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Sample records for hadron therapy tenfold

  1. Novel path towards compact laser ion accelerators for hadron therapy: Tenfold energy increase in laser-driven multi-MeV ion generation using a gas target mixed with submicron clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Y; Tampo, M; Pikuz, T A; Nakamura, T; Kando, M; Hayashi, Y; Yogo, A; Sakaki, H; Kameshima, T; Pirozhkov, A S; Ogura, K; Mori, M; Esirkepov, T Zh; Boldarev, A S; Gasilov, V A; Magunov, A I; Kodama, R; Bolton, P R; Kato, Y; Tajima, T; Daido, H; Bulanov, S V

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate generation of 10-20 MeV/u ions with a compact 4 TW laser using a gas target mixed with submicron clusters, corresponding to tenfold increase in the ion energies compared to previous experiments with solid targets. It is inferred that the high energy ions are generated due to formation of a strong dipole vortex structure. The demonstrated method has a potential to construct compact and high repetition rate ion sources for hadron therapy and other applications.

  2. [Hadron therapy in carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobornik, Slavenka; Dalagija, Faruk

    2002-01-01

    According to some statistics, in the developed countries of west Europe, one in three of population will have an encounter with cancer and, only one in eight of this will have treated by use a linear accelerator. Conventional accelerator-based treatments use photon or electron or proton beams collimated to the tumour place. However, some tumors are resistant on this therapy, while others have complex shapes or are located around vital radiosensitive organs. In those cases it is necessary higher radiobiological efficiency and higher precision. New generation of hadron therapy accelerators are arming with light ions. This therapy is characterized with high precision, in millimeter range over complex volumes. That is also good example how particle physics can benefit medical treatments.

  3. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Abler, Daniel; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amorós Vicente, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt Cairols, José

    2013-01-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form desig...

  4. [The hadron therapy project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, U; Arduini, G; Cambria, R; Canzi, C; Furetta, C; Leone, R; Rossi, S; Silari, M; Tosi, G; Vecchi, L

    1993-11-01

    The neologism "hadrontherapy" means radiotherapy with hadrons, which are the particles constituted by quarks, such as protons, neutrons and ions. The theoretical considerations about the clinical advantages this treatment modality can yield and the results obtained at the centers where it has already been used justify the proposal to project a center of this kind also in our Country. To this purpose, two of the authors of this paper (U. Amaldi, G. Tosi) founded the TERA Group formed by physicists, engineers and radiotherapists who work in close collaboration on a feasibility study for a hadrontherapy facility. The first aim of the Hadrontherapy Project is to design a center equipped with a synchrotron which, at the beginning, will accelerate negative hydrogen ions (H-) which will first produce 70-250 MeV proton beams and, then accelerate light ions (up to 16O) to 430 MeV/amu. This accelerator will serve four or five treatment rooms where patients can be irradiated simultaneously. Two rooms will be equipped with a fixed horizontal beam for the treatment of eye, head and neck tumors; the others will be equipped with rotating gantries to administer, in any clinical situation, really adequate treatment. Such a unit, when enough experience is fained, will allow at least 1000 patients to be treated yearly. The synchrotron injector will be designed so as to allow, parallel to the radiotherapy activities, other applications of medical and biological interest such as: the production of radioisotopes for diagnostic use (especially positron emitters), the analysis of trace elements through the PIXE technique and the production of thermal and epithermal neutrons for boron neutron capture therapy.

  5. Late effects from hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  6. Late effects from hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Eleanor A; Chang, Polly Y

    2004-12-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  7. History of hadron therapy accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-06-01

    In the last 60 years, hadron therapy has made great advances passing from a stage of pure research to a well-established treatment modality for solid tumours. In this paper the history of hadron therapy accelerators is reviewed, starting from the first cyclotrons used in the thirties for neutron therapy and passing to more modern and flexible machines used nowadays. The technical developments have been accompanied by clinical studies that allowed the selection of the tumours which are more sensitive to this type of radiotherapy. This paper aims at giving a review of the origin and the present status of hadron therapy accelerators, describing the technological basis and the continuous development of this application to medicine of instruments developed for fundamental science. At the end the present challenges are reviewed.

  8. A PARTNERship for hadron therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    PARTNER, the Particle Training Network for European Radiotherapy, has recently been awarded 5.6 million euros by the European Commission. The project, which is coordinated by CERN, has been set up to train researchers of the future in hadron therapy and in doing so aid the battle against cancer.

  9. Hadron therapy physics and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an in-depth overview of the physics of hadron therapy, ranging from the history to the latest contributions to the subject. It covers the mechanisms of protons and carbon ions at the molecular level (DNA breaks and proteins 53BP1 and RPA), the physics and mathematics of accelerators (Cyclotron and Synchrotron), microdosimetry measurements (with new results so far achieved), and Monte Carlo simulations in hadron therapy using FLUKA (CERN) and MCHIT (FIAS) software. The text also includes information about proton therapy centers and carbon ion centers (PTCOG), as well as a comparison and discussion of both techniques in treatment planning and radiation monitoring. This brief is suitable for newcomers to medical physics as well as seasoned specialists in radiation oncology.

  10. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components.

  11. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Abler, Daniel; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-07-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components.

  12. Hadron therapy: history, status, prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenov, G. I.; Khoroshkov, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    A brief historical review is given of external radiation therapy (RT), one of the main cancer treatment methods along with surgery and chemotherapy. Cellular mechanisms of radiation damage are described. Special attention is paid to hadron (proton and ion) therapy, its history, results, problems, challenges, current trends, and prospects. Undeniably great contributions to proton therapy have been made by Russian researchers, notably at the experimental centers that have operated since the mid-20th century at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, the A I Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), and the B P Konstantinov Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics. A quarter of the global clinical experience was accumulated by 1990 at the world's largest ITEP-hosted multicabin proton therapy center.

  13. A Survey of Hadron Therapy Accelerator Technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA, T.; FLANZ, J.

    2007-06-25

    Hadron therapy has entered a new age [1]. The number of facilities grows steadily, and 'consumer' interest is high. Some groups are working on new accelerator technology, while others optimize existing designs by reducing capital and operating costs, and improving performance. This paper surveys the current requirements and directions in accelerator technology for hadron therapy.

  14. ENLIGHT: Hadron-therapy in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN BULLETIN; Nathalie Hospital; Manuela Cirilli

    2011-01-01

    ENLIGHT was established in 2002 to coordinate the European efforts in hadron therapy. The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European hadrontherapy Community, with more than 300 participants from twenty European countries.

  15. Basics of particle therapy: introduction to hadrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, James S

    2008-10-01

    With the arrival of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy, radiation dose distributions in radiation oncology have improved dramatically over the past couple of decades. As part of a natural progression there recently has been a resurgence of interest in hadron therapy, specifically charged particle therapy, because of the even better dose distributions potentially achievable. In principle, using charged particle beams, radiation dose distributions can be achieved that surpass those possible with even the most sophisticated photon radiation delivery techniques. Certain charged particle beams might possess some biologic advantages in terms of tumor kill potential as well as this dosimetric advantage. The particles under consideration for such clinical applications all belong to the category of particles known as hadrons. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various hadron species previously used, currently used or being considered for future use in radiation oncology.

  16. Trends in accelerator technology for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostromin, S. A.; Syresin, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Hadron therapy with protons and carbon ions is one of the most effective branches in radiation oncology. It has advantages over therapy using gamma radiation and electron beams. Fifty thousand patients a year need such treatment in Russia. A review of the main modern trends in the development of accelerators for therapy and treatment techniques concerned with respiratory gated irradiation and scanning with the intensity modulated pencil beams is given. The main stages of formation, time structure, and the main parameters of the beams used in proton therapy, as well as the requirements for medicine accelerators, are considered. The main results of testing with the beam of the C235-V3 cyclotron for the first Russian specialized hospital proton therapy center in Dimitrovgrad are presented. The use of superconducting accelerators and gantry systems for hadron therapy is considered.

  17. Laser ion acceleration for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Wilkens, J. J.; Esirkepov, T. Zh; Korn, G.; Kraft, G.; Kraft, S. D.; Molls, M.; Khoroshkov, V. S.

    2014-12-01

    The paper examines the prospects of using laser plasma as a source of high-energy ions for the purpose of hadron beam therapy — an approach which is based on both theory and experimental results (ions are routinely observed to be accelerated in the interaction of high-power laser radiation with matter). Compared to therapy accelerators like synchrotrons and cyclotrons, laser technology is advantageous in that it is more compact and is simpler in delivering ions from the accelerator to the treatment room. Special target designs allow radiation therapy requirements for ion beam quality to be satisfied.

  18. [An original contention system for hadron therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevret, P; Magné, N; Chargari, C; Beaudré, A; Ferrand, R; Habrand, J-L

    2009-06-01

    In hadron therapy centers that have only fixed horizontal beams (i.e. most carbon ions centers and protons centers of first generation), the angulations of the beam remain technically limited, especially for the treatment of children under general anaesthesia with posterior-oblique (40 degrees or so) beams in supine position. We have been developing recently an original positioning system allowing for treatment with posterior-oblique beams, either from right or left directions, by keeping the child in the adequate position.

  19. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Burlon, A. A.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Levinas, P.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Valda, A. A.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M. E.; Somacal, H. R.; Minsky, D. M.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.; Gonzalez, S. R.; Capoulat, M. E.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.

    2010-08-01

    The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

  20. Hadron therapy takes off in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    A joint meeting of ULICE, ENLIGHT and PARTNER recently took place in Marburg (Germany). The three initiatives are shaping both the present and the future of hadron therapy in Europe, where new cutting-edge facilities have started to fight cancer with beams of protons and carbon ions.   A pictorial representation of a raster scan on a tumour. (Photo courtesy of HIT/GSI/Siemens.) Thanks to a very active multidisciplinary community consisting of physicists, biologists, radiobiologists, engineers, IT specialists and medical doctors, hadron therapy is taking off in Europe. Indeed, after a few decades during which the innovative technique was mainly used experimentally in Japan, the US and a couple of pioneering laboratory-based facilities in Europe, today an increasing number of hospitals are being equipped with synchrotrons and dedicated treatment rooms. “Asia and Europe are at the forefront of research and use of carbon ions in the treatment of some rare and radio-resistant t...

  1. The European hadron therapy community touches base

    CERN Document Server

    Audrey Ballantine, Manuela Cirilli, Evangelia Dimovasili, Manjit Dosanjh, Seamus Hegarty

    2010-01-01

    The European hadron therapy community gathered in Stockholm from 3 to 5 September for the annual ENLIGHT workshops. Three of the four EC-funded projects born under the umbrella of ENLIGHT (see box) were discussed in the prestigious Nobel Forum at the Karolinska Institutet.   Souvenir photo from the ENLIGHT workshops On its second birthday, the PARTNER Initial Training Network was especially under the spotlight, as the European Commission conducted a formal project review bringing together the institutes, companies and young researchers involved. The 21 PARTNER researchers experienced the thrill of presenting their work in this privileged setting. During the coffee breaks, they joked about this being their only chance in life to speak in the Nobel Forum – but who knows what these brilliant young minds will achieve! They certainly impressed the European Commission’s Project Officer Gianluca Coluccio and Expert Reviewer Kaisa Hellevuo, who stated that PARTNER is a showcase proj...

  2. ENLIGHT: The European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Manjit; Cirilli, Manuela; Greco, Virginia; Meijer, Annelie E

    2012-11-01

    The European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy (ENLIGHT) was established in 2002 to coordinate European efforts on hadron therapy (radiotherapy performed with protons and light ions instead of high-energy photons). The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European Hadron Therapy Community, with more than 300 participants from 20 different countries. A major success of ENLIGHT has been uniting traditionally separate communities so that clinicians, physicists, biologists, and engineers with experience and interest in particle therapy work together. ENLIGHT has been a successful initiative in forming a common European platform and bringing together people from diverse disciplines. ENLIGHT demonstrates the advantages of regular and organized exchanges of data, information, and best practices, as well as determining and following strategies for future needs in research and technological development in the hadron therapy field.

  3. Secondary Particles Produced by Hadron Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Use of hadron therapy as an advanced radiotherapy technique is increasing. In this method, secondary particles are produced through primary beam interactions with the beam-transport system and the patient’s body. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations were employed to determine the dose of produced secondary particles, particularly neutrons during treatment. Materials and Methods In this study, secondary particles, produced by proton and ion beams, were simulated for a cancer treatment plan. In particular, we evaluated the distribution of secondary neutrons, produced by a 400 MeV/u carbon beam on an electronic crate, which was exposed to radiation field under radioactive conditions. The level of major secondary particles, particularly neutrons, irradiating the target, was evaluated, using FLUKA Monte Carlo code. Results The fluences and radiation doses were applied to determine the shielding efficiency of devices and the probability of radiation damage to nearby electronic systems. According to the results, by using maximum-energy carbon ions (400 MeV/u, electronic devices are exposed to a dose rate of 0.05 µSv/s and an integrated dose of about 34 mSv, each year. Conclusion The simulation results could provide significant information about radiation assessment; they could also be a major help for clinical facilities to meet shielding requirements. Moreover, such simulations are essential for determining the radiation level, which is responsible for radiation-induced damages.

  4. ENLIGHT : Hadron Therapy in Europe (with french subtitles)

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Hospital; Manuela Cirilli

    2011-01-01

    ENLIGHT was established in 2002 to coordinate the European efforts in hadron therapy. The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European hadrontherapy Community, with more than 300 participants from twenty European countries.

  5. ENLIGHT : Hadron Therapy in Europe (with english subtitles)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin; Nathalie Hospital; Manuela Cirilli

    2011-01-01

    ENLIGHT was established in 2002 to coordinate the European efforts in hadron therapy. The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European hadrontherapy Community, with more than 300 participants from twenty European countries.

  6. ENLIGHT and other EU-funded projects in hadron therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dosanjh, M.; Jones, B; R. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Following impressive results from early phase trials in Japan and Germany, there is a current expansion in European hadron therapy. This article summarises present European Union-funded projects for research and co-ordination of hadron therapy across Europe. Our primary focus will be on the research questions associated with carbon ion treatment of cancer, but these considerations are also applicable to treatments using proton beams and other light ions. The challenges inherent in this new fo...

  7. ENLIGHT and other EU-funded projects in hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Dosanjh, M; Meyer, R

    2010-01-01

    Following impressive results from early phase trials in Japan and Germany, there is a current expansion in European hadron therapy. This article summarises present European Union-funded projects for research and co-ordination of hadron therapy across Europe. Our primary focus will be on the research questions associated with carbon ion treatment of cancer, but these considerations are also applicable to treatments using proton beams and other light ions. The challenges inherent in this new form of radiotherapy require maximum interdisciplinary co-ordination. On the basis of its successful track record in particle and accelerator physics, the internationally funded CERN laboratories (otherwise known as the European Organisation for Nuclear Research) have been instrumental in promoting collaborations for research purposes in this area of radiation oncology. There will soon be increased opportunities for referral of patients across Europe for hadron therapy. Oncologists should be aware of these developments, whi...

  8. Solid state microdosimetry in hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, A B; Bradley, P D; Cornelius, I; Allen, B J; Zaider, M; Maughan, R L; Yanch, J C; Coderre, J; Flanz, J B; Kobayashi, T

    2002-01-01

    A report of recent developments in silicon microdosimetry is presented. SOI based microdosemeters have shown promise as a viable alternative to traditional tissue-equivalent proportional counters. The application of these silicon microdosemeters to such radiation therapy modalities as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS), proton therapy (PT), and fast neutron therapy (FNT) has been performed. Several shortcomings of the current silicon microdosemeter were identified and will be taken into account in the design of a second-generation device.

  9. Synchrotrons for hadron therapy: Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Badano, L; Bryant, P; Crescenti, M; Holy, P; Knaus, P; Maier, A; Pullia, M; Rossi, S

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of cancer with accelerator beams has a long history with betatrons, linacs, cyclotrons and now synchrotrons being exploited for this purpose. Treatment techniques can be broadly divided into the use of spread-out beams and scanned 'pencil' beams. The Bragg-peak behaviour of hadrons makes them ideal candidates for the latter. The combination of precisely focused 'pencil' beams with controllable penetration (Bragg peak) and high, radio-biological efficiency (light ions) opens the way to treating the more awkward tumours that are radio-resistant, complex in shape and lodged against critical organs. To accelerate light ions (probably carbon) with pulse-to-pulse energy variation, a synchrotron is the natural choice. The beam scanning system is controlled via an on-line measurement of the particle flux entering the patient and, for this reason, the beam spill must be extended in time (seconds) by a slow-extraction scheme. The quality of the dose intensity profile ultimately depends on the uniformity o...

  10. Synchrotrons for hadron therapy, part 1

    CERN Document Server

    Badano, L; Bryant, P J; Crescenti, M; Holy, P; Knaus, P; Maier, A T; Pullia, M; Rossi, S

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of cancer with accelerator beams has a long history with linacs, cyclotrons and now synchrotrons being exploited for this purpose. Treatment techniques can be broadly divided into the use of spread-out beams and scanned 'pencil' beams. The Bragg-peak behaviour of hadrons makes them ideal candidates for the latter. The combination of precisely focused 'pencil' beams with controllable penetration (Bragg peak) and high, radio-biological efficiency (light ions) opens the way to treating the more awkward tumours that are radio-resistant, complex in shape and lodged against critical organs. To accelerate light ions (probably carbon) with pulse-to-pulse energy variation, a synchrotron is the natural choice. The beam scanning system is controlled via an on-line measurement of the particle flux entering the patient and, for this reason, the beam spill must be extended in time (seconds) by a slow-extraction scheme. The quality of the dose intensity profile ultimately depends on the uniformity of the beam ...

  11. Literature Review on LINACs and FFAGs for Hadron Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú-Andrés, Silvia; Amaldi, Ugo; Faus-Golfe, Ángeles

    The document summarizes the recent papers, presentations and other public information on Radio-Frequency (RF) Linear Accelerators (linacs) and Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators for hadron therapy. The main focus is on technical aspects of these accelerators. This report intends to provide a general overview of the state-of-the-art in those accelerators which could be used in short and middle-term for treating cancer.

  12. Training the next generation of experts in hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Manuela Cirilli, Nathalie Vibert

    2012-01-01

    PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Initial Training Network funded by the European Commission, aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts in hadron therapy. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network. PARTNER just came to an end in September 2012, and the 25 young researchers recall here their experience

  13. ENLIGHT and other EU-funded projects in hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, M; Jones, B; Mayer, R; Meyer, R

    2010-10-01

    Following impressive results from early phase trials in Japan and Germany, there is a current expansion in European hadron therapy. This article summarises present European Union-funded projects for research and co-ordination of hadron therapy across Europe. Our primary focus will be on the research questions associated with carbon ion treatment of cancer, but these considerations are also applicable to treatments using proton beams and other light ions. The challenges inherent in this new form of radiotherapy require maximum interdisciplinary co-ordination. On the basis of its successful track record in particle and accelerator physics, the internationally funded CERN laboratories (otherwise known as the European Organisation for Nuclear Research) have been instrumental in promoting collaborations for research purposes in this area of radiation oncology. There will soon be increased opportunities for referral of patients across Europe for hadron therapy. Oncologists should be aware of these developments, which confer enhanced prospects for better cancer cure rates as well as improved quality of life in many cancer patients.

  14. Hadron Cancer Therapy: Role of Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, M. B.

    2000-06-20

    Recently it has become feasible to calculate energy deposition and particle transport in the body by proton and neutron radiotherapy beams, using Monte Carlo transport methods. A number of advances have made this possible, including dramatic increases in computer speeds, a better understanding of the microscopic nuclear reaction cross sections, and the development of methods to model the characteristics of the radiation emerging from the accelerator treatment unit. This paper describes the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved, and how the cross sections have been evaluated from theory and experiment, for use in computer simulations of radiation therapy. The simulations will allow the dose delivered to a tumor to be optimized, whilst minimizing the dos given to nearby organs at risk.

  15. Cancer epidemiology and patient recruitment for hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, H; Wambersie, A

    1999-06-01

    Patient recruitment is an important issue in the feasibility study of a hadron therapy programme such as Med-AUSTRON. Data on cancer incidence in Europe, Austria, and neighbouring countries are reviewed for the most frequent tumors suitable for charged particle therapy. From these data, the numbers of potential patients suitable for MED-AUSTRON are derived for each tumor site by applying the coefficients proposed in the EULIMA-1992 feasibility study. Whatever the assumptions made, a sufficient and adequate recruitment for MED-AUSTRON can be expected. However, an appropriate referring system has to be established within Austria and also in the neighbouring countries.

  16. "Riesenrad" Ion Gantry for Hadron Therapy, 3

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Holy, P; Pullia, M

    1999-01-01

    When using accelerator beams for cancer therapy, the three-dimensional freedom afforded by a gantry helps the treatment planner to spread out surface doses, avoid directions that intercept vital organs and irradiate a volume that is conformal with the tumour. The general preference is for an iso-centric gantry turning 360° in the vertical plane around the patient bed with sufficient space to be able to orientate the patient through 360° in the horizontal plane. For hadrontherapy, gantries are impressive structures of the order of 10 m in diameter and 100 tons in weight and to date only proton gantries have been demonstrated to operate satisfactorily. The increased magnetic rigidity of say carbon ions will make ion gantries more difficult and costly to build. For this reason, exo-centric gantries and, in particular the so-called 'Riesenrad' gantry with a single 90° bending magnet, merit further attention. The power consumption is reduced and the heavy magnets with their counterbalance weight are reduced and...

  17. Quantifying lateral tissue heterogeneities in hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugfelder, D; Wilkens, J J; Szymanowski, H; Oelfke, U

    2007-04-01

    In radiotherapy with scanned particle beams, tissue heterogeneities lateral to the beam direction are problematic in two ways: they pose a challenge to dose calculation algorithms, and they lead to a high sensitivity to setup errors. In order to quantify and avoid these problems, a heterogeneity number H(i) as a method to quantify lateral tissue heterogeneities of single beam spot i is introduced. To evaluate this new concept, two kinds of potential errors were investigated for single beam spots: First, the dose calculation error has been obtained by comparing the dose distribution computed by a simple pencil beam algorithm to more accurate Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting error is clearly correlated with H(i). Second, the analysis of the sensitivity to setup errors of single beam spots also showed a dependence on H(i). From this data it is concluded that H(i) can be used as a criterion to assess the risks of a compromised delivered dose due to lateral tissue heterogeneities. Furthermore, a method how to incorporate this information into the inverse planning process for intensity modulated proton therapy is presented. By suppressing beam spots with a high value of H(i), the unfavorable impact of lateral tissue heterogeneities can be reduced, leading to treatment plans which are more robust to dose calculation errors of the pencil beam algorithm. Additional possibilities to use the information of H(i) are outlined in the discussion.

  18. The computer simulation of laser proton acceleration for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykov, Vladimir; Baydin, Grigory

    2008-11-01

    The ions acceleration by intensive ultra-short laser pulses has interest in views of them possible applications for proton radiography, production of medical isotopes and hadron therapy. The 3D relativistic PIC-code LegoLPI is developed at RFNC-VNIITF for modeling of intensive laser interaction with plasma. The LegoLPI-code simulations were carried out to find the optimal conditions for generation of proton beams with parameters necessary for hadrons therapy. The performed simulations show that optimal for it may be two-layer foil of aluminum and polyethylene with thickness 100 nm and 50 nm accordingly. The maximum efficiency of laser energy transformation into 200 MeV protons is achieved on irradiating these foils by 30 fs laser pulse with intensity about 2.10^22 W/cm^2. The conclusion is made that lasers with peak power about 0.5-1PW and average power 0.5-1 kW are needed for generation of proton beams with parameters necessary for proton therapy.

  19. A ring-shaped recombination chamber for hadron therapy dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska, E; Zielczyński, M; Golnik, N; Gryziński, M A; Krzemiński, Ł

    2014-10-01

    An innovative recombination chamber has been designed for estimation of stray radiation doses and quality factors in hadron therapy. The chamber allows for determination of absorbed dose and recombination index of radiation quality in phantoms at small distances from simulated organs. The chamber body and electrodes are ring shaped, so the beam may be directed through the empty centre of the ring. The ionisation of the filling gas is caused by secondary or scattered radiation and can be related to the dose absorbed in the tissues close to the irradiated target volume.

  20. [Current use and prospects for hadron therapy in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuvret, L; Calugaru, V; Ferrand, R

    2015-10-01

    Hadron therapy (including protons and ions) is still expanding worldwide, although still limited by the cost and thus the number of available facilities. If the historical indications remain eye melanomas, skull base tumours and paediatric tumours for protontherapy; and salivary glands, paranasal sinus and nasal cavity tumours, and soft tissue sarcomas for carbon ions, no conclusion can be drawn about the role of these modalities for other tumours, such as prostate, lung cancers. Since 2013, more than 100 clinical trials are on-going, including comparisons between advanced photons modalities, protontherapy and carbon ions therapy. An important technological and scientific (physics, radiobiology) effort has been made in parallel in order to reduce the cost of the facilities and to fully take advantages of the beam properties: standardization of beam scanning, image guided treatment, robust and 4D planning. Furthermore, the increasing number of facilities, the development of hypofractionation and the selection of indications will contribute to find the true place of particle therapy, despite the "screening effect" of the cost. The long term effects assessment on large patient cohorts will allow or not to correlate adverse effects and dosimetric data, always evoked.

  1. Basics of particle therapy II biologic and dosimetric aspects of clinical hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yi; Welsh, James

    2010-12-01

    Besides photons and electrons, high-energy particles like protons, neutrons, ⁴He ions or heavier ions (C, Ne, etc) have been finding increasing applications in the treatment of radioresistant tumors and tumors located near critical structures. The main difference between photons and hadrons is their different biologic effect and depth-dose distribution. Generally speaking, protons are superior in dosimetric aspects whereas neutrons have advantages in biologic effectiveness because of the high linear energy transfer. In 1946 Robert Wilson first published the physical advantages in dose distribution of ion particles for cancer therapy. Since that time hadronic radiotherapy has been intensively studied in physics laboratories worldwide and clinical application have gradually come to fruition. Hadron therapy was made possible by the advances in accelerator technology, which increases the particles' energy high enough to place them at any depth within the patient's body. As a follow-up to the previous article Introduction to Hadrons, this review discusses certain biologic and dosimetric aspects of using protons, neutrons, and heavy charged particles for radiation therapy.

  2. A Beam Monitor Using Silicon Pixel Sensors for Hadron Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhen; Fan, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Dong; Kang, Huili; Sun, Daming; Yang, Ping; Pei, Hua; Huang, Guangming; Xu, Nu; Gao, Chaosong; Xiao, Le

    2016-01-01

    We report the design and test results of a beam monitor developed for online monitoring in hadron therapy. The beam monitor uses eight silicon pixel sensors, \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$}, as the anode array. \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} is a charge sensor designed in a CMOS 0.35 $\\mu$m technology. Each \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} sensor has $72\\times72$ pixels. Each pixel size is about $83\\times83$ $\\mu$m$^2$. In our design the beam passes through the beam monitor without hitting the electrodes, making the beam monitor especially suitable for monitoring heavy ion beams. This design also reduces radiation damage to the beam monitor itself. The beam monitor is tested at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) which provides a carbon ion beam. Results indicate that the beam monitor can measure position, incident angle and intensity of the beam with a position resolution better than 20 $\\mu$m, angular resolution about 0.5$^\\circ$ and intensity statistical accuracy better than 2$\\%$.

  3. A beam monitor using silicon pixel sensors for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Zou, Shuguang; Fan, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Dong; Kang, Huili; Sun, Daming; Yang, Ping; Pei, Hua; Huang, Guangming; Xu, Nu; Gao, Chaosong; Xiao, Le

    2017-03-01

    We report the design and test results of a beam monitor developed for online monitoring in hadron therapy. The beam monitor uses eight silicon pixel sensors, Topmetal-II-, as the anode array. Topmetal-II- is a charge sensor designed in a CMOS 0.35 μm technology. Each Topmetal-II- sensor has 72×72 pixels and the pixel size is 83×83 μm2. In our design, the beam passes through the beam monitor without hitting the electrodes, making the beam monitor especially suitable for monitoring heavy ion beams. This design also reduces radiation damage to the beam monitor itself. The beam monitor is tested with a carbon ion beam at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Results indicate that the beam monitor can measure position, incidence angle and intensity of the beam with a position resolution better than 20 μm, angular resolution about 0.5° and intensity statistical accuracy better than 2%.

  4. COST-ENLIGHT strategic workshop on hadron (particle) therapy, CERN, Geneva, 3-4 May 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R E

    2008-03-01

    This meeting was convened by COST (Co-operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research) and ENLIGHT (European Network for Research in Light-Ion Hadron Therapy) to review the current status of hadron therapy in Europe. The aims were to increase awareness of hadron therapy within the scientific community, to produce a document outlining the present and future prospects for this treatment modality and to bring together hadron therapy scientists and clinicians. Proton therapy offers the potential for therapeutic gain from dose distribution advantages when compared with photon therapy. Carbon ion therapy, by nature of its higher linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE), may further improve local control. A further potential benefit of carbon ion therapy is the ability to deliver hypofractionated radiotherapy. A further aim of this meeting was to commence preparation of a programme of work packages with a view to submitting an application for European Union funding within the FP7 programme. This comprises a series of seven work packages, which will be a focus for European collaboration.

  5. A guided tour in CNAO, the Italian National Centre for Hadron Therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    TERA foundation; Paola Catapano

    2010-01-01

    The Italian National Centre for Hadron Therapy in Pavia has just been inaugurated. The centre was created based on a research project carried out at CERN under the leadership of Ugo Amaldi. Interviews to President Borloni, Scientific Director Sandro Rossi and Head of operations Marco Pullia are included.

  6. The GEANT4 toolkit capability in the hadron therapy field: simulation of a transport beam line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Di Rosa, F.; Raffaele, L.; Russo, G.; Guatelli, S.; Pia, M. G.

    2006-01-01

    At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare of Catania (Sicily, Italy), the first Italian hadron therapy facility named CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia ed Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) has been realized. Inside CATANA 62 MeV proton beams, accelerated by a superconducting cyclotron, are used for the radiotherapeutic treatments of some types of ocular tumours. Therapy with hadron beams still represents a pioneer technique, and only a few centers worldwide can provide this advanced specialized cancer treatment. On the basis of the experience so far gained, and considering the future hadron-therapy facilities to be developed (Rinecker, Munich Germany, Heidelberg/GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, PSI Villigen, Switzerland, CNAO, Pavia, Italy, Centro di Adroterapia, Catania, Italy) we decided to develop a Monte Carlo application based on the GEANT4 toolkit, for the design, the realization and the optimization of a proton-therapy beam line. Another feature of our project is to provide a general tool able to study the interactions of hadrons with the human tissue and to test the analytical-based treatment planning systems actually used in the routine practice. All the typical elements of a hadron-therapy line, such as diffusers, range shifters, collimators and detectors were modelled. In particular, we simulated the Markus type ionization chamber and a Gaf Chromic film as dosimeters to reconstruct the depth (Bragg peak and Spread Out Bragg Peak) and lateral dose distributions, respectively. We validated our simulated detectors comparing the results with the experimental data available in our facility.

  7. Fabrication of ten-fold photonic quasicrystalline structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, XiaoHong, E-mail: iexhsun@zzu.edu.cn; Wu, YuLong; Liu, Wen; Liu, Wei [Henan Key Laboratory of Laser and Opto-electric Information Technology, Zhengzhou University, Henan 450052 (China); Han, Juan; Jiang, Lei [Center for Bioengineering and Biotechnology, State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Compared to periodic crystals, quasicrystals have higher point group symmetry and are more favorable in achieving complete band-gaps. In this report, a top-cut prism interferometer is designed to fabricate ten-fold photonic quasicrystalline structures. By optimizing the exposing conditions and material characteristics, appropriate quasicrystals have been obtained in the SU8 photoresist films. Atomic Force Microscopy and laser diffraction are used to characterize the fabricated structures. The measurement results show the consistence between the theoretical design and experiments. This will provide guidance for the large-area and fast production of ten-fold quasicrystalline structures with high quality.

  8. Hadron Therapy: A study on Grid Databases and Monte Carlo Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos; Silari, M; Gazis, E

    2009-01-01

    Hadron therapy is a novel technique of cancer radiation therapy using beams of energetic protons, neutrons, or positive ions for cancer treatment. In the context of this thesis, two individual projects have been performed, both of them having a direct relevance with Hadron Therapy. The first part consists of a literature analysis of six different projects. The common characteristic of these projects is that they are dealing with the distribution of large amounts of data, among geographically distributed user teams. The solutions proposed are exploiting either Grid, or parallel databases implementations, or combinations of these two technologies. The objectives of the authors, the technical details of the implementations as well as the security issues of each proposal, have been extracted from the original papers, and are being juxtapositioned. Comparison tables between the different software and hardware choices of each implementation have been produced, while the benefits or the drawbacks of each choice, tha...

  9. Hadron Therapy: A study on Grid Databases and Monte Carlo Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos; Silari, M; Gazis, E

    2009-01-01

    Hadron therapy is a novel technique of cancer radiation therapy using beams of energetic protons, neutrons, or positive ions for cancer treatment. In the context of this thesis, two individual projects have been performed, both of them having a direct relevance with Hadron Therapy. The first part consists of a literature analysis of six different projects. The common characteristic of these projects is that they are dealing with the distribution of large amounts of data, among geographically distributed user teams. The solutions proposed are exploiting either Grid, or parallel databases implementations, or combinations of these two technologies. The objectives of the authors, the technical details of the implementations as well as the security issues of each proposal, have been extracted from the original papers, and are being juxtapositioned. Comparison tables between the different software and hardware choices of each implementation have been produced, while the benefits or the drawbacks of each choice, tha...

  10. New developments of 11C post-accelerated beams for hadron therapy and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Augusto, R S; Wenander, F; Penescu, L; Orecchia, R; Parodi, K; Ferrari, A; Stora, T

    2016-01-01

    Hadron therapy was first proposed in 1946 and is by now widespread throughout the world, as witnessed with the design and construction of the CNAO, HIT, PROSCAN and MedAustron treatment centres, among others. The clinical interest in hadron therapy lies in the fact that it delivers precision treatment of tumours, exploiting the characteristic shape (the Bragg peak) of the energy deposition in the tissues for charged hadrons. In particular, carbon ion therapy is found to be biologically more effective, with respect to protons, on certain types of tumours. Following an approach tested at NIRS in Japan [1], carbon ion therapy treatments based on 12C could be combined or fully replaced with 11C PET radioactive ions post-accelerated to the same energy. This approach allows providing a beam for treatment and, at the same time, to collect information on the 3D distributions of the implanted ions by PET imaging. The production of 11C ion beams can be performed using two methods. A first one is based on the production...

  11. Helium-3 and helium-4 acceleration by high power laser pulses for hadron therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Bulanov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The laser driven acceleration of ions is considered a promising candidate for an ion source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases. Though proton and carbon ion sources are conventionally used for therapy, other light ions can also be utilized. Whereas carbon ions require 400 MeV per nucleon to reach the same penetration depth as 250 MeV protons, helium ions require only 250 MeV per nucleon, which is the lowest energy per nucleon among the light ions (heavier than protons. This fact along with the larger biological damage to cancer cells achieved by helium ions, than that by protons, makes this species an interesting candidate for the laser driven ion source. Two mechanisms (magnetic vortex acceleration and hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration of PW-class laser driven ion acceleration from liquid and gaseous helium targets are studied with the goal of producing 250 MeV per nucleon helium ion beams that meet the hadron therapy requirements. We show that He^{3} ions, having almost the same penetration depth as He^{4} with the same energy per nucleon, require less laser power to be accelerated to the required energy for the hadron therapy.

  12. First Images of a Three-layer Compton Telescope Prototype for Treatment Monitoring in Hadron Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela eLlosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy is under development at IFIC. The system consists of three layers of LaBr3 crystals coupled to silicon photomultiplier arrays. Na-22 sources have been successfully imaged reconstructing the data with an ML-EM code. Calibration and temperature stabilization are necessary for the prototype operation at low coincidence rates. A spatial resolution of 7.8 mm FWHM has been obtained in the first imaging tests.

  13. Characterization of a three layer Compton telescope for hadron therapy dose monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llosa, Gabriela; Barrio, John; Etxebeste, Ane; Lacasta, Carlos; Munoz, Enrique; Oliver, Josep F.; Rafecas, Magdalena; Solaz, Carles; Solevi, Paola; Torres-Espallardo, Irene; Trovato, Marco [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular - IFIC-CSIC/UVEG, Valencia (Spain); Dendooven, Peter [KVI - Centre for Advanced Radiation Technology, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    A Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy is under development at IFIC-Valencia. The system consists of three layers of LaBr{sub 3} crystals coupled to silicon photomultiplier arrays. Two- and three-layer versions of the device have been tested in the laboratory. Images of Na-22 sources have been reconstructed. In addition, the two-layer version has been tested in a proton beam. Performance improvement and full characterization of the device are ongoing. (authors)

  14. First Images of a Three-Layer Compton Telescope Prototype for Treatment Monitoring in Hadron Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llosá, Gabriela; Trovato, Marco; Barrio, John; Etxebeste, Ane; Muñoz, Enrique; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F; Rafecas, Magdalena; Solaz, Carles; Solevi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy is under development at IFIC. The system consists of three layers of LaBr3 crystals coupled to silicon photomultiplier arrays. (22)Na sources have been successfully imaged reconstructing the data with an ML-EM code. Calibration and temperature stabilization are necessary for the prototype operation at low coincidence rates. A spatial resolution of 7.8 mm FWHM has been obtained in the first imaging tests.

  15. First Images of a Three-Layer Compton Telescope Prototype for Treatment Monitoring in Hadron Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela eLlosa; Marco eTrovato; John eBarrio; Ane eEtxebeste; Enrique eMunoz; Carlos eLacasta; Oliver, Josep F.; Magdalena eRafecas; Carles eSolaz; Paola eSolevi

    2016-01-01

    A Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy is under development at IFIC. The system consists of three layers of LaBr3 crystals coupled to silicon photomultiplier arrays. Na-22 sources have been successfully imaged reconstructing the data with an ML-EM code. Calibration and temperature stabilization are necessary for the prototype operation at low coincidence rates. A spatial resolution of 7.8 mm FWHM has been obtained in the first imaging tests.

  16. Injection System design for a hadron therapy Synchrotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Quan; SONG Ming-Tao; WEI Bao-Wen

    2008-01-01

    A synchrotron is designed for tumour therapy with C6+ ions or proton.Its injector is a cyclotron, which delivers C5+or H+2 ions to the synchrotron.After comparing the methods of the single-turn injection, the multi-turn injection and the stripping injection,this paper chooses the stripping injection method.In addition,the concept design of the injection system is presented,in which the synchrotron lattice is optimized.

  17. Beam tests on a proton linac booster for hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    De Martinis, C; Berra, P; Birattari, C; Calabretta, L; Crandall, K; Giove, D; Masullo, M R; Mauri, M; Rosso, E; Rovelli, A; Serafini, L; Szeless, Balázs; Toet, D Z; Vaccaro, Vittorio G; Weiss, M; Zennaro, R

    2002-01-01

    LIBO is a 3 GHz modular side-coupled proton linac booster designed to deliver beam energies up to 200 MeV, as required for the therapy of deep seated tumours. The injected beam of 50 to 70 MeV is produced by a cyclotron like those in several hospitals and research institutes. A full-scale prototype of the first module with an input/output energy of 62/74 MeV, respectively, was designed and built in 1999 and 2000. Full power RF tests were carried out successfully at CERN using a test facility at LIL at the end of the year 2000. In order to prove the feasibility of the acceleration process, an experimental setup with this module was installed at the INFN Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud (LNS) in Catania during 2001. The superconducting cyclotron provided the 62 MeV test beam. A compact solid-state RF modulator with a 4 MW klystron, made available by IBA-Scanditronix, was put into operation to power the linac. In this paper the main features of the accelerator are reviewed and the experimental results obtained duri...

  18. A challenge for high-precision radiation therapy: the case for hadrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambersie, A; Auberger, T; Gahbauer, R A; Jones, D T; Pötter, R

    1999-06-01

    Developments in Hadron therapy, i.e., fast neutrons, protons, pions, heavy ions and boron neutron capture therapy are reviewed. For each type of particle, operational and closed facilities are listed as well as planned new facilities. Improvements in clinical results have always been linked to technological developments and better physical selectivity of the irradiation. Exploring the benefit of further improvement in dose localization expected from protons and conformal therapy is the challenge for the coming years. The radiobiological rationale for high-LET radiation in cancer treatment, proposed in the fifties, is still valid and has not been contradicted by recent radiobiological findings. This justifies the planning of a therapy facility where protons and heavy ions (carbon ions) could be applied, under optimal physical and technical conditions. Appropriate selection between low- and high-LET radiation for a particular tumor is indeed a radiobiological problem, independent of technical development.

  19. New developments of {sup 11}C post-accelerated beams for hadron therapy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, R.S., E-mail: r.s.augusto@cern.ch [European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ludwig Maximilians – University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Mendonca, T.M.; Wenander, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Penescu, L. [MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Orecchia, R. [CNAO – Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica per il trattamento dei tumori, Pavia (Italy); Parodi, K. [Ludwig Maximilians – University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Ferrari, A.; Stora, T. [European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-06-01

    Hadron therapy was first proposed in 1946 and is by now widespread throughout the world, as witnessed with the design and construction of the CNAO, HIT, PROSCAN and MedAustron treatment centres, among others. The clinical interest in hadron therapy lies in the fact that it delivers precision treatment of tumours, exploiting the characteristic shape (the Bragg peak) of the energy deposition in the tissues for charged hadrons. In particular, carbon ion therapy is found to be biologically more effective, with respect to protons, on certain types of tumours. Following an approach tested at NIRS in Japan [1], carbon ion therapy treatments based on {sup 12}C could be combined or fully replaced with {sup 11}C PET radioactive ions post-accelerated to the same energy. This approach allows providing a beam for treatment and, at the same time, to collect information on the 3D distributions of the implanted ions by PET imaging. The production of {sup 11}C ion beams can be performed using two methods. A first one is based on the production using compact PET cyclotrons with 10–20 MeV protons via {sup 14}N(p,α){sup 11}C reactions following an approach developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [2]. A second route exploits spallation reactions {sup 19}F(p,X){sup 11}C and {sup 23}Na(p,X){sup 11}C on a molten fluoride salt target using the ISOL (isotope separation on-line) technique [3]. This approach can be seriously envisaged at CERN-ISOLDE following recent progresses made on {sup 11}C{sup +} production [4] and proven post-acceleration of pure {sup 10}C{sup 3/6+} beams in the REX-ISOLDE linac [5]. Part of the required components is operational in radioactive ion beam facilities or commercial medical PET cyclotrons. The driver could be a 70 MeV, 1.2 mA proton commercial cyclotron, which would lead to 8.1 × 10{sup 711}C{sup 6+} per spill. This intensity is appropriate using {sup 11}C ions alone for both imaging and treatment. Here we report on the ongoing feasibility

  20. New developments of 11C post-accelerated beams for hadron therapy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, R. S.; Mendonca, T. M.; Wenander, F.; Penescu, L.; Orecchia, R.; Parodi, K.; Ferrari, A.; Stora, T.

    2016-06-01

    Hadron therapy was first proposed in 1946 and is by now widespread throughout the world, as witnessed with the design and construction of the CNAO, HIT, PROSCAN and MedAustron treatment centres, among others. The clinical interest in hadron therapy lies in the fact that it delivers precision treatment of tumours, exploiting the characteristic shape (the Bragg peak) of the energy deposition in the tissues for charged hadrons. In particular, carbon ion therapy is found to be biologically more effective, with respect to protons, on certain types of tumours. Following an approach tested at NIRS in Japan [1], carbon ion therapy treatments based on 12C could be combined or fully replaced with 11C PET radioactive ions post-accelerated to the same energy. This approach allows providing a beam for treatment and, at the same time, to collect information on the 3D distributions of the implanted ions by PET imaging. The production of 11C ion beams can be performed using two methods. A first one is based on the production using compact PET cyclotrons with 10-20 MeV protons via 14N(p,α)11C reactions following an approach developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [2]. A second route exploits spallation reactions 19F(p,X)11C and 23Na(p,X)11C on a molten fluoride salt target using the ISOL (isotope separation on-line) technique [3]. This approach can be seriously envisaged at CERN-ISOLDE following recent progresses made on 11C+ production [4] and proven post-acceleration of pure 10C3/6+ beams in the REX-ISOLDE linac [5]. Part of the required components is operational in radioactive ion beam facilities or commercial medical PET cyclotrons. The driver could be a 70 MeV, 1.2 mA proton commercial cyclotron, which would lead to 8.1 × 10711C6+ per spill. This intensity is appropriate using 11C ions alone for both imaging and treatment. Here we report on the ongoing feasibility studies of such approach, using the Monte Carlo particle transport code FLUKA [6,7] to simulate

  1. Method of Monte Carlo simulation verification in hadron therapy with non-tissue equivalent detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Wroe, Andrew; Carolan, Martin; Cornelius, Iwan

    2006-01-01

    In hadron therapy the spectra of secondary particles can be very broad in type and energy. The most accurate calculations of tissue equivalent (TE) absorbed dose and biological effect can be achieved using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations followed by the application of an appropriate radiobiological model. The verification of MC simulations is therefore an important quality assurance (QA) issue in dose planning. We propose a method of verification for MC dose calculations based on measurements of either the integral absorbed dose or the spectra of deposited energies from single secondary particles in non-TE material detectors embedded in a target of interest (phantom). This method was tested in boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy beams.

