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Sample records for hadean oceanography experimental

  1. The Hadean Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, K.

    2001-12-01

    It is more useful to define the Hadean Eon as the time when impacts ruled the Earth than to define it as the time before the rock record. For decades now it has been obvious that the coincidence between the timing of the end of the lunar late bombardment and the appearance of a rock record on Earth is probably not just a coincidence. I doubt I am pointing out something that the reader hasn't long ago given thought to. While the Moon was struck by tens of basin-forming impactors (100 km objects making ~1000 km craters), the Earth was struck by hundreds of similar objects, and by tens of objects much larger still. The largest would have been big enough to evaporate the oceans, and the ejecta massive enough to envelope the Earth in 100 m of rock rain. Smaller impacts were also more frequent. On average, a Chicxulub fell every 105 years. When one imagines the Hadean one imagines it with craters and volcanos: crater oceans and crater lakes, a scene of mountain rings and island arcs and red lava falling into a steaming sea under an ash-laden sky. I don't know about the volcanos, but the picture of abundant impact craters makes good sense --the big ones, at least, which feature several kilometers of relief, are not likely to have eroded away on timescales of less than ten million years, and so there were always several of these to be seen at any time in various states of decay. The oceans would have been filled with typically hundreds of meters of weathered ejecta, most of which was ultimately subducted but taking with them whatever they reacted with at the time --CO2 was especially vulnerable to this sort of scouring. The climate, under a faint sun and with little CO2 to warm it, may have been in the median extremely cold, barring the intervention of biogenic greenhouse gases (such as methane), with on occasion the cold broken by brief (10s to 1000s of years) episodes of exreme heat and steam following the larger impacts. In sum, the age of impacts seems sufficiently

  2. Chemical oceanography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millero, F.J

    1996-01-01

    Chemical Oceanography presents a comprehensive examination of the chemistry of oceans through discussions of such topics as descriptive physical oceanography, the composition of seawater and the major...

  3. Physical oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Murty, V.S.N.

    The chapter on physical oceanography of the Indian Ocean is written keeping in mind the graduate students and researchers. It starts with a brief introduction (citing latest expeditions) followed by the coastal and near processes (wave climate...

  4. Meteorology/Oceanography Help - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › Help › Meteorology/Oceanography Help USNO Logo USNO Info Meteorology/Oceanography Help Send an e-mail regarding meteorology or oceanography products. Privacy Advisory Your E-Mail

  5. A relatively reduced Hadean continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhi; Gaillard, Fabrice; Scaillet, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    processes such as metamorphism, weathering and erosion. Thus, zircons in granites of shallow crust may record the chemical/isotopic composition of the deep crust that is otherwise inaccessible, and offer robust records of the magmatic and crust-forming events preserved in the continental crust. In fact, due to the absence of suitable rock records (in particular for periods older than ~4.0 Ga), studies in recent years concerning the nature, composition, growth and evolution of the continental crust, and especially the Hadean crust, have heavily relied on inherited/detrital zircons. Natural igneous zircons incorporate rare-earth elements (REE) and other trace elements in their structure at concentrations controlled by the temperature, pressure, fO2 and composition of their crystallization environment. Petrological observations and recent experiments have shown that the concentration of Ce relative to other REE in igneous zircons can be used to constrain the fO2 during their growth. By combining available trace-elements data of igneous zircons of crustal origin, we show that the Hadean continental crust was significantly more reduced than its modern counterpart and experienced progressive oxidation till ~3.6 billions years ago. We suggest that the increase in the oxidation state of the Hadean continental crust is related to the progressive decline in the intensity of meteorite impacts during the late veneer. Impacts of carbon- and hydrogen-rich materials during the formation of Hadean granitic crust must have favoured strongly reduced magmatism. The conjunction of cold, wet and reduced granitic magmatism during the Hadean implies the degassing of methane and water. When impacts ended, magma produced by normal decompression melting of the mantle imparted more oxidizing conditions to erupted lavas and the related crust.

  6. Careers in Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Charles D., Ed.

    This booklet was prepared by practicing oceanographers to help college students in their search for professional direction. The booklet: (1) points out some frontiers of current research; (2) describes five major subfields of oceanography (marine geology and geophysics, oceanographic engineering, physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, and…

  7. Geodynamic and metabolic cycles in the Hadean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Russell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available High-degree melting of hot dry Hadean mantle at ocean ridges and plumes resulted in a crust about 30km thick, overlain in places by extensive and thick mafic volcanic plateaus. Continental crust, by contrast, was relatively thin and mostly submarine. At constructive and destructive plate boundaries, and above the many mantle plumes, acidic hydrothermal springs at ~400°C contributed Fe and other transition elements as well as P and H2 to the deep ocean made acidulous by dissolved CO2 and minor HCl derived from volcanoes. Away from ocean ridges, submarine hydrothermal fluids were cool (≤100°C, alkaline (pH ~10, highly reduced and also H2-rich. Reaction of solvents in this fluid with those in ocean water was catalyzed in a hydrothermal mound, a natural self-restoring flow reactor and fractionation column developed above the alkaline spring. The mound consisted of brucite, Mg-rich clays, ephemeral carbonates, Fe-Ni sulfide and green rust. Acetate and glycine were the main products, some of which were eluted to the ocean. The rest, along with other organic byproducts were retained and concentrated within Fe-Ni sulfide compartments. These compartments, comprising the natural hydrothermal reactor, consisted partly of greigite (Fe5NiS8. It was from reactions between organic modules confined within these inorganic compartments that the first prokaryotic organism evolved. These acetogenic precursors to the bacteria diversified and migrated down the mound and into the ocean floor to inaugurate the 'deep biosphere'. Once there they were protected from cataclysmic heating events caused by large meteoritic impacts. Geodynamic forces led to the eventual obduction of the deep biosphere into the photic zone where, initially protected by a thin veneer of sediment, the use of solar energy was mastered and photosynthesis emerged. The further evolution to oxygenic photosynthesis was effected as catalytic [Mn,Ca]-bearing molecules that otherwise would have been

  8. Introduction to fisheries oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Fisheries oceanography can be applied to fisheries ecology, fisheries management and practical fishing. Physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, currents, waves, light, oxygen and salinity) have profound effect on fish...

  9. Oceanography Branch Hydrographic Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oceanography group maintains and provides Conductivity/Temperature/Depth (CTD) instruments to all Center cruises for measuring water column profiles of...

  10. Mass spectrometry in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    2000-01-01

    Mass spectrometry plays an important role in oceanography for various applications. Different types of inorganic as well as organic mass spectrometric techniques are being exploited world-wide to understand the different aspects of marine science, for palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology and palaeoecology, for isotopic composition and concentrations of different elements as well as for speciation studies. The present paper reviews some of the applications of atomic mass spectrometric techniques in the area of oceanography

  11. Are there impact-formed zircons in the Hadean record?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, M. M.; Lu, X.; Bell, E. A.; Schmitt, A. K.; Harrison, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    Detrital Hadean zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, show a remarkable cluster of crystallization temperatures at 680±25°C. This is particularly surprising as a simple model relating rock composition and Zr concentration predicts that a very broad spectrum of crystallization temperatures (ca. 650°C to 1000°C) with a median value of 780°C, would result from impact melting of the Earth's surface. Magmatic fractionation would tend to increase the aforementioned values. Given the predicted high rate of impacts during the Hadean, the absence of such a population in the Jack Hills zircons could signal a profound sampling problem, a hint of a history much different than previously supposed, or our lack of understanding of zircon formation due to impact related processes. We have begun to examine the latter issue by investigating the crystallization temperatures of zircons formed in melt sheets preserved in the geologic record. The Sudbury Igneous Complex, formed at 1850±3 Ma within the second largest impact crater on Earth, includes two igneous units termed the Black and Felsic Norites. Examination of zircons from each by SIMS confirms their crystallization age at 1847.3±2.2 Ma and yields Ti-in-zircon temperatures of 720°C and 750°C, respectively. This is consistent with that predicted from zircon saturation systematics. A statistical test indicates that the combined norite population is distinct from the Hadean temperature distribution. Thus the question arises: where are the Hadean zircons expected to have formed at >780°C via impact processes? Similar analysis is being pursued for zircons from the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa, which should provide further information on impact-formed zircon temperature spectra.

  12. A Tale of Two Earths: Reconciling the Lunar and Terrestrial Hadean Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Patrick

    Studying early Earth history is complicated by the fact that the rock record doesn't extend past 4 Ga and our only record for the Hadean (>4 Ga) comes to us from detrital zircons from the Jack Hills in Western Australia. The Hadean zircon record extends back to almost 4.4 Ga and has revealed that the early Earth may have had liquid water, a felsic crust, plate boundary interactions, and possibly a biosphere. On the other hand, analyses of lunar and meteoritic samples are used to argue for a hellish Hadean Earth where frequent, large impactors repeatedly destroyed the crust. Indeed, these two models stand in direct contradiction. The focus of this thesis is to examine the evidence for these two models and ultimately propose a reconciliation based on a new interpretation of the chronology of the lunar samples used to constrain the impact history into the early Earth-Moon system. In order to improve the understanding of zircon crystallization in igneous settings, we undertook experimental studies of zircon saturation which were analyzed using a novel ion imaging approach by a secondary ion mass spectrometer. This study confirmed the original model for zircon saturation, that it is a function of only temperature, melt composition, and Zr content. Indeed, the primary implication for the early Earth from this work is that zircons are much more likely to crystallize in a felsic rather than mafic magma and therefore simply the existence of Hadean zircons suggests a high likelihood for felsic Hadean magmatism. The majority of the thesis focuses on the interpretation of 40 Ar/39Ar ages of lunar and meteorite samples, specifically with regards to impact histories derived from compilations of such ages. The primary complication with lunar and meteorite 40Ar/ 39Ar ages is that the vast majority show evidence for later disturbances due to diffusive loss of 40Ar. To try and extract meaningful thermal histories from these samples, we undertook investigations of samples from Apollo

  13. Oceanography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.

    This volume is an outcome of the presentation of selected 74 papers at the International Symposium on the Oceanography of the Indian Ocean held at National Institute of Oceanography during January 1991. The unique physical setting of the northern...

  14. Basic concepts in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Basic concepts in oceanography include major wind patterns that drive ocean currents, and the effects that the earth's rotation, positions of land masses, and temperature and salinity have on oceanic circulation and hence global distribution of radioactivity. Special attention is given to coastal and near-coastal processes such as upwelling, tidal effects, and small-scale processes, as radionuclide distributions are currently most associated with coastal regions. (author)

  15. Connecting Oceanography and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Capturing and retaining the interest of non-science majors in science classes can be difficult, no matter what type of science. At Berklee College of Music, this challenge is especially significant, as all students are music majors. In my Introductory Oceanography course, I use a final project as a way for the students to link class material with their own interests. The students may choose any format to present their projects to the class; however, many students write and perform original music. The performances of ocean-themed music have become a huge draw of the Introductory Oceanography course. In an effort to expand the reach of this music, several colleagues and I organized the first Earth Day event at Berklee, `Earthapalooza 2015.' This event included performances of music originally written for the final projects, as well as other musical performances, poetry readings, guest talks, and information booths. Although the idea of an Earth Day event is not new, this event is unique in that student performances really resonate with the student audience. Additionally, since many of these students will enter professional careers in the performance and recording industries, the potential exists for them to expose large audiences to the issues of oceanography through music. In this presentation, I will play examples of original student compositions and show video of the live student performances. I will also discuss the benefits and challenges of the final projects and the Earth Day event. Finally, I will highlight the future plans to continue ocean-themed music at Berklee.

  16. Meteorology Products - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC › Meteorology Products FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info Meteorology Products Global

  17. Tracking Hadean processes in modern basalts with 142-Neodymium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, M. F.; Carlson, R. W.; Walker, R. J.; Jackson, M.; Garçon, M.; Norman, M.

    2018-02-01

    The short-lived 146Sm→142 Nd isotope system (t1/2 = 103 Ma) provides constraints on the timing and processes of terrestrial silicate fractionation during the early Hadean. Although some Archean terranes preserve variability in 142Nd/144Nd, no anomalies have been resolved previously in young rocks. This study provides high precision 142Nd/144Nd data on a suite of ocean island basalts from Samoa and Hawaii previously shown to have variable depletions in 182W/184W that are inversely correlated with 3He/4He ratios. Improved analytical techniques and multiple replicate analyses of Nd show a variation in μ142 Nd values between -1.3 and +2.7 in the suite, relative to the JNdi standard. Given the reproducibility of the standard (±2.9 ppm, 2 SD), two Samoan samples exhibit resolved variability in their 142Nd/144Nd ratios outside of their 95% confidence intervals, suggesting minor variability in the Samoan hotspot. One sample from Samoa has a higher μ142 Nd of +2.7, outside the 95% confidence interval (±1.0 ppm) of the average of the JNdi standard. Limited, but resolved, variation in 142Nd/144Nd within the suite suggests the preservation of early Hadean silicate differentiation in the sources of at least some basalts from Samoa. Larger variations of 182W/184W and 3He/4He ratios in the same samples suggest that metal-silicate separation and mantle outgassing left a more persistent imprint on the accessible mantle compared to 142Nd/144Nd ratios which are impacted by early silicate differentiation.

  18. A Tale of Two Earths: Reconciling the Lunar and Terrestrial Hadean Records

    OpenAIRE

    Boehnke, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Studying early Earth history is complicated by the fact that the rock record doesn’t extend past 4 Ga and our only record for the Hadean (>4 Ga) comes to us from detrital zircons from the Jack Hills in Western Australia. The Hadean zircon record extends back to almost 4.4 Ga and has revealed that the early Earth may have had liquid water, a felsic crust, plate boundary interactions, and possibly a biosphere. On the other hand, analyses of lunar and meteoritic samples are used to argue for a...

  19. Mentoring Women in Physical Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Lisa M.; Lozier, M. Susan

    2010-08-01

    MPOWIR Pattullo Conference; Charleston, South Carolina, 23-26 May 2010; Initiated in 2004, Mentoring Physical Oceanography Women to Increase Retention (MPOWIR) is a community-initiated and community-led program aimed at providing mentoring to junior women in physical oceanography to improve their retention in the field. The centerpiece of the MPOWIR program is the Pattullo Conference, a two-and-a-half-day mentoring event held biannually. The second conference was held in South Carolina. The conference is named for June Pattullo, the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in physical oceanography. The goals of the Pattullo Conference are to build community networks among junior and senior scientists, to provide junior scientists with feedback on their current and planned research projects, to provide advice to junior scientists on their career goals, to introduce both senior and junior scientists to aspects of professional development, and to raise awareness of issues confronting junior women among the senior scientist community.

  20. A Source Book for Teaching Chemical Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Theodore C.; Glibert, Patricia M.

    Chemical oceanography or marine chemistry are taught in many colleges and universities. This publication provides sources for instructors of such courses. The first section of this report is a detailed composite outline of a course in chemical oceanography. It includes fundamental topics taught in many chemical oceanography classes. The outline…

  1. Key Concepts in Microbial Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Achilles, K.; Walker, G.; Weersing, K.; Team, A

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) is a multi-institution Science and Technology Center, established by the National Science Foundation in 2006. C-MORE's research mission is to facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the diverse assemblages of microorganisms in the sea, ranging from the genetic basis of marine microbial biogeochemistry including the metabolic regulation and environmental controls of gene expression, to the processes that underpin the fluxes of carbon, related bioelements, and energy in the marine environment. The C-MORE education and outreach program is focused on increasing scientific literacy in microbial oceanography among students, educators, and the general public. A first step toward this goal is defining the key concepts that constitute microbial oceanography. After lengthy discussions with scientists and educators, both within and outside C-MORE, we have arrived at six key concepts: 1) Marine microbes are very small and have been around for a long time; 2) Life on Earth could not exist without microbes; 3) Most marine microbes are beneficial; 4) Microbes are everywhere: they are extremely abundant and diverse; 5) Microbes significantly impact our global climate; and 6) There are new discoveries every day in the field of microbial oceanography. A C-MORE-produced brochure on these six key concepts will be distributed at the meeting. Advanced copies may be requested by email or downloaded from the C-MORE web site(http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/downloads/MO_key_concepts_hi-res.pdf). This brochure also includes information on career pathways in microbial oceanography, with the aim of broadening participation in the field. C-MORE is eager to work in partnership to incorporate these key concepts into other science literacy publications, particularly those involving ocean and climate literacy. We thank the following contributors and reviewers: P Chisholm, A Dolberry, and A Thompson (MIT); N Lawrence

  2. The elusive Hadean enriched reservoir revealed by 142Nd deficits in Isua Archaean rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Hanika; Boyet, Maud; Blichert-Toft, Janne; O'Neil, Jonathan; Rosing, Minik T; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2012-11-01

    The first indisputable evidence for very early differentiation of the silicate Earth came from the extinct (146)Sm-(142)Nd chronometer. (142)Nd excesses measured in 3.7-billion-year (Gyr)-old rocks from Isua (southwest Greenland) relative to modern terrestrial samples imply their derivation from a depleted mantle formed in the Hadean eon (about 4,570-4,000 Gyr ago). As dictated by mass balance, the differentiation event responsible for the formation of the Isua early-depleted reservoir must also have formed a complementary enriched component. However, considerable efforts to find early-enriched mantle components in Isua have so far been unsuccessful. Here we show that the signature of the Hadean enriched reservoir, complementary to the depleted reservoir in Isua, is recorded in 3.4-Gyr-old mafic dykes intruding into the Early Archaean rocks. Five out of seven dykes carry (142)Nd deficits compared to the terrestrial Nd standard, with three samples yielding resolvable deficits down to -10.6 parts per million. The enriched component that we report here could have been a mantle reservoir that differentiated owing to the crystallization of a magma ocean, or could represent a mafic proto-crust that separated from the mantle more than 4.47 Gyr ago. Our results testify to the existence of an enriched component in the Hadean, and may suggest that the southwest Greenland mantle preserved early-formed heterogeneities until at least 3.4 Gyr ago.

  3. Direct thermal effects of the Hadean bombardment did not limit early subsurface habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, R. E.; Marchi, S.

    2018-03-01

    Intense bombardment is considered characteristic of the Hadean and early Archean eons, yet some detrital zircons indicate that near-surface water was present and thus at least intervals of clement conditions may have existed. We investigate the habitability of the top few kilometers of the subsurface by updating a prior approach to thermal evolution of the crust due to impact heating, using a revised bombardment history, a more accurate thermal model, and treatment of melt sheets from large projectiles (>100 km diameter). We find that subsurface habitable volume grows nearly continuously throughout the Hadean and early Archean (4.5-3.5 Ga) because impact heat is dissipated rapidly compared to the total duration and waning strength of the bombardment. Global sterilization was only achieved using an order of magnitude more projectiles in 1/10 the time. Melt sheets from large projectiles can completely resurface the Earth several times prior to ∼4.2 Ga but at most once since then. Even in the Hadean, melt sheets have little effect on habitability because cooling times are short compared to resurfacing intervals, allowing subsurface biospheres to be locally re-established by groundwater infiltration between major impacts. Therefore the subsurface is always habitable somewhere, and production of global steam or silicate-vapor atmospheres are the only remaining avenues to early surface sterilization by bombardment.

  4. Estuarine Oceanography. CEGS Programs Publication Number 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F. F.

    Estuarine Oceanography is one in a series of single-topic problem modules intended for use in undergraduate and earth science courses. Designed for those interested in coastal oceanography or limnology, the module is structured as a laboratory supplement for undergraduate college classes but should be useful at all levels. The module has two…

  5. The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) - Naval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC

  6. Fundamentals of estuarine physical oceanography

    CERN Document Server

    Bruner de Miranda, Luiz; Kjerfve, Björn; Castro Filho, Belmiro Mendes de

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the complex system functions, variability and human interference in ecosystem between the continent and the ocean. It focuses on circulation, transport and mixing of estuarine and coastal water masses, which is ultimately related to an understanding of the hydrographic and hydrodynamic characteristics (salinity, temperature, density and circulation), mixing processes (advection and diffusion), transport timescales such as the residence time and the exposure time. In the area of physical oceanography, experiments using these water bodies as a natural laboratory and interpreting their circulation and mixing processes using theoretical and semi-theoretical knowledge are of fundamental importance. Small-scale physical models may also be used together with analytical and numerical models. The book highlights the fact that research and theory are interactive, and the results provide the fundamentals for the development of the estuarine research.

  7. Oceanography Information System of Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, Olvido; Gómez, María; González, Sonsoles

    2016-04-01

    Since 1914, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) performs multidisciplinary studies of the marine environment. In same case are systematic studies and in others are specific studies for special requirements (El Hierro submarine volcanic episode, spill Prestige, others.). Different methodologies and data acquisition techniques are used depending on studies aims. The acquired data are stored and presented in different formats. The information is organized into different databases according to the subject and the variables represented (geology, fisheries, aquaculture, pollution, habitats, etc.). Related to physical and chemical oceanography data, in 1964 was created the DATA CENTER of IEO (CEDO), in order to organize the data about physical and chemical variables, to standardize this information and to serve the international data network SeaDataNet. www.seadatanet.org. This database integrates data about temperature, salinity, nutrients, and tidal data. CEDO allows consult and download the data. http://indamar.ieo.es On the other hand, related to data about marine species in 1999 was developed SIRENO DATABASE. All data about species collected in oceanographic surveys carried out by researches of IEO, and data from observers on fishing vessels are incorporated in SIRENO database. In this database is stored catch data, biomass, abundance, etc. This system is based on architecture ORACLE. Due to the large amount of information collected over the 100 years of IEO history, there is a clear need to organize, standardize, integrate and relate the different databases and information, and to provide interoperability and access to the information. Consequently, in 2000 it emerged the first initiative to organize the IEO spatial information in an Oceanography Information System, based on a Geographical Information System (GIS). The GIS was consolidated as IEO institutional GIS and was created the Spatial Data Infrastructure of IEO (IDEO) following trend of INSPIRE. All

  8. Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Steven; Hedges, John

    The principles of chemical oceanography provide insight into the processes regulating the marine carbon cycle. The text offers a background in chemical oceanography and a description of how chemical elements in seawater and ocean sediments are used as tracers of physical, biological, chemical and geological processes in the ocean. The first seven chapters present basic topics of thermodynamics, isotope systematics and carbonate chemistry, and explain the influence of life on ocean chemistry and how it has evolved in the recent (glacial-interglacial) past. This is followed by topics essential to understanding the carbon cycle, including organic geochemistry, air-sea gas exchange, diffusion and reaction kinetics, the marine and atmosphere carbon cycle and diagenesis in marine sediments. Figures are available to download from www.cambridge.org/9780521833134. Ideal as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduates in oceanography, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and earth science and a valuable reference for researchers in oceanography.

  9. History of oceanography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, R.

    This paper highlights history of the oceanography of the Indian Ocean. Oceanographic activities during Ancient period, Medieval period, British period, Post-Independence period are briefly discussed. The role of the IIOE, IOC, UNESCO are also...

  10. CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tapaswi, M.P.

    CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography being one of its kind in the country The article describes the on-going researches and projects in contributing to the science in the field of Marine science....

  11. Oceanography of the Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Luis Iriarte, José; Daneri, Giovanni

    2011-03-01

    Chilean Patagonia is one of the most extended fjord regions in the world that covers nearly 240,000 km 2 with an extremely complex coastline and topography in one of the least densely populated areas of the country (1-8 inhabitants every 10 km 2). In recent years, the area has been undergoing somewhat intense pressure since several commercial projects in hydroelectricity, tourism, and commercial salmon and mytilid cultures have been developed, or are in progress. Concomitantly, several large research programs have been devised to study the physical, chemical, and biological environment of Patagonia, such as the CIMAR FIORDO, and recently COPAS Sur-Austral based at Universidad de Concepcion, that attempts to close the bridge between oceanographic knowledge and its use by society. In this introductory article we summarize the collection of papers comprising this Special Issue of Continental Shelf Research. These papers deal with aspects of regional oceanography and geology, inorganic and organic geochemistry, ecology of pelagic and benthic organisms, and past changes in productivity.

  12. The first discovery of Hadean zircon in garnet granulites from the Sutam River (Aldan Shield)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhovskii, M. Z.; Kuz'min, M. I.; Bayanova, T. B.; Lyalina, L. M.; Makrygina, V. A.; Shcherbakova, T. F.

    2017-09-01

    For the first time in Russia, a Hadean zircon grain with an age of 3.94 Ga (ID-TIMS) has been discovered in high-aluminous garnet granulites of the Aldan Shield among the U-Pb zircons with an age from 1.92 Ga. In this connection, the problems of its parental source, the petrogenesis of granulites that captured this zircon, and the mechanism of occurrence of these deep rocks in the upper horizons of the crust have been solved. The comparison of the geochemistry of garnet granulites and the middle crust has shown that the granulites are enriched in the entire range of rare-earth elements (except for the Eu minimum), as well as in Al2O3, U, and Th and are depleted in the most mobile elements (Na, Ca, Sr). In the upper part of the allitic weathering zone of the middle crust, which formed under conditions of arid climate, this zircon grain was originated from the weathered granites from the middle crust. In the latter case, they were empleced discretely in the upper granite-gneiss crust under high pressure conditions (the rutile age is 1.83-1.82 Ga). The zircon with an age of 3.94 Ga is comparable to the Hadean zircons from orthogneisses of the Acasta region (Canadian Shield, 4.03-3.94 Ga).

  13. Rapid change of atmosphere on the Hadean Earth: Beyond Habitable Trinity on a tightrope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, T.; Maruyama, S.

    2014-12-01

    Surface environment of Hadean Earth is a key to bear life on the Earth. All of previous works assumed that high pCO2 has been decreased to a few bars in the first a few hundreds millions of years (e.g., Zhanle et al., 2011). However, this process is not easy because of material and process barriers as shown below. Four barriers are present. First, the ultra-acidic pH (impossible to bear life on the planet. Fourth is the role of tectonic erosion to destroy and transport the primordial continent of anorthosite into deep mantle by subduction. Anorthosite + KREEP was the mother's milk grow life on the Earth, but disappeared by 4.0Ga or even earlier, but alternatively granites were formed and accumulated on the Earth to supply nutrients for life. This is time-dependent process to increase new continents. Fifth is the water content of 3-5km thick, if the value was over, no way to bear life nor evolution afterwards. After all, the Hadean Earth has passed the really risky tightrope processes to bear life. If any of above five conditions was lost, life has not been appeared.

  14. Macroecology: A Primer for Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. K. W.

    2016-02-01

    Macroecology is the study of ecological patterns discerned at a spatial, temporal, or organization scale higher than that at which the focal entities interact. Such patterns are statistical or emergent manifestations arising from the ensemble of component entities. Although macroecology is a neologism largely based in terrestrial and avian ecology, macroscopic patterns have long been recognised in biological oceanography. Familiar examples include Redfield elemental stoichiometry, Elton trophic pyramids, Sheldon biomass spectrum, and Margalef life-forms mandala. Macroecological regularities can often be found along various continua, such as along body size in power-law scaling or along habitat temperature in metabolic theory. Uniquely in oceanography, a partition of the world ocean continuum into Longhurst biogeochemical provinces provides a spatial organization well-suited for macroecological investigations. In this rational discrete approach, fundamental processes in physical and biological oceanography that differentiate a set of non-overlapping ocean regions also appear to shape the macroecological structure of phytoplankton communities.

  15. Crucial times for Spanish physical oceanography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep L. Pelegrí

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of physical oceanography has undergone exponential growth in Spain during the last few decades. From a handful of self-taught researchers in the late 1960s there are now several hundred physical oceanographers distributed in some 20 Spanish institutions, and many more working overseas. The First Spanish Physical Oceanography Meeting (EOF1, held in Barcelona in October 2010, was a good example of the high quality and large variety of this research. The facilities and human resources are excellent but the alarming decrease in public investment in science due to the economic crisis must lead the Spanish physical oceanography community to define its current priorities. In this introductory paper to EOF1 we revise our history and where we are now, and suggest that progress in the near future will rely on our intelligence to sustain and enhance human capital, partnership and society-oriented research.

  16. (142)Nd evidence for an enriched Hadean reservoir in cratonic roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Dewashish; Scherer, Erik E; Mezger, Klaus

    2009-06-25

    The isotope (146)Sm undergoes alpha-decay to (142)Nd, with a half-life of 103 million years. Measurable variations in the (142)Nd/(144)Nd values of rocks resulting from Sm-Nd fractionation could therefore only have been produced within about 400 million years of the Solar System's formation (that is, when (146)Sm was extant). The (142)Nd/(144)Nd compositions of terrestrial rocks are accordingly a sensitive monitor of the main silicate differentiation events that took place in the early Earth. High (142)Nd/(144)Nd values measured in some Archaean rocks from Greenland hint at the existence of an early incompatible-element-depleted mantle. Here we present measurements of low (142)Nd/(144)Nd values in 1.48-gigayear-(Gyr)-old lithospheric mantle-derived alkaline rocks from the Khariar nepheline syenite complex in southeastern India. These data suggest that a reservoir that was relatively enriched in incompatible elements formed at least 4.2 Gyr ago and traces of its isotopic signature persisted within the lithospheric root of the Bastar craton until at least 1.48 Gyr ago. These low (142)Nd/(144)Nd compositions may represent a diluted signature of a Hadean (4 to 4.57 Gyr ago) enriched reservoir that is characterized by even lower values. That no evidence of the early depleted mantle has been observed in rocks younger than 3.6 Gyr (refs 3, 4, 7) implies that such domains had effectively mixed back into the convecting mantle by then. In contrast, some early enriched components apparently escaped this fate. Thus, the mantle sampled by magmatism since 3.6 Gyr ago may be biased towards a depleted composition that would be balanced by relatively more enriched reservoirs that are 'hidden' in Hadean crust, the D'' layer of the lowermost mantle or, as we propose here, also within the roots of old cratons.

  17. Secretary of the Navy Professor of Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA; 5-10 June 2011 Attended: Algae + Fish = Ocean Mixing? Conference, La Jolla, CA; 5-6 July 2011 Attended: JASON Summer...the scientific work of Klaus Hasselmann at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology; Hamburg , Germany; 09 November 2011 Keynote Address: Nansen

  18. Oceanography for Landlocked Classrooms. Monograph V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr., Ed.; Hounshell, Paul B., Ed.

    This monograph attempts to show the importance of bringing marine biology into science classrooms, discusses what makes the ocean so important and explains why oceanography should be included in the science curriculum regardless of where students live. Section I, "Getting Started," includes discussions on the following: (1) "Why Marine Biology?";…

  19. Characterization of inclusions in terrestrial impact formed zircon: Constraining the formation conditions of Hadean zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltys, J. P.; Wielicki, M. M.; Sizemore, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the discovery and subsequent geochemical analysis of Hadean terrestrial material (e.g. detrital zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia), a dramatic paradigm shift has occurred in the hypothesized near surface conditions of the first 500 million years of Earth's evolution. From a hellish setting riddled with impactors and not fit for life to a much milder environment that may have been uniquely suitable for the origin of life. Geochemical analyses of these ancient materials have been used to suggest the presence of water at or near the surface as well as the existence of continental crust during the Hadean, both of which have been suggested as necessary for the origin of life. However, the intensity of extraterrestrial bombardment during the Hadean and the effects of such events on the origin of life remains poorly understood. Clearly, as evidenced by Phanerozoic impact events, extraterrestrial impactors have the potential to dramatically effect the environment, particularly the biosphere. Early Earth likely experienced multiple large impact events, as evidenced by the lunar record, however whether those impacts were sufficient to frustrate the origin of life remains an open question. Although multiple lines of evidence, including the inclusion population, suggest the formation of Hadean zircon from Jack Hills as crystallizing in an under-thrust environment from S-type magmas, a recent study has suggested their formation in an impact melt environment analogous to a portion of the Sudbury Igneous Complex at the Sudbury impact structure. To determine between these two formation scenarios we have under-taken an inclusion study of terrestrial impact formed zircon from four of the largest terrestrial impact structures (Sudbury, Canada; Manicouagan, Canada; Vredefort, South Africa; Morokweng, South Africa), to compare to the vast inclusion dataset that exists for Jack Hills zircon. Preliminary data suggests a different inclusion population, from Hadean zircon

  20. Hadean silicate differentiation revealed by anomalous 142Nd in the Réunion hotspot source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. J.; Carlson, R.; Day, J. M.; Horan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Geochemical and geophysical data show that volcanic hotspots can tap ancient domains sequestered in Earth's deep mantle. Evidence from stable and long-lived radiogenic isotope systems has demonstrated that many of these domains result from tectonic and differentiation processes that occurred more than two billion years ago. Recent advances in the analysis of short-lived radiogenic isotopes have further shown that some hotspot sources preserve evidence for metal-silicate differentiation occurring within the first one percent of Earth's history. Despite these discoveries, efforts to detect variability in the lithophile 146Sm-142Nd (t1/2 = 103 Ma) system in Phanerozoic hotspot lavas have not yet detected significant global variation. We report 142Nd/144Nd ratios in Réunion Island basalts that are statistically distinct from the terrestrial Nd standard ranging to both higher and lower 142Nd/144Nd. Variations in 142Nd/144Nd, which total nearly 15 ppm on Réunion, are correlated with 3He/4He among both anomalous and non-anomalous samples. Such behavior implies that there were analogous changes in Sm/Nd and (U+Th)/3He that occurred during a Hadean silicate differentiation event and were not completely overprinted by the depleted mantle. Variations in the 142Nd-143Nd compositions of Réunion basalts can be explained by a single Hadean melting event producing enriched and depleted domains that partially re-mixed after 146Sm was no longer extant. Assuming differentiation occurred at pressures where perovskite is stable, anomalies of the magnitude observed in Réunion basalts require melting of at least 50% across a wide depth range, and up to 90% for melting at pressures near those of the deepest mantle. Models with best fits to Nd isotope data suggest this differentiation occurred around 4.40 Ga and mixing occurred after 4 Ga. This two-stage differentiation process nearly erased the ancient, anomalous 142Nd composition of the Réunion source and produced the relatively

  1. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  2. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  3. SWOT Oceanography and Hydrology Data Product Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, Eva; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Fernandez, Daniel Esteban; Johnson, Michael P.; Blumstein, Denis

    2013-01-01

    The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would demonstrate a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurements of water elevation at high resolution over ocean and land, addressing the needs of both the hydrology and oceanography science communities. To accurately evaluate the performance of the proposed SWOT mission, we have developed several data product simulators at different levels of fidelity and complexity.

  4. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.; Gegg, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Oceanography and marine ecosystem research are inherently interdisciplinary fields of study that generate and require access to a wide variety of measurements. In late 2006 the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Geosciences Directorate Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). In late 2010 additional funding was contributed to support management of research data from the NSF Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program. The BCO-DMO is recognized in the 2011 Division of Ocean Sciences Sample and Data Policy as one of several program specific data offices that support NSF OCE funded researchers. BCO-DMO staff members offer data management support throughout the project life cycle to investigators from large national programs and medium-sized collaborative research projects, as well as researchers from single investigator awards. The office manages and serves all types of oceanographic data and information generated during the research process and contributed by the originating investigators. BCO-DMO has built a data system that includes the legacy data from several large ocean research programs (e.g. United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and United States GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics), to which data have been contributed from recently granted NSF OCE and OPP awards. The BCO-DMO data system can accommodate many different types of data including: in situ and experimental biological, chemical, and physical measurements; modeling results and synthesis data products. The system enables reuse of oceanographic data for new research endeavors, supports synthesis and modeling activities, provides availability of "real data" for K-12 and college level use, and provides decision-support field data for policy-relevant investigations. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: map

  5. From satellite altimetry to Argo and operational oceanography: three revolutions in oceanography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Le Traon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The launch of the French/US mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P (CNES/NASA in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large-scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA satellites ERS-1/2 were flying simultaneously with T/P. Together with my CLS colleagues, we demonstrated that we could use T/P as a reference mission for ERS-1/2 and bring the ERS-1/2 data to an accuracy level comparable to T/P. Near-real-time high-resolution global sea level anomaly maps were then derived. These maps have been operationally produced as part of the SSALTO/DUACS system for the last 15 yr. They are now widely used by the oceanographic community and have contributed to a much better understanding and recognition of the role and importance of mesoscale dynamics. Altimetry needs to be complemented with global in situ observations. At the end of the 90s, a major international initiative was launched to develop Argo, the global array of profiling floats. This has been an outstanding success. Argo floats now provide the most important in situ observations to monitor and understand the role of the ocean on the earth climate and for operational oceanography. This is a second revolution in oceanography. The unique capability of satellite altimetry to observe the global ocean in near-real-time at high resolution and the development of Argo were essential for the development of global operational oceanography, the third revolution in oceanography. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE was instrumental in the development of the required capabilities. This paper provides an historical perspective on the development of these three revolutions in oceanography which are very much interlinked. This is not an exhaustive review and I will mainly focus on the contributions we made together with many

  6. What can zircon ages from the Jack Hills detrital zircon suite really tell us about Hadean geodynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    As the only direct sample of the Hadean Earth, detrital zircon grains from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, have been the subject of intense investigation over the almost three decades since their discovery. A wide variety of geochemical and isotopic analyses of these grains, as well as their mineral inclusions, have been used variously to support two fundamentally different models for Hadean geodynamics: (i) Some form of (not necessarily modern-style) plate recycling generating felsic (continental-type?) crust at the boundaries [1, 2], or conversely (ii) the persistence of a long-lived, stagnant basaltic lid within which magmatism occurred as a result of internal temperature perturbations and/or impacts [3, 4], a model also generally consistent with a wide range of observations from post-Hadean geochemical reservoirs. Despite the considerable time and resources expended, the majority of these studies uncritically accept the individual U-Pb zircon ages, even though their veracity is key to many of the interpretations [5, 6]. We report here the results of an in-depth evaluation of all published (and new) U-Pb ages from the Jack Hills zircon suite in order to define age populations that can be used with a high degree of confidence in geodynamic interpretations. A notable problem in the interpretation of U-Pb data from ancient zircon grains (including those as young as the Neoarchean) is that disturbance of the systematics even several 100 Ma after crystallization causes data to spread along the concordia curve without becoming discernably discordant within the relatively large error bounds associated with U/Pb ages from in situ dating methods (e.g. SIMS). While 207Pb/206Pb ages are typically more precise, individually they provide no means to detect Pb-loss-induced younging. However, if two or preferably more analyses have been made in the same zircon growth zone, a reasonable evaluation of the possibility of Pb-loss can be made. In the available Jack Hills zircon

  7. Using Oceanography to Support Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byfield, V.

    2012-04-01

    Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from

  8. Oceanography related to deep sea waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In connection with studies on the feasibility of the safe disposal of radioactive waste, from a large scale nuclear power programme, either on the bed of the deep ocean or within the deep ocean bed, preparation of the present document was commissioned by the (United Kingdom) Department of the Environment. It attempts (a) to summarize the present state of knowledge of the deep ocean environment relevant to the disposal options and assess the processes which could aid or hinder dispersal of material released from its container; (b) to identify areas of research in which more work is needed before the safety of disposal on, or beneath, the ocean bed can be assessed; and (c) to indicate which areas of research can or should be undertaken by British scientists. The programmes of international cooperation in this field are discussed. The report is divided into four chapters dealing respectively with geology and geophysics, geochemistry, physical oceanography and marine biology. (U.K.)

