Full Text Available In our previous report, rosmarinic acid (RA was revealed to be an antidote active compound in Argusia argentea (family: Boraginaceae. The plant is locally used in Okinawa in Japan as an antidote for poisoning from snake venom, Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu. This article presents mechanistic evidence of RA’s neutralization of the hemorrhagic effects of snake venom. Anti-hemorrhagic activity was assayed by using several kinds of snake venom. Inhibition against fibrinogen hydrolytic and collagen hydrolytic activities of T. flavoviridis venom were examined by SDS-PAGE. A histopathological study was done by microscopy after administration of venom in the presence or absence of RA. RA was found to markedly neutralize venom-induced hemorrhage, fibrinogenolysis, cytotoxicity and digestion of type IV collagen activity. Moreover, RA inhibited both hemorrhage and neutrophil infiltrations caused by T. flavoviridis venom in pathology sections. These results demonstrate that RA inhibited most of the hemorrhage effects of venom. These findings indicate that rosmarinic acid can be expected to provide therapeutic benefits in neutralization of snake venom accompanied by heat stability.
Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Shikamoto, Yasuo; Fujimoto, Zui; Morita, Takashi; Mizuno, Hiroshi
Crystals of habu coagulation factor IX-binding protein have been obtained at pH 6.5 and 4.6 and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Coagulation factor IX-binding protein isolated from Trimeresurus flavoviridis (IX-bp) is a C-type lectin-like protein. It is an anticoagulant protein consisting of homologous subunits A and B. The subunits both contain a Ca 2+ -binding site with differing affinity (K d values of 14 and 130 µM at pH 7.5). These binding characteristics are pH-dependent; under acidic conditions, the affinity of the low-affinity site was reduced considerably. In order to identify which site has high affinity and also to investigate the Ca 2+ -releasing mechanism, IX-bp was crystallized at pH 6.5 and 4.6. The crystals at pH 6.5 and 4.6 diffracted to 1.72 and 2.29 Å resolution, respectively; the former crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 60.7, b = 63.5, c = 66.9 Å, β = 117.0°, while the latter belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with a = 134.1, b = 37.8, c = 55.8 Å, β = 110.4°
Full Text Available Adaptability is emerging as a key issue not only in the climate change debate but in the general area of sustainable development. In this context, we examine the link between household resilience and connectivity in a rural community in Botswana. We see resilience and vulnerability as the positive and negative dimensions of adaptability. Poor, marginal rural communities confronted with the vagaries of climate change, will need to become more resilient if they are to survive and thrive. We define resilience as the capacity of a social-ecological system to cope with shocks such as droughts or economic crises without changing its fundamental identity. We make use of three different indices of household resilience: livelihood diversity, wealth, and a comprehensive resilience index based on a combination of human, financial, physical, social, and natural capital. Then, we measure the social connectivity of households through a whole network approach in social network analysis, using two measures of network centrality (degree centrality and betweenness. We hypothesize that households with greater social connectivity have greater resilience, and analyze a community in rural Botswana to uncover how different households make use of social networks to deal with shocks such as human illness and death, crop damage, and livestock disease. We surveyed the entire community of Habu using a structured questionnaire that focused on livelihood strategies and social networks. We found that gender, age of household head, and household size were positively correlated with social connectivity. Our analysis indicates that those households that are more socially networked are likely to have a wider range of livelihood strategies, greater levels of other forms of social capital, and greater overall capital. Therefore, they are more resilient.
Cockram, C S; Chan, J C; Chow, K Y
The case records of 242 snake bite victims admitted to the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong between September 1984 and October 1988 were studied retrospectively. When the snake was identified, the White-lipped pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris) was by far the commonest species involved. In addition to local oedema and inflammation, evidence of a significant blood clotting disturbance was present in at least 10% of cases, defibrination and thrombocytopenia being the commonest findings. Since such abnormality was not always sought the true figure is likely to be higher. Three fatalities occurred, one of which was secondary to a probable White-lipped pit viper bite, one to a bite by Chinese cobra and one to a bite by Russell's viper.