  2. Helium-3 and Helium-4 acceleration by high power laser pulses for hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Leemans, W P; Bulanov, S V; Margarone, D; Korn, G; Haberer, T

    2015-01-01

    The laser driven acceleration of ions is considered a promising candidate for an ion source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases. Though proton and carbon ion sources are conventionally used for therapy, other light ions can also be utilized. Whereas carbon ions require 400 MeV per nucleon to reach the same penetration depth as 250 MeV protons, helium ions require only 250 MeV per nucleon, which is the lowest energy per nucleon among the light ions. This fact along with the larger biological damage to cancer cells achieved by helium ions, than that by protons, makes this species an interesting candidate for the laser driven ion source. Two mechanisms (Magnetic Vortex Acceleration and hole-boring Radiation Pressure Acceleration) of PW-class laser driven ion acceleration from liquid and gaseous helium targets are studied with the goal of producing 250 MeV per nucleon helium ion beams that meet the hadron therapy requirements. We show that He3 ions, having almost the same penetration depth as He4 with the ...

  3. On the detector arrangement for in-beam PET for hadron therapy monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Paulo; Shakirin, Georgy; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2006-05-07

    In-beam positron emission tomography (in-beam PET) is currently the only method for an in situ monitoring of highly tumour-conformed charged hadron therapy. At the experimental carbon ion tumour therapy facility, running at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany, all treatments have been monitored by means of a specially adapted dual-head PET scanner. The positive clinical impact of this project triggered the construction of a hospital-based hadron therapy facility, with in-beam PET expected to monitor more delicate radiotherapeutic situations. Therefore, we have studied possible in-beam PET improvements by optimizing the arrangement of the gamma-ray detectors. For this, a fully 3D, rebinning-free, maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm applicable to several closed-ring or dual-head tomographs has been developed. The analysis of beta(+)-activity distributions simulated from real-treatment situations and detected with several detector arrangements allows us to conclude that a dual-head tomograph with narrow gaps yields in-beam PET images with sufficient quality for monitoring head and neck treatments. For monitoring larger irradiation fields, e.g. treatments in the pelvis region, a closed-ring tomograph was seen to be highly desirable. Finally, a study of the space availability for patient and bed, tomograph and beam portal proves the implementation of a closed-ring detector arrangement for in-beam PET to be feasible.

  4. Tenfold reduction of Brownian noise in optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Garrett D; Martin, Michael J; Ye, Jun; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Thermally induced fluctuations impose a fundamental limit on precision measurement. In optical interferometry, the current bounds of stability and sensitivity are dictated by the excess mechanical damping of the high-reflectivity coatings that comprise the cavity end mirrors. Over the preceding decade, the mechanical loss of these amorphous multilayer reflectors has at best been reduced by a factor of two. Here we demonstrate a new paradigm in optical coating technology based on direct-bonded monocrystalline multilayers, which exhibit both intrinsically low mechanical loss and high optical quality. Employing these "crystalline coatings" as end mirrors in a Fabry-P\\'erot cavity, we obtain a finesse of 150,000. More importantly, at room temperature, we observe a thermally-limited noise floor consistent with a tenfold reduction in mechanical damping when compared with the best dielectric multilayers. These results pave the way for the next generation of ultra-sensitive interferometers, as well as for new levels ...

  5. Development of proton computed tomography detectors for applications in hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashkirov, Vladimir A., E-mail: vbashkirov@llu.edu [Loma Linda University, 11175 Campus Street, Loma Linda 92354 (United States); Johnson, Robert P.; Sadrozinski, Hartmut F.-W. [University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz 95064 (United States); Schulte, Reinhard W. [Loma Linda University, 11175 Campus Street, Loma Linda 92354 (United States)

    2016-02-11

    Radiation therapy with protons and heavier ions is an attractive form of cancer treatment that could enhance local control and survival of cancers that are currently difficult to cure and lead to less side effects due to sparing of normal tissues. However, particle therapy faces a significant technical challenge because one cannot accurately predict the particle range in the patient using data provided by existing imaging technologies. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is an emerging imaging modality capable of improving the accuracy of range prediction. In this paper, we describe the successive pCT scanners designed and built by our group with the goal to support particle therapy treatment planning and image guidance by reconstructing an accurate 3D map of the stopping power relative to water in patient tissues. The pCT scanners we have built to date consist of silicon telescopes, which track the proton before and after the object to be reconstructed, and an energy or range detector, which measures the residual energy and/or range of the protons used to evaluate the water equivalent path length (WEPL) of each proton in the object. An overview of a decade-long evolution of the conceptual design of pCT scanners and their calibration is given. Results of scanner performance tests are presented, which demonstrate that the latest pCT scanner approaches readiness for clinical applications in hadron therapy.

  6. Performances of the scanning system for the CNAO center of oncological hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Giordanengo, S; Attili, A; Pardo, J; Russo, G; Taddia, G; Monaco, V; Garella, M A; Zampieri, A; Fabbricatore, P; Cirio, R; Voelker, F; Sacchi, R; Bourhaleb, F; Marchetto, F; Burini, F; Incurvati, M; Ansarinejad, A; Peroni, C

    2010-01-01

    In hadron therapy one of the most advanced methods for beam delivery is the active scanning technique which uses fast scanning magnets to drive a narrow particle beam across the target. The Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) will treat tumours with this technique. The CNAO scanning system includes two identical dipole magnets for horizontal and vertical beam deflection, each one connected to a fast power supply. The dose delivery system exploits a set of monitor chambers to measure the fluence and position of the beam and drives the beam during the treatment by controlling the sequence of currents set by the power supplies. A test of the dynamic performance of the scanning system has been performed using a Hall probe to measure the field inside the magnet and the results are presented in this paper. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Performances of the scanning system for the CNAO center of oncological hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordanengo, S., E-mail: giordane@to.infn.i [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Donetti, M. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); CNAO - Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica Foundation, Milano (Italy); Marchetto, F. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Ansarinejad, A. [Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Attili, A. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Bourhaleb, F. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Burini, F. [OCEM SpA, Bologna (Italy); Cirio, R. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Fabbricatore, P. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Genova (Italy); Voelker, F. [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Garella, M.A. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Incurvati, M. [OCEM SpA, Bologna (Italy); Monaco, V. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Pardo, J. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Peroni, C.; Russo, G.; Sacchi, R. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Taddia, G. [OCEM SpA, Bologna (Italy); Zampieri, A. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy)

    2010-02-01

    In hadron therapy one of the most advanced methods for beam delivery is the active scanning technique which uses fast scanning magnets to drive a narrow particle beam across the target. The Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) will treat tumours with this technique. The CNAO scanning system includes two identical dipole magnets for horizontal and vertical beam deflection, each one connected to a fast power supply. The dose delivery system exploits a set of monitor chambers to measure the fluence and position of the beam and drives the beam during the treatment by controlling the sequence of currents set by the power supplies. A test of the dynamic performance of the scanning system has been performed using a Hall probe to measure the field inside the magnet and the results are presented in this paper.

  8. Conformal radiation therapy with hadron beams and the programs of the TERA Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, U

    1998-01-01

    Proposed fifty years ago, tumor therapy with charged hadron beams has been under rapid development since 1993-94. Indeed hadrontherapy was born in 1938, when neutron beams have been used in cancer therapy, but it has become an accepted therapeutical modality only in the last five years. Fast neutrons are still in use, even if their limitations are now apparent. Charged hadron beams are more favorable, since the largest specific energy deposition occurs at the end of their range in matter. The most used hadrons are at present protons and carbon ions. Both allow a dose deposition which conforms to the tumor target. Radiobiology experiments and the results of the first clinical trials indicate that carbon ions have, on top of this macroscopic property, a different way of interacting with cells at the microscopic level. There are thus solid hopes to use carbon beams of about 4500 MeV to control tumors which are radioresistant both to X-rays and protons. After discussing these macroscopic and microscopic properties of hadrontherapy, the twelve dedicated hadrontherapy centres, which will be treating patients from 2001-2002, are shortly described. Five of them are in the USA and seven in Japan, while no hospital based centre for deep protontherapy is fully financed in Europe. The second part of this review is devoted to the Italian hadrontherapy programme, based on the development of the network RITA, the construction in Rome by the "Istituto Superiore di Sanità" of a novel proton accelerator based on a 3 GHz linac, the design of a linac to boost the energy of protons extracted from a 50-70 MeV cyclotron and the construction in Mirasole, near Milano, of a center for protons and ions known as "CNAO". This center will have a synchrotron, which is under design at CERN in the framework of a collaboration of TERA with AUSTRON and GSI which is called PIMMS (Proton Ion Medical Machine Study) and is headed by Dr. Phyl Bryant.

  9. RBE, reference RBE and clinical RBE: applications of these concepts in hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambersie, A

    1999-06-01

    Introduction of heavy particles (hadrons) into radiation therapy aims at improving the physical selectivity of the irradiation (e.g. proton beams), or the radiobiological differential effect (e.g. fast neutrons), or both (e.g. heavy-ion beams). Each of these new therapy modalities requires several types of information before prescribing safely the doses to patients, as well as for recording and reporting the treatments: (i) absorbed dose measured in a homogeneous phantom in reference conditions; (ii) dose distribution computed at the level of the target volume(s) and the normal tissues at risk; (iii) radiation quality from which a RBE evaluation could be predicted and (iv) RBE measured on biological systems or derived from clinical observation. In hadron therapy, the RBE of the different beams raises specific problems. For fast neutrons, the RBE varies within wide limits (about 2 to 5) depending on the neutron energy spectrum, dose, and biological system. For protons, the RBE values range between smaller limits (about 1.0 to 1.2). A clinical benefit can thus not be expected from RBE differences. However, the proton RBE problem cannot be ignored since dose differences of about 5% can be detected clinically in some cases. The situation is most complex with heavy ions since RBE variations are at least as large as for fast neutrons, as a function of particle type and energy, dose and biological system. In addition, RBE varies with depth. Radiation quality thus has to be taken into account when prescribing and reporting a treatment. This can be done in different ways: (a) description of the method of beam production; (b) computed LET spectra and/or measured microdosimetric spectra at the points clinically relevant; (c) RBE determination. The most relevant RBE data are those obtained for late tolerance of normal tissues at 2 Gy per fraction ("reference RBE"). The "clinical RBE" selected by the radiation oncologist when prescribing the treatment will be close to the

  10. Benchmarking geant4 nuclear models for hadron therapy with 95 MeV/nucleon carbon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudouet, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Labalme, M.

    2014-05-01

    In carbon therapy, the interaction of the incoming beam with human tissue may lead to the production of a large amount of nuclear fragments and secondary light particles. An accurate estimation of the biological dose on the tumor and the surrounding healthy tissue thus requires sophisticated simulation tools based on nuclear reaction models. The validity of such models requires intensive comparisons with as many sets of experimental data as possible. Up to now, a rather limited set of double differential carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured in the energy range used in hadron therapy (up to 400 MeV/nucleon). However, new data have been recently obtained at intermediate energy (95 MeV/nucleon). The aim of this work is to compare the reaction models embedded in the geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit with these new data. The strengths and weaknesses of each tested model, i.e., G4BinaryLightIonReaction, G4QMDReaction, and INCL++, coupled to two different de-excitation models, i.e., the generalized evaporation model and the Fermi break-up model, are discussed.

  11. Passive beam sprending systems and light-weight gentries for synchrotron based hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, A T

    1998-01-01

    Hadron therapy is a promising technique that uses beams of protons or light ions for the treatment of cancer. In order to open this technique to a wider application, hospital based treatment centres are now needed. The extbf{P}roton- extbf{I}on extbf{M}edical extbf{M}achine extbf{S}tudy (PIMMS) in CERN is concerned with the design of such a centre that would use both protons and light ions. The dual species operation makes it preferable to base the centre on a synchrotron. The present thesis is concerned with the beam delivery for the protons. After introducing the basic vocabulary of linear beam optics, the feasibility of a light-weight gantry with passive beam spreading fed by a synchrotron is investigated. The device is a non-linear magnetic structure, which can be described as a emph{magnetic guide} or as a emph{proton pipe}. Detailed studies show that while it is possible to design an optically stable 270$^circ$ section, which would be necessary for a gantry, the properties do not fulfil the requirements...

  12. Hadron-therapy beam monitoring: Towards a new generation of ultra-thin p-type silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouterfa, M.; Aouadi, K. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bertrand, D. [Particle Therapy Dept., Ion Beam Application IBA, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Olbrechts, B.; Delamare, R. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Raskin, J. P.; Gil, E. C. [Institut de Recherche en Mathematique et Physique IRMP, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Flandre, D. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    Hadron-therapy has gained increasing interest for cancer treatment especially within the last decade. System commissioning and quality assurance procedures impose to monitor the particle beam using 2D dose measurements. Nowadays, several monitoring systems exist for hadron-therapy but all show a relatively high influence on the beam properties: indeed, most devices consist of several layers of materials that degrade the beam through scattering and energy losses. For precise treatment purposes, ultra-thin silicon strip detectors are investigated in order to reduce this beam scattering. We assess the beam size increase provoked by the Multiple Coulomb Scattering when passing through Si, to derive a target thickness. Monte-Carlo based simulations show a characteristic scattering opening angle lower than 1 mrad for thicknesses below 20 {mu}m. We then evaluated the fabrication process feasibility. We successfully thinned down silicon wafers to thicknesses lower than 10 {mu}m over areas of several cm{sup 2}. Strip detectors are presently being processed and they will tentatively be thinned down to 20 {mu}m. Moreover, two-dimensional TCAD simulations were carried out to investigate the beam detector performances on p-type Si substrates. Additionally, thick and thin substrates have been compared thanks to electrical simulations. Reducing the pitch between the strips increases breakdown voltage, whereas leakage current is quite insensitive to strips geometrical configuration. The samples are to be characterized as soon as possible in one of the IBA hadron-therapy facilities. For hadron-therapy, this would represent a considerable step forward in terms of treatment precision. (authors)

  13. State of art and next challenges in instrumentation for quality control in hadron therapy centres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karkar, S. [Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CPPM, 13 - Marseille (France); Pauna, N. [Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC) Clermont, 63 - Aubiere (France); Testa, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2008-07-01

    The in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) is currently the only feasible non-invasive method for in-situ monitoring of tumour treatments with ion beams. It is able of assessing parameters relevant for quality assurance, i.e. the particle range in tissue, the position of the irradiated volume and the local deviations between planned and applied distributions. It was used for the first time for quality assurance at GSI hadron-therapy center since 1997: the acquisition is performed during the irradiation and some minutes afterwards which allows the detection of both short-lived and long-lived isotopes and avoids to move the patient. Moreover we can imagine that such in-line PET could be improved to become an on-line PET in conditions that number of LOR detected (Lines of Responses) is large enough and time of reconstruction is short enough to provide typically an image every tens of seconds. The objectives pursued with the present work are to outline present limitations and future challenges of in-beam PET instrumentation. The aim of Part I is to present the prerequisites for a in-beam PET system as well as recent studies to optimise the detector geometry and its performances (by testing modern gamma ray detectors) as well as data processing methods (including adapted reconstruction methods for PET data).In Part II, in-beam and on-line PET challenges are identified. Performances of new fast scintillators and photodetectors are presented in correlation with expected tasks for an optimal delivered dose monitoring. The need of additional simulations for estimating the feasibility of a real time PET camera is obvious. This part also includes a discussion about the possibility of using gamma prompt radiation as a monitor of the dose inside patient under certain conditions.

  14. Spontaneous hematologic recovery from bone marrow aplasia after accidental tenfold overdosage with radiophosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, J.; Bischof, B.; Coninx, S.; Bucher, U.; Poretti, G.; Henrichs, K.; Kaul, A.; Roedler, H.D.; Buettner, K.; Frick, P.G.

    1983-04-01

    Two patients with polycythemia vera received intravenously an accidental tenfold overdosage of radiophosphorus therapy (60 and 50 mCi 32P, respectively). In both patients, the occurrence of hemorrhagic complications 3 wk after the 32P medication led to detection of the error and referral to our hospital. Upon admission they showed an agranulocytosis, severe thrombocytopenia, and bone marrow aplasia. In both cases, spontaneous recovery of the hematopoiesis was observed from day 40 posttreatment onward. In one patient, a slow but ultimately complete normalization of blood counts and marrow morphology took place, whereas in the other, a mild thrombocytopenia persists. Nearly 5 yr after the accidental overdosage, both patients are clinically well. Symptoms of polycythemia vera have not reappeared up to now. Attempts were made to evaluate the radiation dose absorbed by the bone marrow. In the first patient, the daily 32P excretion was determined from day 22 to day 60, whereas in the other patient a whole body count was performed on day 78 after administration. From these results, an approximate cumulative bone marrow dose of 10 Sv (1000 rem) could be calculated.

  15. Preliminary results of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) as real-time beam monitor in hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aza, E.; Ciocca, M.; Murtas, F.; Puddu, S.; Pullia, M.; Silari, M.

    2017-01-01

    The use of proton and carbon ion beams in cancer therapy (also known as hadron therapy) is progressively growing worldwide due to their improved dose distributions, sparing of healthy tissues and (for carbon ions) increased radiobiological effectiveness especially for radio-resistant tumours. Strict Quality Assurance (QA) protocols need to be followed for guaranteeing the clinical beam specifications. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a gaseous detector based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology for measuring the beam spot dimensions and the homogeneity of the scanned irradiation field, which are daily QA tasks commonly performed using radiochromic films. Measurements performed at the National Centre for Oncological Hadron Therapy (CNAO) in Pavia (Italy) showed that the detector is able to monitor the 2D beam image on-line with a pad granularity of 2 mm and a response proportional to the number of delivered particles. The dose homogeneity was measured with low deviation from the results obtained with radiochromic films.

  16. The role of nuclear reactions in Monte Carlo calculations of absorbed and biological effective dose distributions in hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Brons, S; Elsässer, T; Ferrari, A; Gadioli, E; Mairani, A; Parodi, K; Sala, P; Scholz, M; Sommerer, F

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo codes are rapidly spreading among hadron therapy community due to their sophisticated nuclear/electromagnetic models which allow an improved description of the complex mixed radiation field produced by nuclear reactions in therapeutic irradiation. In this contribution results obtained with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA are presented focusing on the production of secondary fragments in carbon ion interaction with water and on CT-based calculations of absorbed and biological effective dose for typical clinical situations. The results of the simulations are compared with the available experimental data and with the predictions of the GSI analytical treatment planning code TRiP.

  17. High-quality ion beams from a nanometric double-layer target and their application to hadron-therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Grech, M; Nuter, R; Grémillet, L; Lefebvre, E

    2010-01-01

    The production of ion beams from the interaction of a circularly polarized laser pulse with a nanometric double-layer target is discussed in the regime where all electrons are expelled from the target by the laser radiation pressure. Quasi-monochromatic, well-collimated ion beams are observed in two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The ion beam properties are derived from a simple analytical model, and the possibility to control those properties by using a laser-pulse with sharp-rising edge is discussed. Application to hadron-therapy is finally considered.

  18. A model of radiation-induced cell killing: insights into mechanisms and applications for hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Altieri, Saverio; Bortolussi, Silva; Giroletti, Elio; Protti, Nicoletta

    2013-09-01

    A mechanism-based, two-parameter biophysical model of cell killing was developed with the aim of elucidating the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced cell death and predicting cell killing by different radiation types, including protons and carbon ions at energies and doses of interest for cancer therapy. The model assumed that certain chromosome aberrations (dicentrics, rings and large deletions, called "lethal aberrations") lead to clonogenic inactivation, and that aberrations derive from μm-scale misrejoining of chromatin fragments, which in turn are produced by "dirty" double-strand breaks called "cluster lesions" (CLs). The average numbers of CLs per Gy per cell were left as a semi-free parameter and the threshold distance for chromatin-fragment rejoining was defined the second parameter. The model was "translated" into Monte Carlo code and provided simulated survival curves, which were compared with survival data on V79 cells exposed to protons, carbon ions and X rays. The agreement was good between simulations and survival data and supported the assumptions of the model at least for doses up to a few Gy. Dicentrics, rings and large deletions were found to be lethal not only for AG1522 cells exposed to X rays, as already reported by others, but also for V79 cells exposed to protons and carbon ions of different energies. Furthermore, the derived CL yields suggest that the critical DNA lesions leading to clonogenic inactivation are more complex than "clean" DSBs. After initial validation, the model was applied to characterize the particle and LET dependence of proton and carbon cell killing. Consistent with the proton data, the predicted fraction of inactivated cells after 2 Gy protons was 40-50% below 7.7 keV/μm, increased by a factor ∼1.6 between 7.7-30.5 keV/μm, and decreased by a factor ∼1.1 between 30.5-34.6 keV/μm. These LET values correspond to proton energies below a few MeV, which are always present in the distal region of hadron therapy

  19. In Search of the Economic Sustainability of Hadron Therapy: The Real Cost of Setting Up and Operating a Hadron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderstraeten, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.vanderstraeten@uzgent.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Verstraete, Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); De Croock, Roger [Belgian Hadron Therapy Center Foundation, Brussels (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried; Lievens, Yolande [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Gent (Belgium)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the treatment cost and required reimbursement for a new hadron therapy facility, considering different technical solutions and financing methods. Methods and Materials: The 3 technical solutions analyzed are a carbon only (COC), proton only (POC), and combined (CC) center, each operating 2 treatment rooms and assumed to function at full capacity. A business model defines the required reimbursement and analyzes the financial implications of setting up a facility over time; activity-based costing (ABC) calculates the treatment costs per type of patient for a center in a steady state of operation. Both models compare a private, full-cost approach with public sponsoring, only taking into account operational costs. Results: Yearly operational costs range between €10.0M (M = million) for a publicly sponsored POC to €24.8M for a CC with private financing. Disregarding inflation, the average treatment cost calculated with ABC (COC: €29,450; POC: €46,342; CC: €46,443 for private financing; respectively €16,059, €28,296, and €23,956 for public sponsoring) is slightly lower than the required reimbursement based on the business model (between €51,200 in a privately funded POC and €18,400 in COC with public sponsoring). Reimbursement for privately financed centers is very sensitive to a delay in commissioning and to the interest rate. Higher throughput and hypofractionation have a positive impact on the treatment costs. Conclusions: Both calculation methods are valid and complementary. The financially most attractive option of a publicly sponsored COC should be balanced to the clinical necessities and the sociopolitical context.

  20. Hadron-hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Month, M.; Weng, W.T.

    1983-06-21

    The objective is to investigate whether existing technology might be extrapolated to provide the conceptual framework for a major hadron-hadron collider facility for high energy physics experimentation for the remainder of this century. One contribution to this large effort is to formalize the methods and mathematical tools necessary. In this report, the main purpose is to introduce the student to basic design procedures. From these follow the fundamental characteristics of the facility: its performance capability, its size, and the nature and operating requirements on the accelerator components, and with this knowledge, we can determine the technology and resources needed to build the new facility.

  1. Design and characterization of the beam monitor detectors of the Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-therapy (CNAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordanengo, S.; Donetti, M.; Garella, M. A.; Marchetto, F.; Alampi, G.; Ansarinejad, A.; Monaco, V.; Mucchi, M.; Pecka, I. A.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Scalise, M.; Tomba, C.; Cirio, R.

    2013-01-01

    A new hadron-therapy facility implementing an active beam scanning technique has been developed at the Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-therapy (CNAO). This paper presents the design and the characterization of the beam monitor detectors developed for the on-line monitoring and control of the dose delivered during a treatment at CNAO. The detectors are based on five parallel-plate transmission ionization chambers with either a single large electrode or electrodes segmented in 128 strips (strip chambers) and 32×32 pixels (pixel chamber). The detectors are arranged in two independent boxes with an active area larger than 200×200 mm2 and a total water equivalent thickness along the beam path of about 0.9 mm. A custom front-end chip with 64 channels converts the integrated ionization channels without dead-time. The detectors were tested at the clinical proton beam facility of the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) which implements a spot scanning technique, each spot being characterized by a predefined number of protons delivered with a pencil beam in a specified point of the irradiation field. The short-term instability was measured by delivering several identical spots in a time interval of few tenths of seconds and is found to be lower than 0.3%. The non-uniformity, measured by delivering sequences of spots in different points of the detector surface, results to be lower than 1% in the single electrode chambers and lower than 1.5% in the strip and pixel chambers, reducing to less than 0.5% and 1% in the restricted 100×100 mm2 central area of the detector.

  2. Design and characterization of the beam monitor detectors of the Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-therapy (CNAO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordanengo, S., E-mail: giordane@to.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Donetti, M.; Garella, M.A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Fondazione CNAO, strada Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Alampi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ansarinejad, A. [Nuclear Science Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Monaco, V. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Mucchi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Pecka, I.A. [Kantonsspital Luzern, Zurich Area (Switzerland); Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Scalise, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomba, C. [Institut Néel/CNRS-Université Joseph Fourier, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Cirio, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-01-11

    A new hadron-therapy facility implementing an active beam scanning technique has been developed at the Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-therapy (CNAO). This paper presents the design and the characterization of the beam monitor detectors developed for the on-line monitoring and control of the dose delivered during a treatment at CNAO. The detectors are based on five parallel-plate transmission ionization chambers with either a single large electrode or electrodes segmented in 128 strips (strip chambers) and 32×32 pixels (pixel chamber). The detectors are arranged in two independent boxes with an active area larger than 200×200 mm{sup 2} and a total water equivalent thickness along the beam path of about 0.9 mm. A custom front-end chip with 64 channels converts the integrated ionization channels without dead-time. The detectors were tested at the clinical proton beam facility of the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) which implements a spot scanning technique, each spot being characterized by a predefined number of protons delivered with a pencil beam in a specified point of the irradiation field. The short-term instability was measured by delivering several identical spots in a time interval of few tenths of seconds and is found to be lower than 0.3%. The non-uniformity, measured by delivering sequences of spots in different points of the detector surface, results to be lower than 1% in the single electrode chambers and lower than 1.5% in the strip and pixel chambers, reducing to less than 0.5% and 1% in the restricted 100×100 mm{sup 2} central area of the detector.

  3. Relationship between CT number and electron density, scatter angle and nuclear reaction for hadron-therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsufuji, N; Tomura, H; Futami, Y; Yamashita, H; Higashi, A; Minohara, S; Endo, M; Kanai, T

    1998-11-01

    The precise conversion of CT numbers to their electron densities is essential in treatment planning for hadron therapy. Although some conversion methods have already been proposed, it is hard to check the conversion accuracy during practical therapy. We have estimated the CT numbers of real tissues by a calculational method established by Mustafa and Jackson. The relationship between the CT numbers and the electron densities was investigated for various body tissues as well as some tissue-equivalent materials used for a conversion to check the accuracy of the current conversion methods. The result indicates a slight disagreement at the high-CT-number region. A precise estimation of the multiple scattering, nuclear reaction and range straggling of incident particles has been considered as being important to realize higher-level conformal therapy in the future. The relationship between these parameters and the CT numbers was also investigated for tissues and water. The result shows that it is sufficiently practical to replace these parameters for real tissues with those for water by adjusting the density.

  4. Linear energy transfer and track pattern recognition of secondary radiation generated in hadron therapy beam in a PMMA target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalka, L.; Granja, C.; Hartmann, B.; Jakubek, J.; Jaekel, O.; Martisikova, M.; Pospisil, S.; Solc, J.

    2013-02-01

    Hadron therapy uses ion beams for irradiation of cancerous tissue taking advantage of the highly localized dose deposition in the target tumor. For a correct estimation of dose deposited in tissue surrounding the target it is necessary to consider also the contribution of energetic secondary radiation generated by primary ions. It was already experimentally demonstrated that this contribution can be measured using the semiconductor pixel detector Timepix (256 × 256 pixels with 55 μm pitch) visualizing traces of secondary particles. The resolving power of the detector enables the differentiation of traces of different types of particles. In this work we studied the possibilities of determination of different types of secondary particles in correlation with their flight direction. Such identification allows correct assignment of dose for each type of particle. The distribution of secondary particles was compared to Monte Carlo simulations. Measurements were performed with a PMMA target irradiated with a therapeutic carbon beam at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT).

  5. A Multiple-room, Continuous Beam Delivery, Hadron-therapy Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méot, F.

    A proton-therapy hospital installation, based on multiple beam extraction systems from a fixed-field synchrotron, is presented and commented. Potential interest as hospital operation efficiency, as well as estimates of the impact of continuous, multiple-port extraction, on the cost of a session, are discussed.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the contamination in an energy modulated carbon ion beam for hadron therapy delivered by cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morone, M Cristina; Calabretta, Luciano; Cuttone, Giacomo; Fiorini, Francesca

    2008-11-07

    Protons and carbon ion beams for hadron therapy can be delivered by cyclotrons with a fixed energy. In order to treat patients, an energy degrader along the beam line will be used to match the particle range with the target depth. Fragmentation reactions of carbon ions inside the degrader material could introduce a small amount of unwanted contaminants to the beam, giving additional dose to the patient out of the target volume. A simulation study using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code has been carried out by considering three different materials as the degrader. Two situations have been studied: a realistic one, lowering the carbon beam energy from 300 MeV/n to 220 MeV/n, corresponding to a range of 10 cm in water, and the worst possible case, lowering the carbon energy to 50 MeV/n, corresponding to the millimeter range. The main component of the contaminant is represented by alpha particles and protons, with a typical momentum after the degrader greater than that of the primary beam, and can be eliminated by the action of a momentum analyzing system and slits, and by a second thin absorber. The residual component of fragments reaching the patient is negligible with respect to the fragment quantity generated by the primary beam inside the patient before arriving at the end of the target volume.

  7. Hadron Cancer Therapy - relative merits of X-ray, proton and carbon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakel, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    -Heidelberg University has a long experience in radiotherapy with carbon ions, starting with a pilot project at GSI in 1997. This project was jointly run by the Dep. for Radiation Oncology of Heidelberg University, GSI and the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ). A hospital based heavy ion center at Heidelberg University, the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) was proposed by the same group in 1998 and started clinical operation in late 2009. Since then nearly 2000 patients were treated with beams of carbon ions and protons. Just recently the operation of the world's first and only gantry for heavy ions also started at HIT. Patient treatments are performed in three rooms. Besides that, a lot of research projects are run in the field of Medical Physics and Radiobiology using a dedicated experimental area and the possibility to use beams of protons, carbon, helium and oxygen ions being delivered with the raster scanning technique.

  8. Shielding data for hadron-therapy ion accelerators: Attenuation of secondary radiation in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S.; Mereghetti, A.; Sagia, E.; Silari, M.

    2014-01-01

    The secondary radiation field produced by seven different ion species (from hydrogen to nitrogen), impinging onto thick targets made of either iron or ICRU tissue, was simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code, and transported through thick concrete shields: the ambient dose equivalent was estimated and shielding parameters evaluated. The energy for each ion beam was set in order to reach a maximum penetration in ICRU tissue of 290 mm (equivalent to the therapeutic range of 430 MeV/amu carbon ions). Source terms and attenuation lengths are given as a function of emission angle and ion species, along with fits to the Monte Carlo data, for shallow depth and deep penetration in the shield. Trends of source terms and attenuation lengths as a function of neutron emission angle and ion species impinging on target are discussed. A comparison of double differential distributions of neutrons with results from similar simulation works reported in the literature is also included. The aim of this work is to provide shielding data for the design of future light-ion radiation therapy facilities.

  9. Shielding data for hadron-therapy ion accelerators: Attenuation of secondary radiation in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. [Polytechnic of Milano, Department of Energy, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Mereghetti, A. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Manchester, Physics and Astronomy Department, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sagia, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Physics Department, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou, GR 157 80 Athens (Greece); Silari, M., E-mail: marco.silari@cern.ch [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    The secondary radiation field produced by seven different ion species (from hydrogen to nitrogen), impinging onto thick targets made of either iron or ICRU tissue, was simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code, and transported through thick concrete shields: the ambient dose equivalent was estimated and shielding parameters evaluated. The energy for each ion beam was set in order to reach a maximum penetration in ICRU tissue of 290 mm (equivalent to the therapeutic range of 430 MeV/amu carbon ions). Source terms and attenuation lengths are given as a function of emission angle and ion species, along with fits to the Monte Carlo data, for shallow depth and deep penetration in the shield. Trends of source terms and attenuation lengths as a function of neutron emission angle and ion species impinging on target are discussed. A comparison of double differential distributions of neutrons with results from similar simulation works reported in the literature is also included. The aim of this work is to provide shielding data for the design of future light-ion radiation therapy facilities.

  10. A new formalism for modelling parameters α and β of the linear quadratic model of cell survival for hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliev, Oleg N; Grosshans, David R; Mohan, Radhe

    2017-08-23

    We propose a new formalism for calculating parameters α and β of the linear quadratic model of cell survival. This formalism, primarily intended for calculating relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for treatment planning in hadron therapy, is based on a recently proposed microdosimetric revision of the single-target multi-hit model. The main advantage of our formalism is that it reliably produces α and β that have correct general properties with respect to their dependence on physical properties of the beam, including the asymptotic behavior for very low and high linear energy transfer (LET) beams. For example, in the case of monoenergetic beams, our formalism predicts that, as a function of LET, (a) α has a maximum and (b) the α/β ratio increases monotonically with increasing LET. No prior models reviewed in this study predict both properties (a) and (b) correctly, and therefore, these prior models are valid only within a limited LET range. We first present our formalism in a general form, for polyenergetic beams. A signicant new result in this general case is that parameter β is represented as an average over the joint distribution of energies E1 and E2 of two particles in the beam. This result is consistent with the role of the quadratic term in the linear quadratic model. It accounts for the two-track mechanism of cell kill, in which two particles, one after another, damage the same site in the cell nucleus. We then present simplified versions of the formalism and discuss predicted properties of α and β. Finally, to demonstrate consistency of our formalism with experimental data, we apply it to fit two sets of experimental data: (1) α for heavy ions, covering a broad range of LETs, and (2) β for protons. In both cases, good agreement was achieved. © 2017 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  11. Hadronic Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding hadronic interactions is crucial for investigating the properties of unstable hadrons, since measuring physical quantities for unstable hadrons including the resonance mass and decay width requires simultaneous calculations of final scattering states. Recent studies of hadronic scatterings and decays are reviewed from this point of view. The nuceon-nucleon and multi-nucleon interactions are very important to understand the formation of nucleus from the first principle of QCD. These interactions have been studied mainly by two methods, due originally to L\\"uscher and to HALQCD. The results obtained from the two methods are compared in three channels, $I=2$ two-pion, H-dibaryon, and two-nucleon channels. So far the results from the two methods for the two-nucleon channels are different even at the level of the presence or absence of bound states. We then discuss possible uncertainties in each method. Recent results on the binding energy for helium nuclei are also reviewed.

  12. Hadron interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Orginos

    2011-12-01

    In this talk I am reviewing recent calculations of properties of multi-hadron systems in lattice QCD. In particular, I am reviewing results of elastic scattering phase shifts in meson-meson, meson-baryon and baryon-baryon systems, as well as discussing results indicating possible existence of bound states in two baryon systems. Finally, calculations of properties of systems with more than two hadrons are presented.

  13. Quantitative comparison of suitability of various beams for range monitoring with induced beta+ activity in hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaniwa, Taku; Tomitani, Takehiro; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2005-03-21

    In radiation therapy with hadron beams, it is important to evaluate the range of incident ions and the deposited dose distribution in a patient body for the effective utilization of such properties as the dose concentration and the biological effect around the Bragg peak. However, there is some ambiguity in determining this range because of a conversion error from the x-ray CT number to the charged particle range. This is because the CT number is related to x-ray absorption coefficients, while the ion range is determined by the electron density of the substance. Using positron emitters produced in the patient body through fragmentation reactions during the irradiation has been proposed to overcome this problem. The activity distribution in the patient body can be deduced by detecting pairs of annihilation gamma rays emitted from the positron emitters, and information about the range of incident ions can be obtained. In this paper, we propose a quantitative comparison method to evaluate the mean range of incident ions and monitor the activity distribution related to the deposited dose distribution. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated by evaluating the range of incident ions using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method and Fisher's information was calculated under realistic conditions for irradiations with several kinds of ions. From the calculated Fisher's information, we compared the relative advantages of initial beams to determine the range of incident ions. The (16)O irradiation gave the most information among the stable heavy ions when we measured the induced activity for 500 s and 60 s just after the irradiation. Therefore, under these conditions, we concluded that the (16)O beam was the optimum beam to monitor the activity distribution and to evaluate the range. On the other hand, if the positron emitters were injected directly as a therapeutic beam, the (15)O irradiation gave the most information. Although the relative advantages of

  14. Development in technology and medical physics in radiotherapy: special considerations hadron therapy; Evolucion de la tecnica y de la fisica medica en radioterapia: consideraciones especiales sobre hadronterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazai, A.; Losa, S.; Farias, R.; Cell, J. c.; Perez, J.; Olivera, G.; Galmarini, D.; Prezado, Y.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Sanchez Parcerisa, D.; Carbe, A.; Venencia, D.; Andreo, P.; Fourquet, A.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents some recent advances in technology and medical physics in the field of radiation oncology. If stands out the progress in anatomical and functional imaging, the availability of beams of photons and charged particles with multiples incidences on the patient, the conformal and monitoring device, as well as the software to calculate and to control the treatments. There is a description of concepts such as intensity modulation, image guided and adaptive radiation therapy, transit dosimetry, hadron therapy and the importance of research in radiation biology, including practical examples. It concludes with the need to evaluate the clinical relevance and the economical aspects of all this advances, as well as how to apply them to get personalized treatments in combination with molecular biology and to spread these benefits to large populations. (Author)

  15. Hadron Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Thomas; Faessler, Amand; Lee, Ian Woo; Lyubovitskij, Valery E

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a possible interpretation of the open charm mesons $D_{s0}^*(2317)$, $D_{s1}(2460)$ and the hidden charm mesons X(3872), Y(3940) and Y(4140) as hadron molecules. Using a phenomenological Lagrangian approach we review the strong and radiative decays of the $D_{s0}^* (2317)$ and $D_{s1}(2460)$ states. The X(3872) is assumed to consist dominantly of molecular hadronic components with an additional small admixture of a charmonium configuration. Determing the radiative ($\\gamma J/\\psi$ and $\\gamma \\psi(2s)$) and strong ($J/\\psi 2\\pi $ and $ J/\\psi 3\\pi$) decay modes we show that present experimental observation is consistent with the molecular structure assumption of the X(3872). Finally we give evidence for molecular interpretations of the Y(3940) and Y(4140) related to the observed strong decay modes $J/\\psi + \\omega$ or $J/\\psi + \\phi$, respectively.

  16. Preliminary Characterization Tests of Detectors of on-Line Monitor Systems of the Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-Therapy (CNAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hadron-therapy is an effective technique used to treat tumors that are located between or nearby vital organs. The Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-therapy (CNAO has been realized as the first facility in Italy to treat very difficult tumors with protons and Carbon ions. The on-line monitor system for CNAO has been developed by the Department of Physics of the University of Torino and Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN. The monitoring system performs the on-line checking of the beam intensity, dimension, and beam position. Materials and Methods The monitor system is based on parallel plate ionization chambers and is composed of five ionization chambers with the anodes fully integrated or segmented in pixels or strips that are placed in two boxes. A series of measurements were performed that involve the background current and the detectors have been characterized by means of a series of preliminary testes in order to verify reproducibility and uniformity of the chambers using an X-ray source. Results The measured background currents for StripX, StripY and Pixel chambers are five orders of magnitude smaller than the nominal treatment current. The reproducibility error of chambers is less than 1%. The analysis of the uniformity showed that the monitor devices have a spread in gain that varies, but only about 2%. Conclusion The reproducibility and the uniformity values are considered as a good result, taking into account that the X-ray energy range is several orders of magnitude smaller than the particle energies used at CNAO.

  17. Hadron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, S.

    1985-10-01

    Heavy quark systems and glueball candidates, the particles which are relevant to testing QCD, are discussed. The review begins with the heaviest spectroscopically observed quarks, the b anti-b bound states, including the chi state masses, spins, and hadronic widths and the non-relativistic potential models. Also, P states of c anti-c are mentioned. Other heavy states are also discussed in which heavy quarks combine with lighter ones. The gluonium candidates iota(1460), theta(1700), and g/sub T/(2200) are then covered. The very lightest mesons, pi-neutral and eta, are discussed. 133 refs., 24 figs., 16 tabs. (LEW)

  18. 治癌离子同步加速器的物理设计%Design of Synchrotron for Hadron Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金泉; 宋明涛; 魏宝文

    2007-01-01

    根据国际放射疗法的现状和发展,为了进一步提升国内的肿瘤放射疗法,研究设计了1台由两个完全相同的超周期组成的治癌专用离子同步加速器,包括LATTICE、多圈注入系统、RF加速及三阶共振慢引出系统.该加速器可以把质子加速到250MeV及碳离子加速到400MeV/u.%According to the operation and development of radiation therapy in the world, in order to further promote the radiation therapy of tumour in China, a design of a special synchrotron with two super-periodicity for hadron therapy is presented, including lattice, injection system, RF acceleration and slow extraction of the third order resonance. The synchrotron accelerates the proton beam to 250MeV and the carbon beam to 400MeV/u.

  19. Simulation for position determination of distal and proximal edges for SOBP irradiation in hadron therapy by using the maximum likelihood estimation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaniwa, Taku; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Tomitani, Takehiro

    2005-12-21

    In radiation therapy with hadron beams, conformal irradiation to a tumour can be achieved by using the properties of incident ions such as the high dose concentration around the Bragg peak. For the effective utilization of such properties, it is necessary to evaluate the volume irradiated with hadron beams and the deposited dose distribution in a patient's body. Several methods have been proposed for this purpose, one of which uses the positron emitters generated through fragmentation reactions between incident ions and target nuclei. In the previous paper, we showed that the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method could be applicable to the estimation of beam end-point from the measured positron emitting activity distribution for mono-energetic beam irradiations. In a practical treatment, a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) beam is used to achieve a uniform biological dose distribution in the whole target volume. Therefore, in the present paper, we proposed to extend the MLE method to estimations of the position of the distal and proximal edges of the SOBP from the detected annihilation gamma ray distribution. We confirmed the effectiveness of the method by means of simulations. Although polyethylene was adopted as a substitute for a soft tissue target in validating the method, the proposed method is equally applicable to general cases, provided that the reaction cross sections between the incident ions and the target nuclei are known. The relative advantage of incident beam species to determine the position of the distal and the proximal edges was compared. Furthermore, we ascertained the validity of applying the MLE method to determinations of the position of the distal and the proximal edges of an SOBP by simulations and we gave a physical explanation of the distal and the proximal information.

  20. FLUKA simulations of the response of tissue-equivalent proportional counters to ion beams for applications in hadron therapy and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlen, T T; Dosanjh, M; Ferrari, A; Gudowska, I; Mairani, A

    2011-10-21

    For both cancer therapy with protons and ions (hadron therapy) and space radiation environments, the spatial energy deposition patterns of the radiation fields are of importance for quantifying the resulting radiation damage in biological structures. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are the principal instruments for measuring imparted energy on a microscopic scale and for characterizing energy deposition patterns of radiation. Moreover, the distribution of imparted energy can serve as a complementary quantity to particle fluences of the primary beam and secondary fragments for characterizing a radiation field on a physical basis for radiobiological models. In this work, the Monte Carlo particle transport code FLUKA is used for simulating energy depositions in TEPC by ion beams. The capability of FLUKA in predicting imparted energy and derived quantities, such as lineal energy, for microscopic volumes is evaluated by comparing it with a large set of TEPC measurements for different ion beams with atomic numbers ranging from 1 to 26 and energies from 80 up to 1000 MeV/n. The influence of different physics configurations in the simulation is also discussed. It is demonstrated that FLUKA can simulate energy deposition patterns of ions in TEPC cavities accurately and that it provides an adequate description of the main features of the spectra.

  1. Multiquark Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Stephen Lars

    2016-01-01

    A number of candidate multiquark hadrons, i.e., particle resonances with substructures that are more complex than the quark-antiquark mesons and three-quark baryons that are prescribed in the textbooks, have recently been observed. In this talk I present: some recent preliminary BESIII results on the near-threshold behavior of sigma(e+e- --> Lambda Lambda-bar) that may or may not be related to multiquark mesons in the light- and strange-quark sectors; results from Belle and LHCb on the electrically charged, charmoniumlike Z(4430)^+ --> pi^+ psi ' resonance that necessarily has a four-quark substructure; and the recent LHCb discovery of the P_c(4380) and P_c(4450) hidden-charm resonances seen as a complex structure in the J/psi p invariant mass distribution for Lambda_b --> K^-J/psi p decays and necessarily have a five-quark substructure and are, therefore, prominent candidates for pentaquark baryons.

  2. Double-differential fragmentation cross-section measurements of 95 MeV/nucleon 12C beams on thin targets for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudouet, J.; Juliani, D.; Labalme, M.; Cussol, D.; Angélique, J. C.; Braunn, B.; Colin, J.; Finck, Ch.; Fontbonne, J. M.; Guérin, H.; Henriquet, P.; Krimmer, J.; Rousseau, M.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Salvador, S.