  9. Argo workstation: a key component of operational oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mingmei; Xu, Shanshan; Miao, Qingsheng; Yue, Xinyang; Lu, Jiawei; Yang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Operational oceanography requires the quantity, quality, and availability of data set and the timeliness and effectiveness of data products. Without steady and strong operational system supporting, operational oceanography will never be proceeded far. In this paper we describe an integrated platform named Argo Workstation. It operates as a data processing and management system, capable of data collection, automatic data quality control, visualized data check, statistical data search and data service. After it is set up, Argo workstation provides global high quality Argo data to users every day timely and effectively. It has not only played a key role in operational oceanography but also set up an example for operational system.

  10. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ferromanganese Nodule Analysis File - IDOE Portion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) compiled data on the geochemistry of marine ferromanganese nodules, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation...

  11. Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Murty, V.S.N.; Suryanarayana, A.

    Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea is reviewed for the first time. All available information for over 50 years is consolidated in this review. To begin with, information on peripheral or related aspects of climate...

  12. Hadean silicate differentiation preserved by anomalous 142Nd/144Nd ratios in the Réunion hotspot source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Bradley J.; Carlson, Richard W.; Day, James M. D.; Horan, Mary F.

    2018-03-01

    Active volcanic hotspots can tap into domains in Earth’s deep interior that were formed more than two billion years ago. High-precision data on variability in tungsten isotopes have shown that some of these domains resulted from differentiation events that occurred within the first fifty million years of Earth history. However, it has not proved easy to resolve analogous variability in neodymium isotope compositions that would track regions of Earth’s interior whose composition was established by events occurring within roughly the first five hundred million years of Earth history. Here we report 142Nd/144Nd ratios for Réunion Island igneous rocks, some of which are resolvably either higher or lower than the ratios in modern upper-mantle domains. We also find that Réunion 142Nd/144Nd ratios correlate with helium-isotope ratios (3He/4He), suggesting parallel behaviour of these isotopic systems during very early silicate differentiation, perhaps as early as 4.39 billion years ago. The range of 142Nd/144Nd ratios in Réunion basalts is inconsistent with a single-stage differentiation process, and instead requires mixing of a conjugate melt and residue formed in at least one melting event during the Hadean eon, 4.56 billion to 4 billion years ago. Efficient post-Hadean mixing nearly erased the ancient, anomalous 142Nd/144Nd signatures, and produced the relatively homogeneous 143Nd/144Nd composition that is characteristic of Réunion basalts. Our results show that Réunion magmas tap into a particularly ancient, primitive source compared with other volcanic hotspots, offering insight into the formation and preservation of ancient heterogeneities in Earth’s interior.

  13. Other relevant papers in physical oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyffeler, F.

    1989-01-01

    During the past few years, significant progress has occurred in the field of physical oceanography partly as a consequence of developing cooperation and international participation in well-coordinated ocean research programmes. Although these programs were not designed specifically to address CRESP problems, many have proved to be directly relevant to CRESP objectives. For example, MODE, POLYMODE, and Tourbillon were intensive site-specific experiments that included studies of dispersion processes throughout the water column. NOAMP and GME were also site specific, involved the entire water column, and even stressed near-bottom and suspended-sediment processes. Others, (e.g., WOCE) are larger in scope and include extensive observations of the general circulation of entire ocean basins. As a whole, they contribute immensely to improving the data base for exchange and transport processes and thereby for the verification and validation of both regional-scale and general-circulation ocean models. That, in turn, is directly relevant to radiological assessments. Selected papers deriving from experiments such as these are discussed and referenced below

  14. Ocean for all, a different way to see oceanography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Ramos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oceanography as a science is still not very widespread in Brazilian society, making it difficult to strengthen the ties between society and the ocean. Thus, the creation of methodologies associated with new teaching techniques, improved with the help of technology, may build a more inclusive society and provide the experience of oceanographic phenomena for all. The extension project "Ocean for all", executed between March and July of 2016, performed an experience in oceanography to the elderly members of the Associação Catarinense para Integração do Cego (ACIC in Florianópolis (SC. In order to do so, a methodology was created to pass on knowledge about oceanography in its biological, geological, chemical and physical aspects to the visually impaired. During the execution of the experience, as well as the development of the methodology, problems in the coastal marine environment with anthropological origin were presented.

  15. An oceanography summer school in Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbic, B. K.; Ansong, J. K.; Johnson, W.; Nyadjro, E. S.; Nyarko, E.

    2016-02-01

    Because oceanography is a global science, it clearly benefits from the existence of a world-wide network of oceanographers. As with most STEM disciplines, sub-Saharan Africa is not as well represented in the field of oceanography as it should be, given its large population. The need for oceanographers in sub-Saharan Africa is great, due to a long list of ocean-related issues affecting African development, including but not limited to fishing, oil drilling, sea level rise, coastal erosion, shipping, and piracy. We view this as an opportunity as well as a challenge. Many of the world's fastest growing economies are in sub-Saharan Africa, and STEM capacity building could further fuel this growth. With support from the US National Science Foundation, we ran an oceanography summer school from August 24-27, 2015, at the Regional Maritime University (RMU) in Ghana, West Africa. This first summer school was lecture-based, with a focus on basic chemical oceanography, basic physical oceanography, ocean modeling, and satellite oceanography. About 35 participants came to almost every lecture, and about 20 other participants came to some of the lectures as their time permitted. The participants included RMU faculty, 12 students from the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, one Associate Oceanographer from the University of Ghana, and some participants from private sector companies and Ghanaian governmental agencies. There were long and lively discussions at the end of each lecture, and there was a lengthy discussion at the conclusion of the school on how to improve future summer schools. In 2016 and 2017, we plan to divide into smaller groups so that participants can pursue their particular interests in greater depth, and to allow time for student presentations. We also plan to begin exploring the potential for research partnerships, and to utilize distance learning to involve more faculty and students from locations throughout Ghana and perhaps from even other

  16. Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Limnology and Oceanography (DIALOG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The DIALOG Program was founded by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), in order to reduce the historical, institutional and philosophical barriers that limit the exchange of information between limnologists and oceanographers, and to foster interdisciplinary and inter-institutional research. This was achieved by targeting a recent cohort of Ph.D. recipients whose work included a biological component of limnology or oceanography. The program included: (1) publication of the submitted Ph.D. dissertation abstracts; (2) a symposium to facilitate exchange across institutions and disciplines; and (3) establishment of a centralized data base for applicant characterization and tracking.

  17. U Pb and Lu Hf isotope record of detrital zircon grains from the Limpopo Belt Evidence for crustal recycling at the Hadean to early-Archean transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, Armin; Gerdes, Axel; Klemd, Reiner; Barton, J. M., Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Detrital zircon grains from Beit Bridge Group quartzite from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt near Musina yield mostly ages of 3.35-3.15 Ga, minor 3.15-2.51 Ga components, and numerous older grains grouped at approximately 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6 Ga. Two grains yielded concordant Late Hadean U-Pb ages of 3881 ± 11 Ma and 3909 ± 26 Ma, which are the oldest zircon grains so far found in Africa. The combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf datasets and field relationships provide evidence that the sedimentary protolith of the Beit Bridge Group quartzite was deposited after the emplacement of the Sand River Gneisses (3.35-3.15 Ga), but prior to the Neoarchean magmatic-metamorphic events at 2.65-2.60 Ga. The finding of abundant magmatic zircon detritus with concordant U-Pb ages of 3.35-3.15 Ga, and 176Hf/ 177Hf of 0.28066 ± 0.00004 indicate that the Sand River Gneiss-type rocks were a predominant source. In contrast, detrital zircon grains older than approximately 3.35 Ga were derived from the hinterland of the Limpopo Belt; either from a so far unknown crustal source in southern Africa, possibly from the Zimbabwe Craton and/or a source, which was similar but not necessarily identical to the one that supplied the Hadean zircons to Jack Hills, Western Australia. The Beit Bridge Group zircon population at >3.35 Ga shows a general ɛHf t increase with decreasing age from ɛHf 3.9Ga = -6.3 to ɛHf 3.3-3.1Ga = -0.2, indicating that Hadean crust older than 4.0 Ga ( TDM = 4.45-4.36 Ga) was rejuvenated during magmatic events between >3.9 and 3.1 Ga, due to a successive mixing of crustal rocks with mantle derived magmas. The existence of a depleted mantle reservoir in the Limpopo's hinterland is reflected by the ˜3.6 Ga zircon population, which shows ɛHf 3.6Ga between -4.6 and +3.2. In a global context, our data suggest that a long-lived, mafic Hadean protocrust with some tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite constituents was destroyed and partly recycled at the Hadean/Archean transition, perhaps

  18. Biological oceanography of the red oceanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Hjalmar; Weikert, Horst

    1. In 1977, 1979 and 1980-81, investigations were carried out which aimed at evaluating the potential risks from mining metalliferous muds precipating in the Atlantis II Deep of the central Red Sea. This environmental research was initiated by the Saudi Sudanese Red Sea Joint Commission in order to avoid any danger for the Red Sea ecosystem. The broad environmental research programme coherent studies in physical, chemical, biological, and geological oceanography as well as toxicological investigations in the oceanic and in reef zones. We summarise the results from our biological fiels studies in the open sea. 2. The biological investigations were concentrated on the area of the Atlantis II Deep. Benthos was sampled between 700-2000m. For comparison a few samples were also taken further north in the central Red Sea, and to east and west along the flanking deep terraces (500-1000m). Plankton studies covered the total water column above the Deep, and were extended along the axial through to north and south. 3. Benthos sampling was carried out using a heavy closing trawl, a large box grab (box size 50 × 50 cm), Van Veen grabs and traps; photographic surveys were made a phototrap and a photosled. Community respiration was measured with a ship-board method using grab subsamples. Nutrient concentrations, seston and phytoplankton standing stocks as well as in situ primary production were determined from hydrocast samples. Data on zooplankton and micronekton composition and standing stock were obtained from samples collected using different multiple opening-and-closing nets equipped with 100 μm, 300 μm, and 1000 μm mesh sizes. Daily and ontogenetical vertical migration patterns were studied by comparisons of data from midday and midnight tows. 4. Throughout the whole area the sediment is a pteropod ooze containing low contentrations of organic matter; measured organic carbon and nitrogen contents were 0.5 and 0.05% respectively, and chloroplastic pigment equivalents

  19. Oceanography: 1998 Paris Meeting Abstracts: Coastal and Marginal Seas. Volume 11, Number 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhodes, Judith

    1998-01-01

    This grant supported a successful international multidisciplinary scientific meeting addressing the topic "Coastal and Marginal Seas," hosted by The Oceanography Society and UNESCO's Intergovernmental...

  20. Operationele Oceanografie en Rapid Environmental Assessment (Operational Oceanography and Rapid Environmental Assessment)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    te Raa, L. A; Lam, F. P; Schouten, M. W

    2008-01-01

    .... Possible applications of operational oceanography in REA include improved sonar performance predictions with three-dimensional sound speed forecasts, support of AUV mission planning with the help...

  1. Medium activity long-lived nuclear waste; microbial paradise or hadean environment - Evaluation of biomass and impact on redox conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Libert, M.

    2010-01-01

    different types of bacterial impact. Compared to a low food, low space, low water, 'Hadean' environment of high-level waste cells, at least the bituminous waste cells may turn out to become a microbial 'Paradise'. But the bacterial action may well have a positive impact on the safety assessment, by catalysing the reduction of nitrate and sulphate and the oxidation of hydrogen gas; thus significantly reducing their concentrations and helping the system to move again toward the reducing conditions characterised by the sulphate/sulphide system initially controlling the host rock redox situation. But uncertainties remain regarding microbial development in the high pH concrete environment. The intermediate-level waste cells may thus just as well turn out to be a 'Hadean' environment, unsuited for significant microbial development. (authors)

  2. Diploma of Higher Studies in Oceanography. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents four courses for the diploma of higher studies in oceanography conducted by the Department of Oceanography, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Egypt. These courses are organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO). Each course is designed to be taught in one academic year…

  3. Effective, Active Learning Strategies for the Oceanography Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.

    2014-12-01

    A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.

  4. The Fe-Rich Clay Microsystems in Basalt-Komatiite Lavas: Importance of Fe-Smectites for Pre-Biotic Molecule Catalysis During the Hadean Eon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Alain; Petit, Sabine; Cockell, Charles S.; El Albani, Abderrazzak; Beaufort, Daniel

    2010-06-01

    During the Hadean to early Archean period (4.5-3.5 Ga), the surface of the Earth’s crust was predominantly composed of basalt and komatiite lavas. The conditions imposed by the chemical composition of these rocks favoured the crystallization of Fe-Mg clays rather than that of Al-rich ones (montmorillonite). Fe-Mg clays were formed inside chemical microsystems through sea weathering or hydrothermal alteration, and for the most part, through post-magmatic processes. Indeed, at the end of the cooling stage, Fe-Mg clays precipitated directly from the residual liquid which concentrated in the voids remaining in the crystal framework of the mafic-ultramafic lavas. Nontronite-celadonite and chlorite-saponite covered all the solid surfaces (crystals, glass) and are associated with tiny pyroxene and apatite crystals forming the so-called “mesostasis”. The mesostasis was scattered in the lava body as micro-settings tens of micrometres wide. Thus, every square metre of basalt or komatiite rocks was punctuated by myriads of clay-rich patches, each of them potentially behaving as a single chemical reactor which could concentrate the organics diluted in the ocean water. Considering the high catalytic potentiality of clays, and particularly those of the Fe-rich ones (electron exchangers), it is probable that large parts of the surface of the young Earth participated in the synthesis of prebiotic molecules during the Hadean to early Archean period through innumerable clay-rich micro-settings in the massive parts and the altered surfaces of komatiite and basaltic lavas. This leads us to suggest that Fe,Mg-clays should be preferred to Al-rich ones (montmorillonite) to conduct experiments for the synthesis and the polymerisation of prebiotic molecules.

  5. The oceanography programme of the Federal German Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The oceanography programme of the Federal German Government has the following general aims: 1. To lay the foundation for better understanding of the role of the ocean as a climate factor and repercussions on the ocean from climate change as a basis for future preventive and protective action. 2. Identification of natural and anthropogenous factors of stress to the coastal seas, the coastal regions and the open ocean, research into their dynamics and impact, and development of bases, methods and concepts for describing and evaluating the condition of the coastal seas, coastal regions and open ocean and for projecting and/or remedying relative changes. 3. Development of methods and techniques for climate and environment-related research into and monitoring of the oceans and for careful exploitation of living and non-living resources. (orig.) [de

  6. JARE-43 Tangaroa marine science cruise report (Physical oceanography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Aoki

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand the seasonal variation of biological and biogeochemical cycles in the seasonal ice zone in the Southern Ocean, the cruise of JARE-STAGE (Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition-Studies on Antarctic Ocean and Global Environment was conducted in February 2002 with R/V Tangaroa. Physical oceanography implementations of the cruise are described. The results of the manufacturers' CTD conductivity calibrations were consistent between before and after the cruise, and the difference in salinity estimate was expected to be within 0.0014. Two casts were made to validate the XCTD accuracy and comparisons with the CTD are discussed. Generally, it is concluded that reasonably accurate observations were completed in this cruise.

  7. IEOOS: the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Balbin, R.; Cabanas, J. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Garcia-Martinez, M. C.; Gonzalez-Pola, C.; Lavin, A.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Rodriguez, C.; Ruiz-Villarreal, M.; Sanchez-Leal, R. F.; Vargas-Yanez, M.; Velez-Belchi, P.

    2015-10-01

    Since its foundation, 100 years ago, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) has been observing and measuring the ocean characteristics. Here is a summary of the initiatives of the IEO in the field of the operational oceanography (OO). Some systems like the tide gauges network has been working for more than 70 years. The IEO standard sections began at different moments depending on the local projects, and nowadays there are more than 180 coastal stations and deep-sea ones that are systematically sampled, obtaining physical and biochemical measurements. At this moment, the IEO Observing System (IEOOS) includes 6 permanent moorings equipped with currentmeters, an open-sea ocean-meteorological buoy offshore Santander and an SST satellital image reception station. It also supports the Spanish contribution to the ARGO international program with 47 deployed profilers, and continuous monitoring thermosalinometers, meteorological stations and ADCP onboard the IEO research vessels. The system is completed with the IEO contribution to the RAIA and Gibraltar observatories, and the development of regional prediction models. All these systematic measurements allow the IEO to give responses to ocean research activities, official agencies requirements and industrial and main society demands as navigation, resource management, risks management, recreation, etc, as well as for management development pollution-related economic activities or marine ecosystems. All these networks are linked to international initiatives, framed largely in supranational programs Earth observation sponsored by the United Nations or the European Union. The synchronic observation system permits following spatio-temporal description of some events, as new deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea and the injection of heat to intermediate waters in the Bay of Biscay after some colder northern storms in winter 2005.

  8. NSF-Sponsored Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Copley, N.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Glover, D. M.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Work, T. T.; Biological; Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    2010-12-01

    Ocean biogeochemistry and marine ecosystem research projects are inherently interdisciplinary and benefit from improved access to well-documented data. Improved data sharing practices are important to the continued exploration of research themes that are a central focus of the ocean science community and are essential to interdisciplinary and international collaborations that address complex, global research themes. In 2006, the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to serve the data management requirements of scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections. BCO-DMO staff members work with investigators to manage marine biogeochemical, ecological, and oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research. These valuable data sets are documented, stored, disseminated, and protected over short and intermediate time frames. One of the goals of the BCO-DMO is to facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange through improved data discovery, access, display, downloading, and interoperability. In May 2010, NSF released a statement to the effect that in October 2010, it is planning to require that all proposals include a data management plan in the form of a two-page supplementary document. The data management plan would be an element of the merit review process. NSF has long been committed to making data from NSF-funded research publicly available and the new policy will strengthen this commitment. BCO-DMO is poised to assist in creating the data management plans and in ultimately serving the data and information resulting from NSF OCE funded research. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: geospatial and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data

  9. Physical oceanography - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  10. Ranking serials in oceanography: An analysis based on the Indian contributions and their citations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tapaswi, M.P.; Maheswarappa, B.S.

    An analysis of serials preferred and cited in various communications by the Indian oceanographers during 1963 to 1992 is presented. A shift in preference of serials from general sciences to oceanography (interdisciplinary) and to core subject...

  11. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) Geological Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of California San Diego (UCSD) Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS)...

  12. The ecology of plankton in biological oceanography: a tribute to Marta Estrada’s task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Solé

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plankton ecology has been the object of intense research and progress in the last few decades. This has been partly due to technological advances that have facilitated the multidisciplinary and high-resolution sampling of ecosystems and improved experimentation and analytical methodologies, and to sophisticated modelling. In addition, exceptional researchers have had the vision to integrate all these innovative tools to form a solid theoretical background in ecology. Here we provide an overview of the outstanding research work conducted by Professor Marta Estrada and her pioneering contribution to different areas of research in the last four decades. Her research in biological oceanography has mainly focussed on phytoplankton ecology, taxonomy and physiology, the functional structure of plankton communities, and physical and biological interactions in marine ecosystems. She has combined a variety of field and laboratory approaches and methodologies, from microscopy to satellite observations, including in-depth statistical data analysis and modelling. She has been a reference for scientists all over the world. Here, her contributions to plankton ecology are summarized by some of her students and closest collaborators, who had the privilege to share their science and everyday experiences with her.

  13. A New Data Management System for Biological and Chemical Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C.; Allison, D.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2007-12-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created to serve PIs principally funded by NSF to conduct marine chemical and ecological research. The new office is dedicated to providing open access to data and information developed in the course of scientific research on short and intermediate time-frames. The data management system developed in support of U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC programs is being modified to support the larger scope of the BCO-DMO effort, which includes ultimately providing a way to exchange data with other data systems. The open access system is based on a philosophy of data stewardship, support for existing and evolving data standards, and use of public domain software. The DMO staff work closely with originating PIs to manage data gathered as part of their individual programs. In the new BCO-DMO data system, project and data set metadata records designed to support re-use of the data are stored in a relational database (MySQL) and the data are stored in or made accessible by the JGOFS/GLOBEC object- oriented, relational, data management system. Data access will be provided via any standard Web browser client user interface through a GIS application (Open Source, OGC-compliant MapServer), a directory listing from the data holdings catalog, or a custom search engine that facilitates data discovery. In an effort to maximize data system interoperability, data will also be available via Web Services; and data set descriptions will be generated to comply with a variety of metadata content standards. The office is located at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and web access is via http://www.bco-dmo.org.

  14. Tactile Digital Video Globes: a New Way to Outreach Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteau, A.; Claustre, H.; Scheurle, C.; Jessin, T.; Fontana, C.

    2016-02-01

    One objective of the "Ocean Autonomous Observation" team of the Laboratory of Oceanography of Villefranche-sur-mer is to develop new means to outreach our science activities to various audiences. Besides the scientific community, this includes students and targets the general public, school pupils, and stakeholders. In this context, we have acquired a digital video globe with tactile capabilities and we will present here the various applications that we have been developing. A first type of products concerns the visualization of oceanic properties (SST, salinity, density, Chla, O2, NO3, irradiance) by diving from the surface (generally from satellite data) into the Ocean interior (through the use of global data bases, Argo, WOA). In second place, specific applications deal with surface animations allowing highlighting the seasonality of some properties (Chla, SST, ice cover, currents; based on satellite as well as modeling outputs). Finally, we show a variety of applications developed using the tactile functionality of the spherical display. In particular real-time vertical profiles acquired by Bio-Argo floats become directly accessible for the entire open ocean. Such a new tool plus its novel applications has been presented to school children, and to the wider public (at the so-called "fête de la science") as well as to potential sponsors of our science-outreach activities. Their feedback has always been highly positive and encouraging in terms of impact. From the scientists point of view, the use of this new support can easily compete with the classical PowerPoint, is much more attractive and fun and undeniably helps to outreach the various aspects of our pluridisciplinary science.

  15. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  16. The inverse microconglomerate test: Definition and application to the preservation of Paleoarchean to Hadean magnetizations in metasediments of the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Rory; Tarduno, John; Bono, Richard; Dare, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a new paleomagnetic field test, the inverse microconglomerate test. In contrast with traditional conglomerate tests, which target specimens that might preserve primary magnetizations, the inverse microconglomerate test focuses on magnetic carriers having unblocking temperatures less than peak metamorphic temperatures. These mineral carriers are expected to carry a consistent direction of remagnetization. Hence, the inverse microconglomerate test evaluates whether coherent magnetizations are retained on a grain/mineral scale in a given sedimentary rock sample. By defining the remagnetization direction, it also serves as a benchmark for comparison of magnetizations from other grains/minerals having unblocking temperatures higher than peak metamorphic conditions (i.e., potential primary magnetizations). We apply this new test to sediments of the Jack Hills (JH), Yilgarn craton, Western Australia. For the JH sediments we focus on fuchsite, a secondary Cr-mica that contains relict Cr-Fe spinels capable of recording remanent magnetizations. We find that JH fuchsite grains retain consistent magnetic directions at unblocking temperatures between ˜270 and 340 oC, which defines a positive test. This direction does not reproduce a nominal 1078-1070 Ma remagnetization reported by Weiss et al. (EPSL, 2015) that we interpret as an artifact of inappropriate use of averaging and statistics. The thermochemical remanent magnetization recorded by the fuchsite was most likely imparted during peak JH metamorphic conditions at ˜2650 Ma. Our inverse microconglomerate test complements a positive microconglomerate test and large scale positive conglomerate test conducted on JH cobbles (Tarduno and Cottrell, EPSL, 2013), further supporting evidence that JH zircons record Paleoarchean to Hadean primary magnetizations at high (greater than 550 oC) unblocking temperatures (Tarduno et al., Science, 2015). More generally, the new inverse microconglomerate test may aid in

  17. A Retrospective Self-Assessment of the SURFO Summer Internship Program in Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Donohue, K. A.; Fliegler, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships in Oceanography (SURFO) program at the Graduate School of Oceanography/University of Rhode Island is an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates site program with a programmatic research niche focused on quantitative aspects of Oceanography. Each summer-cohort includes 9-12 participants (rising seniors) who are paired with a primary research advisor and often with a graduate student mentor. The primary components of the 10-week program include a 4-week introductory phase and a 6-week core research phase. A retrospective self-assessment instrument gauged the confidence, attitude and comfort level of participants with; 1) core math and science subjects, 2) oceanography-related subjects, 3) research skills, and 4) SURFO and GSO staff. SURFO participants evaluated themselves at the start of the program, after the introductory phase, and at the end of the program. Participants were also asked to reassess their initial evaluations and provide an updated score. The pre-assessment results indicate that the program recruits students from the target group (e.g., strong physics and math backgrounds, but with limited exposure to oceanography). The results also indicate that the students are initially comfortable with their advising team, but not so comfortable with their research topic and research skills. The post-introductory phase results indicate large increases in comfort level with the advising team and the local research community yet little or no change is indicated for research skills. The final assessments show large changes in oceanography-content knowledge, research topic, and research skills. The retrospective reassessment indicates an initial overconfidence in most categories. Overall, the largest changes occurred during the core research portion of the program. These results reinforce the importance/effectiveness of authentic, hands-on, inquiry-based research for higher learning and training the next

  18. Utilizing social media for informal ocean conservation and education: The BioOceanography Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, J.

    2016-02-01

    Science communication through the use of social media is a rapidly evolving and growing pursuit in academic and scientific circles. Online tools and social media are being used in not only scientific communication but also scientific publication, education, and outreach. Standards and usage of social media as well as other online tools for communication, networking, outreach, and publication are always in development. Caution and a conservative attitude towards these novel "Science 2.0" tools is understandable because of their rapidly changing nature and the lack of professional standards for using them. However there are some key benefits and unique ways social media, online systems, and other Open or Open Source technologies, software, and "Science 2.0" tools can be utilized for academic purposes such as education and outreach. Diverse efforts for ocean conservation and education will continue to utilize social media for a variety of purposes. The BioOceanography project is an informal communication, education, outreach, and conservation initiative created for enhancing knowledge related to Oceanography and Marine Science with an unbiased yet conservation-minded approach and in an Open Source format. The BioOceanography project is ongoing and still evolving, but has already contributed to ocean education and conservation communication in key ways through a concerted web presence since 2013, including a curated Twitter account @_Oceanography and BioOceanography blog style website. Social media tools like those used in this project, if used properly can be highly effective and valuable for encouraging students, networking with researchers, and educating the general public in Oceanography.

  19. Strategies for Assessing Learning Outcomes in an Online Oceanography Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D. L.

    2003-12-01

    All general education courses at the San Jose State University, including those in the sciences, must present a detailed assessment plan of student learning, prior to certification for offering. The assessment plan must state a clear methodology for acquiring data on student achievement of the learning outcomes for the specific course category, as well as demonstrate how students fulfill a strong writing requirement. For example, an online course in oceanography falls into the Area R category, the Earth and Environment, through which a student should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the methods and limits of scientific investigation; distinguish science from pseudo-science; and apply a scientific approach to answer questions about the Earth and environment. The desired learning outcomes are shared with students at the beginning of the course and subsequent assessments on achieving each outcome are embedded in the graded assignments, which include a critical thinking essay, mid-term exam, poster presentation in a symposium-style format, portfolio of web-based work, weekly discussions on an electronic bulletin board, and a take-home final exam, consisting of an original research grant proposal. The diverse nature of the graded assignments assures a comprehensive assessment of student learning from a variety of perspectives, such as quantitative, qualitative, and analytical. Formative assessment is also leveraged into learning opportunities, which students use to identify the acquisition of knowledge. For example, pre-tests are used to highlight preconceptions at the beginning of specific field studies and post-testing encourages students to present the results of small research projects. On a broader scale, the assessment results contradict common misperceptions of online and hybrid courses. Student demand for online courses is very high due to the self-paced nature of learning. Rates of enrollment attrition match those of classroom sections, if students

  20. Bottom friction. A practical approach to modelling coastal oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanos, Rodolfo; Jensen, Palle; Kofoed-Hansen, Henrik; Tornsfeldt Sørensen, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Coastal processes imply the interaction of the atmosphere, the sea, the coastline and the bottom. The spatial gradients in this area are normally large, induced by orographic and bathymetric features. Although nowadays it is possible to obtain high-resolution bathymetry, the details of the seabed, e.g. sediment type, presence of biological material and living organisms are not available. Additionally, these properties as well as bathymetry can also be highly dynamic. These bottom characteristics are very important to describe the boundary layer of currents and waves and control to a large degree the dissipation of flows. The bottom friction is thus typically a calibration parameter in numerical modelling of coastal processes. In this work, we assess this process and put it into context of other physical processes uncertainties influencing wind-waves and currents in the coastal areas. A case study in the North Sea is used, particularly the west coast of Denmark, where water depth of less than 30 m cover a wide fringe along the coast, where several offshore wind farm developments are being carried out. We use the hydrodynamic model MIKE 21 HD and the spectral wave model MIKE 21 SW to simulate atmosphere and tidal induced flows and the wind wave generation and propagation. Both models represent state of the art and have been developed for flexible meshes, ideal for coastal oceanography as they can better represent coastlines and allow a variable spatial resolution within the domain. Sensitivity tests to bottom friction formulations are carried out into context of other processes (e.g. model forcing uncertainties, wind and wave interactions, wind drag coefficient). Additionally, a map of varying bottom properties is generated based on a literature survey to explore the impact of the spatial variability. Assessment of different approaches is made in order to establish a best practice regarding bottom friction and coastal oceanographic modelling. Its contribution is also

  1. Data analysis methods in physical oceanography. By Emery, W.J. and Thomson, R.E.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.

    . 729-730 September 1999 Book Reviews DATA ANALYSIS METHODS IN PHYSICAL O~EAN~GRAFWY. By Wil- liam J. Emery and Richard E. Thomson. PERGAMON Else&r Sci- ence. 1998. 400 p. U.S. $112 / NLG 177.00. The book Data Analysis Methods in Physical... Oceanography pro- vides a comprehensive and practical compilation of the essential information and analysis techniques required for the advanced processing and interpretation of digital spat&temporal data in physical oceanography, as well as in other...

  2. Data analysis methods in physical oceanography. By Emery, W.J. and Thomson, R.E.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.

    in Physical Oceanography. Page 1 of 1 file://C:\\My Documents\\articles30.htm 2/11/05 William J. Emery and Richard E. Thomson. Pergamon Elsevier Science. 1998. hardbound. 400 pp. ISBN: 0-08-031434-1. Price: US$ 112/NLG 177.00 This book provides a comprehensive... and practical compilation of the essential information and analysis techniques required for the advanced processing and interpretation of digital spatio-temporal data in physical oceanography, as well as in other branches of the geophysical sciences. The book...

  3. Shedding Light on the Sea: André Morel's Legacy to Optical Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, David; Babin, Marcel; Berthon, Jean-François; Bricaud, Annick; Gentili, Bernard; Loisel, Hubert; Maritorena, Stéphane; Stramski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    André Morel (1933-2012) was a prominent pioneer of modern optical oceanography, enabling significant advances in this field. Through his forward thinking and research over more than 40 years, he made key contributions that this field needed to grow and to reach its current status. This article first summarizes his career and then successively covers different aspects of optical oceanography where he made significant contributions, from fundamental work on optical properties of water and particles to global oceanographic applications using satellite ocean color observations. At the end, we share our views on André's legacy to our research field and scientific community.

  4. Research and Teaching: Implementation of Interactive Engagement Teaching Methods in a Physical Oceanography Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiner, Louis E.; Gilman, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This study measures the effects of increased faculty-student engagement on student learning, success rates, and perceptions in a Physical Oceanography course. The study separately implemented two teaching methods that had been shown to be successful in a different discipline, introductory physics. These methods were the use of interactive…

  5. Short Training Course in Oceanography. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents a training course in oceanography intended for Junior Bachelor of Science (B.S.) graduates in physics, mathematics, chemistry, zoology, botany or geology to give them the minimum qualifications required to work in any of the marine science stations. This 14-week course, organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and…

  6. The Indigo V Indian Ocean Expedition: a prototype for citizen microbial oceanography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauro, Frederico; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Cullen, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Microbial Oceanography has long been an extremely expensive discipline, requiring ship time for sample collection and thereby economically constraining the number of samples collected. This is especially true for under-sampled water bodies such as the Indian Ocean. Specialised scientific equipmen...

  7. Syllabus for an Associate Degree Program in Applied Marine Biology and Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tapan

    Included is a detailed outline of the content of each course required or offered as an elective in the associate degree program. With an 18 or 19 unit load each semester the program requires two years, and includes 64 hours at sea every semester. In addition to chemistry, physics, biology, and oceanography courses, there is a required course in…

  8. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  9. 1960-69 Cumulative Index of Articles Related to Oceanography and Limnology Education in The Science Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Maxwell

    Indexed are articles relating to oceanography and limnology published in "The Science Teacher" between 1960 and 1969. Articles are indexed under title, author, and topic. Topics include background information, course descriptions, and laboratory equipment and techniques. (EB)

  10. Designing and Implementing Service Learning Projects in an Introductory Oceanography Course Using the ``8-Block Model''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, E. P.; Field, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Campus Compact for New Hampshire (Gordon, 2003) introduced a practical model for designing service-learning exercises or components for new or existing courses. They divided the design and implementation process into eight concrete areas, the “8-Block Model”. Their goal was to demystify the design process of service learning courses by breaking it down into interconnected components. These components include: project design, community partner relations, the problem statement, building community in the classroom, building student capacity, project management, assessment of learning, and reflection and connections. The project design component of the “8-Block Model” asks that the service performed be consistent with the learning goals of the course. For science courses students carry out their work as a way of learning science and the process of science, not solely for the sake of service. Their work supports the goals of a community partner and the community partner poses research problems for the class in a letter on their letterhead. Linking student work to important problems in the community effectively engages students and encourages them to work at more sophisticated levels than usually seen in introductory science classes. Using team-building techniques, the classroom becomes a safe, secure learning environment that encourages sharing and experimentation. Targeted lectures, labs, and demonstrations build the capacity of students to do their research. Behind the scenes project management ensures student success. Learning is assessed using a variety of tools, including graded classroom presentations, poster sessions, and presentations and reports to community partners. Finally, students reflect upon their work and make connections between their research and its importance to the well being of the community. Over the past 10 years, we have used this approach to design and continually modify an introductory oceanography course for majors and non

  11. The Pale Blue Dot: Utilizing Real World Globes in High School and Undergraduate Oceanography Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience classrooms have benefitted greatly from the use of interactive, dry-erasable globes to supplement instruction on topics that require three-dimensional visualization, such as seismic wave propagation and the large-scale movements of tectonic plates. Indeed, research by Bamford (2013) demonstrates that using three-dimensional visualization to illustrate complex processes enhances student comprehension. While some geoscience courses tend to bake-in lessons on visualization, other disciplines of earth science that require three-dimensional visualization, such as oceanography, tend to rely on students' prior spatial abilities. In addition to spatial intelligence, education on the three-dimensional structure of the ocean requires knowledge of the external processes govern the behavior of the ocean, as well as the vertical and lateral distribution of water properties around the globe. Presented here are two oceanographic activities that utilize RealWorldGlobes' dry-erase globes to supplement traditional oceanography lessons on thermohaline and surface ocean circulation. While simultaneously promoting basic plotting techniques, mathematical calculations, and unit conversions, these activities touch on the processes that govern global ocean circulation, the principles of radiocarbon dating, and the various patterns exhibited by surface ocean currents. These activities challenge students to recognize inherent patterns within their data and synthesize explanations for their occurrence. Spatial visualization and critical thinking are integral to any geoscience education, and the combination of these abilities with engaging hands-on activities has the potential to greatly enhance oceanography education in both secondary and postsecondary settings

  12. The Hadean upper mantle conundrum: evidence for source depletion and enrichment from Sm-Nd, Re-Os, and Pb isotopic compositions in 3.71 Gy boninite-like metabasalts from the Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Robert; Polat, Ali; Meibom, Anders

    2004-04-01

    radiogenic Os isotopic signature is not known. Compared with the Sm-Nd and Re-Os isotope systems, the Pb isotope systematics show evidence for substantial perturbation by postformational hydrothermal-metasomatic alteration processes accompanying an early Archean metamorphic event at 3510 ± 65 Ma and indicate that the U-Th-Pb system was partially opened to Pb-loss on a whole rock scale. Single stage mantle evolution models fail to provide a solution to the Pb isotopic data, which requires that a high-μ component was mixed with the depleted mantle component before or during the extrusion of the basalts. Relatively high 207Pb/204Pb ratios (compared to contemporaneous mantle), support the hypothesis that erosion products of the ancient terrestrial protocrust existed for several hundred My before recycling into the mantle before ∼3.7 Ga. Our results are broadly consistent with models favoring a time-integrated Hadean history of mantle depletion and with the existence of an early Hadean protocrust, the complement to the Hadean depleted mantle, which after establishment of subduction-like processes was, at least locally, recycled into the upper mantle before 3.7 Ga. Thus, already in the Hadean, the upper mantle seems to be characterized by geochemical heterogeneity on a range of length scales; one property that is shared with the modern upper mantle. However, a simple two component mixing scenario between depleted mantle and an enriched-, crustal component with a modern analogue can not account for the complicated and contradictory geochemical properties of this particular Hadean upper mantle source.

  13. In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle: Seagoing Oceanography for Middle School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, D.; Foley, S.; Knox, R. A.; Mauricio, P.

