwright, Jon

    2007-01-01

    "The start-up of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN could be delayed after three of the magnets used to focus and manipulate the accelerator's proton beams failed premilinary tests at CERN earlier this week." (1 page)

  9. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument.

  10. Physics at Hadronic Colliders course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Present and future hadron colliders play an important role in the investigation of fundamental questions of particle physics. After an introductory lecture, tests of the Standard Model and measurements of its parameters (like the mass of the top quark) at hadron colliders are presented. In addition, it will be discussed how the Higgs boson can be searched for at hadron colliders and how "New Physics", i.e. physics beyond the Standard Model, can be explored. Results are presented from the currently ongoing run at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at the US research lab Fermilab. In addition, the rich physics potential of the experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is discussed. Note: Prerequisite Knowledge: - The Standard Model (Lecture by A. Pich) - Beyond The Standard Model (Lecture by E. Kiritsis)

  11. Fixed target hadron production measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Panman, J

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of light hadron production cross-sections in proton-nucleus interactions is an important prerequisite to the analysis of a wide variety of experiments. One of the important limiting factors for the precision of accelerator based and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments is the uncertainty in the composition and spectrum of the neutrino flux. Cosmic-ray experiments detecting extensive air-showers can greatly improve their ability to interpret the data when precise hadron production spectra are available over a large range of energies. Dedicated hadron production experiments have been taking data recently and are now publishing their results. Other experiments have just started their data-taking and plan to supply measurements which can significantly extend the kinematic range in which data will be available. Early measurements at the LHC can extend this range to much higher energies than available up to now. Recent results will be shown and compared with hadronic production models. An outl...

  12. Effects of 2 particle-2 hole configurations on dipole states in neutron-rich N = 80-84 isotones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenyev, N. N.; Severyukhin, A. P.; Voronov, V. V.; Van Giai, Nguyen

    2017-11-01

    Starting from the Skyrme interaction SLy4 we study the effects of 2 particle-2 hole configurations on the low-energy electric dipole response in 130-134Sn. It is shown that the pygmy dipole resonance properties are correlated with the neutron skin thickness. The two-phonon configurations give a considerable contribution to the low-lying E1 strength.

  13. Hadronic {tau} decays and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davier, M

    1999-12-01

    Hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton provide a clean source to study hadron dynamics in an energy regime dominated by resonances, with the interesting information captured in the spectral functions. Recent results on exclusive channels are reviewed. Inclusive spectral functions are the basis for QCD analyses, delivering an accurate determination of the strong coupling constant and quantitative information on nonperturbative contributions. Strange decays yield a determination of the strange quark mass. (author)

  14. Hadron physics with KLOE-2

    CERN Document Server

    Czerwinski, Eryk; Babusci, D; Badoni, D; Bencivenni, G; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Bulychjev, S A; Campana, P; Capon, G; Ceradini, F; Ciambrone, P; Czerwinski, E; Dane, E; De Lucia, E; De Robertis, G; De Santis, A; De Zorzi, G; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Micco, B; Domenici, D; Erriquez, O; Felici, G; Fiore, S; Franzini, P; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gonnella, F; Graziani, E; Happacher, F; Hoistad, B; Iarocci, E; Jacewicz, M; Johansson, T; Kulikov, V V; Kupsc, A; Lee-Franzini, J; Loddo, F; Martemianov, M A; Martini, M; Matsyuk, M A; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moricciani, D; Morello, G; Moskal, P; Nguyen, F; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Ranieri, A; Santangelo, P; Sarra, I; Schioppa, M; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Silarski, M; Taccini, C; Tortora, L; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Wislicki, W; Wolke, M; Zdebik, J

    2010-01-01

    In the upcoming month the KLOE-2 data taking campaign will start at the upgraded DAFNE phi-factory of INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati. The main goal is to collect an integrated luminosity of about 20 fb^(-1) in 3-4 years in order to refine and extend the KLOE program on both kaon physics and hadron spectroscopy. Here the expected improvements on the results of hadron spectroscopy are presented and briefly discussed.

  15. Gauge invariant determination of charged hadron masses arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Martin; Patella, Agostino; Tantalo, Nazario

    In this paper we show, for the first time, that charged-hadron masses can be calculated on the lattice without relying on gauge fixing at any stage of the calculations. In our simulations we follow a recent proposal and formulate full QCD+QED on a finite volume, without spoiling locality, by imposing C-periodic boundary conditions in the spatial directions. Electrically charged states are interpolated with a class of operators, originally suggested by Dirac and built as functionals of the photon field, that are invariant under local gauge transformations. We show that the quality of the numerical signal of charged-hadron masses is the same as in the neutral sector and that charged-neutral mass splittings can be calculated with satisfactory accuracy in this setup. We also discuss how to describe states of charged hadrons with real photons in a fully gauge-invariant way by providing a first evidence that the proposed strategy can be numerically viable.

  16. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Since the beginning of 2007, HCAL has made significant progress in the installation and commissioning of both hardware and software. A large fraction of the physical Hadron Calorimeter modules have been installed in UX5. In fact, the only missing pieces are HE- and part of HO. The HB+/- were installed in the cryostat in March. HB scintillator layer-17 was installed above ground before the HB were lowered. The HB- scintillator layer-0 was installed immediately after completion of EB- installation. HF/HCAL Commissioning The commissioning and checkout of the HCAL readout electronics is also proceeding at a rapid pace in Bldg. 904 and USC55. All sixteen crates of HCAL VME readout electronics have been commissioned and certified for service. Fifteen are currently operating in the S2 level of USC55. The last crate is being used for firmware development in the Electronics Integration Facility in 904. All installed crates are interfaced to their VME computers and receive synchronous control from the fully-equipp...

  17. Late effects from hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  18. Late effects from hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Eleanor A; Chang, Polly Y

    2004-12-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  19. Black Saturn with dipole ring

    OpenAIRE

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2007-01-01

    We present a new stationary, asymptotically flat solution of 5D Einstein-Maxwell gravity describing a Saturn-like black object: a rotating black hole surrounded by a rotating dipole black ring. The solution is generated by combining the vacuum black Saturn solution and the vacuum black ring solution with appropriately chosen parameters. Some basic properties of the solution are analyzed and the basic quantities are calculated.

  20. Aperture measurements with AC dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Fuster Martinez, Nuria; Dilly, Joschua Werner; Nevay, Laurence James; Bruce, Roderik; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Redaelli, Stefano; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    During the MDs performed on the 15th of September and 29th of November 2017, we measured the LHC global aperture at injection with a new AC dipole method as well as using the Transverse Damper (ADT) blow-up method used during the 2017 LHC commissioning for benchmarking. In this note, the MD procedure is presented as well as the analysis of the comparison between the two methods. The possible benefits of the new method are discussed.

  1. Method to obtain standard pseudosections from pseudo pole-dipole arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmunt, Fabián; Marcuello, Alex

    2011-11-01

    This study deals with electrical resistivity tomography data and it is addressed at obtaining, from linear combinations of data, other datasets not directly measured. The method presented here allows performing the fieldwork systematically, without deciding the type of the more suitable common electrode array (e.g. Wenner, Wenner-Schlumberger, dipole-dipole or multiple-gradient) until or even after the interpretation time. The electrode configuration used by this method is denoted as pseudo pole-dipole array, because it is based on the standard pole-dipole one, but avoiding the disadvantage of locating the remote electrode far away from the profile (to "infinity"). The pseudo pole-dipole datasets can be acquired with common equipment using standard pole-dipole recording sequences. Once the desired datasets have been calculated, they can be inverted using standard interpretation software. The procedure used allows a data quality control to be introduced that is similar to the one based on normal and reciprocal measurements. To assess the method we considered noise-contaminated model responses as well as field data. It has been applied to build dipole-dipole and Wenner-Schlumberger datasets. Results show the suitability of both, the proposed method and the quality control.

  2. Dipole-induced exchange bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Felipe; Morales, Rafael; Schuller, Ivan K; Kiwi, Miguel

    2017-11-09

    The discovery of dipole-induced exchange bias (EB), switching from negative to positive sign, is reported in systems where the antiferromagnet and the ferromagnet are separated by a paramagnetic spacer (AFM-PM-FM). The magnitude and sign of the EB is determined by the cooling field strength and the PM thickness. The same cooling field yields negative EB for thin spacers, and positive EB for thicker ones. The EB decay profile as a function of the spacer thickness, and the change of sign, are attributed to long-ranged dipole coupling. Our model, which accounts quantitatively for the experimental results, ignores the short range interfacial exchange interactions of the usual EB theories. Instead, it retains solely the long range dipole field that allows for the coupling of the FM and AFM across the PM spacer. The experiments allow for novel switching capabilities of long range EB systems, while the theory allows description of the structures where the FM and AFM are not in atomic contact. The results provide a new approach to design novel interacting heterostructures.

  3. Approaching ultimate intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio with loop and dipole antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, Riccardo; Wiggins, Graham C; Zhang, Bei; Duan, Qi; Brown, Ryan; Sodickson, Daniel K

    2017-07-04

    Previous work with body-size objects suggested that loops are optimal MR detectors at low fields, whereas electric dipoles are required to maximize signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at ultrahigh fields ( ≥ 7 T). Here we investigated how many loops and/or dipoles are needed to approach the ultimate intrinsic SNR (UISNR) at various field strengths. We calculated the UISNR inside dielectric cylinders mimicking different anatomical regions. We assessed the performance of various arrays with respect to the UISNR. We validated our results by comparing simulated and experimental coil performance maps. Arrays with an increasing number of loops can rapidly approach the UISNR at fields up to 3 T, but are suboptimal at ultrahigh fields for body-size objects. The opposite is true for dipole arrays. At 7 T and above, 16 dipoles provide considerably larger central SNR than any possible loop array, and minimal g factor penalty for parallel imaging. Electric dipoles can be advantageous at ultrahigh fields because they can produce both curl-free and divergence-free currents, whereas loops are limited to divergence-free contributions only. Combining loops and dipoles may be optimal for body imaging at 3 T, whereas arrays of loops or dipoles alone may perform better at lower or higher field strengths, respectively. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Heat transfer in electrical insulation of LHC cables cooled with superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Meuris, C; Leroy, D; Szeless, Balázs

    1999-01-01

    The electrical insulation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) cables constitutes a thermal barrier between the conductor and the superfluid helium bath. This can prevent removal of the heat dissipated in the cable by the current rise in the dipoles or by the beam losses. The main experimental results, obtained with stacks of insulated conductors representing a piece of the actual coil, are given. The mock-ups vary only by the material composition and the structure of the electrical insulation. Analysis of the temperature distribution measured in the conductors as a function of the dissipated heat power makes it possible to determine the dominant heat transfer mode in each type of tested insulation and to classify these according to their permeability to superfluid helium. Thermal numerical modelling of the experimental mock-ups clarifies the heat transfer path in the complex structure of the insulation and enables calculation of values of the thermal quantities characteristic of each insulation. The results of...

  5. Faster ramp of LHC for use as an FCC High Energy hadron Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Milanese, A; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    This note examines the feasibility of ramping the LHC magnets faster than the present operation, in view of a reuse of LHC as a High Energy hadron Booster. Such a synchrotron would inject 3.3 TeV beams into a larger Future Circular Collider. The main constraints are examined. The conclusion is that the ramp up could be shortened by a factor of 4, with the main dipoles ramping up at 50 A/s instead of 10 A/s and a modified formulation of the ramp function. On the hardware side this would require a voltage upgrade of the dipole power converters and a possible further splitting of the dipole circuits in halves. To make similar gains for the ramp down time, modifications to some of the one-quadrant power converters, would also be needed, including the main quadrupoles.

  6. Optimization of Open Midplane Dipole Design for LHC IR Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ramesh C; Ghosh, Arup; Harrison, Michael; Mokhov, Nikolai V; Schmalzle, Jesse D; Wanderer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The proposed ten-fold increase in Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity requires high field (~15 T) magnets that are subjected to the high radiation power of ~9 kW/per beam directed towards each interaction region. This has a major impact in the design of first dipole in the "Dipole First" optics. The proposed design allows sufficient clear space between coils so that most of the particle showers from the interaction points (concentrated at the midplane due to strong magnetic field) can be transported outside the coil region to a warm absorber thus drastically reducing the peak power density in the coils and removing heat at a higher (nitrogen) temperature. The concept, however, presents several new technical challenges: (a) obtaining good field quality despite a large midplane gap, (b) minimizing peak fields on coil, (c) dealing with large vertical forces with no structure between the coils, (d) minimizing heat deposition in the cold region, (e) designing a support structure. Designs with different horizont...

  7. Hanle-Zeeman Scattering Matrix for Magnetic Dipole Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megha, A.; Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Sankarasubramanian, K., E-mail: megha@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in, E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sankar@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560 034 (India)

    2017-06-01

    The polarization of the light that is scattered by the coronal ions is influenced by the anisotropic illumination from the photosphere and the magnetic field structuring in the solar corona. The properties of the coronal magnetic fields can be well studied by understanding the polarization properties of coronal forbidden emission lines that arise from magnetic dipole ( M 1) transitions in the highly ionized atoms that are present in the corona. We present the classical scattering theory of the forbidden lines for a more general case of arbitrary-strength magnetic fields. We derive the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions using the classical magnetic dipole model of Casini and Lin and applying the scattering matrix approach of Stenflo. We consider a two-level atom model and neglect collisional effects. The scattering matrix so derived is used to study the Stokes profiles formed in coronal conditions in those regions where the radiative excitations dominate collisional excitations. To this end, we take into account the integration over a cone of an unpolarized radiation from the solar disk incident on the scattering atoms. Furthermore, we also integrate along the line of sight to calculate the emerging polarized line profiles. We consider radial and dipole magnetic field configurations and spherically symmetric density distributions. For our studies we adopt the atomic parameters corresponding to the [Fe xiii] 10747 Å coronal forbidden line. We also discuss the nature of the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions and compare it with that for the electric dipole ( E 1) transitions.