    2013-08-01

    During therapeutic treatment with heavy ions like carbon, the beam undergoes nuclear fragmentation and secondary light charged particles, in particular protons and α particles, are produced. To estimate the dose deposited into the tumors and the surrounding healthy tissues, an accurate prediction on the fluences of these secondary fragments is necessary. Nowadays, a very limited set of double differential carbon fragmentation cross sections are being measured in the energy range used in hadron therapy (40 to 400 MeV/nucleon). Therefore, new measurements are performed to determine the double differential cross section of carbon on different thin targets. This work describes the experimental results of an experiment performed on May 2011 at GANIL. The double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of secondary fragments produced in the 12C fragmentation at 95 MeV/nucleon on thin targets (C, CH2, Al, Al2O3, Ti, and PMMA) have been measured. The experimental setup will be precisely described, the systematic error study will be explained and all the experimental data will be presented.

  3. Organ-confined prostate carcinoma radiation brachytherapy compared with external either photon- or hadron-beam radiation therapy. Just a short up-to-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, C

    2011-07-01

    Both low dose rate (LDR) permanent either 1251 or 103Pd seed implant and high dose rate (HDR) 1921r temporary implant are an excellent way to release high dose of ionizing radiations to cancerous lesions while significantly sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. Therefore, the radiation brachytherapy, among the established treatment options of organ-confined prostate carcinoma--interstitial radiofrequency, high intensity focused ultrasound, cryotherapy--has gained large acceptance in the last decades. The LDR permanent interstitial radioactive seed implantation is often used as monotherapy for low risk prostate carcinoma whereas the HDR temporary implant may useful to treat intermediate-to-high risk prostate tumors as a radiation boost to combined external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). On the other hand, with recent refinement of EBRT techniques--either three-dimensional conformal- or intensity-modulated radiotherapy, cyber-knife radiosurgery with even 4D-high resolution image-guided tracking--high doses of X-rays may be precisely delivered to prostate malignant lesions without increasing toxicity for surrounding normal structures. Also hadron therapy is an increasingly successful technique that allows the release of effective energy of protons (H+), neutrons or carbon ions (6(12)C) to the limited extent of the cancerous target site, thus destroying malignant lesion with millimetric precision--just as bloodless surgery--while less damaging the neighbouring healthy tissues. Looking to the near future, even more effective oncotherapy modality appears to be the use of antiprotons because of their highly confined energy deposition at well defined body dept around the annihilation point in contact with protons of the ordinary matter, so targeting only a very limited body volume.

  4. QCD in hadron-hadron collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, M.

    1997-03-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics provides a good description of many aspects of high energy hadron-hadron collisions, and this will be described, along with some aspects that are not yet understood in QCD. Topics include high E{sub T} jet production, direct photon, W, Z and heavy flavor production, rapidity gaps and hard diffraction.

  5. General characteristics of hadron-hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, E W

    2004-01-01

    Soft multiparticle production in hadron-hadron collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on its role as a standard for heavy-ion collisions at SPS and RHIC energies and as a bridge interpolating between the most simple e **+e**- and the most complex AA collisions.

  6. Gamma-ray detection and Compton camera image reconstruction with application to hadron therapy; Detection des rayons gamma et reconstruction d'images pour la camera Compton: Application a l'hadrontherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandes, M.

    2010-09-15

    A novel technique for radiotherapy - hadron therapy - irradiates tumors using a beam of protons or carbon ions. Hadron therapy is an effective technique for cancer treatment, since it enables accurate dose deposition due to the existence of a Bragg peak at the end of particles range. Precise knowledge of the fall-off position of the dose with millimeters accuracy is critical since hadron therapy proved its efficiency in case of tumors which are deep-seated, close to vital organs, or radio-resistant. A major challenge for hadron therapy is the quality assurance of dose delivery during irradiation. Current systems applying positron emission tomography (PET) technologies exploit gamma rays from the annihilation of positrons emitted during the beta decay of radioactive isotopes. However, the generated PET images allow only post-therapy information about the deposed dose. In addition, they are not in direct coincidence with the Bragg peak. A solution is to image the complete spectrum of the emitted gamma rays, including nuclear gamma rays emitted by inelastic interactions of hadrons to generated nuclei. This emission is isotropic, and has a spectrum ranging from 100 keV up to 20 MeV. However, the measurement of these energetic gamma rays from nuclear reactions exceeds the capability of all existing medical imaging systems. An advanced Compton scattering detection method with electron tracking capability is proposed, and modeled to reconstruct the high-energy gamma-ray events. This Compton detection technique was initially developed to observe gamma rays for astrophysical purposes. A device illustrating the method was designed and adapted to Hadron Therapy Imaging (HTI). It consists of two main sub-systems: a tracker where Compton recoiled electrons are measured, and a calorimeter where the scattered gamma rays are absorbed via the photoelectric effect. Considering a hadron therapy scenario, the analysis of generated data was performed, passing trough the complete

  7. Hadron accelerators for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Hywel; MacKay, Ranald; Peach, Ken; Smith, Susan

    2014-04-01

    Over the last twenty years the treatment of cancer with protons and light nuclei such as carbon ions has moved from being the preserve of research laboratories into widespread clinical use. A number of choices now exist for the creation and delivery of these particles, key amongst these being the adoption of pencil beam scanning using a rotating gantry; attention is now being given to what technologies will enable cheaper and more effective treatment in the future. In this article the physics and engineering used in these hadron therapy facilities is presented, and the research areas likely to lead to substantive improvements. The wider use of superconducting magnets is an emerging trend, whilst further ahead novel high-gradient acceleration techniques may enable much smaller treatment systems. Imaging techniques to improve the accuracy of treatment plans must also be developed hand-in-hand with future sources of particles, a notable example of which is proton computed tomography.

  8. CMS Central Hadron Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Howard S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a description of the CMS central hadron calorimeter. We describe the production of the 1996 CMS hadron testbeam module. We show the results of the quality control tests of the testbeam module. We present some results of the 1995 CMS hadron testbeam.

  9. ATLAS-Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hall 180 work on Hadronic Calorimeter The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53 (2006) 1275-81)

  10. Magnetisation and field quality of a cosine-theta dipole magnet wound with coated conductors for rotating gantry for hadron cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Naoyuki; Sogabe, Yusuke; Sakashita, Masaki; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Noda, Koji; Ogitsu, Toru; Ishii, Yusuke; Kurusu, Tsutomu

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetic field analyses were carried out to study the influence of coated-conductor magnetisation, i.e. the screening (shielding) current, on the field quality of a dipole magnet in a rotating gantry for hadron cancer therapy. The analyses were made on the cross section of a cosine-theta dipole magnet in a rotating gantry for carbon ions, which generated 2.90 T of magnetic field. The temporal profile (temporal variation) of the magnet current was determined based on the actual excitation schemes of the magnets in the rotating gantry. The experimentally determined superconducting property of a coated conductor was considered, and we calculated the temporal evolutions of the current-density distributions in all the turns of coated conductors in the magnet. From the obtained current-density distributions, we calculated the multipole components of the magnetic field and evaluated the field quality of the magnet. The deviation in the dipole component from its designed value was up to approximately 25 mT, which was approximately 1% of the designed maximum dipole component. Its variation between repeated excitations was approximately 0.03%, and it drifted approximately 0.06% in 10 s. Some compensation schemes might be required to counteract such influence of magnetisation on the dipole component. Meanwhile, the higher multipole components were small, stable, and sufficiently reproducible for a magnet in rotating gantries, i.e. |b 3| ˜ 1.1 × 10-3 and |Δb 3| ˜ 0.2 × 10-3 in 10 s.

  11. SU-E-J-138: On the Ion Beam Range and Dose Verification in Hadron Therapy Using Sound Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourkal, E [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Veltchev, I [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gayou, O [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nahirnyak, V [Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi (Ukraine)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Accurate range verification is of great importance to fully exploit the potential benefits of ion beam therapies. Current research efforts on this topic include the use of PET imaging of induced activity, detection of emerging prompt gamma rays or secondary particles. It has also been suggested recently to detect the ultrasound waves emitted through the ion energy absorption process. The energy absorbed in a medium is dissipated as heat, followed by thermal expansion that leads to generation of acoustic waves. By using an array of ultrasound transducers the precise spatial location of the Bragg peak can be obtained. The shape and intensity of the emitted ultrasound pulse depend on several variables including the absorbed energy and the pulse length. The main objective of this work is to understand how the ultrasound wave amplitude and shape depend on the initial ion energy and intensity. This would help guide future experiments in ionoacoustic imaging. Methods: The absorbed energy density for protons and carbon ions of different energy and field sizes were obtained using Fluka Monte Carlo code. Subsequently, the system of coupled equations for temperature and pressure is solved for different ion pulse intensities and lengths to obtain the pressure wave shape, amplitude and spectral distribution. Results: The proposed calculations show that the excited pressure wave amplitude is proportional to the absorbed energy density and for longer ion pulses inversely proportional to the ion pulse duration. It is also shown that the resulting ionoacoustic pressure distribution depends on both ion pulse duration and time between the pulses. Conclusion: The Bragg peak localization using ionoacoustic signal may eventually lead to the development of an alternative imaging method with sub-millimeter resolution. It may also open a way for in-vivo dose verification from the measured acoustic signal.

  12. Hadron Colliders and Hadron Collider Physics Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisov D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes main developments of the hadron colliders and physics results obtained since their inception around forty years ago. The increase in the collision energy of over two orders of magnitude and even larger increases in luminosity provided experiments with unique data samples. Developments of full acceptance detectors, particle identification and analysis methods provided fundamental discoveries and ultra-precise measurements which culminated in the completion and in depth verification of the Standard Model. Hadron Collider Physics symposium provided opportunities for those working at hadron colliders to share results of their research since 1979 and helped greatly to develop the field of particle physics.

  13. Charm-Hadron Production at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Miriam; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Recent results on charm hadron production are presented, using data recorded in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider and in proton-antiproton collisions at the Tevatron. These results include the production of charmonium and of open charm mesons, and their comparison with theoretical predictions. Measurements of the associated production of hidden or open charm mesons with additional quarkonium states are also presented.

  14. Hadrons in medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Mosel

    2006-04-01

    In these lectures I first give the motivation for investigations of in-medium properties of hadrons. I discuss the relevant symmetries of QCD and how they might affect the observed hadron properties. I then discuss at length the observable consequences of in-medium changes of hadronic properties in reactions with elementary probes, and in particular photons, on nuclei. Here I put an emphasis on new experiments on changes of the - and -mesons in medium.

  15. Statistical Hadronization and Holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider some issues about the statistical model of the hadronization in a holographic approach. We introduce a Rindler like horizon in the bulk and we understand the string breaking as a tunneling event under this horizon. We calculate the hadron spectrum and we get a thermal......, and so statistical, shape for it....

  16. Toponium at hadronic colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finjord, J. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)); Girardi, G.; Sorba, P. (Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules); Mery, P. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1982-05-27

    We calculate hadronic toponium production by specific diagrams obeying colour conservation and charge conjugation. The resulting rates, though lower than those calculated using semi-local duality arguments are encouraging and may allow for toponium discovery at hadronic colliders currently in development.

  17. Evaporation/Hadronization Correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Allahbakhshi, Davood

    2016-01-01

    A holographic duality is proposed between black hole evaporation in the bulk and hadronization (confinement) in dual field theory. Information paradox is discussed in this duality. We also propose that the recently introduced semi black brane solution is holographically dual to a mixed plasma of quarks, gluons and hadrons in global equilibrium.

  18. Fragmentation and Hadronization

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data, theoretical ideas and models concerning jet fragmentation and the hadronization process are reviewed, concentrating on the following topics: factorization and small-x resummation of fragmentation functions, hadronization models, single-particle yields and spectra in Z decay, comparisons between quark and gluon jets, current and target fragmentation in deep inelastic scattering, heavy quark fragmentation, Bose-Einstein correlations and WW fragmentation.

  19. Light ions radiobiological effects on human tumoral cells: measurements modelling and application to hadron-therapy; Mesures et modelisation des effets radiobiologiques des ions legers sur des cellules tumorales humaines: application a l'hadrontherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalade, P

    2005-11-15

    In classical radiotherapy, the characteristics of photons interactions undergo limits for the treatment of radioresistant and not well located tumours. Pioneering treatments of patients at the Lawrence Laboratory at Berkeley has demonstrated two advantages of hadrons beams: the Relative Biologic Effect (the RBE) and the ballistic of the beams. Since 1994, the clinical centre at Chiba, has demonstrated successfully the applicability of the method. A physics group, managed by G. Kraft, at Darmstadt in Germany, has underlined the advantages of carbon beams. An European pool, called ENGIGHT (European Network for LIGHt ion Therapy) has been created in which the French ETOILE project appeared. The purpose of the thesis concerns measurements and models of 'in vitro' human cells survival. In the first part, the nowadays situation in particles interactions, tracks and cells structures and radiobiology is presented here. The second is devoted to the models based on the beam tracks and localization of the physical dose. Discussion of sensitivity to various parameters of the model has been realized with the help of numerical simulations. Finally the predictions of the improved model has been compared to experimental irradiations of human cells with argon and carbon beams of the GANIL machine. Conclusion of such study shows the performance and limits of a local model for predicting the radiobiological efficiency of light ions in hadron-therapy. (author)

  20. Exotic Hadron Bound State Production at Hadronic Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Yi; Liu, Yan-Rui; Meng, Lu; Si, Zon-Guo; Zhang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The non-relativistic wave function framework is applied to study the production and decay of the exotic hadrons which can be effectively described as bound states of other hadrons. The ingredient hadron production can be calculated by event generators. We investigate the production of exotic hadrons in the multiproduction processes at high energy hadronic colliders with the help of the event generators. We illustrate the crucial information such as their momentum distributions and production rate for the measurements at the large hadron collider. This study provides crucial information for the measurements of the relevant exotic hadrons.

  1. Hadron multiplicities at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Du Fresne Von Hohenesche, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Quark fragmentation functions (FF) D h q ( z ; Q 2 ) describe final-state hadronisation of quarks q into hadrons h . The FFs can be extracted from hadron multiplicities produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The COMPASS collaboration has recently measured charged hadron multiplicities for identified pions and kaons using a 160 GeV/c muon beam impinging on an isoscalar LiD target. The data cover a large kinematical range and provide an important input for global QCD analyses of world data at NLO, aiming at the determination of FFs. The latest results from COMPASS on pion multiplicities and pion fragmentation functions will be discussed.

  2. Fractal aspects of hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Deppman, Airton

    2016-01-01

    The non extensive aspects of $p_T$ distributions obtained in high energy collisions are discussed in relation to possible fractal structure in hadrons, in the sense of the thermofractal structure recently introduced. The evidences of self-similarity in both theoretical and experimental works in High Energy and in Hadron Physics are discussed, to show that the idea of fractal structure of hadrons and fireballs have being under discussion for decades. The non extensive self-consistent thermodynamics and the thermofractal structure allow one to connect non extensivity to intermittence and possibly to parton distribution functions in a single theoretical framework.

  3. Weibull model of Multiplicity Distribution in hadron-hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the Weibull distribution as a simple parametrization of charged particle multiplicities in hadron-hadron collisions at all available energies, ranging from ISR energies to the most recent LHC energies. In statistics, the Weibull distribution has wide applicability in natural processes involving fragmentation processes. This gives a natural connection to the available state-of-the-art models for multi-particle production in hadron hadron collisions involving QCD parton fragmentation and hadronization.

  4. Hadron production within PHSD

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, Pierre; Palmese, Alessia; Bratkovskaya, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We study the production of hadrons in nucleus-nucleus collisions within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach that is extended to incorporate essentials aspects of chiral symmetry restoration (CSR) in the hadronic sector (via the Schwinger mechanism) on top of the deconfinement phase transition as implemented in PHSD. The essential impact of CSR is found in the Schwinger mechanism (for string decay) which fixes the ratio of strange to light quark production in the hadronic medium. Our studies provide a microscopic explanation for the maximum in the $K^+/\\pi^+$ ratio at about 30 A GeV which only shows up if in addition to CSR a deconfinement transition to partonic degrees-of-freedom is incorporated in the reaction dynamics.

  5. Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the Hagedorn temperature half-centenary I describe our understanding of the hot phases of hadronic matter both below and above the Hagedorn temperature. The first part of the review addresses many frequently posed questions about properties of hadronic matter in different phases, phase transition and the exploration of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The historical context of the discovery of QGP is shown and the role of strangeness and strange antibaryon signature of QGP illustrated. In the second part I discuss the corresponding theoretical ideas and show how experimental results can be used to describe the properties of QGP at hadronization. Finally in two appendices I present previously unpublished reports describing the early prediction of the different forms of hadron matter and of the formation of QGP in relativistic heavy ion collisions, including the initial prediction of strangeness and in particular strange antibaryon signature of QGP.

  6. Melting hadrons, boiling quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafelski, Johann [CERN-PH/TH, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); The University of Arizona, Department of Physics, Tucson, Arizona (United States)

    2015-09-15

    In the context of the Hagedorn temperature half-centenary I describe our understanding of the hot phases of hadronic matter both below and above the Hagedorn temperature. The first part of the review addresses many frequently posed questions about properties of hadronic matter in different phases, phase transition and the exploration of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The historical context of the discovery of QGP is shown and the role of strangeness and strange antibaryon signature of QGP illustrated. In the second part I discuss the corresponding theoretical ideas and show how experimental results can be used to describe the properties of QGP at hadronization. The material of this review is complemented by two early and unpublished reports containing the prediction of the different forms of hadron matter, and of the formation of QGP in relativistic heavy ion collisions, including the discussion of strangeness, and in particular strange antibaryon signature of QGP. (orig.)

  7. Hadron Spectroscopy -- Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, E S

    2009-01-01

    A brief review of theoretical progress in hadron spectroscopy and nonperturbative QCD is presented. Attention is focussed on recent lattice gauge theory, the Dyson-Schwinger formalism, unquenching constituent models, and some beyond the Standard Model physics.

  8. Topics in Hadronic Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Alfred [Univ. of Wiscon, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2002-08-01

    Hadron production cross sections are calculated in the perturbative QCD frame work. Parton distribution functions are obtained from a strip-soliton model. The fragmentation functions are derived from the Lund model of string breaking.

  9. Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks

    OpenAIRE

    Rafelski, Johann

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the Hagedorn temperature half-centenary I describe our understanding of the hot phases of hadronic matter both below and above the Hagedorn temperature. The first part of the review addresses many frequently posed questions about properties of hadronic matter in different phases, phase transition and the exploration of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The historical context of the discovery of QGP is shown and the role of strangeness and strange antibaryon signature of QGP illustra...

  10. Holography inspired stringy hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Holography inspired stringy hadrons (HISH) is a set of models that describe hadrons: mesons, baryons and glueballs as strings in flat four dimensional space-time. The models are based on a "map" from stringy hadrons of holographic confining backgrounds. In this note we review the "derivation" of the models. We start with a brief reminder of the passage from the AdS5 ×S5 string theory to certain flavored confining holographic models. We then describe the string configurations in holographic backgrounds that correspond to a Wilson line, a meson, a baryon and a glueball. The key ingredients of the four dimensional picture of hadrons are the "string endpoint mass" and the "baryonic string vertex". We determine the classical trajectories of the HISH. We review the current understanding of the quantization of the hadronic strings. We end with a summary of the comparison of the outcome of the HISH models with the PDG data about mesons and baryons. We extract the values of the tension, masses and intercepts from best fits, write down certain predictions for higher excited hadrons and present attempts to identify glueballs.

  11. Hadron Dragons strike again

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Dragon Boat team – the Hadron Dragons – achieved a fantastic result at the "Paddle for Cancer" Dragon Boat Festival at Lac de Joux on 6 September. CERN Hadron Dragons heading for the start line.Under blue skies and on a clear lake, the Hadron Dragons won 2nd place in a hard-fought final, following top times in the previous heats. In a close and dramatic race – neck-and-neck until the final 50 metres – the local Lac-de-Joux team managed to inch ahead at the last moment. The Hadron Dragons were delighted to take part in this festival. No one would turn down a day out in such a friendly and fun atmosphere, but the Dragons were also giving their support to cancer awareness and fund-raising in association with ESCA (English-Speaking Cancer Association of Geneva). Riding on their great success in recent competitions, the Hadron Dragons plan to enter the last Dragon Boat festival of 2009 in Annecy on 17-18 October. This will coincide with t...

  12. Hadron Resonances from QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, Jozef [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel πK, ηK scattering. The very recent extension to the case where an external current acts is also presented, considering the reaction πγ* → ππ, from which the unstable ρ → πγ transition form factor is extracted. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  13. Hadrons at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Mallik, Samirnath

    2016-01-01

    High energy laboratories are performing experiments in heavy ion collisions to explore the structure of matter at high temperature and density. This elementary book explains the basic ideas involved in the theoretical analysis of these experimental data. It first develops two topics needed for this purpose, namely hadron interactions and thermal field theory. Chiral perturbation theory is developed to describe hadron interactions and thermal field theory is formulated in the real-time method. In particular, spectral form of thermal propagators is derived for fields of arbitrary spin and used to calculate loop integrals. These developments are then applied to find quark condensate and hadron parameters in medium, including dilepton production. Finally, the non-equilibrium method of statistical field theory to calculate transport coefficients is reviewed. With technical details explained in the text and appendices, this book should be accessible to researchers as well as graduate students interested in thermal ...

  14. Hadron jets in perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, C.

    1982-11-01

    The subject of hadron jet studies, to judge by the work presented at this workshop, is a maturing field which is still gathering steam. The very detailed work being done in lepton-lepton and lepton-hadron collisions, the second-generation measurements being carried out at Fermilab, the CERN SPS, and the ISR, and the very high energy hard scatterings being observed at the CERN Collider all show enormous promise for increased understanding. Perhaps we shall yet reach that long-sought nirvana in which high-p/sub perpendicular/ collisions become truly simple.

  15. Review of Exotic Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    I review here the most recent results about the observation and the study of hadronic bound states that do not fit well in the standard quarkonium picture. Several new states have been observed in the last few years, at B-, tau-Factories and hadron colliders. For most of them, quantum number determinations are available and allow to develop the basis of a new spectroscopy based on exotic compounds like tetraquarks or meson molecules. Nonetheless, there is still a lot of work to do to complete the picture.

  16. Low Energy Hadron Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pennington, Michael R

    2000-01-01

    Ask a group of particle theorists about low energy hadron physics and they will say that this is a subject that belongs to the age of the dinosaurs. However, it is GeV physics that controls the outcome of every hadronic interaction at almost every energy. Confinement of quarks and gluons (and any other super-constituents) means that it is the femto-universe that determines what experiments detect. What we have to learn at the start of the 21st century is discussed.

  17. Bottomonium production in hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner Mariotto, C. [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia]. E-mail: mariotto@if.ufrgs.br; Gay Ducati, M.B. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fenomenologia de Particulas em Altas Energias; Ingelman, G. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). High Energy Physics

    2004-07-01

    Production of bottomonium in hadronic collisions is studied in the framework of the soft colour approach. We report some results for production of {upsilon} in the Tevatron and predictions for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC). (author)

  18. Strangeness in QGP: Hadronization Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Rafelski, Jan; Petran, Michal

    2014-01-01

    We review strangeness as signature of quark gluon plasma (QGP) and the hadronization process of a QGP fireball formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the entire range of today accessible reaction energies. We discuss energy dependence of the statistical hadronization parameters within the context of fast QGP hadronization. We find that QGP breakup occurs for all energies at the universal hadronization pressure $P = 80\\pm 3\\,\\mathrm{MeV/fm}^3 $.

  19. Weibull model of multiplicity distribution in hadron-hadron collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sadhana; Nandi, Basanta K.; Sett, Priyanka

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the use of the Weibull distribution as a simple parametrization of charged particle multiplicities in hadron-hadron collisions at all available energies, ranging from ISR energies to the most recent LHC energies. In statistics, the Weibull distribution has wide applicability in natural processes that involve fragmentation processes. This provides a natural connection to the available state-of-the-art models for multiparticle production in hadron-hadron collisions, which involve QCD parton fragmentation and hadronization. The Weibull distribution describes the multiplicity data at the most recent LHC energies better than the single negative binomial distribution.

  20. Hadronic Modeling of Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidinger Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing systematic search for sources of extragalactic gamma rays has now revealed many blazars in which the very high energy output can not consistently be described as synchrotron self-Compton radiation. In this paper a self consistent hybrid model is described, explaining the very high energy radiation of those blazars as proton synchrotron radiation accompanied by photo-hadronic cascades. As the model includes all relevant radiative processes it naturally includes the synchrotron self-Compton case as well, depending on the chosen parameters. This paper focuses on rather high magnetic fields to be present within the jet, hence the hadronically dominated case. To discriminate the hadronic scenario against external photon fields being upscattered within the jet to produce the dominating gamma-ray output, the temporal behavior of blazars may be exploited with the presented model. Variability reveals both, the highly non-linear nature caused by the photohadronic cascades and typical timescales as well as fingerprints in the inter-band lightcurves of the involved hadrons. The modeling of two individual sources is shown : 1 ES 1011+496, a high frequency peaked blazar at redshift z = 0.212, which is well described within the hybrid scenario using physically reasonable parameters. The short term variability of the second example, namely 3C 454.3, a Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar at z = 0.859, reveals the limitations of the gamma-rays being highly dominated by proton synchrotron radiation.

  1. Hadron collider physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pondrom, L.

    1991-10-03

    An introduction to the techniques of analysis of hadron collider events is presented in the context of the quark-parton model. Production and decay of W and Z intermediate vector bosons are used as examples. The structure of the Electroweak theory is outlined. Three simple FORTRAN programs are introduced, to illustrate Monte Carlo calculation techniques. 25 refs.

  2. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Wright, Alison

    2007-01-01

    "We are on the threshold of a new era in particle-physics research. In 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) - the hightest-energy accelerator ever built - will come into operation at CERN, the European labortory that straddles the French-Swiss border near Geneva." (1/2 page)

  3. The large hadron computer

    CERN Multimedia

    Hirstius, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Plans for dealing with the torrent of data from the Large Hadron Collider's detectors have made the CERN particle-phycis lab, yet again, a pioneer in computing as well as physics. The author describes the challenges of processing and storing data in the age of petabyt science. (4 pages)

  4. Speculations in hadron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, J M

    2005-01-01

    A selected survey is presented of the recent progress in hadron spectroscopy. This includes spin-singlet charmonium states, excitations of charmonium and open-charm mesons, double-charm baryons, and pentaquark candidates. Models proposing exotic bound states or resonances are reviewed. The sector of exotic mesons with two heavy quarks appears as particularly promising.

  5. Japan Hadron Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, R S

    1999-01-01

    Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) is a high-intensity proton accelerator complex consisting of a 200 MeV linac, a 3 GeV booster and a 50 GeV main ring. Its status and future possibilities of realizing a versatile antiproton facility at JHF are presented.

  6. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  7. Chasseur de hadrons

    CERN Multimedia

    Eytier, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Qu'aurait-il proposé comme solutions face aux déboires du LHC, le grand collisionneur du hadrons du CERN, arrêté peu après son démarrage à l'automne 2008? Lucien Edmond André Montanet était un des grands de la physique des particules. (2 pages)

  8. Hadron Fragmentation Inside Jets in Hadronic Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Tom; Vogelsang, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical next-to-leading order QCD calculation of the partonic cross sections for the process $pp\\rightarrow ({\\text{jet}} \\,h)X$, for which a specific hadron is observed inside a fully reconstructed jet. In order to obtain the analytical results, we assume the jet to be relatively narrow. We show that the results can be cast into a simple and systematic form based on suitable universal jet functions for the process. We confirm the validity of our calculation by comparing to previous results in the literature for which the next-to-leading order cross section was treated entirely numerically by Monte-Carlo integration techniques. We present phenomenological results for experiments at the LHC and at RHIC. These suggest that $pp\\rightarrow ({\\text{jet}} \\,h)X$ should enable very sensitive probes of fragmentation functions, especially of the one for gluons.

  9. Elastic scattering of hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I M

    2012-01-01

    When colliding, the high energy hadrons can either produce new particles or scatter elastically without change of their quantum num- bers and other particles produced. Namely elastic scattering of hadrons is considered in this review paper. Even though the inelastic processes dominate at high energies, the elastic scattering constitutes the notice- able part of the total cross section ranging between 18 and 25% with some increase at higher energies. The scattering proceeds mostly at small angles and reveals peculiar dependences at larger angles disclos- ing the geometrical structure of the colliding particles and di?erent dynamical mechanisms. The fast decreasing Gaussian peak at small angles is followed by the exponential (Orear) regime with some shoul- ders and dips and then by the power-like decrease. Results of various theoretical approaches are compared with exper- imental data. Phenomenological models pretending to describe this process are reviewed. The unitarity condition requires the exponen- tial re...

  10. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Juettner Fernandes, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    What really happened during the Big Bang? Why did matter form? Why do particles have mass? To answer these questions, scientists and engineers have worked together to build the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world: the Large Hadron Collider. Includes glossary, websites, and bibliography for further reading. Perfect for STEM connections. Aligns to the Common Core State Standards for Language Arts. Teachers' Notes available online.

  11. Hadrons in Nuclear Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosel Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the achievements of the project B.5, that deals with the calculation of in-medium properties of vector mesons and an analysis of their experimental signals, with a particular emphasis on the ω photoproduction data from CBELSA/TAPS. Other topics addressed include color transparency, pion electroproduction on nucleons, the Primakoff effect for nuclear targets and studies of hadronization at the EIC.

  12. QCD and Hadron Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deshpande, Abhay L.; Gao, Haiyan; McKeown, Robert D.; Meyer, Curtis A.; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Milner, Richard G.; Qiu, Jianwei; Richards, David G.; Roberts, Craig D.

    2015-02-26

    This White Paper presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in coordination with the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD and included a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. The goals of the meeting were to report and highlight progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and present a vision for the future by identifying the key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define the next decade. The introductory summary details the recommendations and their supporting rationales, as determined at the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadron Physics, and the endorsements that were voted upon. The larger document is organized as follows. Section 2 highlights major progress since the 2007 LRP. It is followed, in Section 3, by a brief overview of the physics program planned for the immediate future. Finally, Section 4 provides an overview of the physics motivations and goals associated with the next QCD frontier: the Electron-Ion-Collider.

  13. The role of hadron resonances in hot hadronic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goity, Jose [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Hadron resonances can play a significant role in hot hadronic matter. Of particular interest for this workshop are the contributions of hyperon resonances. The question about how to quantify the effects of resonances is here addressed. In the framework of the hadron resonance gas, the chemically equilibrated case, relevant in the context of lattice QCD calculations, and the chemically frozen case relevant in heavy ion collisions are discussed.

  14. Hadron spectrum and hadrons in the nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Vacas, M J V

    2006-01-01

    Some recent developments in chiral dynamics of hadrons and hadrons in a medium are presented. Unitary schemes based on chiral Lagrangians describe some hadronic states as being dynamically generated resonances. We discuss how standard quantum many body techniques can be used to calculate the properties of these dynamically generated and other hadrons in the nuclear medium. We present some results for vector mesons ($\\rho$ and $\\phi$), scalar mesons ($\\sigma$, $\\kappa$, $a_0(980)$, $f_0(980)$), the $\\Lambda(1520)$ and for the in-medium baryon-baryon interaction.

  15. Formation time of hadronic resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitev Ivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In heavy-ion collisions, formation time of hadrons of high transverse momentum can play a pivotal role in determining the perturbative dynamics of the final-state parton and particle system. We present methods to evaluate the formation times of light hadrons, hadronic resonances, open heavy flavor and quarkonia. Experimental implications of the short formation times of heavy particles are discussed in light of recent RHIC and LHC data.

  16. Review on Hadron Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    I review some of the lattice results on spectroscopy and resonances in the past years. For the conventional hadron spectrum computations, focus has been put on the isospin breaking effects, QED effects, and simulations near the physical pion mass point. I then go through several single-channel scattering studies within L\\"uscher formalism, a method that has matured over the past few years. The topics cover light mesons and also the charmed mesons, with the latter case intimately related to the recently discovered exotic $XYZ$ particles. Other possible related formalisms that are available on the market are also discussed.

  17. Exotic hadron states

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Steele, T G; Kleiv, R T; Bulthuis, B; Harnett, D; Richards, T; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Many charmonium-like and bottomonium-like $XYZ$ resonances have been observed by the Belle, Babar, CLEO and BESIII collaborations in the past decade. They are difficult to fit in the conventional quark model and thus are considered as candidates of exotic hadrons, such as multi-quark states, meson molecules, and hybrids. In this talk, we first briefly introduce the method of QCD sum rules and then provide a short review of the mass spectra of the quarkonium-like tetraquark states and the heavy quarkonium hybrids in the QCD sum rules approach. Possible interpretations of the $XYZ$ resonances are briefly discussed.

  18. Hadronic Decays of Charm

    CERN Document Server

    Stenson, K

    2002-01-01

    Recent hadronic charm decay results from fixed-target experiments are presented. New measurements of the D0 to K-K+K-pi+ branching ratio are shown as are recent results from Dalitz plot fits to D+ to K-K+pi+, pi+pi-pi+, K-pi+pi+, K+pi-pi+ and D_s+ to pi+pi-pi+, K+pi-pi+. These fits include measurements of the masses and widths of several light resonances as well as strong evidence for the existence of two light scalar particles, the pipi resonance sigma and the Kpi resonance kappa.

  19. Hadronic Resonances from STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Masayuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of resonance particle productions (ρ0, ω, K*, ϕ, Σ*, and Λ* measured by the STAR collaboration at RHIC from various colliding systems and energies are presented. Measured mass, width, 〈pT〉, and yield of those resonances are reviewed. No significant mass shifts or width broadening beyond the experiment uncertainties are observed. New measurements of ϕ and ω from leptonic decay channels are presented. The yields from leptonic decay channels are compared with the measurements from hadronic decay channels and the two results are consistent with each other.

  20. The large hadron computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirstius, Andreas

    2008-11-01

    In the mid-1990s, when CERN physicists made their first cautious estimates of the amount of data that experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) would produce, the microcomputer component manufacturer Intel had just released the Pentium Pro processor. Windows was the dominant operating system, although Linux was gaining momentum. CERN had recently made the World Wide Web public, but the system was still a long way from the all-encompassing network it is today. And a single gigabyte (109 bytes) of disk space cost several hundred dollars.

  1. Hadron Spectroscopy in COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Grube, Boris

    2012-01-01

    The COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) is a multi-purpose fixed-target experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) aimed at studying the structure and spectrum of hadrons. In the naive Constituent Quark Model (CQM) mesons are bound states of quarks and antiquarks. QCD, however, predict the existence of hadrons beyond the CQM with exotic properties interpreted as excited glue (hybrids) or even pure gluonic bound states (glueballs). One main goal of COMPASS is to search for these states. Particularly interesting are so called spin-exotic mesons which have J^{PC} quantum numbers forbidden for ordinary q\\bar{q} states. Its large acceptance, high resolution, and high-rate capability make the COMPASS experiment an excellent device to study the spectrum of light-quark mesons in diffractive and central production reactions up to masses of about 2.5 GeV. COMPASS is able to measure final states with charged as well as neutral particles, so that resonances can be studied ...

  2. A New Hadron Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Stephen Lars

    2014-01-01

    QCD-motivated models for hadrons predict an assortment of "exotic" hadrons that have structures that are more complex than the quark-antiquark mesons and three-quark baryons of the original quark-parton model. These include pentaquark baryons, the six-quark H-dibaryon, and tetraquark, hybrid and glueball mesons. Despite extensive experimental searches, no unambiguous candidates for any of these exotic configurations have been identified. On the other hand, a number of meson states, one that seems to be a proton-antiproton bound state, and others that contain either charmed-anticharmed quark pairs or bottom-antibottom quark pairs, have been recently discovered that neither fit into the quark-antiquark meson picture nor match the expected properties of the QCD-inspired exotics. Here I briefly review results from a recent search for the H-dibaryon, and discuss some properties of the newly discovered states --the proton-antiproton state and the so-called XYZ mesons-- and compare them with expectations for convent...

  3. Heavy hadrons in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2017-09-01

    Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia (J / ψ, ϒ), heavy-light mesons (D/ D ¯ , B ¯ / B) and heavy baryons (Λc, Λb). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in infinite nuclear matter, but also in finite-size atomic nuclei with finite baryon numbers, to serve future experiments.

  4. Heavy Hadrons in Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia ($J/\\psi$, $\\Upsilon$), heavy-light mesons ($D$/$\\bar{D}$, $\\bar{B}$/$B$) and heavy baryons ($\\Lambda_{c}$, $\\Lambda_{b}$). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in nuclear matter with infinite volume, but also in atomic nuclei with finite bary...

  5. Dijet imbalance in hadronic collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    The imbalance of dijets produced in hadronic collisions has been used to extract the average transverse momentum of partons inside the hadrons. In this paper we discuss new contributions to the dijet imbalance that could complicate or even hamper this extraction. They are due to polarization of init

  6. Hadron star models. [neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. M.; Boerner, G.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of fully relativistic rotating hadron star models are discussed using models based on recently developed equations of state. All of these stable neutron star models are bound with binding energies as high as about 25%. During hadron star formation, much of this energy will be released. The consequences, resulting from the release of this energy, are examined.

  7. Quarkonium production in hadronic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavai, R. [Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Schuler, G.A.; Sridhar, K. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    We summarize the theoretical description of charmonium and bottonium production in hadronic collisions and compare it to the available data from hadron-nucleon interactions. With the parameters of the theory established by these data, we obtain predictions for quarkonium production at RHIC and LHC energies.

  8. Workshop on heavy hadron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The recent developments in heavy hadron spectroscopy at LHCb have shown that LHCb has a unique potential in the field, combining hadronic production mechanisms to a powerful identification system. In this short workshop we focus on the recent results from LHCb and theoretical developments with attention to the future perspectives, in the context of the potential of current and future experiments.

  9. Review of hadrons in medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krein, Gastão [Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz, 271 - Bloco II, 01140-070 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-01-22

    I review the present status in the theoretical and phenomenological understanding of hadron properties in strongly interacting matter. The topics covered are the EMC effect, nucleon structure functions in cold nuclear matter, spectral properties of light vector mesons in hot and cold nuclear matter, and in-medium properties of heavy flavored hadrons.

  10. Application of Novel Accelerator Research for Particle Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerke, Henrik Hemmestad

    2014-01-01

    This thesis seeks to review the latest trends in hadron therapy devices, and evaluate the potential of novel, researched accelerator concepts for future application. Although the clinical benefits of hadron therapy over photon therapy is unproven or disputed for many cancer types, there are several cases where hadron therapy presents a superior option. Many governments and medical institutions are planning or already executing development of new hadron treatment facilities. However, the highe...

  11. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  12. Hadronic Imaging Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Alexander; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Dubbers, Dirk

    This thesis focuses on a prototype of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter at the planned International Linear Collider optimized for the Particle Flow Approach. The 5.3 nuclear interaction lengths deep sandwich calorimeter was built by the CALICE collaboration and consists of 38 active plastic scintillator layers. Steel is used as absorber material and the active layers are subdivided into small tiles. In total 7608 tiles are read out individually via embedded Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The prototype is one of the first large scale applications of these novel and very promising miniature photodetectors. The work described in this thesis comprises the commissioning of the detector and the data acquisition with test beam particles over several months at CERN and Fermilab. The calibration of the calorimeter and the analysis of the recorded data is presented. A method to correct for the temperature dependent response of the SiPM has been developed and implemented. Its successful application shows that it...

  13. Superconducting Hadron Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the main building blocks of a superconducting (SC) linac, the choice of SC resonators, their frequencies, accelerating gradients and apertures, focusing structures, practical aspects of cryomodule design, and concepts to minimize the heat load into the cryogenic system. It starts with an overview of design concepts for all types of hadron linacs differentiated by duty cycle (pulsed or continuous wave) or by the type of ion species (protons, H-, and ions) being accelerated. Design concepts are detailed for SC linacs in application to both light ion (proton, deuteron) and heavy ion linacs. The physics design of SC linacs, including transverse and longitudinal lattice designs, matching between different accelerating–focusing lattices, and transition from NC to SC sections, is detailed. Design of high-intensity SC linacs for light ions, methods for the reduction of beam losses, preventing beam halo formation, and the effect of HOMs and errors on beam quality are discussed. Examples are ta...

  14. Hadron Spectroscopy at PANDA

    CERN Document Server

    Fioravanti, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    FAIR a new International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Reaserach, is under construction at Darmstadt, in Germany. This will provide scientists in the world with outstanding beams and experimental conditions for studying matter at the level of atoms, nuclei, and other subnuclear constituents. An antiproton beam with intensity up to 2x10$^7$ $\\bar{p}/s$ and high momentum resolution will be available at the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) where the $\\bar{P}$ANDA (Antiproton Annihilation At Darmstadt) detector will be installed. In this paper we will illustrate the details of the $\\bar{P}$ANDA scientific program related to hadron spectroscopy, after a brief introduction about the FAIR facility and the $\\bar{P}$ANDA detector.

  15. Complex method of the plane elasticity in 2D quasicrystal with point group 10 mm tenfold rotational symmetry and holey problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘官厅; 范天佑

    2003-01-01

    The complex method of the plane elasticity in 2D quasicrystal with point group 10 mm tenfold rotational symmetry is established. First displacement potential function in the quasicrystal is represented by four analytic functions. Then by utilizing the properties of analytic function and through a great deal of derivation, the complex representations of stresses and displacements components of phonon fields and phason fields in the quasicrystal are given, which are the theoretical foundation for this method. From this theory, and by the help of conformal transformations in the theory of complex function, the problems of elliptic hole in the quasicrystal are solved. Its special cases are the solutions of well-known crack problem. Meanwhile, the results show that even if under the self-counterbalance force in the quasicrystal plane with elliptic hole, the stress components of phonon fields are also related to material constants of the quasicrystal when the phonon fields and phason fields are coupled, which is another distinctive difference from the properties of classical elastic theory. Besides, the present work is generalization and application of the complex method in the classical elastic theory established by Muskhelishvili to 2D quasicrystal. As in the classical elastic theory, if only conformal transformation from the quasicrystal plane to unit circle is found, any holey and crack problem in the quasicrystal plane could be solved.

  16. A doubling of microphytobenthos biomass coincides with a tenfold increase in denitrifier and total bacterial abundances in intertidal sediments of a temperate estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Decleyre

    Full Text Available Surface sediments are important systems for the removal of anthropogenically derived inorganic nitrogen in estuaries. They are often characterized by the presence of a microphytobenthos (MPB biofilm, which can impact bacterial communities in underlying sediments for example by secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS and competition for nutrients (including nitrogen. Pyrosequencing and qPCR was performed on two intertidal surface sediments of the Westerschelde estuary characterized by a two-fold difference in MPB biomass but no difference in MPB composition. Doubling of MPB biomass was accompanied by a disproportionately (ten-fold increase in total bacterial abundances while, unexpectedly, no difference in general community structure was observed, despite significantly lower bacterial richness and distinct community membership, mostly for non-abundant taxa. Denitrifier abundances corresponded likewise while community structure, both for nirS and nirK denitrifiers, remained unchanged, suggesting that competition with diatoms for nitrate is negligible at concentrations in the investigated sediments (appr. 1 mg/l NO3-. This study indicates that MPB biomass increase has a general, significantly positive effect on total bacterial and denitrifier abundances, with stimulation or inhibition of specific bacterial groups that however do not result in a re-structured community.

  17. Experimental techniques in hadron spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianotti P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD is the theory of the strong interaction, but the properties of the hadrons cannot be directly calculated from the QCD Lagrangian and alternative approaches are then used. In order to test the different models, precise measurements of hadron properties are of extreme importance. This is the main motivation for the hadron spectroscopy experimental program carried out since many years with different probes and different detectors. A survey of some recent results in the field is here presented and commented, together with the opportunities offered by the forthcoming experimental programs.

  18. Physics at Future Hadron Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2002-08-07

    We discuss the physics opportunities and detector challenges at future hadron colliders. As guidelines for energies and luminosities we use the proposed luminosity and/or energy upgrade of the LHC (SLHC), and the Fermilab design of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). We illustrate the physics capabilities of future hadron colliders for a variety of new physics scenarios (supersymmetry, strong electroweak symmetry breaking, new gauge bosons, compositeness and extra dimensions). We also investigate the prospects of doing precision Higgs physics studies at such a machine, and list selected Standard Model physics rates.

  19. Hadron collider physics at UCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the research work in high energy physics by the group at the University of California, Riverside. Work has been divided between hadron collider physics and e{sup +}-e{sup {minus}} collider physics, and theoretical work. The hadron effort has been heavily involved in the startup activities of the D-Zero detector, commissioning and ongoing redesign. The lepton collider work has included work on TPC/2{gamma} at PEP and the OPAL detector at LEP, as well as efforts on hadron machines.

  20. B hadron properties at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Heredia De La Cruz, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Precise measurements of B hadron properties are crucial to improve or constrain models based on non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics, which provide predictions of mass, lifetime, cross section, polarization, and branching ratios (among several other properties) of B hadrons. Measurements of CP violation in $B^0_s$ and properties of rare B decays also provide many opportunities to search for new physics. This article presents some B hadron property results obtained by CMS using Run~I (2011-2012) data, and prospects for the Run~II (2015-2017) data taking period.