    2007-12-01

    Now in its fourth year, "In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle" (IFRR) is a middle school science education program that draws student interest, scientific content and coherence with National Science Standards from real-time research at sea in fields of physical science. As a successful collaboration involving Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office of Naval Research (ONR), National Science Foundation (NSF), San Diego County Office of Education (SDCOE), and San Marcos Middle School (SMMS), IFRR brings physical oceanography and related sciences to students at the San Marcos Middle School in real-time from research vessels at sea using SIO's HiSeasNet satellite communication system. With their science teacher on the ship as an education outreach specialist or ashore guiding students in their interactions with selected scientists at sea, students observe shipboard research being carried out live via videoconference, daily e-mails, interviews, digital whiteboard sessions, and web interaction. Students then research, design, develop, deploy, and field-test their own data-collecting physical oceanography instruments in their classroom. The online interactive curriculum encourages active inquiry with intellectually stimulating problem-solving, enabling students to gain critical insight and skill while investigating some of the most provocative questions of our time, and seeing scientists as role- models. Recent science test scores with IFRR students have shown significant increases in classes where this curriculum has been implemented as compared to other classes where the traditional curriculum has been used. IFRR has provided students in the San Diego area with a unique opportunity for learning about oceanographic research, which could inspire students to become oceanographers or at least scientifically literate citizens - a benefit for a country that depends

  14. Mass-spectrometric mining of Hadean zircons by automated SHRIMP multi-collector and single-collector U/Pb zircon age dating: The first 100,000 grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Peter; Lanc, Peter; Ireland, Trevor R.; Harrison, T. Mark; Foster, John J.; Bruce, Zane

    2009-09-01

    The identification and retrieval of a large population of ancient zircons (>4 Ga; Hadean) is of utmost priority if models of the early evolution of Earth are to be rigorously tested. We have developed a rapid and accurate U-Pb zircon age determination protocol utilizing a fully automated multi-collector ion microprobe, the ANU SHRIMP II, to screen and date these zircons. Unattended data acquisition relies on the calibration of a digitized sample map to the Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) sample-stage co-ordinate system. High precision positioning of individual grains can be produced through optical image processing of a specified mount location. The focal position of the mount can be optimized through a correlation between secondary-ion steering and the spot position on the target. For the Hadean zircon project, sample mounts are photographed and sample locations (normally grain centers) are determined off-line. The sample is loaded, reference points calibrated, and the target positions are then visited sequentially. In SHRIMP II multiple-collector mode, zircons are initially screened (ca. 5 s data acquisition) through their 204Pb corrected 207Pb/206Pb ratio; suitable candidates are then analyzed in a longer routine to obtain better measurement statistics, U/Pb, and concentration data. In SHRIMP I and SHRIMP RG, we have incorporated the automated analysis protocol to single-collector measurements. These routines have been used to analyze over 100,000 zircons from the Jack Hills quartzite. Of these, ca. 7%, have an age greater than 3.8 Ga, the oldest grain being 4372 +/- 6 Ma (2[sigma]), and this age is part of a group of analyses around 4350 Ma which we interpret as the age when continental crust first began to coalesce in this region. In multi-collector mode, the analytical time taken for a single mount with 400 zircons is approximately 6 h; whereas in single-collector mode, the analytical time is ca. 17 h. With this productivity, we can produce

  15. Chemical oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    biogeochemical conditions affect the cycling of climatically important gases viz. carbon dioxide (CO sub(2)), nitrous oxide (N sub(2)O) and methane. Surface waters are normally supersaturated with CO sub(2) in the Arabian Sea and undersaturated in some parts...

  16. The International System of Units (SI) in Oceanography. Report of IAPSO Working Group on Symbols, Units and Nomenclature in Physical Oceanography (SUN). Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 45. IAPSO Publication Scientifique No. 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report introduces oceanographers to the International System of Units (SI) in physical oceanography. The SI constitutes a universal language, designed to be understood by all scientists. It facilitates their mutual comprehension and exchange of views and results of their work. The first part of the report is devoted to physical quantities,…

  17. Sailing for Science: on board experiences for transferring knowledge on Historical Oceanography for Future Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvani, Sara; Carmisciano, Cosmo; Locritani, Marina; Grossi, Luigi; Mori, Anna; Stroobant, Mascha; Schierano, Erika; De Strobel, Federico; Manzella, Giuseppe; Muzi, Enrico; Leccese, Dario; Sinapi, Luigi; Morellato, Claudio; La Tassa, Hebert; Talamoni, Roberta; Coelho, Emanuel; Nacini, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    Smart, sustainable and inclusive Blue Growth means also knowing past technology and the paths followed by ancients in order to understand and monitor marine environments. In general, history of Science is a matter that is not enough explored and explained or promoted in high schools or university official programmes, and, usually, scientist do not consider it as an important part of their curricula. However, bad or good ideas, abandoned or forgotten beliefs, concepts, opinions, do still have a great potential for inspiring present and future scientists, no matter in which historical period they may have been formulated: they should be always be taken into consideration, critically examined and observed by a very close point of view, not just as part of the intellectual framework of some obsolete 'Cabinet of Curiosities' with limited access except for the chosen few. Moreover, history of Science should be transmitted in a more practical way, with hands-on labs showing the limits and challenges that prior generations of ocean explorers, investigators and seafarers had to face in order to answer to crucial questions as self-orientation in open sea, understanding main currents and waves, predicting meteorological conditions for a safe navigation. Oceanography is a relatively young branch of science, and still needs further approvals and knowledge (National Science Foundation, 2000). The Scientific Dissemination Group (SDG) "La Spezia Gulf of Science" - made up by Research Centres, Schools and Cultural associations located in La Spezia (Liguria, Italy) - has a decadal experience in initiatives aimed at people and groups of people of all ages, who are keen on science or who can be guided in any case to take an interest in scientific matters (Locritani et al., 2015). Amongst the SDG activities, the tight relationship with the Historical Oceanography Society, the Italian Navy and the Naval Technical Museum (that collects a rich heritage of civilization, technology and

  18. Science requirements for free-flying imaging radar (FIREX) experiment for sea ice, renewable resources, nonrenewable resources and oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.

  19. The ARMADA Project: Bringing Oceanography and the Arctic to the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the fall of 2009, I spent 6 weeks aboard the Coast Guard Icebreaker Healy on a mapping expedition in the Arctic Ocean, through participation in the University of Rhode Island's ARMADA Project. Because I grew up in the Midwest, went to college here, and teach in the Chicago suburbs, I had limited first-hand experience in oceanography, as did most of my students. During my time aboard the ship, I primarily served as a member of the mapping team, collecting bathymetric and seismic data. My other science activities included aiding geologists and acoustic engineers in dredging projects and deployment of under-ice recording devices. I collected water data, sent off weather balloons, and assisted marine mammal observers. For the ARMADA Project I kept an on-line journal, which had a far-reaching impact. Students in many schools kept track of my activities and communicated with me via e-mail. Colleagues and friends shared the journal through other media, such as Facebook. Several of my entries were published in blogs belonging to NOAA and the USGS. I received a grant for renting a satellite phone, and through it was able to make "Live from the Arctic" phone calls. After introductory PowerPoints I communicated with more than 420 students in 5 schools in 3 states. When I returned, I made a series of presentations about the Arctic and my adventures to hundreds of people and was featured in an educational magazine with a circulation of more than 90,000. I also participated in an in-depth mentoring program with a new teacher to help her succeed during the first years of her career. The results: My students and I now have a direct connection to the Arctic and to the fields of oceanography, acoustic engineering, and geology. On their own initiative, students have developed individual projects exploring aspects of my research. They have attended presentations from the Extreme Ice Center and have become involved in drilling issues in the Chukchi Sea. A group of students is

  20. The status of coastal oceanography in heavily impacted Yellow and East China Sea: Past trends, progress, and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Cho, Yang-Ki; Guo, Xinyu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhou, Junliang

    2015-09-01

    Coastal environments are a key location for transport, commercial, residential and defence infrastructure, and have provided conditions suitable for economic growth. They also fulfil important cultural, recreational and aesthetic needs; have intrinsic ecosystem service values; and provide essential biogeochemical functions such as primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water filtration. The rapid expansion in economic development and anticipated growth of the population in the coastal zones along the Yellow and East China Sea basin has placed this region under intense multiple stresses. Here we aim to: 1) synthesize the new knowledge/science in coastal oceanography since 2010 within the context of the scientific literature published in English; 2) report on a citation analysis that assesses whether new research topics have emerged and integrated over time, indicate the location of modelling and field-based studies; and 3) suggest where the new research should develop for heavily impacted estuaries and coastal seas of East Asia. The conclusions of the synthesis include: 1) China has emerged as a dominant force in the region in producing scientific literature in coastal oceanography, although the area of publications has shifted from its traditional fields such as physical oceanography; 2) there has been an increasing number of publications with cross-disciplinary themes between physical oceanography and other fields of the biological, chemical, and geological disciplines, but vigorous and systematic funding mechanisms are still lacking to ensure the viability of large scale multi-disciplinary teams and projects in order to support trans-disciplinary research and newly emerging fields; 3) coastal oceanography is responding to new challenges, with many papers studying the impacts of human activities on marine environment and ecology, but so far very few studying management and conservation strategies or offering policy solutions.

  1. Teaching Introductory Oceanography through Case Studies: Project based approach for general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; House, M.; Hovan, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    A recent workshop sponsored by SERC-On the Cutting Edge brought together science educators from a range of schools across the country to discuss new approaches in teaching oceanography. In discussing student interest in our classes, we were struck by the fact that students are drawn to emotional or controversial topics such as whale hunting and tsunami hazard and that these kinds of topics are a great vehicle for introducing more complex concepts such as wave propagation, ocean upwelling and marine chemistry. Thus, we have developed an approach to introductory oceanography that presents students with real-world issues in the ocean sciences and requires them to explore the science behind them in order to improve overall ocean science literacy among non-majors and majors at 2 and 4 year colleges. We have designed a project-based curriculum built around topics that include, but are not limited to: tsunami hazard, whale migration, ocean fertilization, ocean territorial claims, rapid climate change, the pacific trash patch, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Each case study or project consists of three weeks of class time and is structured around three elements: 1) a media analysis; 2) the role of ocean science in addressing the issue; 3) human impact/response. Content resources range from textbook readings, popular or current print news, documentary film and television, and data available on the world wide web from a range of sources. We employ a variety of formative assessments for each case study in order to monitor student access and understanding of content and include a significant component of in-class student discussion and brainstorming guided by faculty input to develop the case study. Each study culminates in summative assessments ranging from exams to student posters to presentations, depending on the class size and environment. We envision this approach for a range of classroom environments including large group face-to-face instruction as well as hybrid

  2. High-precision GPS autonomous platforms for sea ice dynamics and physical oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosegui, P.; Wilkinson, J.; Olsson, M.; Rodwell, S.; James, A.; Hagan, B.; Hwang, B.; Forsberg, R.; Gerdes, R.; Johannessen, J.; Wadhams, P.; Nettles, M.; Padman, L.

    2012-12-01

    Project "Arctic Ocean sea ice and ocean circulation using satellite methods" (SATICE), is the first high-rate, high-precision, continuous GPS positioning experiment on sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. The SATICE systems collect continuous, dual-frequency carrier-phase GPS data while drifting on sea ice. Additional geophysical measurements also collected include ocean water pressure, ocean surface salinity, atmospheric pressure, snow-depth, air-ice-ocean temperature profiles, photographic imagery, and others, enabling sea ice drift, freeboard, weather, ice mass balance, and sea-level height determination. Relatively large volumes of data from each buoy are streamed over a satellite link to a central computer on the Internet in near real time, where they are processed to estimate the time-varying buoy positions. SATICE system obtains continuous GPS data at sub-minute intervals with a positioning precision of a few centimetres in all three dimensions. Although monitoring of sea ice motions goes back to the early days of satellite observations, these autonomous platforms bring out a level of spatio-temporal detail that has never been seen before, especially in the vertical axis. These high-resolution data allows us to address new polar science questions and challenge our present understanding of both sea ice dynamics and Arctic oceanography. We will describe the technology behind this new autonomous platform, which could also be adapted to other applications that require high resolution positioning information with sustained operations and observations in the polar marine environment, and present results pertaining to sea ice dynamics and physical oceanography.

  3. Dynamic oceanography determines fine scale foraging behavior of Masked Boobies in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Poli

    Full Text Available During breeding, foraging marine birds are under biological, geographic, and temporal constraints. These contraints require foraging birds to efficiently process environmental cues derived from physical habitat features that occur at nested spatial scales. Mesoscale oceanography in particular may change rapidly within and between breeding seasons, and findings from well-studied systems that relate oceanography to seabird foraging may transfer poorly to regions with substantially different oceanographic conditions. Our objective was to examine foraging behavior of a pan-tropical seabird, the Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra, in the understudied Caribbean province, a moderately productive region driven by highly dynamic currents and fronts. We tracked 135 individuals with GPS units during May 2013, November 2013, and December 2014 at a regionally important breeding colony in the southern Gulf of Mexico. We measured foraging behavior using characteristics of foraging trips and used area restricted search as a proxy for foraging events. Among individual attributes, nest stage contributed to differences in foraging behavior whereas sex did not. Birds searched for prey at nested hierarchical scales ranging from 200 m-35 km. Large-scale coastal and shelf-slope fronts shifted position between sampling periods and overlapped geographically with overall foraging locations. At small scales (at the prey patch level, the specific relationship between environmental variables and foraging behavior was highly variable among individuals but general patterns emerged. Sea surface height anomaly and velocity of water were the strongest predictors of area restricted search behavior in random forest models, a finding that is consistent with the characterization of the Gulf of Mexico as an energetic system strongly influenced by currents and eddies. Our data may be combined with tracking efforts in the Caribbean province and across tropical regions to advance

  4. Dynamic oceanography determines fine scale foraging behavior of Masked Boobies in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Caroline L.; Harrison, Autumn-Lynn; Vallarino, Adriana; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2017-01-01

    During breeding, foraging marine birds are under biological, geographic, and temporal constraints. These contraints require foraging birds to efficiently process environmental cues derived from physical habitat features that occur at nested spatial scales. Mesoscale oceanography in particular may change rapidly within and between breeding seasons, and findings from well-studied systems that relate oceanography to seabird foraging may transfer poorly to regions with substantially different oceanographic conditions. Our objective was to examine foraging behavior of a pan-tropical seabird, the Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra), in the understudied Caribbean province, a moderately productive region driven by highly dynamic currents and fronts. We tracked 135 individuals with GPS units during May 2013, November 2013, and December 2014 at a regionally important breeding colony in the southern Gulf of Mexico. We measured foraging behavior using characteristics of foraging trips and used area restricted search as a proxy for foraging events. Among individual attributes, nest stage contributed to differences in foraging behavior whereas sex did not. Birds searched for prey at nested hierarchical scales ranging from 200 m—35 km. Large-scale coastal and shelf-slope fronts shifted position between sampling periods and overlapped geographically with overall foraging locations. At small scales (at the prey patch level), the specific relationship between environmental variables and foraging behavior was highly variable among individuals but general patterns emerged. Sea surface height anomaly and velocity of water were the strongest predictors of area restricted search behavior in random forest models, a finding that is consistent with the characterization of the Gulf of Mexico as an energetic system strongly influenced by currents and eddies. Our data may be combined with tracking efforts in the Caribbean province and across tropical regions to advance understanding of seabird

  5. NODC Standard Product: Climatic atlas of the Arctic Seas 2004 - Database of the Barents, Kara, Laptev, and White Seas - Oceanography and marine biology (NODC Accession 0098061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Atlas presents primary data on meteorology, oceanography, and hydrobiology from the Barents, Kara, Laptev, and White Seas, which were collected during the...

  6. Meteorology, physical oceanography, transport of water, biogeochemistry, and other parameters collected at fixed locations in the open ocean from the OceanSITES network

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection comprises data covering meteorology, physical oceanography, transport of water, biogeochemistry, and parameters relevant to the carbon cycle, ocean...

  7. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the University of Rhode Island (URI) Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO), Marine Geological Samples Laboratory (MGSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Geological Samples Laboratory (MGSL) of the Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO), University of Rhode Island is a partner in the Index to Marine and...

  8. Center of Microbial Oceanography Research and Education (C-MORE) Initiatives Toward Promoting Diversity in the Ocean Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.

    2007-05-01

    The ocean sciences suffer from a lack of diversity, particularly among indigenous peoples, despite the fact that indigenous peoples often have deep, cultural knowledge about the marine environment. Nowhere is this inequity more glaring than in Hawaii. Traditional knowledge in marine science enabled Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) to become world leaders in transpacific canoe voyaging, aquaculture, and fisheries. Yet today, NHPI are severely underrepresented in the ocean sciences (and in STEM fields in general) at all levels of education and employment. When compared to other ethnic and racial groups in Hawaii, NHPI students as a group have among the poorest educational performance, indicated in part by underrepresentation in college enrolment and pre-college gifted and talented programs, as well as overrepresentation in eligibility for special education and free and reduced lunch programs. The Center of Microbial Oceanography Research and Education (C-MORE), a NSF-funded, multi-institutional Science and Technology Center based at the University of Hawai (UH), is determined to address this inequity. C- MORE is committed to increasing diversity in the ocean sciences, particularly among NHPI, at all levels of education and research. Our approach is to work with existing programs with a track record of increasing diversity among NHPI. We are currently developing culturally relevant materials including educational games for K-12 students, mentorships for high school and community college students, and laboratory and shipboard experiences for teachers and undergraduates in partnership with minority-serving organizations. Some of our main partners are EPSCoR (Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research), Ka `Imi `Ike (an NSF- funded program to recruit and retain NHPI undergraduates in geosciences), Upward Bound (an enrichment program for economically disadvantaged high school students which includes intensive summer courses), the UH Center on

  9. Development of krypton-85 measurement in ocean samples by beta counting and use of the krypton-85 as a tracer in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternon, Jean-Francois

    1990-01-01

    Krypton-85 present in the environment has essentially an anthropogenic origin, and the knowledge of the evolution of its concentration in the atmosphere, and of its mode of penetration in the ocean by gaseous exchange at the surface, and its bio-geochemical stability in the environment make it a potential tool to trace movements of water masses in the ocean. This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the implementation of an experimental device which would allow very low concentrations of krypton-85 in the ocean to be measured. After a presentation of the general context, the author reports the development of the two last steps of krypton-85 measurement: the separation of krypton by gas chromatography, and the measurement of krypton-85 by low-level radioactive counting. Then, the author reports the study of the use of krypton-85 as a tracer in oceanography, and notably highlights its similarities with CFC which are widely used to study ocean circulation [fr

  10. Hydrology and Oceanography Analysis Regarding The NPP Site Screening Process at Banten Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarianto-S-Budi-Susilo

    2007-01-01

    Regarding the NPP development in the future, it is needed to make inventory of potential site in the Java Island as well as in the outside Java Island. The NPP site inventory availability is to answer the energy demand challenge. Site screening process should be performed in accordance with the IAEA safety standard regarding the site selection, investigating several aspects related to the NPP safety (exclusion, safety and suitability factor) in the large area to obtain potential site candidates. For the site survey stage of hydrology and oceanography aspects, the analysis are more focused on the tidal phenomena along the north coastline, bathymetry, water resource, and hydrology system in the Banten Province. The method used are secondary data collection, field confirmation and internet searching. The result of the study showed that Tanjung Pujut and Tanjung Pasir are suitable based on the bathymetry and water intake facility consideration. Meanwhile Tanjung Kait and Tanjung Pasir more suitable considering tsunami aspects that may be generated by Krakatau Volcano. (author)

  11. Use of ERTS-1 pictures in coastal oceanography in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, J. F. R.

    1973-01-01

    The ERTS-1 color composite picture of the Vancouver-Victoria region illustrates the value of ERTS data for coastal oceanography. The water of the Fraser River plume which is so clearly visible in the center of the scene has been of interest to oceanographers on the west coast of Canada for a long time as an easily visible tracer of surface water circulation in the strait of Georgia. Maps of the plume at different states of the tide and with different river flow and weather were compiled from oblique aerial photographs in 1950 and used in the siting of sewage and other outfalls in the Vancouver area. More recently high level aerial photomosaics have been used to map the plume area, but the plume can spread over distances of 30 to 40 miles and many photographs, with the uneven illumination inherent in wide angle coverage, are needed for the mosaic. The ERTS satellite gives the first complete view of the plume area. Electronic enhancement of the images shows that the satellite's narrow angle coverage allows very weak surface turbidity features to be made visible to give information on surface currents over a wide area.

  12. The application of standard definitions of sound to the fields of underwater acoustics and acoustical oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, William M.

    2004-05-01

    Recent societal concerns have focused attention on the use of sound as a probe to investigate the oceans and its use in naval sonar applications. The concern is the impact the use of sound may have on marine mammals and fishes. The focus has changed the fields of acoustical oceanography (AO) and underwater acoustics (UW) because of the requirement to communicate between disciplines. Multiple National Research Council publications, Dept. of Navy reports, and several monographs have been written on this subject, and each reveals the importance as well as the misapplication of ASA standards. The ANSI-ASA standards are comprehensive, however not widely applied. The clear definition of standards and recommendations of their use is needed for both scientists and government agencies. Traditionally the U.S. Navy has been responsible for UW standards and calibration; the ANSI-ASA standards have been essential. However, recent changes in the Navy and its laboratory structure may necessitate a more formal recognition of ANSI-ASA standards and perhaps incorporation of UW-AO in the Bureau of Standards. A separate standard for acoustical terminology, reference levels, and notation used in the UW-AO is required. Since the problem is global, a standard should be compatible and cross referenced with the International Standard (CEI/IEC 27-3).

  13. Experiences of ocean literacy with different users of operational oceanography services and with high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Paola; Coppini, Giovanni; Martinelli, Sara; Bonarelli, Roberto; Lecci, Rita; Pinardi, Nadia; Cretì, Sergio; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Federico, Ivan; Mannarini, Gianandrea; Verri, Giorgia; Jansen, Eric; Lusito, Letizia; Macchia, Francesca; Montagna, Fabio; Buonocore, Mauro; Marra, Palmalisa; Tedesco, Luca; Cavallo, Arturo

    2017-04-01

    According to a common definition, ocean literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on people and people influence on the ocean. An ocean-literate person is able to make informed and responsible decisions regarding the ocean and its resources. To this aim, this paper presents operational oceanographic tools developed to meet the needs of different users, and activities performed in collaboration with high school students to support new developments of the same tools. Operational oceanography allows to deal with societal challenges such as maritime safety, coastal and marine environment management, climate change assessment and marine resources management. Oceanographic products from the European Copernicus Marine Monitoring Service - CMEMS are transformed and communicated to public and stakeholders through adding-value chains (downstreaming), which consider advanced visualization, usage of multi-channels technological platforms and specific models and algorithms. Sea Situational Awareness is strategically important for management and safety purposes of any marine domain and, in particular, the Mediterranean Sea and its coastal areas. Examples of applications for sea situational awareness and maritime safety are here presented, through user-friendly products available both by web and mobile channels (that already reach more than 100.000 users in the Mediterranean area). Further examples of ocean literacy are web bulletins used to communicate the technical contents and information related to oceanographic forecasts to a wide public. They are the result of a collaboration with high school students, with whom also other activities on improving products visualization and online communication have been performed.

  14. An electronic atlas on the oceanography of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostov, I. D.; Moroz, V. V.; Rudykh, N. I.; Rostov, V. I.

    2009-12-01

    The digital atlas on CD ROM includes a set of generalized data on the South China Sea oceanography. The data is presented in the form of spreadsheets, graphics, and text. The atlas contains a brief annotated description of the main physical-geographical characteristics and the particularities of the hydrological regime, water masses, tidal phenomena, and water mass circulation. The atlas is an interactive information-reference system including elements of dynamic data visualization. It contains a body of data on the long-term observations of the temperature and salinity; gridded blocks of the average annual, seasonal, and monthly data at the standard depth horizons; and data on the hydrochemical characteristics and water currents obtained by automatic buoy stations (ABS). A list of existing open access data bases and web sites is given where additional online and archived information on a range of special issues and problems related to regional studies and exploitation is provided. The system allows for fast access to specifically selected online or generalized reference information (via the Internet) and for its imaging.

  15. The challenges of coastal oceanography. Prediction limits and new applications based on Sentinel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; Carniel, Sandro; Badger, Merete; Bidlot, Jean; Boye Hansen, Lars; Bolaños-Sanchez, Rodolfo; Cipollini, Paolo; Espino, Manuel; Marcello Miglietta, Mario; Saulter, Andy; Staneva, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    The increasing quality and quantity (resolution in space, coverage in time, combinations of sensors in the Sentinel family) of information provided by Copernicus offer the possibility to analyse and predict coastal meteo-oceanography at an unprecedented level. This is a unique opportunity to develop the Copernicus coastal dimension to tackle the pressures of increasing population and activities. The combination of ocean/atmosphere/land observations from the Sentinel (S) 1/2/3, aligned with the availability of an increasing number of high-resolution numerical simulations (e.g. wave and current fields) in the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) catalogue, should allow users to access proven representations of the coastal environment at a new level of understanding (e.g. wave diffraction at coastal "obstacles"), coupling (e.g. incorporating the land discharge into the coastal sea) and reliability for applications (e.g. hazards for coastal navigation). By adding periodic bathymetric up-dating and incorporating new assimilation routines it will be possible to achieve a new level of analysis for coastal seas. In the paper we shall present the CEASELESS project that addresses the multiple scales coexisting in littoral areas by developing new shallow water parameterizations, introducing them into coupled model suites (wind-wave-surge-current-land discharge) and producing new standards for coastal simulations and analyses. This will demonstrate the technical feasibility of an operational coastal service. The set of derived products will be ingested into the users' work routines, proving the economic feasibility of such a coastal extension. The level of conflicts in squeezed coastal zones, expected to grow in the face of climate change, will, thus, benefit directly from CEASELESS, establishing tangible contributions for a wide range of economic sectors. The mutual validation of satellite data, numerical results and in-situ observations will generate

  16. Perspectives on chemical oceanography in the 21st century: Participants of the COME ABOARD Meeting examine aspects of the field in the context of 40 years of DISCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Andrea J.; Palevsky, Hilary I.; Martz, Todd R.; Ingalls, Anitra E.; Gledhill, Martha; Fawcett, Sarah E.; Brandes, Jay; Aluwihare, Lihini; Anderson, Robert M.; Bender, Sara; Boyle, Ed; Bronk, Debbie; Buesseler, Ken; Burdige, David J.; Casciotti, Karen; Close, Hilary; Conte, Maureen; Cutter, Greg; Estapa, Meg; Fennel, Katja; Ferron, Sara; Glazer, Brian; Goni, Miguel; Grand, Max; Guay, Chris; Hatta, Mariko; Hayes, Chris; Horner, Tristan; Ingall, Ellery; Johnson, Kenneth G.; Juranek, Laurie; Knapp, Angela; Lam, Phoebe; Luther, George; Matrai, Paty; Nicholson, David; Paytan, Adina; Pellenbarg, Robert; Popendorf, Kim; Reddy, Christopher M.; Ruttenberg, Kathleen; Sabine, Chris; Sansone, Frank; Shaltout, Nayrah; Sikes, Liz; Sundquist, Eric T.; Valentine, David; Wang, Zhao (Aleck); Wilson, Sam; Barrett, Pamela; Behrens, Melanie; Belcher, Anna; Biermann, Lauren; Boiteau, Rene; Clarke, Jennifer; Collins, Jamie; Coppola, Alysha; Ebling, Alina M.; Garcia-Tigreros, Fenix; Goldman, Johanna; Guallart, Elisa F.; Haskell, William; Hurley, Sarah; Janssen, David; Johnson, Winn; Lennhartz, Sinikka; Liu, Shuting; Rahman, Shaily; Ray, Daisy; Sarkar, Amit; Steiner, Zvika; Widner, Brittany; Yang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The questions that chemical oceanographers prioritize over the coming decades, and the methods we use to address these questions, will define our field's contribution to 21st century science. In recognition of this, the U.S. National Science Foundation and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration galvanized a community effort (the Chemical Oceanography MEeting: A BOttom-up Approach to Research Directions, or COME ABOARD) to synthesize bottom-up perspectives on selected areas of research in Chemical Oceanography. Representing only a small subset of the community, COME ABOARD participants did not attempt to identify targeted research directions for the field. Instead, we focused on how best to foster diverse research in Chemical Oceanography, placing emphasis on the following themes: strengthening our core chemical skillset; expanding our tools through collaboration with chemists, engineers, and computer scientists; considering new roles for large programs; enhancing interface research through interdisciplinary collaboration; and expanding ocean literacy by engaging with the public. For each theme, COME ABOARD participants reflected on the present state of Chemical Oceanography, where the community hopes to go and why, and actionable pathways to get there. A unifying concept among the discussions was that dissimilar funding structures and metrics of success may be required to accommodate the various levels of readiness and stages of knowledge development found throughout our community. In addition to the science, participants of the concurrent Dissertations Symposium in Chemical Oceanography (DISCO) XXV, a meeting of recent and forthcoming Ph.D. graduates in Chemical Oceanography, provided perspectives on how our field could show leadership in addressing long-standing diversity and early-career challenges that are pervasive throughout science. Here we summarize the COME ABOARD Meeting discussions, providing a synthesis of reflections and perspectives on the

  17. Oceanography in Second Life: Use of a Virtual Reality to Enhance Undergraduate Education in Marine Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, T. A.; Jarmon, L.; Triggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    Shipboard research is a fundamental part of oceanography, but has numerous legal and practical constraints virtually eliminate it as a regular part of large-enrollment programs in marine science. The cost of a properly equipped research vessel alone can prevent student access. While much can be learned by active exploration of archived data by students, the limitations placed on real oceanographic programs by distance, vessel speed, and time are difficult to reproduce in exercises. Pre-cruise planning and collaboration between investigators are likewise a challenge to incorporate. We have used design students in the College of Liberal Arts to construct a oceanographic expedition in Second Life for use in a marine science course (Fall 2009). Second Life is a highly collaborative environment with a variety of tools that allow users to create their own environment and interact with it. Second LIfe is free, highly portable, and inherently amenable to distance or remote teaching. In our application, the research vessel exists as an moving platform with sampling abilities. Software code queries an external MySQL database that contains information from the World Ocean Atlas for the entire ocean, and returns strings of data from standard depths. Students must plan the cruise track to test hypothesis about the ocean, collaborate with other teams to develop the big picture and use standard oceanographic software (Ocean Data Viewer; ODV) to analyze the data. Access to the entire database in ODV then allows comparison to the actual properties and distributions. The effectiveness of this approach is being evaluated by a pre- and post-class surveys and post semester focus group interviews. Similar surveys of the design students that created the environment noted that use of Second Life created a learning experience that was both more immersive and process oriented than traditional college courses. Initial impressions in the marine science class indicate that the strong social

  18. Fisheries Oceanography in the Virgin Islands: Preliminary Results from a Collaborative Research Endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. H.; Gerard, T. L.; Johns, E. M.; Lamkin, J. T.

    2008-05-01

    economically important species were recovered at the near-shore sites, south of St. Thomas, St. John, and British Virgin Islands and not on the reef /shelf-break sites as expected. Concurrent Lagrangian drifter trajectories and shipboard ADCP measurements showed a high degree of variability in regional surface water flow. Possible transport pathways as related to the spatial distribution of the larvae collected and the physical oceanography observed will be discussed.

  19. Transition of R&D into Operations at Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) plays a significant role in the National capability for operational weather and ocean prediction through its operation of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean. FNMOC uniquely satisfies the military's requirement for a global operational weather prediction capability based on software certified to DoD Information Assurance standards and operated in a secure classified computer environment protected from outside intrusion by DoD certified firewalls. FNMOC operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense, other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high- resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Other models support and supplement the main models with predictions of ocean thermal structure, ocean currents, sea-ice characteristics, and other data. Fleet Numerical operates at the leading edge of science and technology, and benefits greatly from collocation with its supporting

  20. Using Geophysical Data in the Texas High School Course, Geology, Meteorology, and Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellins, K.; Olson, H.; Pulliam, J.; Schott, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    Science educators working directly with scientists to develop inquiry-based instructional materials in Earth science yield some of the best results. The TEXTEAMS (Texas Teachers Empowered for Achievement in Mathematics and Science) Leadership Training for the Texas high school science course, Geology, Meteorology and Oceanography (GMO) is one example of a successful program that provides high-quality training to master teachers using geophysical data collected by scientists at The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG). TEXTEAMS is a certification program of professional development and leadership training sponsored by the National Science Foundation that is part of the Texas Statewide Systemic Initiative. UTIG scientists teamed with science educators at the Charles A. Dana Center for Mathematics and Science Education at UT and the Texas Education Agency to develop inquiry-based instructional materials for eight GMO modules. Our learning activities help students and teachers understand how Earth scientists interpret the natural world and test their hypotheses, and provide opportunities for the use of technology in classroom science learning; they are aligned with national and state teaching standards. Examples of TEXTEAMS GMO learning activities that use geophysical data. 1. Neotectonics: radiocarbon dates and elevation above current sea level of raised coral reefs in the New Georgia Islands are used to calculate rates of tectonic uplift and as a basis for the development of a conceptual model to explain the pattern of uplift that emerges from the data. 2. Large Igneous Provinces:geophysical logging data collected on ODP Leg 183 (Kerguelen Plateau) are analyzed to identify the transition from sediment to basement rock. 3. The Search for Black Gold: petroleum exploration requires the integration of geology, geophysics, petrophysics and geochemistry. Knowledge gained in previous GMO modules is combined with fundamental knowledge about economics to

  1. Assessment of the U.S. outer continental shelf environmental studies program. 1. Physical oceanography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Federal responsibility for oil and gas development on the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS) resides with the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The DOI's Environmental Studies Program (ESP) is the program through which MMS conducts environmental studies on the OCS and collects information to prepare environmental impact statements (EISs). It appeared to MMS in 1986 that the time was ripe to assess the status of the present program and to explore the needs for future studies. MMS requested an evaluation of the adequacy and applicability of ESP studies, a review of the general state of knowledge in the appropriate disciplines, and recommendations for future studies. Three panels were established, one of which, the Physical Oceanography Panel, investigated the physical oceanographic aspects of the ESP, the subject of the report, which is the first of three in a series. In reviewing the ESP's physical oceanography program, the panel evaluated the quality and relevance of studies carried out in waters under federal control, which extend from the limits of state jurisdictions (3-12 miles offshore) and include the central and outer continental shelf waters and the continental slope

  2. Current and future prospects for the application of systematic theoretical methods to the study of problems in physical oceanography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, A., E-mail: adrian.constantin@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Faculty of Mathematics, University of Vienna, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Johnson, R.S., E-mail: r.s.johnson@ncl.ac.uk [School of Mathematics & Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-07

    Highlights: • Systematic theoretical methods in studies of equatorial ocean dynamics. • Linear wave-current interactions in stratified flows. • Exact solutions – Kelvin waves, azimuthal non-uniform currents. • Three-dimensional nonlinear currents. • Hamiltonian formulation for the governing equations and for structure-preserving/enhancing approximations. - Abstract: This essay is a commentary on the pivotal role of systematic theoretical methods in physical oceanography. At some level, there will always be a conflict between theory and experiment/data collection: Which is pre-eminent? Which should come first? This issue appears to be particularly marked in physical oceanography, to the extreme detriment of the development of the subject. It is our contention that the classical theory of fluids, coupled with methods from the theory of differential equations, can play a significant role in carrying the subject, and our understanding, forward. We outline the philosophy behind a systematic theoretical approach, highlighting some aspects of equatorial ocean dynamics where these methods have already been successful, paving the way for much more in the future and leading, we expect, to the better understanding of this and many other types of ocean flow. We believe that the ideas described here promise to reveal a rich and beautiful dynamical structure.

  3. Putting the Deep Biosphere on the Map for Oceanography Courses: Gas Hydrates As a Case Study for the Deep Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, J. J.; Briggs, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is essential for life on our planet. It covers 71% of the Earth's surface, is the source of the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the food we eat. Yet, the exponential growth in human population is putting the ocean and thus life on our planet at risk. However, based on student evaluations from our introductory oceanography course it is clear that our students have deficiencies in ocean literacy that impact their ability to recognize that the ocean and humans are inextricably connected. Furthermore, life present in deep subsurface marine environments is also interconnected to the study of the ocean, yet the deep biosphere is not typically covered in undergraduate oceanography courses. In an effort to improve student ocean literacy we developed an instructional module on the deep biosphere focused on gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, our module utilizes Google Earth and cutting edge research about microbial life in the ocean to support three inquiry-based activities that each explore different facets of gas hydrates (i.e. environmental controls, biologic controls, and societal implications). The relevant nature of the proposed module also makes it possible for instructors of introductory geology courses to modify module components to discuss related topics, such as climate, energy, and geologic hazards. This work, which will be available online as a free download, is a solid contribution toward increasing the available teaching resources focused on the deep biosphere for geoscience educators.

  4. The social oceanography of top oceanic predators and the decline of sharks: A call for a new field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Peter J.