  8. New Formulas for HED (Horizontal Electric Dipole), HMD (Horizontal Magnetic Dipole), VED (Vertical Electric Dipole), and VMD (Vertical Magnetic Dipole) Subsurface-to-Subsurface Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    p21r(I+iW1)2111 SWP l sin -YO _Yvh 27ry 1 p 3 1 fY~PW + -yop(1 + F)]e ’e 1 Y~he-YI (12 + l2y~p + 4y )ip0 (1 Co ypF) eTOP eYi .y%2 1 2 1p ) 2wp 2 - Y...Washington, Rosslyn Plaza, Arlington, VA 1 NOAA/ERL (Dr. C. Gordon Little) R45 1 Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (Dr. S. J. Durrani) Code 800.1 1 ITS, Office of...P.O. Box 1263, Berkeley 1 National Aeronautical Est., National Research Council, Flight Research Lab., (Dr. C. 0. Harwick) Ottawa, KIAOR6, Canada 1

  9. Design of a Large Single-Aperture Dipole Magnet for HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Qingjin, Xu; Iio, Masami; Ogitsu, Toru; Sasaki, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Akira; Todesco, Ezio

    2013-01-01

    An upgrade of the low-beta insertion system for the ATLAS and Compact Muon Solenoid experiments is proposed in the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider upgrade project. It includes final beam focusing quadrupoles, beam separation and recombination dipoles, and larger aperture matching section quadrupoles. KEK is in charge of the conceptual design of the large aperture separation dipole D1. The latest design parameters are a main field of ~ 5 T at 1.9 K with Nb-Ti superconducting technology, a coil aperture of 160 mm, and a cos-theta one-layer coil with Large Hadron Collider dipole cable. Because the new D1 is expected to be operated in a very high radiation environment, radiation resistance and a cooling scheme are being carefully considered. The collaring-yoke structure is adopted to provide the mechanical support for the single-layer Nb-Ti coil. We summarize the design study of this magnet, including i) the very large iron saturation effect on field quality due to the large aperture and limited size of the...

  10. Single spin asymmetries in hadron-hadron collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Bacchetta, A.; Bomhof, C. J.; Mulders, P. J.; Pijlman, F.

    2005-01-01

    We study weighted azimuthal single spin asymmetries in hadron-hadron scattering using the diagrammatic approach at leading order and assuming factorization. The effects of the intrinsic transverse momenta of the partons are taken into account. We show that the way in which $T$-odd functions, such as the Sivers function, appear in these processes does not merely involve a sign flip when compared with semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, such as in the case of the Drell-Yan process. Expres...

  11. A new hadron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Stephen Lars [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-22

    Many candidate multiquark mesons, i.e., mesons with substructures that are more complex that the quark-antiquark prescription that is in the textbooks, have recently been observed. Many of the most recently observed candidate states are electrically charged and have the same spin and parity, namely J{sup P} = 1{sup +}. In this talk I give an overview of the current experimental situation with emphasis on some recent results.

  12. NLO evolution of color dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Balitsky; Giovanni Chirilli

    2008-01-01

    The small-x deep inelastic scattering in the saturation region is governed by the non-linear evolution of Wilson-lines operators. In the leading logarithmic approximation it is given by the BK equation for the evolution of color dipoles. In the next-to-leaing order the BK equation gets contributions from quark and gluon loops as well as from the tree gluon diagrams with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. We calculate the gluon contribution to small-x evolution of Wilson lines (the quark part was obtained earlier).

  13. τ dipole moments via radiative leptonic τ decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidelman, S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS,Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University,Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Epifanov, D. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS,Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University,Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Fael, M. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics,University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Mercolli, L. [Federal Office of Public Health FOPH,CH-3003 Bern (Switzerland); Passera, M. [INFN - Sezione di Padova,I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-03-21

    We propose a new method to probe the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the τ lepton using precise measurements of the differential rates of radiative leptonic τ decays at high-luminosity B factories. Possible deviations of these moments from the Standard Model values are analyzed in an effective Lagrangian approach, thus providing model-independent results. Analytic expressions for the relevant non-standard contributions to the differential decay rates are presented. Earlier proposals to probe the τ dipole moments are examined. A detailed feasibility study of our method is performed in the conditions of the Belle and Belle II experiments at the KEKB and Super-KEKB colliders, respectively. This study shows that our approach, applied to the planned full set of Belle II data for radiative leptonic τ decays, has the potential to improve the present experimental bound on the τ anomalous magnetic moment. On the contrary, its foreseen sensitivity is not expected to lower the current experimental limit on the τ electric dipole moment.

  14. The COMPASS Hadron Spectroscopy Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Austregesilo, A

    2011-01-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS for the investigation of the structure and the dynamics of hadrons. The experimental setup features a large acceptance and high momentum resolution spectrometer including particle identification and calorimetry and is therefore ideal to access a broad range of different final states. Following the promising observation of a spin-exotic resonance during an earlier pilot run, COMPASS focused on light-quark hadron spectroscopy during the years 2008 and 2009. A data set, world leading in terms of statistics and resolution, has been collected with a 190GeV/c hadron beam impinging on either liquid hydrogen or nuclear targets. Spin-exotic meson and glueball candidates formed in both diffractive dissociation and central production are presently studied. Since the beam composition includes protons, the excited baryon spectrum is also accessible. Furthermore, Primakoff reactions have the potential to determine radiative widths of the resonances and to probe chiral pe...

  15. Hadronic tau decays and QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hocker, Andreas

    1997-01-01

    We present new results for the r hadronic spectral functions analysis using data accumulated by the ALEPH detector at LEP during the years 1991-94. The vector and the axial-vector spectral functions are determined from their respective unfolded, i.e., physical invariant mass spectra. The r vector and axial-vector hadronic widths and certain spectral moments are exploited to measure a, and nonperturbative contributions at the r mass scale. The best, and experimentally and theoretically most robust, determination of a,(Mr) is obtained from the inclusive (V + A) fit that yields a,(Mr) = 0.349 ± 0.018 giving a,(Mz) = 0.1 212 ± 0.0022 after the evolution to the mass of the Z boson. The approach of the Operator Product Expansion (OPE) is tested experimentally by means of an evolution of the r hadronic width to masses smaller than the r mass.

  16. Local Hadron Calibration in Atlas.

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The method of Local Hadron Calibration is used in Atlas as one of two major calibration schemes for hadronic signals like jets and missing transverse energy. Starting from noise suppressed energy clusters a modular chain of classification and corrections steps are applied to distinguish electro-magnetic from hadronic deposits and to compensate invisible energy losses, deposits in dead material and noise threshold related losses. Finally jet-level corrections take care of missing energy due to particles never reaching the calorimeter. The method and its application to single charged and neutral pion simulations as well as di-jet simulations are presented. First comparisons of MinBias simulations and real Atlas data at sqrt(s)=900 GeV are shown.

  17. History of hadron therapy accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-06-01

    In the last 60 years, hadron therapy has made great advances passing from a stage of pure research to a well-established treatment modality for solid tumours. In this paper the history of hadron therapy accelerators is reviewed, starting from the first cyclotrons used in the thirties for neutron therapy and passing to more modern and flexible machines used nowadays. The technical developments have been accompanied by clinical studies that allowed the selection of the tumours which are more sensitive to this type of radiotherapy. This paper aims at giving a review of the origin and the present status of hadron therapy accelerators, describing the technological basis and the continuous development of this application to medicine of instruments developed for fundamental science. At the end the present challenges are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular dynamics of polarizable point dipole models for molten NaI. Comparison with first principles simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trullàs J.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations of molten NaI at 995 K have been carried out using polarizable ion models based on rigid ion pair potentials to which the anion induced dipole polarization is added. The polarization is added in such a way that point dipoles are induced on the anions by both local electric field and deformation short-range damping interactions that oppose the electrically induced dipole moments. The structure and self-diffusion results are compared with those obtained by Galamba and Costa Cabral using first principles Hellmann-Feynman molecular dynamics simulations and using classical molecular dynamics of a shell model which allows only the iodide polarization

  19. Inductively Shorted Bicone Fed Tapered Dipole Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inductively Shorted Bicone Fed Tapered Dipole Antenna 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Attorney Docket No. 84449 1 INDUCTIVELY SHORTED BICONE FED TAPERED DIPOLE ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described...Invention [0003] The invention generally relates to RF antennas and more specifically to bicone and dipole antennas. (2) Description of the Prior Art

  20. Hadron scattering, resonances, and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceno, Raul [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The non-perturbative nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has historically left a gap in our understanding of the connection between the fundamental theory of the strong interactions and the rich structure of experimentally observed phenomena. For the simplest properties of stable hadrons, this is now circumvented with the use of lattice QCD (LQCD). In this talk I discuss a path towards a rigorous determination of few-hadron observables from LQCD. I illustrate the power of the methodology by presenting recently determined scattering amplitudes in the light-meson sector and their resonance content.

  1. Neutral dipole-dipole dimers: A new field in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosower, Edward M.; Borz, Galina

    2018-03-01

    Dimer formation with dipole neutralization produces species such as low polarity water (LPW) compatible with hydrophobic surfaces (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2015, 17, 24895-24900) Dimerization and dipole neutralization occurs for N-methylacetamide on polyethylene, a behavior drastically different from its contortions in acetonitrile on AgBr:AgCl planar crystals (AgX) (ChemPhysChem 2014, 15, 3598-3607). The weak infrared absorption of the amide dimer on polyethylene is shown experimentally. Dimerization of palmitic acid is shown along with some of the many ramifications for intracellular systems. Polyoligomers of water are present on polyethylene surfaces. Some high resolution spectra of three of the polyoligomers of water are shown along with a mechanistic scheme for polyoligomer formation and dissolution. The structures of some of the oligomers are known from spectroscopic studies of water on AgX. The scope of the article begins with PE, generally accepted as hydrophobic. The IR of PE revealed not only that water was present but that it appeared in two forms, oligomers (O) and polyoligomers (PO). How did we recognize what they were? These species had been observed as especially strong "marker" peaks in the spectra1 of water placed on planar AgX, a platform developed by Katzir and his coworkers [6]. But there was a problem: the proximity to PE of oligomers with substantial (calculated) dipole moments and thus polarity, including cyclic hexamers of water (chair and boat forms), the cyclic pentamer, the books I and II, and the cyclic trimer [7a]. Another link was needed, a role perfectly fit by the already cited low polarity water (LPW). The choice was experimentally supported by the detection of low intensity absorption in the bending region.Some important generalities flow from these results. What other dimers might be present in the biological or chemical world? Palmitic acid dimer (PAD) would be a candidate for decreasing the polarity of the acid (PA). Another

  2. Progress on the Development of the $Nb_3Sn$ 11T Dipole for the High Luminosity Upgrade of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Savary, Frederic; Bordini, Bernardo; Bottura, Luca; Fiscarelli, Lucio; Fleiter, Jerome; Foussat, Arnaud; Izquierdo Bermudez, Susana; Karppinen, Mikko; Lackner, Friedrich; Loffler, Christian H; Nilsson, Emelie; Perez, Juan Carlos; Prin, Herve; Principe, Rosario; Ramos, Delio; de Rijk, Gijs; Rossi, Lucio; Smekens, David; Sequeira Tavares, Sandra; Willering, Gerard; Zlobin, Alexander V

    2017-01-01

    The high-luminosity large hadron collider (LHC) project at CERN entered into the production phase in October 2015 after the completion of the design study phase. In the meantime, the development of the 11 T dipole needed for the upgrade of the collimation system of the machine made significant progress with very good performance of the first two-in-one magnet model of 2-m length made at CERN. The 11 T dipole, which is more powerful than the current main dipoles of LHC, can be made shorter with an equivalent integrated field. This will allow creating space for the installation of additional collimators in specific locations of the dispersion suppressor regions. Following tests carried out during heavy ions runs of LHC in the end of 2015, and a more recent review of the project budget, the installation plan for the 11 T dipole was revised. Consequently, one 11 T dipole full assembly containing two 11 T dipoles of 5.5-m length will be installed on either side of interaction point 7. These two units shall be inst...

  3. Testing of a Single 11 T $Nb_3Sn$ Dipole Coil Using a Dipole Mirror Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, Alexander [Fermilab; Andreev, Nicolai [Fermilab; Barzi, Emanuela [Fermilab; Chlachidze, Guram [Fermilab; Kashikhin, Vadim [Fermilab; Nobrega, Alfred [Fermilab; Novitski, Igor [Fermilab; Turrioni, Daniele [Fermilab; Karppinen, Mikko [CERN; Smekens, David [CERN

    2014-07-01

    FNAL and CERN are developing an 11 T Nb3Sn dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. To optimize coil design parameters and fabrication process and study coil performance, a series of 1 m long dipole coils is being fabricated. One of the short coils has been tested using a dipole mirror structure. This paper describes the dipole mirror magnetic and mechanical designs, and reports coil parameters and test results.

  4. Measurement of the B hadron lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decamp, D.; Deschizeaux, B.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Alemany, R.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mato, P.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Tubau, E.; Catanesi, M. G.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Gao, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Lou, J.; Qiao, C.; Ruan, T.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Albrecht, H.; Atwood, W. B.; Bird, F.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Brown, D.; Burnett, T. H.; Drevermann, H.; Dydak, F.; Forty, R. W.; Grab, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Haywood, S.; Jost, B.; Kasemann, M.; Kellner, G.; Knobloch, J.; Lacourt, A.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Lüke, D.; Marchioro, A.; Martinez, M.; May, J.; Menary, S.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Nash, J.; Palazzi, P.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Roth, A.; Rothberg, J.; Rotscheidt, H.; von Rüden, W.; St. Denis, R.; Schlatter, D.; Takashima, M.; Talby, M.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wheeler, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Falvard, A.; El Fellous, R.; Gay, P.; Harvey, J.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Stimpfl, G.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nielsen, E. R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Bourotte, J.; Braems, F.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Gamess, A.; Guirlet, R.; Rosowsky, A.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Veitch, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Massimo-Brancaccio, F.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Nicoletti, G.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Zografou, P.; Altoon, B.; Boyle, O.; Halley, A. W.; Have, I. Ten; Hearns, J. L.; Lynch, J. G.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Patton, S. J.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Taylor, G.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Rowlingson, B. S.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Barczewski, T.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Roehn, S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Albanese, J.-P.; Aubert, J.-J.; Benchouk, C.; Bernard, V.; Bonissent, A.; Courvoisier, D.; Etienne, F.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Qian, Z.; Blum, W.; Cattaneo, P.; Cowan, G.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Jahn, A.; Kozanecki, W.; Lange, E.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Pan, Y.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Stierlin, U.; Thomas, J.; Wolf, G.; Bertin, V.; de Bouard, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, X.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Ganis, G.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Journé, V.; Kim, D. W.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, J.-M.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Moneta, L.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini-Castaldi, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Saich, M. R.; Strong, J. A.; Thomas, R. M.; West, L. R.; Wildish, T.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Klopfenstein, C.; Lançon, E.; Locci, E.; Loucatos, S.; Monnier, E.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Ashan, J. G.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carney, R.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dinsdale, M.; Dogru, M.; Hatfield, F.; Martin, J.; Parker, D.; Reeves, P.; Thompson, L. F.; Brandt, S.; Burkhardt, H.; Grupen, C.; Meinhard, H.; Mirabito, L.; Neugebauer, E.; Schäfer, U.; Seywerd, H.; Apollinari, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Liello, F.; Rolandi, L.; Stiegler, U.; Bellantoni, L.; Boudreau, J. F.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Deweerd, A. J.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, J. E.; Jared, R. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Leclaire, B. W.; Pan, Y. B.; Pater, J. R.; Saadi, Y.; Sharma, V.; Walsh, M. A.; Wear, J. A.; Weber, F. V.; Whitney, M. H.; Lan Wu, Sau Lan Wu; Zhou, Z. L.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1991-03-01

    The average lifetime of B hadrons has been measured by the ALEPH experiment at LEP. Events containing B hadrons are selected by the identification of leptons with high transverse momentum in hadronic Z decays, and the lifetime is extracted from a fit to the impact parameter distribution of the lepton tracks. From a sample of 1.7×10 5 hadronic Z decays a lifetime of 1.29±0.06±0.10 ps is measured.