Molecular cloning and characterization of satellite DNA sequences from constitutive heterochromatin of the habu snake (Protobothrops flavoviridis, Viperidae) and the Burmese python (Python bivittatus, Pythonidae).
Matsubara, Kazumi; Uno, Yoshinobu; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Seki, Risako; Nishida, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi
Highly repetitive DNA sequences of the centromeric heterochromatin provide valuable molecular cytogenetic markers for the investigation of genomic compartmentalization in the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes of sauropsids. Here, the relationship between centromeric heterochromatin and karyotype evolution was examined using cloned repetitive DNA sequences from two snake species, the habu snake (Protobothrops flavoviridis, Crotalinae, Viperidae) and Burmese python (Python bivittatus, Pythonidae). Three satellite DNA (stDNA) families were isolated from the heterochromatin of these snakes: 168-bp PFL-MspI from P. flavoviridis and 196-bp PBI-DdeI and 174-bp PBI-MspI from P. bivittatus. The PFL-MspI and PBI-DdeI sequences were localized to the centromeric regions of most chromosomes in the respective species, suggesting that the two sequences were the major components of the centromeric heterochromatin in these organisms. The PBI-MspI sequence was localized to the pericentromeric region of four chromosome pairs. The PFL-MspI and the PBI-DdeI sequences were conserved only in the genome of closely related species, Gloydius blomhoffii (Crotalinae) and Python molurus, respectively, although their locations on the chromosomes were slightly different. In contrast, the PBI-MspI sequence was also in the genomes of P. molurus and Boa constrictor (Boidae), and additionally localized to the centromeric regions of eight chromosome pairs in B. constrictor, suggesting that this sequence originated in the genome of a common ancestor of Pythonidae and Boidae, approximately 86 million years ago. The three stDNA sequences showed no genomic compartmentalization between the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes, suggesting that homogenization of the centromeric and/or pericentromeric stDNA sequences occurred in the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes of these snakes.
Mulcahy, Daniel G; Lee, Justin L; Miller, Aryeh H; Zug, George R
The taxonomic identity of the Trimeresurus (Popeia) popeiorum complex from the Isthmus of Kra and to the north was investigated. Several studies over the last decade have produced several specimens and associated mtDNA sequence data for a variety of individuals of the T. popeiorum and "T. sabahi" complexes. Here, we combine four mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, ND4, and CytB) from all available specimens in GenBank with the addition of five new specimens collected from the mainland, Tanintharyi Region of Myanmar. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses identified that T. popeiorum sensu lato is paraphyletic with two geographically distinct clades: a northern clade representing populations from northern Myanmar, Laos and northern Thailand and a southern clade representing samples from the Tanintharyi Region and adjacent west Thailand. While the two clades have considerable genetic distance, they appear to be morphologically identical, leading to the hypothesis that the southern clade represents a cryptic, undescribed species. Because they appear to be cryptic species and the limitation of only five specimens from the southern lineage, this does not permit us to formally describe the new species. In accordance to past molecular studies, we uncovered paraphyly and lack of genetic support for the validity of taxa within the T. sabahi complex. However, we suggest recognizing these populations as subspecies within T. sabahi.
文田, 哲雄; Tetsuo, FUMITA
I continued my inquiry into the nature of the invention of gara or designs of the Oshima pongee, which I started last year, and some results of which I had already put forth in the preceding paper. This time I examined not only the designs representing the patterns on the skin of habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis, , the poisonous snake endemic to the Ryukyu Islands) but also the synthesized designs representing various things, both natural and artificial. 1. The designs completed as cloth desig...
An in vitro study was conducted by mixing small amounts of green pit viper venom with blood and observing changes. At a concentration of 10 mg crude venom, red blood cells (RBC) osmotic fragility slightly increased. RBC morphology changed to spherical shape which was compatible with what was observed in scanning ...