    2010-07-01

    The decline of top oceanic predators (TOPs), such as great sharks, and worldwide erosion of the marine food web is among the most important functional changes in marine systems. Yet, even though human pressures on sharks are one of the most important factors in the collapse of TOPs, the social science of shark fishing has not kept pace with the biophysical science. Such a gap highlights the need for a marine social science, and this paper uses the case of sharks to illustrate some advances that a coherent marine social science community could bring to science and sustainability, and calls for the development of this new field. Social oceanography is proposed as a “discursive space” that will allow multiple social science and humanities disciplines to holistically study and bring insight to a diverse but essential community. Such a community will not provide answers for the physical sciences, but it will add a new understanding of the contingencies that riddle social behavior that ultimately interact with marine systems. Such a field should reflect the broad and diverse approaches, epistemologies, philosophies of science and foci that are in the human disciplines themselves. Social oceanography would complete the triumvirate of biological and physical oceanography where human systems profoundly impact these other areas. This paper tests the theory that institutional rules are contingent on social priorities and paradigms. I used content analysis of all available (1995-2006) State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA) reports from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) to measure the symbolic behavior-i.e., what they say-as an indication of the value of sharks in world fisheries. Similar tests were also performed for marine journals and the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals to corroborate these findings. Then, I present an institutional analysis of all international capacity building and regulatory institutions as they

  5. An Assessment of Student Learning in an Online Oceanography Course: Five Years After Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    The results of assessing student learning in an online oceanography class offered over the past five years are compiled to reveal several general trends. In order to understand the context of these trends, it is important to first note that SJSU has a two-tiered general education program consisting of a category of core courses for frosh and sophomores and an advanced category for juniors and seniors, most of whom are community college transfers. The course described in this study is in the latter category and therefore composed largely of seniors. Enrollments in the course have exploded from 6 students in a pilot section offered during the 1998 fall semester to over 170 students in the summer semester of 2002. The course is now offered in both semesters of the academic year with four sections offered during 2002 summer session as part of a system-wide conversion to year-round operation. No other course, be it classroom, hybrid or online, in the general education category has experienced the level of student demand as this online course. All sections of the online course reach enrollment limits in the first days of registration with an equal or greater number of students turned away each semester. More female, students of color, returning students and K-12 in-service teachers enroll in the online sections than in the equivalent classroom sections of the course. Students enroll in the online section for the convenience of self-paced learning since attending a classroom section is not a viable option. Enrollments in concurrent classroom sections have not been negatively impacted by the addition of online sections. Enrollment attrition is higher in the first few days of the online course, but similar to that experienced in the classroom sections, once the class is underway. However, student requests for incompletes tend to be somewhat higher in the online course, especially during the summer offerings. Learning outcomes are reviewed at the beginning of the course and

  6. CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service) In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre: A service for operational Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano Muñoz, Fernando; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Petit de la Villeon, Loic; Carval, Thierry; Loubrieu, Thomas; Wedhe, Henning; Sjur Ringheim, Lid; Hammarklint, Thomas; Tamm, Susanne; De Alfonso, Marta; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Chalkiopoulos, Antonis; Marinova, Veselka; Tintore, Joaquin; Troupin, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), is the European Programme for the establishment of a European capacity for Earth Observation and Monitoring. Copernicus aims to provide a sustainable service for Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting validated and commissioned by users. From May 2015, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) is working on an operational mode through a contract with services engagement (result is regular data provision). Within CMEMS, the In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre (INSTAC) distributed service integrates in situ data from different sources for operational oceanography needs. CMEMS INSTAC is collecting and carrying out quality control in a homogeneous manner on data from providers outside Copernicus (national and international networks), to fit the needs of internal and external users. CMEMS INSTAC has been organized in 7 regional Dissemination Units (DUs) to rely on the EuroGOOS ROOSes. Each DU aggregates data and metadata provided by a series of Production Units (PUs) acting as an interface for providers. Homogeneity and standardization are key features to ensure coherent and efficient service. All DUs provide data in the OceanSITES NetCDF format 1.2 (based on NetCDF 3.6), which is CF compliant, relies on SeaDataNet vocabularies and is able to handle profile and time-series measurements. All the products, both near real-time (NRT) and multi-year (REP), are available online for every CMEMS registered user through an FTP service. On top of the FTP service, INSTAC products are available through Oceanotron, an open-source data server dedicated to marine observations dissemination. It provides services such as aggregation on spatio-temporal coordinates and observed parameters, and subsetting on observed parameters and metadata. The accuracy of the data is checked on various levels. Quality control procedures are applied for the validity of the data and correctness tests for the

  7. Applications of 14C-AMS on archaeology, climate, environment, geology, oceanography and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Macario, K.D.; Santos, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The first experiment discusses the chronology of prehistoric settlements of the central-south Brazilian coast. In the southern Brazilian coast there is a high density of these shellmounds, dated in general between 6,000 and 2,000 BP. A charcoal sample from a coastal shellmound of Rio de Janeiro State was dated by 14 C-AMS to 7,860±80 years BP. This is an unexpected result that pulls back by some two thousand years the antiquity consensually accepted for the settlement of that region. We performed an experiment concerning the isotopic signature of the local waters of an important Brazilian coastal upwelling, located in Arraial do Cabo, R.J., with applications in the fields of Oceanography and Marine Ecology. We assess the contribution of the wind-driven coastal upwelling of Arraial do Cabo to the local biological production. The variation of the carbon isotopic compositions was investigated in a population of a seaweed. Upwelling events were simulated in the laboratory, in order to study three regimes: total upwelling (SACW), partial upwelling (mixed water) and no-upwelling (TW). Water samples were collected at 70 m depth (SACW) and at 10 m (TW). The seaweed was cultivated during seven days, in controlled conditions, into the three mentioned types of water. The results of 14 C-AMS measurements in the seaweed tissue show a clear indication of difference in the isotopic signature of the water sources, allowing to infer the differences of the water sources. We believe that the present results contribute to opening new perspectives for the use of 14 C as a tracer of the biological production in upwelling areas all over the world. The next reported experiment is on climate at the Amazon region. An increase in the Hg flux is a strong indicator of disturbance in a forest ecosystem related to abrupt changes in the water balance, and its changes reflect changes in the ocean and average regional temperatures. In regions where the geological background of mercury is

  8. Temperature, salinity, chlorophyll pigments, nutrients and other parameters as part of the ECOHAB-GOM: The Ecology and Oceanography of Toxic Alexandrium Blooms in the Gulf of Maine project (NODC Accession 0064309)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The subproject described here is one of several components of ECOHAB-GOM: The Ecology and Oceanography of Toxic Alexandrium Blooms in the Gulf of Maine, a multi-PI,...

  9. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-11-05 to 2016-02-18 (NCEI Accession 0145664)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  10. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-03-10 to 2016-06-28 (NCEI Accession 0155280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  11. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp064 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-05-17 to 2016-08-23 (NCEI Accession 0156410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  12. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp050 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2016-03-30 to 2016-07-20 (NCEI Accession 0155979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp064 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-10-30 to 2016-02-03 (NCEI Accession 0145715)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  14. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-09-13 to 2016-12-14 (NCEI Accession 0157580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  15. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp056 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2017-03-29 to 2017-07-01 (NCEI Accession 0164292)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for...

  16. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp039 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-01-22 to 2015-07-16 (NCEI Accession 0138033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  17. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp030 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-01-09 to 2015-04-27 (NCEI Accession 0137984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp035 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-03-31 to 2015-07-16 (NCEI Accession 0138032)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  19. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-05-01 to 2014-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0137974)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp001 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2015-01-12 to 2015-04-08 (NCEI Accession 0137973)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  1. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp063 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-02-03 to 2016-05-17 (NCEI Accession 0153552)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp063 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-09-15 to 2014-11-04 (NCEI Accession 0137991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  3. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp052 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-08-14 to 2015-01-09 (NCEI Accession 0137990)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  4. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp050 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2015-02-06 to 2015-05-14 (NCEI Accession 0137988)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  5. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp018 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2014-06-10 to 2014-09-21 (NCEI Accession 0138030)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  6. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp053 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2015-08-29 to 2015-12-13 (NCEI Accession 0145713)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-11-30 to 2017-03-14 (NCEI Accession 0162197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  8. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-08-17 to 2016-09-16 (NCEI Accession 0156601)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp031 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2015-09-10 to 2015-12-16 (NCEI Accession 0145667)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  10. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-11-25 to 2014-11-27 (NCEI Accession 0137979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  11. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp039 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-02-18 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0156570)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  12. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-11-24 to 2016-03-10 (NCEI Accession 0145666)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-06-28 to 2016-08-23 (NCEI Accession 0156400)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  14. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-08-13 to 2015-11-18 (NCEI Accession 0145665)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  15. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-06-11 to 2014-09-15 (NCEI Accession 0137978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  16. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp053 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2016-07-20 to 2016-10-20 (NCEI Accession 0156796)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  17. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp041 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-09-08 to 2016-12-14 (NCEI Accession 0157607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp042 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2016-11-04 to 2017-02-23 (NCEI Accession 0161310)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  19. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp052 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-07-28 to 2016-02-18 (NCEI Accession 0145670)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp064 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the |Coastal Waters of California from 2016-12-14 to 2017-03-29 (NCEI Accession 0162258)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  1. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp024 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2017-01-30 to 2017-05-08 (NCEI Accession 0162888)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for...

  2. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-12-14 to 2017-03-28 (NCEI Accession 0162257)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  3. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp001 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2016-08-15 to 2016-11-16 (NCEI Accession 0157002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  4. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp026 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2017-04-20 to 2017-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0164709)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for...

  5. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp054 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-03-17 to 2016-10-11 (NCEI Accession 0156772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  6. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp030 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-02-18 to 2016-06-02 (NCEI Accession 0153551)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp055 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2017-03-14 to 2017-06-28 (NCEI Accession 0163867)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for...

  8. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp052 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-09-06 to 2017-03-14 (NCEI Accession 0162198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp030 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2017-04-05 to 2017-07-11 (NCEI Accession 0164208)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for...

  10. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2017-03-28 to 2017-07-11 (NCEI Accession 0164207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for...

  11. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp049 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2017-05-18 to 2017-08-24 (NCEI Accession 0165396)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for...

  12. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp030 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-09-06 to 2016-11-30 (NCEI Accession 0157115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-06-02 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0156569)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  14. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp006 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2015-12-14 to 2016-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0153787)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  15. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-06-05 to 2014-09-05 (NCEI Accession 0137981)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  16. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp047 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-08-27 to 2016-03-17 (NCEI Accession 0145668)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  17. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp027 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2015-06-16 to 2015-09-23 (NCEI Accession 0145712)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-09-23 to 2015-01-09 (NCEI Accession 0137975)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  19. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp063 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-08-23 to 2016-08-28 (NCEI Accession 0156530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-04-27 to 2015-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0137976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  1. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp030 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-08-13 to 2014-11-25 (NCEI Accession 0137983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp040 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-04-09 to 2015-07-14 (NCEI Accession 0138034)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  3. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp051 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-11-12 to 2015-01-08 (NCEI Accession 0137989)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  4. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp020 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2015-12-16 to 2016-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0153550)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  5. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp048 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-01-27 to 2015-08-27 (NCEI Accession 0145669)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  6. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-01-08 to 2015-04-09 (NCEI Accession 0137980)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp048 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-01-16 to 2014-07-29 (NCEI Accession 0138035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  8. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp047 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-06-23 to 2015-01-22 (NCEI Accession 0137987)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp020 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2014-08-03 to 2014-12-12 (NCEI Accession 0137977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  10. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp031 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2014-04-12 to 2014-08-02 (NCEI Accession 0138031)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  11. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp018 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2016-02-18 to 2016-05-28 (NCEI Accession 0153549)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  12. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp049 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-04-05 to 2016-06-02 (NCEI Accession 0153788)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  13. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

  14. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Physical Oceanography Component: Soundscapes Under Sea Ice: Can We Listen for Open Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Physical Oceanography Component: Soundscapes Under Sea Ice: Can we listen for... Soundscapes Under Sea Ice: Can we listen for open water? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...the source. These different sounds can be described as “ soundscapes ”, and graphically represented by comparing two or more features of the sound

  15. Oceanography and Geoscience Scholars at Texas A&M University Funded through the NSF S-STEM (Scholarships in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M. J.; Gardner, W. D.

    2016-02-01

    Over the last seven years we have led the creation and implementation of the Oceanography and Geoscience Scholars programs at Texas A&M University. Through these programs we have been able to provide scholarship support for 92 undergraduates in Geosciences and 29 graduate students in Oceanography. Fifty-seven undergraduate scholars have graduated in Geosciences: 30 undergraduate students in Meteorology, 7 in Geology, and 20 in Environmental Geosciences. Two students have graduated in other STEM disciplines. Twenty-four students are in the process of completing their undergraduate degrees in STEM disciplines. Twenty-three students have graduated with MS or PhD degrees in Oceanography and five PhD students are completing their dissertations. As specified in the program solicitation all of the scholars are academically talented students with demonstrated financial need as defined by the FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid). We have endeavored to recruit students from underrepresented groups. One-third of the undergraduate scholars were from underrepresented groups; 28% of the graduate students. We will present the challenges and successes of these programs.

  16. Proceedings of a workshop on physical oceanography related to the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marietta, M.G.

    1981-04-01

    At this workshop a group of expert scientists: (1) assessed the current state of knowledge with regard to the physical oceanographic questions that must be answered generally if high level nuclear waste is to be disposed of on or under the seabed; (2) discussed physical oceanographic science necessarily related to the US Subseabed Disposal Program; (3) recommended necessary research; and (4) identified other ongoing programs with which important liaisons should be made and continued. This report is a collection of workshop presentations, and recommendations, and a synthesis of topical group recommendations into a unified statement of research needs. The US Seabed Disposal Program is described. The goal is to assess the technical, environmental and engineering feasibility of seabed disposal. The environmental studies program will assess possible ecosystem and health effects from radionuclides which may be released due to accidental leakage. Discussion on the following topics are also included: bottom boundary layer; mixing across isopycnal surfaces; circulation modeling; mesoscale dispersion; deep circulation of the Pacific Ocean; vertical transport at edges; instrumentation; chemical oceanography; plutonium distribution in the Pacific; biology report; chemical dumping report; and low-level waste report

  17. Oceanography at coastal scales: Introduction to the special issue on results from the EU FP7 FIELD_AC project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; Wolf, Judith; Monbaliu, Jaak

    2014-09-01

    The high-resolution and coupled forecasting of wind, waves and currents, in restricted coastal domains, offer a number of important challenges; these limit the quality of predictions, in the present state-of-the-art. This paper presents the main results obtained for such coastal domains, with reference to a variety of modelling suites and observing networks for: a) Liverpool Bay; b) German Bight; c) Gulf of Venice; and d) the Catalan coast. All of these areas are restricted domains, where boundary effects play a significant role in the resulting inner dynamics. This contribution addresses also the themes of the other papers in this Special Issue, ranging from observations to simulations. Emphasis is placed upon the physics controlling such restricted areas. The text deals also with the transfer to end-users and other interested parties, since the requirements on resolution, accuracy and robustness must be linked to their applications. Finally, some remarks are included on the way forward for coastal oceanography and the synergetic combination of in-situ and remote measurements, with high-resolution 3D simulations.

  18. Late quaternary palaeo-oceanography and palaeo-climatology from sediment cores of the eastern Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagels, U.; Koehler, S.

    1991-01-01

    Box cores recovered along a N-S transect in the Eurasian Basin allow the establishment of a time scale for the Late Quaternary history of the Arctic Ocean, based on stable oxygen isotope stratigraphy and AMS 14 C dating of planktonic foraminifers (N. pachyderma I.c.). This high resolution stratigraphy, in combination with sedimentological investigations (e.g. coarse fraction analysis, carbonate content, productivity of foraminifers), was carried out to reconstruct the glacial and inter-glacial Arctic Ocean palaeo-environment The sediment cores, which can be correlated throughout the sampling area in the Eastern Arctic Ocean, were dated as representing oxygen isotope stages 1 to 4/5. The sedimentation rates varied between a few mm/ka in glacials and approximately one cm/ka during the Holocene. The sediments allow a detailed sedimentological description of the depositional regime and the palaeo-oceanography of the Eastern Arctic Ocean. Changing ratios of biogenic and lithogenic components in the sediments reflect variations in the oceanographic circulation pattern in the Eurasian Basin during the Late Quaternary. Carbonate content (1-9wt.%), productivity of foraminifers (high in interglacial, low in glacial stages) and the terrigenous components are in good correlation with glacial and inter-glacial climatic fluctuations

  19. Oceanography and Yacht Racing - A Handful of Competitors, Millions of Spectators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D.; Cresswell, G.; Badcock, K.; Cahill, M.; Rathbone, C.; Turner, P.

    2006-07-01

    Satellite altimeter measurements of sea level have proven to be far more accurate, and useful, than was hope for when the missions were designed, especially when data from several instruments are combines. In the regard, the experimental missions (ERS1 and 2, Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and GFO) have all been a resounding success. Why then, are there not plans already in place to continue and improve on the recent missions? One reason is surely that end-user uptake of the mission products has not yet convincingly justified the costs of future missions. At CSIRO we sought to maximise the awareness, amongst all marine sectors, that mapping ocean currents with sufficient accuracy and detail for operational use is indeed possible, so that the societal benefits of the system would become clear as quickly as possible. We did this using a well know marketing too - sport.

  20. Mutually consistent thermodynamic potentials for fluid water, ice and seawater: a new standard for oceanography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new seawater standard for oceanographic and engineering applications has been developed that consists of three independent thermodynamic potential functions, derived from extensive distinct sets of very accurate experimental data. The results have been formulated as Releases of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS (1996, 2006, 2008 and are expected to be adopted internationally by other organizations in subsequent years. In order to successfully perform computations such as phase equilibria from combinations of these potential functions, mutual compatibility and consistency of these independent mathematical functions must be ensured. In this article, a brief review of their separate development and ranges of validity is given. We analyse background details on the conditions specified at their reference states, the triple point and the standard ocean state, to ensure the mutual consistency of the different formulations, and the necessity and possibility of numerically evaluating metastable states of liquid water. Computed from this formulation in quadruple precision (128-bit floating point numbers, tables of numerical reference values are provided as anchor points for the consistent incorporation of additional potential functions in the future, and as unambiguous benchmarks to be used in the determination of numerical uncertainty estimates of double-precision implementations on different platforms that may be customized for special purposes.

  1. Advances in limnological and oceanographic research in Italy: the history of the Italian Association of Limnology and Oceanography (AIOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pusceddu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the 35th year from the publication of the first issue of the Proceedings of the Italian Association of Limnology and Oceanography (AIOL we present here the results of a meta-analysis of all of the material included in the AIOL Proceedings, with the aim of analysing the last 30 years history of aquatic science in Italy as mirrored by the science presented by the AIOL members. The results of this meta-analysis were presented in September 2006 in Paris, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the ‘Institut oce´anographique, fondation Albert Ier, prince de Monaco’. We have screened the 17 volumes of the Proceedings and classified the articles into papers dealing with: (i Biology and Ecology; (ii Chemistry; (iii Physics, and (iv Geology, which represent the most relevant ‘disciplines’ of the AIOL. The articles were also classified as ‘oceanographic’ or ‘limnological’ papers, including all marine and freshwater aspects, respectively. Articles were finally classified on the basis of the environment where the studies were carried out: the water column or the benthic environment. The results of this analysis highlight the presence of wide fluctuations in the number of publications produced by the AIOL scientific community during more then three decades of the activity of the association in Italy. We also show that these fluctuations were associated with variable fluctuations in the availability of funding for aquatic research. The overall picture of the scientific outputs of the AIOL members as revealed by the analysis of the papers published on the AIOL Proceedings indicates that the Association had a fruitful activity during the last part of the past century, but experienced a major flaw during the first years of this century. Only in the last few years such activity restarted, thus giving rise to a possible new deal in the development of aquatic science in Italy.

  2. From Proposal Writing to Data Collection to Presentation: Physical Oceanography Laboratory Class Students Explore the Fundamentals of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijsman, M. C.; Church, I.; Haydel, J.; Martin, K. M.; Shiller, A. M.; Wallace, D. J.; Blancher, J.; Foltz, A.; Griffis, A. M.; Kosciuch, T. J.; Kincketootle, A.; Pierce, E.; Young, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    To better prepare first-year Department of Marine Science MSc students of the University of Southern Mississippi for their science careers, we plan to execute a semester-long Physical Oceanography laboratory class that exposes the enrolled students to all aspects of interdisciplinary research: writing a proposal, planning a cruise, collecting and analyzing data, and presenting their results. Although some of these aspects may be taught in any such class, the incorporation of all these aspects makes this class unique.The fieldwork will be conducted by boat in the Rigolets in Louisiana, a 13-km long tidal strait up to 1 km wide connecting the Mississippi Sound with Lake Pontchartrain. The students have the opportunity to collect ADCP, CTD, multibeam sonar, sediment and water samples.A second novel characteristic of this class is that the instructor partnered with the Lake Pontchartrain Basin Foundation, a not for profit environmental advocacy group. The foundation will give an hour-long seminar on the natural history of the study area and its environmental problems. This information provides context for the students' research proposals and allows them to formulate research questions and hypotheses that connect their research objectives to societally relevant issues, such as coastal erosion, salt water intrusion, and water quality. The proposal writing and cruise planning is done in the first month of the 3.5-month long semester. In the second month two surveys are conducted. The remainder of the semester is spent on analysis and reporting. Whenever possible we teach Matlab for the students to use in their data analysis. In this presentation, we will report on the successes and difficulties associated with teaching such a multi-faceted class.

  3. Light scattering by particles in water theoretical and experimental foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasz, Miroslaw

    2007-01-01

    Light scattering-based methods are used to characterize small particles suspended in water in a wide range of disciplines ranging from oceanography, through medicine, to industry. The scope and accuracy of these methods steadily increases with the progress in light scattering research. This book focuses on the theoretical and experimental foundations of the study and modeling of light scattering by particles in water and critically evaluates the key constraints of light scattering models. It begins with a brief review of the relevant theoretical fundamentals of the interaction of light with condensed matter, followed by an extended discussion of the basic optical properties of pure water and seawater and the physical principles that explain them. The book continues with a discussion of key optical features of the pure water/seawater and the most common components of natural waters. In order to clarify and put in focus some of the basic physical principles and most important features of the experimental data o...

  4. D. Carlos de Bragança, a Pioneer of Experimental Marine Oceanography: Filling the Gap Between Formal and Informal Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Cláudia; Pereira, Gonçalo; Chagas, Isabel

    2012-06-01

    The activities presented in this paper are part of a wider project that investigates the effects of infusing the history of science in science teaching, toward students' learning and attitude. Focused on the work of D. Carlos de Bragança, King of Portugal from 1889 to 1908, and a pioneer oceanographer, the activities are addressed at the secondary Biology curriculum (grade 10, ages 15, 16). The proposed activities include a pre-visit orientation task, two workshops performed in a science museum and a follow-up learning task. In class, students have to analyse original historical excerpts of the king's work, in order to discuss and reflect about the nature of science. In the museum, students actively participate in two workshops: biological classification and specimen drawing. All students considered the project relevant for science learning, stating that it was important not only for knowledge acquisition but also for the understanding of the nature of science. As a final remark we stress the importance of creating activities informed by the history of science as a foundation for improving motivation, sustaining effective science teaching and meaningful science learning, and as a vehicle to promote a closer partnership between schools and science museums.

  5. Oceanography Branch Plankton Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shelf-wide Research Vessel Surveys are conducted 4-8 times per year over the continental shelf from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, using...

  6. Atlantic Oceanography. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    on the effect of environmental characteristics upon the encrusting calcareous-tube-making polychaete worm Hydroides dianthus has been begun, and it is...B. eb!Lineus. In spring 1978, work uas initiated on rearing the larvae of the calcareous encrusting tube worm Hydroides dianthus . Preliminary...larvae belonging to the coastal species, Balanus amphitrite and Hydroides dianthus and the estuarine barnacle, BaZanus ebur-neus. Some of the difficulties

  7. Comparative Magma Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether the Earth ever passed through a magma ocean stage is of considerable interest. Geochemical evidence strongly suggests that the Moon had a magma ocean and the evidence is mounting that the same was true for Mars. Analyses of martian (SNC) meteorites have yielded insights into the differentiation history of Mars, and consequently, it is interesting to compare that planet to the Earth. Three primary features of Mars contrast strongly to those of the Earth: (i) the extremely ancient ages of the martian core, mantle, and crust (about 4.55 b.y.); (ii) the highly depleted nature of the martian mantle; and (iii) the extreme ranges of Nd isotopic compositions that arise within the crust and depleted mantle. The easiest way to explain the ages and diverse isotopic compositions of martian basalts is to postulate that Mars had an early magma ocean. Cumulates of this magma ocean were later remelted to form the SNC meteorite suite and some of these melts assimilated crustal materials enriched in incompatible elements. The REE pattern of the crust assimilated by these SNC magmas was LREE enriched. If this pattern is typical of the crust as a whole, the martian crust is probably similar in composition to melts generated by small degrees of partial melting (about 5%) of a primitive source. Higher degrees of partial melting would cause the crustal LREE pattern to be essentially flat. In the context of a magma ocean model, where large degrees of partial melting presumably prevailed, the crust would have to be dominated by late-stage, LREE-enriched residual liquids. Regardless of the exact physical setting, Nd and W isotopic evidence indicates that martian geochemical reservoirs must have formed early and that they have not been efficiently remixed since. The important point is that in both the Moon and Mars we see evidence of a magma ocean phase and that we recognize it as such. Several lines of theoretical inference point to an early Earth that was also hot and, perhaps, mostly molten. The Giant Impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon offers a tremendous input of thermal energy and the same could be true for core formation. And current solar system models favor the formation of a limited number of large (about 1000 km) planetesimals that, upon accreting to Earth, would cause great heating, being lesser versions of the Giant Impact. Several lines of geochemical evidence do not favor this hot early Earth scenario. (i) Terrestrial man-tle xenoliths are sometimes nearly chondritic in their major element compositions, suggesting that these rocks have never been much molten. Large degrees of partial melting probably promote differentiation rather than homogenization. (ii) Unlike the case of Mars, the continental crust probably did not form as a highly fractionated residual liquid from a magma ocean (about 99% crystallization), but, rather, formed in multiple steps. [The simplest model for the formation of continental crust is complicated: (a) about 10% melting of a primitive mantle, making basalt; (b) hydrothermal alteration of that basalt, converting it to greenstone; and (c) 10% partial melting of that greenstone, producing tonalite.] This model is reinforced by the recent observation from old (about 4.1 b.y.) zircons that the early crust formed from an undepleted mantle having a chondritic Lu/Hf ratio. (iii) If the mantle were once differentiated by a magma ocean, the mantle xenolith suite requires that it subsequently be homogenized. The Os isotopic compositions of fertile spinel lherzolites place constraints on the timing of that homogenization. The Os isotopic composition of spinel lherzolites approaches that of chondrites and correlates with elements such as Lu and Al. As Lu and Al concentrations approach those of the primitive mantle, Os isotopic compositions approach chondritic. The Re and Os in these xenoliths were probably added as a late veneer. Thus, the mantle that received the late veneer must have been nearly chondritic in terms of its major elements (excluding Fe). If the mantle that the veneer was mixed into was not al-ready homogenized, then Os isotopes should not correlate with incompatible elements such as Al. Consequently, either early differentiation of the mantle did not occur or the homogenization of this differentiation must have occurred before the late veneer was added. The timing of the late veneer is itself uncertain but presumably postdated core formation at about 4.45 b.y. and did not postdate the 3.8-3.9 b.y. late bombardment of the Moon. This timing based on siderophile elements is consistent with the Hf isotopic evidence cited above. If the Earth, Moon and Mars had magma oceans, the Earth subsequently rehomogenized whereas the Moon and Mars did not. The simplest solution to this observation is that homogenization of igneous differentiates was never necessary on Earth, either because the hypothetical magma ocean never occurred or because this event did not produce mantle differentiation.

  8. REMOTE SENSING IN OCEANOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  9. Software - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    are here: Home › USNO › Earth Orientation › Software USNO Logo USNO Navigation Earth Orientation Products GPS-based Products VLBI-based Products EO Information Center Publications about Products Software Search databases Auxiliary Software Supporting Software Form Folder Earth Orientation Matrix Calculator

  10. Oceanography of marginal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    in the first two shallow seas are driven by surface densification following evaporation that in the latter is largely influenced by freshwater discharge from Irrawaddy and inflows across the Andaman Ridge from east Bay of Bengal. Biological productivity...

  11. Subseabed Disposal Project annual report, FY85 to termination of project: Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry Studies, October 1984 through May 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupferman, S.L. (ed.)

    1987-05-01

    This report covers the work of the Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry (POWCG) Studies Group of the Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) from October 1984 to termination of the project in May 1986. The overview of the work includes an introduction, general descriptions of the activities, and a summary. Detailed discussions are included as appendices. During the period of this report the POWCG Studies Group held a meeting to develop a long-term research plan for the Nares Abyssal Plain, which was recently designated as a study area for the Environmental Study Group of the SDP. The POWCG Studies Group has also planned and participated in two interdisciplinary oceanographic missions to the Nares which have resulted in the acquisition of data and samples which can be used to begin to understand the workings of the ecosystem at the site, and for developing a preliminary site assessment. The papers in the appendices have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  12. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  13. Subseabed Disposal Project annual report, FY85 to termination of project: Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry Studies, October 1984 through May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupferman, S.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report covers the work of the Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry (POWCG) Studies Group of the Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) from October 1984 to termination of the project in May 1986. The overview of the work includes an introduction, general descriptions of the activities, and a summary. Detailed discussions are included as appendices. During the period of this report the POWCG Studies Group held a meeting to develop a long-term research plan for the Nares Abyssal Plain, which was recently designated as a study area for the Environmental Study Group of the SDP. The POWCG Studies Group has also planned and participated in two interdisciplinary oceanographic missions to the Nares which have resulted in the acquisition of data and samples which can be used to begin to understand the workings of the ecosystem at the site, and for developing a preliminary site assessment. The papers in the appendices have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  14. Educational Experiences in Oceanography through Hands-On Involvement with Surface Drifters: an Introduction to Ocean Currents, Engineering, Data Collection, and Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Northeast Fisheries Science Center's (NEFSC) Student Drifters Program is providing education opportunities for students of all ages. Using GPS-tracked ocean drifters, various educational institutions can provide students with hands-on experience in physical oceanography, engineering, and computer science. In building drifters many high school and undergraduate students may focus on drifter construction, sometimes designing their own drifter or attempting to improve current NEFSC models. While learning basic oceanography younger students can build drifters with the help of an educator and directions available on the studentdrifters.org website. Once drifters are deployed, often by a local mariner or oceanographic partner, drifter tracks can be visualised on maps provided at http://nefsc.noaa.gov/drifter. With the lesson plans available for those interested in computer science, students may download, process, and plot the drifter position data with basic Python code provided. Drifter tracks help students to visualize ocean currents, and also allow them to understand real particle tracking applications such as in search and rescue, oil spill dispersion, larval transport, and the movement of injured sea animals. Additionally, ocean circulation modelers can use student drifter paths to validate their models. The Student Drifters Program has worked with over 100 schools, several of them having deployed drifters on the West Coast. Funding for the program often comes from individual schools and small grants but in the future will preferably come from larger government grants. NSF, Sea-Grant, NOAA, and EPA are all possible sources of funding, especially with the support of multiple schools and large marine education associations. The Student Drifters Program is a unique resource for educators, students, and scientists alike.

  15. The Central Role of the Mississippi River and its Delta in the Oceanography, Ecology and Economy of the Gulf of Mexico: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Chu, P. Y.; Taylor, C.; Roberts, B. J.; Renfro, A. A.; Peyronnin, N.; Fitzpatrick, C.

    2017-12-01

    While it has long been recognized that the Mississippi River is the largest source of freshwater, nutrients and sediments to the Gulf of Mexico, many questions remain unanswered about the impacts of the material on oceanography of the system. Here we report on the results of a regional synthesis study that examined how the Mississippi River and its delta influence the oceanography, ecology and the economy of the Gulf of Mexico. By employing a series of expert-opinion working groups, and using multi-dimensional numerical physical oceanographic models coupled to in-situ environmental data, this project is working to quantify how variability in discharge, meteorological forcings, and seasonal conditions influence the spatial distribution of the Mississippi River plume and its influence. Results collected to date indicate that the dimensions of the river plume are closely coupled to discharge, but in a non-linear fashion, that incorporates fluxes, flow distributions, offshore and meteorological forcings in the context of the local bathymetry. Ongoing research is using these human and numerical tools to help further elucidate the impacts of this river on the biogeochemistry of the region, and the distribution of key macrofauna. Further work by this team is examining how the delta's impacts on the ecology of the region, and the role that the delta plays as both a source of material for key offshore fauna, and a barrier to dispersal. This information is being used to help further the development of a research agenda for the northern Gulf of Mexico that will be useful through the mid-21st century.

  16. Convenience experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohs, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Systems biology aims at explaining life processes by means of detailed models of molecular networks, mainly on the whole-cell scale. The whole cell perspective distinguishes the new field of systems biology from earlier approaches within molecular cell biology. The shift was made possible by the high throughput methods that were developed for gathering 'omic' (genomic, proteomic, etc.) data. These new techniques are made commercially available as semi-automatic analytic equipment, ready-made analytic kits and probe arrays. There is a whole industry of supplies for what may be called convenience experimentation. My paper inquires some epistemic consequences of strong reliance on convenience experimentation in systems biology. In times when experimentation was automated to a lesser degree, modeling and in part even experimentation could be understood fairly well as either being driven by hypotheses, and thus proceed by the testing of hypothesis, or as being performed in an exploratory mode, intended to sharpen concepts or initially vague phenomena. In systems biology, the situation is dramatically different. Data collection became so easy (though not cheap) that experimentation is, to a high degree, driven by convenience equipment, and model building is driven by the vast amount of data that is produced by convenience experimentation. This results in a shift in the mode of science. The paper shows that convenience driven science is not primarily hypothesis-testing, nor is it in an exploratory mode. It rather proceeds in a gathering mode. This shift demands another shift in the mode of evaluation, which now becomes an exploratory endeavor, in response to the superabundance of gathered data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler

    2012-01-01

    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?

  18. Experimental guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The paper proposes a model experimental design to study the effects of pesticides on particular ecosystem. It takes maize as a model crop and an alternative crop while studying the adverse effects on untargeted arthropods, residues in the soil and other plants. 5 refs, 7 figs

  19. Experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowser, K.E.; Stansbury, P.S.; Poston, J.W.; Deus, S.F.; Chen, W.L.; Roswell, R.L.; Goans, R.E.; Cantrell, J.H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral fluence measurements in an adult phantom are reported. A NaI(Tl) probe was used in various locations within the phantom and pulse-height spectra were obtained for seven beam configurations and three generating potentials. Some typical spectra results are presented. A comparison of calculated dose to experimental measurements is presented

  20. Experimental insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Kycia, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is given of the eight identical experimental insertions for the planned ISABELLE storage rings. Four sets of quadrupole doublets are used to match the β functions in the insertions to the values in the cells, and the total free space available at the crossing point is 40 meters. An asymmetric beam energy operation is planned, which will be useful in a number of experiments

  1. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  2. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  3. Experimental Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, D.; Serin, L.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  4. Experimental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    Five years ago the first heavy-ion beams were accelerated at both the BNL-AGS and the CERN-SPS. This conference is the 5th anniversary in the experimental field. Currently, four experimental groups (E802/E859, E810, E814, E858) are taking data at BNL and eight groups (NA34-3, NA44, NA45, NA35, NA36, NA38, WA80/WA93, WA85) at CERN. Au and Pb beams are about to come, and a lot of activities are going on for RHIC and LHC. The purpose of this talk is to overview where we are, in particular, by looking at the past data. In this talk, the data of proton rapidity distributions are reviewed first to study nuclear transparency, then, the data of energy spectra and slopes, HBT and anti d production are discussed in connection with the evolution of the collision. Third, the data of strangeness production are described. Finally, the status of J/ψ and that of soft photons and electron pairs are briefly overviewed. (orig.)

  5. The role of sedimentology, oceanography, and alteration on the δ56Fe value of the Sokoman Iron Formation, Labrador Trough, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raye, Urmidola; Pufahl, Peir K.; Kyser, T. Kurtis; Ricard, Estelle; Hiatt, Eric E.

    2015-09-01

    The Sokoman Formation is a ca. 100-m-thick succession of interbedded iron formation and fine-grained siliciclastics deposited at 1.88 Ga. Accumulation occurred on a dynamic paleoshelf where oxygen stratification, coastal upwelling of hydrothermally derived Fe and Si, microbial processes, tide and storm currents, diagenesis, and low-grade prehnite-pumpellyite metamorphism controlled lithofacies character and produced complex associations of multigenerational chert, hematite, magnetite, greenalite, stilpnomelane and Fe carbonate. Hematite-rich facies were deposited along suboxic segments of the coastline where photosynthetic oxygen oases impinged on the seafloor. Hematitic, cross-stratified grainstones were formed by winnowing and reworking of freshly precipitated Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide and opal-A by waves and currents into subaqueous dunes. Magnetite-rich facies contain varying proportions of greenalite and stilpnomelane and record deposition in anoxic middle shelf environments beneath an oxygen chemocline. Minor negative Ce anomalies in hematitic facies, but prominent positive Ce and Eu anomalies and high LREE/HREE ratios in magnetite-rich facies imply the existence of a weakly oxygenated surface ocean above anoxic bottom waters. The Fe isotopic composition of 31 whole rock (-0.46 ⩽ δ56Fe ⩽ 0.47‰) and 21 magnetite samples (-0.29 ⩽ δ56Fe ⩽ 0.22‰) from suboxic and anoxic lithofacies was controlled primarily by the physical oceanography of the paleoshelf. Despite low-grade metamorphism recorded by the δ18O values of paragenetically related quartz and magnetite, the Sokoman Formation preserves a robust primary Fe isotopic signal. Coastal upwelling is interpreted to have affected the isotopic equilibria between Fe2+aq and Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide in open marine versus coastal environments, which controlled the Fe isotopic composition of lithofacies. Unlike previous work that focuses on microbial and abiotic fractionation processes with little regard for

  6. Experimental techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P.

    2007-01-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, γ detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  7. Experimental music for experimental physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Using the sonification technique, physicist and composer Domenico Vicinanza paid homage to CERN at its 60th anniversary ceremony. After months of hard work, he turned the CERN Convention and LHC data into music.   Click here to download the full score of the "LHChamber music". Every birthday deserves gifts and CERN’s 60th anniversary was no exception. Two gifts were very special, thanks to the hard work of Domenico Vicinanza, a physicist and composer. He created two experimental pieces by applying the sonification technique to the CERN Convention and to data recorded by the four LHC detectors during Run 1. “This technique allows us to ‘hear’ data using an algorithm that translates numbers or letters into notes. It keeps the same information enclosed in a graph or a document, but has a more aesthetic exposition,” explains Domenico Vicinanza. “The result is meant to be a metaphor for scientific cooperation, in which d...

  8. Arabian Sea oceanography and fisheries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, K.N.V.; Venugopal, P.; Gauns, M.; Haridas, P.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    The physical and chemical forcing which drive the Arabian production is now fairly well understood. The main attributes, which contribute to the productivity are (1) the boundary processes which manifest as upwelling during summer monsoon and (2...

  9. CSIR - National Institute of Oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    weather stations, tide gauges, an autonomous underwater vehicle and an autonomous vertical profiler. The multidisciplinary expertise developed within the Institute enabled CSIR-NIO to help numerous industries in coastal area. It has been offering services... remarkable service to the nation for nearly two decades. With the establishment of the Department of Ocean Development (now the Ministry of Earth Sciences), additional seagoing infrastructure was created by the Government of India through acquisition of O R V...

  10. Software Products - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    are here: Home › USNO › Astronomical Applications › Software Products USNO Logo USNO Navigation Data Services Astronomical Information Center Almanacs and Other Publications Software Products For DoD Users Info Software Products MICA - Multiyear Interactive Computer Almanac MICA CDROM (thumb) MICA is an

  11. Collaborative Oceanography and Virtual Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Observing Laboratory ( EOL ), but also contains an internal architecture which will allow it to evolve into a collaborative communication tool...an additional 50,988 "common" products were generated (241 plot types), along with 47,600 overlays (101 plot types). From 52 non- EOL sources...24,471 products were collected, and from 1486 EOL data collections, 643,263 "federated" products were indexed and made available through itop.org

  12. Climatology of the oceanography in the northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) and adjacent waters: Observations from satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X.; Wong, G. T.; Tai, J.; Ho, T.

