Derbyshire, E; Davies, G J; Costarelli, V; Dettmar, P W
Micronutrient status is of fundamental importance both upon conception and throughout pregnancy. There is an abundance of literature investigating nutrient intakes during individual trimesters of pregnancy but few studies have investigated baseline intakes of nutrients throughout gestation as a continuum. The current investigation set out to measure habitual micronutrient intakes at weeks 13, 25, 35 of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum using a prospective background information questionnaire, 4-7-day weighed food diary and postnatal questionnaire. Seventy-two primiparous, Caucasian Londoners were recruited at the study start with 42 completing the first, second, third trimester and postpartum study stages respectively. Study findings indicated that sodium intakes were significantly higher than UK guidelines throughout and after pregnancy (P pregnancy, but to varying levels of statistical significance (P health interventions may be required to help expectant mothers achieve an optimal diet, particularly after birth when dietary recommendations increase for some micronutrients.
Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A
International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.
Marckmann, P.; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Haraldsdottir, H.
The association between habitual fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake, and the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat was studied in 24 healthy young volunteers. Habitual dietary intakes were estimated from three 7-d weighed food records made at months 0, 5, and 8...... of the 8-mo study period. The adipose tissue fatty acid composition of each individual was determined by gas chromatography as the mean of two gluteal biopsies, obtained in the first and the last month of the study. The daily consumption of fish and of marine n-3 PUFAs in absolute terms (g....../d) was significantly associated with adipose tissue docosahexaenoic acid content (DHA; r = 0.55 and 0.58, respectively, P acid contents. Our study indicates that the adipose tissue DHA content is the biomarker of choice for the assessment of long...
Jessica L. Levings
Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.
Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew
Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Of all the MVC rugby players (N=35), 18 completed the sections on body composition and match-day dietary intake, while 11 completed the habitual dietary intake section. Body composition data were collected by an International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry-accredited biokineticist. Habitual dietary ...
Epstein, Leonard H.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Bouton, Mark E.
Research has shown that animals and humans habituate on a variety of behavioral and physiological responses to repeated presentations of food cues, and habituation is related to amount of food consumed and cessation of eating. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of experimental paradigms used to study habituation, integrate a…
Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane
Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual's dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual's total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes.
McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C
The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....
Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop an equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion that can serve as an alternative to 24-h dietary recall and 24-h urine collection for normotensive Korean adults. In total, data on 640 healthy Korean adults aged 19 to 69 years from 4 regions of the country were collected as a training set. In order to externally validate the equation developed from that training set, 200 subjects were recruited independently as a validation set. Due to heterogeneity by gender, we constructed a gender-specific equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion by using a multivariable linear regression model and assessed the performance of the developed equation in validation set. The best model consisted of age, body weight, dietary behavior ('eating salty food', 'Kimchi consumption', 'Korean soup or stew consumption', 'soy sauce or red pepper paste consumption', and smoking status in men, and age, body weight, dietary behavior ('salt preference', 'eating salty food', 'checking sodium content for processed foods', 'nut consumption', and smoking status in women, respectively. When this model was tested in the external validation set, the mean bias between the measured and estimated 24-h urinary-sodium excretion from Bland-Altman plots was -1.92 (95% CI: -113, 110 mmol/d for men and -1.51 (95% CI: -90.6, 87.6 mmol/d for women. The cut-points of sodium intake calculated based on the equations were ≥4,000 mg/d for men and ≥3,500 mg/d for women, with 89.8 and 76.6% sensitivity and 29.3 and 64.2% specificity, respectively. In this study, a habitual 24-hour urinary-sodium-excretion-estimation model of normotensive Korean adults based on anthropometric and lifestyle factors was developed and showed feasibility for an asymptomatic population.
Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened bev...
He, Fan; Bixler, Edward O; Berg, Arthur; Imamura Kawasawa, Yuka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Yanosky, Jeff; Liao, Duanping
The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between objectively measured habitual sleep duration (HSD), habitual sleep variability (HSV), and energy and snack intake in adolescents. We used data from 324 adolescents who participated in the Penn State Child Cohort follow-up examination. Actigraphy was used over seven consecutive nights to estimate nightly sleep duration. The seven-night mean and standard deviation of sleep duration were used to represent HSD and HSV, respectively. The Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to obtain the daily average total energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake, and number of snacks consumed. Linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between habitual sleep patterns and caloric, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake. Proportional odds models were used to associate habitual sleep patterns with snack consumption. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI) percentile, and smoking status, an increased HSV was associated with a higher energy intake, particularly from fat and carbohydrate. For example, with a 1-h increase in HSV, there was a 170 (66)-kcal increase in the daily total energy intake. An increased HSV was also related to increased snack consumption, especially snacks consumed after dinner. For instance, a 1-h increase in HSV was associated with 65% and 94% higher odds of consuming more snacks after dinner during school/workdays and weekends/vacation days, respectively. Neither energy intake nor snack consumption was significantly related to HSD. High habitual sleep variability, not habitual sleep duration, is related to increased energy and food consumption in adolescents. Maintaining a regular sleep pattern may decrease the risk of obesity in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ismail, Aishah; Bhatti, Mehwish S; Faye, Ibrahima; Lu, Cheng Kai; Laude, Augustinus; Tang, Tong Boon
To evaluate and compare the temporal changes in pulse waveform parameters of ocular blood flow (OBF) between non-habitual and habitual groups due to caffeine intake. This study was conducted on 19 healthy subjects (non-habitual 8; habitual 11), non-smoking and between 21 and 30 years of age. Using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), three areas of optical nerve head were analyzed which are vessel, tissue, and overall, each with ten pulse waveform parameters, namely mean blur rate (MBR), fluctuation, skew, blowout score (BOS), blowout time (BOT), rising rate, falling rate, flow acceleration index (FAI), acceleration time index (ATI), and resistive index (RI). Two-way mixed ANOVA was used to determine the difference between every two groups where p groups in several ocular pulse waveform parameters, namely MBR (overall, vessel, tissue), BOT (overall), rising rate (overall), and falling rate (vessel), all with p group, but not within the habitual group. The temporal changes in parameters MBR (vessel, tissue), skew (overall, vessel), BOT (overall, vessel), rising rate (overall), falling rate (overall, vessel), and FAI (tissue) were significant for both groups (habitual and non-habitual) in response to caffeine intake. The experiment results demonstrated caffeine does modulate OBF significantly and response differently in non-habitual and habitual groups. Among all ten parameters, MBR and BOT were identified as the suitable biomarkers to differentiate between the two groups.