May 2, 2007 ... 1Clinical Microscopy Research Unit, Department of Clinical Microscopy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences,. Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. 2 Snake farm, Thai Red Cross, Thailand. 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. Accepted 20 April, 2007.
Full Text Available Crotaline snakebites (Protobothrops mucrosquamatus and Trimeresurus stejnegeri are a common medical emergency in Taiwan that can be effectively treated by a bivalent F(ab'2 antivenom. We investigated the differences in the clinical outcomes of patients who received different therapeutic regimens of antivenom in a medical center where clinical toxicologists followed the poison control center (PCC guidelines (medical group and surgeons did not (surgical group. The medical records of inpatients with crotaline snakebites between 1991 and 2005 were reviewed and information on demographics, treatments, adverse effects of antivenom, and complications was abstracted and analyzed. A total of 179 patients (90 medical, 89 surgical were eligible for study. There was no significant intergroup difference in baseline characteristics except that the dose of antivenom and the probability of antibiotic use were both higher in the surgical group (5.9 ± 4.2 vials vs. 2.7 ± 1.6 vials; 93% vs. 60%. Multiple logistic regression adjusting for age, gender, calendar year of envenomation, severity of envenomation, and antibiotic use did not disclose evidence of any difference in various clinical outcomes between medical and surgical patients. The lower dose of antivenom recommended by the PCC may be as effective and safe as the higher dose used in the surgical group for the treatment of crotaline snakebites.
Disintegrin-like domain was cloned and sequenced from Cerastes cerastes venom gland tissue. Nested RT-PCR was performed using initial primers designed based on the homology of disintegrins from Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Glodius halys , Agkistrodon halys and Trimeresurus macrosquamatus. The homology was ...
Sasakawa, Kôji; Itô, Hirotarô
Trephionus Bates, 1883, a Japanese endemic genus in the subtribe Synuchina (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Sphodrini), is revised taxonomically based mainly on the shape of the endophallus, a membranous inner sac everted from the aedeagus of the male genitalia. Three known species from central Honshu, T. kinoshitai Habu, 1954; T. shibataianus Habu, 1978; and T. babai Habu, 1978, are re-defined based on this genital character, and five new species are described from the region: T. cylindriphallus Sasakawa, sp . n ., T. niumontanus Sasakawa, sp . n ., T. inexpectatus Sasakawa & Itô, sp . n ., T. abiba Sasakawa & Itô, sp . n ., and T. bifidilobatus Sasakawa & Itô, sp . n . The observed interspecies differences in endophallus morphology are discussed in terms of the species-level phylogeny and genus-level taxonomy of Trephionus .
Full Text Available Trephionus Bates, 1883, a Japanese endemic genus in the subtribe Synuchina (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Sphodrini, is revised taxonomically based mainly on the shape of the endophallus, a membranous inner sac everted from the aedeagus of the male genitalia. Three known species from central Honshu, T. kinoshitai Habu, 1954; T. shibataianus Habu, 1978; and T. babai Habu, 1978, are re-defined based on this genital character, and five new species are described from the region: T. cylindriphallus Sasakawa, sp. n., T. niumontanus Sasakawa, sp. n., T. inexpectatus Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n., T. abiba Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n., and T. bifidilobatus Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n. The observed interspecies differences in endophallus morphology are discussed in terms of the species-level phylogeny and genus-level taxonomy of Trephionus.
Mother, I really think the flowers go to school underground.” ... ecotypes to new and distant locales, thereby obfuscating its natural, global patterns of .... In Drosophila, PcG proteins generally act by remodelling chromatin ... tions in genomic DNA methylation and local chromatin structure (Meyer 2000; Habu et al 2001).