  5. Solitary excitations in discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with dispersive dipole-dipole interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Johansson, M.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with long-range dispersive interactions is investigated. In particular, we focus on the cases where the dispersion arises from a dipole-dipole interaction, assuming the dipole moments at each lattice site to be aligned either...

  6. 16th International Conference on Hadron Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this conference is to review the status, progress and future plans of the field of hadron spectroscopy, and relate these to understanding hadron dynamics. This series of biennial conferences began in 1985 at College Park, Maryland, USA, with the 15th conference held in Nara, Japan in November 2013. Hadron 2015 will be organized by Jefferson Lab.

  7. Hadron bubbles in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troitskii, M.A.; Khodel' , V.A.

    1983-08-25

    Nonlinear effects in the interaction of hadrons with a nucleus are analyzed. It is shown that K/sup +/ mesons form bubbles in nuclear matter which are similar to electron bubbles in liquid helium. Charged pions produced in collisions of heavy relativistic ions may collect and form droplets approx.5--7 Fm in size containing approx.10/sup 2/ particles.

  8. LHCB : Exotic hadrons at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Salazar De Paula, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The latest years have seen a resurrection of interest in searches for exotic states motivated by tantalising observations by Belle and CDF. Using the data collected at pp collisions at 7 and 8 TeV by the LHCb experiment we present the unambiguous new observation of exotic charmonia hadrons produced in B decays.

  9. A PARTNERship for hadron therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    PARTNER, the Particle Training Network for European Radiotherapy, has recently been awarded 5.6 million euros by the European Commission. The project, which is coordinated by CERN, has been set up to train researchers of the future in hadron therapy and in doing so aid the battle against cancer.

  10. Hadron structure from lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Martha

    2017-09-01

    More than 99 per cent of the mass of the visible world resides in hadrons which are bound states of quarks and gluons, the fundamental constituents of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The proton is at the heart of the hadronic matter and is an ideal laboratory for studying the QCD dynamics. Lattice QCD (LQCD) is a powerful non-perturbative tool for the ab inition calculation of hadron observables that are well determined experimentally, or not easily accessible in experiment. Progress in the simulation of LQCD has been impressive, mainly due to improvements in the algorithms, development of new techniques and increase in computational power, that have enabled simulations to be carried out at parameters very close to their physical values. In this talk I will present recent developments in hadron structure focusing on achievements in the evaluation of nucleon quantities, such as the nucleon charges, form factors, and gluonic contributions, in view of simulations close or at the physical value of the pion mass. I will also discuss the enormous efforts towards a new direct approach to compute quark parton distributions functions on the lattice. Work partly supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, within the framework of the TMD Topical Collaboration.

  11. Top production at hadron colliders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New results on top quark production are presented from four hadron collider experiments: CDF and D0 at the Tevatron, and ATLAS and CMS at the LHC. Cross-sections for single top and top pair production are discussed, as well as results on the top–antitop production asymmetry and searches for new physics including ...

  12. Theoretical predictions for exotic hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computational and Theoretical Physics Group]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1996-12-31

    In this contribution the authors discuss current theoretical expectations for the properties of light meson exotica, which are meson resonances outside the q{anti q} quark model. Specifically they discuss expectations for gluonic hadrons (glueballs and hybrids) and multiquark systems (molecules). Experimental candidates for these states are summarized, and the relevance of a TCF to these studies is stressed.

  13. Rare decays of b hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Koppenburg, Patrick; Smizanska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Rare decays of b hadrons provide a powerful way of identifying contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model, in particular from new hypothetical particles too heavy to be produced at colliders. The most relevant experimental measurements are reviewed and possible interpretations are briefly discussed.

  14. B physics at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.N.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    This paper discusses the physics opportunity and challenges for doing high precision B physics experiments at hadron colliders. It describes how these challenges have been addressed by the two currently operating experiments, CDF and D0, and how they are addressed by three experiments, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb, at the LHC.

  15. Hard QCD at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moch, S.

    2008-02-15

    We review the status of QCD at hadron colliders with emphasis on precision predictions and the latest theoretical developments for cross sections calculations to higher orders. We include an overview of our current information on parton distributions and discuss various Standard Model reactions such as W{sup {+-}}/Z-boson, Higgs boson or top quark production. (orig.)

  16. Charmed hadrons in nuclear medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, L.; Gamermann, D.; Garcia-Recio, C.; Molina, R.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.; Ramos, A.

    We study the properties of charmed hadrons in dense matter within a coupled-channel approach which accounts for Pauli blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner We analyze the behaviour in this dense environment of dynamically-generated baryonic resonances as well as the

  17. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument. It is being constructed by the European Organization for Nuclear Research, one of the world's largest particle physics laboratories.

  18. The very large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This paper reviews the purposes to be served by a very large hadron collider and the organization and coordination of efforts to bring it about. There is some discussion of magnet requirements and R&D and the suitability of the Fermilab site.

  19. Hadronic decays of $W$ bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, III, Richard Paul [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    We present evidence for hadronic W decays in t$\\bar{t}$ → lepton + neutrino + ≥ 4 jet events using a 109 pb -1 data sample of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF).

  20. Performance of the Main Dipole Magnet Circuits of the LHC during Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A; Ballarino, A; Bellesia, B; Bordry, Frederick; Cantone, A; Casas Lino, M; Castaneda Serra, A; Castillo Trello, C; Catalan-Lasheras, N; Charifoulline, Z; Coelingh, G; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; D'Angelo, G; Denz, R; Fehér, S; Flora, R; Gruwé, M; Kain, V; Khomenko, B; Kirby, G; MacPherson, A; Marqueta Barbero, A; Mess, K H; Modena, M; Mompo, R; Montabonnet, V; le Naour, S; Nisbet, D; Parma, V; Pojer, M; Ponce, L; Raimondo, A; Redaelli, S; Reymond, H; Richter, D; de Rijk, G; Rijllart, A; Romera Ramirez, I; Saban, R; Sanfilippo, S; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Thurel, Y; Thiessen, H; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Vergara Fernandez, A; Wolf, R; Zerlauth, M

    2008-01-01

    During hardware commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 8 main dipole circuits are tested at 1.9 K and up to their nominal current. Each dipole circuit contains 154 magnets of 15 m length, and has a total stored energy of up to 1.3 GJ. All magnets are wound from Nb-Ti superconducting Rutherford cables, and contain heaters to quickly force the transition to the normal conducting state in case of a quench, and hence reduce the hot spot temperature. In this paper the performance of the first three of these circuits is presented, focussing on quench detection, heater performance, operation of the cold bypass diodes, and magnet-to-magnet quench propagation. The results as measured on the entire circuits will be compared to the test results obtained during the reception tests of the individual magnets.

  1. Features of 10-M-long, 50-MM-Twin-aperture LHC dipole magnet prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee]|[CERN, Laboratoire Europeen pour la Physique des Particules, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1998-03-01

    In 1991, the Laboratoire Europeen pour la Physique des particules (CERN) has launched the fabrication in industry of seven 10-m long, 50-mm-twin-aperture dipole magnet prototypes for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Three of these prototypes were built in Italy, in collaboration with the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN, by Ansaldo Energia Spa, two were built in Germany by Noell GmbH, one was built in France by a consortium constituted by Jeumont Industries and GEC Alsthom, and the last one was built by a consortium constituted by Elin in Austria and Holec in the Netherlands. In this paper, we review the design and specific features of the seven LHC dipole magnet prototypes. (author) 21 refs.

  2. Development of a single-layer Nb3Sn common coil dipole model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor Novitski et al.

    2002-12-13

    A high-field dipole magnet based on the common coil design was developed at Fermilab for a future Very Large Hadron Collider. A short model of this magnet with a design field of 11 T in two 40-mm apertures is being fabricated using the react-and-wind technique. In order to study and optimize the magnet design two 165-mm long mechanical models were assembled and tested. A technological model consisting of magnet straight section and ends was also fabricated in order to check the tooling and the winding and assembly procedures. This paper describes the design and technology of the common coil dipole magnet and summarizes the status of short model fabrication.The results of the mechanical model tests and comparison with FE mechanical analysis are also presented.

  3. Exploring the Dipole Polarizability of $^{11}$Li at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Dipole polarizability refers to the effect of the excitation to negative parity states through the electric dipole interaction. In nuclear physics dipole polarizability has not yet played a major role. For nuclei close to the drip lines where the separation energies of neutrons (or protons) are small, a substantial part of the dipole strength function occurs at low excitation energies. We here propose to investigate this effect by measuring elastic scattering at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. REX-ISOLDE together with the new improved yields of $^{11}$Li provides the ideal setting for this experiment. We ask for a total of 24 shifts with proton beam plus 3 shifts of stable beam from a Ta-foil target.

  4. Induced dipole in vanadium-doped zinc oxide nanosheets and its effects on photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Song Mi; Shin, Sung-Ho; Nah, Junghyo; Lee, Min Hyung

    2017-09-01

    Appropriate control of energy band bending at the interface between semiconductors and electrolytes are closely related to performance of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Dipoles formed near the surface of semiconductors induces energy band bending at the interface. Energy band bending control has been demonstrated by employing charged molecules and piezoelectric materials. However, chemical and piezoelectric approaches have demerit of chemical instability and inducement of instantaneous dipole, respectively. To overcome these problems, we adopted the ferroelectric material for PEC water splitting, where spontaneous dipoles in the material can be oriented by applying external electric field. In this work, we hydrothermally synthesized vanadium (V)-doped ferroelectric ZnO nanosheets and employed to systematically investigate the dipole effect on performance of V-doped ZnO PEC for water oxidation. Consequently, positively polarized V-doped ZnO photoanode exhibits 125% enhanced water splitting efficiency compared to negatively polarized ones due to favorable band bending for carrier transport from semiconductor to water.

  5. Development of the 11 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole model at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, G; Arkan, T T; Barzi, E; Caspi, S; Chichili, D R; Chow, K; Kashikhin, V V; Limon, P J; Makarov, A A; Ozelis, J P; Terechkine, Yu; Tompkins, J C; Wake, M; Yadav, S; Yamada, R; Yarba, V A; Zlobin, A V

    2000-01-01

    A one meter long Nb/sub 3/Sn dipole model with 11 T nominal magnetic field in a 43.5 mm bore is being developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL and KEK as part of the R&D efforts for a future Very Large Hadron Collider. This paper describes the magnet design and fabrication procedure as well as summarizes the results of magnetic, mechanical and quench protection analyses. The main parameters of superconducting strand and cable are also reported. (12 refs).

  6. Anomalous correlation between hadron and electromagnetic particles in hadron and gamma-ray families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, M.

    1985-01-01

    Correlations between hadrons and electromagnetic particles were studied in the hadron-gamma families observed in the Chacaltaya emulsion chamber experiment. It is found that there exist a number of hadrons which associate electromagnetic showers in extraordinarily close vicinity. The probability to have such a large number of hadrons associating electromagnetic showers, expected from background calculation, is found to be negligibly small and it means there exists anomalous correlation between hadrons and electromagnetic particles in the characteristic spread of atmospheric electromagnetic cascade.

  7. Further Development of the Sextupole Dipole Corrector (MSCB) Magnet for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ang, Z; Bajko, M; Bottura, L; Coxill, D; Giloux, C; Ijspeert, Albert; Karppinen, M; Landgrebe, D; Walckiers, L

    2000-01-01

    Combined sextupole-dipole corrector magnets (MSCB) will be mounted in each half cell of the new Large Hadron Collider (LHC) being built at CERN. The dipole part, used for particle orbit corrections, will be powered individually and is designed for low current, originally 30 A but now 55 A. The sextupole part, used for chromaticity corrections, is connected via cold busbars in families of 12 or 13 magnets and is powered with 550 A. Several versions of this corrector magnet were tested as model magnets in order to develop the final design for the series. In the first design the coils are nested, with the dipole coil wound around the sextupole coil to obtain as short a magnet as possible, accepting the slight cross-talk between the coils due to persistent currents, and increased saturation effects. The design has evolved and an alternative design, in which the dipole and sextupole coils are separated, is now favored. Tests at 4.5 K and at 1.9 K were conducted to determine the training behavior, the field qualit...

  8. Final Report: Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, Jay [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Mauel, Michael [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-03-10

    Since the very first experiments with the LDX, research progress was rapid and significant. Initial experiments were conducted with the high-field superconducting coil suspended by three thin rods. These experiments produced long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges, lasting more than 10 s, having peak beta values of 20% [Garnier et al., Physics of Plasmas, 13 (2006) 056111]. High- beta, near steady-state discharges have been maintained in LDX for more than 20 seconds, and this capability made LDX the longest pulse fusion confinement experiment operating in the U.S. fusion program. A significant measure of progress in the LDX research program was the routine investigation of plasma confinement with a magnetically-levitated dipole and the resulting observations of confinement improvement. In both supported and levitated configurations, detailed measurements were made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. High-temperature plasma was created by multi frequency electron cyclotron resonance heating at 2.45 GHz, 6.4 GHz, 10.5 GHz and 28 GHz allowing control of heating profiles. Depending upon neutral fueling rates, the LDX discharges contain a fraction of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV. Depending on whether or not the superconducting dipole was levitated or supported, the peak thermal electron temperature was estimated to exceed 500 eV and peak densities to approach 1e18 m-3. We have found that levitation causes a strong inwards density pinch [Boxer et al., Nature Physics, 6 (2010) 207] and we have observed the central plasma density increase dramatically indicating a significant improvement in the confinement of a thermal plasma species.