    2013-12-01

    By using the observations from multiple satellite sensors, the climatology of the oceanography, including the surface wind vector, sea surface temperature (SST), surface chlorophyll a concentration (Chl_a), and vertically integrated net primary production (PPeu), in the northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) and adjacent waters is evaluated. Regional and sub-regional mechanisms in driving the coastal processes, which influence the spatial and temporal distributional patterns in water component, are assessed. Seasonal vertical convective mixing by wind and surface heating/cooling is the primary force in driving the annual changes in SST and Chl_a in the open South China Sea (SCS), in which highly negative correlation coefficients between Chl_a and SST and moderately positive correlation coefficients between Chl_a and wind speed are found. Together, the seasonal variations in SST and wind speed account for about 80% of the seasonal variation in Chl_a. In the NoSoCS as a whole, however, the contribution is reduced to about 40%, primarily due to the effect of the Pearl River plume. A tongue of water extending eastward from the mouth of the River into the middle shelf with positive correlation coefficients between Chl_a and SST and around zero or slightly negative correlation coefficients between Chl_a and wind is the most striking feature in the NoSoCS. The westward and eastward propagations of the Pearl River plume are both very small during the northeast monsoonal season, driven primarily by the Coriolis effect. The abrupt increase in the areal coverage of the River plume, which is much more pronounced in the eastward propagation, between June and August can be attributed to the prevailing southwest monsoon as well as the annual peak of the river flow. Coastal upwelling is another sub-regional phenomenon in the NoSoCS. The upwelling at the shelf edge off the Taiwan Bank may be characterized by its elevated Chl_a. Its areal coverage and average Chl_a do not vary

  13. In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle: A STEM Partnership Between Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Office of Naval Research and Middle School Science Students Bringing Next Generation Science Standards into the Classroom through Ocean Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, D.; Appelgate, B., Jr.; Mauricio, P.

    2014-12-01

    Now in its tenth year, "In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle" (IFRR) is a middle school science education program that draws student interest, scientific content and coherence with Next Generation Science Standards from real-time research at sea in fields of physical science. As a successful collaboration involving Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO),Office of Naval Research (ONR), and San Marcos Middle School (SMMS), IFRR brings physical oceanography and related sciences to students at the San Marcos Middle School in real-time from research vessels at sea using SIO's HiSeasNet satellite communication system. With a generous grant from ONR, students are able to tour the SIO Ships and spend a day at sea doing real oceanographic data collection and labs. Through real-time and near-realtime broadcasts and webcasts, students are able to share data with scientists and gain an appreciation for the value of Biogeochemical research in the field as it relates to their classroom studies. Interaction with scientists and researchers as well as crew members gives students insights into not only possible career paths, but the vital importance of cutting edge oceanographic research on our society. With their science teacher on the ship as an education outreach specialist or ashore guiding students in their interactions with selected scientists at sea, students observe shipboard research being carried out live via videoconference, Skype, daily e-mails, interviews, digital whiteboard sessions, and web interaction. Students then research, design, develop, deploy, and field-test their own data-collecting physical oceanography instruments in their classroom. The online interactive curriculum models the Next Generation Science Standards encouraging active inquiry and critical thinking with intellectually stimulating problem- solving, enabling students to gain critical insight and skill while investigating some of the most provocative questions of our time, and seeing scientists as

  14. BENSC. Experimental reports 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, Y.; Gast, H.; Michaelsen, R.

    1995-05-01

    This volume contains the guest groups' experimental reports describing experimental work carried out on the Berlin Scattering Center in 1994. These experimental reports are intended as interim summaries. (HP)

  15. BENSC experimental reports 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, Y.; Michaelsen, R.

    1994-05-01

    This volume contains the guest groups' experimental reports describing experimental work carried out on the Berlin Scattering Center in 1993. These experimental reports are intended as interim summaries. (HP)

  16. Experimental Engineering: Articulating and Valuing Design Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Grönvall, Erik; Fritsch, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose Experimental Engineering as a way to articulate open- ended technological experiments as a legitimate design research practice. Experimental Engineering introduces a move away from an outcome or result driven design process towards an interest in existing technologies and...

  17. Science review of the Beaufort Institute of Oceanography, the Halifax Fisheries Research Laboratory, and the St. Andrews Biological Station, 1990-91. Revue des sciences de l'Institut oceanographique de Bedford, du Laboratoire de recherche halieutique de Halifax, et de la Station biologique de St. Andrews, 1990-91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T E; Cook, J [eds.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of the research and survey programs being undertaken in 1990-91 at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography, the Halifax Fisheries Research Laboratory, and the St. Andrews Biological Station (all in Nova Scotia). The broad objectives of these programs are to perform applied research leading to the provision of advice on the management of marine and freshwater environments, including fisheries and offshore hydrocarbon resources; to perform targeted basic research in accordance with the mandates of Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Environment Canada, and Energy, Mines and Resources; to perform surveys and cartographic work; and to respond to major marine environmental emergencies. The research and survey work encompasses the fields of marine geology and geophysics, physical oceanography, marine chemistry, biological oceanography, fisheries research, seabird research, and navigational surveys and cartography. Topics of specific projects reviewed include marine pollution detection, phytoplankton profiling, seal populations, ocean mapping, geographic information systems, fish and invertebrate nutrition, shellfish culture, lobster habitat ecology, physics and biology of the Georges Bank frontal system, water-level instrumentation, data acquisition techniques, sea ice monitoring, salmon management, nearshore sedimentary processes, and oil/gas distribution in offshore basins. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three project reports from this review.

  18. Experimental program at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, D.

    1974-01-01

    The experimental program at Fermilab is briefly surveyed: accelerators and experimental areas, current experiments such as elastic scattering of π +- , K +- , p +- , on proton and deuteron total cross sections, neutrino physics, high transverse momentum [fr

  19. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  20. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  1. Experimental heavy quarkonium physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugge, L.

    1986-08-01

    Following some brief arguments on why heavy quarkonium spectroscopy is an important field of particle physics, some points on experimental techniques are discussed. Parts of the basic quarkonium phenomenology, including discussions of various items related to potensial models, are then presented. An up-to-date presentation is given of the state-of-the-art of experimental charmonium and bottomonium spectroscopy below open flavour threshold, including the confrontation of experimental results to representative theoretical predictions

  2. Experimental halls workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    At the experimental halls workshop, discussions were held on: (1) open areas as compared with enclosed halls; (2) the needs of ep, anti pp, and other options; (3) the hall for the lepton detector; and (4) the hall for the hadron spectrometer. The value of different possibilities for the future experimental program was explored. A number of suggestions emerged which will be used as the design of the experimental halls progresses

  3. Gamma-ray energy absorption in absorbing homogeneous medium. Applications to Oceanography and Geophysics (Gamma-ray spectroscopy from 500 to 1500 keV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapicque, G.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a general algebrical approach for the calculation, without any program, of the full energy peak efficiency of a detecting probe designed to measure the gamma activity of a radio-element in a (semi) infinite homogeneous absorbing medium such as the Sea. The radio-active source may be punctual or, most often, constitute an integral part of the medium. The proposed theory is valid for any purely absorptive process of particles moving along straight trajectories, diffusion effects being allowed for separately. The formulation assumes a spherical detector and calculations are made for models having the same volume as two standard phosphors (10 cm x8 cm and 5 cm x 4.5 cm) in the energy band 0.5 to 1.5 MeV. The parameters are the detector radius and, at energy E 0 , the absorption coefficients in the various media for gamma rays together with the 'peak/total' ratio in the detector. The fact that this latter factor, which varies with each trajectory, cannot be obtained with accuracy, constitutes the main limitation of the formulation. The comparison with experimental results obtained with a 10 cm x 8 cm phosphor at the C.F.R. (Centre des Faibles Radioactivites, Gif-sur-Yvette) and with various data indicates an error of about +-5% for a point source at contact and -30% for a homogeneously distributed source in an infinite medium. This latter value may be interpreted as a superiority of the spherical shape over the cylinder (used in practice), for detectors operating in infinite media. Calculations are made without allowing for the Compton effect, which is found to give an approximate correction of +5% in water for a band width of 10 keV in the MeV region. Finally, the shape of the detecting probe around the detector is shown to be indifferent in the assumption of a constant peak/total ratio [fr

  4. Transonic Experimental Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Experimental Research Facility evaluates aerodynamics and fluid dynamics of projectiles, smart munitions systems, and sub-munitions dispensing systems;...

  5. Strength of Experimental Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  6. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  7. Ansiedade experimental humana Human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Guilherme Graeff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A ansiedade experimental no ser humano constitui-se em ponte entre os modelos animais e os ensaios clínicos. OBJETIVO: Este artigo focaliza métodos químicos e psicológicos utilizados para provocar ansiedade experimental em seres humanos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se revisão seletiva da literatura. RESULTADOS: Os desafios farmacológicos têm sido usados principalmente para induzir ataques de pânico em pacientes com transtorno de pânico, os quais são mais sensíveis a eles que indivíduos normais ou pacientes portadores de outros transtornos psiquiátricos. Uma das mais importantes contribuições deste método é a de ter mostrado que os agentes panicogênicos mais seletivos, como o lactato ou a inalação de CO2, não ativam o eixo hormonal do estresse. Entre os métodos psicológicos, destacam-se o condicionamento de respostas elétricas da condutância da pele, cujo perfil farmacológico se aproxima daquele do transtorno de ansiedade generalizada, e o teste da simulação do falar em público, cuja farmacologia é semelhante à do transtorno de pânico. CONCLUSÕES: Tais resultados salientam a diferença entre a neurobiologia da ansiedade e a do pânico.BACKGROUND: Human experimental anxiety methods bridge the gap between animal models and clinical assays. OBJECTIVE: This article is focused on chemical and psychological procedures used to generate experimental anxiety in human beings. METHODS: A selective review of the literature has been carried out. RESULTS: Pharmacological challenges have been mainly used to induce panic attacks in panic disorder patients, who are more susceptible than normal individuals or patients with other psychiatric disorders. One of the most important contributions of this method is to have shown that the most selective panicogenic agents, such as lactate or CO2 inhalation, do not activate the hormonal stress axis. Among the psychological methods stand the conditioning of the electrical skin conductance

  8. Experimental semiotics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years a new line of research has appeared in the literature. This line of research, which may be referred to as experimental semiotics (ES; Galantucci, 2009; Galantucci and Garrod, 2010), focuses on the experimental investigation of novel forms of human communication. In this review we will (a) situate ES in its conceptual context, (b) illustrate the main varieties of studies thus far conducted by experimental semioticians, (c) illustrate three main themes of investigation which have emerged within this line of research, and (d) consider implications of this work for cognitive neuroscience.

  9. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  10. Experimental halls workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    On May 26 and 27, 1976, approximately 50 people met for an informal workshop on plans for experimental halls for ISABELLE. Plans as they exist in the May 1976 version of the ISABELLE proposal were presented. Discussions were held on the following four general topics by separate working groups: (1) pros and cons of open areas as compared with enclosed halls; (2) experimental hall needs of ep, anti pp, and other options; (3) hall for the lepton detector; and (4) hall for the hadron spectrometer. The planning for experimental halls at PEP, the hall for the lepton detector, the hadron spectrometer, and open areas are discussed

  11. Summary of experimental talks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.

    1999-01-01

    This final talk of the meeting briefly discussed a number of experimental topics that the author found particularly interesting in the area of High Energy Physics. It also includes some critical comments about the future direction of their discipline

  12. Nuclear test experimental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research

  13. Experimental modal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software, general digital analysis, basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis and system identification. (au)

  14. Nuclear test experimental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  15. Experimental Research in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Mauro Hernandez; Kenny Basso; Marcelo Moll Brandão

    2014-01-01

    Considering the growing number of scientific studies published in the marketing field and the development of unique theories of the area (Hunt, 2010), using experimental designs seems increasingly appropriate to investigate marketing phenomena. This article aims to discuss the main elements in conducting experimental studies and also to stimulate researchers to adopt this research method. Several international journals (e.g., JCR, JCP, JMR, JR, JBR) have been publishing articles based on expe...

  16. Color and experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief review of the color hypothesis and the motivations for its introduction, the experimental tests arare discussed. It is assumed that colored states have not been produced at present energies and only experimental tests which apply below the color threshold, when color is a ''hidden symmetry,'' are discussed. Some of these tests offer the possibility of distinguishing between quark models with fractional and integral quark charges. (auth)

  17. The Experimental Art School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the Experimental Art School from its early beginnings, its development from formal experiments to political action, the question of gender and politics, and the power of the self-organised......The article describes the Experimental Art School from its early beginnings, its development from formal experiments to political action, the question of gender and politics, and the power of the self-organised...

  18. BENSC. Experimental reports 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, Y.; Gast, H.; Michaelsen, R.

    1996-06-01

    The present volume contains a collection of BENSC Experimental Reports. The reports present an overview on the experimental work carried out on BENSC in 1995. About 70 percent of the beam time is available to external users. A qualitative step is the start of user operation of the new advanced Time-of-Flight Spectrometer V3 (NEAT). The increase of SANS project for the Double Crystal Diffractometer V12 is noticed. The current list of instruments and instrument responsibles is given. (DG)

  19. Ice condenser experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannberg, L.D.; Piepel, G.F.; Owczarski, P.C.; Liebetrau, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental plan is being developed to validate the computer code ICEDF. The code was developed to estimate the extent of aerosol retention in the ice compartments of pressurized water reactor ice condenser containment systems during severe accidents. The development of the experimental plan began with review of available information on the conditions under which the code will be applied. Computer-generated estimates of thermohydraulic and aerosol conditions entering the ice condenser were evaluated and along with other information, used to generate design criteria. The design criteria have been used for preliminary test assembly design and for generation of statistical test designs. Consideration of the phenomena to be evaluated in the testing program, as well as equipment and measurement limitations, have led to changes in the design criteria and to subsequent changes in the test assembly design and statistical test design. The overall strategy in developing the experimental plan includes iterative generation and evaluation of candidate test designs using computer codes for statistical test design and ICEDF for estimation of experimental results. Estimates of experimental variability made prior to actual testing will be verified by replicate testing at preselected design points

  20. Experimental intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marthens, E; Harel, S; Zamenshof, S

    1975-01-01

    The effects of experimental intrauterine growth retardation on subsequent fetal development, especially with respect to brain development, were studied in a new animal model. The rabbit was chosen since it has a perinatal pattern of brain development similar to that of the human. Experimental ischemia was induced during the last trimester by ligation of spiral arterioles and the differential effects on fetal development at term (30th gestational day) are reported. Specific brain regions were examined for wet weight, total cell number (DNA) and total protein content. Highly significant decreases in all these parameters were found in both the cortex and cerebellum following experimental intrauterine growth retardation; these two organs were differentially affected. The prospects and advantages of using this animal model for the study of the postnatal "catch-up growth" are discussed.

  1. Theory-laden experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    light bending in 1919 by Eddington and others) to show that TDRs are used by scientists to resolve data conflicts. I argue that the rationality of the practices which employ TDRs can be saved if the independent support of the theories driving TDRs is construed in a particular way.......The thesis of theory-ladenness of observations, in its various guises, is widely considered as either ill-conceived or harmless to the rationality of science. The latter view rests partly on the work of the proponents of New Experimentalism who have argued, among other things, that experimental...... practices are efficient in guarding against any epistemological threat posed by theory-ladenness. In this paper I show that one can generate a thesis of theory-ladenness for experimental practices from an influential New Experimentalist account. The notion I introduce for this purpose is the concept...

  2. Experimental Research in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mauro Hernandez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing number of scientific studies published in the marketing field and the development of unique theories of the area (Hunt, 2010, using experimental designs seems increasingly appropriate to investigate marketing phenomena. This article aims to discuss the main elements in conducting experimental studies and also to stimulate researchers to adopt this research method. Several international journals (e.g., JCR, JCP, JMR, JR, JBR have been publishing articles based on experiments that not only demonstrate a relationship between two events, but also elucidate how they occur by means of mediation and moderation analyses. This article intents to be a roadmap for novice researchers on how to conduct experiments and to offer new perspectives in experimental research for experienced researchers.  

  3. Mentoring Program for Women in Physical Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, M. Susan

    2006-03-01

    Efforts over the past several decades toward increasing the number of women entering science and engineering fields have largely been successful, with undergraduate and graduate school enrollments averaging between 30 and 50 percent women (see Nelson Diversity Survey, http://cheminfo.chem.ou.edu/faculty/djn/diversity/ top50.html). Ph.D. attainments show similar progress. However, the percentage of women occupying tenure-track positions has not risen commensurably. Across the board, women in science and engineering fill on average only 15 to 25 percent of academic positions. Since the number of women in graduate school has been sufficiently large for at least a decade, it is difficult to ascribe the lower percentage of women in faculty positions to a small pool of potential candidates. As reported in the Chronicle of Higher Education (3 December 2004), the disparity between the number of women trained in a field and the number of women occupying positions in that field is instead attributed by some to subtle biases that keep women out of research or academic positions; others, according to the report, argue that women are simply staying away of their own accord from these positions.

  4. Oceanography in the formal and informal classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A.; Jasnow, M.; Srinivasan, M.; Rosmorduc, V.; Blanc, F.

    2002-01-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 ocean altimeter missions offer the educator in the middle school or informal education venue a unique opportunity for reinforcing ocean science studies. An educational poster from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales provide teachers and students a tool to examine topics such as the dynamics of ocean circulation, ocean research, and the oceans' role in climate.

  5. Microbial oceanography: Viral strategies at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thingstad, T. Frede; Bratbak, Gunnar

    2016-03-01

    The finding that marine environments with high levels of host microbes have fewer viruses per host than when host abundance is low challenges a theory on the relative roles of lysogenic and lytic viral-survival strategies. See Article p.466

  6. GIS in oceanography: Status, hurdles and prospects

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Remote_Sens_GIS_Environ_Plan_1995_575.pdf.txt stream_source_info Remote_Sens_GIS_Environ_Plan_1995_575.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  7. The Physical Oceanography of the Alboran Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    concentrated in Lanoix, 1974) fluctuated about 38.47 ppt and 13.15’C , ie northern part (Fig. 20). Its path in the eastern basin (in situ ). Bryden et al...inclinacion transversal de las W ater. aguas atlanticas y Mediterraneas en el Estrecho de Gibraltar. Boletin del Instituto Espaiol de X1. References

  8. Fisheries oceanography of northern pelagic fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula

    for marine organisms. One of the impacts will be the time that species start to spawn, and there is already evidence for earlier spawning in some North Sea fish species. A change like that may likely have a chain reaction, affecting larval stages and whether they will live in environments with high food...... of the species they consume now and increased availability of new species. In addition, there will likely be economic impacts on the local fishing communities. How species respond to climate change is a field of research that receives great attention because the responses will affect the management of fisheries......People are familiar with marine fish species and the great variety of different species that are available in the market, such as herring, cod and sole. What may not be well known is that every individual fish goes through a long, risky journey during its life before reaching maturity. Most...

  9. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; DeLong, Edward F

    2012-01-01

    oxide (N(2)O) gases. Anaerobic microbial processes, including the two pathways of N(2) production, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, are oxygen-sensitive, with some occurring only under strictly anoxic conditions. The detection limit of the usual method (Winkler titrations) for measuring...

  10. Data bases and management in oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhargava, R.M.S.; Sarupria, J.S.

    The data center at NIO, Goa, India has been recognized as the Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre. In this paper, the sources and data available at INODC, the data bases created and under operation, the activities of the data centre and some...

  11. Physical Oceanography of the Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al Saafani, M.A.

    and limited hydrographic observations. Wooster et al. [1967] stated that the winter pattern starts in October with a weak westward flow into the gulf. It developed fully in November and persisted till April . During summer, the direction of the surface current... current in the northwestern Arabian Sea, the Somali Current, flows poleward (equator ward) along the coast of Somalia during the summer (winter) monsoon (see the reviews by Schott [1983]; Shetye and Gouveia [1998]; Schott and McCreary [2001]). Owing...

  12. Remote sensing in meteorology, oceanography and hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cracknell, A P [ed.

    1981-01-01

    Various aspects of remote sensing are discussed. Topics include: the EARTHNET data acquisition, processing, and distribution facility the design and implementation of a digital interactive image processing system geometrical aspects of remote sensing and space cartography remote sensing of a complex surface legal aspects of remote sensing remote sensing of pollution, dust storms, ice masses, and ocean waves and currents use of satellite images for weather forecasting. Notes on field trips and work-sheets for laboratory exercises are included.

  13. Oceanography of the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Qasim, S.Z.

    . The flow pattern consists of several eddies and meanders. Inorganic phosphorus is high in the surface layer and still higher at greater depths. Nitrate-nitrogen is low at the surface and increases with depth. Ratios between apparent oxygen utilization (AOU...

  14. Frequently Asked Questions - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    (statistics)? A: Forecast performance is calculated following a thorough post-storm review of all available cyclone with an estimated intensity between 34 and 63 knots is designated a "Tropical Storm." - Extratropical ETT - Extratropical Transition FT - Final T-Number (Dvorak) IR - Infrared satellite imagery KT

  15. University Curricula in Oceanography and Related Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    hardware, and three potential ma- ( TOEFL ). rine technicians formally enrolled in a new and ex- perimental two-year curriculum. In May of 1971, the 1. M.A...the application fee, and in the case of and six credit hours of thesis research. General and foreign students, TOEFL results, are due by February

  16. The Physical Oceanography of the Alboran Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    relative vorticity was imposed, be critical . The vorticity mechanism proposed by however, the flow turned to the left. He suggested that Bryden and Stommel... Metodos y resultados. Inf. Teen. del Inc., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. I.E.O., Madrid, Spain (in press). Cheney, R. E. and R. A. Doblar (1982). Structure

  17. Modeling free energy availability from Hadean hydrothermal systems to the first metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncini, E; Russell, M J; Kleidon, A

    2011-12-01

    Off-axis Hydrothermal Systems (HSs) are seen as the possible setting for the emergence of life. As the availability of free energy is a general requirement to drive any form of metabolism, we ask here under which conditions free energy generation by geologic processes is greatest and relate these to the conditions found at off-axis HSs. To do so, we present a conceptual model in which we explicitly capture the energetics of fluid motion and its interaction with exothermic reactions to maintain a state of chemical disequilibrium. Central to the interaction is the temperature at which the exothermic reactions take place. This temperature not only sets the equilibrium constant of the chemical reactions and thereby the distance of the actual state to chemical equilibrium, but these reactions also shape the temperature gradient that drives convection and thereby the advection of reactants to the reaction sites and the removal of the products that relate to geochemical free energy generation. What this conceptual model shows is that the positive feedback between convection and the chemical kinetics that is found at HSs favors a greater rate of free energy generation than in the absence of convection. Because of the lower temperatures and because the temperature of reactions is determined more strongly by these dynamics rather than an external heat flux, the conditions found at off-axis HSs should result in the greatest rates of geochemical free energy generation. Hence, we hypothesize from these thermodynamic considerations that off-axis HSs seem most conducive for the emergence of protometabolic pathways as these provide the greatest, abiotic generation rates of chemical free energy.

  18. Microbial habitability of the Hadean Earth during the late heavy bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Oleg; Mojzsis, Stephen J

    2009-05-21

    Lunar rocks and impact melts, lunar and asteroidal meteorites, and an ancient martian meteorite record thermal metamorphic events with ages that group around and/or do not exceed 3.9 Gyr. That such a diverse suite of solar system materials share this feature is interpreted to be the result of a post-primary-accretion cataclysmic spike in the number of impacts commonly referred to as the late heavy bombardment (LHB). Despite its obvious significance to the preservation of crust and the survivability of an emergent biosphere, the thermal effects of this bombardment on the young Earth remain poorly constrained. Here we report numerical models constructed to probe the degree of thermal metamorphism in the crust in the effort to recreate the effect of the LHB on the Earth as a whole; outputs were used to assess habitable volumes of crust for a possible near-surface and subsurface primordial microbial biosphere. Our analysis shows that there is no plausible situation in which the habitable zone was fully sterilized on Earth, at least since the termination of primary accretion of the planets and the postulated impact origin of the Moon. Our results explain the root location of hyperthermophilic bacteria in the phylogenetic tree for 16S small-subunit ribosomal RNA, and bode well for the persistence of microbial biospheres even on planetary bodies strongly reworked by impacts.

  19. Microbial habitability of the Hadean Earth during the late heavy bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Oleg; Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    2009-05-01

    Lunar rocks and impact melts, lunar and asteroidal meteorites, and an ancient martian meteorite record thermal metamorphic events with ages that group around and/or do not exceed 3.9Gyr. That such a diverse suite of solar system materials share this feature is interpreted to be the result of a post-primary-accretion cataclysmic spike in the number of impacts commonly referred to as the late heavy bombardment (LHB). Despite its obvious significance to the preservation of crust and the survivability of an emergent biosphere, the thermal effects of this bombardment on the young Earth remain poorly constrained. Here we report numerical models constructed to probe the degree of thermal metamorphism in the crust in the effort to recreate the effect of the LHB on the Earth as a whole; outputs were used to assess habitable volumes of crust for a possible near-surface and subsurface primordial microbial biosphere. Our analysis shows that there is no plausible situation in which the habitable zone was fully sterilized on Earth, at least since the termination of primary accretion of the planets and the postulated impact origin of the Moon. Our results explain the root location of hyperthermophilic bacteria in the phylogenetic tree for 16S small-subunit ribosomal RNA, and bode well for the persistence of microbial biospheres even on planetary bodies strongly reworked by impacts.

  20. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  1. SPHINX experimenters information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced

  2. Surface physics : experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padalia, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    In this report, discussion is confined to some important ultra high vacuum surface techniques such as ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and the low energy electron diffraction (LEED). An attempt is made to cover the basic principles and the experimental details of XPS and AES. Selected examples illustrating the potentialities of the above techniques to solve the important basic as well as applied problems relating to surfaces are presented. Salient features of the available commercial machines in which UPS, AES and LEED are combined to facilitate surface examination sequentially or simultaneously under identical experimental conditions are indicated. (auth.)

  3. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Gil, D.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  4. Experimental equipment, ch. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomstra, F.; Hoogenboom, A.M.; Prins, C.M.; Strasters, B.A.; Vermeer, A.; Wit, P. de; Zwol, N.A. van.

    1977-01-01

    The experimental equipment in use at Utrecht university is discussed. Attention is paid to the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and the 4MV and 1MV accelerators. The detection systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy are reviewed with emphasis on the compton-suppression spectrometer. The data-handling system used for experiments with the tandem is also briefly discussed

  5. Experimental status QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.; Slepchenko, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of experimental status of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has been carried out. A short introduction into QCD is given. QCD sum rules are considered. Jets in e + e - annihilation and inclusive processes of lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron scattering are considered. Effect of QCD corrections to perturbation theory on quark count is analyzed

  6. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  7. Myofibroblasts in experimental hydronephrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diamond, J R; van Goor, H; Ding, G; Engelmyer, E

    Interstitial fibrosis is a common outcome of longterm ureteral obstruction. One pathological arm of the fibrotic reaction in diverse tissue loci and experimental models is the retraction of granulation tissue. The role of the myofibroblast in granulation tissue contraction and fibrocontractive

  8. Experimental atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental atomic physics program within the physics division is carried out by two groups, whose reports are given in this section. Work of the accelerator atomic physics group is centered around the 6.5-MV EN tandem accelerator; consequently, most of its research is concerned with atomic processes occurring to, or initiated by, few MeV/amu heavy ions. Other activities of this group include higher energy experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF), studies of electron and positron channeling radiation, and collaborative experiments at other institutions. The second experimental group concerns itself with lower energy atomic collision physics in support of the Fusion Energy Program. During the past year, the new Electron Cyclotron Resonance Source has been completed and some of the first data from this facility is presented. In addition to these two activities in experimental atomic physics, other chapters of this report describe progress in theoretical atomic physics, experimental plasma diagnostic development, and atomic data center compilation activities

  9. Experimental halls workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of: (1) pros and cons of open areas as compared with enclosed halls; (2) experimental hall needs of ep, anti p p, and other options; (3) hall for the lepton detector; and, (4) hall for the hadron spectrometer

  10. Orphee reactor experimental equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Experimental equipment around the ORPHEE reactor is presented. The neutron source; and the spectrometers and sample environment (inelastic and quasi-elastic scattering, elastic scattering, spread scattering, small angle scattering) are described. An experiment proposal and reports guide is supplied [fr

  11. Pentaquarks. An experimental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, D.

    2005-01-01

    Since the recent observation of a pentaquark (Θ + = qqqqq-bar) state (see Nakano et al. (LEPS Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett.91 (2003) 012002-1) several positive and negative experimental results have emerged. These results are overviewed, with a trial to find common features among them. (author)

  12. The ''ATOS'' experimental device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.A.; Dorovskij, A.P.; Dubrovin, M.M.; Khlopkin, A.N.

    1980-08-01

    This paper contains a brief description of the ATOS experimental device at the I.V. Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, USSR, which has been designed in accordance with the merged beam principle to investigate collisions between heavy atomic particles and multiply-charged ions of impurity elements - following the programme of the Joint IFRC/INDC Subcommittee on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion

  13. Shielding in experimental areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.; Tarnopolsky, G.; Thorndike, A.; White, S.

    1979-01-01

    The amount of shielding necessary to protect experimental detectors from various sources of background radiation is discussed. As illustrated an experiment has line of sight to sources extending approx. 90 m upstream from the intersection point. Packing a significant fraction of this space with shielding blocks would in general be unacceptable because primary access to the ring tunnel is from the experimental halls. (1) From basic machine design considerations and the inherent necessity to protect superconducting magnets it is expected that experimental areas in general will be cleaner than at any existing accelerator. (2) Even so, it will likely be necessary to have some shielding blocks available to protect experimental apparatus, and it may well be necessary to have a large amount of shielding available in the WAH. (3) Scraping will likely have some influence on all halls, and retractable apparatus may sometimes be necessary. (4) If access to any tunnel is needed to replace a magnet, one has 96 h (4 days) available to move shielding away to permit access without additional downtime. This (the amount of shielding one can shuffle about in 96 h) is a reasonable upper limit to shielding necessary in a hall

  14. Experimentation with PEC channel prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caponetti, R.; Iacovelli, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentation on prototypes of PEC components is presently being carried out at Casaccia CRE. This report shows the results of the first cycle of experimentation of the central channel, concerning the aspects of sodium removal after experimentation

  15. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  16. Optimal experimental design with R

    CERN Document Server

    Rasch, Dieter; Verdooren, L R; Gebhardt, Albrecht

    2011-01-01

    Experimental design is often overlooked in the literature of applied and mathematical statistics: statistics is taught and understood as merely a collection of methods for analyzing data. Consequently, experimenters seldom think about optimal design, including prerequisites such as the necessary sample size needed for a precise answer for an experimental question. Providing a concise introduction to experimental design theory, Optimal Experimental Design with R: Introduces the philosophy of experimental design Provides an easy process for constructing experimental designs and calculating necessary sample size using R programs Teaches by example using a custom made R program package: OPDOE Consisting of detailed, data-rich examples, this book introduces experimenters to the philosophy of experimentation, experimental design, and data collection. It gives researchers and statisticians guidance in the construction of optimum experimental designs using R programs, including sample size calculations, hypothesis te...

  17. Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations...... of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...

  18. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, J.D.; Stasko, R.R.

    1989-09-01

    An international design team comprised of members from Canada, Europe, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America, are designing an experimental fusion test reactor. The engineering and testing objectives of this International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are to validate the design and to demonstrate controlled ignition, extended burn of a deuterium and tritium plasma, and achieve steady state using technology expected to be available by 1990. The concept maximizes flexibility while allowing for a variety of plasma configurations and operating scenarios. During physics phase operation, the machine produces a 22 MA plasma current. In the technology phase, the machine can be reconfigured with a thicker shield and a breeding blanket to operate with an 18 MA plasma current at a major radius of 5.5 meters. Canada's involvement in the areas of safety, facility design, reactor configuration and maintenance builds on our internationally recognized design and operational expertise in developing tritium processes and CANDU related technologies

  19. TOP2017 Experimental summary

    CERN Document Server

    Giammanco, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to the unprecedentedly fast accumulation of high-energy data at the LHC during the ongoing Run~2, most of the traditional top-quark analyses are experiencing the luxury of having to worry about how to punch through the ``Systematics Wall'', and think about new ways to maximize the utility of their data. New processes involving top quarks are being studied for the first time, and the good old pair-production processes are being explored in unusual settings, such as collisions involving heavy ions, or ``reference data'' collected by the LHC at relatively low centre-of-mass energy. The TOP2017 conference featured 37 talks delivered by experimental physicists, including seven in the ``Young Scientists Forum'' where young colleagues were given the opportunity to elaborate more deeply than usual on their own work. As it is impossible to do justice to all the experimental resu...

  20. REBA experimenters' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.L.

    1977-04-01

    The REBA is a high-energy, pulsed electron beam or bremsstrahlung x-ray generator whose operational purpose is to provide an energy source of short duration for conducting experiments, primarily to determine material responses to rapid surface and in-depth deposition of energy. The purpose of this manual is to serve as a basic source of information for prospective users of REBA. Included is a brief discussion of the design and operation of the facility as well as a summary of output characteristics for electron beam modes and environmental data for x-ray operation. The manual also contains a description of the REBA experimental facilities, including geometry of the test cell, instrumentation and data collection capabilities, and services and support available to experimenters

  1. Experimental project - Cloud chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour, Elena; Quinchard, Gregory; Soudon, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This document reports an academic experimental project dealing with the general concepts of radioactivity and their application to the cloud room experiment. The author first recalls the history of the design and development of a cloud room, and some definitions and characteristics of cosmic radiation, and proposes a description of the principle and physics of a cloud room. The second part is a theoretical one, and addresses the involved particles, the origins of electrons, and issues related to the transfer of energy (Bremsstrahlung effect, Bragg peak). The third part reports the experimental work with the assessment of a cloud droplet radius, the identification of a trace for each particle (alphas and electrons), and the study of the magnetic field deviation

  2. Experimental plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, H.; Banton, M.E.; Ingraham, J.C.; Wittman, F.; Wright, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Experimental Plasma Physics group's main efforts continue to be directed toward the understanding of the mechanisms of electromagnetic energy absorption in a plasma, and the resultant plasma heating and energy transport. The high-frequency spectrum of plasma waves parametrically excited by the microwave signal at high powers has been measured. The absorption of a small test microwave signal in a plasma made parametrically unstable by a separate high-power driver microwave signal was also studied

  3. Experimental lithium system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, J.M.; Berg, J.D.; Kolowith, R.; Miller, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Experimental Lithium System is a test loop built to support design and operation of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility. ELS has achieved over 15,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program has demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including an electromagnetic pump, lithium jet target, and vacuum system. Data on materials corrosion and behavior of lithium impurities are also presented. (author)

  4. The Massabesic Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. McConkey; Wendell E. Smith

    1958-01-01

    White pine and fire! These two - the tree and its destroyer, fire - are keys to the history and present make-up of the research program on the Massabesic Experimental Forest at Alfred, Maine. The Forest was established in the late 1930's to study the management of eastern white pine. During World War II, it was shut down, and reopened again in 1946. Then, in 1947...

  5. Experimentation at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    These proceedings contain three articles concerning the physics which can be studied by HERA, which were presented at the named workshop, together with convenor reports on working groups which concern technologies, the intersecting regions, photoproduction at HERA, currents and structure functions, exotic phenomena at HERA, and the use of existing detectors. Finally the experimental halls at HERA are described. Separated abstracts were prepared for the articles in these proceedings. (HSI)

  6. Experimental integrated photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Markovska, Natasha; Dimitrov, D.; Kocev, K.; Dimitrovski, D.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the interest in building-integrated photovoltaic installations has started to increase within governmental and municipality authorities, as well as some industrial companies. To serve a national public-awareness program of solar electricity promotion and education, the indigenous solar energy potential, optimization of possible PV installation, and three test cases of building-integrated grid-connected experimental facilities have been studied. The results showed the feasibility and performance of the proposed concepts. (Original)

  7. Experimental physics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yang Su; Oh, Byeong Seong

    2010-05-01

    This book introduces measurement and error, statistics of experimental data, population, sample variable, distribution function, propagation of error, mean and measurement of error, adjusting to rectilinear equation, common sense of error, experiment method, and record and statement. It also explains importance of error of estimation, systematic error, random error, treatment of single variable, significant figure, deviation, mean value, median, mode, sample mean, sample standard deviation, binomial distribution, gauss distribution, and method of least squares.

  8. USACDEC Experimentation Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Commander, Instrumentation Command (Prov) who is responsible for the cinematic form of the films. The writing requirements for discrete sections of the...level of simulated realism required. Higher levels of simulated realism will require higher degrees of control to insure the test events occur as...experimentation, the "enemy" created to add realism . Aggressor forces may be represented by live troops In the field or by mechanical targets with or

  9. Blois V: Experimental summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrow, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    The author gives a summary talk of the best experimental data given at the Vth Blois Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering. He addresses the following eight areas in his talk: total and elastic cross sections; single diffractive excitation; electron-proton scattering; di-jets and rapidity gaps; areas of future study; spins and asymmetries; high-transverse momentum and masses at the Tevatron; and disoriented chiral condensates and cosmic radiation

  10. Blois 5: Experimental summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrow, M. G.

    1993-09-01

    The author gives a summary talk of the best experimental data given at the 5th Blois Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering. He addresses the following eight areas in his talk: total and elastic cross sections; single diffractive excitation; electron-proton scattering; di-jets and rapidity gaps; areas of future study; spins and asymmetries; high-transverse momentum and masses at the Tevatron; and disoriented chiral condensates and cosmic radiation.

  11. Blois V: Experimental summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    The author gives a summary talk of the best experimental data given at the Vth Blois Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering. He addresses the following eight areas in his talk: total and elastic cross sections; single diffractive excitation; electron-proton scattering; di-jets and rapidity gaps; areas of future study; spins and asymmetries; high-transverse momentum and masses at the Tevatron; and disoriented chiral condensates and cosmic radiation.

  12. Methods of experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Dudley

    1962-01-01

    Methods of Experimental Physics, Volume 3: Molecular Physics focuses on molecular theory, spectroscopy, resonance, molecular beams, and electric and thermodynamic properties. The manuscript first considers the origins of molecular theory, molecular physics, and molecular spectroscopy, as well as microwave spectroscopy, electronic spectra, and Raman effect. The text then ponders on diffraction methods of molecular structure determination and resonance studies. Topics include techniques of electron, neutron, and x-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic, nuclear quadropole, and electron spin reson

  13. Experimental site and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenette, C. C. [SINTEF Applied Cemistry, Trondheim (Norway)

    1999-08-01

    Design and site selection criteria for the Svalbard oil spill experiments are described. All three experimental sites have coarse and mixed sediment beaches of sand and pebble; within each site wave exposure is very similar; along-shore and across-shore sediment characteristics are also relatively homogeneous. Tidal range is in the order of 0.6 m at neaps, and 1.8 m at springs. All three sites are open to wave action and are ice-free during the experimental period of mid-July to mid-October. Study plots at each site were selected for different treatments from within the continuous stretch of oiled shoreline, with oiled buffer zones between plots and at either end of the oiled zone. Treatments included mixing (tilling), sediment relocation (surf washing) and bioremediation (nutrient enrichment). Measurements and observations were carried out during the summers of 1997 and 1998. The characteristics measured were: wave and wind conditions; beach topography and elevation; sediment grain size distribution; mineral fines size distribution and mineral composition; background hydrocarbons; concentration of oil within experimental plots and the rate of oil loss over time; depth of oil penetration and thickness of the oiled sediment layer; oil concentration and toxicity of near-shore benthic sediments; mineral composition of suspended particulate material captured in sub-tidal sediment traps; and oil-fines interaction in near-shore water samples. 1 fig.