Kirill V. Makarov
Full Text Available A new species, Bembidion (?Nipponobembidion ruruy sp. n., is described from the foot of Ruruy Volcano, Kunashir Island, Kuril Archipelago, Russia. It is only the second consubgener, being characterized by the reduced wings, the rounded elytral shoulders, and the backward position of the posterior supra-orbital pore. In this connection, the subgenus Nipponobembidion Habu & Baba, 1968 is rediagnosed and both of its species are keyed. It might have originated from Plataphodes Ganglbauer, 1891, possibly in relation to volcanic activities in the region.
Hu, Yujing; Yang, Liming; Yang, Haiwei; He, Shaoheng; Wei, Ji-Fu
This allergic reaction to snake venom was described to occur in patients after recurrent exposure through bites in amateur and professional snake handlers, which might be underestimated and contribute to fatal snakebites in victim, independently from the toxicity of the venom itself. Few allergens were identified from snake venoms by normal SDS-PAGE, which cannot separate the snake venom completely. In the present study, we identified nine potential allergens by two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting (named as allergenomics) in Protobothrops mucrosquamatus venom. By multidimensional liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (MDLC-ESI-LTQ-MS/MS) analysis, six allergens showed sequence similarity to snake venom serine proteinases. Other allergens showed sequence similarity to snake venom metalloproteinase. These allergic reactions to snake venom allergens might contribute to fatal snakebites in victim, independently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Snake venoms comprise a highly complex mixture of proteins, which requires for their characterization the use of versatile two-dimensional electrophoresis techniques. In the present study, venoms obtained from eight snakes (Ophiophagus hannah, Naja kaouthia, Naja sumatrana, Bungarus fasciatus, Trimeresurus sumatranus, Tropidolaemus wagleri, Enhydrina schistosa and Calloselasma rhodostoma commonly found in Malaysia were separated based on two independent properties, isoelectric point (pI and molecular weight (MW. Many differences in snake venoms at the inter-family, inter-subfamily, inter-genus and inter-species levels were revealed. Notably, proteins from individuals of the Viperidae family - Trimeresurus sumatranus, Tropidolaemus wagleri and Calloselasma rhodostoma - were found to be numerous and scattered by the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE specifically in regions between 37 and 100 kDa compared to the Elapidae venom proteins. The latter were clustered at the basic and lower molecular mass region (less than 20 kDa. Trains of spots were commonly observed, indicating that these proteins may be derived from post-translational modifications. Ophiophagus hannah (Elapidae revealed a great amount of protein spots in the higher molecular mass range when compared to Enhydrina schistosa, Naja kaouthia, Naja sumatrana and Bungarus fasciatus. Overall 2DE showed large differences in the venom profile of each species, which might be employed as an ancillary tool to the identification of venomous snake species.
Gowda, Raghavendra; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Angaswamy, Nataraj; Krishna, Sharath; Bannikuppe Sannanayak, Vishwanath
Trimeresurus malabaricus is a venomous pit viper species endemic to southwestern part of India. In earlier reports, we have shown that envenomation by T. malabaricus venom leading to strong local tissue damage but the mechanism of action is not clearly revealed. Local tissue damage affected by T. malabaricus venom is of great importance since the poison has serious systemic effects including death in the case of multiple attacks. The present study details the major manifestations of T. malabaricus venom and the induction of local tissue damage, which suggests that most toxins are present in the form of hydrolytic enzymes. Hydrolytic activity of the enzymes was measured and the data indicated that protease and phospholipase A 2 activity was high which is responsible for local tissue damage. Furthermore, the role of hydrolytic enzymes in the induction of pathological events such as hemorrhage, edema, myotoxicity, and blood coagulation examination were assessed through animal models. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ibrahim, M. H.; Latiff, N. A. A.; Ismail, K.; Isa, N. K. M.