Burger, Kyle S; Stice, Eric
Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions vs. Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. nonfood control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. nonconsumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to nonconsumers. Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric
OBJECTIVE Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. METHODS Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. RESULTS Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions versus Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. non-food control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. non-consumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. PMID:23836764
Edward Leigh eGibson
Full Text Available High intakes of fat have been linked to greater cognitive decline in old age, but such associations may already occur in younger adults. We tested memory and learning in 38 women (25-45 years old, recruited for a larger observational study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These women varied in health status, though not significantly between cases (n=23 and controls (n=15. Performance on tests sensitive to medial temporal lobe function (CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd., i.e. verbal memory, visuo-spatial learning and delayed pattern matching, were compared with intakes of macronutrients from 7-day diet diaries and physiological indices of metabolic syndrome. Partial correlations were adjusted for age, activity and verbal IQ (National Adult Reading Test. Greater intakes of saturated and trans fats, and higher saturated to unsaturated fat ratio (Sat:UFA, were associated with more errors on the visuo-spatial task and with poorer word recall and recognition. Unexpectedly, higher UFA intake predicted poorer performance on the word recall and recognition measures. Fasting insulin was positively correlated with poorer word recognition only, whereas higher blood total cholesterol was associated only with visuo-spatial learning errors. None of these variables predicted performance on a delayed pattern matching test. The significant nutrient-cognition relationships were tested for mediation by total energy intake: saturated and trans fat intakes, and Sat:UFA, remained significant predictors specifically of visuo-spatial learning errors, whereas total fat and UFA intakes now predicted only poorer word recall. Examination of associations separately for mono- (MUFA and polyunsaturated fats suggested that only MUFA intake was predictive of poorer word recall. Saturated and trans fats, and fasting insulin, may already be associated with cognitive deficits in younger women. The findings need extending but may have important implications for public
Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L.
Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45–75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 200...
Kiely, M.; Collins, A.; Lucey, A. J.
Background A well-designed, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) could offer an efficient and cost-effective method for assessing habitual vitamin D intake. The present study aimed to describe the development, validation and implementation of a vitamin D FFQ. Methods National...
Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche
Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...
Gao, X; Cassidy, A; Schwarzschild, M A; Rimm, E B; Ascherio, A
To prospectively examine whether higher intakes of total flavonoids and their subclasses (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, and polymers) were associated with a lower risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). In the current analysis, we included 49,281 men in the Health Professional Follow-up Study and 80,336 women from the Nurses' Health Study. Five major sources of flavonoid-rich foods (tea, berry fruits, apples, red wine, and orange/orange juice) were also examined. Flavonoid intake was assessed using an updated food composition database and a validated food frequency questionnaire. We identified 805 participants (438 men and 367 women) who developed PD during 20-22 years of follow-up. In men, after adjusting for multiple confounders, participants in the highest quintile of total flavonoids had a 40%lower PD risk than those in the lowest quintile (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.83; p trend = 0.001). No significant relationship was observed in women (p trend = 0.62) or in pooled analyses (p trend = 0.23). In the pooled analyses for the subclasses, intakes of anthocyanins and a rich dietary source, berries, were significantly associated with a lower PD risk (HR comparing 2 extreme intake quintiles were 0.76 for anthocyanins and 0.77 for berries, respectively; p trend < 0.02 for both). Our findings suggest that intake of some flavonoids may reduce PD risk, particularly in men, but a protective effect of other constituents of plant foods cannot be excluded.
Full Text Available Previous research has shown daily salt intakes in Turkey to be far above the recommended limits. Knowing the sources of dietary salt could form a basis for preventive strategies aimed towards salt reduction. This study aimed to investigate dietary sources of salt in Turkey. A sub-group (n = 657 was selected from the PatenT2 study population, which represented the urban and rural areas of 4 major cities (Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, and Konya. A questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, medical histories, detailed histories of diet, and salt consumption was completed. Participants were asked to collect a 24-h urine sample and to record their food intake (dietary recall on the same day. Of 925 participants selected, 657 (71% provided accurate 24-h urine collections, based on creatinine excretion data. The mean daily 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 252.0 ± 92.2 mmol/day, equal to daily salt intake of 14.8 ± 5.4 g. Of the 657 participants with accurate 24-h urine collections, 464 (70% provided fully completed dietary recalls. Among these 464 participants, there was a significant difference between the 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based salt intake estimation (14.5 ± 5.1 g/day and the dietary recall-based salt intake estimation (12.0 ± 7.0 g/day (p < 0.001. On the other hand, a positive correlation was obtained between the dietary recall-based daily salt intake and 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based daily salt intake (r = 0.277, p < 0.001. Bread was the main source of salt (34% followed by salt added during cooking and preparing food before serving (30%, salt from various processed foods (21%, and salt added at the table during food consumption (11%. Conclusively, this study confirmed a very high salt intake of the adult population in four major cities in Turkey. The present findings support the emerging salt reduction strategy in Turkey by promoting lower salt content in baked bread, and less salt use in habitual food
Henney, Jane E; Taylor, Christine Lewis; Boon, Caitlin S
"Reducing the intake of sodium is an important public health goal for Americans. Since the 1970s, an array of public health interventions and national dietary guidelines has sought to reduce sodium intake. However, the U.S...
Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L.
Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45–75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004–9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score sugars and 2·28 (95 % CI 1·26, 4·14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality. PMID:21736803
Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L
Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45-75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004-9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score sugars and 2.28 (95 % CI 1.26, 4.14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality.
Full Text Available Faced with soaring health-care costs, Canadian governments should consider creative ways to enable the population to stay healthy — and making it possible for Canadians to reduce their sodium intake is an extremely cost-effective way to do so. Excess sodium consumption is a risk factor for high blood pressure, stroke and heart disease. On average, Canadians consume 3,400 mg of sodium a day (1,100 mg over recommended levels, at least three-quarters of which comes from processed foods. Any attempt at sodium reduction must therefore involve the food industry. This paper surveys sodium reduction efforts in jurisdictions around the globe, as well as past Canadian attempts, to provide provincial and federal policymakers with a comprehensive suite of lessons learned and a host of far-sighted policy recommendations ranging from food procurement to legislation and private sector engagement. Provincial governments, individually or together, must launch multi-pronged efforts involving food service companies, manufacturers, post-secondary institutes and the media to ensure that low-sodium alternatives are readily available, and that consumers are aware of them. They must also support federal action on changing dietary guidelines and introducing restrictions on food advertising to children. The benefits to be had are very real. In light of evidence showing that population-level intervention is superior to clinical intervention in terms of cost-effectiveness, returning up to $11.10 for every dollar spent and generating tens of billions in direct health-care savings, there is a very strong case for investing in population-level sodium reduction interventions that will work. The time for governments to act is now.
Bogl, L H; Pietiläinen, K H; Rissanen, A; Kangas, A J; Soininen, P; Rose, R J; Ala-Korpela, M; Kaprio, J
Nutritional epidemiology is increasingly shifting its focus from studying single nutrients to the exploration of the whole diet utilizing dietary pattern analysis. We analyzed associations between habitual diet (including macronutrients, dietary patterns, biomarker of fish intake) and lipoprotein particle subclass profile in young adults. Complete dietary data (food-frequency questionnaire) and lipoprotein subclass profile (via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were available for 663 subjects from the population-based FinnTwin12 study (57% women, age: 21-25 y). The serum docosahexaenoic to total fatty acid ratio was used as a biomarker of habitual fish consumption. Factor analysis identified 5 dietary patterns: "Fruit and vegetables", "Meat", "Sweets and desserts", "Junk food" and "Fish". After adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status and alcohol intake, the "Junk food" pattern was positively related to serum triglycerides (r = 0.12, P = 0.002), a shift in the subclass distribution of VLDL toward larger particles (r = 0.12 for VLDL size, P consumption is related to favorable subclass distributions of VLDL and HDL, while junk food intake is associated with unfavorable alterations in the distribution of all lipoprotein subclasses independent of adiposity and other lifestyle factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. Results. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake. The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7% and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%. Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. Conclusion. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.
Full Text Available Takanobu Okamoto,1 Ryota Kobayashi,1 Midori Natsume,2 Koichi Nakazato1 1Department of Exercise Physiology, Nippon Sport Science University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Food Sciences Research Laboratories, Meiji Co Ltd, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Arterial stiffness is substantially higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. Daily cocoa intake has been shown to reduce central arterial stiffness in health adults, regardless of age; however, the effect of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. A total of 26 postmenopausal women (mean age ± standard deviation 64±12 years were randomly assigned to two groups with different cocoa-intake frequencies: one group ingested 17 g of cocoa once daily except on Sundays (every-day group, n=13, and the other ingested 17 g of cocoa twice daily every other day (every-other-day group, n=13. These intake regimens were maintained in both groups for 12 weeks. Carotid–femoral pulse-wave velocity and femoral–ankle pulse-wave velocity were measured in both groups at baseline and again at the end of the 12-week study period. Compared to baseline, both pulse-wave velocities had significantly decreased after the 12-week study period in both groups (P<0.05. However, no significant difference in degree of change was observed between the two groups. Although this study did not include a sedentary control group, these results suggest that regardless of frequency, habitual cocoa intake reduces central and peripheral arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. Keywords: flavanol-enriched cocoa, pulse-wave velocity, intake frequency, endothelin 1
Megan Racey MSc
Full Text Available Background: Dairy products and alternatives can contribute to overall good health including positive body composition and decreased adiposity; however, these foods are grossly underconsumed by youth, and worldwide, almost 25% of children are overweight or obese. Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators toward dairy consumption by Grade 7 youth. Methods: Thirty 50-minute, audio-recorded focus groups were conducted with 134 students in eight Grade 7 classes across 5 elementary schools. Focus groups were led by trained facilitators in the elementary schools and participants were separated based on dairy consumption and gender. Recorded data were transcribed and thematically analyzed using qualitative analysis software to identify themes related to barriers and facilitators to dairy product intake by each gender. Results: Factors considered important by males and females across different levels of habitual intake include personal knowledge about dairy products and misconceptions regarding dairy foods and their associated health benefits; food characteristics, including taste; personal behaviors such as habits or routines including dairy products; social environments including parental and peer influence; physical environments factors such as availability and skipping meals; and the convenience of dairy products. Interestingly, only males noted sports as a positive influence for dairy product intake. Also, there were differences in the way males and females perceived dining out as affecting their dairy intake. Conclusion: Results suggest several potential factors that nutrition education interventions aiming to increase dairy consumption could target.