  14. Experimental site and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenette, C. C. [SINTEF Applied Cemistry, Trondheim (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Design and site selection criteria for the Svalbard oil spill experiments are described. All three experimental sites have coarse and mixed sediment beaches of sand and pebble; within each site waveexposure is very similar; along-shore and across-shore sediment characteristics are also relatively homogeneous. Tidal range is in the order of 0.6 m at neaps, and 1.8 m at springs. All three sites are open to wave action and are ice-free during the experimental period of mid-July to mid-October. Study plots at each site were selected for different treatments from within the continuous stretch of oiled shoreline, with oiled buffer zones between plots and at either end of the oiled zone. Treatments included mixing (tilling), sediment relocation (surf washing) and bioremediation (nutrient enrichment). Measurements and observations were carried out during the summers of 1997 and 1998. The characteristics measured were: wave and wind conditions; beach topography and elevation; sediment grain size distribution; mineral fines size distribution and mineral composition; background hydrocarbons; concentration of oil within experimental plots and the rate of oil loss over time; depth of oil penetration and thickness of the oiled sediment layer; oil concentration and toxicity of near-shore benthic sediments; mineral composition of suspended particulate material captured in sub-tidal sediment traps; and oil-fines interaction in near-shore water samples. 1 fig.

  15. Woodward Effect Experimental Verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Paul

    2004-02-01

    The work of J. F. Woodward (1990 1996a; 1996b; 1998; 2002a; 2002b; 2004) on the existence of ``mass fluctuations'' and their use in exotic propulsion schemes was examined for possible application in improving space flight propulsion and power generation. Woodward examined Einstein's General Relativity Theory (GRT) and assumed that if the strong Machian interpretation of GRT as well as gravitational / inertia like Wheeler-Feynman radiation reaction forces hold, then when an elementary particle is accelerated through a potential gradient, its rest mass should fluctuate around its mean value during its acceleration. Woodward also used GRT to clarify the precise experimental conditions necessary for observing and exploiting these mass fluctuations or ``Woodward effect'' (W-E). Later, in collaboration with his ex-graduate student T. Mahood, they also pushed the experimental verification boundaries of these proposals. If these purported mass fluctuations occur as Woodward claims, and his assumption that gravity and inertia are both byproducts of the same GRT based phenomenon per Mach's Principle is correct, then many innovative applications such as propellantless propulsion and gravitational exotic matter generators may be feasible. This paper examines the reality of mass fluctuations and the feasibility of using the W-E to design propellantless propulsion devices in the near to mid-term future. The latest experimental results, utilizing MHD-like force rectification systems, will also be presented.

  16. Heavy quarks - experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebeek, R.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures, given at the 1989 SLAC Summer School, was to discuss the experimental aspects of heavy quark production. A companion set of lectures on the theoretical point of view were to be given by Keith Ellis. An experimentalist should gather together the measurements which have been made by various groups, compare, contrast and tabulate them, and if possible point out the ways in which these measurements confirm or contradict current theories. Here the authors has tried to do this, although the reader who expects to find here the latest of all experimental measurements should probably be forewarned that the field is moving extremely rapidly. In some cases, he has added and updated materials where crucial new information became available after or during the summer of 1989, but not in all cases. He has concentrated on trying to select those measurements which are at the moment most crucial in refining our understanding of heavy quarks as opposed to those which merely measure things which are perhaps too complicated to be enlightening at the moment. While theorists worry primarily about production mechanisms, cross sections, QCD corrections, and to some extent about signatures, the experimentalist must determine which measurements he is interested in making, and which signatures for heavy quark production are realistic and likely to produce results which will shed some new light on the underlying production model without undo theoretical complications. Experimentalists also need to evaluate the available experimental equipment, both machines and detectors to find the best way to investigate the properties of heavy quarks. In many cases, the things which we would like to measure are severely restricted by what we can measure. Nevertheless, many properties of heavy quark production and decay can be measured, and the results have already taught us much about the weak interactions and QCD

  17. FMEF/experimental capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, C.A.; Dronen, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), under construction at the Hanford site north of Richland, Washington, will be one of the most modern facilities offering irradiated fuels and materials examination capabilities and fuel fabrication development technologies. Scheduled for completion in 1984, the FMEF will provide examination capability for fuel assemblies, fuel pins and test pins irradiated in the FFTF. Various functions of the FMEF are described, with emphasis on experimental data-gathering capabilities in the facility's Nondestructive and Destructive examination cell complex

  18. Experimental neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Link, Jonathan M

    2018-01-01

    Neutrinos have a smaller mass than any other known particle and are the subject of intense recent studies, as well as this book. The author provides a coherent introduction to the necessary theoretical background and experimental methods used by modern neutrino physicists. It’s designed as a one-stop reference addressing what is currently known about the neutrino hypothesis, discovery of the neutrino, theory of weak interactions, solar neutrino puzzle, and neutrino oscillation. It then gives a detailed account of practical approaches for study of precision oscillations, neutrino mass and other neutrino properties, sterile neutrinos, and neutrino messengers from space and Earth’s interior.

  19. Outsourcing of experimental work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase...... between the researcher and the service is further developed. This involves robust protocols for sample preparation, an informed choice of analytical tool, development of standards for individual technologies, and transparent data analysis. This chapter introduces some of the problems related to analysis...

  20. PROTEUS Experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, G.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the PROTEUS experimental programme performed at PSI over more than 30 years. In the 1970's the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) experiments were essentially designed to improve the nuclear data in the fast energy range. The light water reactor experiments performed in the 1980's (HCLWR) and until 2006 (LWR-PROTEUS, Phases I, II and III) allowed to study various configurations for PWR and BWR. More information is available on the PROTEUS web site at http://proteus.web.psi.ch

  1. Experimental Axion Review

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Axions are a natural consequence of the Peccei-Quinn mechanism, the most compelling solution to the strong-CP problem. Similar axion-like particles (ALPs) also appear in a number of possible extensions of the Standard Model, notably in string theories. Both axions and ALPs are very well motivated candidates for the Dark Matter, and in addition would be copiously produced at the stellar cores. Some anomalous astrophysical observations could be hinting the existence of these particles. They are object of increasing interest by experimentalists. I will briefly review the motivation to search for axions and ALPs, as well as the current status and future prospects of the experimental landscape.

  2. Experimental tumour treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report of 1984 is the seventh in a series and presents that year's results of continuous studies in the domain of experimental tumour radiotherapy. In the year under review, more personnel has been available for the studies, and the scientific programmes for the assessment of acute and chronic side effects of radiotherapies have been extended. New models have been developed, among them a first system based on animal experiments, for quantifying the mucositis of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, a limiting condition in the radiotherapy of head and throat tumours. Another significant advancement is a model for quantification of chronical damage to the ureter, which still is a serious problem in the radiotherapy of gynaecological tumours. The 1984 experimental tumour studies have been mainly devoted to the repopulation and split-dose recovery in various tumours, concentrating on dose fractionation as one of the major problems studies. Particular interest has been attached to the processes involved in treatments over several weeks with a daily effective dose of 2 Gy. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Experimental particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, R.I.; Lane, C.E.

    1992-09-01

    The goals of this research are the experimental testing of fundamental theories of physics beyond the standard model and the exploration of cosmic phenomena through the techniques of particle physics. We are working on the MACRO experiment, which employs a large-area underground detector to search fore grand unification magnetic monopoles and dark matter candidates and to study cosmic ray muons as well as low- and high-energy neutrinos; the Chooz experiment to search for reactor neutrino oscillations at a distance of 1 km from the source; a new proposal (the Perry experiment) to construct a one-kiloton liquid scintillator in the Fairport, Ohio underground facility IMB to study neutrino oscillations with a 13 km baseline; and development of technology for improved liquid scintillators and for very-low-background materials in support of the MACRO and Perry experiments and for new solar neutrino experiments

  4. Interviews within experimental frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    2010-01-01

    , an amount of control was required over the nature of those experiences.  With these requirements, a hybrid study was designed by deconstructing the conceptualization of "the experiment" and utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods.  The resulting study involved the following: a within......-subjects experimental design served as the framework for the study, while in-depth qualitative interviews were employed alongside surveys and audio and video recording as the data collection methods.  Data collection occurred while participants were engaging with the media products, via talk aloud protocols......, and afterwards when they were asked to recall and compare these situations in open-ended questionnaires and interviews structured using Dervin's Sense-Making Methodology.  Having completed the study using this mixed method(ology) approach, I discuss the effectiveness of this approach, and where the approach...

  5. Experimental headache in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1995-01-01

    The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose......-dependent headache and dilatation of the temporal, radial and middle cerebral artery. NTG-induced headache, although less intense, resembles migraine in pain characteristics, but the accompanying symptoms are rarely present. Cephalic large arteries are dilated during migraine headache as well as during NTG headache....... N-acetylcysteine enhances the formation of NO and potentiates NTG-induced headache, whereas mepyramine, a H1-antagonist capable of blocking histamine-induced headache, has no effect. Thus, the headache is dependent on NO or other steps in the NO cascade. The model is useful for pharmacological...

  6. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  7. Experimental tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This study was concentrated on the investigation of practically oriented problems of tumour therapy, under the application of possibly differing experimental test subjects, ranging from cell cultures to the living animal. The development of the test systems was advanced and some systems were replaced by new ones. An enrichment of great significance is also the fibrosarcoma SSK-2 of the C3H mouse, whose cells form colonies with an exploitation of about 50% when the explant is transferred directly to the cell culture. The subject matter of the experiments ranged from the effect of irradiation on cells in vitro to the proliferation kinetics of human tumours under treatment. As in the last year the main significance and attention was attributed to the analysis of time dependency in radiotherapy. The second main point were investigations on the interaction of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, supplemented by experiments to the time dependency in chemotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Elementary particle physics: Experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, J.J.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    We are carrying out a research program in high energy experimental particle physics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions and leptoproduction processes continue using several experimental techniques. Progress has been made on the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. Ultra-high energy cosmic ray nucleus-nucleus interactions have been investigated by the Japanese American Cosmic Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) using balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors. In the area of particle astrophysics, our studies of cosmic ray nuclear interactions have enabled use to make the world's most accurate determination of the comparison of the cosmic rays above 10 13 eV. We have only the detector that can observe interaction vertices and identify particles at energies up to 10**15 eV. Our observations are getting close to placing limits on the acceleration mechanisms postulated for pulsars in which the spin and magnetic moment axes are at different angles. In June, 1989 approval was given by NASA for our participation in the Space Station program. The SCINATT experiment will make use of emulsion chamber detectors, similar to the planned JACEE hybrid balloon flight detectors. These detector will permit precise determination of secondary particle charges, momenta and rapidities, and the accumulation of data will be at least a factor of 10 to 100 greater than in balloon experiments. Emulsion chamber techniques ate also employed in an experiment using accelerator heavy ion beams at CERN and Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate particle production processes in central collisions of nuclei in the energy range 15 -- 200A GeV. Our study of hadroproduction in lepton interactions is continuing with approval of another 8 months run for deep inelastic muon scattering experiment E665 at Fermilab

  9. Experimental technique of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Huang Chaoqiang; Li Xinxi

    2006-12-01

    It is presented that the classifications, structures and components of neutron reflectometer (NR), as well s functions and parameters of each components, detailed characters of NR facility 'PRN-2M'. Based on the practical experiments, the basic experimental techniques, the measurement and the related experimental settings are described, including the choice of experimental conditions, adjustments of polarized neutron beam line, basic experimental technique and approach of measurement. The above can be an instruction for NR experiments and a reference for NR construction. (authors)

  10. Experimental Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina; Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the Ba

  11. Advanced reactor experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amri, A.; Papin, J.; Uhle, J.; Vitanza, C.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, the NEA has been examining advanced reactor issues and disseminating information of use to regulators, designers and researchers on safety issues and research needed. Following the recommendation of participants at an NEA workshop, a Task Group on Advanced Reactor Experimental Facilities (TAREF) was initiated with the aim of providing an overview of facilities suitable for carrying out the safety research considered necessary for gas-cooled reactors (GCRs) and sodium fast reactors (SFRs), with other reactor systems possibly being considered in a subsequent phase. The TAREF was thus created in 2008 with the following participating countries: Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Korea and the United States. In a second stage, India provided valuable information on its experimental facilities related to SFR safety research. The study method adopted entailed first identifying high-priority safety issues that require research and then categorizing the available facilities in terms of their ability to address the safety issues. For each of the technical areas, the task members agreed on a set of safety issues requiring research and established a ranking with regard to safety relevance (high, medium, low) and the status of knowledge based on the following scale relative to full knowledge: high (100%-75%), medium (75 - 25%) and low (25-0%). Only the issues identified as being of high safety relevance and for which the state of knowledge is low or medium were included in the discussion, as these issues would likely warrant further study. For each of the safety issues, the TAREF members identified appropriate facilities, providing relevant information such as operating conditions (in- or out-of reactor), operating range, description of the test section, type of testing, instrumentation, current status and availability, and uniqueness. Based on the information collected, the task members assessed prospects and priorities

  12. Experimental impact crater morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile

  13. Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henze, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was built to convert transuranic contaminated solid waste into a form acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. There are about 2.0 million cubic ft of transuranic waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) located at the RWMC will examine this stored transuranic waste to determine if the waste is acceptable for direct shipment to and storage at WIPP, or if it requires shipment to PREPP for processing before shipment to WIPP. The PREPP process shreds the waste, incinerates the shredded waste, and cements (grouts) the shredded incinerated waste in new 55-gal drums. Unshreddable items are repackaged and returned to SWEPP. The process off-gas is cleaned prior to its discharge to the atmosphere, and complies with the effluent standards of the State of Idaho, EPA, and DOE. Waste liquid generated is used in the grouting operation

  14. Experimental inventory verification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, C.A.; Angerman, M.I.

    1991-01-01

    As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) goals and Department of Energy (DOE) inventory requirements are frequently in conflict at facilities across the DOE complex. The authors wish, on one hand, to verify the presence of correct amounts of nuclear materials that are in storage or in process; yet on the other hand, we wish to achieve ALARA goals by keeping individual and collective exposures as low as social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations permit. The Experimental Inventory Verification System (EIVSystem) is a computer-based, camera-driven system that utilizes image processing technology to detect change in vault areas. Currently in the test and evaluation phase at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this system guards personnel. The EIVSystem continually monitors the vault, providing proof of changed status for objects sorted within the vault. This paper reports that these data could provide the basis for reducing inventory requirements when no change has occurred, thus helping implement ALARA policy; the data will also help describe there target area of an inventory when change has been shown to occur

  15. Tokamak experimental power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Abdou, M.A.; Brooks, J.N.

    1978-01-01

    A tokamak experimental power reactor has been designed that is capable of producing net electric power over a wide range of possible operating conditions. A net production of 81 MW of electricity is expected from the design reference conditions that assume a value of 0.07 for beta-toroidal, a maximum toroidal magnetic field of 9 T and a thermal conversion efficiency of 30%. Impurity control is achieved through the use of a low-Z first wall coating. This approach allows a burn time of 60 seconds without the incorporation of a divertor. The system is cooled by a dual pressurized water/steam system that could potentially provide thermal efficiencies as high as 39%. The first surface facing the plasma is a low-Z coated water cooled panel that is attached to a 20 cm thick blanket module. The vacuum boundary is removed a total of 22 cm from the plasma, thereby minimizing the amount of radiation damage in this vital component. Consideration is given in the design to the possible use of the EPR as a materials test reactor. It is estimated that the total system could be built for less than 550 million dollars

  16. Experimental Young's modulus calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Jayakumar, R.; Yu, K.

    1994-01-01

    Coil is a very important magnet component. The turn location and the coil size impact both mechanical and magnetic behavior of the magnet. The Young's modulus plays a significant role in determining the coil location and size. Therefore, Young's modulus study is essential in predicting both the analytical and practical magnet behavior. To determine the coil Young's modulus, an experiment has been conducted to measure azimuthal sizes of a half quadrant QSE101 inner coil under different loading. All measurements are made at four different positions along an 8-inch long inner coil. Each measurement is repeated three times to determine the reproducibility of the experiment. To ensure the reliability of this experiment, the same measurement is performed twice with a open-quotes dummy coil,close quotes which is made of G10 and has the same dimension and similar azimuthal Young's modulus as the inner coil. The difference between the G10 azimuthal Young's modulus calculated from the experiments and its known value from the manufacturer will be compared. Much effort has been extended in analyzing the experimental data to obtain a more reliable Young's modulus. Analysis methods include the error analysis method and the least square method

  17. Experimental constraints on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Petty, K.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Forest, C.B.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; De Haas, J.C.M.; James, R.A.; Makowski, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    Characterization of the cross-field energy transport in magnetic confinement experiments in a manner applicable to the accurate assessment of future machine performance continues to be a challenging goal. Experimental results from the DIII-D tokamak in the areas of dimensionless scaling and non-diffusive transport represent progress toward this goal. Dimensionless scaling shows how beneficial the increase in machine size and magnetic field is for future devices. The experiments on DIII-D are the first to determine separately the electron and ion scaling with normalized gyroradius ρ * ; the electrons scale as expected from gyro-Bohm class theories, while the ions scale consistent with the Goldston empirical scaling. This result predicts an increase in transport relative to Bohm diffusion as ρ * decreases in future devices. The existence of distinct ρ * scalings for ions and electrons cautions against a physical interpretation of one-fluid or global analysis. The second class of experiments reported here are the first to demonstrate the existence of non-diffusive energy transport. Electron cyclotron heating was applied at the half radius; the electron temperature profile remains substantially peaked. Power balance analysis indicates that heat must flow in the direction of increasing temperature, which is inconsistent with purely diffusive transport. The dynamics of electron temperature perturbations indicate the presence in the heat flux of a term dependent on temperature rather than its gradient. These two observations strongly constrain the types of models which can be applied to cross-field heat transport

  18. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, Richard Jeffrey [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    The University of Washington (UW) HEP neutrino group performed experimental research on the physics of neutrinos, using the capabilities offered by the T2K Experiment and the Super-Kamiokande Neutrino Observatory. The UW group included senior investigator R. J. Wilkes, two PhD students, four MS degree students, and a research engineer, all of whom are members of the international scientific collaborations for T2K and Super-Kamiokande. During the period of support, within T2K we pursued new precision studies sensitive to new physics, going beyond the limits of current measurements of the fundamental neutrino oscillation parameters (mass differences and mixing angles). We began efforts to measure (or significantly determine the absence of) 1 the CP-violating phase parameter δCP and determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. Using the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector we pursued newly increased precision in measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters with atmospheric neutrinos, and extended the current reach in searches for proton decay, in addition to running the most sensitive supernova watch instrument [Scholberg 2012], performing other astrophysical neutrino studies, and analyzing beam-induced events from T2K. Overall, the research addressed central questions in the field of particle physics. It included the training of graduate students (both PhD and professional MS degree students), and postdoctoral researchers. Undergraduate students also participated as laboratory assistants.

  19. Tokamak experimental power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Abdou, M.A.; Bertoncini, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a tokamak Experimental Power Reactor to operate at net electrical power conditions with a plant capacity factor of 50 percent for 10 yr. The EPR operates in a pulsed mode at a frequency of approximately 1/min, with approximately 75 percent duty cycle, is capable of producing approximately 72 MWe and requires 42 MWe. The annual tritium consumption is 16 kg. The EPR vacuum chamber is 6.25 m in major radius and 2.4 m in minor radius, is constructed of 2 cm thick stainless steel, and has 2 cm thick detachable, beryllium-coated coolant panels mounted on the interior. A 0.28 m stainless steel blanket and a shield ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 m surround the vacuum vessel. The coolant is H 2 O. Sixteen niobium-titanium superconducting toroidal field coils provide a field of 10 T at the coil and 4.47 T at the plasma. Superconducting ohmic heating and equilibrium field coils provide 135 V-s to drive the plasma current. Plasma heating is accomplished by 12 neutral beam injectors which provide 60 MW. The energy transfer and storage system consists of a central superconducting storage ring, a homopolar energy storage unit, and a variety of inductor-convertors

  20. Particle physics---Experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density ∼ 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams

  1. Experimental validation of UTDefect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, A.S. [ABB Tekniska Roentgencentralen AB, Taeby (Sweden); Bostroem, A.; Wirdelius, H. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Mechanics

    1997-01-01

    This study reports on conducted experiments and computer simulations of ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT). Experiments and simulations are compared with the purpose of validating the simulation program UTDefect. UTDefect simulates ultrasonic NDT of cracks and some other defects in isotropic and homogeneous materials. Simulations for the detection of surface breaking cracks are compared with experiments in pulse-echo mode on surface breaking cracks in carbon steel plates. The echo dynamics are plotted and compared with the simulations. The experiments are performed on a plate with thickness 36 mm and the crack depths are 7.2 mm and 18 mm. L- and T-probes with frequency 1, 2 and 4 MHz and angels 45, 60 and 70 deg are used. In most cases the probe and the crack is on opposite sides of the plate, but in some cases they are on the same side. Several cracks are scanned from two directions. In total 53 experiments are reported for 33 different combinations. Generally the simulations agree well with the experiments and UTDefect is shown to be able to, within certain limits, perform simulations that are close to experiments. It may be concluded that: For corner echoes the eight 45 deg cases and the eight 60 deg cases show good agreement between experiments and UTDefect, especially for the 7.2 mm crack. The amplitudes differ more for some cases where the defect is close to the probe and for the corner of the 18 mm crack. For the two 70 deg cases there are too few experimental values to compare the curve shapes, but the amplitudes do not differ too much. The tip diffraction echoes also agree well in general. For some cases, where the defect is close to the probe, the amplitudes differ more than 10-15 dB, but for all but two cases the difference in amplitude is less than 7 dB. 6 refs.

  2. Experimental thermodynamics experimental thermodynamics of non-reacting fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Neindre, B Le

    2013-01-01

    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume II: Experimental Thermodynamics of Non-reacting Fluids focuses on experimental methods and procedures in the study of thermophysical properties of fluids. The selection first offers information on methods used in measuring thermodynamic properties and tests, including physical quantities and symbols for physical quantities, thermodynamic definitions, and definition of activities and related quantities. The text also describes reference materials for thermometric fixed points, temperature measurement under pressures, and pressure measurements. The publicatio

  3. Experimental nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    An earlier study of unusual electromagnetic decays in (sup 86)Zr was extended in order to make comparisons with its isotone (sup 84)Sr and with (sup 84)Zr. The K=14 (t(sub 1/2) = 70 ns) high-spin isomer in (sup 176)W was found to have a 13 percent branch directly to the K=O ground-state band, one of the strongest violations of K-selection rules known. A new program to search for a predicted region of oblate deformation involving neutron deficient isotopes in the Rn/Fr/Ra region was begun. In the area of nuclear astrophysics, as part of a study of the onset of the rp-Process, a set of measurements searching for possible new resonances for (sup 14)O+(alpha) and (sup 17)F+p reactions was completed and a coincidence experiment measuring the (sup 19)F ((sup 3)He,t) (sup 19)Ne(alpha) (sup 15)O and (sup 19)F ((sup 3)He,t) (sup 19)Ne(p) (sup 18)F reactions in order to determine the rates of the (sup 18)F(p,(alpha)) (sup 15)O and (sup 18)F(p,(gamma)) (sup 19)Ne reactions was begun. Experimental measurements of (beta)n(alpha) coincidences from the (sup 15)N(d,p) (sup 16)N((beta)- (nu)) (sup 16)O((alpha)) (sup 12)C reaction have also been completed and are currently being analyzed to determine the rate of the (sup 12)C((alpha),(gamma)) reaction. In the APEX collaboration, we have completed the assembly and testing of two position-sensitive Na barrels which surround the axial silicon detector arrays and serve as the e(sup +) triggers by detecting their back-to-back annihilation quanta were completed. The HI@AGS and RHIC collaborations, construction and implementation activities associated with the space-time-tracker detector and in the design of the central detector for the PHENIX experiment were carried out. Operation of the ESTU tandem accelerator has been reliable, delivering beam on target at terminal voltages as high as 19.3 MV and running for as long as 143 days between tank openings. Fabrication and bench testing of a new negative ion source system have been completed.

  4. [Experimental nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    An earlier study of unusual electromagnetic decays in 86 Zr was extended in order to make comparisons with its isotone 84 Sr and with 84 Zr. The K=14 (t 1/2 = 70 ns) high-spin isomer in 176 W was found to have a 13% branch directly to the K=O ground-state band, one of the strongest violations of K-selection rules known. A new program to search for a predicted region of oblate deformation involving neutron deficient isotopes in the Rn/Fr/Ra region was begun. In the area of nuclear astrophysics, as part of a study of the onset of the rp-Process, a set of measurements searching for possible new resonances for 14 O+α and 17 F+p reactions was completed and a coincidence experiment measuring the 19 F( 3 He,t) 19 Ne(α) 15 O and 19 F( 3 He,t) 19 Ne(p) 18 F reactions in order to determine the rates of the 18 F(p,α) 15 O and 18 F(p,γ) 19 Ne reactions was begun. Experimental measurements of βnα coincidences from the 15 N(d,p) 16 N(β - ν) 16 O(α) 12 C reaction have also been completed and are currently being analyzed to determine the rate of the 12 C(α,γ) reaction. In the APEX collaboration, we have completed the assembly and testing of two position-sensitive Na barrels which surround the axial silicon detector arrays and serve as the e + triggers by detecting their back-to-back annihilation quanta were completed. The HI at sign AGS and RHIC collaborations, construction and implementation activities associated with the space-time-tracker detector and in the design of the central detector for the PHENIX experiment were carried out. Operation of the ESTU tandem accelerator has been reliable, delivering beam on target at terminal voltages as high as 19.3 MV and running for as long as 143 days between tank openings. Fabrication and bench testing of a new negative ion source system have been completed

  5. The experimental watersheds in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sraj, M; Rusjan, S; Petan, S; Vidmar, A; Mikos, M; Globevnik, L; Brilly, M

    2008-01-01

    Experimental watersheds are critical to the advancement of hydrological science. By setting up three experimental watersheds, Slovenia also obtained its grounds for further development of the science and discipline. In the Dragonja experimental watershed the studies are focused on the afforestation of the watershed in a mediterranean climate, on the Reka river the water balance in a partly karstic area is examined, and on the case of the Glinscica stream the implications of the urban environment are studied. We have obtained valuable experience and tested new measuring equipment on all three experimental watersheds. Measurements and analysis on the experimental watersheds improved the current understanding of hydrological processes. They resulted in several PhD Theses, Master Theses and scientific articles. At the same time the experimental watersheds provide support to the teaching and studying process.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL PNEUMONIA (FRIEDLANDER TYPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, W R; Walker, I C

    1915-12-01

    The foregoing experiments show that in cats a definite lobar pneumonia may be caused by Bacillus mucosus capsulatus. Judging both from the clinical course and from the pathological findings, this form of pulmonary infection differs from the usual pneumococcus types of pneumonia and closely resembles the so called Friedländer's bacillus or Bacillus pneumonioe in man. In all instances in which a lobar pneumonia was found after the injection of the bacillus, a similar organism was recovered from the lung, and in no case was this associated with other organisms. The course of the disease in cats is very short, the animals developing early symptoms of profound toxemia. In 87 per cent of the animals showing a lobar pneumonia positive blood cultures were obtained. The pathological findings, judging from the early stages of the disease, are subject to considerable variation. In some instances the process may suggest a pseudolobar or confluent lobular distribution. In these cases the lung has a mottled, marble-like appearance. In the majority of cases, however, the process gave a more homogeneous appearance, suggesting a diffuse and uniform distribution. Foci of hemorrhage were not uncommon in both. Such areas cause the mottled appearance sometimes found. In all instances the consolidated lung presents a greater infiltration of tissue than is usually seen in other types of experimental pneumonia. Although the exudate as seen on the cut surface may be abundant and especially viscid in character, this is not present in most cases. The cut surface of the consolidated lung does not present a granular appearance. The histological findings are also subject to considerable variation. In most instances the infundibular and alveolar spaces are completely filled with an exudate made up chiefly of polymorphonuclear cells. Associated with these are the capsulated bacilli, large vacuolated mononuclear phagocytic cells, and red blood cells, and occasionally small amounts of fibrin. The

  7. Experimental toxicology: the basic principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Diana; Conning, D. M

    1988-01-01

    Principles and methods are discussed in detail, covering experimental design, biochemical issues, animal husbandry, species differences, immunological issues, carcinogenesis, reproductive approaches...

  8. Experimental Volcanology: 2010 and 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The advent of an experimental approach to volcanology has its roots in decades-old laboratory based approaches to characterising the properties of magmas and analog materials, together with the attempts at simulating volcanic processes in the lab. A little over ten years ago many new thrusts of experimental advance led to a new dawn for experimental science applied to volcanic eruptions. Along with that, new expectations, new goals and new strategies emerged about ten years ago. Ten years later, in 2010, many fruits have been born of this labour, and new frontiers are being unfolded as we meet here. Here are some of the youngest captivating themes being explored in experimental programs today: 1) interfacing volcanic monitoring systems to experimentally generated eruptions. 2) elucidating the physicochemical behavior of experimentally generated volcanic ash as an agent in the earth system. 3) blending experimental rock deformation and magmatology studies to understand the strength and stability of volcanic materials and volcanic structures 4) exploiting the kinematics of experimentally-generated versus natural volcanic products to understand flow style and strain history. The past ten years of experimental developments in volcanology have prepared us for great advances in the future, most of which were not perceived as likely avenues of investigation as little as ten years ago! The situation is likely to repeat itself in 2020.

  9. Open source in Experimental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmaijer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Talk on using open-source software in experimental psychology. Presented on 3 March 2015, at the Attention, Brain and Cognitive Development group (http://www.psy.ox.ac.uk/research/attention-brain-and-cognitive-development-group) at the University of Oxford's Department of Experimental Psychology.

  10. Experimental Mathematics and Computational Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-04-30

    The field of statistics has long been noted for techniques to detect patterns and regularities in numerical data. In this article we explore connections between statistics and the emerging field of 'experimental mathematics'. These includes both applications of experimental mathematics in statistics, as well as statistical methods applied to computational mathematics.

  11. Access to Experimental Cancer Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experimental drug has been tested in the lab and with animals and approved for testing in people by the FDA, but can’t yet be advertised, sold, or prescribed. Experimental drugs may be available through clinical trials or expanded access programs - learn more about these programs and how to talk to your doctor.

  12. MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION, EXPERIMENTAL VERSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS AN EXPERIMENTAL VERSION OF A PROGRAMED TEXT ON MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION. PART I CONTAINS 24 FRAMES DEALING WITH PRECISION AND SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ENCOUNTERED IN VARIOUS MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS. PART II BEGINS WITH A BRIEF SECTION ON EXPERIMENTAL DATA, COVERING SUCH POINTS AS (1) ESTABLISHING THE ZERO POINT, (2)…

  13. Experimental tests of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidt, D.

    1984-11-01

    This series of five lectures is intended to provide the experimental basis to the theoretical courses on gauge symmetries delivered by C. Jarlskog and R. Petronzio. The framework is the standard model. The experimental material is taken mainly from lepton-hadron and e + e - -experiments. (orig./HSI)

  14. Experimental Learning Enhancing Improvisation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Christopoulos, Tania; Wilner, Adriana; Trindade Bestetti, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to present improvisation training and experimentation as an alternative method to deal with unexpected events in which structured processes do not seem to work. Design/Methodology/Approach: Based on the literature of sensemaking and improvisation, the study designs a framework and process model of experimental learning…

  15. Experimental approach to explosive nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubono, S.

    1991-07-01

    Recent development of experimental studies on explosive nucleosynthesis, especially the rapid proton process and the primordial nucleosynthesis were discussed with a stress on unstable nuclei. New development in the experimental methods for the nuclear astrophysics is also discussed which use unstable nuclear beams. (author)

  16. Experimental test of magnetic photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakes, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    A 'magnetic' photon hypothesis associated with magnetic monopoles is tested experimentally. These photons are predicted to easily penetrate metal. Experimentally the optical transmittance T of a metal foil was less than 2x10-17. The hypothesis is not supported since it predicts T=2x10-12

  17. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). It is an interdisciplinary journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications and review articles in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, ...

  18. Experimental Methods in Media Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W. Handke (Christian); C. Herzog (Christian)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCausal effects are a prime concern in media policy research, and experimental research designs are widely regarded as the most effective way to identify and gauge causality. Nevertheless, explicit applications of experimental methods are rare in media policy research. This chapter

  19. A proposal for experimental homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eduardo E.

    1998-10-01

    Homework in Physics courses usually deal with conceptual inquiries or numerical solution of theoretical problems. However, experimental homework is rather uncommon. I propose that certain physical situations properly simulated may be useful to encourage students to seek a solution behind the steps of the "experimental method."

  20. Aterosclerose experimental em coelhos Experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska C. Dornas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerosas pesquisas têm sido realizadas utilizando modelos experimentais para estudar o desenvolvimento da aterosclerose com dieta induzindo hiperlipidemia. Devido ao fato de que coelhos são muito sensíveis a dietas ricas em colesterol e acumulam grandes quantidades no plasma, a utilização destes animais como modelo experimental para avaliar o desenvolvimento de aterosclerose é de grande relevância, trazendo informação sobre fatores que contribuem para progressão e regressão aplicadas a situações humanas. Sendo assim, nessa revisão a função aterogênica do colesterol é mostrada em trabalhos que incluem o coelho como modelo experimental, uma vez que este animal tornou-se o mais popular modelo experimental de aterosclerose.Many researches have been conducted in experimental models in order to study the development of atherosclerosis from hyperlipidemia-inducing diets. Since rabbits are very sensitive to cholesterol-rich diets and accumulate large amounts of cholesterol in their plasma, their use as experimental models to evaluate the development of atherosclerosis is highly relevant and brings information on factors that contribute to the progression and regression of this condition that can be applied to humans. As such, this review includes studies on the atherogenic function of cholesterol based on rabbits as the experimental model, since they have become the most largely used experimental model of atherosclerosis.

  1. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...... development: Grounding We develop an empirically based conceptualization of modelling and use of models in system development projects characterized by a high degree of uncertainty in requirements and point to implications for tools and techniques for modelling in such a setting. Techniques We introduce......This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...

  2. Experimental plasma research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The experimental plasma Research Branch has responsibility for developing a broad range of experimental data and new experimental techniques that are required for operating and interpreting present large-scale confinement experiments, and for designing future deuterium-tritium burining facilities. The Branch pursued these objectives by supporting research in DOE laboratories, other Federal laboratories, other Federal laboratories, universities, and private industry. Initiation and renewal of research projects are primarily through submission of unsolicited proposals by these institutions to DOE. Summaries of these projects are given

  3. Experimental work on drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.; Duran, I.; Gonzalez, E.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Olmos, P.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental work made on drift chambers is described in two chapters. In the firt chapter we present the description of the experimental installation used, as well as some details on the data adquisition systems and the characteristics on three ways used for calibration proposes (cosmic muons, β radiation and test beam using SPS at CERN facilities). The second chapter describes the defferent prototypes studied. The experimental set up and the analysis are given. Some results are discussed. The magnetic field effect is also studied. (Author)

  4. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  5. Experimental design a chemometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, SN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in a paperback edition is a book which has been described as ``...an exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm.'' (Analytical Chemistry). Unlike most current textbooks, it approaches experimental design from the point of view of the experimenter, rather than that of the statistician. As the reviewer in `Analytical Chemistry' went on to say: ``Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the p

  6. Summary of experimental insertions workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    The last ISABELLE workshop of the summer 1976 series, which was held at Brookhaven, August 16-20, focused on the design and utilization of the experimental insertions. The goals of the workshop, which were somewhat more general than might be suggested by the title, are: (1) review the ISABELLE proposal from the point of view of experimental use; (2) contribute useful information on the ''open questions'' in the ISABELLE design; (3) develop data for experimental equipment and operating cost estimates; and (4) project a first approximation to ISABELLE operating modes

  7. Experimental status of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drell, S.D.

    1978-10-01

    This review of the experimental status of quantum electrodynamics covers the fine structure constant, the muon g-2 value, the Lamb shift in hydrogen, the finite proton radius, progress in muonium, and positronium. 37 references

  8. Experimental search for gluonic mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couchot, F.

    1987-09-01

    The present experimental situation is very rich and rather complex, so this paper is not a full review of the state of the art, but an approach of several methods that have been used to reach the world of glue

  9. Nuclear Test-Experimental Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, G.L.; Donohue, M.L.; Bucciarelli, G.; Hymer, J.D.; Kirvel, R.D.; Middleton, C.; Prono, J.; Reid, S.; Strack, B.

    1988-01-01

    Fiscal year 1988 has been a significant, rewarding, and exciting period for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's nuclear testing program. It was significant in that the Laboratory's new director chose to focus strongly on the program's activities and to commit to a revitalized emphasis on testing and the experimental science that underlies it. It was rewarding in that revolutionary new measurement techniques were fielded on recent important and highly complicated underground nuclear tests with truly incredible results. And it was exciting in that the sophisticated and fundamental problems of weapons science that are now being addressed experimentally are yielding new challenges and understanding in ways that stimulate and reward the brightest and best of scientists. During FY88 the program was reorganized to emphasize our commitment to experimental science. The name of the program was changed to reflect this commitment, becoming the Nuclear Test-Experimental Science (NTES) Program

  10. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  11. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  12. Experimental techniques and measurement accuracies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.; DiIorio, G.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H.

    1985-02-01

    A brief description of the experimental tools available for fusion neutronics experiments is given. Attention is paid to error estimates mainly for the measurement of tritium breeding ratio in simulated blankets using various techniques

  13. Grounding Vision through Experimental Manipulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzpatrick, Paul; Metta, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    Experimentation is crucial to human progress at all scales, from society as a whole to a young infant in its cradle/ It allows us to elicit learning episodes suited to our own needs and limitations...