This study carried out to study the effect of urbanization activities towards the formation of Urban Heat Islands (UHI) in Cameron Highlands (CH).The aim of this study is to identify the formation of UHI in CH following the urbanization activities. This study also involved two main data that are primary through field survey and secondary data from collection data. In addition, this study was used qualitative and quantitative method. The data was taken two times a day, at a day and night between the hours of 12:00 to 14:00 and 19:00 to 21:00. Data in this study analyzed by using correlation analysis and analysis of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which known as interpolation. Result found the formation of UHI in CH was concentrated at city centre namely in Pekan Tanah Rata. From the whole average value, city centre was recorded the highest reading of temperatures which is 30.5°C, while reading of temperature for subtown and suburban was recorded 28.6°C and 23.8°C. Average of humidity in CH during the day was recorded as highest reading in the suburban area namely Tringkap Bee Farm (station 11) which is 58.4%. Then, average of humidity in CH at night was recorded highest reading in the suburban area namely Habu Mini Market 91 (station 9) which the value is 83.2%. The reading of wind speed in CH during the day recorded the highest reading day at the suburban namely Tringkap Bee Farm (station 11) which the value is 2.3 m/s. While, following the reading of wind speed in CH at night, suburban namely Habu Mini Market 91(station 9) was recorded the highest reading which is 0.8 m/s. The Intensity of Urban Heat Island in CH during the day was recorded 2.8°C, while at night intensity of UHI was recorded 1.4°C. Overall, the urbanization activities in CH had caused the formation of UHI. Therefore, measures of legislation such as protect forest from development by control the urbanization activities need to be implemented so that the formation of UHI can be reduced and
Shi, Yi-Jun; Chen, Ying-Jung; Hu, Wan-Ping; Chang, Long-Sen
This study presents an adenosine (A)-based molecular beacon (MB) for selective detection of Naja atra cardiotoxin (CTX) that functions by utilizing the competitive binding between CTX and the poly(A) stem of MB to coralyne. The 5'- and 3'-end of MB were labeled with a reporter fluorophore and a non-fluorescent quencher, respectively. Coralyne induced formation of the stem-loop MB structure through A₂-coralyne-A₂ coordination, causing fluorescence signal turn-off due to fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the fluorophore and quencher. CTX3 could bind to coralyne. Moreover, CTX3 alone induced the folding of MB structure and quenching of MB fluorescence. Unlike that of snake venom α-neurotoxins, the fluorescence signal of coralyne-MB complexes produced a bell-shaped concentration-dependent curve in the presence of CTX3 and CTX isotoxins; a turn-on fluorescence signal was noted when CTX concentration was ≤80 nM, while a turn-off fluorescence signal was noted with a further increase in toxin concentrations. The fluorescence signal of coralyne-MB complexes yielded a bell-shaped curve in response to varying concentrations of N. atra crude venom but not those of Bungarus multicinctus and Protobothrops mucrosquamatus venoms. Moreover, N. nigricollis venom also functioned as N. atra venom to yield a bell-shaped concentration-dependent curve of MB fluorescence signal, again supporting that the hairpin-shaped MB could detect crude venoms containing CTXs. Taken together, our data validate that a platform composed of coralyne-induced stem-loop MB structure selectively detects CTXs.
Full Text Available Snake bite envenomation is not uncommon in Taiwan. This study focuses on the pattern of poisonous snake bites and their management in southern Taiwan over a 5-year period. The case histories of 37 patients with poisonous snake bites admitted to the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital between June 2001 and July 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. Three patients, bitten by unknown species of venomous snakes, were excluded from this study. The frequency of snake bites from each species of snake, the local and systemic manifestations of snake bite, treatment of complications and final outcomes were analyzed. Of the remaining 34 patients, 11 (32.4% were bitten by bamboo vipers, 10 (29.4% by Russell's pit vipers, 8 (23.5% by Taiwan cobras and 5 (14.7% by Taiwan Habu. The majority of snake bites (28 occurred between May and November. Those affected were mainly outdoor hikers (14 and workers (9. The antivenin requirements for treatment in the emergency room were in accordance with standard procedures. No mortality was noted among those envenomed by poisonous snakes. Although poisonous snake bite is not a common life-threatening emergency in the study area, we observed both an environmental risk and a seasonal incidence of snake bite. Keeping the varied clinical manifestations of snake bite in mind is important for effective management. Ready availability and appropriate use of antivenin, close monitoring of patients, institution of ventilatory support and early referral to a larger hospital when required, all help reduce mortality.