Racey, Megan; Bransfield, Jeanette; Capello, Kathryn; Field, David; Kulak, Verena; Machmueller, David; Preyde, Michèle; Newton, Genevieve
Background: Dairy products and alternatives can contribute to overall good health including positive body composition and decreased adiposity; however, these foods are grossly underconsumed by youth, and worldwide, almost 25% of children are overweight or obese. Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators toward dairy consumption by Grade 7 youth. Methods: Thirty 50-minute, audio-recorded focus groups were conducted with 134 students in eight Grade 7 classes across 5 elementary schools. Focus groups were led by trained facilitators in the elementary schools and participants were separated based on dairy consumption and gender. Recorded data were transcribed and thematically analyzed using qualitative analysis software to identify themes related to barriers and facilitators to dairy product intake by each gender. Results: Factors considered important by males and females across different levels of habitual intake include personal knowledge about dairy products and misconceptions regarding dairy foods and their associated health benefits; food characteristics, including taste; personal behaviors such as habits or routines including dairy products; social environments including parental and peer influence; physical environments factors such as availability and skipping meals; and the convenience of dairy products. Interestingly, only males noted sports as a positive influence for dairy product intake. Also, there were differences in the way males and females perceived dining out as affecting their dairy intake. Conclusion: Results suggest several potential factors that nutrition education interventions aiming to increase dairy consumption could target.
Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim
Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate--an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors.
Lu, Zilong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Jianhong; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhao, Wenhua; Ma, Jixiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Yan, Liuxia; Chu, Jie; Xu, Aiqiang
To describe dietary sodium intakes and resources among residents in Shandong province. A total of 2184 subjects were selected by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method from 18-69 years old people in Shandong province in June, 2011. A total of 2140 subjects completed the study, the completion rate was 98.0%. Three-day (24-hour per day) dietary recalls and weighting methods were conducted to collect information about all the foods and condiments consumed by the subjects. Individual dietary sodium intake was calculated, the differences of dietary sodium intake among subjects with different characteristics were analyzed, and the proportions of different dietary sodium resources were also analyzed. The amount of individual dietary sodium intake was 5745.0 (95%CI:5427.6-6062.5) mg/d in Shandong; 6147.4 (95%CI: 5823.8-6471.0) mg/d for male residents, 5339.3 (95%CI:5005.8-5672.8) mg/d for female residents. There was a significant difference between males and females (F = 75.22, P sodium intake was 5910.1 (95%CI:5449.3-6370.8) mg/d, 5341.6 (95%CI:5007.0-5676.1) mg/d for rural residents and urban residents respectively, and there was also a significant difference (F = 5.53, P sodium intake was 4640.3 (95%CI:4360.2-4920.4) mg/d, which was the largest contributor to sodium intake, accounting for 80.8% (95%CI:79.9%-81.6%) of total intake. Sodium intake from cereals was 650.7 (95%CI: 590.5-711.0) mg/d, accounting for 11.3% (95%CI:10.3%-12.3%) of total intake. Sodium intake from eggs was 118.9 (95%CI:95.2-142.6) mg/d, accounting for 2.1% (95%CI:1.6%-2.6%) of total intake. The amount of manufactured food sodium intake was 582.1(95%CI: 497.8-666.4) mg/d, accounting for 10.1% (95%CI:8.9%-11.4%) of total intake. Sodium intakes remain high among residents of Shandong province, and sodium from condiments was the largest source of dietary sodium intake, sodium of manufactured food only accounting for small part.
Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Baslund, Bo
BACKGROUND: The effect of sodium intake on population health remains controversial. The objective was to investigate the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease events (CVDEs) in populations exposed to dietary intakes of low sodium (<115 mmol), usual sodium (low usual so...
Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Komatsu, Taiki; Tada, Yuki; Hida, Azumi; Kawano, Yukari; Togo, Fumiharu
Rotating shift workers are associated with imbalanced dietary intakes. Rotating shift workers and dietary intakes in adults who do not engage in night work have also been shown to be associated with chronotype. However, no studies have examined associations between morningness-eveningness (i.e., the degree to which people prefer to be active in the morning or the evening), rotating shift work and dietary intakes. Therefore, our first purpose was to elucidate the association between morningness-eveningness and habitual food group intakes in rotating shift workers. The second purpose was to elucidate the association of morningness-eveningness and rotating shift work with food group intakes, considering habitual sleep durations. Japanese nurses (1095 day workers and 1464 rotating shift workers) were studied using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire covered habitual dietary intakes, morningness-eveningness and demographic characteristics of the participants. A Japanese version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) was used to measure self-rated morningness-eveningness. Dietary intakes over the previous 1 month were evaluated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Intakes of pulses, green/yellow vegetables, white vegetables, fruits, algae, eggs, confectioneries/savory snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages were significantly (p food groups, intakes of green/yellow vegetables, white vegetables, fruits and algae were significantly (p food groups were also significantly (p food groups, while rotating shift work was associated only with confectioneries/savory snacks. These results suggest that morningness-eveningness is associated with unbalanced dietary intakes in rotating shift workers as well as day workers, which may partially explain associations between rotating shift work and unfavorable dietary intakes. These findings have important implications for the development of novel strategies for preventing poor health caused
Kiely, M; Collins, A; Lucey, A J; Andersen, R; Cashman, K D; Hennessy, Á
A well-designed, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) could offer an efficient and cost-effective method for assessing habitual vitamin D intake. The present study aimed to describe the development, validation and implementation of a vitamin D FFQ. National food consumption survey data obtained from Irish adults (18-64 years) were used to identify foods that contribute 95% of vitamin D intake. A winter-based validation study was carried out for the resulting FFQ in 120 females, including 98 women [mean (SD) 65.0 (7.3) years] and 22 girls [12.2 (0.8) years], using a 14-day diet history (DH) as a comparator. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were analysed. Validity coefficients were calculated using the method of triads. Cross-classification and Bland-Altman analysis were also performed. Median (interquartile range) vitamin D intakes (including the contribution from nutritional supplements) were 5.4 (3.7) and 3.7 (5.9) μg day(-1) from the FFQ and DH, respectively and intakes of vitamin D from food sources were 3.6 (3.1) and 2.4 (2.2) μg day(-1) . The FFQ and DH classified 86% and 87% of individuals into the same and adjacent thirds of wintertime serum 25(OH)D status, respectively. There was a strong association (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001) and no significant systematic or proportional bias observed for the difference between estimates from the FFQ and DH. The validity coefficient for the FFQ was 0.92 (95% confidence interval = 0.80-0.97). Repeatability analysis (n = 56) performed 6-12 months later showed no significant difference in estimates of vitamin D between administrations. The data obtained in the present study indicate high validity and good reproducibility of a short, interviewer-administered FFQ for vitamin D. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
To determine the body composition, habitual and game-specific nutritional practices of FNB Maties Varsity Cup (MVC) rugby ... After soccer, rugby is the most popular South .... supplements was quantified and added to the total habitual dietary.