  14. Multi-Directional Experimental Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ATLSS Multi-directional Experimental Laboratory was constructed in 1987 under funding from the National Science Foundation to be a major facility for large-scale...

  15. [The ethics of animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The paper starts with a short definition of animal experimentation, then three main approaches to the practice are considered: unconditional approval (as advocated by Claude Bernard), conditional and restricted approval (as advocated by Peter Singer) and strict prohibition (as advocated by Tom Regan and Gary Francione). It is argued that what is actually approved or condemned in animal experimentation is the value of the scientific enterprise.

  16. Experimental studies of electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis discusses the main results of recent experimental studies of electron capture in asymmetric collisions. Most of the results have been published, but the thesis also contains yet unpublished data, or data presented only in unrefereed conference proceedings. The thesis aims at giving a coherent discussion of the understanding of the experimental results, based first on simple qualitative considerations and subsequently on quantitative comparisons with the best theoretical calculations currently available. (Auth.)

  17. Experimental rigs for MHD studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, N.; Jayakumar, R.; Iyer, D.R.; Dixit, N.S.

    1976-01-01

    An MHD experimental rig is a miniature MHD installation consisting of basic equipments necessary for specific investigations. Some of the experimental rigs used in the investigations being carried out at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India) are dealt with. The experiments included diagnostics and evaluation of materials in seeded combustion plasmas and argon plasmas. The design specifications, schematics and some of the results of the investigations are also mentioned. (author)

  18. Persuasion in experimental ultimatum games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Galizzi, Matteo M.; Hoppe, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We study persuasion effects in experimental ultimatum games and find that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before deciding. Higher payoffs are driven by both lower offers and higher acceptance rates.......We study persuasion effects in experimental ultimatum games and find that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before deciding. Higher payoffs are driven by both lower offers and higher acceptance rates....

  19. Experimental economics for web mining

    OpenAIRE

    Tagiew, Rustam; Ignatov, Dmitry I.; Amroush, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a step towards research infrastructure, which makes data from experimental economics efficiently usable for analysis of web data. We believe that regularities of human behavior found in experimental data also emerge in real world web data. A format for data from experiments is suggested, which enables its publication as open data. Once standardized datasets of experiments are available on-line, web mining can take advantages from this data. Further, the questions about the o...

  20. Experimental violation of entropic inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovino, F.A.; Castagnoli, G.; Ekert, A.; Horodecki, P.; Alves, C.M.; Sergienko, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We report the experimental evidence that polarization entangled photons violate the inequality based on Renyi entropy. Our experimental method is based on four-photon coincidences in photon bunching and antibunching effects. We introduce an additional 'phase marking' technique, which allow observing the violation of the inequalities even with non-deterministic sources of entangled photons. Our method can be applied to measure selected non-linear properties of bipartite quantum states, such as purity or entanglement. (author)

  1. [Experimental studies of micromotor headpieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaev, V F; Repin, V A

    1982-01-01

    Experimental studies of handpieces for micromotors have been performed to make more precise their operating parameters. The special stand has been used for the measurements of the following data: head temperature, power losses in handpieces at no-load, and operating power required for machining by means of spherical burrs. The experimental results made it possible to specify more exactly the range of handpiece rotational speeds and to select optimum loads under reliability testing.

  2. Experimental Economics: Some Methodological Notes

    OpenAIRE

    Fiore, Annamaria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is presenting in a self-contained paper some methodological aspects as they are received in the current experimental literature. The purpose has been to make a critical review of some very influential papers dealing with methodological issues. In other words, the idea is to have a single paper where people first approaching experimental economics can find summarised (some) of the most important methodological issues. In particular, the focus is on some methodological prac...

  3. Control systems for experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    At an international conference last year at Villars-sur-Ollon (Switzerland), scientists from all over the world looked at the problems of controlling complex physics installations, including particle accelerators, nuclear reactors, large telescopes and high energy physics detectors. The meeting, organized by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Experimental Physics Control Systems, EPCS, brought together 180 scientists from the world's leading experimental physics research laboratories, universities and industries

  4. experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el proceso de desvolatilización, las partículas de carbón cambian su estructura debido a la liberación de su materia volátil, obteniéndose un sólido poroso rico en carbono fijo (Carbonizado con diferentes morfologías. Se obtuvieron carbonizados a partir de tres carbones bituminosos (La Yolanda, El Cerrejón y Thoresby en un reactor tubular, a tres temperaturas (900, 1000 y 1100ºC y tres tiempos (100, 150 y 300 ms de desvolatilización. Estas morfologías se identificaron usando una técnica automática de análisis de imagen. Por medio de esta técnica de análisis de imagen se determinó el área promedio de partícula de cada muestra de carbonizado, el espesor medio de pared, el porcentaje de espesor de pared menor a 3 y 5 µm, la porosidad y el porcentaje de cada uno de los morfotipos del carbonizado. Se encontró que tanto la porosidad como el espesor de pared menor a 3 y 5 µm, disminuyen con el aumento de la temperatura y el tiempo de desvolatilización, mientras que el espesor medio de pared aumenta con el incremento en estos mismos parámetros. También se encontró que el carbón El Cerrejón produce carbonizados tenuisphere en mayor proporción, mientras que el carbón La Yolanda genera principalmente carbonizados crassinetwork.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    weight. Animals in the control group were injected with only solvent. An electroconvulsive shock therapy equipment. (Ugo basile ECT UNIT 7801) was used to deliver a current of 50mA for 0.2second duration through the ear lobes. Preliminary test showed that the introduced current produced tonic forelimb and hind limb.

  6. Experimental status of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drell, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    The speech of Drell S. on the symposium dedicated to 60th anniversary of Schwinger J. is presented. The fundamental status of the hero of the day in quantum field theory, which turned into quantum electrodynamics, are stated. The theory has been perfectly experimentally confirmed and now is the main model permitting to explain weak and strong interactions. The attention is paid on the difference between theoretical and experimental values of the electron anomalous magnetic moment (asub(e)) obtained in the sixth order of perturbation theory. It is necessary to carry out calculations in the octic order of the perturbation theory in order to obtain more precise value of asub(e). The theory and the experimental difference is demonstrated on the example of estimation of fine and hyperfine structure of hydrogen, muonium, and positronium

  7. Experimental facilities and simulation means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper and its associated series of slides review the experimental facilities and the simulation means used for the development of nuclear reactors in France. These experimental facilities include installations used for the measurement and qualification of nuclear data (mainly cross-sections) like EOLE reactor and Minerve zero power reactor, installations like material testing reactors, installations dedicated to reactor safety experiments like Cabri reactor, and other installations like accelerators (Jannus accelerator, GANIL for instance) that are complementary to neutron irradiations in experimental reactors. The simulation means rely on a series of advanced computer codes: Tripoli-Apollo for neutron transport, Numodis for irradiation impact on materials, Neptune and Cathare for 2-phase fluid dynamics, Europlexus for mechanical structures, and Pleiades (with Alcyone) for nuclear fuels. (A.C.)

  8. Experimental Spaces and Institutional Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartel, Melodie; Boxenbaum, Eva

    and procedures that connect the prototype to the organizational field, hence increasing the likelihood of institutional innovation. We develop a process model of institutional institutionalization that, through temporal interactions between distancing work and anchoring work, enables the generation......This paper examines processes involved in designing experimental spaces for institutional innovation. Through a qualitative, process-oriented analysis of an experimental space related to the institutional innovation of carbon markets in Europe, we show how key actors in the European electricity...... sector deliberately designed an experimental space and engaged a range of stakeholders in experimenting incognito with a carbon market model. A mirror image of their prototype later appeared as European policy. Our findings show that the key actors engaged in two forms of institutional work, distancing...

  9. Experimental qualification of nuclear components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliot, P; Fronte, T; Genty, F [FRAMATOME - Cedex 16, Paris la Defense (France)

    1988-07-01

    In the process of showing the adequacy of the seismic design of French PWR reactor, Fermat has repeatedly used dynamic testing on actual nuclear reactor components both on site and in manufacturing shops. The objective and results of a few representative examples of this on-site experimental verification are presented in this paper: the experimental dynamic analysis of a manipulator crane; the investigation of the seismic behaviour of fuel storage racks equipped with aseismic bearing devices. Difficulties to select satisfactory testing methods are also discussed for the particular case of the electrical cabinets. (author)

  10. Qualitative tools and experimental philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andow, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Experimental philosophy brings empirical methods to philosophy. These methods are used to probe how people think about philosophically interesting things such as knowledge, morality, and freedom. This paper explores the contribution that qualitative methods have to make in this enterprise. I argue that qualitative methods have the potential to make a much greater contribution than they have so far. Along the way, I acknowledge a few types of resistance that proponents of qualitative methods in experimental philosophy might encounter, and provide reasons to think they are ill-founded. PMID:28392629

  11. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-01

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  12. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-15

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  13. EBTS: DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIKIN, A.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE, E.; KPONOU, A.; PRELEC, K.; KUZNETSOV, G.; TIUNOV, M.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental study of the BNL Electron Beam Test Stand (EBTS), which is a prototype of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), is currently underway. The basic physics and engineering aspects of a high current EBIS implemented in EBTS are outlined and construction of its main systems is presented. Efficient transmission of a 10 A electron beam through the ion trap has been achieved. Experimental results on generation of multiply charged ions with both continuous gas and external ion injection confirm stable operation of the ion trap

  14. [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.O.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities under LLNL Purchase Order B089367, the purpose of which is to ''support the University/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Magnetic Fusion Program by evaluating the status of research relative to other national and international programs and assist in long-range plans and development strategies for magnetic fusion in general and for ITER in particular.'' Two specific subtasks are included: ''to review the LLNL Magnet Technology Development Program in the context of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Design Study'' and to ''assist LLNL to organize and prepare materials for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Design Study information meeting.''

  15. Experimental Approach to Teaching Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Catalina

    2015-11-01

    For the last 15 years we have promoted experimental work even in the theoretical courses. Fluids appear in the Physics curriculum of the National University of Mexico in two courses: Collective Phenomena in their sophomore year and Continuum Mechanics in their senior year. In both, students are asked for a final project. Surprisingly, at least 85% choose an experimental subject even though this means working extra hours every week. Some of the experiments were shown in this congress two years ago. This time we present some new results and the methodology we use in the classroom. I acknowledge support from the Physics Department, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

  16. Experimental qualification of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliot, P.; Fronte, T.; Genty, F.

    1988-01-01

    In the process of showing the adequacy of the seismic design of French PWR reactor, Fermat has repeatedly used dynamic testing on actual nuclear reactor components both on site and in manufacturing shops. The objective and results of a few representative examples of this on-site experimental verification are presented in this paper: the experimental dynamic analysis of a manipulator crane; the investigation of the seismic behaviour of fuel storage racks equipped with aseismic bearing devices. Difficulties to select satisfactory testing methods are also discussed for the particular case of the electrical cabinets. (author)

  17. EXPERIMENTAL LIPOSOMAL VIRAL VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova OA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With the transport links development there is rather important issue respiratory viral infections spread, especially influenza. The only method controlling influenza is vaccination. Search and development effective and safe vaccines is important. Material and methods. In base SO "Mechnikov Institute Microbiology and Immunology National Ukrainian Academy Medical Sciences" in the scientific theme "Developing new approaches to creating viral vaccines and study specific activity depending of type and degree component`s modification" was created several experimental influenza vaccine with subsequent component`s modification for selecting the most optimal pattern of safety and immunogenicity. In assessing the influenza vaccine safety is using a few criteria, including, reactivity, as measured by the frequency of local and systemic adverse (negative effects, which due to its introduction, and for lipid content drugs, ability to influence oxidation processes. At present study phase was determined: a systemic reaction and local reaction of delayed-type hypersensitivity (foot pad swelling assay;b lipids and proteins peroxidation processes after administration officinal and experimental vaccines (content protein’s carbonyl groups, lipid’s hydroperoxides, activity of glutathione-peroxidase.Study objects were trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine, "Vaxigrip" (Sanofi Pasteur, S.A., France, "Inflexal V" (Biotech Ltd. Berne, Switzerland and experimental vaccine samples. Highest immunogenicity vaccines had undergone improvements and modifications using adjuvant systems and acylation influenza proteins. Liposomes 2 – the experimental influenza vaccine with a liposome negative charge and antigenic composition like split vaccines "Vaksihryp". Liposomes 2.1 - the adjuvantexperimental influenza vaccine with modifications liposomal components (etoniy and chlorophyllipt molecules embedded in liposomal membrane. Liposomes 2.2 - the adjuvant

  18. The experimental sodium facility NAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, H.; Grunwald, G.; May, R.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of preparations for the introduction of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors an experimental sodium facility was installed at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research at Rossendorf. Design, engineering aspects and operation of this facility are described; operating experience is briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten Haack

    2006-01-01

    An engineering course, Simulation and Experimental Modeling, has been developed that is based on a method for direct estimation of physical parameters in dynamic systems. Compared with classical system identification, the method appears to be easier to understand, apply, and combine with physical...

  20. Analysis of DCA experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Kim, S. Y.; Ryu, S. J.; Seok, H. C.

    2000-01-01

    The lattice characteristics of DCA are calculated with WIMS-ATR code to validate WIMS-AECL code for the lattice analysis of CANDU core by using experimental data of DCA at JNC. Analytical studies of some critical experiments had been performed to analyze the effects of fuel composition. Different items of reactor physics such as local power peaking factor (LPF), effective multiplication factor (Keff) and coolant void reactivity were calculated for two coolant void fractions (0% and 100%). LPFs calculated by WIMS-ATR code are in close agreement with the experimental results. LPFs calculated by WIMS-AECL code with WINFRITH and ENDF/B-V libraries have similar values for both libraries but the differences between experimental data and calculated results by WIMS-AECL code are larger than those of WIMS-ATR code. The maximum difference between the values calculated by WIMS-ATR and experimental values of LPFs are within 1.3%. The coupled code systems WIMS-ATR and CITATION used in this analysis predict Keff within 1% ΔK and coolant void reactivity within 4 % ΔK/K in all cases. The coolant void reactivity of uranium fuel is found to be positive. To validate WIMS-AECL code, the core characteristics of DCA shall be calculated by WIMS-AECL and CITATION codes in the future

  1. The PHENIX experimental irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.; Courcon, P.; Coulon, P.

    1985-03-01

    The PHENIX experimental irradiation program represents a substancial volume of work. For example, more than forty experiments were in the core during the 33rd PHENIX irradiation cycle at the end of 1984. This program ensures the implementation, optimization and qualification of new solutions for the future developpment of French LMFBRs in three significant areas: fissile, fertile and absorber elements

  2. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS AND MODELLING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2010 ... We obtain a good agreement between the resolution of the nonlinear equation of heat and the results obtained by the experimentation. . Keywords: Emissivity, Température, optimal Linearisation, finite elements. 1. ..... basse température, Rapport de Stage de D.E.A, Université Paris 12 – Val de Marne.

  3. Persuasion in Experimental Ultimatum Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Galizzi, Matteo; Hoppe, Tim

    2008-01-01

     This paper experimentally studies persuasion effects in ultimatum games and finds that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before their acceptance decision. Higher payoffs are due to higher acceptance rates as well as more...

  4. Experimental Aspects of Nuclear Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaus, I. [Institute ' ' Rudjer Boskovic' ' , Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1970-07-15

    1. Introduction; 2. Basic features of nuclear interaction; 3. How accurate is our present knowledge of phase parameters? 4. Experimental problems in N-N scattering studies; 5. N-N potential models; 6. Some open problems in nuclear interaction studies. (author)

  5. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell

    2015-01-01

    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...

  6. Integrating Experimentation into Control Courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Steinbuch, M.; Kraker, de A.

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical Engineering at the Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, the Netherlands, aims to provide a stimulating educational environment that emphasizes the role of hands-on experiments. To achieve this goal, the Department integrated an experimentation program with courses in the

  7. Experimental analysis of armouring process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Alberto; Paris, Ennio

    Preliminary results from an experimental investigation on armouring processes are presented. Particularly, the process of development and formation of the armour layer under different steady flow conditions has been analyzed in terms of grain size variations and sediment transport rate associated to each size fraction.

  8. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN NATURAL CONVECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The study of thermal and ventilation parameters, obtained in a transient, laminar solar chimney of reduced dimensions, (1 < m <3) m with a square collector (side = 2m) is presented. Experimental measurements has been made to determine the temperature of the absorber and the fluid in the collector, it is shown that at the ...

  10. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  11. Startup of Experimental Lithium System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, D.L.

    1980-06-01

    The Experimental Lithium System (ELS) is designed for full-scale testing of targets and other lithium system components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. The system also serves as a test bed for development of lithium purification and characterization equipment, provides experience in operation of large lithium systems, and helps guide FMIT design

  12. Experimental Summary Moriond QCD 2007

    CERN Document Server

    Rolandi, Gigi

    2007-01-01

    More than 90 speakers gave a presentation at this years Moriond QCD conference and more than 60 talks reported the experimental status and perspectives on Standard Model, especially QCD, search for new physics, quark spectroscopy and Heavy Ions physics. I summarize what I consider the highlights of these presentations.

  13. Experimental results obtained at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrel, V.

    1993-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained at GANIL on the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions with secondary radioactive beams is presented. Mass measurements by means of the GANIL cyclotrons are described. The possibilities of GANIL/LISE3 for the production and separation of radioactive beams are illustrated through a large variety of experiments. (author). 19 refs., 8 figs

  14. Experimental Design: Review and Comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    creativity. Innovative modifications and extensions of classical experimental designs were developed and many useful articles were published in a short...Pjrazolone Industrielle ," Bulletin de la Soci~t6 Chimique de France, 11-12, 1171-1174. LI, K. C. (1983), "Minimaxity for Randomized Designs: Some

  15. Summary of experimental insertions workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    An ISABELLE workshop of the summer 1976 series, which was held at Brookhaven August 16--20, focused on the design and utilization of the experimental insertions. The goals of the workshop are outlined, and a few general remarks about the results are presented

  16. Simultaneous estimation of experimental and material parameters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Rensburg, GJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available to the experimental data. An inverse analysis is performed that determines material properties and boundary conditions simultaneously. This idea is investigated using virtual experimental data. The virtual experimental data is obtained by performing a finite element...

  17. Experimental plasma research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This is the latest in a series of Project Summary books going back to 1976 and is the first after a hiatus of several years. They are published to provide a short description of each project supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of the Division of Applied Plasma Physics in the Office of Fusion Energy. The Experimental Plasma Research Branch seeks to provide a broad range of experimental data, physics understanding, and new experimental techniques that contribute to operation, interpretation, and improvement of high temperature plasma as a source of fusion energy. In pursuit of these objectives, the branch supports research at universities, DOE laboratories, other federal laboratories and industry. About 70 percent of the funds expended are spent at universities and a significant function of this program is the training of students in fusion physics. The branch supports small- and medium-scale experimental studies directly related to specific critical plasma issues of the magnetic fusion program. Plasma physics experiments are conducted on transport of particles and energy within plasma and innovative approaches for operating, controlling, and heating plasma are evaluated for application to the larger confinement devices of the magnetic fusion program. New diagnostic approaches to measuring the properties of high temperature plasmas are developed to the point where they can be applied with confidence on the large-scale confinement experiments. Atomic data necessary for impurity control, interpretation of diagnostic data, development of heating devices, and analysis of cooling by impurity ion radiation are obtained. The project summaries are grouped into these three categories of plasma physics, diagnostic development and atomic physics

  18. The experimental nuclear reactor: AQUILON; Le reacteur nucleaire experimental: AQUILON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Y; Koechlin, J C; Moreau, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    'Aquilon' is an experimental reactor specially designed for the neutronic study of heterogeneous multiplying media with solid fuel and liquid moderator. Since this study is in general incompatible with energy production, the power of the reactor has been limited to a minimum so as to be able to obtain a simple and compact structure, easy access, good handling and great flexibility of operation and utilisation. (author) [French] 'Aquilon' est un reacteur experimental specialement concu pour l'etude neutronique de milieux multiplicateurs heterogenes a combustible solide et ralentisseur liquide. Cette etude etant en general incompatible avec la production d'energie, on a limite au minimum la puissance du reacteur pour pouvoir obtenir une structure simple et peu encombrante, un acces facile, une bonne maniabilite et une grande souplesse de fonctionnement et d'utilisation. (auteur)

  19. Experimental toxicology: Issues of statistics, experimental design, and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Wayne; Kirwan, Jeral

    2017-01-01

    The difficulty of replicating experiments has drawn considerable attention. Issues with replication occur for a variety of reasons ranging from experimental design to laboratory errors to inappropriate statistical analysis. Here we review a variety of guidelines for statistical analysis, design, and execution of experiments in toxicology. In general, replication can be improved by using hypothesis driven experiments with adequate sample sizes, randomization, and blind data collection techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Earth's Coming of Age: Isotopically Tracking the Global Transformation from the Hadean to the Geologically Modern Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, V. C.; Nutman, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Some of the strongest direct evidence that documents fundamental changes in the chemistry and organisation of Earth's interior derives from radiogenic isotopic compositions that include both long-lived (particularly 176Lu-176Hf and 147Sm-143Nd) and short-lived, i.e., now extinct parent isotope, systems (182Hf-182W, 146Sm-142Nd). Changes in patterns of isotopic evolution are linked to changes in mantle dynamics such that tracking these signatures in geologically well-characterised rocks can be used to discover the the nature and evolution of tectonic processes. Over the past decade, intensive geochemical investigations by various groups focussing on the oldest (> 4.0 Ga to 3.6 Ga) rock record, as preserved in several localities, have revealed isotopic distinctions in the early Earth compared with those in Proterozoic and younger rocks. For example, whilst the major and trace element compositions of Eoarchean gneisses have analogs in younger rocks in accord with a continuum of crust formation processes, radiogenic isotopic signatures from both long and short half-life decay schemes record an image of the Earth in transition from early differentiation processes, likely associated with planetary accretion and formation, to more modern style characterised by plate tectonics. The emerging image is that many Eoarchean rocks possess extinct nuclide anomalies in the form of 142Nd and 182Hf isotopic signatures that are absent in modern terrestrial samples; these signatures are evidence of chemical fractionation processes occuring within the first ca. 10-300 million years of Solar System history. In addition, viewing the global database, patterns of long-half life isotope signatures i.e., 143Nd and 176Hf differ from those seen in younger (modern Earth.

  1. Experimental Standards in Sustainability Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara Anne

    In this thesis I address how experimental standards are used in the new governance paradigm to further sustainability transitions. Focusing on the case of the Active House standard in the building sector, I investigate experimental standards in three research papers examining the following dynamics......: (1) the relationship between commensuration and legitimacy in the formulation and diffusion of a standard’s specifications; (2) the role of awareness in standardizing green default rules to establish sustainable consumption in buildings; and (3) the significance of focus on humans in the development...... of technological standards for sustainable building. Launching from a critical realist social ontology, I collected ethnographic data on the Active House Alliance, its cofounder VELUX, and three of their demonstration building projects in Austria, Germany, and Belgium over the course of three years from 2013...

  2. Global cities and cultural experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Gaviria, Pilar; Emontspool, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studying the cultural dynamics of expatriate amateur theater in Brussels, this paper investigates multicultural marketplace development in contemporary global cities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper performs an interpretive analysis of the expatriate amateur scene in Brussels from...... an ethnographic perspective, combining observations of rehearsals and performances, in-depth interviews with actors, directors and audience, and secondary data. Findings: The fluidity of global cities allows their inhabitants to engage in collective creative processes of cultural experimentation, performing...... to the important role of global cities for cultural experimentation. Such cities are not only an interesting market for culturally diverse products, but also learning hubs. Managers willing to address multicultural marketplaces might target these markets with dynamic cultural offers that ensure a balance between...

  3. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m 3 lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion

  4. Experimental tests of relativistic gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault

    2000-01-01

    The confrontation between Einstein's gravitation theory and experimental results, notably binary pulsar data, is summarized and its significance discussed. Experiment and theory agree at the 10 -3 level or better. All the basic structures of Einstein's theory (coupling of gravity matter; propagation and self-interaction of the gravitational field, including in strong field conditions) have been verified. However, the theoretical possibility that scalar couplings be naturally driven toward zero by the cosmological expansion suggests that the present agreement between Einstein's theory and experiment might be compatible with the existence of a long-range scalar contribution to gravity (such as the dilation field, or a moduli field, of string theory). This provides a new theoretical paradigm, and new motivations for improving the experimental tests of gravity

  5. Experimental determination of Ramsey numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2013-09-27

    Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4≤m≤8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.

  6. The Bigfoot Drive; Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kevin; Thomas, Cliff; Khan, Shahab; Casey, Daniel; Spears, Brian; Nora, Ryan; Munro, Davis; Eder, David; Milovich, Jose; Berger, Dick; Strozzi, David; Goyon, Clement; Turnbull, David; Ma, Tammy; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Benedetti, Robin; Millot, Marius; Celliers, Peter; Yeamans, Charles; Hatarik, Robert; Landen, Nino; Hurricane, Omar; Callahan, Debbie

    2016-10-01

    The Bigfoot platform was developed on the National Ignition Facility to investigate low convergence, high adiabat, high rhoR hotspot implosions. This platform was designed to be less susceptible to wall motion, LPI and CBET and to be more robust against capsule hydrodynamic instabilities. To date experimental studies have been carried out at two hohlraum scales, a 5.75 and 5.4 mm diameter hohlraum. We will present experimental results from these tuning campaigns including the shape vs. cone fraction, surrogacy comparisons of self-emission from the capsules vs. radiography of the imploding capsule and doped vs. undoped capsules. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. HERMES II experimenters' manual (revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.L.

    1977-04-01

    The HERMES II is a high-intensity laboratory photon source for gamma-ray radiation effects experiments as well as a high-energy pulsed electron beam generator for a variety of potential applications. The purpose of this manual is to serve as a basic source of information for prospective users of HERMES. Included is a brief discussion of the design and operation of the accelerator system as well as a summary of environmental data for x-ray operation and output characteristics for electron beam modes. The manual also contains a description of the HERMES experimental facilities, including geometry of the test cell, instrumentation and data collection capabilities, and services and support available to experimenters

  8. Experimental research on air propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  9. PEMFC modeling and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, J.V.C. [Federal University of Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br; Ordonez, J.C.; Martins, L.S. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Center for Advanced Power Systems], Emails: ordonez@caps.fsu.edu, martins@caps.fsu.edu

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, a simplified and comprehensive PEMFC mathematical model introduced in previous studies is experimentally validated. Numerical results are obtained for an existing set of commercial unit PEM fuel cells. The model accounts for pressure drops in the gas channels, and for temperature gradients with respect to space in the flow direction, that are investigated by direct infrared imaging, showing that even at low current operation such gradients are present in fuel cell operation, and therefore should be considered by a PEMFC model, since large coolant flow rates are limited due to induced high pressure drops in the cooling channels. The computed polarization and power curves are directly compared to the experimentally measured ones with good qualitative and quantitative agreement. The combination of accuracy and low computational time allow for the future utilization of the model as a reliable tool for PEMFC simulation, control, design and optimization purposes. (author)

  10. Advances in experimental seismic engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthumani, K.; Gopalakrishnan, N.; Sathish Kumar, K.; Iyer, Nagesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic testing plays a key role in better understanding physical phenomena, validating and improving analysis and design methods, and qualifying sensitive equipment. There are several different experimental techniques that can be used to test the response of structures to verify their seismic performance. These include (i) Quasi-static testing (ii) Shake table testing, (iii) Effective force testing (iv) Pseudodynamic testing and (v) Real-time dynamic hybrid testing. The sophisticated shaking table facilities and modern data acquisition and processing methods using high speed computers have made it possible to improve the accuracy and reliability of the experimental data, and to increase the number of gauge points, thus yielding a more detailed picture of the structural behavior. Lifeline structures like nuclear power plants and thermal power

  11. Experimental Induction of Genome Chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Christine J; Liu, Guo; Heng, Henry H

    2018-01-01

    Genome chaos, or karyotype chaos, represents a powerful survival strategy for somatic cells under high levels of stress/selection. Since the genome context, not the gene content, encodes the genomic blueprint of the cell, stress-induced rapid and massive reorganization of genome topology functions as a very important mechanism for genome (karyotype) evolution. In recent years, the phenomenon of genome chaos has been confirmed by various sequencing efforts, and many different terms have been coined to describe different subtypes of the chaotic genome including "chromothripsis," "chromoplexy," and "structural mutations." To advance this exciting field, we need an effective experimental system to induce and characterize the karyotype reorganization process. In this chapter, an experimental protocol to induce chaotic genomes is described, following a brief discussion of the mechanism and implication of genome chaos in cancer evolution.

  12. Core-meltdown experimental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    The results of a study of the experimental evidence having a bearing on hypothetical core meltdowns in light-water reactors are presented. The first objective of the study was to obtain a compendium of the experimental evidence applicable to the analysis of a hypothetical core meltdown. Literature from the nuclear power field and from other scientific disciplines and industrial sources was reviewed. Investigators and other persons knowledgeable in the subject were interviewed. A second objective was to determine what data are required and to determine the adequacy of existing data. In core-meltdown studies only land-based plants have been examined. A third, and final, task of this study was to examine offshore plants to determine applicability of onshore plant analysis to particular areas therein and to determine what information peculiar to meltdown accidents in offshore plants was needed. (U.S.)

  13. Experimental test of entangled histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Jordan; Duan, Lu-Ming; Hou, Pan-Yu; Wilczek, Frank; Xu, Da; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Zu, Chong

    2017-12-01

    Entangled histories arise when a system partially decoheres in such a way that its past cannot be described by a sequence of states, but rather a superposition of sequences of states. Such entangled histories have not been previously observed. We propose and demonstrate the first experimental scheme to create entangled history states of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) type. In our experiment, the polarization states of a single photon at three different times are prepared as a GHZ entangled history state. We define a GHZ functional which attains a maximum value 1 on the ideal GHZ entangled history state and is bounded above by 1 / 16 for any three-time history state lacking tripartite entanglement. We have measured the GHZ functional on a state we have prepared experimentally, yielding a value of 0 . 656 ± 0 . 005, clearly demonstrating the contribution of entangled histories.

  14. General vibration monitoring: Experimental hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The reported vibration data were generated from measurements made on the experimental hall floor on December 2, 1992. At the time of the measurements, the ESRF hydrolevel was set-up in the Early Assembly Area (EAA) of the experimental hall and was being used to measure static displacement (settlement) of the floor. The vibration measurement area was on and adjacent to the EAA, in the vicinity of the ESRF hydrolevel test which was in progress. This report summarizes the objectives, instrumentation, measurement locations, observations, and conclusions, and provides selected results in the form of RMS vs. time plots, and power spectral densities from which frequency information can be derived. Measured response amplitudes were within the vibration criteria established for the APS

  15. Experimental tests of quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfan, J.

    1987-04-01

    Experimental tests of quantum chromodynamics are discussed in the e + e - continuum, in pp and anti p p collisions, in measurements of α/sub s/ from Υ decays, in deep inelastic lepton scattering, and in the measurement of the photon structure function. A large body of data relating to the testing of quantum chromodynamics is reviewed, showing qualitative agreement between the data from a wide range of processes and QCD. 66 refs., 79 figs

  16. The experimental nuclear reactor: AQUILON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Y.; Koechlin, J.C.; Moreau, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    'Aquilon' is an experimental reactor specially designed for the neutronic study of heterogeneous multiplying media with solid fuel and liquid moderator. Since this study is in general incompatible with energy production, the power of the reactor has been limited to a minimum so as to be able to obtain a simple and compact structure, easy access, good handling and great flexibility of operation and utilisation. (author) [fr

  17. Data archiving in experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalesio, L.R.; Watson, W. III; Bickley, M.; Clausen, M.

    1998-01-01

    In experimental physics, data is archived from a wide variety of sources and used for a wide variety of purposes. In each of these environments, trade-offs are made between data storage rate, data availability, and retrieval rate. This paper presents archive alternatives in EPICS, the overall archiver design and details on the data collection and retrieval requirements, performance studies, design choices, design alternatives, and measurements made on the beta version of the archiver

  18. Aspects of experimental particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCubbin, N.A.

    1986-11-01

    The paper contains three lectures on Experimental Particle Physics which were given at the 16th British Universities Summer School for Theoretical and Elementary Particle Physics, Durham, 1986. The first lecture briefly reviews the physics which underpins all particle detectors, and the second lecture describes how this physics influences a modern detector. The last lecture is concerned with the topics of beams and computers, and includes the physics of stochastic cooling and the Halting theorem. (U.K.)

  19. Experimental Research of Engine Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta-Elena Chiţan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries a compact presentation of experimental research of engine-foundations. The dynamic phenomena are so complex, that the vibrations cannot be estimated in the design stage. The design engineer of an engine foundation must foresee through a dynamic analysis of the vibrations, those measures that lead to the avoidance or limiting of the bad effects caused by the vibrations.

  20. IPSN's experimental programmes on fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Every year fires occur in nuclear installations as they do in any industrial facility. They feed on cables, electrical equipment cabinets, oils, solvents..., they might lead to the degradation of the safety standard of the installation or they might threaten the confinement of radioactive materials. In this document IPSN presents its experimental programmes and its facilities in Saclay and Cadarache designed to study the triggering and the propagation of fires and flames in closed and ventilated premises. (A.C.)

  1. TFTR Experimental Data Analysis Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The research performed under the second year of this three-year grant has concentrated on a few key TFTR experimental data analysis issues: MHD mode identification and effects on supershots; identification of new MHD modes; MHD mode theory-experiment comparisons; local electron heat transport inferred from impurity-induced cool pulses; and some other topics. Progress in these areas and activities undertaken in conjunction with this grant are summarized briefly in this report

  2. Research in experimental nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.F.

    1989-09-01

    Our program concentrates on pion physics experimental results obtained using the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS), Pion and Particle Physics channel (P 3 ), and the Low Energy Pion physics channel (LEP). These facilities are unique in the world in their intensity and resolution. Two classes of experiments can be done best with this equipment: scattering (elastic and inelastic) and double charge exchange (DCX). Several coincidence experiments are in progress and are discussed in this paper

  3. Highlights on experimental neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Full text: In the last years a remarkable progress was achieved in a deeper understanding of neutrino sector. Nowadays we know all mixing angles and mass splits which govern the neutrino oscillation phenomena. The parameters of neutrino mixing were measured by combining results of different experimental approaches including accelerator beams, nuclear reactors, radiative decays and astrophysical neutrinos. Nevertheless, there are open questions which can be viewed as key points to consolidate our knowledge on the intrinsic properties of neutrinos such as mass hierarchy and the existence of a CP violation in leptonic sector. To answer these questions and also to improve the precision of the already known mixing parameters, a series of huge experimental efforts are being set up, even in a world-wide scale in some cases. In this presentation I will review the current knowledge of the fundamental properties of neutrinos and the experimental scenario in which we expect, in a time frame of a decade, to find missing pieces in the leptonic sector. The findings can strengthen the foundations of the Standard Model as well as open very interesting paths for new physics. (author)

  4. Experimental Chagas' disease in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Lana

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of experimental Chagas' disease in 64 out-bred young dogs. Twenty-nine animals were inoculated with the Be-62 and 35 with Be-78 Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Twenty-six were infected with blood trypomastigotes by different inoculation routes and 38 with metacyclic trypomastigotes from the vector via the conjunctival route. Twenty of the 26 dogs infected with blood trypomastigotes were autopsied during the acute phase. Eleven died spontaneously and nine were sacrificed. Six remained alive until they died suddenly (two or were autopsied (four. Twelve of the 38 dogs infected with metacyclic trypomastigotes evolved naturally to the chronic phase and remained alive for 24-48 months. The parasitemia, clinical aspects and serology (IgM and IgG as well as electrocardiogram, hemogram and heart anatomo-histopathologic patterns of acute and chronic cardiac forms of Chagas' disease as seen in human infections, were reproduced. The most important finding is the reproductibility of diffuse fibrosing chronic chagasic cardiopathy in all dogs infected with Be-78 T. cruzi strain autopsied between the 90th and 864th days of infection. Thus, the dog can be considered as a suitable experimental model to study Chagas' disease according to the requisites of the World Health Organization (1984. Futhermore the animal is easily obtained and easy to handle and maintain in experimental laboratory conditions.

  5. Experimental methods in behavioral teratology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbinden, G.

    1981-09-01

    Efforts are made to develop toxicological techniques with which new behavioral teratogens can be recognized. The review describes the most important experimental methods which are presently explored, and which are based on a rich body of knowledge accumulated by experimental psychologists. Most of the tests were developed with small animals, mostly with rats. They range from the rather straightforward determination of various reflexes to complex behavioral situations involving mechanical devices, operant conditioning techniques and procedures evaluating social behavior. In applying these methods in routine toxicology, it is important to remember, that many behavioral effects determined in newborn and adult animals are subtle. Moreover, they are influenced by a large variety of environmental factors affecting the health and the behavior of the mothers and of the offspring in the early and later phases of development. Therefore, the experiments must be conducted under highly standardized conditions and must be controlled rigorously. It is concluded that the best experimental strategy for the evaluation of potential behavioral teratogens is not yet established. Therefore, it would be premature to decide on a fixed protocol to be included in routine animal safety experiments for drugs and other chemical substances.