Murari, Satish K; Frey, Felix J; Frey, Brigitte M; Gowda, There V; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe S
In Indian traditional medicine, peacock feather in the form of ash (Bhasma) or water extract are used against snakebite and to treat various problems associated with lungs. This study was aimed to evaluate the water extract of peacock feather (PCF) against the local tissue damage caused due to snakebite. PCF water extract showed inhibition towards phospholipase A2 enzyme activity from snake venom (Naja naja and Vipera russelii), inflammatory fluids (synovial, pleural, ascites) and normal serum in a dose-dependent manner. Hyaluronidase and proteases are other major enzymes in snake venoms responsible for local tissue damage. PCF water extract inhibited hyaluronidase and proteolytic enzyme activities from Vipera russelii, Naja naja and Trimeresurus malabaricus venom. The active principle is a hydrophilic molecule easily extractable in water or polar solvents. PCF water extract gave positive results for the presence of protein and secondary metabolites like carotenoids and steroids. Analysis of metal ions revealed that iron is the major ion (> 20-fold). Other metal ions detected in smaller amount are copper, chromium, zinc and nickel. The least amount of ion detected is gold. Co-injection of PCF water extract with snake venom and inflammatory PLA2 enzymes neutralize the edema inducing activity of all the PLA2 enzymes studied. Since it inhibits hyaluronidase and proteases enzyme activity from snake venom PCF water extract is a powerful neutralizing agent, which has therapeutic application against venom toxicity.
Huang, Yong; Zhang, Yue-yun; Zhao, Cheng-jian; Xu, Yong-li; Gu, Ying-le; Huang, Wen-qi; Lin, Kui; Li, Li
Identification accuracy of traditional Chinese medicine is crucial for the traditional Chinese medicine research, production and application. DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), are more and more used for identification of traditional Chinese medicine. Using universal barcoding primers to sequence, we discussed the feasibility of DNA barcoding method for identification commonly-used medicinal snakes (a total of 109 samples belonging to 19 species 15 genera 6 families). The phylogenetic trees using Neighbor-joining were constructed. The results indicated that the mean content of G + C(46.5%) was lower than that of A + T (53.5%). As calculated by Kimera-2-parameter model, the mean intraspecies genetic distance of Trimeresurus albolabris, Ptyas dhumnades and Lycodon rufozonatus was greater than 2%. Further phylogenetic relationship results suggested that identification of one sample of T. albolabris was erroneous. The identification of some samples of P. dhumnades was also not correct, namely originally P. korros was identified as P. dhumnades. Factors influence on intraspecific genetic distance difference of L. rufozonatus need to be studied further. Therefore, DNA barcoding for identification of medicinal snakes is feasible, and greatly complements the morphological classification method. It is necessary to further study in identification of traditional Chinese medicine.
I GEDE MADE ARIUS HADY BUDIADA
Full Text Available Snakes are cold-blooded reptiles belong to the Order Squamata, Suborder Serpentes. Snakes often found in lowlands, highlands, trees, soil, water and swamps. People in the Pering village especially in Banjar Perang Sada have less knowledge about venomous and non-venomous snakes. Therefore, it is important to investigate the diversity of snakes in the Pering village, Blahbatuh, Gianyar. This study was conducted on 28 January – 4 February 2015. Data collection was performed by direct observation along the potential snake habitats in two plots rice field near residential area and near the Pura Beji. Data collection was performed during night time from at 7:00 to 11:00 PM with sampling focused on Banjar Perang Sada. Individual snake found was cought and identified in situ. This research found 9 species of snakes namely, Ahaetulla prasina, Boiga cynodon, Dendrelaphis pictus, Pareas carinatus, Ptyas korros, Rhabdophis chrysargos, Xenochrophis piscator, Bungarus fasciatus, and Trimeresurus insularis, the most commonly found was Dendrelaphis pictus.