Endah Damastuti; Muhayatun Santoso; Natalia Adventini; Katherina Oginawati
Sodium is essential micro nutrient which is needed by human body such as in regulating body fluids balance, maintaining the normal pH of blood, transmitting nerve signal, and helping cells in metabolism of other essential nutrients. The changes of modern life style at the moment, had lead people tend to consume fast foods and processed foods which have high sodium content that apprehensively increasing prevalence of hypertension. In this research, the determination of sodium intake of elementary school children in Bandung and the contribution of street foods to sodium intake was conducted. Food sampling was done by duplicate diet method of 19 elementary school children and 24 kinds of street foods often consumed by children in Bandung. The samples were analysed using neutron activation analysis technique. The results showed that sodium intake of elementary school children was ranging from 228 to 7019 mg/day with approximately 47 % of children have sodium intake above the upper intake level, 2200 mg/day. While the estimation of sodium intake from street foods, assuming that 1 portion of street food consumed in 1 day, was ranging from 53 to 3750 mg/day with average sodium intake contribution was about 65 % of adequate intake value. It could be generally concluded that present dietary pattern of children tends to over consumed of sodium and this matter could apprehensively impact to the increasing of future prevalence of hypertension as well as hypertension probability at age < 20 years old. From this research, it was expected to encourage all societies in giving more attention at dietary pattern and nutrient intake of their children for better quality human resources in the future. (author)
Martin, Matoulek; Krystof, Slaby; Jiri, Radvansky; Martina, Dankova; Renata, Vetrovska; Ondrej, Mikes; Stepan, Svacina; Vladimir, Tuka
The 20th and 21st centuries are marked by an increase in life expectancy on one hand and on the other hand by the increase of so called civilization diseases. Their share one common trait: the energy metabolism imbalance, with low energy expenditure and high energy uptake. Our age can be viewed as the age of inactivity and wealth. The aim of the present review is to highlight the influence of habitual physical activity on energy metabolism and balance. Energy balance is the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure, where energy expenditure further divides into resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of feeding and energy used by physical activity. In general population, resting metabolic rate remains constant and proportional to muscle body mass. Muscle mass increases with exercise, especially resistance exercise, concomitantly with increasing energy expenditure. The effect of exercise on appetite is very strong, proportional to exercise intensity. An acute bout of aerobic exercise suppresses appetite by decreasing ghrelin plasma levels, and increasing gut hormones. Different subgroups of patients respond differently to the same exercise or habitual activity and have thus distinct effects on energy balance. Different myokines plasma levels after exercise could explain these different reactions although most of their effect is still unclear. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of many disorders, like obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, psychiatric and neurologic disorders. It is evident, that physical activity has an effect not only on energy balance but also has a direct effect on other body organ via its own molecules - myokines. The pharmacological effect of myokines gives hope that one day we could have a "myokine drug" that could be used in patients who are unable to exercise. Until then we should use our "muscle-pharmacy" and try to convince
Whelton, Paul K
National and international agencies recommend a reduction in dietary sodium intake. However, some have questioned the wisdom of these policies. The goal of this report was to assess the findings and quality of studies that have examined the relationship between dietary sodium and both blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Literature review of the available observational studies and randomized controlled trials, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A large body of evidence from observational studies and clinical trials documents a direct relationship between dietary sodium intake and the level of blood pressure, especially in persons with a higher level of blood pressure, African-Americans, and those who are older or have comorbidity, including chronic kidney disease. A majority of the available observational reports support the presence of a direct relationship between dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular disease but the quality of the evidence according to most studies is poor. The limited information available from clinical trials is consistent with a beneficial effect of reduced sodium intake on incidence of cardiovascular disease. The scientific underpinning for policies to reduce the usual intake of dietary sodium is strong. In the United States and many other countries, addition of sodium during food processing has led to a very high average intake of dietary sodium, with almost everyone exceeding the recommended goals. National programs utilizing voluntary and mandatory approaches have resulted in a successful reduction in sodium intake. Even a small reduction in sodium consumption is likely to yield sizable improvement in population health. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.; Raaij, J.M.A. van
Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically
Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.
Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400¿mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically
Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Østerdal, M L; Salvig, J D
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed...... at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...
Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean
Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775
Urry, Emily; Jetter, Alexander; Holst, Sebastian C; Berger, Wolfgang; Spinas, Giatgen A; Langhans, Wolfgang; Landolt, Hans-Peter
The purpose of this study was to examine the possible links between type 2 diabetes, daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and caffeine consumption. In this case-control field study, comparing type 2 diabetic ( n=134) and non-type 2 diabetic ( n=230) participants, subjects completed detailed and validated questionnaires to assess demographic status, health, daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and timing, diurnal preference, mistimed circadian rhythms and habitual caffeine intake. All participants gave saliva under standardised conditions for CYP1A2 genotyping and quantification of caffeine concentration. Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined whether type 2 diabetes status was associated with caffeine consumption. Type 2 diabetic participants reported greater daytime sleepiness ( p=0.001), a higher prevalence of sleep apnoea ( p=0.005) and napping ( p=0.008), and greater habitual caffeine intake ( pcaffeine concentration at bedtime ( p=0.01). Multiple regression analyses revealed that type 2 diabetes status was associated with higher self-reported caffeine consumption ( pcaffeine ( pcaffeine intake. Subjective sleep and circadian estimates were similar between case and control groups. Type 2 diabetic patients may self-medicate with caffeine to alleviate daytime sleepiness. High caffeine intake reflects a lifestyle factor that may be considered when promoting type 2 diabetes management.