  1. Physics at future hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U. Baur et al.

    2002-12-23

    We discuss the physics opportunities and detector challenges at future hadron colliders. As guidelines for energies and luminosities we use the proposed luminosity and/or energy upgrade of the LHC (SLHC), and the Fermilab design of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). We illustrate the physics capabilities of future hadron colliders for a variety of new physics scenarios (supersymmetry, strong electroweak symmetry breaking, new gauge bosons, compositeness and extra dimensions). We also investigate the prospects of doing precision Higgs physics studies at such a machine, and list selected Standard Model physics rates.

  2. Unified description of hadrons and heavy hadron decays

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, N

    1993-01-01

    We construct an effective Lagrangian which describes interactions of heavy and light hadrons utilizing the chiral flavor symmetry for light quarks and heavy quark symmetry. For both light and heavy sector we include pseudo scalars, vectors and baryons in the Lagrangian. Heavy hadron decays are discussed as application of our formalism. The $D_s$ decay constant and the coupling constant among heavy meson, heavy vector meson and light meson are fitted from the experimental data of $D^0 \\rightarrow K^- e^+\

  3. A Hadron Radiation Installation and Verification Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.J.; Bom, V.R.

    2013-01-01

    A hadron radiation installation adapted to subject a target to irradiation by a hadron radiation beam, said installation comprising: - a target support configured to support, preferably immobilize, a target: - a hadron radiation apparatus adapted to emit a hadron radiation beam along a beam axis to

  4. Energy flow in a hadronic cascade: Application to hadron calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groom, D E

    1994-01-01

    The hadronic cascade description developed in an earlier paper is extended to the response of an idealized fine-sampling hadron calorimeter. Calorimeter response is largely determined by the transfer of energy $E_e$ from the hadronic to the electromagnetic sector via $\\pi^0$ production. Fluctuations in this quantity produce the "constant term" in hadron calorimeter resolution. The increase of its fractional mean, $f_{\\rm em}^0 = \\vev{E_e}/E$, with increasing incident energy $E$ causes the energy dependence of the $\\pi/e$ ratio in a noncompensating calorimeter. The mean hadronic energy fraction, $f_h^0 = 1-f_{\\rm em}^0$, was shown to scale very nearly as a power law in $E$: $f_h^0 = (E/E_0)^{m-1}$, where $E_0\\approx1$~GeV for pions, and $m\\approx0.83$. It follows that $\\pi/e=1-(1-h/e)(E/E_0)^{m-1}$, where electromagnetic and hadronic energy deposits are detected with efficiencies $e$ and $h$, respectively. Fluctuations in these quantities, along with sampling fluctuations, are incorporated to give an overall u...

  5. Legendre Analysis of Hadronic Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Azimov, Ya I

    2016-01-01

    Expansions over Legendre functions are suggested as a model-independent way of compact presentation of modern precise and high-statistics data for two-hadron reactions. Some properties of the expansions are described.

  6. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument.

  7. Forward physics of hadronic colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, I. P.

    2013-12-01

    These lectures were given at the Baikal Summer School on Physics of Elementary Particles and Astrophysics in July 2012. They can be viewed as a concise introduction to hadronic diffraction, to the physics of the Pomeron and related topics.

  8. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  9. Hadron physics with KLOE-2

    CERN Document Server

    Czerwinski, Eryk; Babusci, D; Badoni, D; Bencivenni, G; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Bulychjev, S A; Campana, P; Capon, G; Ceradini, F; Ciambrone, P; Czerwinski, E; Dane, E; De Lucia, E; De Robertis, G; De Santis, A; De Zorzi, G; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Micco, B; Domenici, D; Erriquez, O; Felici, G; Fiore, S; Franzini, P; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gonnella, F; Graziani, E; Happacher, F; Hoistad, B; Iarocci, E; Jacewicz, M; Johansson, T; Kulikov, V V; Kupsc, A; Lee-Franzini, J; Loddo, F; Martemianov, M A; Martini, M; Matsyuk, M A; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moricciani, D; Morello, G; Moskal, P; Nguyen, F; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Ranieri, A; Santangelo, P; Sarra, I; Schioppa, M; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Silarski, M; Taccini, C; Tortora, L; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Wislicki, W; Wolke, M; Zdebik, J

    2010-01-01

    In the upcoming month the KLOE-2 data taking campaign will start at the upgraded DAFNE phi-factory of INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati. The main goal is to collect an integrated luminosity of about 20 fb^(-1) in 3-4 years in order to refine and extend the KLOE program on both kaon physics and hadron spectroscopy. Here the expected improvements on the results of hadron spectroscopy are presented and briefly discussed.

  10. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Since the beginning of 2007, HCAL has made significant progress in the installation and commissioning of both hardware and software. A large fraction of the physical Hadron Calorimeter modules have been installed in UX5. In fact, the only missing pieces are HE- and part of HO. The HB+/- were installed in the cryostat in March. HB scintillator layer-17 was installed above ground before the HB were lowered. The HB- scintillator layer-0 was installed immediately after completion of EB- installation. HF/HCAL Commissioning The commissioning and checkout of the HCAL readout electronics is also proceeding at a rapid pace in Bldg. 904 and USC55. All sixteen crates of HCAL VME readout electronics have been commissioned and certified for service. Fifteen are currently operating in the S2 level of USC55. The last crate is being used for firmware development in the Electronics Integration Facility in 904. All installed crates are interfaced to their VME computers and receive synchronous control from the fully-equipp...

  11. Elastic scattering of hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2013-01-01

    Colliding high-energy hadrons either produce new particles or scatter elastically with their quantum numbers conserved and no other particles produced. We consider the latter case here. Although inelastic processes dominate at high energies, elastic scattering contributes considerably (18-25%) to the total cross section. Its share first decreases and then increases at higher energies. Small-angle scattering prevails at all energies. Some characteristic features can be seen that provide information on the geometrical structure of the colliding particles and the relevant dynamical mechanisms. The steep Gaussian peak at small angles is followed by the exponential (Orear) regime with some shoulders and dips, and then by a power-law decrease. Results from various theoretical approaches are compared with experimental data. Phenomenological models claiming to describe this process are reviewed. The unitarity condition predicts an exponential fall for the differential cross section with an additional substructure to occur exactly between the low momentum transfer diffraction cone and a power-law, hard parton scattering regime under high momentum transfer. Data on the interference of the Coulomb and nuclear parts of amplitudes at extremely small angles provide the value of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude. The real part of the elastic scattering amplitude and the contribution of inelastic processes to the imaginary part of this amplitude (the so-called overlap function) are also discussed. Problems related to the scaling behavior of the differential cross section are considered. The power-law regime at highest momentum transfer is briefly described.

  12. Radiation protection at Hadron therapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccioni, Maorizio

    2011-07-01

    The Italian National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy is currently under construction in Pavia. It is designed for the treatment of deep-seated tumours (up to a depth of 27 cm of water equivalent) with proton and C-ion beams as well as for both clinical and radiobiological research. The particles will be accelerated by a 7-MeV u(-1) LINAC injector and a 400-MeV u(-1) synchrotron. In the first phase of the project, three treatment rooms will be in operation, equipped with four fixed beams, three horizontal and one vertical. The accelerators are currently undergoing commissioning. The main radiation protection problems encountered (shielding, activation, etc.) are hereby illustrated and discussed in relation to the constraints set by the Italian national authorities.

  13. Identifying multiquark hadrons from heavy ion collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Ohnishi, Akira; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro; Yazaki, Koichi

    2011-05-27

    Identifying hadronic molecular states and/or hadrons with multiquark components either with or without exotic quantum numbers is a long-standing challenge in hadronic physics. We suggest that studying the production of these hadrons in relativistic heavy ion collisions offers a promising resolution to this problem as yields of exotic hadrons are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model for hadron production, we find that, compared to the case of a nonexotic hadron with normal quark numbers, the yield of an exotic hadron is typically an order of magnitude smaller when it is a compact multiquark state and a factor of 2 or more larger when it is a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured in these experiments.

  14. CALICE Digital Hadron Calorimeter: Calibration and Response to Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2014-01-01

    The large CALICE Digital Hadron Calorimeter prototype (DHCAL) was built in 2009 - 2010. The DHCAL uses Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) as active media and is read out with 1 x 1 cm2 pads and digital (1 - bit) resolution. With a world record of about 0.5M readout channels, the DHCAL offers the possibility to study hadronic interactions with unprecedented spatial resolution. This talk reports on the results from the analysis of pion events of momenta between 2 to 60 GeV/c collected in the Fermilab test beam with an emphasis on the intricate calibration procedures.

  15. H{sup −} ion implantation induced ten-fold increase of photoluminescence efficiency in single layer InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreekumar, R.; Mandal, A. [Centre for Nanoelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India); Chakrabarti, S., E-mail: subho@ee.iitb.ac.in [Centre for Nanoelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India); Gupta, S.K. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India)

    2014-09-15

    We demonstrate a ten-fold increase in photoluminescence (PL) efficiency from 50 keV H{sup −} ion-implanted InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) at a temperature of 8 K and/or 145 K. Enhancement occurred without post-annealing treatment. PL efficiency increased with increasing implantation fluence from 6×10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} up to an optimum value of 2.4×10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}, beyond which PL efficiency decreased drastically (up to a fluence of 2.4×10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}). Passivation of non-radiative recombination centres (due to direct interaction of H{sup −} ions with lattice defects) and de-excitation of photo-generated carriers to QDs through quantum mechanical tunnelling via H{sup −} ion-induced defects (e-traps) that are created near the QD–cap layer interface, resulted in PL efficiency enhancement. Shallow e-traps with activation energy ∼90 meV and 30 meV created near the conduction band of GaAs cap layer for the samples implanted with H{sup −} of fluence 6×10{sup 12} and 2.4×10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} respectively are identified using low temperature PL study. Contribution of de-trapped electrons from the e-traps to the QDs enhanced the PL efficiency at 145 K. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction study revealed that the structural damage created by H{sup −} ions at the high fluence level of 2.4×10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, caused the degradation in PL efficiency. - Highlights: • Self-assembled single layer InAs/GaAs quantum dots. • Low energy hydrogen ion implantation. • PL efficiency enhancement for implanted samples. • Eradication of defects from dots and capping layers.

  16. Three Lectures on Hadron Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Craig D

    2015-01-01

    These lectures explain that comparisons between experiment and theory can expose the impact of running couplings and masses on hadron observables and thereby aid materially in charting the momentum dependence of the interaction that underlies strong-interaction dynamics. The series begins with a primer on continuum QCD, which introduces some of the basic ideas necessary in order to understand the use of Schwinger functions as a nonperturbative tool in hadron physics. It continues with a discussion of confinement and dynamical symmetry breaking (DCSB) in the Standard Model, and the impact of these phenomena on our understanding of condensates, the parton structure of hadrons, and the pion electromagnetic form factor. The final lecture treats the problem of grand unification; namely, the contemporary use of Schwinger functions as a symmetry-preserving tool for the unified explanation and prediction of the properties of both mesons and baryons. It reveals that DCSB drives the formation of diquark clusters in bar...

  17. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davier, M.; Hoecker, A.; Malaescu, B.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle-antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e- annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingredients to high precision tests of the Standard Theory.

  18. The Nonperturbative Structure of Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, T J

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we explore a diverse array of issues that strike at the inherently nonperturbative structure of hadrons at momenta below the QCD confinement scale. In so doing, we mainly seek a better control over the partonic substructure of strongly-interacting matter, especially as this relates to the nonperturbative effects that both motivate and complicate experiments --- particularly DIS; among others, such considerations entail sub-leading corrections in $Q^2$, dynamical higher twist effects, and hadron mass corrections. We also present novel calculations of several examples of flavor symmetry violation, which also originates in the long-distance properties of QCD at low energy. Moreover, we outline a recently developed model, framed as a hadronic effective theory amenable to QCD global analysis, which provides new insights into the possibility of nonperturbative heavy quarks in the nucleon. This model can be extended to the scale of the lighter mesons, and we assess the accessibility of the structure f...

  19. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    CERN Document Server

    Davier, M; Malaescu, B; Zhang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle–antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e− annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingre...

  20. The COMPASS Hadron Spectroscopy Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Austregesilo, A

    2011-01-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS for the investigation of the structure and the dynamics of hadrons. The experimental setup features a large acceptance and high momentum resolution spectrometer including particle identification and calorimetry and is therefore ideal to access a broad range of different final states. Following the promising observation of a spin-exotic resonance during an earlier pilot run, COMPASS focused on light-quark hadron spectroscopy during the years 2008 and 2009. A data set, world leading in terms of statistics and resolution, has been collected with a 190GeV/c hadron beam impinging on either liquid hydrogen or nuclear targets. Spin-exotic meson and glueball candidates formed in both diffractive dissociation and central production are presently studied. Since the beam composition includes protons, the excited baryon spectrum is also accessible. Furthermore, Primakoff reactions have the potential to determine radiative widths of the resonances and to probe chiral pe...

  1. Heavy hadron spectrum and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, D

    1996-01-01

    Starting from the approximate symmetries of QCD, namely chiral symmetry for light quarks and spin and flavor symmetry for heavy quarks, we investigate the low-energy properties of heavy hadrons. For this purpose we construct a consistent picture of quark-antiquark and quark-diquark interactions as a low-energy approximation to the flavor dynamics in heavy mesons and heavy baryons, respectively. Using standard functional integration tools, we derive an effective Lagrangian in terms of heavy hadron fields and discuss several properties, like the mass spectrum, coupling and decay constants, Isgur-Wise form factors.

  2. Hadron rich and Centauro events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, S.L.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Beggio, P.C. [Laboratorio de Ciencias Matematicas, UENF, Campos de Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, A.O. de; Chinellato, J.A.; Mariano, A.; Oliveira, R. de; Shibuya, E.H. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' /UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    An exploratory statistical analysis of the event C16S086I037 was possible to do using two simulations. A {gamma} and hadron induced showers recognition done on this event through a best fitting procedure shows identification of 25 and 37 for {gamma} and hadron induced showers, respectively. Assuming that the most energetic shower is the surviving particle of an interaction and the tertiary produced particles are from normal multiple pion production, the characteristics of the interaction are: Energy of primary particle E{sub 0}=1,061 TeV, Inelasticity of collision K=0.81, Mean inelasticity of {gamma}-ray =0.27, Hadron induced showers energy/Total energy Q{sub h}{sup '}=0.90{approx}Q{sub h}, Rapidity density N{sub h}/{delta}Y=(8.56-9.89), Mean energy of secondary hadrons =(21.5{+-}4) TeV, Mean transverse momentum =(1.2{+-}0.2) GeV/c, Upper bound of partial cross section {sigma}{<=}(15-39){mu}barn and life time {tau}{<=}10{sup -16} s. Without the surviving particle assumption, the values are: E{sub 0}=873 TeV, K=1.0, =1/3, Q{sub h}{sup '}=0.90, N{sub h}/{delta}Y=(8.32-9.34), =(21{+-}3.5) TeV, =(1.0{+-}0.16) GeV/c. Using another simulation for energy determination with {chi}{sup 2}>3.16 for best fitting results 22 and 40 for {gamma} and hadron induced showers, respectively. Under the surviving particle assumption, the figures are: Energy of primary particle E{sub 0}=1,047 TeV, Inelasticity of collision K=0.80, Mean inelasticity of {gamma}-ray =0.27, Hadronic induced showers energy/Total energy Q{sub h}{sup '}=0.89{approx}Q{sub h}, Rapidity density N{sub h}/{delta}Y=(10.25-13.19), Mean energy of secondary hadrons =(19{+-}3) TeV, Mean transverse momentum =(1.0{+-}0.2) GeV/c. That is, we get almost similar figures independently of simulation and a mean transverse momentum for this hadron-rich event similar to the Centauro events.

  3. Belle II and Hadron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Križan, Peter, E-mail: peter.krizan@ijs.si [J. Stefan Institute and University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-08-15

    Asymmetric B factories, PEP-II with BaBar and KEKB with Belle, made a decisive contribution to flavour physics. In addition, they also observed a long list of new hadrons, some of which do not fit into the standard meson and baryon schemes. The next generation of B factories, the so called Super B factory will search for departures from the Standard model. For this task, a 50 times larger data sample is needed, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 50 ab{sup −1}. With such a large data sample there are many more topics to explore, including searches for new and exotic hadrons, and investigation of their properties.

  4. Hadron scattering, resonances, and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceno, Raul [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The non-perturbative nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has historically left a gap in our understanding of the connection between the fundamental theory of the strong interactions and the rich structure of experimentally observed phenomena. For the simplest properties of stable hadrons, this is now circumvented with the use of lattice QCD (LQCD). In this talk I discuss a path towards a rigorous determination of few-hadron observables from LQCD. I illustrate the power of the methodology by presenting recently determined scattering amplitudes in the light-meson sector and their resonance content.

  5. Velocity of sound in hadron matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Roulet, E.

    1987-09-01

    The velocity of sound in hadron matter, in both the confined and deconfined phases, is studied. This velocity of sound appears to be an important tool to distinguish among different bag-model-based thermodynamical descriptions of hadronic matter.

  6. SU(2) Skyrme Model for Hadron

    CERN Document Server

    Hadi, Miftachul

    2010-01-01

    The SU(2) Skyrme model is reviewed. The model, which considers hadron as soliton (Skyrmion), is used for investigating the nucleon mass and delta mass. Keywords: Skyrme model, soliton, hadron, nucleon mass, delta mass.

  7. Heavy Flavor Hadrons in Statistical Hadronization of Strangeness-rich QGP

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova, Inga; Rafelski, Johann

    2006-01-01

    We study b, c quark hadronization from QGP. We obtain the yields of charm and bottom flavored hadrons within the statistical hadronization model. The important novel feature of this study is that we take into account the high strangeness and entropy content of QGP, conserving strangeness and entropy yields at hadronization.

  8. Assembly of the CMS hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The hadronic calorimeter is assembled on the end-cap of the CMS detector in the assembly hall. Hadronic calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  9. Free quarks and antiquarks versus hadronic matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-Ming; PENG Ru

    2009-01-01

    Meson-meson reactions A(q1q1) + B(q2q2) → q1+q1+ q2+q2 in high-temperature hadronic matter are found to produce an appreciable amount of quarks and antiquarks freely moving in hadronic matter and to establish a new mechanism for deconfinement of quarks and antiquarks in hadronic matter.

  10. Hadronic interactions and nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, S R

    2008-01-01

    I give an overview of efforts in the last year to calculate interactions among hadrons using lattice QCD. Results discussed include the extraction of low-energy phase shifts and three-body interactions, and the study of pion and kaon condensation. A critical appraisal is offered of recent attempts to calculate nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-hyperon potentials on the lattice.

  11. Rare decays of b hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Koppenburg, Patrick; Smizanska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Rare decays of b hadrons provide a powerful way of identifying contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model, in particular from new hypothetical particles too heavy to be produced at colliders. The most relevant experimental measurements are reviewed and possible interpretations are briefly discussed.

  12. B physics at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.N.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    This paper discusses the physics opportunity and challenges for doing high precision B physics experiments at hadron colliders. It describes how these challenges have been addressed by the two currently operating experiments, CDF and D0, and how they are addressed by three experiments, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb, at the LHC.

  13. Charmed hadrons in nuclear medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, L.; Gamermann, D.; Garcia-Recio, C.; Molina, R.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.; Ramos, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the properties of charmed hadrons in dense matter within a coupled-channel approach which accounts for Pauli blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner We analyze the behaviour in this dense environment of dynamically-generated baryonic resonances as well as the op

  14. Hadronic B Decays in PQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Mishima, S

    2006-01-01

    I review recent progress on exclusive hadronic B meson decays in the perturbative QCD approach, with focus on puzzles in the branching ratios and the CP asymmetries of the B -> pi K and B -> pi pi modes, and polarization fractions in B -> VV modes.

  15. Electroweak results from hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcel Demarteau

    1999-09-02

    A very brief summary of recent electroweak results from hadron colliders is given. The emphasis is placed on inclusive W{sup {+-}} and Z{sup 0} production, the measurement of the mass of the W boson and the measurement of trilinear gauge boson couplings.

  16. Hard QCD at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moch, S.

    2008-02-15

    We review the status of QCD at hadron colliders with emphasis on precision predictions and the latest theoretical developments for cross sections calculations to higher orders. We include an overview of our current information on parton distributions and discuss various Standard Model reactions such as W{sup {+-}}/Z-boson, Higgs boson or top quark production. (orig.)

  17. Hadron production simulation by FLUKA

    CERN Document Server

    Battistoni, G; Ferrari, A; Ranft, J; Roesler, S; Sala, P R

    2013-01-01

    For the purposes of accelerator based neutrino experiments, the simulation of parent hadron production plays a key role. In this paper a quick overview of the main ingredients of the PEANUT event generator implemented in the FLUKA Monte Carlo code is given, together with some benchmarking examples.

  18. Hadronic decays of $W$ bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, III, Richard Paul [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    We present evidence for hadronic W decays in t$\\bar{t}$ → lepton + neutrino + ≥ 4 jet events using a 109 pb -1 data sample of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF).

  19. LHCB : Exotic hadrons at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Salazar De Paula, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The latest years have seen a resurrection of interest in searches for exotic states motivated by tantalising observations by Belle and CDF. Using the data collected at pp collisions at 7 and 8 TeV by the LHCb experiment we present the unambiguous new observation of exotic charmonia hadrons produced in B decays.

  20. Thermalization of Hadrons via Hagedorn States

    CERN Document Server

    Beitel, M; Greiner, C

    2014-01-01

    Hagedorn states are characterized by being very massive hadron-like resonances and by not being limited to quantum numbers of known hadrons. To generate such a zoo of different Hagedorn states, a covariantly formulated bootstrap equation is solved by ensuring energy conservation and conservation of baryon number $B$, strangeness $S$ and electric charge $Q$. The numerical solution of this equation provides Hagedorn spectra, which enable to obtain the decay width for Hagedorn states needed in cascading decay simulations. A single (heavy) Hagedorn state cascades by various two-body decay channels subsequently into final stable hadrons. All final hadronic observables like masses, spectral functions and decay branching ratios for hadronic feed down are taken from the hadronic transport model UrQMD. Strikingly, the final energy spectra of resulting hadrons are exponential showing a thermal-like distribution with the characteristic Hagedorn temperature.

  1. Double hadron leptoproduction in the nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Belostotskii, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Borysenko, A; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; Demey, M; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E G; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Funel, A; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Gavrilov, G; Karibian, V; Giordano, F; Grebenyuk, O; Gregor, I M; Griffioen, K; Guler, H; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hasegawa, T; Hesselink, W H A; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Hristova, I; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kiselev, A; Kobayashi, T; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhizhin, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikas, L; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Linden-Levy, L A; Lorenzon, W; Lü, J; Lu, S; Ma, B Q; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Michler, T; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Murray, M; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Yu; Negodaev, M; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Ohsuga, H; Osborne, A; Perez-Benito, R; Pickert, N; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shearer, C; Shibata, T A; Shutov, V; Sinram, K; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Streit, J; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S P; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A R; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; Van Haarlem, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2006-01-01

    First measurement of double-hadron production in deep-inelastic scattering has been measured with the HERMES spectrometer at HERA using a 27.6 GeV positron beam with deuterium, nitrogen, krypton and xenon targets. The influence of the nuclear medium on the ratio of double-hadron to single-hadron yields has been investigated. Nuclear effects are clearly observed but with substantially smaller magnitude and reduced $A$-dependence compared to previously measured single-hadron multiplicity ratios. The data are in fair agreement with models based on partonic or pre-hadronic energy loss, while they seem to rule out a pure absorptive treatment of the final state interactions. Thus, the double-hadron ratio provides an additional tool for studying modifications of hadronization in nuclear matter.

  2. Hadron Structure on the Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, K. U.; Kusno, A.; Mastropas, E. V.; Zanotti, J. M.

    The aim of these lectures will be to provide an introduction to some of the concepts needed to study the structure of hadrons on the lattice. Topics covered include the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon and pion, the nucleon's axial charge and moments of parton and generalised parton distribution functions. These are placed in a phenomenological context by describing how they can lead to insights into the distribution of charge, spin and momentum amongst a hadron's partonic constituents. We discuss the techniques required for extracting the relevant matrix elements from lattice simulations and draw attention to potential sources of systematic error. Examples of recent lattice results are presented and are compared with results from both experiment and theoretical models.

  3. Exotic Hadrons from B Factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulsom, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    The first generation of B-Factories, BaBar and Belle, operated over the previous decade and produced many world-leading measurements related to flavor physics. One of the most important discoveries was that of an apparent four-quark particle, named X(3872). It was the first of a growing X, Y, Z alphabet of exotic hadrons, now numbering more than a dozen, found by the e + e - collider experiments. These multi-quark states represent an unusual departure from the standard description that hadronic matter consists of only two or three quarks. These discoveries have led to the emergence of a new category of physics within heavy meson spectroscopy. This talk will review some of these key experimental results, and highlight the potential of the next generation B-Factory, Belle II, as it begins operation in the coming year.

  4. Geometrical Models and Hadronic Radii

    CERN Document Server

    Zahra, Sarwat; Fazal-e-Aleem,; Hussain, Talib; Zafar, Abrar Ahmad; Tahir, Sohail Afzal

    2015-01-01

    By using electromagnetic form factors predicted by Generalized Chou Yang model (GCYM), we compute rms radii of several hadrons with varying strangeness content such as (Pion, Proton, Phi, Lambda0, Sigma+, Sigma- and Omega-). The computed radii are found quite consistent with the results of other models and experiments, indicating excellent predicting power of GCYM. The results indicate that rms radii decrease with increase in strangeness content, separately for mesons and baryons.

  5. Hadron Properties with FLIC Fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Zanotti; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anthony Williams; J Zhang

    2003-07-01

    The Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermion action provides a new form of nonperturbative O(a)-improvement in lattice fermion actions offering near continuum results at finite lattice spacing. It provides computationally inexpensive access to the light quark mass regime of QCD where chiral nonanalytic behavior associated with Goldstone bosons is revealed. The motivation and formulation of FLIC fermions, its excellent scaling properties and its low-lying hadron mass phenomenology are presented.

  6. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satz, H. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Universitat Bielefeld (Germany); Wang, X.N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks` duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley.

  7. Cosmic rays and hadronic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipari Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of cosmic rays, and more in general of the “high energy universe” is at the moment a vibrant field that, thanks to the observations by several innovative detectors for relativistic charged particles, gamma–rays, and neutrinos continue to generate surprising and exciting results. The progress in the field is rapid but many fundamental problems remain open. There is an intimate relation between the study of the high energy universe and the study of the properties of hadronic interactions. High energy cosmic rays can only be studied detecting the showers they generate in the atmosphere, and for the interpretation of the data one needs an accurate modeling of the collisions between hadrons. Also the study of cosmic rays inside their sources and in the Galaxy requires a precise description of hadronic interactions. A program of experimental studies at the LHC and at lower energy, designed to address the most pressing problems, could significantly reduce the existing uncertainties and is very desirable. Such an experimental program would also have a strong intrinsic scientific interest, allowing the broadening and deepening of our understanding of Quantum Chromo Dynamics in the non–perturbative regime, the least understood sector of the Standard Model of particle physics. It should also be noted that the cosmic ray spectrum extends to particles with energy E ∼ 1020 eV, or a nucleon–nucleon c.m. energy √s ≃ 430 TeV, 30 times higher than the current LHC energy. Cosmic ray experiments therefore offer the possibility to perform studies on the properties of hadronic interactions that are impossible at accelerators.

  8. Hadron Physics from Lattice QCD

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We sketch the basic ideas of the lattice regularization in Quantum Field Theory, the corresponding Monte Carlo simulations, and applications to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This approach enables the numerical measurement of observables at the non-perturbative level. We comment on selected results, with a focus on hadron masses and the link to Chiral Perturbation Theory. At last we address two outstanding issues: topological freezing and the sign problem.

  9. Compensation effects in hadron calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.; Brau, J.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Goodman, M.; Wilson, R.

    1984-01-01

    The pros and cons of utilizing a fissionable material such as /sup 238/U to compensate for the nuclear binding energy losses in a hadron calorimeter are discussed. Fissionable material can return some lost energy to the particle cascade in terms of low-energy neutrons and gamma rays, but electromagnetic sampling inefficiencies (often called transition effects) and the detection medium which tries to convert this energy to a useable signal are just as important. 12 references.

  10. Hadron-hadron total cross sections and soft high-energy scattering on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, M

    2011-01-01

    The nonperturbative approach to soft high-energy hadron-hadron scattering, based on the analytic continuation of Euclidean Wilson-loop correlation functions, makes possible the investigation of the problem of the asymptotic energy dependence of hadron-hadron total cross sections by means of lattice calculations. In this contribution we compare the lattice numerical results to analytic results obtained with various nonperturbative techniques. We also discuss the possibility to obtain indications of the rise of hadron-hadron total cross sections with energy directly from the lattice data.

  11. Three Lectures on Hadron Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Craig D.

    2016-04-01

    These lectures explain that comparisons between experiment and theory can expose the impact of running couplings and masses on hadron observables and thereby aid materially in charting the momentum dependence of the interaction that underlies strong-interaction dynamics. The series begins with a primer on continuum QCD, which introduces some of the basic ideas necessary in order to understand the use of Schwinger functions as a nonperturbative tool in hadron physics. It continues with a discussion of confinement and dynamical symmetry breaking (DCSB) in the Standard Model, and the impact of these phenomena on our understanding of condensates, the parton structure of hadrons, and the pion electromagnetic form factor. The final lecture treats the problem of grand unification; namely, the contemporary use of Schwinger functions as a symmetry-preserving tool for the unified explanation and prediction of the properties of both mesons and baryons. It reveals that DCSB drives the formation of diquark clusters in baryons and sketches a picture of baryons as bound-states with Borromean character. Planned experiments are capable of validating the perspectives outlined in these lectures.

  12. Asymmetric azimuthal distribution of hadrons inside a jet from hadron-hadron collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feng

    2008-01-25

    We study the azimuthal asymmetric distribution of hadrons inside a high energy jet in the single-transverse polarized nucleon-nucleon scattering, coming from the Collins effect multiplied by the quark transversity distribution. We argue that the Collins function in this process is the same as that in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The experimental study of this process will provide us with important information on the quark transversity distribution and test the universality of the fragmentation functions.

  13. Heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P C Vinodkumar

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive overview and some of the theoretical attempts towards understanding heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy are presented. Apart from the conventional quark structure (quark, antiquarks structure for the mesons and three-quarks structure of baryons) of hadrons, multiquark hadrons the hadron molecular states etc., also will be reviewed. Various issues and challenges in understanding the physics and dynamics of the quarks at the hadronic dimensions are highlighted. Looking into the present and future experimental prospects at different heavy flavour laboratories like BES-III, CLEO-c, BaBar, Belle, LHC etc., the scope for theoretical extensions of the present knowledge of heavy flavour physics would be very demanding. In this context, many relevant contributions from the forthcoming PANDA Facility are expected. Scopes and outlook of the hadron physics at the heavy flavour sector in view of the future experimental facilities are highlighted.

  14. Lambda Hypernuclei in a Chiral Hadronic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yin-Hua; GUO Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ Nuclear matter calculations in a chiral hadronic model have been performed. It has been found that the scalar and the vector potentials and binding energies per nucleon in the chiral hadronic model are very close to those of the microscopic relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations. The good results for finite nuclei can be obtained in the mean field approximation only if scalar mass ms and coupling constant gs have been improved with the fixed values of cs2 ≡ g2s(M/ms)2 as those given by the original parameter sets of the chiral hadronic model. Then the chiral hadronic model is extended to lambda hypernuclei. Our results predicted by the chiral hadronic model are compared with those by the nonlinear Walecka model. It has been shown that the hadronic model can also be used to describe lambda hypernuclei successfully.

  15. Hadron Structure in Holographic Quantum Chromodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubovitskij, V. E.; Gutsche, T.; Schmidt, I.

    2017-08-01

    Hadrons and multiquark states are discussed within the context of holographic quantum chromodynamics. This approach is based on an action that describes the hadron structure with breaking of conformal and chiral symmetry and includes confinement through the presence of a background dilaton field. According to gauge/gravity duality, five-dimensional boson and fermion fields, moving in AdS space, are dual to the four-dimensional fields on the surface of the AdS sphere, which correspond to hadrons. In this framework, the hadron wave functions - the building blocks of the hadron properties - are dual to the profiles of the AdS fields in the fifth (holographic) dimension, which is identified with a scale. As applications, we consider the properties of hadrons and multiquark states.

  16. Observation of charmless hadronic B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Bauer, C; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, A M; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    Four candidates for charmless hadronic B decay are observed in a data sample of four million hadronic Z decays recorded by the {\\sc aleph} detector at {\\sc lep} . The probability that these events come from background sources is estimated to b e less than $10^{-6}$. The average branching ratio of weakly decaying B hadrons (a mixture of $\\bd$, $\\bs$ and $\\lb$ weighted by their production cross sections and lifetimes , here denoted B) into two long-lived charged hadrons (pions, kaons or protons) is measured to be $\\Br(\\btohh) = \\resultBR$. The relative branching fraction $\\rratio$, where $\\rs$ is the ratio of $\\bs$ to $\\bd$ decays in the sample, is measured to be $\\resultR$. %Branching ratio upper limits are also obtained for a variety In addition, branching ratio upper limits are obtained for a variety of exclusive charmless hadronic two-body decays of B hadrons.

  17. Hadron Correlations from Recombination and Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fries, R J

    2005-01-01

    We review the formalism of quark recombination applied to the hadronization of a quark gluon plasma. Evidence in favor of the quark recombination model is outlined. Recent work on parton correlations, leading to detectable correlations between hadrons, is discussed. Hot spots from completely quenched jets are a likely source of such correlations which appear to be jet-like. It will be discussed how such a picture compares with measurement of associated hadron yields at RHIC.

  18. Validation of Hadronic Models in GEANT4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koi, Tatsumi; Wright, Dennis H.; /SLAC; Folger, Gunter; Ivanchenko, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Starkov, Nikolai; /CERN; Heikkinen, Aatos; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Truscott,; Lei, Fan; /QinetiQ; Wellisch, Hans-Peter

    2007-09-26

    Geant4 is a software toolkit for the simulation of the passage of particles through matter. It has abundant hadronic models from thermal neutron interactions to ultra relativistic hadrons. An overview of validations in Geant4 hadronic physics is presented based on thin target measurements. In most cases, good agreement is available between Monte Carlo prediction and experimental data; however, several problems have been detected which require some improvement in the models.

  19. Validation of hadronic models in GEANT4

    CERN Document Server

    Koi, Tatsumi; Folger, Günter; Ivanchenko, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Starkov, Nikolai; Heikkinen, Aatos; Truscott, Pete; Lei, Fan; Wellisch, Hans-Peter

    2007-01-01

    Geant4 is a software toolkit for the simulation of the passage of particles through matter. It has abundant hadronic models from thermal neutron interactions to ultra relativistic hadrons. An overview of validations in Geant4 hadronic physics is presented based on thin-target measurements. In most cases, good agreement is available between Monte Carlo prediction and experimental data; however, several problems have been detected which require some improvement in the models.

  20. Measurements of hadron production at CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siklér F.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available First results on hadron production using the 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV data are presented. The topics covered include spectra and multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons, spectra of strange hadrons, angular and Bose-Einstein correlations of charged particles. This is just the beginning of a successful physics program at the LHC, with possible future discoveries.

  1. Hadron physics from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2016-11-01

    Particle physics experiments at modern high luminosity particle accelerators achieve orders of magnitude higher count rates than what was possible ten or twenty years ago. This extremely large statistics allows to draw far reaching conclusions even from minute signals, provided that these signals are well understood by theory. This is, however, ever more difficult to achieve. Presently, technical and scientific progress in general and experimental progress in particle physics in particular, shows typically an exponential growth rate. For example, data acquisition and analysis are, among many other factor, driven by the development of ever more efficient computers and thus by Moore's law. Theory has to keep up with this development by also achieving an exponential increase in precision, which is only possible using powerful computers. This is true for both types of calculations, analytic ones as, e.g., in quantum field perturbation theory, and purely numerical ones as in Lattice QCD. As stated above such calculations are absolutely indispensable to make best use of the extremely costly large particle physics experiments. Thus, it is economically reasonable to invest a certain percentage of the cost of accelerators and experiments in related theory efforts. The basic ideas behind Lattice QCD simulations are the following: Because quarks and gluons can never be observed individually but are always ''confined'' into colorless hadrons, like the proton, all quark-gluon states can be expressed in two different systems of basis states, namely in a quark-gluon basis and the basis of hadron states. The proton, e.g., is an eigenstate of the latter, a specific quark-gluon configuration is part of the former. In the quark-gluon basis a physical hadron, like a proton, is given by an extremely complicated multi-particle wave function containing all effects of quantum fluctuations. This state is so complicated that it is basically impossible to model it

  2. High Energy Hadron Colliders - Report of the Snowmass 2013 Frontier Capabilities Hadron Collider Study Group

    CERN Document Server

    Barletta, William; Battaglia, Marco; Klute, Markus; Mangano, Michelangelo; Prestemon, Soren; Rossi, Lucio; Skands, Peter

    2013-01-01

    High energy hadron colliders have been the tools for discovery at the highest mass scales of the energy frontier from the SppS, to the Tevatron and now the LHC. This report reviews future hadron collider projects from the high luminosity LHC upgrade to a 100 TeV hadron collider in a large tunnel, the underlying technology challenges and R&D directions and presents a series of recommendations for the future development of hadron collider research and technology.

  3. The Emergence of Hadrons from QCD Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William; Color Dynamics in Cold Matter (CDCM) Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The formation of hadrons from energetic quarks, the dynamical enforcement of QCD confinement, is not well understood at a fundamental level. In Deep Inelastic Scattering, modifications of the distributions of identified hadrons emerging from nuclei of different sizes reveal a rich variety of spatial and temporal characteristics of the hadronization process, including its dependence on spin, flavor, energy, and hadron mass and structure. The EIC will feature a wide range of kinematics, allowing a complete investigation of medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung by the propagating quarks, leading to partonic energy loss. This fundamental process, which is also at the heart of jet quenching in heavy ion collisions, can be studied for light and heavy quarks at the EIC through observables quantifying hadron ``attenuation'' for a variety of hadron species. Transverse momentum broadening of hadrons, which is sensitive to the nuclear gluonic field, will also be accessible, and can be used to test our understanding from pQCD of how this quantity evolves with pathlength, as well as its connection to partonic energy loss. The evolution of the forming hadrons in the medium will shed new light on the dynamical origins of the forces between hadrons, and thus ultimately on the nuclear force. Supported by the Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT) of Chile.

  4. Exotic hadrons from heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungtae; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Maeda, Saori; Miyahara, Kenta; Morita, Kenji; Nielsen, Marina; Ohnishi, Akira; Sekihara, Takayasu; Song, Taesoo; Yasui, Shigehiro; Yazaki, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    High energy heavy ion collisions are excellent ways for producing heavy hadrons and composite particles, including the light (anti)nuclei. With upgraded detectors at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it has become possible to measure hadrons beyond their ground states. Therefore, heavy ion collisions provide a new method for studying exotic hadrons that are either molecular states made of various hadrons or compact system consisting of multiquarks. Because their structures are related to the fundamental properties of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), studying exotic hadrons is currently one of the most active areas of research in hadron physics. Experiments carried out at various accelerator facilities have indicated that some exotic hadrons may have already been produced. The present review is a summary of the current understanding of a selected set of exotic particle candidates that can be potentially measured in heavy ion collisions. It also includes discussions on the production of resonances, exotics and hadronic molecular states in these collisions based on the coalescence model and the statistical model. A more detailed discussion is given on the results from these models, leading to the conclusion that the yield of a hadron that is a compact multiquark state is typically an order of magnitude smaller than if it is an excited hadronic state with normal quark numbers or a loosely bound hadronic molecule. Attention is also given to some of the proposed heavy exotic hadrons that could be produced with sufficient abundance in heavy ion collisions because of the significant numbers of charm and bottom quarks that are produced at RHIC and even larger numbers at LHC, making it possible to study them in these experiments. Further included in the discussion are the general formalism for the coalescence model that involves resonance particles and its implication on the present estimated yield for resonance production. Finally

  5. Hadronic molecules with hidden charm and bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the new structures observed since 2003 in experiments in the heavy quarkonium mass region, such as the X(3872 and Zc (3900, are rather close to certain thresholds, and thus can be good candidates of hadronic molecules, which are loose bound systems of hadrons. We will discuss the consequences of heavy quark symmetry for hadronic molecules with heavy quarks. We will also emphasize that the hadronic molecular component of a given structure can be directly probed in long-distance processes, while the short-distance processes are not sensitive to it.

  6. Hadronization systematics and top mass reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corcella Gennaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I discuss a few issues related to the systematic error on the top mass mea- surement at hadron colliders, due to hadronization effects. Special care is taken about the impact of bottom-quark fragmentation in top decays, especially on the reconstruction relying on final states with leptons and J/Ψ in the dilepton channel. I also debate the relation between the measured mass and its theoretical definition, and report on work in progress, based on the Monte Carlo simulation of fictitious top-flavoured hadrons, which may shed light on this issue and on the hadronization systematics.

  7. Hadronization measurements in cold nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupre, Raphael [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire (IPN), Orsay (France). et al.

    2015-05-01

    Hadronization is the non-perturbative process of QCD by which partons become hadrons. It has been studied at high energies through various processes, we focus here on the experiments of lepto-production of hadrons in cold nuclear matter. By studying the dependence of observables to the atomic number of the target, these experimentscan give information on the dynamic of the hadronization at the femtometer scale. In particular, we will present preliminary results from JLab Hall B (CLAS collaboration), which give unprecedented statistical precision. Then, we will present results of a phenomenological study showing how HERMES data can be described with pure energyloss models.

  8. Towards Laser Driven Hadron Cancer Radiotherapy: A Review of Progress

    CERN Document Server

    Ledingham, K W D; Shikazono, N; Ma, C-M

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for about sixty years that proton and heavy ion therapy is a very powerful radiation procedure for treating tumours. It has an innate ability to irradiate tumours with greater doses and spatial selectivity compared with electron and photon therapy and hence is a tissue sparing procedure. For more than twenty years powerful lasers have generated high energy beams of protons and heavy ions and hence it has been frequently speculated that lasers could be used as an alternative to RF accelerators to produce the particle beams necessary for cancer therapy. The present paper reviews the progress made towards laser driven hadron cancer therapy and what has still to be accomplished to realise its inherent enormous potential.

  9. Towards Laser Driven Hadron Cancer Radiotherapy: A Review of Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken W. D. Ledingham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for about sixty years that proton and heavy ion therapy is a very powerful radiation procedure for treating tumors. It has an innate ability to irradiate tumors with greater doses and spatial selectivity compared with electron and photon therapy and, hence, is a tissue sparing procedure. For more than twenty years, powerful lasers have generated high energy beams of protons and heavy ions and it has, therefore, frequently been speculated that lasers could be used as an alternative to radiofrequency (RF accelerators to produce the particle beams necessary for cancer therapy. The present paper reviews the progress made towards laser driven hadron cancer therapy and what has still to be accomplished to realize its inherent enormous potential.

  10. Diffractive Bremsstrahlung in Hadronic Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pasechnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of heavy photons (Drell-Yan, gauge bosons, Higgs bosons, and heavy flavors, which is treated within the QCD parton model as a result of hard parton-parton collision, can be considered a bremsstrahlung process in the target rest frame. In this review, we discuss the basic features of the diffractive channels of these processes in the framework of color dipole approach. The main observation is a dramatic breakdown of diffractive QCD factorisation due to the interplay between soft and hard interactions, which dominates these processes. This observation is crucial for phenomenological studies of diffractive reactions in high energy hadronic collisions.

  11. Quark forces from hadronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjol, Dan; Schat, Carlos

    2009-04-17

    We consider the implications of the most general two-body quark-quark interaction Hamiltonian for the spin-flavor structure of the negative parity L = 1 excited baryons. Assuming the most general two-body quark interaction Hamiltonian, we derive two correlations among the masses and mixing angles of these states, which constrain the mixing angles, and can be used to test for the presence of three-body quark interactions. We find that the pure gluon-exchange model is disfavored by data, independently of any assumptions about hadronic wave functions.

  12. The magnehydrogen in hadronic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodape, Sangesh P.; Bhalekar, Anil A.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we have described in brief one of the great achievements accomplished by the Italian-American scientist Ruggero Maria Santilli [1], namely the isochemical model and magnehydrogen that form the subject matter of the hadronic Chemistry. This new chemical species of magnehydrogen consist of individual hydrogen atom bonded together and form stable clusters under a new internal attractive forces originating from the toroidal polarization of orbitals of atomic electrons when placed in strong magnetic fields. These magnecules are used as pollution free fuel and for other applications because there is no cracking involved while using the stored magnetic energy.

  13. Testing Saturation at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, C

    2003-01-01

    We extend the saturation models a la Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff to cross-sections of hard processes initiated by virtual-gluon probes separated by large rapidity intervals at hadron colliders. We derive their analytic expressions and apply them to physical examples, such as saturation effects for Mueller-Navelet jets. By comparison to gamma*-gamma* cross-sections we find a more abrupt transition to saturation. We propose to study observables with a potentially clear saturation signal and to use heavy vector and flavored mesons as alternative virtual-gluon probes.