Full Text Available Knowledge of the habitat requirements and temporal stability of populations of extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius is surprisingly scarce. Reliable reports of this species, which by its domestication remains tremendously important for humans, are rare. As the species became extinct about 400 years ago and regionally disappeared much earlier, its behaviour and morphology are also under debate. Aurochs is also a crucial component of the mega-herbivore theory in nature conservation, but in fact its natural habitat and behaviour are unknown. Here, I report records of aurochs for the time period of Ancient Egypt. They are found in archaeological sites and literature, and in collections. Records of the species continue through all the periods of Ancient Egypt. In particular, hunting scenes illustrating the merits of high-ranking persons, in their graves (mastabas and temples, provide insights into the behaviour and ecology of the depicted game. Here, special attention is given to one outstanding hunting scene that is documented in a relief at the mortuary temple of Ramesses III (1175 BC, Medinet Habu, Egypt. Assisted by a group of hunters, the pharaoh kills three specimens of aurochs. The whole scene is stunningly realistic. The adult specimen is fleeing towards the reed belt of the River Nile, suggesting that the species’ habitat was probably in large valley bottoms, where open grassland is regularly created by flooding. Endemic species of fish and game confirm that this scene took place in Lower Egypt. The regional populations of the North-African subspecies of aurochs probably went extinct shortly after this piece of art was produced. Records of species in ancient art can be very informative in terms of ecology and behaviour of species, especially when extinct species are addressed. In addition, the dating of old pieces of art containing biological information can be very precise, for instance when these refer to a historic personage.
Kataev, Boris M; Liang, Hongbin
A taxonomic review of 23 species of the subgenus Pseudoophonus Motschulsky, 1844, the genus Harpalus Latreille, 1802, occurring in China is given, and a key to these species is provided. The species are divided in three species groups and five subgroups, the distinctive characters of which are listed. The following new synonyms are established: Harpalus calceatus Duftschmid, 1812 = Anisodactylus propinquus Ballion, 1870, syn. n.; H. davidi (Tschitschérine, 1897) = H. kailiensis Huang, 1992, syn. n.; = H. adenticulatus Huang, 1992, syn. n.; = H. cilihumerus Huang, Hu & Sun, 1994, syn. n.; H. fokienensis Schauberger, 1930 = H. muciulus Huang, 1992, syn. n.; H. griseus (Panzer, 1796) = H. xinjiangensis Huang, Hu & Sun, 1994, syn. n.; H. hauserianus Schauberger, 1929 = H. disaogashimensis Huang, 1995, syn. n.; H. pastor pastor Motschulsky, 1844 = H. penglainus Huang, Hu & Sun, 1994, syn. n.; = H. chiloschizontus Huang, 1995, syn. n.; H. rufipes (DeGeer, 1774) = H. scabripectus Huang, Hu & Sun, 1994, syn. n.; H. singularis Tschitschérine, 1906 = H. chengjiangensis Huang, 1993, syn. n.; H. sinicus Hope, 1845 = H. periglabellus Huang, 1992, syn. n.; = H. longihornus Lei & Huang, 1997, syn. n.; and H. tridens Morawitz, 1862 = H. hypogeomysis Huang, 1993, syn. n.; = H. pilosus Huang, 1995, syn. n. Statuses of H. yinchuanensis Huang, 1993 and H. disimuciulus Huang, Lei, Yan & Hu, 1996 are discussed. Lectotypes are designated for H. capito Morawitz, 1862, H. japonicus Morawitz, 1862 and H. eous Tschitschérine, 1901. New data on distribution of Pseudoophonus species in China are provided. Harpalus babai Habu, 1973 is reported from China (Jiangxi) for the first time. The following taxa are recorded from the following Chinese provinces for the first time: H. ussuriensis Chaudoir, 1863 from Hunan; H. aenigma (Tschitschérine, 1897) from Hubei, Jiangxi, and Guangxi; H. pastor Motschulsky, 1844 from Beijing and Xizang; H. fokienensis Schauberger, 1930 from Anhui and Jiangxi; H
Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Horacek, Ivan; Tucker, Abigail S
Fangs are specialised long teeth that contain either a superficial groove (Gila monster, Beaded lizard, some colubrid snakes), along which the venom runs, or an enclosed canal (viperid, elapid and atractaspid), down which the venom flows inside the tooth. The fangs of viperid snakes are the most effective venom-delivery structures among vertebrates and have been the focus of scientific interests for more than 200 years. Despite this interest the questions of how the canal at the centre of the fang forms remains unresolved. Two different hypotheses have been suggested. The mainstream hypothesis claims that the venom-conducting canal develops by the invagination of the epithelial wall of the developing tooth germ. The sides of this invagination make contact and finally fuse to form the enclosed canal. The second hypothesis, known as the "brick chimney", claims the venom-conducting canal develops directly by successive dentine deposition as the tooth develops. The fang is thus built up from the tip to the base, without any folding of the tooth surface. In an attempt to cast further light on this subject the early development of the fangs was followed in a pit viper, Trimeresurus albolabris, using the expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh). We demonstrate that the canal is indeed formed by an early folding event, resulting from an invagination of epithelial cells into the dental mesenchyme. The epithelial cells proliferate to enlarge the canal and then the cells die by apoptosis, forming an empty tube through which the poison runs. The entrance and discharge orifices at either end of the canal develop by a similar invagination but the initial width of the invagination is very different from that in the middle of the tooth, and is associated with higher proliferation. The two sides of the invaginating epithelium never come into contact, leaving the orifice open. The mechanism by which the orifices form can be likened to that observed in reptiles with an open groove along
Dr. Abdalla Abdel-Raziq
Full Text Available Matit, MAty.t (also read MAity.t was a lioness-goddess (like Hathor, Sekhmet of Memphis, Bastet of Bubastis, Mehyt of This and etc., whose name probably meant “she the one who has the appearance of a lioness”, “The one that looks like a lioness” or “The Dismemberer”, as confirmed by the determinative of her name which is clearly visible in the inscriptions of those vast tombs where the nomarchs of the Sixth Dynasty were buried at the end of the Old Kingdom especially at Deir el-Gabrawi. She acted as the main deity of the Twelfth Nome of Upper Egypt, described as “the mistress of Iakemet”, before her counterpart, the falcon deity Nemty/Anty takes the first place. However, Matit was only of local importance usually represented in the animal form of a fierce warrior lioness or portrayed as a woman with a lioness’s head. In a scene of the funerary temple of Medinet Habu, of Ramses III, Matit was represented behind Nemty, in the form of a woman with a lioness head crowned with the solar disk. Later, the geographical lists of late temples, however, show that Matit not only retained her place to the end as goddess of the Nome, but had some reputation outside of it also at that period. She was found among the many gods who ensure the protection of Osiris in one of the chapels of the temple of Dendera. She is sometimes assimilated to the goddess Isis delivering her brother Seth to a place of internment so that he can no longer penetrate the city of Abydos. In the temple of Dendera, Matit also appears twice in the third Chapel of the Osirian Chapels, guarding the entrance leading to the chapel, she was firstly depicted as a woman with a lioness head armed with two knives, but in the second representation which is at the bottom of the chapel wall she is this time symmetrically opposed to the goddess Mehyt, on both sides of the body of Osiris, she is represented, in the fully zoomorphic aspect of an elongated lioness on a rectangular base