  9. Microscopic evaluation of the nuclear dipole polarizability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipparini, E.; Orlandini, G.; Stringari, S.; Traini, M. (Trento Univ. (Italy). Dept. di Matematica e Fisica)

    1977-12-01

    The dipole polarizability sum rule has been evaluated by means of a restricted Hartree-Fock approach. The method leads to a simple and analytical expression for the dipole polarizability. Explicit calculations have been performed in /sup 16/O and /sup 40/Ca with different types of interaction.

  10. Radiation forces in the discrete dipole approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.G.; Frijlink, M.O.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The theory of the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) for light scattering is extended to allow for the calculation of radiation forces on each dipole in the DDA model. Starting with the theory of Draine and Weingartner [Astrophys. J. 470, 551 (1996)] we derive an expression for the radiation force

  11. Projected Dipole Model for Quantum Plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2015-01-01

    of classical electrodynamics, while quantum properties are described accurately through an infinitely thin layer of dipoles oriented normally to the metal surface. The nonlocal polarizability of the dipole layer-the only introduced parameter-is mapped from the free-electron distribution near the metal surface...

  12. Dipoles on a Two-leg Ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2013-01-01

    of lattice filling fractions, perpendicular hopping between the legs, and dipole interaction strength. We show that the system exhibits zig-zag ordering when the dipolar interactions are predominantly repulsive. As a function of dipole moment orientation with respect to the ladder, we find...

  13. The melting and abundance of open charm hadrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bazavov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ratios of cumulants of conserved net charge fluctuations are sensitive to the degrees of freedom that are carriers of the corresponding quantum numbers in different phases of strong interaction matter. Using lattice QCD with 2+1 dynamical flavors and quenched charm quarks we calculate second and fourth order cumulants of net charm fluctuations and their correlations with other conserved charges such as net baryon number, electric charge and strangeness. Analyzing appropriate ratios of these cumulants we probe the nature of charmed degrees of freedom in the vicinity of the QCD chiral crossover region. We show that for temperatures above the chiral crossover transition temperature, charmed degrees of freedom can no longer be described by an uncorrelated gas of hadrons. This suggests that the dissociation of open charm hadrons and the emergence of deconfined charm states sets in just near the chiral crossover transition. Till the crossover region we compare these lattice QCD results with two hadron resonance gas models—including only the experimentally established charmed resonances and also including additional states predicted by quark model and lattice QCD calculations. This comparison provides evidence for so far unobserved charmed hadrons that contribute to the thermodynamics in the crossover region.

  14. The dipole response of {sup 132}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, Philipp; Aumann, Thomas; Johansen, Jacob; Schindler, Fabia [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI Helmholtzzentrum (Germany); Rossi, Dominic [Michigan State University (United States); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Isovector Giant Dipole Resonance (IVGDR) is a well-known collective excitation in which all protons oscillate against all neutrons of a nucleus. In neutron-rich nuclei an additional low-lying dipole excitation occurs, often denoted as Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR). To study the PDR in exotic Sn-isotopes, an experiment has been successfully performed with the upgraded R{sup 3}B-LAND setup at GSI. The complete-kinematics measurement of all reaction participants allows for the reconstuction of the excitation energy and, hence, the extraction of the dipole strength. Presented are the main features of the experiment, the analysis concept and the current status of the analysis of the dipole response of the doubly-magic isotope {sup 132}Sn.

  15. One-loop factorization for inclusive hadron production in p-A collisions in the saturation formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirilli, Giovanni A; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng

    2012-03-23

    We demonstrate the QCD factorization for inclusive hadron production in p-A collisions in the saturation formalism at one-loop order, with explicit calculation of both real and virtual gluon radiation diagrams. In particular, we find that the cross section can be written into a factorization form in the coordinate space at the next-to-leading order, while the naive form of the convolution in the transverse momentum space does not hold. The collinear divergences associated with the incoming parton distribution of the nucleon and the outgoing fragmentation function of the final-state hadron, as well as the rapidity divergence with small-x dipole gluon distribution of the nucleus are factorized into the splittings of the associated parton distribution and fragmentation functions and the energy evolution of the dipole gluon distribution function. The hard coefficient function is evaluated at one-loop order, and contains no divergence.

  16. Single spin asymmetries in hadron-hadron collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, A.; Bomhof, C. J.; Mulders, P. J.; Pijlman, F.

    2005-08-01

    We study weighted azimuthal single spin asymmetries in hadron-hadron scattering using the diagrammatic approach at leading order and assuming factorization. The effects of the intrinsic transverse momenta of the partons are taken into account. We show that the way in which T-odd functions, such as the Sivers function, appear in these processes does not merely involve a sign flip when compared with semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, such as in the case of the Drell-Yan process. Expressions for the weighted scattering cross sections in terms of distribution and fragmentation functions folded with hard cross sections are obtained by introducing modified hard cross sections, referred to as gluonic-pole cross sections.

  17. Golden Hadrons 2004: and the winners are …

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    For the third year running, CERN has awarded a prize to its best LHC suppliers. Three companies were presented with the Golden Hadron 2004. On Friday 30 July, three of the two hundred suppliers for the LHC were presented with Golden Hadron awards by Lyn Evans. This is the third year that the awards have been presented. This year it was the turn of Alstom-MSA (France), Ernesto Malvestiti S.p.A. (Italy) and Simic S.p.A. (Italy) to receive awards, not only for their technical and financial achievements but also for their compliance with contractual deadlines. From left to right: Sandro Ferraris (SIMIC), Guiseppi Ginola (SIMIC), Gérard Grunblatt (ALSTOM), Phillippe Mocaer (ALSTOM), Gianfranco Malvestiti (ERNESTO MALVESTITI), Ernesto Malvestiti (ERNESTO MALVESTITI) Alstom-MSA was awarded the prize for manufacturing superconducting cable for the LHC's main magnets, the dipoles designed to steer the particles round the accelerator and the quadrupoles designed to focus the particle beams. Seven thousand kilometres ...

  18. FCC-hh Hadron Collider - Parameter Scenarios and Staging Options

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, F; Syphers, M J

    2015-01-01

    FCC-hh is a proposed future energy-frontier hadron collider, based on dipole magnets with a field around 16 T installed in a new tunnel with a circumference of about 100 km, which would provide proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 100 TeV, as well as heavy-ion collisions at the equivalent energy. The FCC-hh should deliver a high integrated proton-proton luminosity at the level of several 100 fb−1 per year, or more. The challenges for operating FCC-hh with high beam current and at high luminosity include the heat load from synchrotron radiation in a cold environment, the radiation from collision debris around the interaction region, and machine protection. In this paper, starting from the FCC-hh design baseline parameters we explore different approaches for increasing the integrated luminosity, and discuss the impact of key individual pa- rameters, such as the turnaround time. We also present some injector considerations and options for early hadron-collider operation.

  19. Black rings with fourth dipole cause less hair loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Borun D.

    2012-07-01

    An example of entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual was recently studied in [1]. The enigmatic bulk configurations, considered within the STU model, can be mapped under spectral flow into black rings with three monopole and dipole charges. Even though the bulk and CFT configurations existed in the same region of parameter space, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the bulk configurations was found to be lower than the microscopic entropy from the CFT. While it is possible that the difference in entropy is due to the bulk and boundary configurations being at different points in the moduli space, it is also possible that the bulk configurations embeddable within the STU model are not the most entropic. New families of BPS black ring solutions with four electric and four dipole magnetic charges have recently been explicitly constructed in [2]. These black rings are not embeddable within the STU model. In this paper we investigate if these black rings can be entropically dominant over the STU model black rings. We find that the new black rings are always entropically subdominant to the STU-model black rings. However, for small fourth dipole charge these black rings continue to be dominant over the BMPV in a small region of parameters and are thus enigmatic.

  20. An apparent paradox concerning the field of an ideal dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Edward

    2017-03-01

    The electric or magnetic field of an ideal dipole is known to have a Dirac delta function at the origin. The usual textbook derivation of this delta function is rather ad hoc and cannot be used to calculate the delta-function structure for higher multipole moments. Moreover, a naive application of Gauss’s law to the ideal dipole field appears to give an incorrect expression for the dipole’s effective charge density. We derive a general result for the delta-function structure at the origin of an arbitrary ideal multipole field without using any advanced techniques from distribution theory. We find that the divergence of a singular vector field can contain a derivative of a Dirac delta function even if the field itself does not contain a delta function. We also argue that a physical interpretation of the delta function in the dipole field previously given in the literature is perhaps misleading and may require clarification. Both the explanation of and the resolution to this ‘paradox’ should be accessible to someone who has taken a graduate- or advanced undergraduate-level course in classical electrodynamics.

  1. Search for anomalous weak dipole moments of the $\\tau$ lepton

    CERN Document Server

    Heister, A; Barate, R; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Pacheco, A; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Clerbaux, B; Drevermann, H; Forty, R W; Frank, M; Gianotti, F; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Hutchcroft, D E; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kado, M; Mato, P; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schneider, O; Sguazzoni, G; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Valassi, Andrea; Videau, I; Ward, J; Badaud, F; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Ciulli, V; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bossi, F; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Thompson, A S; Wasserbaech, S R; Cavanaugh, R J; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, P J; Girone, M; Marinelli, N; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Bowdery, C K; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Pearson, M R; Robertson, N A; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Bonissent, A; Coyle, P; Leroy, O; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Ragusa, F; David, A; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Settles, Ronald; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Lefrançois, J; Veillet, J J; Yuan, C; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Foà, L; Giammanco, A; Giassi, A; Ligabue, F; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Tenchini, Roberto; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Cowan, G; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Misiejuk, A; Strong, J A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Schuller, J P; Vallage, B; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Ngac, A; Prange, G; Giannini, G; Rothberg, J E; Armstrong, S R; Berkelman, K; Cranmer, K; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; Gonzáles, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Pan, Y B; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wiedenmann, W; Wu, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G; Dissertori, G

    2003-01-01

    The anomalous weak dipole moments of the $\\tau$ lepton are measured in a data sample collected by ALEPH from 1990 to 1995 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 155~pb$^{-1}$. Tau leptons produced in the reaction $e^+ e^- \\rightarrow \\tau^+ \\tau^-$ at energies close to the ${\\rm Z}$ mass are studied using their semileptonic decays to $\\pi$, $\\rho$, $a_1 \\rightarrow \\pi 2\\pi^0$ or $a_1 \\rightarrow 3 \\pi$. The real and imaginary components of both the anomalous weak magnetic dipole moment and the CP-violating anomalous weak electric dipole moment, $ {\\rm Re}\\,\\mu_{\\tau}$, ${\\rm Im}\\,\\mu_{\\tau}$, ${\\rm Re}\\,d_{\\tau}$ and ${\\rm Im}\\,d_{\\tau}$, are measured simultaneously by means of a likelihood fit built from the full differential cross section. No evidence of new physics is found. The following bounds are obtained (95\\% CL): $|{\\rm Re}\\, \\mu_{\\tau} | < 1.14 \\times 10^{-3}$, $|{\\rm Im}\\, \\mu_{\\tau} | < 2.65 \\times 10^{-3}$, $|{\\rm Re}\\, d_{\\tau} | < 0.91 \\times 10^{-3}$, and $|{\\rm Im}\\, d_{\\tau} ...

  2. Ordering of Dipoles in Different Types of Microtubule Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpišová, B.; Brown, J. A.

    Microtubules (MTs) are the largest protein polymers in the cytoskeleton of eucaryotic cells in which they perform various functions. They are important in cell division, cell movement, they seem to be the devices through which are transferred signals in the nervous system. In this paper we continued to investigate the hypothesis that MTs can be viewed as assemblies of dipoles which are carried by the MT subunits, tubulin heterodimers. These assemblies were studied by means of the two-dimensional Ising model for both the A- and B-type arrangements of the tubulin subunits in a MT and the number of protofilaments 12, 13 and 14. We found that depending on these parameters and the magnitudes and orientations of the dipoles a MT may be at body temperature in an ordered phase or in a phase characterized by a random configuration of dipoles. The type of the ordered phase is determined by the above parameters as well, and it can be ferroelectric, antiferroelectric or ferrielectric. The dipolar ordering also depends on the presence of microtubule associated proteins, assuming that they can locally alter the dipolar interactions by binding to a MT, and external electric fields. The model presented here started by Tuszyński1-3 can be one of the first steps in the theoretical investigation of the electromagnetic features of MTs and their role in the MT behavior.

  3. Schottky-contact plasmonic dipole rectenna concept for biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavirad, Mohammad; Mousavi, Saba Siadat; Roy, Langis; Berini, Pierre

    2013-02-25

    Nanoantennas are key optical components for several applications including photodetection and biosensing. Here we present an array of metal nano-dipoles supporting surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) integrated into a silicon-based Schottky-contact photodetector. Incident photons coupled to the array excite SPPs on the Au nanowires of the antennas which decay by creating "hot" carriers in the metal. The hot carriers may then be injected over the potential barrier at the Au-Si interface resulting in a photocurrent. High responsivities of 100 mA/W and practical minimum detectable powers of -12 dBm should be achievable in the infra-red (1310 nm). The device was then investigated for use as a biosensor by computing its bulk and surface sensitivities. Sensitivities of ∼ 250 nm/RIU (bulk) and ∼ 8 nm/nm (surface) in water are predicted. We identify the mode propagating and resonating along the nanowires of the antennas, we apply a transmission line model to describe the performance of the antennas, and we extract two useful formulas to predict their bulk and surface sensitivities. We prove that the sensitivities of dipoles are much greater than those of similar monopoles and we show that this difference comes from the gap in dipole antennas where electric fields are strongly enhanced.