  14. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  15. Top production at hadron colliders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Albert De Roeck

    2012-10-01

    New results on top quark production are presented from four hadron collider experiments: CDF and D0 at the Tevatron, and ATLAS and CMS at the LHC. Cross-sections for single top and top pair production are discussed, as well as results on the top–antitop production asymmetry and searches for new physics including top quarks. The results are based on data samples of up to 5.4 fb-1 for the Tevatron experiments and 1.1 fb−1 for the LHC experiments.

  16. Structure and morphology of the tenfold surface of decagonal Al71.8 Ni14.8 Co13.4 in its low-temperature random tiling type-I modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H. R.; Franke, K. J.; Theis, W.; Riemann, A.; Fölsch, S.; Gille, P.; Rieder, K. H.

    2004-12-01

    We have investigated the structure and morphology of the tenfold surface of decagonal Al71.8Ni14.8Co13.4 by highly surface sensitive He atom scattering (HAS), high resolution low energy electron diffraction(SPA-LEED), and low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The SPA-LEED patterns reveal more than 500 individual diffraction spots in the k -vector range of ∣k‖∣Fibonacci sequence, this is linked to the random nature of the tiling of the type-I structure. STM measurements reveal a surface morphology characterized by rough single-height steps separating terraces with widths on the order of 100Å . Two different surface terminations are observed, a coarse and a fine one, frequently coexisting on single terraces. The fine structure termination directly reflects the atomic structure of a bulk truncated surface, allowing a random rhombic tiling to be identified. In order to compare diffraction, real-space data, and atomic structure models, the Patterson function and autocorrelation of the surface structure, respectively, are studied. This allows an understanding of the coarse structure termination as consisting of subunits of a few atoms each arranged statistically on sites defined by the atomic tiling of the bulk tenfold planes.

  17. Novel Perspectives for Hadron Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-03-09

    I discuss several novel and unexpected aspects of quantum chromodynamics. These include: (a) the nonperturbative origin of intrinsic strange, charm and bottom quarks in the nucleon at large x; the breakdown of pQCD factorization theorems due to the lensing effects of initial- and final-state interactions; (b) important corrections to pQCD scaling for inclusive reactions due to processes in which hadrons are created at high transverse momentum directly in the hard processes and their relation to the baryon anomaly in high-centrality heavy-ion collisions; and (c) the nonuniversality of quark distributions in nuclei. I also discuss some novel theoretical perspectives in QCD: (a) light-front holography - a relativistic color-confining first approximation to QCD based on the AdS/CFT correspondence principle; (b) the principle of maximum conformality - a method which determines the renormalization scale at finite order in perturbation theory yielding scheme independent results; (c) the replacement of quark and gluon vacuum condensates by 'in-hadron condensates' and how this helps to resolve the conflict between QCD vacuum and the cosmological constant.

  18. Dynamical generation of hadronic resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Wolkanowski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    One type of dynamical generation consists in the formation of multiple hadronic resonances from single seed states by incorporating hadronic loop contributions on the level of $s$-wave propagators. Along this line, we study the propagator poles within two models of scalar resonances and report on the status of our work: (i) Using a simple quantum field theory describing the decay of $f_{0}(500)$ into two pions, we may obtain a second, additional pole on the first Riemann sheet below the pion-pion threshold (i.e., a stable state can emerge). (ii) We perform a numerical study of the pole(s) of $a_{0}(1450)$ by using as an input the results obtained in the extended Linear Sigma Model (eLSM). Here, we do not find any additional pole besides the original one, thus we cannot obtain $a_{0}(980)$ as an emerging state. (iii) We finally demonstrate that, although the coupling constants in typical effective models might be large, the next-to-leading-order contribution to the decay amplitude is usually small and can be n...

  19. Better Hadronic Top Quark Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Tweedie, Brock

    2014-01-01

    Observables sensitive to top quark polarization are important for characterizing or even discovering new physics. The most powerful spin analyzer in top decay is the down-type fermion from the W, which in the case of leptonic decay allows for very clean measurements. However, in many applications it is useful to measure the polarization of hadronically decaying top quarks. Usually it is assumed that at most 50% of the spin analyzing power can be recovered in this case. This paper introduces a simple and truly optimal hadronic spin analyzer, with a power of 64% at leading-order. The improvement is demonstrated to be robust in a handful of simulated measurements, including the spins and spin correlations of boosted top quarks from multi-TeV top-antitop resonances, the spins of semi-boosted tops from chiral stop decays, and the potentially CP-violating spin correlations induced in continuum top pairs by color dipole operators. For the boosted studies, we explore jet substructure techniques that exhibit improved ...

  20. Transport Coefficients of Interacting Hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiranata, Anton

    A detailed quantitative comparison between the results of shear viscosities from the Chapman-Enskog and Relaxation Time methods is performed for the following test cases with specified elastic differential cross sections between interacting hadrons: (1) The non-relativistic, relativistic and ultra-relativistic hard sphere gas with angle and energy independent differential cross section sigma = a2/4, where a is the hard sphere radius, (2) The Maxwell gas with sigma(g, theta) = mGamma(theta)/2g, where m is the mass of the heat bath particles, Gamma(theta) is an arbitrary function of theta, and g is the relative velocity, (3) Chiral pions for which the t-averaged cross section sigma = s/(64pi2 f4p ) x (1 + 1/3 x cos2 theta), where s and t are the usual Mandelstam variables and fpi is the pion-decay constant, and (4) Massive pions for which the differential elastic cross section is taken from experiments. Quantitative results of the comparative study conducted revealed that • the extent of agreement (or disagreement) depends very sensitively on the energy dependence of the differential cross sections employed, stressing the need to combine all available experimental knowledge concerning differential cross sections for low mass hadrons and to supplement it with theoretical guidance for the as yet unknown cross sections so that the temperature dependent shear viscosity to entropy ratio can be established for use in viscous hydordynamics. • The result found for the ultra-relativistic hard sphere gas for which the shear viscosity etas = 1.2676 k BT c--1/(pia 2) offers the opportunity to validate ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamical (URQMD) codes that employ Green-Kubo techniques. • shear viscosity receives only small contributions from number changing inelastic processes. The dependence of the bulk viscosity on the adiabatic speed of sound is studied in depth highlighting why only hadrons in the intermediate relativistic regime contribute the most to the

  1. In-Medium Modifications of Hadron Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2006-01-01

    The in-medium modifications of hadron properties are briefly discussed. We restrict the discussion to the lattice QCD calculations for the hadron masses, screening masses, decay constants and wave functions. We review the progress made so far and describe how to broaden its horizon.

  2. Mounting LHCb hadron calorimeter scintillating tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Scintillating tiles are carefully mounted in the hadronic calorimeter for the LHCb detector. These calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  3. Di-hadron production at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anefalos Pereira, Sergio [Lab. Naz. Frascati, Frascati, Italy; et. al.,

    2014-10-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) has been used extensively in recent years as an important testing ground for QCD. Studies so far have concentrated on better determination of parton distribution functions, distinguishing between the quark and antiquark contributions, and understanding the fragmentation of quarks into hadrons. Hadron pair (di-hadron) SIDIS provides information on the nucleon structure and hadronization dynamics that complement single hadron SIDIS. Di-hadrons allow the study of low- and high-twist distribution functions and Dihadron Fragmentation Functions (DiFF). Together with the twist-2 PDFs ( f1, g1, h1), the Higher Twist (HT) e and hL functions are very interesting because they offer insights into the physics of the largely unexplored quark-gluon correlations, which provide access into the dynamics inside hadrons. The CLAS spectrometer, installed in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab, has collected data using the CEBAF 6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on longitudinally polarized solid NH3 targets. Preliminary results on di-hadron beam-, target- and double-spin asymmetries will be presented.

  4. Lattice Studies for hadron spectroscopy and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Sinya

    2014-01-01

    Recent progresses of lattice QCD studies for hadron spectroscopy and interactions are briefly reviewed. Some emphasis are given on a new proposal for a method, which enable us to calculate potentials between hadrons. As an example of the method, the extraction of nuclear potential in lattice QCD is discussed in detail.

  5. Virtual Hadronic Corrections to Massive Bhabha Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, Stefano; Riemann, Tord

    2008-01-01

    Virtual hadronic contributions to the Bhabha process at the NNLO level are discussed. They are substantial for predictions with per mil accuracy. The studies of heavy fermion and hadron corrections complete the calculation of Bhabha virtual effects at the NNLO level.

  6. Recent hadronic resonance measurements at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Knospe, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    In heavy-ion physics, measurements of short-lived hadronic resonances allow the properties of the hadronic phase of the collision to be studied. In addition, resonances can be used along with stable hadrons to study parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma and the mechanisms that shape hadron pT spectra at intermediate transverse momenta. Resonance measurements in small systems serve as a reference for heavy-ion collisions and contribute to searches for collective effects. An overview of recent results on hadronic resonance production measured in ALICE is presented. These results include the pT spectra and yields of the rho(770)0, K*(892)0, and phi(1020) mesons in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at different energies as well as the Sigma(1385)+/- and Xi(1530)0 baryons in pp and p-Pb collisions.

  7. Hadron muoproduction at the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rajotte, J F

    The COMPASS Collaboration has two main fields of interest: to improve our knowledge of the nucleon spin structure and to study hadrons through spectroscopy. These goals require a multipurpose universal spectrometer such as the COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy, COMPASS. In its first years of data taking (2002-2007), the nucleon spin structure was studied with a polarized muon beam scattering off a polarized target. These studies resumed in 2010 and will continue until at least 2011. The years 2008 and 2009 were dedicated to hadron spectroscopy using hadron beams. In the case of the nucleon structure studies, it is crucial to detect with high precision the incoming beam muon (160 GeV), the scattered muon and the produced hadrons. The large amount of high quality data accumulated provides access to the unpolarized and polarized parton distributions of the nucleon and the hadronization process. Subtle differences (asymmetries) between polarized cross sections have been predicted for...

  8. Monte Carlo Implementation of Polarized Hadronization

    CERN Document Server

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H; Thomas, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    We study the polarized quark hadronization in a Monte Carlo (MC) framework based on the recent extension of the quark-jet framework, where a self-consistent treatment of the quark polarization transfer in a sequential hadronization picture has been presented. Here, we first adopt this approach for MC simulations of hadronization process with finite number of produced hadrons, expressing the relevant probabilities in terms of the eight leading twist quark-to-quark transverse momentum dependent (TMD) splitting functions (SFs) for elementary $q \\to q'+h$ transition. We present explicit expressions for the unpolarized and Collins fragmentation functions (FFs) of unpolarized hadrons emitted at rank two. Further, we demonstrate that all the current spectator-type model calculations of the leading twist quark-to-quark TMD SFs violate the positivity constraints, and propose quark model based ansatz for these input functions that circumvents the problem. We validate our MC framework by explicitly proving the absence o...

  9. Production and Hadronization of Heavy Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Norrbin, E

    2000-01-01

    Heavy long-lived quarks, i.e. charm and bottom, are frequently studied both as tests of QCD and as probes for other physics aspects within and beyond the standard model. The long life-time implies that charm and bottom hadrons are formed and observed. This hadronization process cannot be studied in isolation, but depends on the production environment. Within the framework of the string model, a major effect is the drag from the other end of the string that the c/b quark belongs to. In extreme cases, a small-mass string can collapse to a single hadron, thereby giving a non-universal flavour composition to the produced hadrons. We here develop and present a detailed model for the charm/bottom hadronization process, involving the various aspects of string fragmentation and collapse, and put it in the context of several heavy-flavour production sources. Applications are presented from fixed-target to LHC energies.

  10. Solution Radioactivated by Hadron Radiation Can Increase Sister Chromatid Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Junko; Yurkon, Charles R; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Sayaka; Brents, Colleen A; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fujimori, Akira; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2015-01-01

    When energetic particles irradiate matter, it becomes activated by nuclear reactions. Radioactivation induced cellular effects are not clearly understood, but it could be a part of bystander effects. This investigation is aimed at understanding the biological effects from radioactivation in solution induced by hadron radiation. Water or phosphate buffered saline was activated by being exposed to hadron radiation including protons, carbon- and iron-ions. 1 mL of radioactivated solution was transferred to flasks with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells cultured in 5 mL of complete media. The induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) was used to observe any increase in DNA damage responses. The energy spectrum and the half-lives of the radioactivation were analyzed by NaI scintillation detector in order to identify generated radionuclides. In the radioactivated solution, 511 keV gamma-rays were observed, and their half-lives were approximately 2 min, 10 min, and 20 min. They respectively correspond to the beta+ decay of 15O, 13N, and 11C. The SCE frequencies in CHO cells increased depending on the amount of radioactivation in the solution. These were suppressed with a 2-hour delayed solution transfer or pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Our results suggest that the SCE induction by radioactivated solution was mediated by free radicals produced by the annihilated gamma-rays. Since the SCE induction and DMSO modulation are also reported in radiation-induced bystander effects, our results imply that radioactivation of the solution may have some contribution to the bystander effects from hadron radiation. Further investigations are required to assess if radioactivation effects would attribute an additional level of cancer risk of the hadron radiation therapy itself.

  11. Solution Radioactivated by Hadron Radiation Can Increase Sister Chromatid Exchanges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Maeda

    Full Text Available When energetic particles irradiate matter, it becomes activated by nuclear reactions. Radioactivation induced cellular effects are not clearly understood, but it could be a part of bystander effects. This investigation is aimed at understanding the biological effects from radioactivation in solution induced by hadron radiation. Water or phosphate buffered saline was activated by being exposed to hadron radiation including protons, carbon- and iron-ions. 1 mL of radioactivated solution was transferred to flasks with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells cultured in 5 mL of complete media. The induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE was used to observe any increase in DNA damage responses. The energy spectrum and the half-lives of the radioactivation were analyzed by NaI scintillation detector in order to identify generated radionuclides. In the radioactivated solution, 511 keV gamma-rays were observed, and their half-lives were approximately 2 min, 10 min, and 20 min. They respectively correspond to the beta+ decay of 15O, 13N, and 11C. The SCE frequencies in CHO cells increased depending on the amount of radioactivation in the solution. These were suppressed with a 2-hour delayed solution transfer or pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. Our results suggest that the SCE induction by radioactivated solution was mediated by free radicals produced by the annihilated gamma-rays. Since the SCE induction and DMSO modulation are also reported in radiation-induced bystander effects, our results imply that radioactivation of the solution may have some contribution to the bystander effects from hadron radiation. Further investigations are required to assess if radioactivation effects would attribute an additional level of cancer risk of the hadron radiation therapy itself.

  12. Micromegas for imaging hadronic calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Cap, S; Chefdeville, M; Dalmaz, A; Drancourt, C; Espargiliere, A; Gaglione, R; Gallet, R; Geffroy, N; Jacquemier, J; Karyotakis, Y; Peltier, F; Prast, J; Vouters, G

    2011-01-01

    The recent progress in R&D of the Micromegas detectors for hadronic calorimetry including new engineering-technical solutions, electronics development, and accompanying simulation studies with emphasis on the comparison of the physics performance of the analog and digital readout is described. The developed prototypes are with 2 bit digital readout to exploit the Micromegas proportional mode and thus improve the calorimeter linearity. In addition, measurements of detection efficiency, hit multiplicity, and energy shower profiles obtained during the exposure of small size prototypes to radioactive source quanta, cosmic particles and accelerator beams are reported. Eventually, the status of a large scale chamber (1{\\times}1 m2) are also presented with prospective towards the construction of a 1 m3 digital calorimeter consisting of 40 such chambers.

  13. Hadronic Screening in Improved Taste

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Sourendu

    2013-01-01

    We present our results on meson and nucleon screening masses in finite temperature two flavour QCD using smeared staggered valence quarks and staggered thin-link sea quarks with different lattice spacings and quark masses. We investigate optimization of smearing by observing its effects on the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) components of gluon and quark fields. The application of smearing to screening at finite temperature also provides a transparent window into the mechanism of the interplay of smearing and chiral symmetry. The improved hadronic operators show that above the finite temperature cross over, T_c, screening masses are consistent with weak-coupling predictions. There is also evidence for a rapid opening up of a spectral gap of the Dirac operator immediately above T_c.

  14. Charmed hadron photoproduction at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Photoproduction of the charmonium-like state $Z_{c}(4200)$ and the charmed baryon $\\Lambda_{c}^{\\ast }(2940)$ is investigated with an effective Lagrangian approach and the Regge trajectories applying to the COMPASS experiment. Combining the experimental data from COMPASS and our theoretical model we estimate the upper limit of $\\Gamma_{Z_{c}(4200)\\rightarrow J/\\psi \\pi }$ to be of about 37 MeV. Moreover, the possibility to produce $\\Lambda_{c}^{\\ast }(2940)$ at COMPASS is discussed. It seems one can try to search for this hadron in the missing mass spectrum since the $t$-channel is dominating for the $\\Lambda_{c}^{\\ast }(2940)$ photoproduction.

  15. Leading Hadron Production at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buniatyan Armen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Data from the recent measurements of very forward baryon and photon production with the H1 and ZEUS detectors at electron-proton collider HERA are presented and compared to the theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo models. Results are presented of the production of leading protons, neutrons and photons in deep inelastic scattering (ep → e' pX, ep → e'nX, ep → e'γX as well as the leading neutron production in the photoproduction of dijets (ep → ejjXn. The forward baryon and photon results from the H1 and ZEUS Experiments are compared also with the models of the hadronic interactions of high energy Cosmic Rays. The sensitivity of the HERA data to the differences between the models is demonstrated.

  16. Towards a realistic description of hadron resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R. A.; Canton, L.; Schweiger, W.; Plessas, W.

    2016-08-01

    We report on our attempts of treating excited hadron states as true quantum resonances. Hitherto the spectroscopy of mesons, usually considered as quark-antiquark systems, and of baryons, usually considered as three-quark systems, has been treated through excitation spectra of bound states (namely, confined few-quark systems), corresponding to poles of the quantum-mechanical resolvent at real negative values in the complex energy plane. As a result the wave functions, i.e. the residua of the resolvent, have not exhibited the behaviour as required for hadron resonances with their multiple decay modes. This has led to disturbing shortcomings in the description of hadronic resonance phenomena. We have aimed at a more realistic description of hadron resonances within relativistic constituent-quark models taking into account explicitly meson-decay channels. The corresponding coupled-channels theory is based on a relativistically invariant mass operator capable of producing hadron ground states with real energies and hadron resonances with complex energies, the latter corresponding to poles in the lower half-plane of the unphysical sheet of the complex energy plane. So far we have demonstrated the feasibility of the coupled-channels approach to hadron resonances along model calculations producing indeed the desired properties. The corresponding spectral properties will be discussed in this contribution. More refined studies are under way towards constructing a coupled-channels relativistic constituent-quark model for meson and baryon resonances.

  17. Analysis of one hadron rich event

    CERN Document Server

    Barroso, S L C; Chinellato, J A; Mariano, A; Manganote, E J T; Vicente, E C F P; Shibuya, E H

    2010-01-01

    In this report arguments are presented to classify this hadron rich event as an interaction event and the consequences of this statement. For instance the total invariant mass would be estimated as ~ 61 GeV/c^2 and the pair of hadrons used for height estimation have invariant mass = 2.2 GeV/c^2. Besides, tables showing the parametric and non-parametric analysis resulting in a criteria table and the resulting tables for the discrimination of $\\gamma$ or hadron induced showers were presented at the 16th ISVHECRI, held at Batavia, USA. The main point of hadron rich and Centauro events is the identification of the nature of the observed showers. The identification and energy determination of $\\gamma$ or hadron induced showers was made using 2 simulations. Complemented with the observation of photosensitive material under microscope it was determined that the event C16S086I037 could be classified as a hadron rich event. We used 10 reasonable scenarios for $\\gamma$/hadron discrimination and obtained that the event ...

  18. Quark Hadron Duality - Recent Jefferson Lab Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niculescu, Maria Ioana [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The duality between the partonic and hadronic descriptions of electron--nucleon scattering is a remarkable feature of nuclear interactions. When averaged over appropriate energy intervals the cross section at low energy which is dominated by nucleon resonances resembles the smooth behavior expected from perturbative QCD. Recent Jefferson Lab results indicate that quark-hadron duality is present in a variety of observables, not just the proton F2 structure function. An overview of recent results, especially local quark-hadron duality on the neutron, are presented here.

  19. Production of heavy hadrons in hard processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimov, Ya.I.; Dokshitser, Yu.L.; Troyan, S.I.; Khoze, V.A. (AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1984-09-01

    Spectra of heavy hadrons and of leptons produced via decays of the hadrons are treated in the framework of QCD. The distribution of heavy quarks Dsub(Q)(xsub(Q)) is discussed and a single approximation formula for its description is given. The relationship between the spectra of quarks and those of heavy hadrons produced by quarks is considered. The spectra of inclusive leptons resulting from the heavy quarks decay are considered. Possible ways are discussed which allow to compare the data and the theory in such a manner that the phenomenological assumptions do not strongly affect the result.

  20. Hadron scattering and resonances in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, Jozef J. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study pi pi elastic scattering, including the rho resonance, as well as coupled-channel pi K, eta K scattering. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  1. Non-perturbative QCD and hadron physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Martínez, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    A brief exposition of contemporary non-perturbative methods based on the Schwinger-Dyson (SDE) and Bethe-Salpeter equations (BSE) of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and their application to hadron physics is given. These equations provide a non-perturbative continuum formulation of QCD and are a powerful and promising tool for the study of hadron physics. Results on some properties of hadrons based on this approach, with particular attention to the pion distribution amplitude, elastic, and transition electromagnetic form factors, and their comparison to experimental data are presented.

  2. Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garny, Mathias [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibarra, Alejandro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Tran, David [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Physics and Astronomy

    2012-05-15

    We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons.We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.

  3. Strange Hadronic Matter in a Chiral Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Liang; SONG Hong-Qiu; WANG Ping; SU Ru-Keng

    2000-01-01

    The strange hadronic matter with nucleon, Λ-hyperon and E-hyperon is studied by using a chiral symmetry model in a mean-field approximation. The saturation properties and stabilities of the strange hadronic matter are discussed. The result indicates a quite large strangeness fraction (fs) region where the strange hadronic matter is stable against particle emission. In the large fs region, the component dominates, resulting in a deep minimum in the curve of the binding energy per baryon EB versus the strangeness fraction fs with (EB, fs) -~ (-26.0MeV, 1.23).

  4. Quark Hadron Duality - Recent Jefferson Lab Results

    CERN Document Server

    Niculescu, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The duality between the partonic and hadronic descriptions of electron--nucleon scattering is a remarkable feature of nuclear interactions. When averaged over appropriate energy intervals the cross section at low energy which is dominated by nucleon resonances resembles the smooth behavior expected from perturbative QCD. Recent Jefferson Lab results indicate that quark-hadron duality is present in a variety of observables, not just the proton F2 structure function. An overview of recent results, especially local quark-hadron duality on the neutron, are presented here.

  5. From hadron gas to quark matter, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Hagedorn, Rolf

    1981-01-01

    An analytical, non-perturbative description of a strongly interacting hadron gas is presented. Its main features are: the formulation is relativistically covariant, hadrons have finite extensions which are treated a la Van der Waals and their strong interactions are simulated by a hadronic mass spectrum generated by a bootstrap equation under the constraints of baryon number conservation. The system exhibits a singularity, which has the typical features of a phase transition gas to liquid, but which the authors interpret here as the transition into a quark-gluon plasma phase, which, however, cannot be described by this model. (16 refs).

  6. Hadronic production of high p$_{T}$ leptons and hadrons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment measures the production of direct real photons with large transverse momentum in pion-nucleon collisions at the SPS (H8 beam) using the NA3 spectrometer with an upgraded e-$\\gamma$ calorimeter. The experiment proceeds in steps of increasing complexity: \\item a) measurement of the direct $\\gamma$ cross-section in $\\pi^{\\pm}$C $\\rightarrow \\gamma +$ X and search for the annihilation process $q\\bar{q} \\rightarrow \\gamma$g by measuring the charge asymmetry at 200 GeV/c; \\item b) determination of the gluon structure function of the pion and the nucleon; \\item c) use of the $\\pi^{-}-\\pi^{+}$ difference on carbon, if found experimentally, to extract the gluon fragmentation from the $\\gamma$ hadron correlations. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ For comparison, the quark fragmentation functions can, in principle, be extracted from processes where the Compton scattering qg $\\rightarrow$ q$\\gamma$ dominates and compared with data from D.I.S. as a test of the method. \\\\ \\\\ The existing standard NA3 spectrometer is we...

  7. Track segments in hadronic showers in a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Klempt, W.; Kraaij, E.van der; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I; Ribon, A.; Schlatter, D.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J.G.R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.-M; Bartsch, V.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Gil, E.Cortina; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Negra, R.Della; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J-C; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Donckt, M.Vander; Zoccarato, Y.; Alamillo, E.Calvo; Fouz, M.-C; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Lorenzo, S.Conforti di; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; der Kolk, N.van; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; Taille, Ch de la; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Jeans, D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the three dimensional substructure of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel hadronic calorimeter. The high granularity of the detector is used to find track segments of minimum ionising particles within hadronic showers, providing sensitivity to the spatial structure and the details of secondary particle production in hadronic cascades. The multiplicity, length and angular distribution of identified track segments are compared to GEANT4 simulations with several different shower models. Track segments also provide the possibility for in-situ calibration of highly granular calorimeters.

  8. Thermal analysis of hadron multiplicities from RQMD

    CERN Document Server

    Sollfrank, J; Sorge, H; Xu, N

    1999-01-01

    Some questions arising in the application of the thermal model to hadron production in heavy ion collisions are studied. We do so by applying the thermal model of hadron production to particle yields calculated by the microscopic transport model RQMD(v2.3). We study the bias of incomplete information about the final hadronic state on the extraction of thermal parameters.It is found that the subset of particles measured typically in the experiments looks more thermal than the complete set of stable particles. The hadrons which show the largest deviations from thermal behaviour in RQMD(v2.3) are the multi-strange baryons and anti-baryons. We also looked on the influence of rapidity cuts on the extraction of thermal parameters and found that they lead to different thermal parameters and larger disagreement between the RQMD yields and the thermal model.

  9. Hadron Structure and Spectrum from the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, C B

    2015-01-01

    Lattice calculations for hadrons are now entering the domain of resonances and scattering, necessitating a better understanding of the observed discrete energy spectrum. This is a reviewing survey about recent lattice QCD results, with some emphasis on spectrum and scattering.

  10. Hadron Physics at the COMPASS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Krinner, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interactions, in principle describes the interaction of quark and gluon fields. However, due to the self-coupling of the gluons, quarks and gluons are confined into hadrons and cannot exist as free particles. The quantitative understanding of this confinement phenomenon, which is responsible for about 98\\% of the mass of the visible universe, is one of the major open questions in particle physics. The measurement of the excitation spectrum of hadrons and of their properties gives valuable input to theory and phenomenology. In the Constituent Quark Model (CQM) two types of hadrons exist: mesons, made out of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons, which consist of three quarks. But more advanced QCD-inspired models and Lattice QCD calculations predict the existence of hadrons with exotic properties interpreted as excited glue (hybrids) or even pure gluonic bound states (glueballs). The COMPASS experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron has acquired large da...

  11. Multidimensional study of hadronization in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Lab. of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2011-07-15

    Hadron multiplicities in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering were measured on neon, krypton and xenon targets relative to deuterium at an electron(positron)-beam energy of 27.6 GeV at HERMES. These ratios were determined as a function of the virtual-photon energy {nu}, its virtuality Q{sup 2}, the fractional hadron energy z and the transverse hadron momentum with respect to the virtual-photon direction p{sub t}. Dependences were analysed separately for positively and negatively charged pions and kaons as well as protons and antiprotons in a two-dimensional representation. Compared to the one-dimensional dependences, some new features were observed. In particular, when z>0:4 positive kaons do not show the strong monotonic rise of the multiplicity ratio with {nu} as exhibited by pions and K{sup -}. Protons were found to behave very differently from the other hadrons. (orig.)

  12. Physics projects of COMPASS with hadron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, M A

    1999-01-01

    COMPASS, a new state-of-the-art spectrometer to be installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron for experiments with muon and hadron beams, will be exposed to hadron beams with intensities up to 10/sup 8//sec and energies up to 280 GeV. The physics goals are to study the rare production of charmed hadrons, including doubly charmed baryons, in inelastic interactions, with particular interest in their semileptonic decays; to search for glueballs and hybrids in central and diffractive production. Predictions of chiral perturbation theory will be tested in Primakoff reactions. The spectrometer shall be equipped with excellent particle identification and tracking, with calorimetry, dedicated triggers and fast read-out. A significant improvement of light hadron spectroscopy - compared to previous measurements -can be achieved already in the initial phase of the experiment. (4 refs).

  13. Hadronic and nuclear phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1987-06-01

    Many of the key issues in understanding quantum chromodynamics involves processes at intermediate energies. We discuss a range of hadronic and nuclear phenomena - exclusive processes, color transparency, hidden color degrees of freedom in nuclei, reduced nuclear amplitudes, jet coalescence, formation zone effects, hadron helicity selection rules, spin correlations, higher twist effects, and nuclear diffraction - as tools for probing hadron structure and the propagation of quark and gluon jets in nuclei. Many of these processes can be studied in electroproduction, utilizing internal targets in storage rings. We also review several areas where there has been significant theoretical progress in determining the form of hadron and nuclear wavefunctions, including QCD sum rules, lattice gauge theory, and discretized light-cone quantization. 98 refs., 40 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Exotic hadron spectroscopy at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, G A

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to study the decays and properties of heavy flavoured hadrons produced in the forward region from proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. During Run 1, it has recorded the world's largest data sample of beauty and charm hadrons, enabling precise studies into the spectroscopy of such particles, including discoveries of new states and measurements of their masses, widths and quantum numbers. An overview of recent LHCb results in the area of exotic hadron spectroscopy is presented, focussing on the discovery of the first pentaquark states in the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to J/\\psi p K^-$ channel and a search for them in the related $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to J/\\psi p\\pi^-$ mode. The LHCb non-confirmation of the D0 tetraquark candidate in the $B_s^0\\pi^+$ invariant mass spectrum is presented.

  15. The Compact Pulsed Hadron Source Construction Status

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jie; Cai, Jinchi; Chen, Huaibi; Cheng, Cheng; Du, Qiang; Du, Taibin; Feng, Qixi; Feng, Zhe; Gong, Hui; Guan, Xialing; Han, Xiaoxue; Huang, Tuchen; Huang, Zhifeng; Li, Renkai; Li, Wenqian; Loong, Chun-Keung; Tang, Chuanxiang; Tian, Yang; Wang, Xuewu; Xie, Xiaofeng; Xing, Qingzi; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Xu, Dong; Yang, Yigang; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Huayi; Zhang, Xiaozhang; Zheng, Shu-xin; Zheng, Zhihong; Zhong, Bin; Billen, James; Young, Lloyd; Fu, Shinian; Tao, Juzhou; Zhao, Yaliang; Guan, Weiqiang; He, Yu; Li, Guohua; Li, Jian; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Li, Jinghai; Liang, Tianjiao; Liu, Zhanwen; Sun, Liangting; Zhao, Hongwei; Shao, Beibei; Stovall, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the design and construction status, technical challenges, and future perspectives of the proton-linac based Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) at the Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

  16. Hadron Spectroscopy with COMPASS at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Schönning, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the COMPASS hadron programme is to study the light-quark hadron spectrum, and in particular, to search for evidence of hybrids and glueballs. COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS and features a two-stage spectrometer with high momentum resolution, large acceptance, particle identification and calorimetry. A short pilot run in 2004 resulted in the observation of a spin-exotic state with $J^{PC} =$ 1${−+}$ consistent with the debated /4\\pi_{1}$(1600). In addition, Coulomb production at low momentum transfer data provide a test of Chiral Perturbation Theory. During 2008 and 2009, a world leading data set was collected with hadron beam which is currently being analysed. The large statistics allows for a thorough decomposition of the data into partial waves. The COMPASS hadron data span over a broad range of channels and shed light on several different aspects of QCD.

  17. Hadron Spectroscopy with COMPASS at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Schönning, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the COMPASS hadron programme is to study the light-quark hadron spectrum, and in particular, to search for evidence of hybrids and glueballs. COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS and features a two-stage spectrometer with high momentum resolution, large acceptance, particle identification and calorimetry. A short pilot run in 2004 resulted in the observation of a spin-exotic state with $J^{PC} = 1^{-+}$ consistent with the debated $\\pi1(1600)$. In addition, Coulomb production at low momentum transfer data provide a test of Chiral Perturbation Theory. During 2008 and 2009, a world leading data set was collected with hadron beam which is currently being analysed. The large statistics allows for a thorough decomposition of the data into partial waves. The COMPASS hadron data span over a broad range of channels and shed light on several different aspects of QCD.

  18. Modelling hadronic interactions in HEP MC generators

    CERN Document Server

    Skands, Peter

    2015-01-01

    HEP event generators aim to describe high-energy collisions in full exclusive detail. They combine perturbative matrix elements and parton showers with dynamical models of less well-understood phenomena such as hadronization, diffraction, and the so-called underlying event. We briefly summarise some of the main concepts relevant to the modelling of soft/inclusive hadron interactions in MC generators, in particular PYTHIA, with emphasis on questions recently highlighted by LHC data.

  19. LHC suppliers win Golden Hadron awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    In a ceremony on 30 July, three of the 200 suppliers for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) were presented with Golden Hadron awards. It is the third year that the awards have been presented to suppliers, not only for their technical and financial achievements but also for their compliance with contractual deadlines. This year the three companies are all involved in the supplies for the LHC's main magnet system.

  20. Academic Training Lecture: Jets at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    Regular Programme 30, 31 March and 1 April  2011 from 11:00 to 12:00 -  Bldg. 40-S2-A01 - Salle Andersson Jets at Hadron Colliders by Gavin Salam These three lectures will discuss how jets are defined at hadron colliders, the physics that is responsible for the internal structure of jets and the ways in which an understanding of jets may help in searches for new particles at the LHC.

  1. Hadron thermodynamics in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammiraju, P.

    1985-01-01

    Various phenomenological models based on statistical thermodynamical considerations were used to fit the experimental data at high P sub T to a two temperature distribution. Whether this implies that the two temperatures belong to two different reaction mechanisms, or consequences of Lorentz-contraction factor, or related in a fundamental way to the intrinsic thermodynamics of Space-Time can only be revealed by further theoretical and experimental investigations of high P sub T phenomena in extremely energetic hadron-hadron collisions.

  2. Hadrons and Quark-Gluon Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann

    2002-06-01

    Before matter as we know it emerged, the universe was filled with the primordial state of hadronic matter called quark gluon plasma. This hot soup of quarks and gluon is effectively an inescapable consequence of our current knowledge about the fundamental hadronic interactions, quantum chromodynamics. This book covers the ongoing search to verify this prediction experimentally and discusses the physical properties of this novel form of matter.

  3. Gluonic Hadrons and Charmless B Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Francis Edwin; Page, P R; Veseli, S; Yamamoto, H

    1998-01-01

    Hybrid charmonium with mass ~4 GeV could be produced via a c c.bar color-octet component in b->c c.bar s. These states could be narrow and could have a significant branching ratio to light hadrons, perhaps enhanced by glueballs. Decays to gluonic hadrons could make a sizable contribution to B->no charm decays. Experimental signatures and search strategies are discussed.

  4. Hadron spectroscopy from strangeness to charm and beauty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, B.S., E-mail: zoubs@ihep.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics and Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-09-20

    Quarks of different flavors have different masses, which will cause breaking of flavor symmetries of QCD. Flavor symmetries and their breaking in hadron spectroscopy play important role for understanding the internal structures of hadrons. Hadron spectroscopy with strangeness reveals the importance of unquenched quark dynamics. Systematic study of hadron spectroscopy with strange, charm and beauty quarks would be very revealing and essential for understanding the internal structure of hadrons and its underlying quark dynamics.

  5. Evidences for two scales in hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, B Z; Povh, B; Schmidt, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Some unusual features observed in hadronic collisions at high energies can be understood assuming that gluons in hadrons are located within small spots occupying only about 10% of the hadron's area. Such a conjecture about the presence of two scales in hadrons helps to explain: why diffractive gluon radiation so much suppressed; why the triple-Pomeron coupling shows no t-dependence; why total hadronic cross sections rise with energy so slowly; why diffraction cone shrinks so slowly, and why $\\alpha^\\prime_P\\ll\\alpha^\\prime_R$; why the transition from hard to soft regimes in the structure functions occurs at rather large $Q^2$; why the observed Cronin effect at collider energies is so weak; why hard reactions sensitive to primordial parton motion (direct photon, Drell-Yan dileptons, heavy flavors, back-to-back di-hadrons, seagull effect, etc.) demand such a large transverse momenta of the projectile partons, which is not explained by NLO calculations; why the onset of nuclear shadowing for gluons is so much de...

  6. Hadronic Transport Effects on Elliptic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 施梳苏

    2011-01-01

    Elliptic flow v2 is considered as a probe to study partonic collectivity,and the measurement v2/e can be used to describe the hydro behavior of the colliding system.We study the the effect of the hadronic process on the momentum anisotropy parameter v2 in a multiphase transport model.It is found that hadronic rescattering will depress the v2 signal built up at the partonic phase.A similar mass hierarchy is observed in the model as in the experiment at RHIC.We find that different particle species will approach the same ideal hydro limit if the hadronic process is excluded.%Elliptic Bow V2 is considered as a probe to study partonic collectivity, and the measurement V2/S can be used to describe the hydro behavior of the colliding system. We study the the effect of the hadronic process on the momentum anisotropy parameter vi in a multiphase transport model. It is found that hadronic rescattering will depress the V2 signal built up at the partonic phase. A similar mass hierarchy is observed in the model as in the experiment at RHIC. We find that different particle species will approach the same ideal hydro limit if the hadronic process is excluded.

  7. Decaying hadrons within constituent-quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinhappel, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Within conventional constituent-quark models hadrons come out as stable bound states of the valence (anti)quarks. Thereby the resonance character of hadronic excitations is completely ignored. A more realistic description of hadron spectra can be achieved by including explicit mesonic degrees of freedom, which couple directly to the constituent quarks. We will present a coupled-channel formalism that describes such hybrid systems in a relativistically invariant way and allows for the decay of excited hadrons. The formalism is based on the point-form of relativistic quantum mechanics. If the confining forces between the (anti)quarks are described by instantaneous interactions it can be formally shown that the mass-eigenvalue problem for a system that consists of dynamical (anti)quarks and mesons reduces to a hadronic eigenvalue problem in which the eigenstates of the pure confinement problem (bare hadrons) are coupled via meson loops. The only point where the quark substructure enters are form factors at the m...

  8. Identification of hadrons in Centauro events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, C.R.A.; Barroso, S.L.C.; Beggio, P.C.; Carvalho, A.O. de; Menon, M.J.; Navia, C.E.; Oliveira, R. de; Shibuya, E.H

    2003-07-01

    Since the observation of a remarkable cosmic ray induced event, in experiments with emulsion chambers, a search for similar events was started. In spite of no observation of events showing the unusual aspect of Centauro I, another remarkable event with a high content of hadrons was observed. Moreover, this Centauro V has a hadron that interacts twice at deeper layers of the detector and has energy between (16-20)% of the total energy of the main interaction, the former figure for all showers and the last only for hadron-induced showers. Therefore, to classify it as a Centauro type event it is crucial to look for reasonable criterion to identify hadronic particles. Previous analysis adopted only one criterion for each shower observed in the films. Nowadays, an improved re-analysis uses at least two criteria for each shower. The main purpose of this paper is to show that the showers observed are properly identified as of hadronic origin and so we conclude that is an authentic Centauro event produced by the interaction of a hadron 500 m above the detector and interacting twice in the lower part of the chamber.

  9. The ATLAS Hadronic Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Brost, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    As proton-proton collisions at the LHC reach luminosities close to 10$^{\\mathrm{34}}$ cm$^{\\mathrm{-2}}$ s $^{\\mathrm{-1}}$, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analyses. Simplistic single tau lepton triggers suffer from severe rate limitation, despite the sophisticated algorithms used in the tau identification. The development of further fast algorithms and the design of topological selections are the main challenges to allow a large program of physics analysis. The tau triggers provide many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model, and to get precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs boson decaying to tau-leptons. We present the performance of the hadronic tau trigger taken in Run 1 data with the ATLAS detector at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV pp collision. One of the major challenges is to sustain high efficiencies in events with multiple interactions. To do this we introduced faster tracking methods, multivariate selection techniques, and new t...

  10. Very large hadron collider (VLHC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A VLHC informal study group started to come together at Fermilab in the fall of 1995 and at the 1996 Snowmass Study the parameters of this machine took form. The VLHC as now conceived would be a 100 TeV hadron collider. It would use the Fermilab Main Injector (now nearing completion) to inject protons at 150 GeV into a new 3 TeV Booster and then into a superconducting pp collider ring producing 100 TeV c.m. interactions. A luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is planned. Our plans were presented to the Subpanel on the Planning for the Future of US High- Energy Physics (the successor to the Drell committee) and in February 1998 their report stated ``The Subpanel recommends an expanded program of R&D on cost reduction strategies, enabling technologies, and accelerator physics issues for a VLHC. These efforts should be coordinated across laboratory and university groups with the aim of identifying design concepts for an economically and technically viable facility`` The coordination has been started with the inclusion of physicists from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and Cornell University. Clearly, this collaboration must expanded internationally as well as nationally. The phrase ``economically and technically viable facility`` presents the real challenge.

  11. A correlated-cluster model and the ridge phenomenon in hadron-hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel

    2017-01-01

    A study of the near-side ridge phenomenon in hadron-hadron collisions based on a cluster picture of multiparticle production is presented. The near-side ridge effect is shown to have a natural explanation in this context provided that clusters are produced in a correlated manner in the collision transverse plane.

  12. A correlated-cluster model and the ridge phenomenon in hadron-hadron collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward

    2017-03-01

    A study of the near-side ridge phenomenon in hadron-hadron collisions based on a cluster picture of multiparticle production is presented. The near-side ridge effect is shown to have a natural explanation in this context provided that clusters are produced in a correlated manner in the collision transverse plane.

  13. Jet analysis by neural networks in high energy hadron-hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    De Felice, P; Pasquariello, G; De Felice, P; Nardulli, G; Pasquariello, G

    1995-01-01

    We study the possibility to employ neural networks to simulate jet clustering procedures in high energy hadron-hadron collisions. We concentrate our analysis on the Fermilab Tevatron energy and on the k_\\bot algorithm. We consider both supervised multilayer feed-forward network trained by the backpropagation algorithm and unsupervised learning, where the neural network autonomously organizes the events in clusters.

  14. Recent developments in chiral dynamics of hadrons and hadrons in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Kaskulov, M; Roca, L; Sarkar, S; Strottman, D D; Vacas, M J V; Magas, V K; Ramos, A; Hernández, E

    2007-01-01

    In this talk I present recent developments in the field of hadronic physics and hadrons in the nuclear medium. I review the unitary chiral approach to meson baryon interaction and address the topics of the two dynamically generated $\\Lambda(1405)$ resonances, with experiments testing it, the $\\Lambda(1520)$ and $\\Delta(1700)$ resonances, plus the $\\Lambda(1520)$, $\\Sigma(1385)$ and $\\omega$ in the nuclear medium.

  15. Hadronic interactions in the MINOS detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordosky, Michael Alan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2004-08-01

    MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, will study neutrino flavor transformations using a Near detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and a Far detector located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The MINOS collaboration also constructed the CalDet (calibration detector), a smaller version of the Near and Far detectors, to determine the topological and signal response to hadrons, electrons and muons. The detector was exposed to test-beams in the CERN Proton Synchrotron East Hall during 2001-2003, where it collected events at momentum settings between 200 MeV/c and 10 GeV/c. In this dissertation we present results of the CalDet experiment, focusing on the topological and signal response to hadrons. We briefly describe the MINOS experiment and its iron-scintillator tracking-sampling calorimters as a motivation for the CalDet experiment. We discuss the operation of the CalDet in the beamlines as well as the trigger and particle identification systems used to isolate the hadron sample. The method used to calibrate the MINOS detector is described and validated with test-beam data. The test-beams were simulated to model the muon flux, energy loss upstream of the detector and the kaon background. We describe the procedure used to discriminate between pions and muons on the basis of the event topology. The hadron samples were used to benchmark the existing GEANT3 based hadronic shower codes and determine the detector response and resolution for pions and protons. We conclude with comments on the response to single hadrons and to neutrino induced hadronic showers.

  16. Highlights from COMPASS in hadron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Krinner, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Since Quantum Choromdynamics allows for gluon self-coupling, quarks and gluons cannot be observed as free particles, but only their bound states, the hadrons. This so-called confinement phenomenon is responsible for $98\\%$ of the mass in the visible universe. The measurement of the hadron excitation spectra therefore gives valuable input for theory and phenomenology to quantitatively understand this phenomenon. One simple model to describe hadrons is the Constituent Quark Model (CQM), which knows two types of hadrons: mesons, consisting of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons, which are made out of three quarks. More advanced models, which are inspired by QCD as well as calculations within Lattice QCD predict the existence of other types of hadrons, which may be e.g. described solely by gluonic excitations (glueballs) or mixed quark and gluon excitations (hybrids). In order to search for such states, the COMPASS experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN has collected large data sets, which allow to ...