  6. Nonisothermal hydrologic transport experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1992-09-01

    A field heater experimental plan is presented for investigating hydrologic transport processes in unsaturated fractured rock related to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in an underground repository. The experimental plan provides a methodology for obtaining data required for evaluating conceptual and computer models related to HLW isolation in an environment where significant heat energy is produced. Coupled-process models are currently limited by the lack of validation data appropriate for field scales that incorporate relevant transport processes. Presented in this document is a discussion of previous nonisothermal experiments. Processes expected to dominate heat-driven liquid, vapor, gas, and solute flow during the experiment are explained, and the conceptual model for nonisothermal flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured rock is described. Of particular concern is the ability to confirm the hypothesized conceptual model specifically, the establishment of higher water saturation zones within the host rock around the heat source, and the establishment of countercurrent flow conditions within the host rock near the heat source. Field experimental plans are presented using the Apache Leap Tuff Site to illustrate the implementation of the proposed methodology. Both small-scale preliminary experiments and a long-term experiment are described

  7. Problems of the experimental implementation of MTJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaletskiy, L A; Rudy, A S; Trushin, O S; Naumov, V V; Mironenko, A A; Vasilev, S V

    2015-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of MRAM technology based on standard magnetic tunneling junctions are presented. Basic steps of experimental fabrication of MRAM cell are considered. Experimental samples of MTJ with variable lateral sizes are fabricated. Current-voltage characteristics of the tunnel barriers are investigated. Main parameters of the tunnel barriers are estimated from comparison of the experimental data with the theory. (paper)

  8. The philosophy of scientific experimentation: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Practicing and studying automated experimentation may benefit from philosophical reflection on experimental science in general. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses central issues in the philosophy of scientific experimentation. The first two sections present brief accounts of the rise of experimental science and of its philosophical study. The next sections discuss three central issues of scientific experimentation: the scientific and philosophical significance of intervention and production, the relationship between experimental science and technology, and the interactions between experimental and theoretical work. The concluding section identifies three issues for further research: the role of computing and, more specifically, automating, in experimental research, the nature of experimentation in the social and human sciences, and the significance of normative, including ethical, problems in experimental science. PMID:20098589

  9. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report

  10. Experimental study of neoclassical currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Prager, S.C.

    1985-05-01

    A detailed experimental study is presented of the bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter currents that are predicted by neoclassical transport theory. In a toroidal octupole, on magnetic surfaces within the separatrix, the observed parallel plasma currents are in excellent quantitative agreement with neoclassical theory with regard to the spatial structure (along a magnetic surface), collisionality dependence and toroidal magnetic field dependence. On magnetic surfaces outside the separatrix, the ion portion of the parallel current is in agreement with neoclassical theory but the electron parallel current is observed to obtain a unidirectional component which deviates from and exceeds the theoretical prediction

  11. Human parallels to experimental myopia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Goldschmidt, Ernst; Haargaard, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    acquiring new and basic knowledge, the practical object of the research is to reduce the burden of human myopia around the world. Acquisition and cost of optical correction is one issue, but associated morbidity counts more, with its global load of myopia-associated visual loss and blindness. The object......Raviola and Wiesel's monkey eyelid suture studies of the 1970s laid the cornerstone for the experimental myopia science undertaken since then. The aim has been to clarify the basic humoral and neuronal mechanisms behind induced myopization, its eye tissue transmitters in particular. Besides...... serve as inspiration to the laboratory research, which aims at solving the basic enigmas on a tissue level....

  12. User Experimentation with Terminological Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pram Nielsen, Louise

    This paper outlines work-in-progress research suggesting that domain-specific knowledge in terminological resources can be transferred efficiently to end-users across different levels of expertise and by means of different information modes including articles (written mode) and concept diagrams...... (graph mode). An experimental approach is applied in an eye-tracking laboratory, where a natural user situation is replicated for Danish professional potential end-users of a ter-minology and knowledge bank in a chosen pilot domain (taxation)....

  13. Experimental studies of minienvironment types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissler, W.; Schneider, H.

    1994-01-01

    Various minienvironment types are available offering different features at quite different costs. MEISSNER+WURST performed in its JESSI project experimental tests to examine the isolation capabilities and the recovery time of minienvironments and the influence of manual handling and maintenance on the minienvironment cleanliness. An isolation factor up to 1 million was measured in the experiments. The Custom Tailored Minienvironment has the best protection against external and internal particle sources. Critical points in the design and the installation of minienvironments were identified. The results of air flow visualization studies were confirmed by airflow simulations. The result of the studies allow a classification of minienvironment types according to their cleanliness achievements

  14. Experimental coherent control of lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, R.; Ramsay, A.J.; Cleaver, J.R.A.; Heberle, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate coherent control of a laser. A resonant 100-fs optical pulse is injected into a vertical cavity surface emitting laser to introduce a field component with well-defined phase and thereby excite beating oscillations between the transverse lasing modes. By changing the relative phase between two injected pulses, we can enhance or destroy the beating oscillations and select which lasing modes are excited. We discuss resonant pulse injection into lasers and show how mode competition improves controllability by suppressing the phase-sensitive effects of the carriers

  15. Experimental methods in natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.N.

    1982-11-01

    Some common experimental techniques to determine local velocities and to visualize temperature fields in natural convection research are discussed. First the physics and practice of anemometers are discussed with emphasis put on optical anemometers. In the second and third case the physics and practice of the most developed interferometers are discussed; namely differential interferometry for visualization of temperature gradient fields and holographic interferometry for visualization of temperature fields. At the Institut fuer Reaktorbauelemente these three measuring techniques are applied for convection and pipe flow studies. (orig.) [de

  16. Experimental status of unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilen'kij, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    A standard SU(2)xU(1) theory is discussed. It is based on an assumption that the left components of fields form doublets, and the rignt ones - singlets. From the weak interaction lagrangian an expression is obtained for the effective hamiltonian describing neutrino-lepton processes. The results of discussing the experimental status of the unified theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions are in agreement with the simplest version of the unified theories - the Weinberg-Salam theory. It has been noted that the accuracy of the experiments (not exceeding 20%) is insufficient and no information is available on diagonal terms of the hamiltonian

  17. Experimental tests of vacuum energy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    While the current vacuum energy of the Universe is very small, in our standard cosmological picture it has been much larger at earlier epochs. We try to address the question of what are possible ways to try to experimentally verify this. One direction is to look for systems where vacuum energy constitutes a non-negligible fraction of the total energy, and study the properties of those. Another possibility is to focus on the epochs around cosmic phase transitions, when the vacuum energy is of the same order as the total energy. Along these lines we investigate properties of neutron stars and the imprint of phase transitions on primordial gravitational waves.

  18. Magninos: Experimental consequences and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raby, S.; West, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    A stable weakly interacting massive particle can simultaneously solve both the solar neutrino and missing mass problems. We have identified this particle with a neutral lepton with mass of order 5 to 15 GeV and an anomalous magnetic moment of order 10 -2 (in the natural units). We call this new particle a [magnino]. In one scenario, the magnino is the neutral component of an electroweak doublet. It has a charged partner with mass a few GeV heavier. In this talk the experimental consequences of the magnino, its charged partner and associated Higgs are discussed. 25 refs., 9 figs

  19. Experimental plasma research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This report contans descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Measurements and Instrumentation; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report

  20. Flexible experimental FPGA based platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karsten Holm; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental flexible Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based platform for testing and verifying digital controlled dc-dc converters. The platform supports different types of control strategies, dc-dc converter topologies and switching frequencies. The controller platform...... interface supporting configuration and reading of setup parameters, controller status and the acquisition memory in a simple way. The FPGA based platform, provides an easy way within education or research to use different digital control strategies and different converter topologies controlled by an FPGA...

  1. FMC/TFM experimental comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Roger; Sunderman, Ruth; Todorov, Evgueni

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasonic full matrix capture/total focusing method (FMC/TFM) technology has progressed significantly over the past few years and has seen increased use in industry. The technology has the potential to provide better detection and measurement capabilities for weld flaws, as well as, many other applications including additive manufacturing. This project looked at the effectiveness of FMC/TFM for detection and sizing of both planar and volumetric flaw types. FMC/TFM experimental data was collected and processed using multiple combinations of probe types and wave propagation modes. The data was then compared to typical ultrasonic phased-array results, as well as FMC/TFM inspection simulations.

  2. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

  3. Experimental studies of rotating exchange flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, B.; Smeed, D. A.; Dalziel, S. B.; Lane-Serff, G. F.

    2007-02-01

    Ocean basins are connected by straits and passages, geometrically limiting important heat and salt exchanges which in turn influence the global thermohaline circulation and climate. Such exchange can be modeled in an idealized way by taking into consideration the density-driven two-layer flow along a strait under the influence of rotation. We use a laboratory model of a lock exchange between two reservoirs of different density through a flat-bottom channel with a horizontal narrows, set up on two different platforms: a 1 m diameter turntable, where density interface position was measured by dye attenuation, and the 14 m diameter turntable at Coriolis/LEGI (Grenoble, France), where correlation imaging velocimetry, a particle imaging technique, allowed us to obtain for the first time detailed measurements of the velocity fields in these flows. The influence of rotation is studied by varying a parameter, Bu, a type of Burger number given by the ratio of the Rossby radius to the channel width at the narrows. In addition, a two-layer version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Model (MICOM) is used, to study the cases with low Burger number. Results from experiments by Dalziel [1988. Two-layer hydraulics: maximal exchange flows. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, see also people/sd103/papers/1988/Thesis_Dalziel.pdf>] are also included for comparison. Time-mean exchange fluxes for any Bu are in close agreement with the inviscid zero-potential vorticity theory of Dalziel [1990. Rotating two-layer sill flows. In: Pratt, L.J. (Ed.), The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp. 343-371] and Whitehead et al. [1974. Rotating hydraulics of strait and sill flows. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 6, 101-125], who found that fluxes for Bu>1 mainly vary with channel width, similar to non-rotating flow, but for Bu1 a steady, two-layer flow was observed that persisted across the channel at the narrows

  4. Project experimental house in Caceres; Proyecto vivienda experimental en Caceres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamero, E.; Mendez, L.

    2008-07-01

    The project envisages to develop and efficient methodology for the design and building of social housing in the region of Extremadura, with the aim to obtaining sustainable buildings, with a better energy behaviour, and the use of renewable energy sources, in addition to ensuring a substantial increase of the quality of construction. the project is based on the construction of two isolated houses which will have the same geographical orientation and equal structural system, so they both will be subject to the same climate conditions. One of the houses (pattern house) will be built following exactly the construction being used for the Special Housing Plan, whilst the second on (Experimental house) will serve as a laboratory where to test and demonstrate different sustainability measures and renewable energy sources. (Author)

  5. Experimental evolution in biofilm populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenackers, Hans P.; Parijs, Ilse; Foster, Kevin R.; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are a major form of microbial life in which cells form dense surface associated communities that can persist for many generations. The long-life of biofilm communities means that they can be strongly shaped by evolutionary processes. Here, we review the experimental study of evolution in biofilm communities. We first provide an overview of the different experimental models used to study biofilm evolution and their associated advantages and disadvantages. We then illustrate the vast amount of diversification observed during biofilm evolution, and we discuss (i) potential ecological and evolutionary processes behind the observed diversification, (ii) recent insights into the genetics of adaptive diversification, (iii) the striking degree of parallelism between evolution experiments and real-life biofilms and (iv) potential consequences of diversification. In the second part, we discuss the insights provided by evolution experiments in how biofilm growth and structure can promote cooperative phenotypes. Overall, our analysis points to an important role of biofilm diversification and cooperation in bacterial survival and productivity. Deeper understanding of both processes is of key importance to design improved antimicrobial strategies and diagnostic techniques. PMID:26895713

  6. Experimental models of developmental hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argumedo, G S; Sanz, C R; Olguín, H J

    2012-02-01

    Hypothyroidism is a systemic disease resulting from either thyroid gland's anatomical and functional absence or lack of hypophyseal stimulation, both of which can lead to deficiency in thyroid hormone (TH) production. TH is essential for human and animal development, growth, and function of multiple organs. Children with deficient TH can develop alterations in central nervous system (CNS), striated muscle, bone tissue, liver, bone marrow, and cardiorespiratory system. Among the clinical outlook are signs like breathing difficulty, cardiac insufficiency, dysphagia, and repeated bronchial aspiration, constipation, muscle weakness, cognitive alterations, cochlear dysfunction, reduced height, defects in temperature regulation, anaemia, jaundice, susceptibility to infection, and others. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that TH is very essential for normal brain development. Other research work based on mice pointed out that a reduced level of TH in pregnant mother leads to congenital hypothyroidism in animal models and it is associated with mental retardation, deep neurologic deficiency that impacts on cognitive, learning, and memory functions. The principal experimental model studies that have focused on hypothyroidism are reviewed in this study. This is important on considering the fact that almost all animal species require thyroid hormones for their metabolism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Neutrino interactions - an experimental survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.

    1980-07-01

    Current studies on neutrino interactions are surveyed and important results are summarised. The charged current studies have been refined to understand the nucleonic structure. Together with e-d and ..mu..-p deep inelastic scattering data, these studies establish a scale breaking in these scatterings. This breaking has been attributed to the 1st order correction of QCD and the quantitative checks seem to agree with the theory rather well. Data from a diverging set of experiments have been used to study the coupling constant in neutral current interaction. The coupling constants agree reasonably well with the SU(2)xU(1) model due to Weinberg and Salam. Parity violating effect in e-d scattering has been experimentally demonstrated. There is some evidence of ..mu..-e universality in neutral current interaction. The hadronic distribution has been studied in the frame work of Quark Parton model. The fragmentation functions seem to agree fairly well with the theoritical expectation. However one finds the effect of first order QCD corrections to be important in the transverse momentum distributions. Experimental data are presented in tables.

  8. Skill development in experimental courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Bagán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental courses offer a good opportunity to work with competences, promoting the incorporation of strategies oriented towards motivating students to actively involve in the learning process, promoting reflexive learning and developing generic skills. This study presents different ways of developing and evaluating some important general skills, settle on four specific objectives: 1. To increase student motivation using samples of potential interest to students and explaining real-live application of their samples analyses; 2. To assist students’ self-regulation and learning autonomy by using the portfolio; 3. To promote group work through experiments in pairs and small-group discussions; 4. To develop communication skills through small-group discussions and oral presentations. Results show that the type of sample used and real-life application has important influence on motivation. The portfolio is a good tool to promote reflection and to evaluate both specific and generic skills in experimental courses, the dynamics of a laboratory course permit students to develop their group-work and communicative skills, and peer evaluations both improve students’ communication skills and promote metacognitive reflection. Finally, the project demonstrates that it is possible to train students in general skills using the specific course content and that the incorporation of participatory methodologies encourages students to become actively involved in the teaching-learning process.

  9. Experimental results on evaporation waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana Otero, Jose; Parra Fabian, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    A liquid contained in a vertical glass tube is suddenly depressurized from a high initial pressure down to one for which the stable state is vapour, so vaporization sets off at the free surface. For large enough evaporation rates, the planar vapour-liquid interface is Darrieus-Landau unstable [1], leading to the interface surface rippling close to the instability threshold. Further increasing the initial to final pressure ratio brings about evaporation waves [2,3], in which a highly corrugated front propagates downwards into the liquid. A new experimental method is presented as well as some experimental results obtained by tracking the evolution of the front with a high speed camera. In addition, a number of new phenomena related to the dynamics of bubbles growth at the walls has been uncovered. In particular, a new mode of propagation of the evaporation front is found. In this mode the front originates from below the interface, so the propagation is upwards against gravity with a curved but smooth front.[4pt] [1] F. J. Higuera, Phys. Fluids, V. 30, 679 (1987).[0pt] [2] J.E.Shepherd and B.Sturtevant, J.Fluid Mech., V.121,379 (1982).[0pt] [3] P.Reinke and G.Yadigaroglu, Int.J.Multiph. Flow, V.27,1487 (2001).

  10. Investigating Meaning in Experimental Semiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Gareth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental semiotics is a new discipline developed over the last decade to study human communication. Studies within this discipline typically involve people creating novel signs by associating signals with meanings. Here we suggest ways this discipline can be used to shed light on how people create and communicate meaning. First we present observations drawn from studies in which participants not only construct novel signals, but also have considerable freedom over what these signals refer to. These studies offer intriguing insight on non-saussurian signs (where a single unit of meaning is associated with different signals, communicative egocentricity, private and public meaning, and the distinction between meaningful and meaningless units in linguistic structure, that is between morphemes and phonemes (or analogous entities. We then present a novel quantitative approach to determining the extent to which a signal unit is meaningful, and illustrate its use with data from a study in which participants construct signals to refer to predetermined meanings. Aside from these specific contributions, we show more generally how challenging investigating meaning in Experimental Semiotics is, but we argue that this reflects the difficulties we must face when studying meaning, outside the lab as well as in it.

  11. Experimental discovery of nodal chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qinghui; Liu, Rongjuan; Yan, Zhongbo; Liu, Boyuan; Chen, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhong; Lu, Ling

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional Weyl and Dirac nodal points1 have attracted widespread interest across multiple disciplines and in many platforms but allow for few structural variations. In contrast, nodal lines2-4 can have numerous topological configurations in momentum space, forming nodal rings5-9, nodal chains10-15, nodal links16-20 and nodal knots21,22. However, nodal lines are much less explored because of the lack of an ideal experimental realization23-25. For example, in condensed-matter systems, nodal lines are often fragile to spin-orbit coupling, located away from the Fermi level, coexist with energy-degenerate trivial bands or have a degeneracy line that disperses strongly in energy. Here, overcoming all these difficulties, we theoretically predict and experimentally observe nodal chains in a metallic-mesh photonic crystal having frequency-isolated linear band-touching rings chained across the entire Brillouin zone. These nodal chains are protected by mirror symmetry and have a frequency variation of less than 1%. We use angle-resolved transmission measurements to probe the projected bulk dispersion and perform Fourier-transformed field scans to map out the dispersion of the drumhead surface state. Our results establish an ideal nodal-line material for further study of topological line degeneracies with non-trivial connectivity and consequent wave dynamics that are richer than those in Weyl and Dirac materials.

  12. Experimental studies on cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    The further development of the chemotherapy of cancer in the experimental and clinical fields necessitates a profound knowledge of its chemical, biochemical and pharmacological fundamentals and the mechanism of physiological and pathological growth processes. The 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft Zytostatika' includes chemists, biochemists, pharmacologists, molecular biologists, physicians and immunologists of various scientific institutes and clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany and in West Berlin. It is their aim to carry out basic research as well as clinical-orientated research in the field of the chemotherapy of cancer. In the 15 years of cooperation, fundamental knowledge was gained, especially in the field of the cytotoxic specificity and cancerotoxic selectivity of alkylating cytostatics. New cytostatics with a greater oncostatic selectivity and an altered spectrum of activity were tested and greater knowledge was won on the molecular-biological prerequisites of a rational drug design. (orig.) [de

  13. HEDL experimental transient overpower program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikido, T.; Culley, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    HEDL is conducting a series of experiments to evaluate the performance of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) prototypic fuel pins up to the point of cladding breach. A primary objective of the program is to demonstrate the adequacy of fuel pin and Plant Protective System (PPS) designs for terminated transients. Transient tests of prototypic FFTF fuel pins previously irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) have demonstrated the adequacy of the PPS and fuel pin designs and indicate that a very substantial margin exists between PPS-terminated transients and that required to produce fuel pin cladding failure. Additional experiments are planned to extend the data base to high burnup, high fluence fuel pin specimens

  14. Experimental violation of Svetlichny's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, J; Kaltenbaek, R; Resch, K J

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that quantum mechanics is incompatible with local realistic theories. Svetlichny showed, through the development of a Bell-like inequality, that quantum mechanics is also incompatible with a restricted class of nonlocal realistic theories for three particles where any two-body nonlocal correlations are allowed (Svetlichny 1987 Phys. Rev. D 35 3066). In the present work, we experimentally generate three-photon GHZ states to test Svetlichny's inequality. Our states are fully characterized by quantum state tomography using an overcomplete set of measurements and have a fidelity of (84±1)% with the target state. We measure a convincing, 3.6σ, violation of Svetlichny's inequality and rule out this class of restricted nonlocal realistic models.

  15. The UA9 experimental layout

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, W.; Assmann, R.; Bracco, C.; Cerutti, F.; Christiansen, J.; Gilardoni, S.; Laface, E.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Metral, E.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Previtali, V.; Redaelli, S.; Valentino, G.; Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G.; Tlustos, L.; Bagli, E.; Baricordi, S.; Dalpiaz, P.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Vincenzi, D.; Dabagov, S.; Murtas, F.; Carnera, A.; Della Mea, G.; De Salvador, D.; Lombardi, A.; Lytovchenko, O.; Tonezzer, M.; Cavoto, G.; Ludovici, L.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A.G.; Bulgakov, M.K.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.; Maisheev, V.A.; Yazynin, I.A.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Taratin, A.M.; Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, Yu.M.; Lapina, L.P.; Skorobogatov, V.V.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M.; Zorba, O.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Markiewicz, T.; Oriunno, M.; Wienands, U.

    2011-01-01

    The UA9 experimental equipment was installed in the CERN-SPS in March '09 with the aim of investigating crystal assisted collimation in coasting mode. Its basic layout comprises silicon bent crystals acting as primary collimators mounted inside two vacuum vessels. A movable 60 cm long block of tungsten located downstream at about 90 degrees phase advance intercepts the deflected beam. Scintillators, Gas Electron Multiplier chambers and other beam loss monitors measure nuclear loss rates induced by the interaction of the beam halo in the crystal. Roman pots are installed in the path of the deflected particles and are equipped with a Medipix detector to reconstruct the transverse distribution of the impinging beam. Finally UA9 takes advantage of an LHC-collimator prototype installed close to the Roman pot to help in setting the beam conditions and to analyze the efficiency to deflect the beam. This paper describes in details the hardware installed to study the crystal collimation during 2010.

  16. 'Impulsar': Experimental and Theoretical Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollonov, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    The Objective of the 'Impulsar' project is to accomplish a circle of experimental, engineering and technological works on creation of a high efficiency laser rocket engine. The project includes many organizations of the rocket industry and Academy of Sciences of Russia. High repetition rate pulse-periodic CO 2 laser system project for launching will be presented. Optical system for 15 MW laser energy delivery and optical matrix of laser engine receiver will by discussed as well. Basic characteristics of the laser-based engine will be compared with theoretical predictions and important stages of further technology implementation (low frequency resonance). Relying on a wide cooperation of different branches of science and industry organizations it is very possible to use the accumulated potential for launching of nano-vehicles during the upcoming 4-5 years

  17. Collider Physics an Experimental Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvezio Pagliarone, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews shortly a small part of the contents of a set of lectures, presented at the XIV International School of Particles and Fields in Morelia, state of Michoacan, Mexico, during November 2010. The main goal of those lectures was to introduce students to some of the basic ideas and tools required for experimental and phenomenological analysis of collider data. In particular, after an introduction to the scientific motivations, that drives the construction of powerful accelerator complexes, and the need of reaching high center of mass energies and luminosities, some basic concept about collider particle detectors will be discussed. A status about the present running colliders and collider experiments as well as future plans and research and development is also given.

  18. Experimental and computational benchmark tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, D.M.; Briesmeister, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    A program involving principally NIST, LANL, and ORNL has been in progress for about four years now to establish a series of benchmark measurements and calculations related to the moderation and leakage of 252 Cf neutrons from a source surrounded by spherical aqueous moderators of various thicknesses and compositions. The motivation for these studies comes from problems in criticality calculations concerning arrays of multiplying components, where the leakage from one component acts as a source for the other components. This talk compares experimental and calculated values for the fission rates of four nuclides - 235 U, 239 Pu, 238 U, and 237 Np - in the leakage spectrum from moderator spheres of diameters 76.2 mm, 101.6 mm, and 127.0 mm, with either pure water or enriched B-10 solutions as the moderator. Very detailed Monte Carlo calculations were done with the MCNP code, using a open-quotes light waterclose quotes S(α,β) scattering kernel

  19. An Experimental Introduction to Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Andy Nicholas; Magruder, Robert H.

    2017-11-01

    Learning and understanding physics requires more than studying physics texts. It requires doing physics. Doing research is a key opportunity for students to connect physical principles with their everyday experience. A powerful way to introduce students to research and technique is through subjects in which they might find interest. Presented is an experiment that serves to introduce an advanced undergraduate or high school student to conducting research in acoustics via an experiment involving a standard dreadnought acoustic guitar, recording industry-related equipment, and relevant industrial analysis software. This experimental process is applicable to a wide range of acoustical topics including both acoustic and electric instruments. Also, the student has a hands-on experience with relevant audio engineering technology to study physical principles.

  20. Experimental investigation of cavity flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeland, Tore

    1999-12-31

    This thesis uses LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and Laser Sheet flow Visualisation to study flow inside three different cavity configurations. For sloping cavities, the vortex structure inside the cavities is found to depend upon the flow direction past the cavity. The shape of the downstream corner is a key factor in destroying the boundary layer flow entering the cavity. The experimental results agree well with numerical simulations of the same geometrical configurations. The results of the investigations are used to find the influence of the cavity flow on the accuracy of the ultrasonic flowmeter. A method to compensate for the cavity velocities is suggested. It is found that the relative deviation caused by the cavity velocities depend linearly on the pipe flow. It appears that the flow inside the cavities should not be neglected as done in the draft for the ISO technical report on ultrasonic flowmeters. 58 refs., 147 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Upgrading of TREAT experimental capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.; Rose, D.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The TREAT facility at the Argonne National Laboratory site in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is being upgraded to provide capabilities for fast-reactor-safety transient experiments not possible at any other experimental facility. Principal TREAT Upgrade (TU) goal is provision for 37-pin size experiments on energetics of core-disruptive accidents (CDA) in fast breeder reactor cores with moderate sodium void coefficients. this goal requires a significant enhancement of the capabilities of the TREAT facility, specifically including reactor control, hardened neutron spectrum incident on the test sample, and enlarged building. The upgraded facility will retain the capability for small-size experiments of the types currently being performed in TREAT. Reactor building and crane upgrading have been completed. TU schedules call for the components of the upgraded reactor system to be finished in 1984, including upgraded TREAT fuel and control system, and expanded coverage by the hodoscope fuel-motion diagnostics system

  2. Experimental database retrieval system 'DARTS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Tetsuo; Tani, Keiji; Haginoya, Hirobumi; Naito, Shinjiro.

    1989-02-01

    In JT-60, a large tokamak device of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a plasma is fired for 5 ∼ 10 seconds at intervals of about 10 minutes. The each firing is called a shot. Plasma diagnostic data are edited as JT-60 experimental database at every shot cycle and are stored in a large-scale computer (FACOM-M780). Experimentalists look up the data for specific shots which they want to analyze and consider. As the total number of shots increases, they find a difficulty in the looking-up work. In order that they can easily access to their objective shot data or shot group data by using a computer terminal, 'DARTS' (DAtabase ReTrieval System) has been developed. This report may provide enough information on DARTS handling for users. (author)

  3. Experimental investigation of cavity flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeland, Tore

    1998-12-31

    This thesis uses LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and Laser Sheet flow Visualisation to study flow inside three different cavity configurations. For sloping cavities, the vortex structure inside the cavities is found to depend upon the flow direction past the cavity. The shape of the downstream corner is a key factor in destroying the boundary layer flow entering the cavity. The experimental results agree well with numerical simulations of the same geometrical configurations. The results of the investigations are used to find the influence of the cavity flow on the accuracy of the ultrasonic flowmeter. A method to compensate for the cavity velocities is suggested. It is found that the relative deviation caused by the cavity velocities depend linearly on the pipe flow. It appears that the flow inside the cavities should not be neglected as done in the draft for the ISO technical report on ultrasonic flowmeters. 58 refs., 147 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Experimental quantum computing without entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, B P; Barbieri, M; Almeida, M P; White, A G

    2008-11-14

    Deterministic quantum computation with one pure qubit (DQC1) is an efficient model of computation that uses highly mixed states. Unlike pure-state models, its power is not derived from the generation of a large amount of entanglement. Instead it has been proposed that other nonclassical correlations are responsible for the computational speedup, and that these can be captured by the quantum discord. In this Letter we implement DQC1 in an all-optical architecture, and experimentally observe the generated correlations. We find no entanglement, but large amounts of quantum discord-except in three cases where an efficient classical simulation is always possible. Our results show that even fully separable, highly mixed, states can contain intrinsically quantum mechanical correlations and that these could offer a valuable resource for quantum information technologies.

  5. Experimental Fock-State Superradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, L.; Muñoz-Martínez, L. F.; Barros, D. F.; Morales, J. E. O.; Moreira, R. S. N.; Alves, N. D.; Tieco, A. F. G.; Saldanha, P. L.; Felinto, D.

    2018-02-01

    Superradiance in an ensemble of atoms leads to the collective enhancement of radiation in a particular mode shared by the atoms in their spontaneous decay from an excited state. The quantum aspects of this phenomenon are highlighted when such collective enhancement is observed in the emission of a single quantum of light. Here we report a further step in exploring experimentally the nonclassical features of superradiance by implementing the process not only with single excitations, but also in a two-excitation state. Particularly, we measure and theoretically model the wave packets corresponding to superradiance in both the single-photon and two-photon regimes. Such progress opens the way to the study and future control of the interaction of nonclassical light modes with collective quantum memories at higher photon numbers.

  6. Experimental evaluation of cell liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierman, R.W.; Simmons, L.D.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    Cell liners may be used in breeder reactor sodium pipe ways, sodium cells, and lower cavity region to provide a leak-tight cell and to protect the concrete from sodium in the unlikely event of a sodium spill. The objectives of the HEDL liner verification test program are to evaluate the integrity of liner concepts under postulated accident conditions and to develop the experimental data base which will demonstrate that liners will not fail. Two specific tests are reported; a high temperature liner feature test, and a large-scale liner sodium spill test. In both tests no failures of the liners or tendencies toward failure were detected. The discussed liner designs appeared to be conservative, and the liner strength appeared to be more than adequate

  7. Experimental studies of morphology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This contribution is a resume of the approximately eight years of experimental investigation of ion beam-induced modification of metal surfaces. The aim, from the beginning, was to make a detailed series of experiments with well defined controllable parameters in an attempt to establish the mechanism responsible for the production of the topographical features observed so frequently on ion-bombarded surfaces of metals. Typically, for the initial system, 40 keV argon ions directed on to copper, the sputtering yield is fairly constant from normal angle of incidence to about 30 0 , rising fairly smoothly to a maximum at 80 0 , then dropping rapidly to zero at around 82 0 . A very strong grain orientation effect was observed in the early experiments. (Auth.)

  8. Interactive robots in experimental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jens; Winfield, Alan F T; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2011-07-01

    Interactive robots have the potential to revolutionise the study of social behaviour because they provide several methodological advances. In interactions with live animals, the behaviour of robots can be standardised, morphology and behaviour can be decoupled (so that different morphologies and behavioural strategies can be combined), behaviour can be manipulated in complex interaction sequences and models of behaviour can be embodied by the robot and thereby be tested. Furthermore, robots can be used as demonstrators in experiments on social learning. As we discuss here, the opportunities that robots create for new experimental approaches have far-reaching consequences for research in fields such as mate choice, cooperation, social learning, personality studies and collective behaviour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental Study on radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Itsuo; Matsushima, Hideno; Yamada, Teruyo

    1979-01-01

    Experimental radiation myelopathy was carried out useing rats. This studies were done refering the effect to skin, the body weight, the status of the paralysis and the capillary densities of the cervical cords. The quadriplegia was seen on the animals which were irradiated over 4000 rad. The vacuoal degeneration was observed on the cervical cords which were irradiated over 4000 rad. The capillary densities of gray matter and white matter decreased finally in proportions to the irradiation dose. The vacuoal degeneration was recognized on the cervical cord in which the capillary density decreased to under 70 per cent of normal density. Decrease of the capillary density is seemed to be the one of the cause of the paralysis. (author)

  10. Experimental investigation of supercavitating flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Kwon Ahn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When the object is traveling in the water at tremendously high speeds, the cavity forms and grows up at a fore part of the object called cavitator, and the object is eventually enveloped by vaporized water, supercavitation. As a result, the only part of the object in direct contact with the water is the cavitator, so skin-friction drag is significantly reduced. This is why recently supercavitating objects have been interested in many applicable fields. In this study we are focused out attention on supercavitating flows around various shapes of two and three dimensional cavitators. First, general features of supercavitation are examined by analyzing results obtained by the previously developed numerical method. Second, experimental observations are carried out at a cavitation tunnel at the Chungnam National University (CNU CT, and supercavity dimensions are scrutinized.

  11. Experimental models of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Cogliati, Bruno; Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Colle, Isabelle; van den Bossche, Bert; de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Leclercq, Isabelle; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a wound healing response to insults and as such affects the entire world population. In industrialized countries, the main causes of liver fibrosis include alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A central event in liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is triggered by a plethora of signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis can progress into more severe stages, known as cirrhosis, when liver acini are substituted by nodules, and further to hepatocellular carcinoma. Considerable efforts are currently devoted to liver fibrosis research, not only with the goal of further elucidating the molecular mechanisms that drive this disease, but equally in view of establishing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of in vivo and in vitro models used in the field of experimental liver fibrosis research.

  12. Experimental studies of nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianjun; Zhou Xiaohong; Zhang Yuhu

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is an interdisciplinary subject combining micro-scale nuclear physics and macro-scale astrophysics. Its main aims are to understand the origin and evolution of the elements in the universe, the time scale of stellar evolution, the stellar environment and sites, the energy generation of stars from thermonuclear processes and its impact on stellar evolution and the mechanisms driving astrophysical phenomena, and the structure and property of compact stars. This paper presents the significance and current research status of nuclear astrophysics; we introduce some fundamental concepts, the nuclear physics input parameters required by certain astrophysics models, and some widely-used experimental approaches in nuclear astrophysics research. The potential and feasibility of research in this field using China’s current and planned large-scale scientific facilities are analyzed briefly. Finally, the prospects of the establishing a deep underground science and engineering laboratory in China are envisaged. (authors)

  13. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  14. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes

  15. Experimental rhinovirus infection in volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, P G; Sanderson, G; Robinson, B S; Holgate, S T; Tyrrell, D A

    1996-11-01

    Experimental viral disease studies in volunteers have clarified many aspects of the pathogenesis of human viral disease. Recently, interest has focused on rhinovirus-associated asthma exacerbations, and new volunteer studies have suggested that airway responsiveness (AR) is enhanced during a cold. For scientific, ethical and safety reasons, it is important to use validated methods for the preparation of a virus inoculum and that the particular virological characteristics and host responses should not be altered. We have prepared a new human rhinovirus (HRV) inoculum using recent guidelines and assessed whether disease characteristics (for example, severity of colds or changes in AR) were retained. Studies were conducted in 25 clinically healthy volunteers using a validated HRV inoculum in the first 17 and a new inoculum in the subsequent eight subjects. Severity of cold symptoms, nasal wash albumin levels and airway responsiveness were measured, and the new inoculum was prepared from nasal washes obtained during the cold. The new inoculum was tested using standard virological and serological techniques, as well as a polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma pneumoniae. No contaminating viruses or organisms were detected and the methods suggested were workable. Good clinical colds developed in 20 of the 25 subjects and median symptom scores were similar in the validated and new inoculum groups (18 and 17.5, respectively; p=0.19). All subjects shed virus, and there were no differences noted in viral culture scores, nasal wash albumin and rates of seroconversion in the two groups. Although airway responsiveness increased in both groups (p=0.02 and p=0.05), the degree of change was similar. We have performed experimental rhinovirus infection studies and demonstrated similar clinical disease in two inoculum groups. Amplified airway responsiveness was induced; continuing studies will define the mechanisms and suggest modes of treatment.

  16. Ca isotope fractionation and Sr/Ca partitioning associated with anhydrite formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syverson, D. D.; Scheuermann, P.; Pester, N. J.; Higgins, J. A.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    The elemental and isotopic mass balance of Ca and Sr between seawater and basalt at mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal systems is an integrated reflection of the various physiochemical processes, which induce chemical exchange, in the subseafloor. Specifically, the processes of anhydrite precipitation and recrystallization are recognized to be important controls on governing the Ca and Sr elemental and isotope compositions of high temperature vent fluids, however, few experimental data exist to constrain these geochemical effects. Thus, to better understand the associated Sr/Ca partitioning and Ca isotope fractionation and rate of exchange between anhydrite and dissolved constituents, anhydrite precipitation and recrystallization experiments were performed at 175, 250, and 350°C and 500 bar at chemical conditions indicative of active MOR hydrothermal systems. The experimental data suggest that upon entrainment of seawater into MOR hydrothermal systems, anhydrite will precipitate rapidly and discriminate against the heavy isotopes of Ca (Δ44/40Ca(Anh-Fluid) = -0.68 - -0.25 ‰), whereas Sr/Ca partitioning depends on the saturation state of the evolving hydrothermal fluid with respect to anhydrite at each PTX (KD(Anh-Fluid) = 1.24 - 0.55). Coupling experimental constraints with the temperature gradient inferred for high temperature MOR hydrothermal systems in the oceanic crust, data suggest that the Ca isotope and Sr elemental composition of anhydrite formed near the seafloor will be influenced by disequilibrium effects, while, at higher temperatures further into the oceanic crust, anhydrite will be representative of equilibrium Sr/Ca partitioning and Ca isotope fractionation conditions. These experimental observations are consistent with analyzed Sr/Ca and Ca isotope compositions of anhydrites and vent fluids sampled from modern MOR hydrothermal systems1,2 and can be used to further constrain the geochemical effects of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust

  17. Safety Research and Experimental Coal Mines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Safety Research and Experimental Coal MinesLocation: Pittsburgh SiteThe Safety Research Coal Mine and Experimental Mine complex is a multi-purpose underground mine...

  18. H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Art McKee; Pamela. Druliner

    1998-01-01

    The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest is a world renowned center for research and education about the ecology and management of forests and streams. Located about 50 miles (80 km) east of Eugene, Oregon, the Andrews Experimental Forest lies in the Blue River Ranger District of the Willamette National Forest. Established in 1948, the Experimental Forest is administered...

  19. The '3Is' of animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    Animal experimentation in scientific research is a good thing: important, increasing and often irreplaceable. Careful experimental design and reporting are at least as important as attention to welfare in ensuring that the knowledge we gain justifies using live animals as experimental tools.

  20. QUEST FOR TEACHING EXPERIMENTAL SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Samrajya LAKSHMI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Andhra Pradesh, India, chemical experimenting in under graduate college labs by students is neglected because most of the intermediate (10+1 and 10+2 students concentrate on writing competitive exams like EAMCET (Engineering and Medical Common Entrance Test, IIT JEE (Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Test, AIEEE (All India Engineering Entrance Examination, AFMS (Armed Forces Medical Services, AIMS (All India Institute of Medical Science. The students spend most of their time in preparing for competitive exams, practicing bits, and writing many model exams. Even Parents, staff, and management are also motivated and allow the students towards preparation for competitive exams because of the increase in number of engineering seats and demand of medical seats. Ultimately, the quality and quantity of students who join the B.Sc. (Bachelor of Science has been decreasing day by day. Even after joining the B.Sc., the students are motivated towards immediate white collared job oriented courses like M.C.A (Master of Computer Applications and M.B.A (Master Business Administration and spending their time for preparing for competitive exams for those courses. Only a few students are interested to join Post graduation in chemistry and try to learn experimental skills in chemistry laboratory. However, the motivated students towards undergraduate chemistry will be demotivated towards it due to lack of fundamentals in chemistry (in 10+2 level, which are essential for better job market. Ultimately, the students are in confusion and neglect learning the skills in doing experiments in chemistry lab. The present paper focuses on the thorough quest of one such teacher who strives for his own professional development. He has developed his own method of guiding the students for their improvement of skills in doing experiments in lab. The teacher explored solutions to his problems or problems of students by sorting out the critical incidents from his own