  4. Slice of the LHC prototype beam tubes in dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    A slice of the LHC accelerator prototype beam tubes surrounded by magnets. The LHC will accelerate two proton beams in opposite directions. The high bending and accelerating fields needed can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC will be the largest superconducting installation ever built, a unique challenge for CERN and its industrial partners. About dipole magnets: There will be 1232 dipole magnets in the LHC, used to guide the particles around the 27 km ring. Dipole magnets must have an extremely uniform field, which means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. The temperature is measured to five thousandths of a degree, the current to one part in a million. The current creating the magnetic field will pass through superconducting wires at up to 12 500 amps, about 30 000 times the current flowing ...

  5. Aircraft Attitude/Heading Estimation Using a Dipole Triad Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Min

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs aircraft attitude/heading estimation using an airborne dipole triad antenna. The signal model is given with the parameters such as the wave Direction Of Arrival (DOA and state of polarization. The algorithms for estimating the source DOA and electric ellipse orientation angle are presented along with their statistical performance analysis. From these parameters, the aircraft gesture angles about pitching, yawing, and rolling, which are needed by autopilot, are produced. Simulation results validate the proposed algorithm’s efficacy.

  6. Molecular Dipole Osmosis Based on Induced Charge Electro-Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hideyuki

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel mechanism of producing a large nonlinear electrokinetic vortex flow around a nonconductive polar molecule in an electrolyte. That is, a large nonlinear electrokinetic slip velocity is derived by considering a local giant permittivity due to a molecular electric dipole moment with induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO). Different from the conventional ICEO theory, our theory predicts that a nonconductive biomaterial, such as a base of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule, has a significantly high ICEO flow velocity because of its large local permittivity. We consider that our findings will contribute markedly to promising biomedical applications.

  7. Calculation of electric dipole intensity parameter to explore some interaction between hard metal ions Pr(III) and Nd(III) with π-electron density of butene-1,4 and butyne-1,4-diols in non-aqueous solutions: An absorption spectral study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Th. David; Sumitra, Ch.; Bag, G. C.; Devi, M. Indira; Singh, N. Rajmuhon

    2006-01-01

    Pr(III) and Nd(III) are hard acceptors in HSAB (hard and soft acid base) sense and hence are known to exhibit practically a little affinity towards electrons. At the same time these metal ions show strong preference for oxygen donor chelating ligands. The ligands chosen for this study are structurally related diols, viz. butane-1,4, butene-1,4 and butyne-1,4-diols which form identical seven membered chelate ring by coordinating to metals in a bidentate manner through oxygen on 1 and 4 positions of the diol molecules. Complexation of these diols with Pr(III) and Nd(III) was carried out in DMF, CH3OH, CH3CN and their equimolar binary mixtures using comparative absorption spectrophotometry of 4f-4f transitions. The variation of oscillator strengths (P) of different 4f-4f bands as well as the magnitude and variation of Judd-Ofelt electric dipole intensity parameters (Tλ, λ = 2, 4, 6) was discussed. They correlate the interaction between the metal 4f-orbitals of Pr(III) and Nd(III) with the π-electron densities of the double and triple bonds present in butene-1,4 and butyne-1,4-diols, respectively. The value of empirical intensity parameter [Tλ(complex)/Tλ (aquo)] was calculated and its plot against oscillator strength (P) is drawn.

  8. Setup and taking into operation of a highly sensitive {sup 3}He magnetometer for a future experiment for the determination of an electric dipole moment of the free neutron; Aufbau und Inbetriebnahme eines hochsensitiven {sup 3}He-Magnetometers fuer ein zukuenftiges Experiment zur Bestimmung eines elektrischen Dipolmoments des freien Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Andreas

    2012-12-20

    The measurement of the electric dipole moment of the free neutron is directly linked to the question on the accurate determination of the magnetic field conditions inside the nEDM spectrometer. Using in-situ the spin-precession of polarized {sup 3}He, monitored by optically pumped Cs-magnetometers a sensitivity on the femto-tesla-scale can be obtained. At the institute of physics of the University Mainz a {sup 3}He/Cs-test facility was built to investigate the readout of {sup 3}He-spin-precession with a lamp-pumped Cs-magnetometer. Additionally, an ultra-compact and transportable polarizer unit was developed and installed in Mainz, which polarizes {sup 3}He gas up to 55 % of polarization before the compressed gas is delivered to two sandwich magnetometer cells inside the EDM chamber. This theses will present some results of the first successful test of the polarizer unit in January 2012. {sup 3}He was polarized in the ultra compact polarizer unit and transferred via guiding fields into a 4 layer mu-metal shield, where the free spin precession was detected with a lamp pumped Cs-magnetometer.

  9. Final Report: Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, Jay; Mauel, Michael

    2013-03-10

    Since the very first experiments with the LDX, research progress was rapid and significant. Initial experiments were conducted with the high-field superconducting coil suspended by three thin rods. These experiments produced long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges, lasting more than 10 s, having peak beta values of 20% [Garnier, Phys. Plasmas, v13, p. 056111, 2006]. High-beta, near steady-state discharges have been maintained in LDX for more than 20 seconds, and this capability makes LDX the longest pulse fusion confinement experiment now operating in the U.S. fusion program. In both supported and levitated configurations, detailed measurements are made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. High-temperature plasma is created by multifrequency electron cyclotron resonance heating allowing control of heating profiles. Depending upon neutral fueling rates, the LDX discharges contain a fraction of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV. Depending on whether or not the superconducting dipole is levitated or supported, the peak thermal electron temperature is estimated to exceed 500 eV and peak densities reach 1.0E18 (1/m3). Several significant discoveries resulted from the routine investigation of plasma confinement with a magnetically-levitated dipole. For the first time, toroidal plasma with pressure approaching the pressure of the confining magnetic field was well-confined in steady-state without a toroidal magnetic field. Magnetic levitation proved to be reliable and is now routine. The dipole's cryostat allows up to three hours of "float time" between re-cooling with liquid helium and providing scientists unprecedented access to the physics of magnetizd plasma. Levitation eliminates field-aligned particle sources and sinks and results in a toroidal, magnetically-confined plasma where profiles are determined by cross

  10. Charmonium and light hadron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chengping

    2014-01-01

    In this report I review some results on the charmonium and light hadron spectroscopy mainly from BESIII and Belle experiments. For the charmonium, the contents include the observation of $\\psi(4040)/\\psi(4160) \\to \\eta \\jpsi$, the measurements of the $\\eta_c/\\eta_c(2S)$ resonance parameters and their decays, the evidence of the $\\psi_2(1^3D_2)$ state in the $\\chi_{c1}\\gamma$ mass spectrum. For the light hadron spectroscopy, the contents include the $X(1835)$ research in $e^+e^- \\to \\jpsi + X(1835)$ and $\\gamma \\gamma \\to \\eta' \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ processes, and the analysis of the $\\eta \\eta$, $\\omega \\phi$, $\\phi\\phi$ and $\\omega \\omega$ mass spectra in low mass region.

  11. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components.

  12. Supersymmetry across the Hadronic Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günter Dosch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Semiclassical light-front bound-state equations for hadrons are presented and compared with experiment. The essential dynamical feature is the holographic approach; that is, the hadronic equations in four-dimensional Minkowski space are derived as holograms of classical equations in a 5-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The form of the equations is constrained by the imposed superconformal algebra, which fixes the form of the light-front potential. If conformal symmetry is strongly broken by heavy quark masses, the combination of supersymmetry and the classical action in the 5-dimensional space still fixes the form of the potential. By heavy quark symmetry, the strength of the potential is related to the heavy quark mass. The contribution is based on several recent papers in collaboration with Stan Brodsky and Guy de Téramond.

  13. Hadron therapy physics and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an in-depth overview of the physics of hadron therapy, ranging from the history to the latest contributions to the subject. It covers the mechanisms of protons and carbon ions at the molecular level (DNA breaks and proteins 53BP1 and RPA), the physics and mathematics of accelerators (Cyclotron and Synchrotron), microdosimetry measurements (with new results so far achieved), and Monte Carlo simulations in hadron therapy using FLUKA (CERN) and MCHIT (FIAS) software. The text also includes information about proton therapy centers and carbon ion centers (PTCOG), as well as a comparison and discussion of both techniques in treatment planning and radiation monitoring. This brief is suitable for newcomers to medical physics as well as seasoned specialists in radiation oncology.

  14. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Abler, Daniel; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-07-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components.

  15. Modeling of the Voltage Waves in the LHC Main Dipole Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Formenti, F; Steckert, J; Thiesen, H; Verweij, A

    2012-01-01

    When a fast power abort is triggered in the LHC main dipole chain, voltage transients are generated at the output of the power converter and across the energy-extraction switches. The voltage waves propagate through the chain of 154 superconducting dipoles and can have undesired effects leading to spurious triggering of the quench protection system and firing of the quench heaters. The phase velocity of the waves travelling along the chain changes due to the inhomogeneous AC behavior of the dipoles. Furthermore, complex phenomena of reflection and superposition are present in the circuit. For these reasons analytical calculations are not sufficient for properly analyzing the circuit behavior after a fast power abort. The transients following the switch-off of the power converter and the opening of the switches are analyzed by means of a complete electrical model, developed with the Cadence© suite (PSpice© based). The model comprises all the electrical components of the circuit, additional components simula...

  16. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satz, H. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Universitat Bielefeld (Germany); Wang, X.N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks` duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley.

  17. Hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebach, M.; Gotta, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Anagnostopoulos, D.F. [University of Ioannina, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ioannina (Greece); Dax, A.; Liu, Y.W.; Markushin, V.E.; Simons, L.M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Particle Physics, Villigen (Switzerland); Fuhrmann, H.; Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Zmeskal, J. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics, Vienna (Austria); Indelicato, P. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Universites, Paris (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Paris (France); Departement de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Paris (France); Manil, B. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Universites, Paris (France); Rusi el Hassani, A.J. [Universite Abdelmalek Essaadi, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Tanger (Morocco); Trassinelli, M. [Sorbonne Universites, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Paris (France); CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Paris (France)

    2014-12-01

    The hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen has been redetermined to be ε {sub 1s} = 7.086 ± 0.007(stat) ± 0.006(sys) eV by X-ray spectroscopy of ground-state transitions applying various energy calibration schemes. The experiment was performed at the high-intensity low-energy pion beam of the Paul Scherrer Institut by using the cyclotron trap and an ultimate-resolution Bragg spectrometer with bent crystals. (orig.)

  18. Toroidal-dipole induced plasmonic perfect absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Ying-hua; Jin, Ren-chao; Li, Jia-qi; Dong, Zheng-gao

    2017-12-01

    We present a new kind of perfect absorber which roots in a toroidal dipole resonance. The toroidal metastructure consists of a metallic circular groove with a depth asymmetry, which couples to the toroidal dipole field in the near-infrared region and thus realizes nearly unit absorbance, acting as a perfect absorber. Moreover, this absorber owns a high sensitivity of 609.6 nm/RIU to the dielectric surroundings. Furthermore, by tuning the geometric parameters, both the toroidal dipole resonance and perfect absorbance characteristics are insensitive to the circular groove width, providing profound fabrication tolerance in future experiments.

  19. Superconducting Coil of Po Dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The Po superconducting dipole was built as a prototype beam transport magnet for the SPS extracted proton beam P0. Its main features were: coil aperture 72 mm, length 5 m, room-temperature yoke, NbTi cable conductor impregnated with solder, nominal field 4.2 T at 4.7 K (87% of critical field). It reached its nominal field without any quench.After this successful test up to its nominal field of 4.2 T, the power was not raised to reach a quench. The magnet was not installed in a beam and had no other further use. Nevertheless its construction provided knowledges and experience which became useful in the design and construction of the LHC magnets. The photo shows a detail of the inner layer winding before superposing the outer layer to form the complete coil of a pole. Worth noticing is the interleaved glass-epoxy sheet (white) with grooved channels for the flow of cooling helium. See also 8211532X.

  20. Effects of dipole position, orientation and noise on the accuracy of EEG source localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly JF

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The electroencephalogram (EEG reflects the electrical activity in the brain on the surface of scalp. A major challenge in this field is the localization of sources in the brain responsible for eliciting the EEG signal measured at the scalp. In order to estimate the location of these sources, one must correctly model the sources, i.e., dipoles, as well as the volume conductor in which the resulting currents flow. In this study, we investigate the effects of dipole depth and orientation on source localization with varying sets of simulated random noise in 4 realistic head models. Methods Dipole simulations were performed using realistic head models and using the boundary element method (BEM. In all, 92 dipole locations placed in temporal and parietal regions of the head with varying depth and orientation were investigated along with 6 different levels of simulated random noise. Localization errors due to dipole depth, orientation and noise were investigated. Results The results indicate that there are no significant differences in localization error due tangential and radial dipoles. With high levels of simulated Gaussian noise, localization errors are depth-dependant. For low levels of added noise, errors are similar for both deep and superficial sources. Conclusion It was found that if the signal-to-noise ratio is above a certain threshold, localization errors in realistic head models are, on average the same for deep and superficial sources. As the noise increases, localization errors increase, particularly for deep sources.

  1. Decreasing the radiation quality factor of magnetic dipole antennas by a magnetic-coated metal core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    To achieve the Chu lower bound for the radiation Q, an electrically small magnetic dipole antenna should not store any magnetic energy internally to the minimum sphere enclosing the antenna. As shown in our previous works, the internal stored magnetic energy can be reduced, although not entirely...

  2. Construction experience with Fermilab-built full length 50mm SSC dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blessing, M.J.; Hoffman, D.E.; Packer, M.D. (General Dynamics Corp., San Diego, CA (United States). Space Systems Div.); Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Carson, J.A.; Delchamps, S.; Ewald, K.D.; Fulton, H.J.; Haggard, J.E.; Jensen, R.H.; Koska, W.; Rihel, R.K.; Robotham, W.F.; Smith, B.E.; Smith, D.J.; Strait, J.B.; Tassotto, G.; Tinsley, D.A.; Wake, M.; Winters, M.; Zimmerman, W.F. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Ba

    1992-03-01

    Fourteen full length SSC dipole magnets are being built and tested at Fermilab. Their purpose is to verify the magnet design as well as transfer the construction technology to industry. Magnet design is summarized. Construction problems and their solutions are discussed. Topics include coil winding, curing and measuring, collaring, instrumentation, end clamp installation, yoking and electrical and mechanical interconnection.