  17. First Results on Hadron Spectroscopy at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Nerling, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS is dedicated to the study of hadron structure and dynamics. One goal of the physics programme using hadron beams is the search for new states, in particular the search for $J^{PC}$ exotic states and glueballs. After a short pilot run in 2004 (190 GeV/c $\\pi^{-}$ beam, lead target), we started our hadron spectroscopy programme in 2008 by collecting unprecedented statistics using 190 GeV/c negative hadron beams on a liquid hydrogen target. A similar amount of data with 190 GeV/c positive hadron beams has been taken in 2009, as well as some data (negative beam) on nuclear targets. As a first result the observation of a significant $J^{PC}$ spin-exotic signal in the 2004 data -- consistent with the disputed $\\pi_1(1600)$ -- was recently published. Our spectrometer features good coverage by electromagnetic calorimetry, crucial for the detection of final states involving $\\pi^0$, $\\eta$ or $\\eta'$, and the 2008/09 data provide an excellent opportunity for the simu...

  18. Distinguishing B and $\\overline{B}$ hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dunietz, Isard

    1994-01-01

    Distinguishing the flavor of B and \\overline B hadrons is critical in studies of CP-violation, B^0 -\\overline{B^0} mixing, and the underlying b-decay mechanisms. Methods of b ``flavor tagging" are broadly divided into ``opposite b" tagging and self-tagging of the signal b hadron. The former, while understood, has the perceived drawback of low efficiency. The latter, while having the potential for an order of magnitude higher efficiency, has yet to be demonstrated for neutral B hadrons. In this article we review opposite b tagging in light of methods whose efficacy has only recently been demonstrated or suggested. In addition, we recommend a number of tagging methods for the opposite b including: K^{*0} and K^{*\\pm} with large inclusive yields of 15\\% and 18\\%; \\overline \\Lambda and \\overline {\\Lambda}p ; partially reconstructed charmed hadrons; sophisticated jet charge techniques, etc. We also recommend the use of self-tagging for the opposite b hadron. Such an inversion of self-tagging could conceivably incr...

  19. Universal effective hadron dynamics from superconformal algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter; Lorcé, Cédric

    2016-08-01

    An effective supersymmetric QCD light-front Hamiltonian for hadrons composed of light quarks, which includes a spin-spin interaction between the hadronic constituents, is constructed by embedding superconformal quantum mechanics into AdS space. A specific breaking of conformal symmetry inside the graded algebra determines a unique effective quark-confining potential for light hadrons, as well as remarkable connections between the meson and baryon spectra. The results are consistent with the empirical features of the light-quark hadron spectra, including a universal mass scale for the slopes of the meson and baryon Regge trajectories and a zero-mass pion in the limit of massless quarks. Our analysis is consistently applied to the excitation spectra of the π, ρ, K, K* and ϕ meson families as well as to the N, Δ, Λ, Σ, Σ*, Ξ and Ξ* in the baryon sector. We also predict the existence of tetraquarks which are degenerate in mass with baryons with the same angular momentum. The mass of light hadrons is expressed in a universal and frame-independent decomposition in the semiclassical approximation described here.

  20. Medium-induced color flow softens hadronization

    CERN Document Server

    Beraudo, A; Wiedemann, U A

    2012-01-01

    Medium-induced parton energy loss, resulting from gluon exchanges between the QCD matter and partonic projectiles, is expected to underly the strong suppression of jets and high-$p_T$ hadron spectra observed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Here, we present the first color-differential calculation of parton energy loss. We find that color exchange between medium and projectile enhances the invariant mass of energetic color singlet clusters in the parton shower by a parametrically large factor proportional to the square root of the projectile energy. This effect is seen in more than half of the most energetic color-singlet fragments of medium-modified parton branchings. Applying a standard cluster hadronization model, we find that it leads to a characteristic additional softening of hadronic spectra. A fair description of the nuclear modification factor measured at the LHC may then be obtained for relatively low momentum transfers from the medium.

  1. Boosting low-mass hadronic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmin, Chase; Whiteson, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Searches for new hadronic resonances typically focus on high-mass spectra due to overwhelming QCD backgrounds and detector trigger rates. We present a study of searches for relatively low-mass hadronic resonances at the LHC in the case that the resonance is boosted by recoiling against a well-measured high-pT probe such as a muon, photon or jet. The hadronic decay of the resonance is then reconstructed either as a single large-radius jet or as a resolved pair of standard narrow-radius jets, balanced in transverse momentum to the probe. We show that the existing 2015 LHC data set of p p collisions with ∫L d t =4 fb-1 should already have powerful sensitivity to a generic Z' model which couples only to quarks, for Z' masses ranging from 20 - 500 GeV /c2 .

  2. Dense hadronic matter in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pagliara, Giuseppe; Lavagno, Andrea; Pigato, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The existence of stars with masses up to $2 M_{\\odot}$ and the hints of the existence of stars with radii smaller than $\\sim 11$ km seem to require, at the same time, a stiff and a soft hadronic equation of state at large densities. We argue that these two apparently contradicting constraints are actually an indication of the existence of two families of compact stars: hadronic stars which could be very compact and quark stars which could be very massive. In this respect, a crucial role is played, in the hadronic equation of state, by the delta isobars whose early appearance shifts to large densities the formation of hyperons. We also discuss how recent experimental information on the symmetry energy of nuclear matter at saturation indicate, indirectly, an early appearance of delta isobars in neutron star matter.

  3. Physics at Hadronic Colliders (4/4)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Hadron colliders are often called "discovery machines" since they produce the highest mass particles and thus give often the best chance to discover new high mass particles. Currently they are particularly topical since the Large Hadron Collider will start operating later this year, increasing the centre-of-mass energy by a factor of seven compared to the current highest energy collider, the Tevatron. I will review the benefits and challenges of hadron colliders and review some of the current physics results from the Tevatron and give an outlook to the future results we are hoping for at the LHC. Prerequisite knowledge: Introduction to Particle Physics (F. Close), Detectors (W. Riegler, at least mostly) and The Standard Model (A. Pich)

  4. Physics at Hadronic Colliders (3/4)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Hadron colliders are often called "discovery machines" since they produce the highest mass particles and thus give often the best chance to discover new high mass particles. Currently they are particularly topical since the Large Hadron Collider will start operating later this year, increasing the centre-of-mass energy by a factor of seven compared to the current highest energy collider, the Tevatron. I will review the benefits and challenges of hadron colliders and review some of the current physics results from the Tevatron and give an outlook to the future results we are hoping for at the LHC. Prerequisite knowledge: Introduction to Particle Physics (F. Close), Detectors (W. Riegler, at least mostly) and The Standard Model (A. Pich)

  5. Physics at Hadronic Colliders (2/4)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Hadron colliders are often called "discovery machines" since they produce the highest mass particles and thus give often the best chance to discover new high mass particles. Currently they are particularly topical since the Large Hadron Collider will start operating later this year, increasing the centre-of-mass energy by a factor of seven compared to the current highest energy collider, the Tevatron. I will review the benefits and challenges of hadron colliders and review some of the current physics results from the Tevatron and give an outlook to the future results we are hoping for at the LHC. Prerequisite knowledge: Introduction to Particle Physics (F. Close), Detectors (W. Riegler, at least mostly) and The Standard Model (A. Pich)

  6. Physics at Hadronic Colliders (1/4)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Hadron colliders are often called "discovery machines" since they produce the highest mass particles and thus give often the best chance to discover new high mass particles. Currently they are particularly topical since the Large Hadron Collider will start operating later this year, increasing the centre-of-mass energy by a factor of seven compared to the current highest energy collider, the Tevatron. I will review the benefits and challenges of hadron colliders and review some of the current physics results from the Tevatron and give an outlook to the future results we are hoping for at the LHC. Prerequisite knowledge: Introduction to Particle Physics (F. Close), Detectors (W. Riegler, at least mostly) and The Standard Model (A. Pich)

  7. A new slant on hadron structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W Detmold; D B Leinweber; W Melnitchouk; A W Thomas; S V Wright

    2001-08-01

    Rather than regarding the restriction of current lattice QCD simulations to quark masses that are 5–10 times larger than those observed as a problem, we note that this presents a wonderful opportunity to deepen our understanding of QCD. Just as it has been possible to learn a great deal about QCD by treating c as a variable, so the study of hadron properties as a function of quark mass is leading us to a deeper appreciation of hadron structure. As examples we cite progress in using the chiral properties of QCD to connect hadron masses, magnetic moments, charge radii and structure functions calculated at large quark masses within lattice QCD with the values observed physically.

  8. Lifetime of B hadrons from CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Ting; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    A review of the lifetimes of {ital B} hadrons measured by the CDF collaboration at Fermilab is presented. The data corresponds to 110 pb{sup -1} of {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV. The inclusive {ital B} hadron lifetime is measured using a high statistics sample of {ital B} {r_arrow} {ital J}/{Psi}{Chi} decays. Species specific lifetimes of the {ital B}{sup +}, {ital B}{sup 0}, {ital B}{sup 0}{sub s}, and {Lambda}{sup 0}{sub b} are determined using both fully reconstructed decays and partially reconstructed decays consisting of a lepton associated with a charm hadron.

  9. Thermal and chemical equilibration of hadronic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bratkovskaya, E L; Greiner, C; Effenberger, M; Mosel, U; Sibirtsev, A A

    2001-01-01

    We study thermal and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' hadron matter as well as in finite size relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions using a BUU cascade transport model with resonance and string degrees-of-freedom. The 'infinite' hadron matter is simulated within a cubic box employing periodic boundary conditions. The various equilibration times depend on baryon density and energy density and are much shorter for particles consisting of light quarks then for particles including strangeness. For kaons and antikaons the chemical equilibration time is found to be larger than $\\simeq$ 40 fm/c for all baryon and energy densities considered. The inclusion of continuum excitations, i.e. hadron 'strings', leads to a limiting temperature of $T_s\\simeq$ 150 MeV.

  10. Air shower simulation and hadronic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report of the Working Group on Hadronic Interactions and Air Shower Simulation is to give an overview of the status of the field, emphasizing open questions and a comparison of relevant results of the different experiments. It is shown that an approximate overall understanding of extensive air showers and the corresponding hadronic interactions has been reached. The simulations provide a qualitative description of the bulk of the air shower observables. Discrepancies are however found when the correlation between measurements of the longitudinal shower profile are compared to that of the lateral particle distributions at ground. The report concludes with a list of important problems that should be addressed to make progress in understanding hadronic interactions and, hence, improve the reliability of air shower simulations.

  11. Hadron cascade by the method of characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, K.H.; Portella, H.M.; Navia, C.E.; Shigueoka, H. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mails: tsui@if.uff.br; hmport@if.uff.br; gficnoj@if.uff.br; hisa@if.uff.br; Oliveira, L.C.S. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: oliveira@cbpf.br

    2005-02-01

    Hadron diffusion equations with energy-dependent interaction mean free paths and inelasticities are solved using the Mellin transform. Instead of using operators on the finite difference terms, the Mellin transformed equations are Taylor expanded into a first order partial differential equation in atmospheric depth t and in the transform parameter s. Then, these equations are solved by the method of residues. For the case of a regularized power law primary spectrum these hadron fluxes are given by simple residues and one, never before mentioned, essential singularities. A comparison of our solutions with the nucleon flux measured at sea level and with the hadron fluxes measured at t = 840 g/cm{sup 2} and at sea level are made. The agreement between them is in general very good, greater than 90%. In order to check the accuracy of our calculations, a comparison between our solution and the simulated nucleon cascades is also made. (author)

  12. Boosting low-mass hadronic resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Shimmin, Chase

    2016-01-01

    Searches for new hadronic resonances typically focus on high-mass spectra, due to overwhelming QCD backgrounds and detector trigger rates. We present a study of searches for relatively low-mass hadronic resonances at the LHC in the case that the resonance is boosted by recoiling against a well-measured high-$p_{\\textrm{T}}$ probe such as a muon, photon or jet. The hadronic decay of the resonance is then reconstructed either as a single large-radius jet or as a resolved pair of standard narrow-radius jets, balanced in transverse momentum to the probe. We show that the existing 2015 LHC dataset of $pp$ collisions with $\\int\\mathcal{L}dt = 4\\ \\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ should already have powerful sensitivity to a generic $Z'$ model which couples only to quarks, for $Z'$ masses ranging from 20-500 GeV/c$^2$.

  13. Hadronic Contribution to $(g-2)_{\\mu}$

    CERN Document Server

    Höcker, A

    2001-01-01

    The recent precise measurement of the muon magnetic anomaly (g-2)_{mu} at BNL opens a window into possible new physics, provided the contribution from hadronic vacuum polarization is well understood. This talk summarizes the development in the evaluation of the leading order hadronic contributions. Significant improvement has been achieved in a series of analyses which is presented historically in three steps: (1), use of tau spectral functions in addition to e+e- cross sections, (2), extended use of perturbative QCD and (3), application of QCD sum rule techniques. The uncertainties, in particular concerning the CVC hypothesis used in step (1), and global quark-hadron duality employed in steps (2) and (3) are discussed. No new analysis results are given in these proceedings.

  14. The absorptive line shape of hadronic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar

    1977-01-01

    The exact line shape for all energies is derived analytically in the limit of negligible nuclear dimensions. The shape deviates from the Breit-Wigner form. The high-energy tail of the line has a universal shape, independent of the absorptive strength. The tails are different for different initial states, however. The integrated line strength diverges logarithmically. Renormalization of the hadron wavefunction by strong interactions leads to the usual shape near resonance and restores convergence for very large energies. The results resolve a logical inconsistency in the normal analysis of hadronic atoms and are of practical importance. It is shown that bound hadronic states (e.g. Y/sub 0/*) give natural contributions in the high energy region. Numerical illustrations are given. (6 refs).

  15. Thermodynamics of heavy-light hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Heng-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Ratios of cumulants of conserved net charge fluctuations are sensitive to the degrees of freedom that are carriers of the corresponding quantum numbers in different phases of strong interaction matter. We calculate second and fourth order cumulants of net charm and strange fluctuations and their correlations with other conserved charges such as net baryon number and electric charge. Simulation are performed on $N_\\tau$=6 and 8 lattices using the Highly Improved Staggered Quark (HISQ) action with a light to strange quark mass ratio of 1/20 and having charm quarks treated in the quenched approximation. Analysing appropriate ratios of these cumulants we observe that both open strange and charm hadrons start to get dissociated in the chiral crossover region. We provide indirect evidence for the existence of additional, experimentally yet unobserved open charm and strange hadrons from QCD thermodynamics. This is done by comparing lattice QCD results to Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model calculations performed with a...

  16. Monte Carlo implementation of polarized hadronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Kotzinian, Aram; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2017-01-01

    We study the polarized quark hadronization in a Monte Carlo (MC) framework based on the recent extension of the quark-jet framework, where a self-consistent treatment of the quark polarization transfer in a sequential hadronization picture has been presented. Here, we first adopt this approach for MC simulations of the hadronization process with a finite number of produced hadrons, expressing the relevant probabilities in terms of the eight leading twist quark-to-quark transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) splitting functions (SFs) for elementary q →q'+h transition. We present explicit expressions for the unpolarized and Collins fragmentation functions (FFs) of unpolarized hadrons emitted at rank 2. Further, we demonstrate that all the current spectator-type model calculations of the leading twist quark-to-quark TMD SFs violate the positivity constraints, and we propose a quark model based ansatz for these input functions that circumvents the problem. We validate our MC framework by explicitly proving the absence of unphysical azimuthal modulations of the computed polarized FFs, and by precisely reproducing the earlier derived explicit results for rank-2 pions. Finally, we present the full results for pion unpolarized and Collins FFs, as well as the corresponding analyzing powers from high statistics MC simulations with a large number of produced hadrons for two different model input elementary SFs. The results for both sets of input functions exhibit the same general features of an opposite signed Collins function for favored and unfavored channels at large z and, at the same time, demonstrate the flexibility of the quark-jet framework by producing significantly different dependences of the results at mid to low z for the two model inputs.

  17. The Ways of Four-Quark Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Ten years after the discovery of the X(3872) we can assert that a number of exotic four-quark hadrons with hidden charm and beauty have been discovered, the most recent, Z(3900), found by BES in 2013, being among the top-striking ones. However, ten years have not been enough to dispel the controversy about their inner structure, with two body hadron molecules and compact multiquark states being the withstanding antipodal models. In this seminar I will review the status of the field, presenting both the experimental facts and the theoretical pictures attempting to interpret them.

  18. Recent results on hadron physics at KLOE

    CERN Document Server

    Babusci, D; Balwierz-Pytko, I; Bencivenni, G; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Balkest, L Caldeira; Capon, G; Ceradini, F; Ciambrone, P; Curciarello, F; Czerwinski, E; Dane, E; De Leo, V; De Lucia, E; De Robertis, G; De Santis, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Salvo, R; Domenici, D; Erriquez, O; Fanizzi, G; Fantini, A; Felici, G; Fiore, S; Franzini, P; Gajos, A; Gauzzi, P; Giardina, G; Giovannella, S; Graziani, E; Happacher, F; Heijkenskjold, L; Hoistad, B; Iafolla, L; Jacewicz, M; Johansson, T; Kacprzak, K; Kupsc, A; Lee-Franzini, J; Leverington, B; Loddo, F; Loffredo, S; Mandaglio, G; Martemianov, M; Martini, M; Mascolo, M; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Morello, G; Moricciani, D; Moskal, P; Nguyen, F; Palladino, A; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Longhi, I Prado; Ranieri, A; Redmer, C F; Santangelo, P; Sarra, I; Schioppa, M; Sciascia, B; Silarski, M; Taccini, C; Tortora, L; Venanzoni, G; Wislicki, W; Wolke, M; Zdebik, J

    2013-01-01

    One of the basic motivations of the KLOE and KLOE-2 collaborations is the test of fundamental symmetries and the search for phenomena beyond the Standard Model via the hadronic and leptonic decays of ground-state mesons and via their production in the fusion of virtual gamma quanta exchanged between colliding electrons and positrons. This contribution includes brief description of results of recent analysis of the KLOE data aimed at (i) the search for the dark matter boson, (ii) determination of the hadronic and light-by-light contributions to the g-2 muon anomaly and (iii) tests of QCD anomalies.

  19. Resummed Results for Hadron Collider Observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAslan, Heather

    2016-07-01

    Event shapes are invaluable QCD tools for theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. We revise the definition of these observables in e+e- annihilation and in hadron collisions, and give a review of the state-of-the-art results for their resummation. Then we detail how recent work on the re-summation of event shapes in electron-positron annihilation can provide us with the tools to extend resummation of generic hadronic event shapes to NNLL accuracy. We match our findings to fixed-order results at NNLO accuracy, showing the sizeable effects of resummation in the relevant regions of phase space.

  20. Resummed Results for Hadron Collider Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAslan Heather

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Event shapes are invaluable QCD tools for theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. We revise the definition of these observables in e+e− annihilation and in hadron collisions, and give a review of the state-of-the-art results for their resummation. Then we detail how recent work on the re-summation of event shapes in electron-positron annihilation can provide us with the tools to extend resummation of generic hadronic event shapes to NNLL accuracy. We match our findings to fixed-order results at NNLO accuracy, showing the sizeable effects of resummation in the relevant regions of phase space.

  1. Hadron spectroscopy in double pomeron exchange experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrow, Michael G.

    2017-03-01

    Central exclusive production in hadron-hadron collisions at high energies, for example p + p → p + X + p, where the + represents a large rapidity gap, is a valuable process for spectroscopy of mesonic states X. At collider energies the gaps can be large enough to be dominated by pomeron exchange, and then the quantum numbers of the state X are restricted. Isoscalar JPC = 0++ and 2++ mesons are selected, and our understanding of these spectra is incomplete. In particular, soft pomeron exchanges favor gluon-dominated states such as glueballs, which are expected in QCD but not yet well established. I will review some published data.

  2. Sudden Hadronization in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann; Rafelski, Johann; Letessier, Jean

    2000-01-01

    We formulate and study the mechanical instability criterion of dense matter fireballs without considering a specific equation of state (EoS). We demonstrate the consistency with the chemical freeze-out of a fireball of matter formed in 158AGeV Pb-Pb collisions. Assuming EoS appropriate for quark-gluon matter, we demonstrate the required deep QGP supercooling prior to sudden hadronization. In a model independent approach, but using results of hadron abundance analysis and lattice QCD, we show that the latent heat of the deconfined phase is bounded from below 0.14GeV/fm^3\\le B.

  3. High energy hadrons in extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonwar, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data on the high energy hadronic component in extensive air showers of energies approx. 10 to the 14 to 10 to the 16 eV when compared with expectations from Monte Carlo simulations have shown the observed showers to be deficient in high energy hadrons relative to simulated showers. An attempt is made to understand these anomalous features with more accurate comparison of observations with expectations, taking into account the details of the experimental system. Results obtained from this analysis and their implications for the high energy physics of particle interactions at energy approx. 10 to the 15 eV are presented.

  4. Issues and Opportunities in Exotic Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Briceno, R A; Coito, S; Dudek, J J; Eichten, E; Fischer, C S; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Jackura, A; Kornicer, M; Krein, G; Lebed, R F; Machado, F A; Mitchell, R E; Morningstar, C J; Peardon, M; Pennington, M R; Peters, K; Richard, J -M; Shen, C -P; Shepherd, M R; Skwarnicki, T; Swanson, E S; Szczepaniak, A P; Yuan, C -Z

    2015-01-01

    The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. It is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimental and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented.

  5. R-Hadron Search at ATLAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, Simon Johann Franz

    In this thesis I motivate and present a search for long lived massive R-hadrons using the data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011. Both ionisation- and time-of-ight-based methods are described. Since no signal was found, a lower limit on the mass of such particles is set. The analysis was also...... published by the ATLAS collboration in Phys.Lett.B. titled `Searches for heavy long-lived sleptons and R-Hadrons with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV'....

  6. Hadron Spectroscopy in Double Pomeron Exchange Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, Michael [Fermilab

    2016-11-15

    Central exclusive production in hadron-hadron collisions at high energies, for example p + p -> p + X + p, where the "+" represents a large rapidity gap, is a valuable process for spectroscopy of mesonic states X. At collider energies the gaps can be large enough to be dominated by pomeron exchange, and then the quantum numbers of the state X are restricted. Isoscalar JPC = 0++ and 2++ mesons are selected, and our understanding of these spectra is incomplete. In particular, soft pomeron exchanges favor gluon-dominated states such as glueballs, which are expected in QCD but not yet well established. I will review some published data.

  7. Hadron production in heavy relativistic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kuiper, R; Kuiper, Rolf; Wolschin, Georg

    2007-01-01

    We investigate particle production in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies as function of incident energy, and centrality in a three-sources Relativistic Diffusion Model. Pseudorapidity distributions of produced charged hadrons in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 19.6 GeV, 62.4 GeV, 130 GeV and 200 GeV show an almost equilibrated midrapidity source that tends to increase in size towards higher incident energy, and more central collisions. It may indicate quark-gluon plasma formation prior to hadronization.

  8. A branching model for hadronic air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Novotny, Vladimir; Ebr, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a simple branching model for the development of hadronic showers in the Earth's atmosphere. Based on this model, we show how the size of the pionic component followed by muons can be estimated. Several aspects of the subsequent muonic component are also discussed. We focus on the energy evolution of the muon production depth. We also estimate the impact of the primary particle mass on the size of the hadronic component. Even though a precise calculation of the development of air showers must be left to complex Monte Carlo simulations, the proposed model can reveal qualitative insight into the air shower physics.

  9. R-Hadron Search at ATLAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, Simon Johann Franz

    In this thesis I motivate and present a search for long lived massive R-hadrons using the data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011. Both ionisation- and time-of-ight-based methods are described. Since no signal was found, a lower limit on the mass of such particles is set. The analysis was also...... published by the ATLAS collboration in Phys.Lett.B. titled `Searches for heavy long-lived sleptons and R-Hadrons with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV'....

  10. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinervo, P.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DO Collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions, and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  11. Hump-backed QCD plateau in hadron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimov, Ya.I.; Dokshitzer, Yu.L.; Khoze, V.A.; Troyan, S.I.

    1986-06-01

    New data on inclusive energy distribution of hadrons from quark jets in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation are shown to agree with the quantitative predictions of perturbative QCD, supporting the hypothesis of local parton-hadron duality.

  12. Interplay among transversity induced asymmetries in hadron leptoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hsieh, C.Yu; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; Pesaro, G.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the fragmentation of a transversely polarized quark several left-right asymmetries are possible for the hadrons in the jet. When only one unpolarized hadron is selected, it exhibits an azimuthal modulation known as Collins effect. When a pair of oppositely charged hadrons is observed, three asymmetries can be considered, a di-hadron asymmetry and two single hadron asymmetries. In lepton deep inelastic scattering on transversely polarized nucleons all these asymmetries are coupled with the transversity distribution. From the high statistics COMPASS data on oppositely charged hadron-pair production we have investigated for the first time the dependence of these three asymmetries on the difference of the azimuthal angles of the two hadrons. The similarity of transversity induced single and di-hadron asymmetries is discussed. A phenomenological analysis of the data allows to establish quantitative relationships among them, providing strong indication that the underlying fragmentation mechanisms are all driven ...

  13. Hadron tomography studies by generalized parton distributions and distribution amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumano, S

    2016-01-01

    We discuss hadron-tomography studies for the nucleon and exotic hadrons by high-energy hadron reactions. First, the constituent-counting rule is explained for determining internal quark configurations of exotic-hadron candidates by scaling properties of high-energy exclusive cross sections. Next, possibilities are discussed for investigating the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon and exotic hadrons at J-PARC. In particular, we study hadronic $2 \\to 3$ process $p+p \\to N+\\pi+B$, exclusive Drell-Yan process, and exotic-hadron GPDs. For determining three-dimensional structure of unstable exotic hadrons, we consider $s$-$t$ crossed quantities of the GPDs called generalized distribution amplitudes (GDAs), which can be investigated at KEKB. We explain possible studies of the GDAs by two-photon processes.

  14. Medium Modification of Hadronic Interactions from Low Energy Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.

    Medium-modification of hadronic interactions is defined as the differences between hadron-hadron interaction in the nuclear medium and the corresponding interaction in free space. Deeply penetrating hadrons provide such information and we discuss here pionic atoms and scattering by nuclei of 21.5 MeV pions. Brief mention is made also of the interaction of 500-700 MeV/c K+ with nuclei.

  15. $b$-hadron production at ATLAS and CMS experiments

    CERN Document Server

    De La Cruz Burelo, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    We report on a selected number of studies performed by the ATLAS and the CMS collaborations on b -hadron production. Both experiments have a rich program on b -hadron physics exploiting the large cross section of b -hadrons at the high energies of the LHC.

  16. An investigation of hadronization mechanism at a Z~0 factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the hadronization pictures adopted in the LUND String Fragmentation Model (LSFM),Webber Cluster Fragmentation Model (WCFM) and Quark Combination Model (QCM),respectively.Predictions of hadron multiplicity,baryon to meson ratios and baryon-antibaryon flavor correlations,especially those related to heavy hadrons at a Z 0 factory obtained by LSFM and QCM,are reported.

  17. Single photons, dileptons and hadrons from relativistic heavy ion collisions and quark-hadron phase transition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dinesh Kumar Srivastava

    2001-08-01

    The production of single photons in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS as measured by the WA98 experiment is analysed. A quark gluon plasma is assumed to be formed initially, which expands, cools, hadronizes, and undergoes freeze-out. A rich hadronic equation of state is used and the transverse expansion of the interacting system is taken into account. The recent estimates of photon production in quark-matter (at two loop level) along with the dominant reactions in the hadronic matter leading to photons are used. About half of the radiated photons are seen to have a thermal origin. The same treatment and the initial conditions provide a very good description to hadronic spectra measured by several groups and the intermediate mass dileptons measured by the NA50 experiment, lending a strong support to the conclusion that quark gluon plasma has been formed in these collisions. Predictions for RHIC and LHC energies are also given.

  18. Hadron shower decomposition in the highly granular CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigen, G.; Price, T.; Watson, N. K.; Marshall, J. S.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H. L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schröder, S.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Wing, M.; Bonnevaux, A.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J. C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Steen, A.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Markin, O.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Ilyin, A.; Mironov, D.; Mizuk, R.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Pöschl, R.; Richard, F.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cizel, J.-B.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Magniette, F.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Pavy, S.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; de la Taille, Ch.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The spatial development of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam data collected at CERN and FNAL for single positive pions and protons with initial momenta in the range of 10-80 GeV/c. Both longitudinal and radial development of hadron showers are parametrised with two-component functions. The parametrisation is fit to test beam data and simulations using the QGSP_BERT and FTFP_BERT physics lists from GEANT4 version 9.6. The parameters extracted from data and simulated samples are compared for the two types of hadrons. The response to pions and the ratio of the non-electromagnetic to the electromagnetic calorimeter response, h/e, are estimated using the extrapolation and decomposition of the longitudinal profiles.

  19. Hadron shower decomposition in the highly granular CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Eigen, G; Watson, N.K.; Marshall, J.S.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H.L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schröder, S.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Doren, B.van; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Wing, M.; Bonnevaux, A.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Steen, A.; Antequera, J.Berenguer; Alamillo, E.Calvo; Fouz, M.C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Markin, O.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Ilyin, A.; Mironov, D.; Mizuk, R.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; Kolk, N.van der; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Pöschl, R.; Richard, F.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.C.; Cizel, J.B.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Magniette, F.; de Freitas, P.Mora; Musat, G.; Pavy, S.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Taille, Ch.de la; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial development of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam data collected at CERN and FNAL for single positive pions and protons with initial momenta in the range from 10 to 80 GeV/c. Both longitudinal and radial development of hadron showers are parametrised with two-component functions. The parametrisation is fit to test beam data and simulations using the QGSP_BERT and FTFP_BERT physics lists from Geant4 version 9.6. The parameters extracted from data and simulated samples are compared for the two types of hadrons. The response to pions and the ratio of the non-electromagnetic to the electromagnetic calorimeter response, h/e, are estimated using the extrapolation and decomposition of the longitudinal profiles.

  20. Hadron Spectroscopy with COMPASS – Newest Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerling Frank

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS experiment at the CERN SPS investigates the structure and spectrum of hadrons by scattering high energetic hadrons and polarised muons off various fixed targets. During the years 2002–2007, COMPASS focused on nucleon spin physics using 160 GeV/c polarised µ+ beams on polarised deuteron and proton targets, including measurements of the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin using longitudinal target polarisation as well as studies of transverse spin effects in the nucleon on a transversely polarised target. One major goal of the physics programme using hadron beams is the search for new states, in particular the search for JPC exotic states and glue-balls. COMPASS measures not only charged but also neutral final-state particles, allowing for investigation of new objects in different reactions and decay channels. In addition COMPASS can measure low-energy QCD constants like, e.g. the electromagnetic polarisability of the pion. Apart from a few days pilot run data taken in 2004 with a 190 GeV/c π− beam on a Pb target, showing a significant spin-exotic JPC = 1−+ resonance at around 1660 MeV/c2, COMPASS collected high statistics with negative and positive 190 GeV/c hadron beams on a proton (H2 and nuclear (Ni, Pb targets in 2008 and 2009. We give a selected overview of the newest results and discuss the status of various ongoing analyses.

  1. Introduction to quantum chromodynamics at hadron colliders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    William B Kilgore

    2011-05-01

    A basic introduction to the application of QCD at hadron colliders is presented. I briefly review the phenomenological and theoretical origins of QCD, and then discuss factorization and infrared safety, parton distributions, the computation of hard scattering amplitudes and applications of perturbative QCD.

  2. Hadronic b decays and $\\gamma$ at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067638

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is ideally suited to the study of decays involving b quarks to fully hadronic final states. In these proceedings I summarise the status of the LHCb $\\gamma$ combination and present several recent analyses involving beauty baryon and meson decays.

  3. Universal Effective Hadron Dynamics from Superconformal Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, Stanley J; Dosch, Hans Gunter; Lorcé, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    An effective supersymmetric QCD light-front Hamiltonian for hadrons composed of light quarks, which includes a spin-spin interaction between the hadronic constituents, is constructed by embedding superconformal quantum mechanics into AdS space. A specific breaking of conformal symmetry inside the graded algebra determines a unique effective quark-confining potential for light hadrons, as well as remarkable connections between the meson and baryon spectra. The results are consistent with the empirical features of the light-quark hadron spectra, including a universal mass scale for the slopes of the meson and baryon Regge trajectories and a zero-mass pion in the limit of massless quarks. Our analysis is consistently applied to the excitation spectra of the $\\pi, \\rho, K, K^*$ and $\\phi$ meson families as well as to the $N, \\Delta, \\Lambda, \\Sigma, \\Sigma^*, \\Xi$ and $\\Xi^*$ in the baryon sector. We also predict the existence of tetraquarks which are degenerate in mass with baryons with the same angular momentum...

  4. Future hadron physics facilities at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, Jeffrey A.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Fermilab's hadron physics research continues in all its accelerator-based programs. These efforts will be identified, and the optimization of the Fermilab schedules for physics will be described. In addition to the immediate plans, the Fermilab Long Range Plan will be cited, and the status and potential role of a new proton source, the Proton Driver, is described.

  5. Hadron production measurement from NA61/SHINE

    CERN Document Server

    Korzenev, A

    2013-01-01

    New results of NA61/SHINE on determination of charged hadron yields in proton-carbon interactions are presented. They aim to improve predictions of the neutrino flux in the T2K experiment. The data were recorded using a secondary-proton beam of 31 GeV/$c$ momentum from CERN SPS which impinges on a graphite target. To determine the inclusive production cross section for charged pions, kaons and protons the thin ($0.04\\, \\lambda_I$) target was exploited. Results of this measurement are used in the T2K beam simulation program to reweight hadron yields in the interaction vertex. At the same time, NA61/SHINE results obtained with the T2K replica target ($1.9\\, \\lambda_I$) allow to constrain hadron yields at the surface of the target. It would correspond to the constraint up to 90% of the neutrino flux, thus reducing significantly a model dependence of the neutrino beam prediction. All measured spectra are compared to predictions of hadron production models. In addition a status of the analysis of data collected by...

  6. Hadron production measurement from NA61/SHINE

    CERN Document Server

    Korzenev, A

    2013-01-01

    New results from the NA61/SHINE experiment on the determination of charged hadron yields in proton-carbon interactions are presented. They aim to improve predictions of the neutrino flux in the T2K experiment. The analysis is based on the main dataset collected by NA61/SHINE in the year 2009. The data were recorded using a secondary-proton beam of 31 GeV/$c$ momentum from CERN SPS which impinges on a graphite target. To determine the inclusive production cross section for charged pions, kaons and protons a thin target was exploited. Results of this measurement are used in the T2K beam simulation program to reweight hadron yields at the interaction vertex. At the same time, NA61/SHINE results obtained with the T2K replica target allow to constrain hadron yields at the surface of the target. This allows to constrain up to 90% of the neutrino flux, thus reducing significantly the model dependence of the neutrino beam prediction. All measured spectra are compared to predictions of hadron production models.

  7. Lattice studies of hadrons with heavy flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Aubin

    2009-07-01

    I will discuss recent developments in lattice studies of hadrons composed of heavy quarks. I will mostly cover topics which are at a state of direct comparison with experiment, but will also discuss new ideas and promising techniques to aid future studies of lattice heavy quark physics.

  8. Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunava

    2011-01-01

    The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…

  9. A hadronic explanation of the lepton anomaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertsch, Philipp; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    . This mechanism is guaranteed if hadronic CRs are present and would also lead to observable signatures in other secondary channels like the boron-to-carbon or antiproton-to-proton ratios. If such features were borne out by upcoming AMS-02 data, this would rule out other explanations....

  10. Hadron physics at the COMPASS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinner, Fabian

    2015-05-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interactions, in principle describes the interaction of quark and gluon fields. However, due to the self-coupling of the gluons, quarks and gluons are confined into hadrons and cannot exist as free particles. The quantitative understanding of this confinement phenomenon, which is responsible for about 98% of the mass of the visible universe, is one of the major open questions in particle physics. The measurement of the excitation spectrum of hadrons and of their properties gives valuable input to theory and phenomenology. In the Constituent Quark Model (CQM) two types of hadrons exist: mesons, made out of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons, which consist of three quarks. But more advanced QCD-inspired models and Lattice QCD calculations predict the existence of hadrons with exotic properties interpreted as excited glue (hybrids) or even pure gluonic bound states (glueballs). The Compass experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron has acquired large data sets, which allow to study light-quark meson and baryon spectra in unprecedented detail. The presented overview of the first results from this data set focuses in particular on the light meson sector and presents a detailed analysis of three-pion final states. A new JPC = 1++ state, the a1(1420), is observed with a mass and width in the ranges m = 1412 - 1422MeV/c2 and Γ = 130 - 150MeV/c2.

  11. From continuum QCD to hadron observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binosi Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that the form of the renormalization group invariant quark-gluon interaction predicted by a refined nonperturbative analysis of the QCD gauge sector is in quantitative agreement with the one required for describing a wide range of hadron observables using sophisticated truncation schemes of the Schwinger-Dyson equations relevant in the matter sector.

  12. Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunava

    2011-01-01

    The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…

  13. An overview of CMS central hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Katta, S

    2002-01-01

    The central hadron calorimeter for CMS detector is a sampling calorimeter with active medium as scintillator plates interleaved with brass absorber plates. It covers the central pseudorapidity region (¿ eta ¿<3.0). The design and construction aspects are reported. The status of construction and assembly of various subdetectors of HCAL are presented. (5 refs).

  14. Light-quark decays in heavy hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed) where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. These decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays may be interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.

  15. Heavy hadron decays with conserved heavy flavour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas [Theoretische Physik 1, Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen, Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the decays of heavy hadrons where the heavy quark acts as a spectator and the light quark decays in a weak transition. For these s → u or d → u decays we show that the decay rates can be reliably computed.

  16. Light-quark decays in heavy hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, Sven, E-mail: faller@physik.uni-siegen.de; Mannel, Thomas, E-mail: mannel@physik.uni-siegen.de

    2015-11-12

    We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed) where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. These decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays may be interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.

  17. Light-Quark Decays in Heavy Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Faller, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed) where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. Theses decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays are interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.

  18. Sivers Effect in Two Hadron Electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kotzinian, Aram; Thomas, Anthony W

    2014-01-01

    The Sivers effect in single hadron semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) on a transversely polarized nucleon describes the modulation of the cross-section with the sine of the azimuthal angle between the produced hadron's transverse momentum and the nucleon spin ($\\boldsymbol{P}_h$ and $\\varphi_S$ respectively). This effect is attributed to the so-called Sivers parton distribution function of the nucleon. We employ a simple phenomenological parton model to derive the relevant cross-section for two hadron production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering including the Sivers effect. We show that Sivers effect can be observed in such process as sine modulations involving the azimuthal angles $\\varphi_T$ and $\\varphi_R$ of both the total and the relative transverse momenta of the hadron pair. The existence of the modulation with respect to $\\varphi_R$ is new. Finally, we employ a modified version of the $\\tt{LEPTO}$ Monte Carlo event generator that includes the Sivers effect to estimate the size of...

  19. Hadronic physics with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Cazon, L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive air showers are the result of billions of particle reactions initiated by single cosmic rays at ultra-high energy. Their characteristics are sensitive both to the mass of the primary cosmic ray and to the fine details of hadronic interactions. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays can be used to experimentally extend our knowledge on hadronic interactions in energy and kinematic regions beyond those tested by human-made accelerators. We report on how the Pierre Auger Observatory is able to measure the proton-air cross section for particle production at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 39 TeV and 56 TeV and also to constrain the new hadronic interaction models tuned after the results of the Large Hadron Collider, by measuring: the average shape of the electromagnetic longitudinal profile of air showers, the moments of the distribution of the depth at which they reach their maximum, and the content and production depth of muons in air showers with a primary center-of-mass energy per nucleon around and a...

  20. Analysis of a hadron rich event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Sergio L.C.; C arvalho, Analzira O. de; Chinellato, Jose A.; Manganote, Edmilson J.T.; Mariano, Anderson; Shibuya, Edison H. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2009-07-01

    Full text. In a 1975 experiment, Brazil-Japan Collaboration on Chacaltaya Emulsion Chamber observed an event that was nicknamed Centauro, after some uncommon features. The unusual aspect of small multiplicity in the upper chamber and a much bigger multiplicity in the lower part of the chamber - leading the nickname Centauro - came from an unbalanced ratio between hadrons and gamma induced showers. Other similar events were observed; from them, only one in the chamber no 16, exposed during the period March/1971 - April/1972 has their height determined. As this event has 7 hadron induced showers continuing from upper to lower chamber, the height was estimated by triangulation and ranges from (500-900) meters, approximately. Using the minimum height, main hadronic showers characteristics were reported in some occasions, for instance in 2006ISVHECRI, at Weihai Symposium. Main results there, mainly: Mean inelasticity of gamma-ray equal 0.27, mean transverse momenta about (1.2+-0.2) GeV/c, and rapidity density in (8.56-9.89) range. These and other results indicated that at least this Centauro candidate would be interpretable as a hadron rich event produced by a cosmic ray particle interaction at 1 Moliere unit above the chamber. For the 23 showers compatible with gamma induced showers we looked for possible gamma-gamma combinations that reconstruct neutral pions. (author)

  1. Hadron Mass Scaling in Regge Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Burakovsky, L

    1998-01-01

    We show that Regge phenomenology is consistent with the only universal scaling law for hadron masses, M^\\ast /M=(\\alpha ^{'}/\\alpha ^{'\\ast})^{1/2}, where asterisk indicates a finite-temperature quantity. Phenomenological models further suggest the following expression of the above scaling in terms of the temperature-dependent gluon condensate: M^\\ast /M=

  2. Electromagnetic corrections to light hadron masses

    CERN Document Server

    Portelli, A; Fodor, Z; Frison, J; Hölbling, C; Katz, S D; Krieg, S; Kurth, T; Lellouch, L; Lippert, T; Szabó, K K; Ramos, A

    2010-01-01

    At the precision reached in current lattice QCD calculations, electromagnetic effects are becoming numerically relevant. We will present preliminary results for electromagnetic corrections to light hadron masses, based on simulations in which a $\\mathrm{U}(1)$ degree of freedom is superimposed on $N_f=2+1$ QCD configurations from the BMW collaboration.

  3. Emergence String and Mass Formulas of Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Assume that hadrons are formed from the emergence string. Usual string should possess two moving states: oscillation and rotation, so we propose corresponding potential and the equation of the emergence string, whose energy spectrum is namely the GMO mass formula and its modified accurate mass formula. These are some relations between the string and observable experimental data.

  4. Observable Properties of Quark-Hadron Phase Transition at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, Rudolph C

    2016-01-01

    Quark-hadron phase transition is simulated by an event generator that incorporates the dynamical properties of contraction due to QCD confinement forces and randomization due to the thermal behavior of a large quark system on the edge of hadronization. Fluctuations of emitted pions in the $(\\eta,\\phi)$ space are analyzed using normalized factorial moments in a wide range of bin sizes. The scaling index $\

  5. Mean transverse momenta correlations in hadron-hadron collisions in MC toy model with repulsing strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altsybeev, Igor [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    In the present work, Monte-Carlo toy model with repulsing quark-gluon strings in hadron-hadron collisions is described. String repulsion creates transverse boosts for the string decay products, giving modifications of observables. As an example, long-range correlations between mean transverse momenta of particles in two observation windows are studied in MC toy simulation of the heavy-ion collisions.

  6. Highlights from Compass in hadron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinner, Fabian

    2015-06-01

    Since Quantum Choromdynamics allows for gluon self-coupling, quarks and gluons cannot be observed as free particles, but only their bound states, the hadrons. This so-called confinement phenomenon is responsible for 98% of the mass in the visible universe. Measurement of the hadron excitation spectra therefore gives valuable input for theory and phenomenology to quantitatively understand this phenomenon. One simple model to describe hadrons is the Constituent Quark Model (CQM), which knows two types of hadrons: mesons consisting of a quark and an antiquark and baryons, which are made of three quarks. More advanced models, which are inspired by QCD as well as calculations within Lattice QCD, predict the existence of other types of hadrons, which may be, e.g., described solely by gluonic excitations (glueballs) or mixed quark and gluon excitations (hybrids). In order to search for such states, the Compass experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN has collected large data sets, which allow to study the light-quark meson and baryon spectra with unmatched precision. The overview shown here focuses on the light meson sector, presenting a detailed Partial-Wave Analysis of the processes: π- p → π-π+π- p and π- p → π-π0π0 p. A new state, the a1(1420) with JPC = 1++, is observed. Its Breit-Wigner parameters are found to be in the ranges: m = 1412 - 1422MeV/c2 and Γ = 130 - 150MeV/c2. In the same analysis, a signal in a wave with JPC = 1- + is observed. A resonant origin of this signal would not be explicable within the CQM. In addition to this possibility of an exotic state, possible non-resonant origin of this signal is discussed.