Background A previous study reported the development a 75-item food frequency questionnaire for Japanese children (CFFQ). The first aim was to examine the reproducibility and validity of the CFFQ in order to assess dietary intake among two groups; 3-11 year old children (YC group) and 12-16 year old children (AD group). The second aim was to use the CFFQ and the FFQ for adults (AFFQ), and to determine which was better suited for assessing the intake of children in each group. Methods A total of the 103 children participated in this study. The interval between the first CFFQ and AFFQ and the second CFFQ and AFFQ was one month. Four weighted dietary records (WDRs) were conducted once a week. Pearson's correlation coefficients between the first and second FFQs were calculated to test the reproducibility of each FFQ. Pearson's correlation coefficients between WDRs and the second FFQ were calculated for the unadjusted value and sex-, age-, and energy-adjusted values to determine the validity of each FFQ. Results The final number of subjects participating in the analysis was 89. The median correlation coefficients between the first and second CFFQs and AFFQs were 0.76 and 0.73, respectively. There was some over/underestimation of nutrients in the CFFQ of the YC group and in the AFFQ of the AD group. The medians of the sex-, age-, and energy-adjusted correlation coefficients were not different between the YC and AD groups for each FFQ. The correlation coefficient in sex-, age-, and energy-adjusted value revealed that the largest number of subject with high (0.50 or more) value was obtained by the CFFQ in the YC group. Conclusions This study indicated that the CFFQ might be a useful tool for assessing habitual dietary intake of children in the YC group. Although the CFFQ agreed moderately with habitual intake, it was found to underestimate intake in theAD group. However, for the AFFQ, the ability to rank habitual intake was low. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new
Full Text Available Purpose. Systematic reviews of case-control and prospective studies showed a positive association between habitual salt intake and gastric cancer. Given new studies published thereafter, we carried out a meta-analysis to assess the association between dietary salt intake and gastric cancer. Methods. Case-control studies and cohort studies published between January 1992 and January 2012 on PubMed and Embase were searched. We quantified associations between salt intake and gastric cancer with meta-analysis. Results. Eleven studies (7 case controls and 4 cohorts finally were included in the meta-analysis (total population: n=2076498; events: n=12039. The combined odds ratio showed significantly positive association between high salt intake and gastric cancer compared with low salt intake (OR = 2.05, 95% CI [1.60, 2.62]; P<0.00001. In subgroup meta-analysis, findings were slightly different when analyses were restricted to salty food intake (OR = 2.41, 95% CI [2.08, 2.78]; P<0.00001 as well as in Asia (OR = 1.27 95% CI [1.22, 1.32]; P<0.00001. There was no evidence that sample size, exposure assessment substantially influenced the estimate of effects. Conclusions. The systemic review supports the hypothesis that dietary salt intake is positively associated with the risk of gastric cancer.
Dashti, Hassan S; Follis, Jack L; Smith, Caren E
examined associations between habitual sleep duration, body mass index (BMI), and macronutrient intake and assessed whether CLOCK variants modify these associations. DESIGN: We conducted inverse-variance weighted, fixed-effect meta-analyses of results of adjusted associations of sleep duration and BMI...... and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy as well as interactions with CLOCK variants from 9 cohort studies including up to 14,906 participants of European descent from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. RESULTS: We observed a significant association between...... sleep duration and lower BMI (β ± SE = 0.16 ± 0.04, P macronutrient intake were evident in age- and sex-stratified analyses only. We observed a significant association between sleep duration and lower saturated...
Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Haditsch, B.; Pilz, K.; Rössler, A.; Laszlo, Z.
The study investigated, in 10 normotensive male persons, heart rate responses to graded lower body suction (LBNP) with adaptation to various oral sodium clamping during both ambulatory (AMB) conditions for 4 days, and thereafter to additional antiorthostatic (6° head down) positioning. A ,low' (LS: 143+/-10 mM Na +/ d excreted) and a ,high' (HS: 434+/-17 mM Na +/d excreted) sodium treatment - in randomized order and separated =1 mo - followed a ,conditioning' run with moderate sodium (237+/-9 mM Na +/d excreted). Urinary volume and sodium output were monitored, hormone levels (PRA, aldosterone, AVP) determined, and extracellular volume (ECV) estimated by whole body electrical impedance spectroscopy. ECV was not differently reduced (p>0.1) in LS (-5.8+/-2.3%, p=0.018) and HS (-4.0+/-1.0%. p=0.002). Morning AVP was lower (5.5+/-0.1 pg/ml) in HS than in LS (7.2+/-0.3 pg/ml; N=7 days), as well as aldosterone (69+/-7 pg/ml in HS vs. 180+/-24 pg/ml in LS). LBNP dose responses of PRA and aldosterone were higher in LS than HS after 8 days AOB, whereas microvascular fluid filtration was unchanged by any experimental condition. Heart rate responses to LBNP were unchanged by sodium supply, whereas mean arterial and pulse pressure was lower in LS than HS during all LBNP intensities. Thus, HS was able to increase arterial blood and pulse pressure and reduced PRA and aldosterone levels during graded simulated orthostatic challenge, but did neither ameliorate AOB-induced ECV decrease nor alter LBNP-induced filtration and heart rate responses. These results are relevant for planning of future countermeasures in astronauts. Supported by the Austrian Research Fund (P13451-MED)
Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake). The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7%) and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%). Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.
Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Dearborn, Peter; Robbins, Michael
Compounds in cocoa and chocolate have established cardiovascular benefits, including beneficial effects on insulin resistance, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aims of this study was to investigate relations between habitual chocolate intakes and diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional and prospective analyses were undertaken on 953 community-dwelling participants (mean age 62 years, 59% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to prevalence of diabetes mellitus (cross-sectionally) and with risk of diabetes measured approximately five years later (prospectively). We also examined the relation between diabetes (the predictor) and chocolate consumption (the outcome) up to 30 years later. Chocolate intake was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes. Compared to participants who consumed chocolate more than once per week, those who never or rarely ate chocolate exhibited a significantly higher odds of having type 2 diabetes 5 years later (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.55, p = 0.04), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors including other polyphenol-rich beverages. However, individuals diagnosed with diabetes prior to the nutritional assessment consumed lower amounts of chocolate at the time of the dietary assessment. Our findings suggest that relations between chocolate and type 2 diabetes may be bi-directional. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fulgoni, Victor L; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla
Because excessive dietary sodium intake is a major contributor to hypertension, a reduction in dietary sodium has been recommended for the US population. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake in US population ethnic subgroups and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were analyzed using The National Cancer Institute method to estimate usual intake in population subgroups. Potential impact of SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology on sodium intake was modeled using suggested sodium reductions of 20-30% in 953 foods and assuming various market penetrations. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across age, gender and ethnic groups. Current sodium intake across all population subgroups exceeds the Dietary Guidelines 2010 recommendations and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake has decreased significantly during the last decade for all ethnicities. "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish, & Mixtures" contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake. Sodium reduction, using SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology (with 100% market penetration) was estimated to be 185-323 mg/day or 6.3-8.4% of intake depending upon age, gender and ethnic group. Current sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups exceeds the recommendations and sodium reduction technologies could potentially help reduce dietary sodium intake among those groups.
Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A
Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.
Äijälä, M; Malo, E; Santaniemi, M; Bloigu, R; Silaste, M-L; Kesäniemi, Y A; Ukkola, O
The association of dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as the reduction of sodium intake in the prevention of CVD, has been under debate. To study whether sodium consumption has a role as a risk factor for fatal and non-fatal CVD. A well-defined population-based cohort of 1045 subjects collected between 1991 and 1993 (mean age 51.4 years) was used with approximately 19 years' follow-up. At the baseline, 716 subjects filled in a 1-week food follow-up diary, which was used to calculate the daily sodium intake (mg/1000 kcal). The baseline sodium intake correlated significantly with age (rs=0.117, P=0.002), BMI (rs=0.216, P=0.000), waist circumference (rs=0.268, P=0.000), smoking (rs=0.144, P=0.000), alcohol consumption (rs=0.111, P=0.003), systolic blood pressure (rs=0.106, P=0.005) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (rs=0.081, P=0.033). Those who had cardiovascular events in the follow-up consumed more sodium at the baseline (mean 2010.4 mg/1000 kcal/day, s.d. 435.2, n=101) compared with the subjects without events (mean 1849.9 mg/1000 kcal/day, s.d. 361.2, n=589; t-test; P=0.001). The incidence of cardiovascular events was greater in the highest quartile (22.1%) than in the lower quartiles (first 11.0%, second 9.9% and third 15.6%; X(2); P=0.005). Cox regression analysis showed that sodium intake as a continuous variable predicts CVD events (P=0.031) independently when age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and waist circumference were added as covariates. This predictive role is seen especially in the group of subjects on hypertensive medication (P=0.001). Dietary sodium intake is a significant independent predictor of cardiovascular events in the study population.
Full Text Available Phosphorus intake in Europe is far above recommendations. We present baseline data from three human intervention studies between 2006 and 2014 regarding intake and excretion of phosphorus and calcium. All subjects documented their nutritional habits in weighed dietary records. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and feces and urine were quantitatively collected. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated based on weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretions. Food sources were identified by allocation to defined food product groups. Average phosphorus consumption was 1338 mg/day and did not change from 2006 to 2014, while calcium intake decreased during this period (1150 to 895 mg/day. The main sources for phosphorus intake were bread/cereal products, milk/milk products and meat/meat products/sausage products and the main sources of calcium intake included milk/milk products/cheese, bread/cereal products and beverages. There was no difference between estimated phosphorus intake from the weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretion. In conclusion, we demonstrated constant phosphorus intakes far above the recommendations and decreasing calcium intakes below the recommendations in three German collectives from 2006 to 2014. Furthermore, we could show in case of usual intakes that an estimated phosphorus intake from urine phosphorus excretion is similar to the calculated intake from weighed dietary records.
Agarwal, Sanjiv; Fulgoni, Victor L; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla
Limiting dietary sodium intake has been a consistent dietary recommendation. Using NHANES 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were used to assess current sodium intake. The National Cancer Institute method was used for usual intake determination. Suggested sodium reductions using SODA-LO (®) Salt Microspheres ranged from 20% to 30% in 953 foods and usual intakes were modeled by using various reduction factors and levels of market penetration. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across gender and age groups. Current (2007-2010) sodium intake (mg/day) exceeds recommendations across all age gender groups and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake (mg/g food) has decreased significantly during the last decade. Two food categories contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake: "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish & Mixtures". Sodium reduction, with 100% market penetration of the new technology, was estimated to be 230-300 mg/day or 7-9% of intake depending upon age and gender group. Sodium reduction innovations like SODA-LO (®) Salt Microspheres could contribute to meaningful reductions in sodium intake.
Hedrick, Valisa E.; Savla, Jyoti; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Nsiah-Kumi, Phyllis A.; Ortmeier, Stacie; Davy, Brenda M.