  3. Study of the pygmy dipole resonance in Mo-94 using the (alpha, alpha ' gamma) coincidence technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derya, V.; Endres, J.; Elvers, M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Siebenhuehner, F.; Stoica, V. I.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2013-01-01

    The (alpha, alpha' gamma) reaction at E-alpha = 136 MeV was used to study the electric dipole response in the open-shell vibrational nucleus Mo-94 below the neutron-separation threshold. The coincidence experiment has been performed at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, The

  4. Applicability of point-dipoles approximation to all-dielectric metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, S. M.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    All-dielectric metamaterials consisting of high-dielectric inclusions in a low-dielectric matrix are considered as a low-loss alternative to resonant metal-based metamaterials. In this paper we investigate the applicability of the point electric and magnetic dipoles approximation to dielectric meta...

  5. Quench protection analysis integrated in the design of dipoles for the Future Circular Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Salmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The EuroCirCol collaboration is designing a 16 T Nb_{3}Sn dipole that can be used as the main bending magnet in a 100 km long 100 TeV hadron-hadron collider. For economic reasons, the magnets need to be as compact as possible, requiring optimization of the cable cross section in different magnetic field regions. This leads to very high stored energy density and poses serious challenges for the magnet protection in case of a quench, i.e., sudden loss of superconductivity in the winding. The magnet design therefore must account for the limitations set by quench protection from the earliest stages of the design. In this paper we describe how the aspect of quench protection has been accounted for in the process of developing different options for the 16 T dipole designs. We discuss the assumed safe values for hot spot temperatures and voltages, and the efficiency of the protection system. We describe the developed tools for the quench analysis, and how their usage in the magnet design will eventually ensure a secure magnet operation.

  6. Considerations on a Cost Model for High-Field Dipole Arc Magnets for FCC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078700; Durante, Maria; Lorin, Clement; Martinez, Teresa; Ruuskanen, Janne; Salmi, Tiina; Sorbi, Massimo; Tommasini, Davide; Toral, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    In the frame of the European Circular Collider (EuroCirCol), a conceptual design study for a post-Large Hadron Collider (LHC) research infrastructure based on an energy-frontier 100 TeV circular hadron collider [1]–[3], a cost model for the high-field dipole arc magnets is being developed. The aim of the cost model in the initial design phase is to provide the basis for sound strategic decisions towards cost effective designs, in particular: (A) the technological choice of superconducting material and its cost, (B) the target performance of Nb3Sn superconductor, (C) the choice of operating temperature (D) the relevant design margins and their importance for cost, (E) the nature and extent of grading, and (F) the aperture’s influence on cost. Within the EuroCirCol study three design options for the high field dipole arc magnets are under study: cos − θ [4], block [5], and common-coil [6]. Here, in the advanced design phase, a cost model helps to (1) identify the cost drivers and feed-back this informati...

  7. Multiscale simulations of defect dipole-enhanced electromechanical coupling at dilute defect concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Cohen, R. E.

    2017-08-01

    The role of defects in solids of mixed ionic-covalent bonds such as ferroelectric oxides is complex. Current understanding of defects on ferroelectric properties at the single-defect level remains mostly at the empirical level, and the detailed atomistic mechanisms for many defect-mediated polarization-switching processes have not been convincingly revealed quantum mechanically. We simulate the polarization-electric field (P-E) and strain-electric field (ɛ-E) hysteresis loops for BaTiO3 in the presence of generic defect dipoles with large-scale molecular dynamics and provide a detailed atomistic picture of the defect dipole-enhanced electromechanical coupling. We develop a general first-principles-based atomistic model, enabling a quantitative understanding of the relationship between macroscopic ferroelectric properties and dipolar impurities of different orientations, concentrations, and dipole moments. We find that the collective orientation of dipolar defects relative to the external field is the key microscopic structure feature that strongly affects materials hardening/softening and electromechanical coupling. We show that a small concentration (≈0.1 at. %) of defect dipoles dramatically improves electromechanical responses. This offers the opportunity to improve the performance of inexpensive polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics through defect dipole engineering for a range of applications including piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and transducers.

  8. Observation of charmless hadronic B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Bauer, C; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, A M; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    Four candidates for charmless hadronic B decay are observed in a data sample of four million hadronic Z decays recorded by the {\\sc aleph} detector at {\\sc lep} . The probability that these events come from background sources is estimated to b e less than $10^{-6}$. The average branching ratio of weakly decaying B hadrons (a mixture of $\\bd$, $\\bs$ and $\\lb$ weighted by their production cross sections and lifetimes , here denoted B) into two long-lived charged hadrons (pions, kaons or protons) is measured to be $\\Br(\\btohh) = \\resultBR$. The relative branching fraction $\\rratio$, where $\\rs$ is the ratio of $\\bs$ to $\\bd$ decays in the sample, is measured to be $\\resultR$. %Branching ratio upper limits are also obtained for a variety In addition, branching ratio upper limits are obtained for a variety of exclusive charmless hadronic two-body decays of B hadrons.

  9. Tracking and Particle Identification at LHCb and Strange Hadron Production in Events with Z Boson

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392146; Serra, N.; Mueller, K; Steinkamp, O

    The Lhcb experiment, located at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is a high energy particle physics experiment dedicated to precision measurements of events containing beauty and charm quarks. The detector is built as a single-arm forward spectrometer. It uses tracking stations upstream and downstream of its dipole magnet to measure the trajectories and momenta of charged particles. This thesis describes the improvements to the track reconstruction algorithm, which were implemented for the second run of the LHC that started in spring 2015. Furthermore, the method to confirm the performance numbers on data is presented. In addition to the tracking system, the detector uses two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors, upstream and downstream of the dipole magnet, together with the calorimeter and muon system, for particle identification. The detector response for the particle identification is known to be poorly modelled, since the dependence on environmental variables like temperature and pressure inside the gas mo...

  10. Hadron physics from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2016-11-01

    Particle physics experiments at modern high luminosity particle accelerators achieve orders of magnitude higher count rates than what was possible ten or twenty years ago. This extremely large statistics allows to draw far reaching conclusions even from minute signals, provided that these signals are well understood by theory. This is, however, ever more difficult to achieve. Presently, technical and scientific progress in general and experimental progress in particle physics in particular, shows typically an exponential growth rate. For example, data acquisition and analysis are, among many other factor, driven by the development of ever more efficient computers and thus by Moore's law. Theory has to keep up with this development by also achieving an exponential increase in precision, which is only possible using powerful computers. This is true for both types of calculations, analytic ones as, e.g., in quantum field perturbation theory, and purely numerical ones as in Lattice QCD. As stated above such calculations are absolutely indispensable to make best use of the extremely costly large particle physics experiments. Thus, it is economically reasonable to invest a certain percentage of the cost of accelerators and experiments in related theory efforts. The basic ideas behind Lattice QCD simulations are the following: Because quarks and gluons can never be observed individually but are always ''confined'' into colorless hadrons, like the proton, all quark-gluon states can be expressed in two different systems of basis states, namely in a quark-gluon basis and the basis of hadron states. The proton, e.g., is an eigenstate of the latter, a specific quark-gluon configuration is part of the former. In the quark-gluon basis a physical hadron, like a proton, is given by an extremely complicated multi-particle wave function containing all effects of quantum fluctuations. This state is so complicated that it is basically impossible to model it

  11. Transverse dipole spin modes in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipparini, E.; Barranco, M.; Emperador, A.; Pi, M.; Serra, Ll.

    1999-09-01

    We have carried out a systematic analysis of the transverse dipole spin response of a large-size quantum dot within time-dependent current density functional theory. Results for magnetic fields corresponding to integer filling factors are reported, as well as a comparison with the longitudinal dipole spin response. As in the two-dimensional electron gas, the spin response at high-spin magnetization is dominated by a low-energy transverse mode.

  12. Hadron calorimetry in the L3 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Civinini, C.; D' Alessandro, R.; Gallo, E.; Marchionni, A.; Meschini, M.; Pieri, M.; Wang, Y.F. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Florence (Italy) Florence Univ. (Italy)); Arefiev, A.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gordeev, A.; Gorodkov, Yu.; Kamyshkov, Y.U.; Klimentov, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Malinin, A.; Morgunov, V.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Savin, A.; Shevchenko, S.; Shevchenko, V.; Shmakov, K.; Shoumilov, E.; Shoutko, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vorobiev, I. (Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki, Moscow (USSR)); An, Q.; Blomeke, P.; Cai, X.; Cui, X.; Gong, Z.F.; Ilyas, M.M.; Khan, R.; Kumar, V.; Kunin, A.; Lin, Y.B.; Qureshi, K.; Siedling, R.; Wadhawa, M.; Wu, R.J.; Wu, S.W.; Wu, Y.G.; Zichichi, A. (World Lab., Geneva (Switzerland). FBLJA Project); Azemoon, T.; Ball, R.C.; Capell, M.; Chen, M.L.; Goldfarb, S.; Jones, L.W.; Mills, G.B.; Roe, B.P. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA)); Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Chendvankar, S.R.; Ganguli, S.N.; Gurtu, A.; Malh

    1991-04-01

    The characteristics of the L3 hadron calorimeter as realized in the observation of hadronic jets and other events from e{sup +}e{sup -} c collisions at LEP are presented and discussed. The pattern-recognition algorithm utilizing the fine granularity of the calorimeter is described, and the observed overall resolution of 10.2% for hadron jets from Z decay is reported. The use of the calorimeter in providing information on muon energy losses is also noted. (orig.).

  13. Free Quarks and Antiquarks versus Hadronic Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Peng, Ru

    2007-01-01

    Meson-meson reactions A(q_1 \\bar{q}_1) + B(q_2 \\bar{q}_2) to q_1 + \\bar{q}_1 + q_2 + \\bar{q}_2 in high-temperature hadronic matter are found to produce an appreciable amount of quarks and antiquarks freely moving in hadronic matter and to establish a new mechanism for deconfinement of quarks and antiquarks in hadronic matter.

  14. Validation of Hadronic Models in GEANT4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koi, Tatsumi; Wright, Dennis H.; /SLAC; Folger, Gunter; Ivanchenko, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Starkov, Nikolai; /CERN; Heikkinen, Aatos; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Truscott,; Lei, Fan; /QinetiQ; Wellisch, Hans-Peter

    2007-09-26

    Geant4 is a software toolkit for the simulation of the passage of particles through matter. It has abundant hadronic models from thermal neutron interactions to ultra relativistic hadrons. An overview of validations in Geant4 hadronic physics is presented based on thin target measurements. In most cases, good agreement is available between Monte Carlo prediction and experimental data; however, several problems have been detected which require some improvement in the models.

  15. Inclusive hadron distributions in p+p collisions from saturation models of HERA DIS data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribedy, P.; Venugopalan, R.

    2010-12-06

    Dipole models based on various saturation scenarios provide reasonable fits to small-x DIS inclusive, diffractive and exclusive data from HERA. Proton un-integrated gluon distributions extracted from such fits are employed in a k{sub {perpendicular}}-factorization framework to calculate inclusive gluon distributions at various energies. The n-particle multiplicity distribution predicted in the Glasma flux tube approach shows good agreement with data over a wide range of energies. Hadron inclusive transverse momentum distributions expressed in terms of the saturation scale demonstrate universal behavior over a wider kinematic range systematically with increasing center of mass energies.

  16. Dynamic Dipole-Dipole Interactions between Excitons in Quantum Dots of Different Sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, Hideaki; Leosson, Kristjan; Xu, Zhangcheng

    2005-01-01

    Micro-photoluminescence spectra of GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum dots (QDs) are given, and proposed to be analyzed by our resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction (RDDDI) model, based on parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons among QDs of different sizes.......Micro-photoluminescence spectra of GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum dots (QDs) are given, and proposed to be analyzed by our resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction (RDDDI) model, based on parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons among QDs of different sizes....

  17. Hadronization systematics and top mass reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corcella Gennaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I discuss a few issues related to the systematic error on the top mass mea- surement at hadron colliders, due to hadronization effects. Special care is taken about the impact of bottom-quark fragmentation in top decays, especially on the reconstruction relying on final states with leptons and J/Ψ in the dilepton channel. I also debate the relation between the measured mass and its theoretical definition, and report on work in progress, based on the Monte Carlo simulation of fictitious top-flavoured hadrons, which may shed light on this issue and on the hadronization systematics.

  18. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusch, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed. (WHK)

  19. Exotic hadrons from heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungtae; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Maeda, Saori; Miyahara, Kenta; Morita, Kenji; Nielsen, Marina; Ohnishi, Akira; Sekihara, Takayasu; Song, Taesoo; Yasui, Shigehiro; Yazaki, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    High energy heavy ion collisions are excellent ways for producing heavy hadrons and composite particles, including the light (anti)nuclei. With upgraded detectors at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it has become possible to measure hadrons beyond their ground states. Therefore, heavy ion collisions provide a new method for studying exotic hadrons that are either molecular states made of various hadrons or compact system consisting of multiquarks. Because their structures are related to the fundamental properties of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), studying exotic hadrons is currently one of the most active areas of research in hadron physics. Experiments carried out at various accelerator facilities have indicated that some exotic hadrons may have already been produced. The present review is a summary of the current understanding of a selected set of exotic particle candidates that can be potentially measured in heavy ion collisions. It also includes discussions on the production of resonances, exotics and hadronic molecular states in these collisions based on the coalescence model and the statistical model. A more detailed discussion is given on the results from these models, leading to the conclusion that the yield of a hadron that is a compact multiquark state is typically an order of magnitude smaller than if it is an excited hadronic state with normal quark numbers or a loosely bound hadronic molecule. Attention is also given to some of the proposed heavy exotic hadrons that could be produced with sufficient abundance in heavy ion collisions because of the significant numbers of charm and bottom quarks that are produced at RHIC and even larger numbers at LHC, making it possible to study them in these experiments. Further included in the discussion are the general formalism for the coalescence model that involves resonance particles and its implication on the present estimated yield for resonance production. Finally

  20. Hadronic molecules with hidden charm and bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the new structures observed since 2003 in experiments in the heavy quarkonium mass region, such as the X(3872 and Zc (3900, are rather close to certain thresholds, and thus can be good candidates of hadronic molecules, which are loose bound systems of hadrons. We will discuss the consequences of heavy quark symmetry for hadronic molecules with heavy quarks. We will also emphasize that the hadronic molecular component of a given structure can be directly probed in long-distance processes, while the short-distance processes are not sensitive to it.