  7. Measurements of $B^{0}-\\overline{B}^{0}$ Mixing, $\\Gamma(Z^{0} \\to b\\overline{b}) / \\Gamma (Z^{0} \\to$ Hadrons) and Semileptonic Branching Ratios for $b$-Flavoured Hadrons in Hadronic $Z^{0}$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Akers, R J; Allison, J; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Astbury, Alan; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Baines, J T M; Ball, A H; Banks, J; Barlow, R J; Barnett, S; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Beaudoin, G; Beck, A; Beck, G A; Becker, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentkowski, P; Berlich, P; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Boden, B; Bosch, H M; Boutemeur, M; Breuker, Horst; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brown, R M; Buijs, A; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chu, S L; Clarke, P E L; Clayton, J C; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooper, M; Coupland, M; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Deng, H; Dieckmann, A; Dittmar, Michael; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Duboscq, J E; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Dumas, D J P; Elcombe, P A; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Evans, H G; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fabbro, B; Fierro, M; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fischer, H M; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Gaidot, A; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Gensler, S W; Gentit, F X; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gillies, James D; Goldberg, J; Gingrich, D M; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Grant, F C; Hagemann, J; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hargrove, C K; Harrison, P F; Hart, J; Hattersley, P M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Heflin, E; Hemingway, Richard J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hilse, T; Hinshaw, D A; Hobbs, J D; Hobson, P R; Hochman, D; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Hughes-Jones, R E; Humbert, R; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ihssen, H; Imrie, D C; Janissen, A C; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, M; Jones, R W L; Jovanovic, P; Jui, C; Karlen, D A; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; King, J; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Komamiya, S; Kral, J F; Kowalewski, R V; Von Krogh, J; Kroll, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lafoux, H; Lahmann, R; Lamarche, F; Lauber, J; Layter, J G; Leblanc, P; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lehto, M H; Lellouch, Daniel; Leroy, C; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lorah, J M; Lorazo, B; Losty, Michael J; Lou, X C; Ludwig, J; Luig, A; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; Maur, U; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T J; McNutt, J R; Meijers, F; Menszner, D; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Michelini, Aldo; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mildenberger, J L; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Moisan, C; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Nellen, B; Nguyen, H H; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oram, C J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pansart, J P; Panzer-Steindel, B; Paschievici, P; Patrick, G N; Paz-Jaoshvili, N; Pearce, M J; Pfister, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Pitman, D; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Pritchard, T W; Przysiezniak, H; Quast, G; Redmond, M W; Rees, D L; Richards, G E; Rison, M; Robins, S A; Robinson, D; Rollnik, A; Roney, J M; Ros, E; Rossberg, S; Rossi, A M; Rosvick, M; Routenburg, P; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sasaki, M; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Schappert, W; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schmitt, B; von der Schmitt, H; Schröder, M; Schwick, C; Schwiening, J; Scott, W G; Settles, M; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Smith, T J; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stegmann, C; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tarem, S; Tecchio, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Tesch, N; Thomson, M A; Torrente-Lujan, E; Towers, S; Tranströmer, G; Tresilian, N J; Tsukamoto, T; Turner, M F; Van den Plas, D; Van Kooten, R; VanDalen, G J; Vasseur, G; Wagner, A; Wagner, D L; Wahl, C; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Weber, M; Weber, P; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; Whalley, M A; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Winterer, V H; Wlodek, T; Wolf, G; Wotton, S A; Wyatt, T R; Yaari, R; Yeaman, A; Yekutieli, G; Yurko, M; Zeuner, W; Zorn, G T

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of $B^{0}-\\overline{B}^{0}$ Mixing, $\\Gamma(Z^{0} \\to b\\overline{b}) / \\Gamma (Z^{0} \\to$ Hadrons) and Semileptonic Branching Ratios for $b$-Flavoured Hadrons in Hadronic $Z^{0}$ Decays

  8. Direct probes of linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized hadrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Daniël; Brodsky, Stanley J; Mulders, Piet J; Pisano, Cristian

    2011-04-01

    We show that linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be directly probed in jet or heavy quark pair production in electron-hadron collisions. We discuss the simplest cos2ϕ asymmetries and estimate their maximal value, concluding that measurements of the unknown linearly polarized gluon distribution in the proton should be feasible in future Electron-Ion Collider or Large Hadron electron Collider experiments. Analogous asymmetries in hadron-hadron collisions suffer from factorization breaking contributions and would allow us to quantify the importance of initial- and final-state interactions.

  9. Chemical freeze-out conditions in hadron resonance gas

    CERN Document Server

    Vovchenko, V; Satarov, L M; Stoecker, H

    2016-01-01

    The hadron resonance gas model with hadron-type dependent eigenvolume corrections is employed to fit the hadron yield data of the NA49 collaboration for central Pb+Pb collisions at the c.m. energy per nucleon pair Ecm=6.3, 7.6, 8.8, 12.3, and 17.3 GeV, the hadron midrapidity yield data of the STAR collaboration for Au+Au collisions at Ecm=200 GeV, and the hadron midrapidity yield data of the ALICE collaboration for Pb+Pb collisions at Ecm=2760 GeV. The influence of the eigenvolume corrections is studied.

  10. Double-hadron leptoproduction in the nuclear medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, N; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetissian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Belostotski, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, H; Borissov, A; Borysenko, A; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; Demey, M; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Funel, A; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Gavrilov, G; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Grebeniouk, O; Gregor, I M; Griffioen, K; Guler, H; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hasegawa, T; Hesselink, W H; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Hristova, I; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Kobayashi, T; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhijine, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikás, L; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Linden-Levy, L A; Lorenzon, W; Lu, J; Lu, S; Ma, B-Q; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Michler, T; Mikloukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Murray, M; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W-D; Ohsuga, H; Osborne, A; Perez-Benito, R; Pickert, N; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Roelon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shearer, C; Shibata, T-A; Shutov, V; Sinram, K; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Streit, J; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; van Haarlem, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2006-04-28

    The first measurements of double-hadron production in deep-inelastic scattering within the nuclear medium were made with the HERMES spectrometer at DESY HERA using a 27.6 GeV positron beam. By comparing data for deuterium, nitrogen, krypton, and xenon nuclei, the influence of the nuclear medium on the ratio of double-hadron to single-hadron yields was investigated. Nuclear effects on the additional hadron are clearly observed, but with little or no difference among nitrogen, krypton, or xenon, and with smaller magnitude than effects seen on previously measured single-hadron multiplicities. The data are compared with models based on partonic energy loss or prehadronic scattering and with a model based on a purely absorptive treatment of the final-state interactions. Thus, the double-hadron ratio provides an additional tool for studying modifications of hadronization in nuclear matter.

  11. An estimate of the bulk viscosity of the hadronic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Sarwar, Golam; Alam, Jan-e

    2015-01-01

    The bulk viscosity of the hadronic medium within the ambit of the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model approach including the Hagedorn density of states has been estimated. The HRG thermodynamics within a grand canonical ensemble provides the mean hadron number as well as its fluctuation. The fluctuation in the chemical composition of the hadronic medium in the grand canonical ensemble can result in non-zero divergence of the hadronic fluid flow velocity, allowing us to estimate the hadronic bulk viscosity $\\zeta$ upto a relaxation time. We study the influence of the hadronic spectrum on $\\zeta$ and find its correlation with the conformal symmetry breaking (CSB) measure, $\\epsilon-3P$. We estimate $\\zeta$ along the chemical freezeout curve and find that at FAIR energies $\\zeta/s$ can be enhanced by a factor of five as compared to LHC energies.

  12. Equilibration of hadrons in HICs via Hagedorn States

    CERN Document Server

    Beitel, M; Greiner, C

    2015-01-01

    Hagedorn states (HS) are a tool to model the hadronization process which occurs in the phase transition region between the quark gluon plasma (QGP) and the hadron resonance gas (HRG). These states are believed to appear near the Hagedorn temperature $T_H$ which in our understanding equals the critical temperature $T_c$. A covariantly formulated bootstrap equation is solved to generate the zoo of these particles characterized baryon number $B$, strangeness $S$ and electric charge $Q$. These hadron-like resonances are characterized by being very massive and by not being limited to quantum numbers of known hadrons. All hadronic properties like masses, spectral functions etc.are taken from the hadronic transport model Ultra Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD). Decay chains of single Hagedorn states provide a well description of experimentally observed multiplicity ratios of strange and multi-strange particles. In addition, the final energy spectra of resulting hadrons show a thermal-like distribution ...

  13. Mott-hadron resonance gas and lattice QCD thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Blaschke, D; Turko, L

    2016-01-01

    We present an effective model for the generic behaviour of hadron masses and phase shifts at finite temperature which shares basic features with recent developments within the PNJL model for correlations in quark matter. On this basis we obtain the transition between a hadron resonance gas phase and the quark gluon plasma in the spirit of the generalized Beth-Uhlenbeck approach where the Mott dissociation of hadrons is encoded in the hadronic phase shifts. We find that the restriction to low-lying hadronic channels is justified by the rather low chiral transition temperature found in recent lattice QCD thermodynamics results. While we work in thermodynamic equilibrium, albeit including the contribution of unstable states, the possible contribution of massive components of the hadron resonance gas may become an aspect of strong nonequilibrium in the evolution of a hadronic fireball.

  14. Particle accelerators from Big Bang physics to hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical physicist Victor “Viki” Weisskopf, Director-General of CERN from 1961 to 1965, once “There are three kinds of physicists, namely the machine builders, the experimental physicists, and the theoretical physicists. […] The machine builders are the most important ones, because if they were not there, we would not get into this small-scale region of space. If we compare this with the discovery of America, the machine builders correspond to captains and ship builders who really developed the techniques at that time. The experimentalists were those fellows on the ships who sailed to the other side of the world and then landed on the new islands and wrote down what they saw. The theoretical physicists are those who stayed behind in Madrid and told Columbus that he was going to land in India.” Rather than focusing on the theoretical physicists, as most popular science books on particle physics do, this beautifully written and also entertaining book is different in that, firstly, the main foc...

  15. From hadron therapy to cosmic rays: a life in biophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    Christine Sutton

    2014-01-01

    In 1954 – the year CERN was founded – another scientific journey began at what is now the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Beams of protons from a particle accelerator were used for the first time by John Lawrence – a doctor and the brother of Ernest Lawrence, the physicist after whom the Berkeley lab is named – to treat patients with cancer. For many years, Eleanor Blakely has been one of the leaders of that journey. She visited CERN last week and spoke with the Bulletin about her life in biophysics.   Use of the cylcotron beam to mimic "shooting stars" seen by astronauts. Black hood on subject Cornelius Tobias keeps out light during neutron irradiation experiment at the 184-inch accelerator. Helping to position Tobias in the beam line are (left to right) John Lyman of Biomedical Division, and Ralph Thomas of Health Physics. (Photo courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.) Interested in biophysics, which was still a new...

  16. PARTNER: A Marie Curie Initial Training Network for hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    CERN BULLETIN; Nathalie Hospital; Manuela Cirilli

    2011-01-01

    PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network.

  17. Theory of heavy ion collision physics in hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.

  18. Probing leptophilic dark sectors with hadronic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Panci, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    We study vector portal dark matter models where the mediator couples only to leptons. In spite of the lack of tree-level couplings to colored states, radiative effects generate interactions with quark fields that could give rise to a signal in current and future experiments. We identify such experimental signatures: scattering of nuclei in dark matter direct detection; resonant production of lepton-antilepton pairs at the Large Hadron Collider; and hadronic final states in dark matter indirect searches. Furthermore, radiative effects also generate an irreducible mass mixing between the vector mediator and the Z boson, severely bounded by ElectroWeak Precision Tests. We use current experimental results to put bounds on this class of models, accounting for both radiatively induced and tree-level processes. Remarkably, the former often overwhelm the latter.

  19. Hadronic density of states from string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Vaman, Diana

    2003-09-12

    We present an exact calculation of the finite temperature partition function for the hadronic states corresponding to a Penrose-Güven limit of the Maldacena-Nùñez embedding of the N=1 super Yang-Mills (SYM) into string theory. It is established that the theory exhibits a Hagedorn density of states. We propose a semiclassical string approximation to the finite temperature partition function for confining gauge theories admitting a supergravity dual, by performing an expansion around classical solutions characterized by temporal windings. This semiclassical approximation reveals a hadronic energy density of states of a Hagedorn type, with the coefficient determined by the gauge theory string tension as expected for confining theories. We argue that our proposal captures primarily information about states of pure N=1 SYM theory, given that this semiclassical approximation does not entail a projection onto states of large U(1) charge.

  20. In-medium Properties of Hadrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metag Volker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given over recent results on in-medium properties of hadrons, obtained in experiments with photon, proton and deuteron beams at ANKE, CBELSA/TAPS, Crystal Ball, HADES, and BigRIPS. These experiments focus on identifying spectral inmedium modifications of hadrons, frequently discussed in the context of a partial restoration of chiral symmetry at finite nuclear densities. Three experimental approaches are presented: the measurement of the transparency ratio, the meson line shape analysis, and the search for meson-nucleus bound states. Results for ω, ϕ, and η' mesons indicate a broadening in the nuclear medium. Corresponding inelastic in-medium meson-nucleon cross sections have been extracted. Evidence for an in-medium mass shift has not been reported. Further information on the meson-nucleus interaction is derived from a spectroscopy of meson-nucleus bound states. A critical comparison of the results with theoretical predictions is presented.

  1. Muon Detection Based on a Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ciodaro, T; Abreu, R; Achenbach, R; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Aielli, G; Al-Shabibi, A; Aleksandrov, I; Alexandrov, E; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Amram, N; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Angelaszek, D; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, S; Anulli, F; Apolle, R; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Avolio, G; Baak, M; Backes, M; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Ballestrero, S; Banerjee, S; Bansil, H S; Barnett, B M; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, V; Batraneanu, S; Battaglia, A; Bauss, B; Beauchemin, P; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behera, P K; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Y; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R E; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Bondioli, M; Borer, C; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A G; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Brock, R; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bucci, F; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buscher, V; Buttinger, W; Calvet, S; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Capasso, L; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cattani, G; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapleau, B; Childers, J T; Chiodini, G; Christidi, I; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Coccaro, A; Cogan, J; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Conidi, C; Conventi, F; Corradi, M; Corso-Radu, A; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Crone, G; Crupi, R; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cummings, J T; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Dao, V; Darlea, G L; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; de Seixas, J M; Degenhardt, J; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Diaz, M A; Dietzsch, T A; Dionisi, C; Dobson, E; Dobson, M; dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Drake, G; Dufour, M-A; Dumitru, I; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, K V; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Ernst, J; Etzion, E; Falciano, S; Farrington, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner , P J W; Fedorko, W; Fellmann, D; Feng, E; Ferrag, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fiorini, L; Fischer, G; Flowerdew, M J; Fonseca Martin, T; Francis, D; Fratina, S; French, S T; Front, D; Fukunaga, C; Gadomski, S; Garelli, N; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gee, C N P; George, S; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gillman, A R; Giorgi, M; Giunta, M; Giusti, P; Goebel, M; Gonçalo, R; Gonzalez Silva, L; Göringer, C; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Grabowska-Bold, I; Green, B; Groll, M; Guida, A; Guler, H; Haas, S; Hadavand, H; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hauser, R; Hayakawa, T; Hayden, D; Head, S; Heim, S; Hellman, S; Henke, M; Hershenhorn, A; Hidvégi, A; Hillert, S; Hillier, S J; Hirayama, S; Hod, N; Hoffmann, D; Hong, T M; Hryn'ova, T; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jez, P; Jimenez Otero, S; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Jones, G; Joos, M; Kadlecik, P; Kajomovitz, E; Kanaya, N; Kanega, F; Kanno, T; Kapliy, A; Kaushik, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Kessoku, K; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kirk, J; Klemetti, M; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Kobayashi, T; Koeneke, K; Koletsou, I; Koll, J D; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kowalewski, R V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J; Kreisel, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kunkle, J; Kurashige, H; Kuze, M; Kwee, R; Laforge, B; Landon, M; Lane, J; Lankford, A J; Laranjeira Lima, S M; Larner, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lilley, J N; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Lowe, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lundberg, J; Lupu, N; Machado Miguéns, J; Mackeprang, R; Maettig, S; Magnoni, L; Maiani, C; Maltrana, D; Mangeard, P-S; Männer, R; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Marino, C; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martin, T; Martyniuk, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; Mastrandrea, P; Matsushita, T; McCarn, A; Mechnich, J; Medinnis, M; Meier, K; Melachrinos, C; Mendoza Nava, L M; Merola, L; Messina, A; Meyer, C P; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mills, C M; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Moa, T; Moenig, K; Monk, J; Monticelli, F; Mora Herrera, C; Morettini, P; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Munwes, Y; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nelson, S; Nemethy, P; Neubauer, M S; Neusiedl, A; Newman, P; Nisati, A; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Nurse, E; Ochando, C; Ochi, A; Oda, S; Oh, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Olivito, D; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Ospanov, R; Owen, M A; Özcan, V E; Ozone, K; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Panikashvili, N; Paramonov, A; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Petcu, M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Phan, A; Piegaia, R; Pilkington, A; Pinder, A; Poddar, S; Polini, A; Pope, B G; Potter, C T; Primavera, M; Prokoshin, F; Ptacek, E; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Ramos Dos Santos Neves, R; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Reinsch, A; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S H; Robinson, M; Rodriguez, D; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Romero, R; Roos, L; Ruiz Martinez, A; Ryabov, Y; Ryan, P; Saavedra, A; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saland, J; Salnikov, A; Salvatore, F; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santonico, R; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sasaki, O; Savu, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schäfer, U; Scharf, V L; Scheirich, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, K; Schroder, C; Schroer, N; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Sfyrla, A; Shamim, M; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shooltz, D; Sidoti, A; Silbert, O; Silverstein, S; Sinev, N; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sjoen, R; Sjölin, J; Slagle, K; Sloper, J E; Smith, B C; Soffer, A; Soloviev, I; Spagnolo, S; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strauss, E A; Strom, D; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Taffard, A; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Taylor, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Thomson, M A; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Topfel, C; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Traynor, D; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Tripiana, M; Triplett, N; True, P; Tsiakiris, M; Tsuno, S; Tuggle, J; Ünel, G; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vallecorsa, S; Valsan, L; Vandelli, W; Vari, R; Vaz Gil Lopes, L; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J C; Volpi, G; Vorwerk, V; Wagner, P; Wang, M; Warburton, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; White, M; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Winklmeier, F; Woods, K S; Wu, S-L; Wu, X; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Xella, S; Yakovlev, A; Yamazaki, Y; Yang, U; Yasu, Y; Yuan, L; Zaitsev, A; Zanello, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; zur Nedden, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. The information from TileCal's last segmentation layer can assist in muon tagging and it is being considered for a near future upgrade of the level-one trigger, mainly for rejecting triggers due to cavern background at the barrel region. A muon receiver for the TileCal muon signals is being designed in order to interface with the ATLAS level-one trigger. This paper addresses the preliminary studies concerning the muon discrimination capability for the muon receiver. Monte Carlo simulations for single muons from the interaction point were used to study the effectiveness of hadronic calorimeter information on muon detection.

  2. Superconformal Algebraic Approach to Hadron Structure

    CERN Document Server

    de Teramond, Guy F; Deur, Alexandre; Dosch, Hans Gunter; Sufian, Raza Sabbir

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of nonperturbative QCD dynamics which are not obvious from its classical Lagrangian, such as the emergence of a mass scale and confinement, the existence of a zero mass bound state, the appearance of universal Regge trajectories and the breaking of chiral symmetry are incorporated from the onset in an effective theory based on superconformal quantum mechanics and its embedding in a higher dimensional gravitational theory. In addition, superconformal quantum mechanics gives remarkable connections between the light meson and nucleon spectra. This new approach to hadron physics is also suitable to describe nonperturbative QCD observables based on structure functions, such as GPDs, which are not amenable to a first-principle computation. The formalism is also successful in the description of form factors, the nonperturbative behavior of the strong coupling and diffractive processes. We also discuss in this article how the framework can be extended rather successfully to the heavy-light hadron ...

  3. Superconformal Algebraic Approach to Hadron Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Téramond Guy F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental aspects of nonperturbative QCD dynamics which are not obvious from its classical Lagrangian, such as the emergence of a mass scale and confinement, the existence of a zero mass bound state, the appearance of universal Regge trajectories and the breaking of chiral symmetry are incorporated from the onset in an effective theory based on superconformal quantum mechanics and its embedding in a higher dimensional gravitational theory. In addition, superconformal quantum mechanics gives remarkable connections between the light meson and nucleon spectra. This new approach to hadron physics is also suitable to describe nonperturbative QCD observables based on structure functions, such as GPDs, which are not amenable to a first-principle computation. The formalism is also successful in the description of form factors, the nonperturbative behavior of the strong coupling and diffractive processes. We also discuss in this article how the framework can be extended rather successfully to the heavy-light hadron sector.

  4. Future Prospects for Hadron Physics at PANDA

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedner, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new FAIR facility will be the major hadron physics experiment at the end of this decade. It has an ambitious far-reaching physics program that spans the most fascinating topics that are emerging in contemporary hadron physics. The universality of the antiproton annihilation process, with either protons or nuclei as targets, allows physicists to address questions like the structure of glueballs and hybrids; to clarify the nature of the X, Y and Z states; to investigate electromagnetic channels in order to measure form factors of the nucleon; and to provide theory with input with respect to non-perturbative aspects of QCD. The possibility to use different nuclear targets opens the window for charm physics with nuclei or for color transparency studies, as well as for an intensive hypernuclear physics program. Previous experimental experience has clearly demonstrated that the key to success lies in high levels of precision complemented with sophisticated analysis methods, only possible...

  5. Hadronization via coalescence at RHIC and LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minissale V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An hadronization model that includes coalescence and fragmentation is used in this work to obtain predictions at both RHIC and LHC energy for light and strange hadrons transverse momentum spectra (π, p, k, Λ and baryon to meson ratios (p/π, Λ/k in a wide range of pT. This is accomplished without changing coalescence parameters. The ratios p/π and Λ/K shows the right behaviour except for some lack of baryon yield in a limited pT range around 6 GeV. This would indicate that the AKK fragmentation functions is too flat at pT < 8 GeV.

  6. Hadronic vacuum polarization in true muonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Henry

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the theoretical uncertainty in the prediction, the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the hyperfine splitting of true muonium is reevaluated in two ways. A more complex pionic form factor and better estimates of the perturbative QCD contributions are used to study the model dependence of the previous calculation. The second, more accurate method directly integrates the Drell ratio R (s ) to obtain C1 ,HVP=-0.04874 (9 ) . This corresponds to an energy shift in the hyperfine splitting (HFS) of Δ EHFS,HVP μ=-8202 (16 ) MHz and represents a factor-of-50 reduction in the theoretical uncertainty from hadronic sources. We also compute the contribution in positronium, which is too small at present to detect.

  7. Theory of hadronic production of heavy quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.

    1981-07-01

    Conventional theoretical predictions for hadronic production of heavy quarks (Q anti Q) are reviewed and confronted with data. Perturbative hard scattering predictions agree qualitatively well with hidden Q anti Q production (e.g., psi, chi, T) whereas for open Q anti Q-production (e.g., pp ..-->.. ..lambda../sub c//sup +/X) additional mechanisms or inputs are needed to explain the forwardly produced ..lambda../sub c//sup +/ at ISR. It is suggested that the presence of c anti c-pairs on the 1 to 2% level in the hadron Fock state decomposition (intrinsic charm) gives a natural description of the ISR data. The theoretical foundations of the intrinsic charm hypotheses together with its consequences for lepton-induced reactions is discussed in some detail.

  8. Superconformal Algebraic Approach to Hadron Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Teramond, Guy F. [Univ. of Costa Rica, San Pedro (Costa Rica); Brodsky, Stanley J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Deur, Alexandre [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Dosch, Hans Gunter [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretische Physik; Sufian, Raza Sabbir [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Fundamental aspects of nonperturbative QCD dynamics which are not obvious from its classical Lagrangian, such as the emergence of a mass scale and confinement, the existence of a zero mass bound state, the appearance of universal Regge trajectories and the breaking of chiral symmetry are incorporated from the onset in an effective theory based on superconformal quantum mechanics and its embedding in a higher dimensional gravitational theory. In addition, superconformal quantum mechanics gives remarkable connections between the light meson and nucleon spectra. This new approach to hadron physics is also suitable to describe nonperturbative QCD observables based on structure functions, such as GPDs, which are not amenable to a first-principle computation. The formalism is also successful in the description of form factors, the nonperturbative behavior of the strong coupling and diffractive processes. We also discuss in this article how the framework can be extended rather successfully to the heavy-light hadron sector.

  9. Quark-hadron duality: pinched kernel approch

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, C A; Schilcher, K; Spiesberger, H

    2016-01-01

    Hadronic spectral functions measured by the ALEPH collaboration in the vector and axial-vector channels are used to study potential quark-hadron duality violations (DV). This is done entirely in the framework of pinched kernel finite energy sum rules (FESR), i.e. in a model independent fashion. The kinematical range of the ALEPH data is effectively extended up to $s = 10\\; {\\mbox{GeV}^2}$ by using an appropriate kernel, and assuming that in this region the spectral functions are given by perturbative QCD. Support for this assumption is obtained by using $e^+ e^-$ annihilation data in the vector channel. Results in both channels show a good saturation of the pinched FESR, without further need of explicit models of DV.

  10. Exclusive hadronic decays of B mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Andreas

    1991-06-01

    The recent experimental results on exclusive hadronic decays of B mesons obtained by the ARGUS collaboration are presented in the talk. The results include exclusive hadronic decays involving a b → c transition, namely B decays with a D, D ∗ plus several pions and B decays to J/ψ or ψ' mesons plus Kaons have been studied. The measurements of branching ratios for two-body B decays involving a J/ψ or ψ' meson are of wide interest in the light of proposals for the study of CP violation in future experiments. The branching ratios are compared with the predictions of the model of Bauer, Stech and Wirbel and with a model of A.V. Dobrovolskaya. Using the cleanest decay channels, the masses and mass difference of the charged and neutral B meson are obtained. This mass difference is then compared with the mass splitting in other isospinmultipletts and with theoretical models.

  11. Transverse Momentum Correlations in Hadronic Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Bauer, C; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1997-01-01

    Using data obtained with the ALEPH detector at the Z resonance, a measure based on transverse momentum is shown to exhibit a correlation between the two halves of a hadronic event which cannot be explained by energy-momentum conservation, flavour conservation, the imposition of an event axis or imperfect event reconstruction. Two possible explanations based on Monte Carlo models are examined: a) ARIADNE, with the correlation forming early in the parton shower and with the transition from partons to hadrons playing only a minor part; b) JETSET, with the correlation forming at the fragmentation stage. A correlation technique based on a jet cluster analysis is used to make a comparison of the models with the data. It is concluded that both non-perturbative and perturbative effects make important contributions to the observed correlation.

  12. Quark-Hadron Duality in Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wally Melnitchouk; Rolf Ent; Cynthia Keppel

    2004-08-01

    The duality between partonic and hadronic descriptions of physical phenomena is one of the most remarkable features of strong interaction physics. A classic example of this is in electron-nucleon scattering, in which low-energy cross sections, when averaged over appropriate energy intervals, are found to exhibit the scaling behavior expected from perturbative QCD. We present a comprehensive review of data on structure functions in the resonance region, from which the global and local aspects of duality are quantified, including its flavor, spin and nuclear medium dependence. To interpret the experimental findings, we discuss various theoretical approaches which have been developed to understand the microscopic origins of quark-hadron duality in QCD. Examples from other reactions are used to place duality in a broader context, and future experimental and theoretical challenges are identified.

  13. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00304670; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  14. Superconformal Algebraic Approach to Hadron Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Téramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deur, Alexandre; Dosch, Hans Günter; Sufian, Raza Sabbir

    2017-03-01

    Fundamental aspects of nonperturbative QCD dynamics which are not obvious from its classical Lagrangian, such as the emergence of a mass scale and confinement, the existence of a zero mass bound state, the appearance of universal Regge trajectories and the breaking of chiral symmetry are incorporated from the onset in an effective theory based on superconformal quantum mechanics and its embedding in a higher dimensional gravitational theory. In addition, superconformal quantum mechanics gives remarkable connections between the light meson and nucleon spectra. This new approach to hadron physics is also suitable to describe nonperturbative QCD observables based on structure functions, such as GPDs, which are not amenable to a first-principle computation. The formalism is also successful in the description of form factors, the nonperturbative behavior of the strong coupling and diffractive processes. We also discuss in this article how the framework can be extended rather successfully to the heavy-light hadron sector.

  15. Hadron muoproduction at the COMPASS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajotte, Jean-Francois

    2010-09-30

    The COMPASS Collaboration has two main fields of interest: to improve our knowledge of the nucleon spin structure and to study hadrons through spectroscopy. These goals require a multipurpose universal spectrometer such as the COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy, COMPASS. In its first years of data taking (2002-2007), the nucleon spin structure was studied with a polarized muon beam scattering off a polarized target. These studies resumed in 2010 and will continue until at least 2011. The years 2008 and 2009 were dedicated to hadron spectroscopy using hadron beams. In the case of the nucleon structure studies, it is crucial to detect with high precision the incoming beam muon (160 GeV), the scattered muon and the produced hadrons. The large amount of high quality data accumulated provides access to the unpolarized and polarized parton distributions of the nucleon and the hadronization process. Subtle differences (asymmetries) between polarized cross sections have been predicted for hadron production from polarized muon-nucleon interaction for COMPASS. It is based on these differences that the polarized parton distributions can be measured. In this context, it is important to first compare predictions with the gross features of the measured unpolarized semi-inclusive differential cross sections or the closely related differential multiplicities. In order to determine cross sections, the data has to be corrected for the acceptance of the spectrometer. In this thesis, a multidimensional acceptance correction method, based on Monte Carlo simulation, is developed and applied to the data measured in 2004. The method is first used to determine the inclusive muon-nucleon cross section which is compared with a global fit to world data. This serves as a test of the acceptance correction method and to verify if the results from previous experiments can be reproduced. Then, unpolarized differential multiplicities as a function of transverse momentum

  16. Unraveling hadron structure with generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei Belitsky; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2004-10-01

    The recently introduced generalized parton distributions have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. They combine the features of form factors, parton densities and distribution amplitudes - the functions used for a long time in studies of hadronic structure. Generalized parton distributions are analogous to the phase-space Wigner quasi-probability function of non-relativistic quantum mechanics which encodes full information on a quantum-mechanical system. We give an extensive review of main achievements in the development of this formalism. We discuss physical interpretation and basic properties of generalized parton distributions, their modeling and QCD evolution in the leading and next-to-leading orders. We describe how these functions enter a wide class of exclusive reactions, such as electro- and photo-production of photons, lepton pairs, or mesons.

  17. 1st Large Hadron Collider Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Juste, A; Martínez, M; Riu, I; Sorin, V

    2013-01-01

    The conference is the result of merging two series of international conferences, "Physics at Large Hadron Collider" (PLHC2012) and "Hadron Collider Physics Symposium" (HCP2012). With a program devoted to topics such as the Standard Model and Beyond, the Higgs Boson, Supersymmetry, Beauty and Heavy Ion Physics, the conference aims at providing a lively forum for discussion between experimenters and theorists of the latest results and of new ideas. LHCP 2013 will be hosted by IFAE (Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies) in Barcelona (Spain), and will take place from May 13 to 18, 2013. The venue will be the Hotel Catalonia Plaza, Plaza España (Barcelona). More information will be posted soon. For questions, please contact lhcp2013@ifae.es.

  18. The Large Hadron Collider Pop Up Book

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Discover the ATLAS experiment in full 3D pop-up in this promotional video for the Large Hadron Collider pop-up book. The book contains 16 pop-ups telling the story of how the experiment works and its quest to understand what the universe is made of. It is now available in English, French and German. Paper engineer Anton Radevsky, texts Emma Sanders.

  19. Direct CP violation in hadronic B decays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Bihai; L(U) Caidian

    2006-01-01

    There are different approaches for the hadronic B decay calculations, recently. In this paper, we upgrade three of them, namely factorization, QCD factorization and the perturbative QCD approach based on kT factorization, using new parameters and full wave functions. Although they get similar results for many of the branching ratios,the direct CP asymmetries predicted by them are different, which can be tested by recent experimental measurements of B factories.

  20. $\\tau$ hadronic branching ratios at DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Humble, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Using data collected in the DELPHI detector at LEP1, we have measured the exclusive branching ratios in modes with several hadrons. Both classical cuts and neural network methods have been performed to make the best use of the DELPHI neutral particle identification capability. In addition, a measurement of inclusive branching ratios for tau decays containing one or three charged particles has been performed. (4 refs).

  1. Hadron Physics in BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafferty, G.D.; /Manchester U.

    2005-08-29

    Some recent results in hadron physics from the BaBar experiment are discussed. In particular, the observation of two new charmed states, the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2317) and the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2457), is described, and results are presented on the first measurement of the rare decay mode of the B meson, B{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}.

  2. Light-quark decays in heavy hadrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Faller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. These decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays may be interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.

  3. Hadronic Vacuum Polarization in True Muonium

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Henry

    2016-01-01

    The leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the hyperfine splitting of true muonium is reevaluated in two ways. The first considers a more complex pionic form factor and better estimates of the perturbative QCD contributions. The second, more accurate method directly integrates the Drell ratio $R(s)$ to obtain $C_{1,\\rm hvp}=-0.0489(3)$. This corresponds to an energy shift in the hyperfine splitting of $\\Delta E^\\mu_{hfs,\\rm hvp}=276196(51)$ MHz.

  4. Forward hadron production at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itow Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of ultra high energy cosmic rays by extensive air showers rely on correct modeling of hadronic interaction in the forward region at very high energy. Recent new data from the LHC, especially for forward particle production, are important for a precise understanding of air shower development. In this article recent forward production data from p-p, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC are reviewed.

  5. Search for hadronic b yields u decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, H.; Glaeser, R.; Harder, G.; Krueger, A.; Nilsson, A.W.; Nippe, A.; Oest, T.; Reidenbach, M.; Schaefer, M.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Schulz, H.D.; Sefkow, F.; Wurth, R. (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany, F.R.)); Appuhn, R.D.; Drescher, A.; Hast, C.; Herrera, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Scheck, H.; Schweda, G.; Spaan, B.; Walther, A.; Wegener, D. (Dortmund Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik); Paulini, M.; Reim, K.; Volland, U.; Wegener, H. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Funk, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik); Ball, S.; Gabriel, J.C.; Geyer, C.; Hoelscher, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holzer, B.; Khan, S.; Spengler, J. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Charlesworth, C.E.K.; Krieger, P.; Kutschke, R.; Orr, R.S.; Parsons, J.A.; Prentice, J.D.; Seidel, S.C.; Swain, J.D.; Yoon, T.S. (; ARGUS Collaboration

    1990-05-10

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e{sup +}e{sup -} storgage ring DORIS II at DESY, we searched for b{yields}u transitions in exclusive hadronic B meson decays. A systematic analysis of B decays into pions has been performed for decay modes with 2-7 pions in the final state. In none of the decays a positive signal was observed. The upper limits obtained on various branching ratios are consistent with the current model predictions. (orig.).

  6. Search for hadronic b-->u decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, H.; Gläser, R.; Harder, G.; Krüger, A.; Nilsson, A. W.; Nippe, A.; Oest, T.; Reidenbach, M.; Schäfer, M.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Sefkow, F.; Wurth, R.; Appuhn, R. D.; Drescher, A.; Hast, C.; Herrera, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Scheck, H.; Schweda, G.; Spaan, B.; Walther, A.; Wegener, D.; Paulini, M.; Reim, K.; Volland, U.; Wegener, H.; Funk, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ball, S.; Gabriel, J. C.; Geyer, C.; Hölscher, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holzer, B.; Khan, S.; Spengler, J.; Charlesworth, C. E. K.; Edwards, K. W.; Frisken, W. R.; Kapitza, H.; Krieger, P.; Kutschke, R.; Macfarlene, D. B.; McLean, K. W.; Orr, R. S.; Parsons, J. A.; Patel, P. M.; Prentice, J. D.; Seidel, S. C.; Swain, J. D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tzamariudaki, K.; Yoon, T.-S.; Ruf, T.; Schael, S.; Schubert, K. R.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.; Boštjančič, B.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Cronström, H. I.; Jönsson, L.; Babaev, A.; Danilo, M.; Fominykh, B.; Golutvin, A.; Gorelov, I.; Lubimov, V.; Rostovtsev, A.; Semenov, A.; Semenov, S.; Shevchenko, V.; Soloshenko, V.; Tchistilin, V.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Childers, R.; Darden, C. W.; Argus Collaboration

    1990-05-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e +e - storage ring DORIS II at DESY, we searched for b→u transitions in exclusive hadronic B meson decays. A systematic analysis of B decays into pions has been performed for decay modes with 2-7 pions in the final state. In none of the decays a positive signal was observed. The upper limits obtained on various branching ratios are consistent with the current model predictions.

  7. Local multiplicity fluctuations in hadronic Z decay

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chekanov, S V; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hong, S J; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Lacentre, P E; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lavorato, A; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Migani, D; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Oh, Yu D; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palit, S; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rind, O; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1998-01-01

    Local multiplicity fluctuations in hadronic Z decays are studied using the L3 detector at LEP. Bunching parameters are used for the first time in addition to the normalised factorial moment method. The bunching parameters directly demonstrate that the fluctuations in rapidity are multifractal. Monte Carlo models show overall agreement with the data, reproducing the trend, although not always the magnitude, of the factorial moments and bunching parameters.

  8. On Some New Ideas in Hadron Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We shortly review a series of novel ideas on the physics of hadrons and nuclear matter. Despite being vastly different in scope and content, these models share a common attribute, in that they offer unconventional viewpoints on infrared QCD and nuclear phenomena. In a sense, they are reminiscent of the plethora of formulations that have been developed over the years on classical gravitation: many seemingly disparate approaches can be effectively used to describe and explore the same physics.

  9. Large Hadron Collider commissioning and first operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S

    2012-02-28

    A history of the commissioning and the very successful early operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The accident that interrupted the first commissioning, its repair and the enhanced protection system put in place are fully described. The LHC beam commissioning and operational performance are reviewed for the period from 2010 to mid-2011. Preliminary plans for operation and future upgrades for the LHC are given for the short and medium term.

  10. Physics with hadronic probes at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Ketzer, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and goals of the spectroscopy programme of COMPASS using hadron beams, and reports on first results from a short pilot run using a 190 GeV/c pion beam, carried out in 2004. A partial wave analysis of the reaction $\\pi^{−}N\\rightarrow\\pi^{-}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{+}N'$ shows significant production of a state with spin-exotic quantum numbers $J^{PC} =$ 1$^{−+}$ at 1.6GeV/c$^{2}$.

  11. Energy loss, hadronization and hadronic interactions of heavy flavors in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shanshan; Bass, Steffen A

    2015-01-01

    We construct a theoretical framework to describe the evolution of heavy flavors produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is described using our modified Langevin equation that incorporates both quasi-elastic scatterings and the medium-induced gluon radiation. The space-time profiles of the fireball is described by a (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics simulation. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is utilized for heavy quark hadronization, after which the produced heavy mesons together with the soft hadrons produced from the bulk QGP are fed into the hadron cascade UrQMD model to simulate the subsequent hadronic interactions. We find that the medium-induced gluon radiation contributes significantly to heavy quark energy loss at high $p_\\mathrm{T}$; heavy-light quark coalescence enhances heavy meson production at intermediate $p_\\mathrm{T}$; and scatterings inside the hadron gas further suppress the $D$ meson $R_\\mathrm{AA}$ at large $p_\\mathrm{T}$ and e...

  12. Colored-hadron distribution in hadron scattering in SU(2) lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Toru T

    2016-01-01

    In color SU(2) lattice QCD, we investigate colored-diquark distributions in two-hadron scatterings by means of Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes on the lattice. With colored-diquark operators in the Coulomb gauge, we measure components of two colored diquarks realized as intermediate states via one gluon exchange (OGE) processes in hadron scattering. From the colored-diquark distributions, we estimate the dominant range of gluon (color) exchanges between closely located two hadrons. We find that the colored-diquark components are enhanced at the short range ($\\leq$0.2 fm) and their tails show the single-exponential damping. In order to distinguish the genuine colored-diquark components originating in the color exchange processes from trivial colored two-quark components contained in two color-singlet hadrons as a result of simple transformation of hadronic basis, we repeat the analyses on the artificially constructed gauge fields, where low- and high-momentum gluon components are decoupled and only restricted pair of...

  13. First Half Of CMS Hadron Calorimeter Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CMS HCAL electronics coordinator John Elias from Fermilab inspecting the assembled first half of the calorimeter. The first half barrel of the CMS hadron calorimeter was completed last month and assembly work on the elements of the second half commenced just last week. This is not a simple task considering the fact that the constructed half-barrel consists of eighteen 30 tonne segments each made with 0.15 mm tolerance. But through the work of everyone on the CMS hadron calorimeter team it is all moving forward. In the LHC, detection of particles produced in collisions of two proton beams requires measurement of their energy. To do this, the particle energy has to be changed into a form that can be easily measured. This is achieved by stopping the initial particles in a dense medium, where they create a shower of secondary particles. While particles that interact through electromagnetic forces (electrons and positrons) create relatively small showers, the size of showers created by hadrons, particles that i...

  14. Emergent phenomena and partonic structure in hadrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Craig D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern facilities are poised to tackle fundamental questions within the Standard Model, aiming to reveal the nature of confinement, its relationship to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB – the origin of visible mass – and the connection between these two, key emergent phenomena. There is strong evidence to suggest that they are intimately connected with the appearance of momentum-dependent masses for gluons and quarks in QCD, which are large in the infrared: mg ~ 500MeV and Mq ~ 350MeV. DCSB, expressed in the dynamical generation of a dressed-quark mass, has an enormous variety of verifiable consequences, including an enigmatic result that the properties of the (almost massless pion are the cleanest expression of the mechanism which is responsible for almost all the visible mass in the Universe. This contribution explains that these emergent phenomena are expressed with particular force in the partonic structure of hadrons, e.g. in valence-quark parton distribution amplitudes and functions, and, consequently, in numerous hadronic observables, so that we are now in a position to exhibit the consequences of confinement and DCSB in a wide range of hadron observables, opening the way to empirical verification of their expression in the Standard Model.

  15. Optimizing integrated luminosity of future hadron colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Benedikt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The integrated luminosity, a key figure of merit for any particle-physics collider, is closely linked to the peak luminosity and to the beam lifetime. The instantaneous peak luminosity of a collider is constrained by a number of boundary conditions, such as the available beam current, the maximum beam-beam tune shift with acceptable beam stability and reasonable luminosity lifetime (i.e., the empirical “beam-beam limit”, or the event pileup in the physics detectors. The beam lifetime at high-luminosity hadron colliders is largely determined by particle burn off in the collisions. In future highest-energy circular colliders synchrotron radiation provides a natural damping mechanism, which can be exploited for maximizing the integrated luminosity. In this article, we derive analytical expressions describing the optimized integrated luminosity, the corresponding optimum store length, and the time evolution of relevant beam parameters, without or with radiation damping, while respecting a fixed maximum value for the total beam-beam tune shift or for the event pileup in the detector. Our results are illustrated by examples for the proton-proton luminosity of the existing Large Hadron Collider (LHC at its design parameters, of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC, and of the Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh.

  16. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Pavol; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter have been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations o...

  17. Ntuples for NLO Events at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Z.; Febres Cordero, F.; Höche, S.; Ita, H.; Kosower, D.A.; Maitre, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present an event-file format for the dissemination of next-to-leading-order (NLO) predictions for QCD processes at hadron colliders. The files contain all information required to compute generic jet-based infrared-safe observables at fixed order (without showering or hadronization), and to recompute observables with different factorization and renormalization scales. The files also make it possible to evaluate cross sections and distributions with different parton distribution functions. This in turn makes it possible to estimate uncertainties in NLO predictions of a wide variety of observables without recomputing the short-distance matrix elements. The event files allow a user to choose among a wide range of commonly-used jet algorithms and jet-size parameters. We provide event files for a $W$ or $Z$ boson accompanied by up to four jets, and for pure-jet events with up to four jets. The files are for the Large Hadron Collider with a center of mass energy of 7 or 8 TeV. A C++ library along with a Python in...

  18. Analysis of hadron yield data within hadron resonance gas model with multi-component eigenvolume corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Vovchenko, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the sensitivity of thermal fits to heavy-ion hadron yield data of ALICE and NA49 collaborations to the systematic uncertainties in the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model related to the modeling of the eigenvolume interactions. We find a surprisingly large sensitivity in extraction of chemical freeze-out parameters to the assumptions regarding eigenvolumes of different hadrons. We additionally study the effect of including yields of light nuclei into the thermal fits to LHC data and find even larger sensitivity to the modeling of their eigenvolumes. The inclusion of light nuclei yields, thus, may lead to further destabilization of thermal fits. Our results show that modeling of eigenvolume interactions plays a crucial role in thermodynamics of HRG and that conclusions based on a non-interacting HRG are not unique.

  19. Forward gluon production in hadron-hadron scattering with Pomeron loops

    CERN Document Server

    Iancu, E; Soyez, G

    2006-01-01

    We discuss new physical phenomena expected in particle production in hadron-hadron collisions at high energy, as a consequence of Pomeron loop effects in the evolution equations for the Color Glass Condensate. We focus on gluon production in asymmetric, `dilute-dense', collisions : a dilute projectile scatters off a dense hadronic target, whose gluon distribution is highly evolved. This situation is representative for particle production in proton-proton collisions at forward rapidities (say, at LHC) and admits a dipole factorization similar to that of deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We show that at sufficiently large forward rapidities, where the Pomeron loop effects become important in the evolution of the target wavefunction, gluon production is dominated by `black spots' (saturated gluon configurations) up to very large values of the transverse momentum, well above the average saturation momentum in the target. In this regime, the produced gluon spectrum exhibits diffusive scaling, so like DIS at suffici...