  1. Precision calculations for gauge-boson pair production with a hadronic jet at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallweit, Stefan

    2008-11-21

    Gauge-boson pair-production processes with an additional hadronic jet are of particular interest as background to Higgs and new-physics searches at hadron colliders. Moreover, they enable - besides genuine gauge-boson pair production - a direct analysis of the non-Abelian gauge-boson self-interactions in the electroweak sector. In this work we provide precision calculations for the processes pp/p anti p {yields} VV+jet+X. In detail, corrections to WW+jet, ZZ+jet, and WZ+jet production are evaluated at next-to-leading-order in the strong coupling (NLO QCD). Particular care has to be taken when treating the infrared singularities arising in the virtual and real corrections. The FormCalc/LoopTools package is applied for the virtual corrections, where dimensionally regularized infrared-divergent integrals are added to the FF library which is used for the regular ones. The real-emission matrix elements are evaluated in terms of helicity amplitudes in the Weyl--van-der-Waerden formalism. The Catani--Seymour dipole subtraction formalism mediates the cancellation of infrared divergences between the two contributions. To perform the numerical integration a multi-channel Monte Carlo integrator is written in C++, which is designed to meet the requirements of integrating cross sections in the dipole subtraction formalism. For all gauge-boson assignments, the NLO QCD corrections significantly stabilize the artificial dependence of the leading-order (LO) cross sections on renormalization and factorization scales for Tevatron. For LHC, however, only a modest reduction of the scale dependence results unless a veto on a second hard jet is applied. Beyond investigating the production processes, leptonic decays of the gauge bosons are considered. To this end, a full amplitude calculation including resonant and non-resonant contributions to the leptonic final states, a simple narrow-width approximation (NWA), and an improved version of the NWA that takes into account spin correlations

  2. Hadron-hadron total cross sections and soft high-energy scattering on the lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, M.; Meggiolaro, E.

    2011-01-01

    The nonperturbative approach to soft high-energy hadron-hadron scattering, based on the analytic continuation of Euclidean Wilson-loop correlation functions, makes possible the investigation of the problem of the asymptotic energy dependence of hadron-hadron total cross sections by means of lattice calculations. In this contribution we compare the lattice numerical results to analytic results obtained with various nonperturbative techniques. We also discuss the possibility to obtain indicatio...

  3. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  4. Are Hadrons Shell-Structured?

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    A stability analysis of the mass spectrum indicates that hadrons, like atoms and nuclei, are shell-structured. The mesonic shells mass series, combined with the results of a mass quantization analysis, reveals striking similarities with the nuclear shells. In addition, the mesonic mass patterns suggest solid-phase partonic bound states on an fcc lattice, compatible with a model by A. O. Barut with stable leptons as constituents, bound by magnetism. Baryonic shells grow with a lower density, and only start at shell 3 with the nucleon.

  5. Hadron Interactions from lattice QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Sinya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review our strategy to study hadron interactions from lattice QCD using newly proposed potential method. We first explain our strategy in the case of nuclear potentials and its application to nuclear physics. We then discuss the origin of the repulsive core, by adding strange quarks to the system. We also explore a possibility for H-dibaryon to exist in flavor SU(3 limit of lattice QCD. We conclude the paper with an application of our strategy to investigate the maximum mass of neutron stars.

  6. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  7. The Röntgen interaction and forces on dipoles in time-modulated optical fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnleitner, Matthias; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2017-12-01

    The Röntgen term is an often neglected contribution to the interaction between an atom and an electromagnetic field in the electric dipole approximation. In this work we discuss how this interaction term leads to a difference between the kinetic and canonical momentum of an atom which, in turn, leads to surprising radiation forces acting on the atom. We use a number of examples to explore the main features of this interaction, namely forces acting against the expected dipole force or accelerations perpendicular to the beam propagation axis.

  8. FDTD solutions for the distribution of radiation from dipoles embedded in dielectric particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Changhui [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)]. E-mail: cli@biomed.wustl.edu; Kattawar, George W. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); You, Yu [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Zhai Pengwang [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Yang Ping [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to simulate the electromagnetic radiation emitted by an infinitesimal electric dipole embedded in a small particle with an arbitrary shape and internal composition. The far-field pattern of the radiation pertaining to dipoles embedded in a host particle is highly sensitive to the particle shape. Thus, it is possible to discriminate host particles according to their radiation patterns. The method reported here is also applicable to the study of induced Raman scattering and fluorescence phenomena and the detection of biological agents.

  9. Discrete dipole approximation of gold nanospheres on substrates: Considerations and comparison with other discretization methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Menguc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We embark on this preliminary study of the suitability of the discrete dipole approximation with surface interaction (DDA-SI method to model electric field scattering from noble metal nano-structures on dielectric substrates. The refractive index of noble metals, particularly due to their high imaginary components, require smaller lattice spacings and are especially sensitive to the shape integrity and the volume of the dipole model. The results of DDA-SI method are validated against those of the well-established finite element method (FEM and the finite difference time domain (FDTD method.

  10. Field Quality and Mechanical Analysis of the Beam Separation Dipole for HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086334; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Xu, Q; Kawamata, H; Todesco, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    High luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project has been launched to attain a ten times higher integrated luminosity than the current LHC that has been in operation for over ten years. For this goal, the quadruple and dipole magnets around two interaction points, the ATLAS and the CMS, will be upgraded. High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is in charge of developing the new superconducting beam separation dipole magnet (D1). The main dipole field of 5.6 T in a large aperture of 150 mm is generated using a cos-theta coil wound with Nb-Ti cables at nominal operating current of 12.0 kA at 1.9 K corresponding to 75% of the load line ratio. The main challenges for the D1 are larger aperture, a high level of iron saturation, radiation resistance, and tight constraints on field quality. This article summarizes the results of a detailed analysis on field error. Electromagnetic simulation with ROXIE was carried out for the 2-D model of the new D1. As possible design changes, a diam...

  11. The 11 T Dipole for HL-LHC: Status and Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Savary, F; Bordini, B; Bottura, L; Chlachidze, G; Ramos, D; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Karppinen, M; Lackner, F; Loffler, C H; Moron-Ballester, R; Nobrega, A; Perez, J C; Prin, H; Smekens, D; de Rijk, G; Redaelli, S; Rossi, L; Willering, G; Zlobin, A V; Giovannozzi, M

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collimation system includes additional collimators in the LHC lattice. The longitudinal space for these collimators will be created by replacing some of the LHC main dipoles with shorter but stronger dipoles compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems. The project plan comprises the construction of two cryoassemblies containing each of the two 11-T dipoles of 5.5-m length for possible installation on either side of interaction point 2 of LHC in the years 2018-2019 for ion operation, and the installation of two cryoassemblies on either side of interaction point 7 of LHC in the years 2023-2024 for proton operation. The development program conducted in conjunction between the Fermilab and CERN magnet groups is progressing well. The development activities carried out on the side of Fermilab were concluded in the middle of 2015 with the fabrication and test of a 1-m-long two-in-one model and those on the CERN side are ramping up with the construction of 2-m-long ...

  12. Novel Perspectives for Hadron Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-03-09

    I discuss several novel and unexpected aspects of quantum chromodynamics. These include: (a) the nonperturbative origin of intrinsic strange, charm and bottom quarks in the nucleon at large x; the breakdown of pQCD factorization theorems due to the lensing effects of initial- and final-state interactions; (b) important corrections to pQCD scaling for inclusive reactions due to processes in which hadrons are created at high transverse momentum directly in the hard processes and their relation to the baryon anomaly in high-centrality heavy-ion collisions; and (c) the nonuniversality of quark distributions in nuclei. I also discuss some novel theoretical perspectives in QCD: (a) light-front holography - a relativistic color-confining first approximation to QCD based on the AdS/CFT correspondence principle; (b) the principle of maximum conformality - a method which determines the renormalization scale at finite order in perturbation theory yielding scheme independent results; (c) the replacement of quark and gluon vacuum condensates by 'in-hadron condensates' and how this helps to resolve the conflict between QCD vacuum and the cosmological constant.

  13. State of hadron collider physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grannis, P.D. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The 9th Topical Workshop on Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics in Tsukuba Japan demonstrated clearly the enormous breadth of physics accessible in hadron cowders. Although no significant chinks were reported in the armor of the Standard Model, new results presented in this meeting have expanded our knowledge of the electroweak and strong interactions and have extended the searches for non-standard phenomena significantly. Much of the new data reported came from the CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab cowder. Superb operation of the Tevatron during the 1992-1993 Run and significant advances on the detector fronts -- in particular, the emergence of the new D0 detector as a productive physics instrument in its first outing and the addition of the CDF silicon vertex detector -- enabled much of this advance. It is noteworthy however that physics from the CERN collider experiments UA1 and UA4 continued to make a large impact at this meeting. In addition, very interesting summary talks were given on new results from HERA, cosmic ray experiments, on super-hadron collider physics, and on e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} experiments at LEP and TRISTAN. These summaries are reported in elsewhere in this volume.

  14. Review of selected coil and collared-coil assembly data from 10-M-long, 50-MM-Twin-aperture LHC dipole magnet prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A

    1999-02-01

    In 1991, the Laboratoire Europeen pour la Physique des Particules (CERN) has launched the fabrication in industry of seven 10 m long, 50 mm twin aperture dipole magnet prototypes for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The design and specific features of these magnets have been described elsewhere. In this paper, we review some of the coil and collared-coil assembly data and we analyze the influence of tooling imperfections on magnet assembly. (author)

  15. Double Fano resonances due to interplay of electric and magnetic plasmon modes in planar plasmonic structure with high sensing sensitivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Junqiao; Fan, Chunzhen; He, Jinna; Ding, Pei; Liang, Erjun; Xue, Qianzhong

    2013-01-01

    ... between a broad bright mode and narrow dark modes. The bright mode is resulted from the nanorod electric dipole resonance while the dark modes originate from the magnetic dipole induced by LC resonances...

  16. Application of the discrete dipole approximation to very large refractive indices: Filtered coupled dipoles revived

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yurkin, M.A.; Min, M.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    We compared three formulations of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) for simulation of light scattering by particles with refractive indices m = 10+10i, 0.1+i, and 1.6+0.01i. These formulations include the filtered coupled dipoles (FCD), the lattice dispersion relation (LDR) and the radiative

  17. Application of the discrete dipole approximation to extreme refractive indices: Filtered coupled dipoles revived

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yurkin, M.A.; Min, M.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    We compared three formulations of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) for simulation of light scattering by particles with refractive indices m = 10 + 10i, 0.1 + i, and 1.6 + 0.01i. These formulations include filtered coupled dipoles (FCD), lattice dispersion relation (LDR) and radiative

  18. Dynamic dipole-dipole interactions between excitons in quantum dots of different sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, Hideaki; Leosson, Kristjan; Xu, Zhangcheng

    2004-01-01

    A model of the resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction between excitons confined in quantum dots (QDs) of different sizes at close enough distance is given in terms of parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons. Microphotoluminescence spectra of GaAs-AlGaAs coupled QDs are proposed to...

  19. Di-hadron production at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anefalos Pereira, Sergio [Lab. Naz. Frascati, Frascati, Italy; et. al.,

    2014-10-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) has been used extensively in recent years as an important testing ground for QCD. Studies so far have concentrated on better determination of parton distribution functions, distinguishing between the quark and antiquark contributions, and understanding the fragmentation of quarks into hadrons. Hadron pair (di-hadron) SIDIS provides information on the nucleon structure and hadronization dynamics that complement single hadron SIDIS. Di-hadrons allow the study of low- and high-twist distribution functions and Dihadron Fragmentation Functions (DiFF). Together with the twist-2 PDFs ( f1, g1, h1), the Higher Twist (HT) e and hL functions are very interesting because they offer insights into the physics of the largely unexplored quark-gluon correlations, which provide access into the dynamics inside hadrons. The CLAS spectrometer, installed in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab, has collected data using the CEBAF 6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on longitudinally polarized solid NH3 targets. Preliminary results on di-hadron beam-, target- and double-spin asymmetries will be presented.

  20. Successive combination jet algorithm for hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, S D; Ellis, Stephen D.; Soper, Davision E.

    1993-01-01

    Jet finding algorithms, as they are used in $e^+ e^-$ and hadron collisions, are reviewed and compared. It is suggested that a successive combination style algorithm, similar to that used in $e^+ e^-$ physics, might be useful also in hadron collisions, where cone style algorithms have been used previously.

  1. Particle Ratios from Strongly Interacting Hadronic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the particle ratios K+/π+, K-/π-, and Λ/π- for a strongly interacting hadronic matter using nonlinear Walecka model (NLWM in relativistic mean field (RMF approximation. It is found that interactions among hadrons modify K+/π+ and Λ/π- particle ratios, while K-/π- is found to be insensitive to these interactions.

  2. Light-Front Dynamics in Hadron Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, C.R.; Bakker, B.L.G.; Choi, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Light-front dynamics(LFD) plays an important role in the analyses of relativistic few-body systems. As evidenced from the recent studies of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in hadron physics, a natural framework for a detailed study of hadron structures is LFD due to its direct application in

  3. A Survey of Hadron Therapy Accelerator Technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA, T.; FLANZ, J.

    2007-06-25

    Hadron therapy has entered a new age [1]. The number of facilities grows steadily, and 'consumer' interest is high. Some groups are working on new accelerator technology, while others optimize existing designs by reducing capital and operating costs, and improving performance. This paper surveys the current requirements and directions in accelerator technology for hadron therapy.

  4. Exclusive hadronic processes and color transparency

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hadronic processes; color transparency. PACS Nos 24.85.+p; 25.30.-c. 1. Introduction. It is known that at asymptotically large momentum transfer certain exclusive hadronic reac- tions are calculable within the framework of perturbative QCD (pQCD) due to asymptotic freedom. However the applicability of pQCD to exclusive ...

  5. Effect of dipole-dipole interaction in two atom systems : A steady state analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Shaik; Lakshmi, P Anantha

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of a system of two two-level atoms, both identical as well as non-identical, under the influence of a continuously varying dipole-dipole coupling parameter for a wide range of other parameters such as the atomic level separations and the coupling strength of the external radiation field is explored. A detailed analysis of the behaviour of various level populations and some of the atomic coherences is presented. The influence of the competing effects between the Rabi field strength and the dipole dipole interaction on the two photon absorption probability is explored in detail both for identical as well as non-identical atoms. There are significant variations in the behaviour of identical and non-identical atoms as a function of the dipole coupling strength, even for small amounts of non-identity of the atoms, which in this study is incorporated through the atomic level separations.

  6. Inhibition of two-photon absorption due to dipole-dipole interaction in nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 3K7 (Canada)], E-mail: msingh@uwo.ca

    2008-07-21

    We have investigated the inhibition of two-photon absorption in photonic crystals doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticles. The particles are interacting with one another by the dipole-dipole interaction. Dipoles in nanoparticles are induced by a selected transition. Numerical simulations have been performed for an isotropic photonic crystal. Interesting phenomena have been predicted such as the inhibition of the two-photon absorption due to the dipole-dipole interaction. It has also been found that the inhibition effect can be switched on and off by tuning a decay resonance energy within the energy band of the crystal. A theory of dressed states has been used to explain the results.

  7. Hadron05 summary: heavy quark hadrons and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Physics Div.; University of Tennessee, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2005-07-01

    This HADRON05 summary covers the topics of (1) mesons containing heavy quarks, and (2) theory. The new material discussed here is taken mainly from plenary presentations. We specifically emphasize new or recent results in spectroscopy that are likely to appear in future editions of the PDG. An exception is made for the pentaquark, which was withdrawn at this meeting. We undoubtedly have something important to (re)learn about multiquarks from the pentaquark saga, and this merits a phrase in Portuguese. The three general areas we consider are: I. QQ-bar spectroscopy, II. Qq-bar spectroscopy, and III. lessons from the pentaquark. Finally, in Section IIIb. we conclude with 'Our moment of Zen'. (author)

  8. LHC dipoles: the countdown has begun

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    At the entrance to the fourth floor corridor of the LHC-MMS (Main Magnets and Superconductors) Group in building 30, the Director-General has unveiled an electronic information panel indicating the number of LHC dipoles still to be delivered and the days remaining to the deadline (30 June 2006). The panel was the idea of Lucio Rossi, leader of the MMS Group, which is responsible for the construction of the dipole magnets. The unveiling ceremony took place on the morning of Friday 11 October 2002, at the end of a drink held to celebrate with MMS group and the LHC top management the exceptional performance of the latest dipoles, built by the French consortium Alstom-Jeumont. They are the first dipoles to achieve a magnetic field of 9 tesla in one go without quenching, thus exceeding the nominal operating field of 8.3 tesla. The challenge is now to increase the production rate from 2 to 35 dipoles per month by 2004 in order to meet the deadline, while maintaining this quality. Photo 01: The Director-General Luci...

  9. Large momentum transfer scattering and hadronic bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenbecler, Richard

    1975-01-01

    The interchange theory provides a simple picture of large momentum transfer scattering which correlates many features of hadrons and their interactions. It is simple to compute and has considerable predictive power. It unites the electromagnetic structure of hadrons as expressed through their form factors and inelastic structure functions with elastic and inelastic hadron-hadron scattering. The theory joins smoothly onto Regge behavior which controls forward scattering and in fact predicts such behaviour. The unified description of large and small momentum transfer scattering provided by the interchange model should allow considerable insight into the interaction of hadrons and their possible composite nature. It already yields a remarkably simple quantitative description which seems valid all the way from large angle elastic scattering at 5 GeV/c to inclusive scattering at the CERN-ISR. (13 refs).

  10. Hadron muoproduction at the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rajotte, J F

    The COMPASS Collaboration has two main fields of interest: to improve our knowledge of the nucleon spin structure and to study hadrons through spectroscopy. These goals require a multipurpose universal spectrometer such as the COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy, COMPASS. In its first years of data taking (2002-2007), the nucleon spin structure was studied with a polarized muon beam scattering off a polarized target. These studies resumed in 2010 and will continue until at least 2011. The years 2008 and 2009 were dedicated to hadron spectroscopy using hadron beams. In the case of the nucleon structure studies, it is crucial to detect with high precision the incoming beam muon (160 GeV), the scattered muon and the produced hadrons. The large amount of high quality data accumulated provides access to the unpolarized and polarized parton distributions of the nucleon and the hadronization process. Subtle differences (asymmetries) between polarized cross sections have been predicted for...

  11. Decoupling light and matter: permanent dipole moment induced collapse of Rabi oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, Denis G; Krasnok, Alexander E

    2016-01-01

    Rabi oscillations is a key phenomenon among the variety of quantum optical effects that manifests itself in the periodic oscillations of a two-level system between the ground and excited states when interacting with electromagnetic field. Commonly, the rate of these oscillations scales proportionally with the magnitude of the electric field probed by the two-level system. Here, we investigate the interaction of light with a two-level quantum emitter possessing permanent dipole moments. The semi-classical approach to this problem predicts slowing down and even full suppression of Rabi oscillations due to asymmetry in diagonal components of the dipole moment operator of the two-level system. We consider behavior of the system in the fully quantized picture and establish the analytical condition of Rabi oscillations collapse. These results for the first time emphasize the behavior of two-level systems with permanent dipole moments in the few photon regime, and suggest observation of novel quantum optical effects...

  12. On the Interface Dipole at the Pentacene−Fullerene Heterojunction: A Theoretical Study

    KAUST Repository

    Linares, Mathieu

    2010-02-25

    The electronic structure at organic/organic interfaces plays a key role, among others, in defining the quantum efficiency of organics-based photovoltaic cells. Here, we perform quantum-chemical and microelectrostatic calculations on molecular aggregates of various sizes and shapes to characterize the interfacial dipole moment at pentacene/C60 heterojunctions. The results show that the interfacial dipole mostly originates in polarization effects due to the asymmetry in the multipolar expansion of the electronic density distribution between the interacting molecules, rather than in a charge transfer from donor to acceptor. The local dipole is found to fluctuate in sign and magnitude over the interface and appears as a sensitive probe of the relative arrangements of the pentacene and C60 molecules (and of the resulting local electrical fields sensed by the molecular units). © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. A back side configured pointed dipole plasmonic optical antenna array enhanced quantum dot infrared photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejun; Mojaverian, Neda; Li, Lin; Gu, Guiru; Zhang, Yingjie; Kemsri, Thitikorn

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we report a back side configured pointed dipole optical antenna array enhanced quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). In this configuration, the light illumination is from the substrate side (i.e. back side illumination), goes through the QDIP and then reaches the optical antenna array. The near-field electric fields (E-fields) are simulated for both top and back side illuminations. The back side configured pointed dipole antenna array gives stronger E-fields than the top side configuration. The physical mechanism for the difference is analyzed. A longwave infrared QDIP with the back side configured pointed dipole optical antenna array was fabricated and tested. The measurements agree well with the simulation. Compared with the top side configured optical antenna array, the back side configured optical antenna array allows easier fabrication of large format (e.g. 640 × 512 or 1024 × 1024) focal plane arrays and provides higher plasmonic enhancement.

  14. Controllable Nanoparticle Assembly and Actuation with Modified Dipole Potentials in Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Joshua

    Science at the nanoscale poses several recurring difficulties. How can we control the assembly of objects too small for direct manipulation to be practical? How can we extend that control to in vivo systems so we can make use of nanotechnology in medicine? And how can we recreate the extraordinary capacities of Nature: healing, replication, growth, adaptation, self-regulation? One of the most powerful tools for addressing these challenges is the simple, familiar dipole moment. Since their debut as fuel control devices at NASA in the early sixties, possible applications for dipole suspensions have grown to areas far beyond what their creators envisioned. A multitude of ambitious new medical and mechanical applications make use of dipolar colloids. Dipoles are attractive from a practical standpoint because one can use fields to control not just their orientation and location, but also their mutual interactions. From a physical standpoint, dipoles are compelling as an exceptionally simple form of symmetry-breaking that leads to a variety of complex phenomena. This thesis studies the assembly and control of spherical colloids with a dipolar interaction modified by additional conditions using simulations. Three cases are examined in detail. The first is the case of an electrical dipole moment created by regions of opposite charge density on the surface of a colloid. Here the dipole potential is modified by strong screening. Such a system is interesting as a model for certain proteins in a high-salt solution and suggests possible uses for inverse Janus colloids. The resulting phases have little resemblance to the usual dipole phases and can be controlled with small quantities of homogeneously charged particles. In the second case, superparamagnetic dipoles are linked into chains. Such chains have been realized in a wide variety of experimental schemes. A general theory is developed for the equilibrium shapes of the chains in a precessing field when their endpoints are

  15. Electron clouds in high energy hadron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Fedor

    2013-08-29

    The formation of electron clouds in accelerators operating with positrons and positively charge ions is a well-known problem. Depending on the parameters of the beam the electron cloud manifests itself differently. In this thesis the electron cloud phenomenon is studied for the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) conditions, and for the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-100 as a part of the FAIR complex in Darmstadt, Germany. Under the FAIR conditions the extensive use of slow extraction will be made. After the acceleration the beam will be debunched and continuously extracted to the experimental area. During this process, residual gas electrons can accumulate in the electric field of the beam. If this accumulation is not prevented, then at some point the beam can become unstable. Under the SPS and LHC conditions the beam is always bunched. The accumulation of electron cloud happens due to secondary electron emission. At the time when this thesis was being written the electron cloud was known to limit the maximum intensity of the two machines. During the operation with 25 ns bunch spacing, the electron cloud was causing significant beam quality deterioration. At moderate intensities below the instability threshold the electron cloud was responsible for the bunch energy loss. In the framework of this thesis it was found that the instability thresholds of the coasting beams with similar space charge tune shifts, emittances and energies are identical. First of their kind simulations of the effect of Coulomb collisions on electron cloud density in coasting beams were performed. It was found that for any hadron coasting beam one can choose vacuum conditions that will limit the accumulation of the electron cloud below the instability threshold. We call such conditions the ''good'' vacuum regime. In application to SIS-100 the design pressure 10{sup -12} mbar corresponds to the good vacuum regime. The transition to the bad vacuum

  16. Relativistic Few-Body Hadronic Physics Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzou, Wayne [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The goal of this research proposal was to use ``few-body'' methods to understand the structure and reactions of systems of interacting hadrons (neutrons, protons, mesons, quarks) over a broad range of energy scales. Realistic mathematical models of few-hadron systems have the advantage that they are sufficiently simple that they can be solved with mathematically controlled errors. These systems are also simple enough that it is possible to perform complete accurate experimental measurements on these systems. Comparison between theory and experiment puts strong constraints on the structure of the models. Even though these systems are ``simple'', both the experiments and computations push the limits of technology. The important property of ``few-body'' systems is that the ``cluster property'' implies that the interactions that appear in few-body systems are identical to the interactions that appear in complicated many-body systems. Of particular interest are models that correctly describe physics at distance scales that are sensitive to the internal structure of the individual nucleons. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle implies that in order to be sensitive to physics on distance scales that are a fraction of the proton or neutron radius, a relativistic treatment of quantum mechanics is necessary. The research supported by this grant involved 30 years of effort devoted to studying all aspects of interacting two and three-body systems. Realistic interactions were used to compute bound states of two- and three-nucleon, and two- and three-quark systems. Scattering observables for these systems were computed for a broad range of energies - from zero energy scattering to few GeV scattering, where experimental evidence of sub-nucleon degrees of freedom is beginning to appear. Benchmark calculations were produced, which when compared with calculations of other groups provided an essential check on these complicated calculations. In

  17. Search for strange baryon electric dipole moment at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Daniel James

    2017-01-01

    A search for the EDM of $\\Lambda$ baryons using the LHCb detector is proposed. In order to perform this search, the reconstruction of $\\Lambda$ baryons using T tracks must be possible. This note presents the reconstruction techniques and resolution studies that demonstrate that this is indeed feasible.

  18. A possible role of the dipole moment of the catalyst droplet in nanotube growth, alignment, chirality, and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, S Noor

    2012-03-02

    Why vapor species land on the surface of the nanoparticle seed for nanotube synthesis is a vital question. An investigation has been carried out to find an answer to it. For this, a model of the dipole moment has been developed. A bimetallic alloy (non-alloy, solid solution) exhibiting the shape of a cap has been assumed to function as the nanoparticle seed. Various features of the dipole moment have been examined. The influence of the dipole moment on nanotube synthesis, alignment, chirality, and characteristics has also been studied. Available experiments on the synthesis of carbon nanotubes employing bimetallic catalysts have been compared with the results from calculations. Close correspondence between the two demonstrates that the catalysts may exhibit a dipole moment and have a crucial role in nanotube synthesis and characteristics. The dipole moment has also been employed to determine why some nanotubes grow vertically, while others are bent. Calculated results appear to explain the basic causes for this. These results suggest that the electric field resulting from the dipole moment of catalysts may be important for the vertical alignment of nanotubes. They may attest to the validity of the model and to the existence of a dipole moment in seeds. Although considered for nanotube syntheses, the results may be applicable to other nanomaterials (nanotubes, nanowires, nanodots).

  19. Perturbative odderon in the dipole model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Szymanowski, Lech; Wallon, Samuel

    2004-04-29

    We show that, in the framework of Mueller's dipole model, the perturbative QCD odderon is described by the dipole model equivalent of the BFKL equation with a C-odd initial condition. The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the odderon solution are the same as for the dipole BFKL equation and are given by the functions E{sup n,{nu}} and {chi}(n,{nu}) correspondingly, where the C-odd initial condition allows only for odd values of n. The leading high-energy odderon intercept is given by {alpha}{sub odd}-1=((2{alpha}{sub s}N{sub c})/({pi})){chi}(n=1,{nu}=0)=0 in agreement with the solution found by Bartels, Lipatov and Vacca. We proceed by writing down an evolution equation for the odderon including the effects of parton saturation. We argue that saturation makes the odderon solution a decreasing function of energy.

  20. Installation Strategy for the LHC Main Dipoles

    CERN Multimedia

    Fartoukh, Stephane David

    2004-01-01

    All positions in the LHC machine are not equivalent in terms of beam requirements on the geometry and the field quality of the main dipoles. In the presence of slightly or strongly out-of tolerance magnets, a well-defined installation strategy will therefore contribute to preserve or even optimize the performance of the machine. Based on the present status of the production, we have anticipated a list of potential issues (geometry, transfer function, field direction and random b3) which, combined by order of priority, have been taken into account to define a simple but efficient installation algorithm for the LHC main dipoles. Its output is a prescription for installing the available dipoles in sequence while reducing to an absolute minimum the number of holes required by geometry or FQ issues.