  20. Hadron Production in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, Hans Georg; Xu, Nu

    2009-05-19

    Heavy ion collisions are an ideal tool to explore the QCD phase diagram. The goal is to study the equation of state (EOS) and to search for possible in-medium modifications of hadrons. By varying the collision energy a variety of regimes with their specific physics interest can be studied. At energies of a few GeV per nucleon, the regime where experiments were performed first at the Berkeley Bevalac and later at the Schwer-Ionen-Synchrotron (SIS) at GSI in Darmstadt, we study the equation of state of dense nuclear matter and try to identify in-medium modifications of hadrons. Towards higher energies, the regime of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the Super-Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN, and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, we expect to produce a new state of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). The physics goal is to identify the QGP and to study its properties. By varying the energy, different forms of matter are produced. At low energies we study dense nuclear matter, similar to the type of matter neutron stars are made of. As the energy is increased the main constituents of the matter will change. Baryon excitations will become more prevalent (resonance matter). Eventually we produce deconfined partonic matter that is thought to be in the core of neutron stars and that existed in the early universe. At low energies a great variety of collective effects is observed and a rather good understanding of the particle production has been achieved, especially that of the most abundantly produced pions and kaons. Many observations can be interpreted as time-ordered emission of various particle species. It is possible to determine, albeit model dependent, the equation of state of nuclear matter. We also have seen indications, that the kaon mass, especially the mass of the K{sup +}, might be modified by the medium created in heavy ion collisions. At AGS energies and above, emphasis shifts towards

  1. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelfke, Uwe

    Proton therapy is one of the most rapidly developing new treatment technologies in radiation oncology. This treatment approach has — after roughly 40 years of technical developments — reached a mature state that allows a widespread clinical application. We therefore review the basic physical and radio-biological properties of proton beams. The main physical aspect is the elemental dose distribution arising from an infinitely narrow proton pencil beam. This includes the physics of proton stopping powers and the concept of CSDA range. Furthermore, the process of multiple Coulomb scattering is discussed for the lateral dose distribution. Next, the basic terms for the description of radio-biological properties of proton beams like LET and RBE are briefly introduced. Finally, the main concepts of modern proton dose delivery concepts are introduced before the standard method of inverse treatment planning for hadron therapy is presented.

  2. Antiproton therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Knudsen, Helge V; Bassler, Niels; Alsner, Jan; Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen; DeMarco, John J; Doser, Michael; Hajdukovic, Dragan; Hartley, Oliver; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; Jäkel, Oliver; Kovacevic, Sandra; Møller, Søren Pape; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B; Ratib, Osman; Solberg, Timothy D; Vranjes, Sanja; Wouters, Bradly G

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most important means we have for the treatment of localised tumours. It is therefore essential to optimize the technique, and a lot of effort goes into this endeavour. Since the proposal by Wilson in 1946 [R.R. Wilson, Radiology use of fast protons, Radiology 47 (1946) 487.] that proton beams might be better than photon beams at inactivating cancer cells, hadron therapy has been developed in parallel with photon therapy and a substantial knowledge has been gained on the effects of pions, protons and heavy ions (mostly carbon ions). Here we discuss the recent measurements by the CERN ACE collaboration of the biological effects of antiprotons, and argue that these particles very likely are the optimal agents for radiotherapy.

  3. First Considerations on Beam Optics and Lattice Design for the Future Hadron-Hadron Collider FCC

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany Fernandez, R

    2014-01-01

    The present document explains the steps carried out in order to make the first design of the Future Hadron-Hadron Collider (FCC-hh) following the base line parameters that can be found in [1]. Two lattice layouts are presented, a ring collider with 12 arcs and 12 straight sections, four of them designed as interaction points, and a racetrack like collider with two arcs and two straight sections, each of them equipped with two interaction points. The lattice design presented in the paper is modular allowing the same modules be used for both layouts. The present document addresses as well the beta star reach at the interaction points.

  4. Quarkonium+{gamma} production in coherent hadron-hadron interactions at LHC energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, V.P. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Caixa Postal 354, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Machado, M.M. [IF - Farroupilha, Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Sao Borja, RS (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    In this paper we study the H+{gamma} (H=J/{Psi} and and upsilon;) production in coherent hadron-hadron interactions at LHC energies. Considering the ultrarelativistic protons as a source of photons, we estimate the {gamma}+p{yields}H+{gamma}+X cross section using the non-relativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization formalism and considering different sets of values for the matrix elements. Our results for the total p+p{yields}p+H+{gamma}+X cross sections and rapidity distributions at {radical}(s) = 7 and 14 TeV demonstrate that the experimental analysis of the J/{Psi}+{gamma} production at LHC is feasible. (orig.)

  5. Updates on the optics of the future hadron-hadron collider FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    Chance, Antoine; Dalena, Barbara; Holzer, Bernhard; Langner, Andy Sven; Schulte, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The FCC-hh (Future Hadron-Hadron Circular Collider) is one of the three options considered for the next generation accelerator in high-energy physics as recommended by the European Strategy Group. The layout of FCC-hh has been optimized to a more compact design following recommendations from civil engineering aspects. The updates on the first order and second order optics of the ring will be shown for collisions at the required centre-of-mass energy of 100 TeV. Special emphasis is put on the dispersion suppressors and general beam cleaning sections as well as first considerations of injection and extraction sections.

  6. Dissipative properties of hot and dense hadronic matter in excluded volume hadron resonance gas model

    CERN Document Server

    Kadam, Guru Prakash

    2015-01-01

    We estimate dissipative properties viz: shear and bulk viscosities of hadronic matter using rel- ativistic Boltzmann equation in relaxation time approximation within ambit of excluded volume hadron resonance gas (EHRG) model. We find that at zero baryon chemical potential the shear viscosity to entropy ratio ({\\eta}/s) decreases with temperature and reaches very close to Kovtun-Son- Starinets (KSS) bound. At sufficiently large baryon chemical potential this ratio shows same behav- ior as a function of temperature but goes below KSS bound. We further find that along chemical freezout line {\\eta}/s increases monotonically while the bulk viscosity to entropy ratio ({\\zeta}/s) decreases monotonically.

  7. Study of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alpat, B.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Antreasyan, D.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Banicz, K.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Bartalini, P.; Baschirotto, A.; Basile, M.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Boucham, A.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Branson, J. G.; Brigljevic, V.; Brock, I. C.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X. D.; Campanelli, M.; Capell, M.; Romeo, G. Cara; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chan, A.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colijn, A. P.; Colino, N.; Commichau, V.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de La Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; de Boeck, H.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Denes, P.; Denotaristefani, F.; Dibitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; di Lodovico, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dorne, I.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Dutta, S.; Easo, S.; Efremenko, Yu.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Ernenwein, J. P.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Faccini, R.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Fenyi, B.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gau, S. S.; Gentile, S.; Gerald, J.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldstein, J.; Gong, Z. F.; Gougas, A.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Hartmann, B.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S. R.; Hu, G.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jenkes, K.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamrad, D.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kirkby, J.; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Korolko, I.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krenz, W.; Kuijten, H.; Kunin, A.; de Guevara, P. Ladron; Landi, G.; Lapoint, C.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurikainen, P.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, K. Y.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Leonardi, E.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Lieb, E.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, W.; Lu, Y. S.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mangla, S.; Marchesini, P.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; McNally, D.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; von der Mey, M.; Mi, Y.; Mihul, A.; van Mil, A. J. W.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Molnar, P.; Monteleoni, B.; Moore, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulik, T.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Muheim, F.; Nagy, E.; Nahn, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nippe, A.; Nisati, A.; Nowak, H.; Opitz, H.; Organtini, G.; Ostonen, R.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Park, H. K.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Peach, D.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petrak, S.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Pinto, J. C.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Produit, N.; Prokofiev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; van Rhee, T.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Ro, S.; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Romero, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosselet, Ph.; van Rossum, W.; Roth, S.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. E.; Sarkar, S.; Sassowsky, M.; Sauvage, G.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Scholz, N.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Sciarrino, D.; Sens, J. C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shukla, J.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Sopczak, A.; Soulimov, V.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stone, H.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Strauch, K.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Susinno, G. F.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Tang, X. W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tully, C.; Tuchscherer, H.; Tung, K. L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; van de Walle, R. T.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vivargent, M.; Völkert, R.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, A.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wu, S. X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xu, J.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yao, X. Y.; Ye, J. B.; Yeh, S. C.; You, J. M.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, G. Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zichichi, A.; Ziegler, F.

    1997-02-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69+/-0.07 (stat.)+/-0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40+/-17% of the produced mesons are light-flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the π0 multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays.

  8. Hadronic modeling of TeV AGN: gammas and neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Cerruti, M; Emery, G; Guarin, D

    2016-01-01

    Blazar emission models are usually divided into two big families, leptonic and hadronic, according to the particles which are responsible for the gamma-ray component of their spectral energy distributions. Even though leptonic models have been successful in explaining the gamma-ray emission from most blazars, hadronic models still present an intriguing alternative. They have the unique advantage to link the emission of photons, neutrinos, and cosmic rays from the astrophysical source. We have developed a stationary one-zone lepto-hadronic code to model the emission from blazars in both leptonic and hadronic scenarios. In this contribution we focus on hadronic modeling of a few selected TeV blazars of the BL Lac type and the radio galaxy Centaurus A detected by Cherenkov telescopes. We study in particular their associated neutrino emission, for different hadronic scenarios, and how it compares to the sensitivity of current neutrino detectors.

  9. Scattering and stopping of hadrons in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    It was observed, in the 180 litre xenon bubble chamber, that when hadrons with kinetic energy higher than the pion production threshold fall on a layer of nuclear matter - on an atomic nucleus in other words - in many cases they can pass through it without causing particles production but they are deflected through some deflection angles; if the energy is lower than a few GeV and the nuclear matter layer is thick enough, the hadrons can be stopped in it. The amount of the deflection at a given incident hadron energy varies with the way the hadron strikes the atomic nucleus; the probability of the occurrence of stopping depends on the incident hadron identity and energy, and on the way the hadron passed through the nucleus, as well.

  10. Hadron energy response of the ICAL detector at INO

    CERN Document Server

    Devi, Moon Moon; Kaur, Daljeet; Mohan, Lakshmi S; Choubey, Sandhya; Dighe, Amol; Indumathi, D; Kumar, Sanjeev; Murthy, M V N; Naimuddin, Md

    2013-01-01

    We present results of a Monte Carlo simulation study of the hadron energy response (for 1 GeV $\\leq$ E $\\leq$ 15 GeV) of the magnetized iron calorimeter detector, ICAL, proposed to be located at the India-based Neutrino Observatory. Using a GEANT4 modeling of the ICAL, interactions of atmospheric neutrinos with target nuclei are recorded. We discuss a method of calibration of the hadron energy using the hadron hit multiplicity in the active detector element. We first study the detector response with single pions propagating through the detector. Then the average response of hadrons produced in atmospheric neutrino interactions is analyzed using NUANCE-generated neutrino events. The shape of the distribution and an appropriate fitting function are examined in detail. Finally, the hadron energy resolution is determined as a function of energy. We find an energy resolution of around (60--40)$%$ for hadron energies in the range 2--15 GeV.

  11. Study of the Weak Charged Hadronic Current in b Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69$\\pm$0.07(stat.)$\\pm$0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40$\\pm$17\\% of the produced mesons are light--flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the $\\pi^0$ multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays. \\end{abstract}

  12. The thermodynamics of heavy light hadrons at freezeout

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sayantan

    2014-01-01

    In the discussion of hadronization at or close to the freeze-out curve statistical (hadron resonance gas) models play an important role. In particular, in the charmonium sector, regeneration models are considered which rely on the fact that charmonium states can form again already at temperatures well above the QCD transition or hadronization temperature. An important ingredient in these considerations is the regeneration or hadronization of open charm states. In this talk we report on a lattice QCD analysis of correlations of open strange and charm with other conserved quantum numbers like the net baryon number and electric charge. We analyze the temperature range in which an uncorrelated hadron resonance gas (HRG) provides an adequate description of such correlations. This limits the range of validity of HRG based thermodynamics in open flavor channels and provides an estimate for the melting temperature of heavy-light hadrons.

  13. Instantons and Spin-Flavor effects in Hadron Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kochelev, N I

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the role of instantons in the spectroscopy of ordinary and exotic hadrons as well as in high energy reactions. We argue that the instanton induced flavor- and spin-dependent quark-quark and quark-gluon interactions can explain many features of the hadron spectrum. The observed anomalous spin and flavor effects in various reactions with hadrons can also be understood within the instanton model for QCD vacuum.

  14. Quark-hadron phase transition in massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atazadeh, K.

    2016-11-01

    We study the quark-hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark-hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately 10 μs after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.

  15. Proton Spin Structure Functions and Quark-Hadron Duality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yu-Bing

    2006-01-01

    @@ Quark-hadron duality of three proton spin structure functions g1, g2 and gT are discussed simultaneously. It is found that the onsets of the quark-hadron dualities of g1p, g2p and g3p are similar and they are expected to be at about Q2 ~ 2 GeV2. In addition, our results show that the elastic peak remarkably breaks local quark-hadron duality.

  16. Quark–hadron phase transition in massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atazadeh, K., E-mail: atazadeh@azaruniv.ac.ir

    2016-11-15

    We study the quark–hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark–hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately 10 μs after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.

  17. A precise measurement of the average b hadron lifetime

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Meinhard, H; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stierlin, U; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Duarte, H; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Si Mohand, D; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    An improved measurement of the average b hadron lifetime is performed using a sample of 1.5 million hadronic Z decays, collected during the 1991-1993 runs of ALEPH, with the silicon vertex detector fully operational. This uses the three-dimensional impact parameter distribution of lepton tracks coming from semileptonic b decays and yields an average b hadron lifetime of 1.533 \\pm 0.013 \\pm 0.022 ps.

  18. A hadron calorimeter with scintillators parallel to the beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, V.; Goncharov, P.; Gorin, A.; Gurzhiev, A.; Dyshkant, A.; Evdokimov, V.; Kolosov, V.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Yu.; Kostritskii, A.; Krinitsyn, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Podstavkov, V.; Polyakov, V.; Shtannikov, A.; Tereschenko, S.; Turchanovich, L.; Zaichenko, A.

    1997-02-01

    A hadron calorimeter in which scintillators are arranged nearly parallel to the incident particle direction and light is collected by optical fibres with WLS, has been built. The iron absorber plates are of the tapered shape to fit a barrel structure of the collider geometry. The performance of the calorimeter studied with hadron beam is presented as a function of tilt angle without and with electromagnetic calorimeter in front of the hadron one.

  19. A hadron calorimeter with scintillators parallel to the beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, V.; Goncharov, P.; Gorin, A.; Gurzhiev, A.; Dyshkant, A.; Evdokimov, V.; Kolosov, V.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Yu.; Kostritskii, A.; Krinitsyn, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Podstavkov, V.; Polyakov, V.; Shtannikov, A.; Tereschenko, S.; Turchanovich, L.; Zaichenko, A. [Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Protvino (Russian Federation)

    1997-08-11

    A hadron calorimeter in which scintillators are arranged nearly parallel to the incident particle direction and light is collected by optical fibres with WLS, has been built. The iron absorber plates are of the tapered shape to fit a barrel structure of the collider geometry. The performance of the calorimeter studied with hadron beam is presented as a function of tilt angle without and with electromagnetic calorimeter in front of the hadron one. (orig.).

  20. The MICOR hadronization model with final state interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, P

    2002-01-01

    Final state interactions on the hadron spectra obtained from the MIcroscopic COalescence Rehadronization (MICOR) model are investigated. MICOR generates baryon and meson resonances in an out- of-equilibrium distribution, directly from quark matter. At the next step, resonances decay into stable hadrons by the JETSET event generator. The final state interactions are simulated using a hadronic cascade, with initial momentum distributions given by MICOR. For the initial space distributions, two simple models are applied and compared. (12 refs).

  1. An Experimental Review on Elliptic Flow of Strange and Multistrange Hadrons in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusu Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strange hadrons, especially multistrange hadrons, are good probes for the early partonic stage of heavy ion collisions due to their small hadronic cross sections. In this paper, I give a brief review on the elliptic flow measurements of strange and multistrange hadrons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC and Large Hadron Collider (LHC.

  2. Measurement of the average lifetime of b hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A. L.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelescu, T.; Antonov, L.; Antreasyan, D.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Atamanchuk, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P. V. K. S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J. A.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Bao, J.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Baschirotto, A.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Bechtluft, J.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Behrens, J.; Bencze, Gy. L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J. J.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Bosetti, M.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Bouwens, B.; Brambilla, E.; Branson, J. G.; Brock, I. C.; Brooks, M.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Castello, R.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, W. Y.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Chung, S.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coan, T. E.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Contin, A.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; Cui, X. T.; Cui, X. Y.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Dénes, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; Dhina, M.; DiBitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; Dimitrov, H. R.; Dionisi, C.; Ditmarr, M.; Djambazov, L.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Easo, S.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Extermann, P.; Fabbretti, R.; Fabre, M.; Falciano, S.; Fan, S. J.; Fackler, O.; Fay, J.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Fernandez, G.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Friebel, W.; Fukushima, M.; Gailloud, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gallo, E.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gele, D.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Gonzalez, E.; Gougas, A.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M.; Gu, C.; Guanziroli, M.; Guo, J. K.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gustafson, H. R.; Gutay, L. J.; Hangarter, K.; Hartmann, B.; Hasan, A.; Hauschildt, D.; He, C. F.; He, J. T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, M.; Hervé, A.; Hilgers, K.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hu, G.; Hu, G. Q.; Ille, B.; Ilyas, M. M.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jezequel, S.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapinos, P.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Khokhar, S.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kirsch, S.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Klöckner, R.; König, A. C.; Koffeman, E.; Kornadt, O.; Koutsenko, V.; Koulbardis, A.; Kraemer, R. W.; Kramer, T.; Krastev, V. R.; Krenz, W.; Krivshich, A.; Kuijten, H.; Kumar, K. S.; Kunin, A.; Landi, G.; Lanske, D.; Lanzano, S.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, K. Y.; Leedom, I.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Li, C.; Li, H. T.; Li, P. J.; Liao, J. Y.; Lin, W. T.; Lin, Z. Y.; Linde, F. L.; Lindemann, B.; Lista, L.; Liu, Y.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Lubbers, J. M.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Ludovici, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, J. M.; Ma, W. G.; MacDermott, M.; Malik, R.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Maolinbay, M.; Marchesini, P.; Marion, F.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; Mazumdar, K.; McBride, P.; McMahon, T.; McNally, D.; Merk, M.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mi, Y.; Mihul, A.; Mills, G. B.; Mir, Y.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Monteleoni, B.; Morand, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulai, N. E.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Nadtochy, A.; Nagy, E.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Neyer, C.; Niaz, M. A.; Nippe, A.; Nowak, H.; Organtini, G.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Perrier, J.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Plasil, F.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Qi, Z. D.; Qian, J. M.; Qureshi, K. N.; Raghavan, R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Ricker, A.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Rizvi, H. A.; Ro, S.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Röhner, M.; Romero, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosmalen, R.; Rosselet, Ph.; van Rossum, W.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Salicio, J.; Salicio, J. M.; Sanders, G. S.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. S.; Sartorelli, G.; Sassowsky, M.; Sauvage, G.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Shotkin, S.; Schreiber, H. J.; Shukla, J.; Schulte, R.; Schulte, S.; Schultze, K.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Scott, I.; Sehgal, R.; Seiler, P. G.; Sens, J. C.; Servoli, L.; Sheer, I.; Shen, D. Z.; Shevchenko, S.; Shi, X. R.; Shumilov, E.; Shoutko, V.; Son, D.; Sopczak, A.; Soulimov, V.; Spartiotis, C.; Spickermann, T.; Spillantini, P.; Starosta, R.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Sticozzi, F.; Stone, H.; Strauch, K.; Stringfellow, B. C.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Susinno, G. F.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Syed, A. A.; Tang, X. W.; Taylor, L.; Terzi, G.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Urbán, L.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vikas, P.; Vikas, U.; Vivargent, M.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vuilleumier, L.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, C. R.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z. M.; Warner, C.; Weber, A.; Weber, J.; Weill, R.; Wenaus, T. J.; Wenninger, J.; White, M.; Willmott, C.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wright, D.; Wu, S. X.; Wynhoff, S.; Wysłouch, B.; Xie, Y. Y.; Xu, J. G.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z. L.; Yan, D. S.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, G.; Ye, C. H.; Ye, J. B.; Ye, Q.; Yeh, S. C.; Yin, Z. W.; You, J. M.; Yunus, N.; Yzerman, M.; Zaccardelli, C.; Zaitsev, N.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, G. J.; Zhou, J. F.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zichichi, A.; van der Zwaan, B. C. C.; L3 Collaboration

    1993-11-01

    The average lifetime of b hadrons has been measured using the L3 detector at LEP, running at √ s ≈ MZ. A b-enriched sample was obtained from 432538 hadronic Z events collected in 1990 and 1991 by tagging electrons and muons from semileptonic b hadron decays. From maximum likelihood fits to the electron and muon impact parameter distributions, the average b hadron lifetime was measured to be τb = (1535 ± 35 ± 28) fs, where the first error is statistical and the second includes both the experimental and the theoretical systematic uncertainties.

  3. Phi meson propagation in a hot hadronic gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ruso, Luis; Koch, Volker

    2002-02-20

    The Hidden Local Symmetry Lagrangian is used to study the interactions of phi mesons with other pseudoscalar and vector mesons in a hadronic gas at finite temperature. We have found a significantly small phi mean free path (less than 2.4 fm at T > 170 MeV) due to large collision rates with rho mesons, kaons and predominantly K* in spite of their heavy mass. This implies that phi mesons produced after hadronization in relativistic heavy ion collisions will not leave the hadronic system without scattering. The effect of these interactions on the time evolution of the phi density in the expanding hadronic fireball is investigated.

  4. Microbunched electron cooling for high-energy hadron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, D

    2013-08-23

    Electron and stochastic cooling are proven methods for cooling low-energy hadron beams, but at present there is no way of cooling hadrons as they near the TeV scale. In the 1980s, Derbenev suggested that electron instabilities, such as free-electron lasers, could create collective space charge fields strong enough to correct the hadron energies. This Letter presents a variation on Derbenev's electron cooling scheme using the microbunching instability as the amplifier. The large bandwidth of the instability allows for faster cooling of high-density beams. A simple analytical model illustrates the cooling mechanism, and simulations show cooling rates for realistic parameters of the Large Hadron Collider.

  5. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  6. Phi meson propagation in a hot hadronic gas

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L

    2002-01-01

    The Hidden Local Symmetry Lagrangian is used to study the interactions of phi mesons with other pseudoscalar and vector mesons in a hadronic gas at finite temperature. We have found a significantly small phi mean free path (less than 2.4 fm at T > 170 MeV) due to large collision rates with rho mesons, kaons and predominantly K* in spite of their heavy mass. This implies that phi mesons produced after hadronization in relativistic heavy ion collisions will not leave the hadronic system without scattering. The effect of these interactions on the time evolution of the phi density in the expanding hadronic fireball is investigated.

  7. Fast equilibration of hadrons in an expanding fireball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha-Hostler, J; Greiner, C; Shovkovy, I A

    2008-06-27

    Because of long chemical equilibration times for standard hadronic reactions in a hadron gas in relativistic heavy ion collisions, it was suggested that hadrons are born into equilibrium after the quark gluon plasma is formed. We develop a dynamical scheme, using master equations, in which Hagedorn states contribute to fast chemical equilibration times of baryons and kaons, just below the critical temperature, estimates of which are derived analytically. The hadrons quickly equilibrate for an initial over- or underpopulation of Hagedorn states. Our particle ratios compared to BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider show a close match.

  8. The Brief Life of a Hadron: QCD unquenched

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Michael R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Once upon a time, the picture of hadrons was of mesons made of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons of three quarks. Though hadrons heavier than the ground states inevitably decay by the strong interaction, the successes of the quark model might suggest their decays are a mere perturbation. However, Eef van Beveren, whose career we celebrate here, recognised that decays are an integral part of the life of a hadron. The channels into which they decay are often essential to their very existence. These hold the secrets of strong coupling QCD and teach us the way quarks really build hadrons.

  9. The Brief Life of a Hadron: QCD unquenched

    CERN Document Server

    Pennington, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Once upon a time, the picture of hadrons was of mesons made of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons of three quarks. Though hadrons heavier than the ground states inevitably decay by the strong interaction, the successes of the quark model might suggest their decays are a mere perturbation. However, Eef van Beveren, whose career we celebrate here, recognised that decays are an integral part of the life of a hadron. The channels into which they decay are often essential for their very existence. These hold the secrets of strong coupling QCD and teach us the way quarks really build hadrons.

  10. Production mechanisms of charm hadrons in the string model

    CERN Document Server

    Norrbin, E; Norrbin, Emanuel; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    1998-01-01

    In the hadroproduction of charm in the context of string fragmentation, the pull of a beam remnant at the other end of a string may give a charm hadron more energy than the perturbatively produced charm quark. The collapse of a low-mass string to a single hadron is the extreme case in this direction, and gives rise to asymmetries between charm and anticharm hadron spectra. We study these phenomena, and develop models that describe the characteristics not only of the charm hadrons but also of the associated event.

  11. Intersections 2000: What's New in Hadron Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, James

    2000-08-07

    Hadron physics is that part of QCD dealing with hadron structure and vacuum structure, almost all of which is nonperturbative in nature. Some of the open problems in this field are outlined. The authors argue that hadron physics is a distinct subfield, no longer within particle physics, and not at all the same as classical nuclear physics. The authors believe that it needs to be better organized, and that a first step in doing so might be to establish hadron physics as a new division within the American Physical Society.

  12. Phi meson propagation in a hot hadronic gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ruso, Luis; Koch, Volker

    2002-02-20

    The Hidden Local Symmetry Lagrangian is used to study the interactions of phi mesons with other pseudoscalar and vector mesons in a hadronic gas at finite temperature. We have found a significantly small phi mean free path (less than 2.4 fm at T > 170 MeV) due to large collision rates with rho mesons, kaons and predominantly K* in spite of their heavy mass. This implies that phi mesons produced after hadronization in relativistic heavy ion collisions will not leave the hadronic system without scattering. The effect of these interactions on the time evolution of the phi density in the expanding hadronic fireball is investigated.

  13. Hadronic Freeze-Out in A+A Collisions meets the Lattice QCD Parton-Hadron Transition Line

    CERN Document Server

    Stock, R; Bleicher, M; Kollegger, T; Schuster, T; Steinheimer, J

    2013-01-01

    We analyze hadrochemical freeze-out in central Pb+Pb collisions at CERN SPS and LHC energies. Employing the UrQMD hybrid transport model we study the effects of the final hadron/resonance expansion phase on the hadron multiplicities established at hadronization. The bulk meson yields freeze out directly at hadronization whereas the baryon-antibaryon sector is subject to significant alterations, due to annihilation and regeneration processes. We quantify the latter changes by survival factors for each species which are applied to modify the statistical model predictions for the data. The modified SM analysis recovers the hadronization points, which coincide with the recent lattice QCD predictions of the parton-hadron transition line at finite baryochemical potential.

  14. A Vademecum on Quark-Hadron Duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, Ikaros; Uraltsev, Nikolai

    We present an elementary introduction to the problem of quark-hadron duality and its practical limitations, in particular as it concerns local duality violation in inclusive B meson decays. We show that the accurate definition of duality violation elaborated over the recent years allows one to derive informative constraints on violations of local duality. The magnitude of duality violation is particularly restricted in the total semileptonic widths. This explains its strong suppression in concrete dynamical estimates. We analyze the origin of the suppression factors in a model-independent setting, including a fresh perspective on the small velocity expansion. A new potentially significant mechanism for the violation of local duality in Γsl(B) is analyzed. Yet we conclude that the amount of duality violation in Γsl(B) must be safely below the half percent level, with realistic estimates being actually much smaller. The violation of local duality in Γsl(B) is thus far below the level relevant to phenomenology. We also present a cautionary note on the B-->D* decay amplitude at zero recoil and show that it is much more vulnerable to violations of quark-hadron duality than Γsl(B). A critical review of some recent literature is given. We point out that the presently limiting factor in genuinely model-independent extraction of Vcb is the precise value of the short-distance charm quark mass. We suggest a direct and precise experimental check of local quark-hadron duality in semileptonic B--> Xclν decays.

  15. Hadronic "flow" in p--Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, You; Li, Pengfei; Song, Huichao

    2015-01-01

    Using the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model, we investigate azimuthal correlations in p--Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}}=5.02$ TeV. Comparison with the experimental data shows that UrQMD can not reproduce the multiplicity dependence of 2- and 4-particle cumulants, especially the transition from positive to negative values of $c_{2}\\{4\\}$ in high multiplicity events, which has been taken as experimental evidence of collectivity in p--Pb collisions. Meanwhile, UrQMD can not qualitatively describe the differential elliptic flow, $v_{2}(p_{\\rm T})$, of all charged hadrons at various multiplicity classes. These discrepancies show that the simulated hadronic p--Pb systems can not generate enough collective flow as observed in experiment, the associated hadron emissions are largely influenced by non-flow effects. However, the characteristic $v_{2}(p_{\\rm T})$ mass-ordering of pions, kaons and protons is observed in UrQMD, which is the consequence of hadronic interactions and not nece...

  16. Hadronic Matter with Internal Symmetries and its Consequences: An Expanding Hadronic Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Turko, Ludwik

    1994-01-01

    We consider an ideal gas of massive hadrons in thermal and chemical equilibrium. The gas expands longitudinally in accordance with Bjorken law. Strangeness and baryon number conservation is taken into account. This gas has different features as compared to the pion gas.

  17. Multiquark hadrons. A new facet of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed

    2016-05-15

    I review some selected aspects of the phenomenology of multiquark states discovered in high energy experiments. They have four valence quarks (called tetraquarks) and two of them are found to have five valence quarks (called pentaquarks), extending the conventional hadron spectrum which consists of quark-antiquark (q anti q) mesons and qqq baryons. Multiquark states represent a new facet of QCD and their dynamics is both challenging and currently poorly understood. I discuss various approaches put forward to accommodate them, with emphasis on the diquark model.

  18. Antenna Showers with Hadronic Initial States

    CERN Document Server

    Ritzmann, M; Skands, P

    2013-01-01

    We present an antenna shower formalism including contributions from initial-state partons and corresponding backwards evolution. We give a set of phase-space maps and antenna functions for massless partons which define a complete shower formalism suitable for computing observables with hadronic initial states. We focus on the initial-state components: initial-initial and initial-final antenna configurations. The formalism includes comprehensive possibilities for uncertainty estimates. We report on some preliminary results obtained with an implementation in the Vincia antenna-shower framework.

  19. Analogue cosmology in a hadronic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilić Neven

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analog gravity models of general relativity seem promising routes to providing laboratory tests of the foundation of quantum field theory in curved space-time. In contrast to general relativity, where geometry of a spacetime is determined by the Einstein equations, in analog models geometry and evolution of analog spacetime are determined by the equations of fluid mechanics. In this paper we study the analogue gravity model based on massless pions propagating in a expanding hadronic fluid. The analog expanding spacetime takes the form of an FRW universe, with the apparent and trapping horizons defined in the standard way.

  20. Open and hidden strangeness in hadronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tomasik, Boris

    2011-01-01

    We investigate production of \\phi mesons and \\Xi baryons in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Reactions on strange particles acting as a catalyser are proposed to interpret the high observed \\phi yields in HADES experiments as well as the energy dependence of the widths of \\phi rapidity spectra in collisions at the SPS energies. It is argued that the enhancement of \\Xi- yield observed by HADES is even higher than originally reported if effects of the experimental centrality trigger are taken into account. Cross sections for new hadronic processes that could produce \\Xi- are reviewed.

  1. The hadronic cross section measurement at KLOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Barva, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Carboni, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lu, F.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Petrolo, E.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tabidze, M.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Villella, I.; Xu, G

    2005-07-15

    KLOE uses the radiative return to measure cross section {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}->{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) at the electron-positron collider DA{phi}NE. Divinding by a theoretical radiator function, we obtain the cross section {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}->{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) for the mass range 0.35hadronic contribution to the muon anomaly for the given mass range: a{sub {mu}}=388.7+/-0.8{sub stat}+/-3.5syst+/-3.5{sub th}.

  2. Is Heavy Quark Axion Necessarily Hadronic Axion?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sanghyeon; Kim, Jihn E.

    1993-01-01

    We show that heavy quark axion is not necessarily a hadronic axion, which manifests in the quark and lepton seesaw mechanism. We introduce a heavy $SU(2)$ singlet fermion for each known fermion in order to unify the axion scale and the seesaw scale. The light quarks and leptons gain their masses by the seesaw mechanism. Even though our axion model gives a kind of heavy quark axion, the axion has tree level lepton--axion coupling suppressed by $F_a$, contrary to a widely known belief that heav...

  3. Multiquark Hadrons - A New Facet of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    I review some selected aspects of the phenomenology of multiquark states discovered in high energy experiments. They have four valence quarks (called tetraquarks) and two of them are found to have five valence quarks (called pentaquarks), extending the conventional hadron spectrum which consists of quark-antiquark $(q\\bar{q})$ mesons and $qqq$ baryons. Multiquark states represent a new facet of QCD and their dynamics is both challenging and currently poorly understood. I discuss various approaches put forward to accommodate them, with emphasis on the diquark model.

  4. Ds+ Exclusive Hadronic Decays Involving omega

    OpenAIRE

    The CLEO Collaboration; Ge, J. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Using data collected near the Ds*+ Ds- peak production energy Ecm=4170 MeV by the CLEO-c detector, we search for Ds+ exclusive hadronic decays involving omega. We find B(Ds+ -> pi+ omega) = (0.21 +- 0.09 +- 0.01)%, B(Ds+ -> pi+ pi0 omega) = (2.78 +- 0.65 +- 0.25)%, B(Ds+ -> pi+ pi+ pi- omega) = (1.58 +- 0.45 +- 0.09)%, B(Ds+ -> pi+ eta omega) = (0.85 +- 0.54 +- 0.06)%, B(Ds+ -> K+ omega) K+ pi0 omega) K+ pi+ pi- omega) K+ eta omega)

  5. Hadron rapidity spectra within a hybrid model

    CERN Document Server

    Khvorostukhin, A S

    2016-01-01

    A 2-stage hybrid model is proposed that joins the fast initial state of interaction, described by the hadron string dynamics (HSD) model, to subsequent evolution of the expanding system at the second stage, treated within ideal hydrodynamics. The developed hybrid model is assigned to describe heavy-ion collisions in the energy range of the NICA collider under construction in Dubna. Generally, the model is in reasonable agreement with the available data on proton rapidity spectra. However, reproducing proton rapidity spectra, our hybrid model cannot describe the rapidity distributions of pions. The model should be improved by taking into consideration viscosity effects at the hydrodynamical stage of system evolution.

  6. Measuring supersymmetry at the large hadron collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Allanach

    2003-02-01

    The large hadron collider (LHC) should have the ability to detect supersymmetric particles if low-energy supersymmetry solves the hierarchy problem. Studies of the LHC detection reach, and the ability to measure properties of supersymmetric particles are currently underway. We highlight some of these, such as the reach in minimal supergravity space and correlation with a fine-tuning parameter, precision measurements of edge variables, anomaly- or gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Supersymmetry with baryon-number violation seems at first glance more difficult to detect, but proves to be possible by using leptons from cascade decays.

  7. Charmless b-hadrons decays at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Morello, M J

    2008-01-01

    We present CDF results on the branching fractions and time-integrated direct CP asymmetries for Bd, Bs and Lb decay modes into pairs of charmless charged hadrons (pions, kaons and protons). The data-set for these measurements amounts to 1fb^{-1} of pbar-p collisions at a center of mass energy 1.96TeV. We report on the first observation of the Bs->Kpi, Lb-ppi and Lb->pK decay modes and on the measurement of their branching fractions and direct CP asymmetries.

  8. Electroweak corrections to hadronic event shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Denner, Ansgar; Gehrmann, Thomas; Kurz, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We report on a recent calculation of the electroweak O(\\alpha^3\\alpha_s) corrections to 3-jet production and related event-shape observables at e+e- colliders. The calculation properly accounts for the experimental photon isolation criteria and for the corrections to the total hadronic cross section. Corrections to the normalised event-shape distributions, which are exemplarily discussed here for the thrust distribution at LEP and linear-collider energies, turn out to be at the few-per-cent level and show remnants of the radiative return to the Z pole even after inclusion of appropriate cuts.

  9. Higgs physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rohini M Godbole

    2011-05-01

    In this talk I shall begin by summarizing the importance of the Higgs physics studies at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). I shall then give a short description of the pre-LHC constraints on the Higgs mass and the theoretical predictions for the LHC along with a discussion of the current experimental results, ending with prospects in the near future at the LHC. I have added to the writeup, recent experimental results from the LHC which have become available since the time of the workshop.

  10. Medium energy hadron scattering from nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginocchio, J.N.; Wenes, G.

    1986-01-01

    The Glauber approximation for medium energy scattering of hadronic projectiles from nuclei is combined with the interacting boson model of nuclei to produce a transition matrix for elastic and inelastic scattering in algebraic form which includes coupling to all the intermediate states. We present closed form analytic expresions for the transition matrix elements for the three dynamical symmetries of the interacting boson model; that is for, a spherical quadrupole vibrator, a ..gamma.. unstable rotor, and both prolate and oblate axially symmetric rotors. We give examples of application of this formalism to proton scattering from /sup 154/Sm and /sup 154/Gd. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Charged kaon and proton production in B-hadron decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegenfeldt, Fredrik Per

    The production of charged kaons and protons in B-hadron decays has been measured in e+e- annihilations at centre-of-mass energies corresponding to the Z0 mass. In total 1.6 million hadronic Z0 decays were analysed, corresponding to about 690000 B-hadron decays. They were collected using the DELPHI detector at the LEP collider at CERN during 1994 and 1995. Events containing B-hadron decays were identified using special characteristics of the B-hadron decay topology. In particular, the long lifetime of the B-hadron leads to decay vertices significantly displaced relative the interaction point. These so called secondary vertices were reconstructed using a powerful micro vertex detector. In order to discriminate B-hadron decay products from fragmentation tracks, a method was used where the impact parameter measured by the vertex detector was employed as a discriminating variable. The tracks were thus divided into two classes, one compatible with the interaction point and the other compatible with a secondary vertex. An unfolding method was used to extract the true B-hadron decay tracks from the two classes. Charged kaons and protons were identified using the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector and corrected for misidentification using an efficiency matrix. The analysis resulted in charged kaon and proton spectra from B-hadron decays, including previously unmeasured momentum regions. Integrating the spectra yielded the following multiplicities n(B- hadron-->K+/- X)=0.683+/-0.021(stat) +/-0.017(syst) n(B- hadron-->p/p X)=0.127+/-0.013(stat) +/-0.019(syst) where the proton multiplicity does not include Λ baryon decay products.

  12. Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multi-GeV hadron beam facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geesaman, D.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [ed.

    1993-11-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

  13. Elementary and brief introduction of hadronic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangde, Vijay M.

    2013-10-01

    The discipline, today known as Quantum Chemistry for atomic and subatomic level interactions has no doubt made a significant historical contributions to the society. Despite of its significant achievements, quantum chemistry is also known for its widespread denial of insufficiencies it inherits. An Italian-American Scientist Professor Ruggero Maria Santilli during his more than five decades of dedicated and sustained research has denounced the fact that quantum chemistry is mostly based on mere nomenclatures without any quantitative scientific contents. Professor R M Santilli first formulated the iso-, geno- and hyper-mathematics [1-4] that helped in understanding numerous diversified problems and removing inadequacies in most of the established and celebrated theories of 20th century physics and chemistry. This involves the isotopic, genotopic, etc. lifting of Lie algebra that generated Lie admissible mathematics to properly describe irreversible processes. The studies on Hadronic Mechanics in general and chemistry in particular based on Santilli's mathematics[3-5] for the first time has removed the very fundamental limitations of quantum chemistry [2, 6-8]. In the present discussion, we have briefly reviewed the conceptual foundations of Hadronic Chemistry that imparts the completeness to the Quantum Chemistry via an addition of effects at distances of the order of 1 fm (only) which are assumed to be Non-linear, Non-local, Non-potential, Non-hamiltonian and thus Non-unitary and its application in development of a new chemical species called Magnecules.

  14. Hadronic Lorentz violation in chiral perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamand, Rasha; Altschul, Brett; Schindler, Matthias R.

    2017-03-01

    Any possible Lorentz violation in the hadron sector must be tied to Lorentz violation at the underlying quark level. The relationships between the theories at these two levels are studied using chiral perturbation theory. Starting from a two-flavor quark theory that includes dimension-4 Lorentz-violation operators, the effective Lagrangians are derived for both pions and nucleons, with novel terms appearing in both sectors. Since the Lorentz-violation coefficients for nucleons and pions are all related to a single set of underlying quark coefficients, one can compare the sensitivity of different types of experiments. Our analysis shows that atomic physics experiments currently provide constraints on the quark parameters that are stronger by about 10 orders of magnitude than astrophysical experiments with relativistic pions. Alternatively, it is possible to place approximate bounds on pion Lorentz violation using only proton and neutron observations. Under the assumption that the Lorentz-violating operators considered here are the only ones contributing to the relevant observables and taking the currently unknown hadronic low-energy constants to be of natural size, the resulting estimated bounds on four pion parameters are at the 10-23 level, representing improvements of 10 orders of magnitude.

  15. Hadron scattering in an asymmetric box*

    Science.gov (United States)

    China Lattice QCD Collaboration; Li, Xin; Chen, Ying; Meng, Guo-Zhan; Feng, Xu; Gong, Ming; He, Song; Li, Gang; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Ma, Jian-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Fei; Shen, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Bo

    2007-06-01

    We propose to study hadron-hadron scattering using lattice QCD in an asymmetric box which allows one to access more non-degenerate low-momentum modes for a given volume. The conventional Lüscher's formula applicable in a symmetric box is modified accordingly. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, pion-pion elastic scattering phase shifts in the I = 2, J = 0 channel are calculated within quenched approximation using improved gauge and Wilson fermion actions on anisotropic lattices in an asymmetric box. After the chiral and continuum extrapolation, we find that our quenched results for the scattering phase shifts in this channel are consistent with the experimental data when the three-momentum of the pion is below 300MeV. Agreement is also found when compared with previous theoretical results from lattice and other means. Moreover, with the usage of asymmetric volume, we are able to compute the scattering phases in the low-momentum range (pion three momentum less than about 350MeV in the center of mass frame) for over a dozen values of the pion three-momenta, much more than using the conventional symmetric box with comparable volume.

  16. Hadronic Interactions In The Minos Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kordosky, M A

    2004-01-01

    MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, will study neutrino flavor transformations using a Near detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and a Far detector located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The MINOS collaboration also constructed the Ca1Det (calibration detector), a smaller version of the Near and Far detectors, to determine the topological and signal response to hadrons, electrons and muons. The detector was exposed to test- beams in the CERN Proton Synchrotron East Hall during 2001–2003, where it collected events at momentum settings between 200 MeV/c and 10 GeV/c. In this dissertation we present results of the Ca1Det experiment, focusing on the topological and signal response to hadrons. We briefly describe the MINOS experiment and its vi iron-scintillator tracking-sampling calorimeters as a motivation for the CalDet experiment. We discuss the operation of the CalDet in the beamlines as well as the trigger and particle identification s...

  17. Bounds on hadronic axions from stellar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Dearborn, David S. P.

    1987-10-01

    We consider in detail the effect of the emission of ``hadronic'' invisible axions (which do not couple to electrons) from the interior of stars on stellar evolution. To this end we calculate plasma emission rates for axions due to the Primakoff process for the full range of conditions encountered in a giant star. Much attention is paid to plasma, degeneracy, and screening effects. We reconsider the solar bound by evolving a 1.0 Msolar star to solar age and lowering the presolar helium abundance so as to obtain the correct present-day luminosity of the Sun. The previous bound on the axion-photon coupling of G9cluster M67 and with the value 1.3×108 yr derived from the number of such stars in the old galactic disk population. We obtain a conservative limit of G9decay and probably the possibility of measuring the solar hadronic axion flux which, according to our bounds, must be less than 2×10-3 of the solar luminosity. There remains a narrow range of parameters (0.01<~G9<~0.1, ma<~10-4 eV) in which a recently proposed laboratory experiment might still measure axionlike particles.

  18. Reconstruction of B hadron decays at DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Salmi, Laura Tiina Maria

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes three analyses related to heavy quarks. The analysis with the largest impact is the extraction of parameters of heavy quark decays using the lepton energy spectrum and the hadronic mass spectrum in semileptonic B decays. The extraction of the parameters allows to test the framework used to theoretically describe the decay of heavy mesons, and more accurate knowledge of the parameter values results in greater accuracy in the determination of the element |Vcb| of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark mixing matrix. The determination described in this thesis is important, since it is so far the only one where the full lepton energy spectrum has been used. The other determinations are based on using only a part of the spectrum. The first extraction of the parameters in the kinetic mass scheme was based on the statistical moments of the lepton energy spectrum and hadronic mass spectrum measured using the data collected at delphi. In the second analysis, the angular distribution of fragmen...

  19. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from elec...

  20. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum fro...