Introduction Energy-containing beverages, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), may contribute to weight gain and obesity development. Yet, no rapid assessment tools are available which quantify habitual beverage intake (grams, energy) in adults. Objective Determine the factorial validity of a newly developed beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ) and identify potential to reduce items. Methods Participants from varying economic and educational backgrounds (n=1,596; age 43±12 yrs; BMI 31.5±0.2 kg/m2) completed a 19-item BEVQ (BEVQ-19). Beverages that contributed beverage, or SSB, energy and grams were identified for potential removal. Factor analyses identified beverage categories that could potentially be combined. Regression analyses compared BEVQ-19 outcomes with the reduced version’s (BEVQ-15) variables. Inter-item reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s Alpha. Following BEVQ-15 development, a subsequent study (n=70; age 37±2 yrs; BMI 24.5±0.4 kg/m2) evaluated the relative validity of the BEVQ-15 through comparison of three 24-hour dietary recalls’ (FIR) beverage intake. Results Three beverage items were identified for elimination (vegetable juice, meal replacement drinks, mixed alcoholic drinks); beer and light beer were combined into one category. Regression models using BEVQ-15 variables explained 91–99% of variance in the four major outcomes of the BEVQ-19 (all Pbeverage energy (R2=0.59) were more highly correlated with FIR than previously reported for the BEVQ-19. The BEVQ-15 produced a lower readability score of 4.8, which is appropriate for individuals with a fourth grade education or greater. Conclusion The BEVQ-19 can be reduced to a 15-item questionnaire. This brief dietary assessment tool will enable researchers and practitioners to rapidly (administration time of ~2 min) assess habitual beverage intake, and to determine possible associations of beverage consumption with health-related outcomes, such as weight status. PMID
Mikami, Akihiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Hirosuke; Kato, Iwao; Watanabe, Eiiti [Watanabe Hospital, Hakodate, Hokkaido (Japan)
CT findings of the head in 120 chronic alcoholics aged 30 to 69 yrs. were compared with those of 93 controls matched in age. The patient group showed a definitely higher incidence of dilatation of the brain surface and the ventricular system. The dilatation in the patients had no preferred site, both the brain surface and ventricular system being affected in most cases. In the patients no constant relation was noted between CT findings and the presence or absence of withdrawal symptoms, intellectual impairement, hepatic dysfunction or malnutrition. CT abnormality was not always reflected on EEG in the patients. The reversibility of abnormal CT could not be confirmed. CT findings of habitual drinkers (35 subjects in their 50s) living with no social or familial trouble were compared with those of non-drinkers (35 subjects in the same generation). The incidence of dilatation of various regions and the frequency of such cases in the habitual drinkers were definitely higher than those of the non-drinkers.
Shirazki, Adi; Weintraub, Zalman; Reich, Dan; Gershon, Edith; Leshem, Micah
Forty-one children aged 10.5 +/- 0.2 years (range, 8.0-15.0 yr), born with low birth weight of 1,218.2 +/- 36.6 g (range, 765-1,580 g) were selected from hospital archives on the basis of whether they had received neonatal diuretic treatment or as healthy matched controls. The children were tested for salt appetite and sweet preference, including rating of preferred concentration of salt in tomato soup (and sugar in tea), ratings of oral spray (NaCl and sucrose solutions), intake of salt or sweet snack items, and a food-seasoning, liking, and dietary questionnaire. Results showed that sodium appetite was not related to neonatal diuretic treatment, birth weight, or gestational age. However, there was a robust inverse correlation (r = -0.445, P clear that perinatal sodium loss, from a variety of causes, is a consistent and significant contributor to long-term sodium intake.
Iizaka, S; Nagata, S; Sanada, H
Prevention of frail skin is important in older people because frail skin is associated with a risk of injury in this population. In this study, we investigated the association of nutritional status and habitual dietary intake with skin conditions in community-dwelling older people. Cross-sectional study. Three community settings in Japan from autumn to winter. Older people aged ≥65 years without care-need certification (n=118). Malnutrition and obesity were evaluated to assess the nutritional status. Nutrient and food group intakes per 1000 kcal were evaluated using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns based on food groups were evaluated by principal component analysis. Skin condition parameters, including stratum corneum hydration, appearance of xerosis (specific symptom sum score [SRRC score]), and dermal intensity by high-frequency ultrasonography, were measured on a lower leg. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with adjustment for confounders. The mean (standard deviation) age was 74.1 (4.8) years, and 83.1% of participants were female. A higher intake of plant fat (p=0.018) was associated with a lower SRRC score. Higher intakes of α-tocopherol (p=0.050) and vitamin C (p=0.017) were associated with increased dermal intensity. A body mass index ≥25 (p=0.016) was associated with decreased dermal intensity. A dietary pattern characterized by higher vegetable and fruit intake was associated with a better skin condition. Plant fat, antioxidant vitamins, and a dietary pattern characterized by vegetables and fruits showed positive and obesity showed negative associations for frail skin in community-dwelling older people.
Dougher, Carly E; Rifkin, Dena E; Anderson, Cheryl AM; Smits, Gerard; Persky, Martha S; Block, Geoffrey A; Ix, Joachim H
Background: Sodium intake influences blood pressure and proteinuria, yet the impact on long-term outcomes is uncertain in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Accurate assessment is essential for clinical and public policy recommendations, but few large-scale studies use 24-h urine collections. Recent studies that used spot urine sodium and associated estimating equations suggest that they may provide a suitable alternative, but their accuracy in patients with CKD is unknown. Objective: We compared the accuracy of 4 equations [the Nerbass, INTERSALT (International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure), Tanaka, and Kawasaki equations] that use spot urine sodium to estimate 24-h sodium excretion in patients with moderate to advanced CKD. Design: We evaluated the accuracy of spot urine sodium to predict mean 24-h urine sodium excretion over 9 mo in 129 participants with stage 3–4 CKD. Spot morning urine sodium was used in 4 estimating equations. Bias, precision, and accuracy were assessed and compared across each equation. Results: The mean age of the participants was 67 y, 52% were female, and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 31 ± 9 mL · min–1 · 1.73 m–2. The mean ± SD number of 24-h urine collections was 3.5 ± 0.8/participant, and the mean 24-h sodium excretion was 168.2 ± 67.5 mmol/d. Although the Tanaka equation demonstrated the least bias (mean: −8.2 mmol/d), all 4 equations had poor precision and accuracy. The INTERSALT equation demonstrated the highest accuracy but derived an estimate only within 30% of mean measured sodium excretion in only 57% of observations. Bland-Altman plots revealed systematic bias with the Nerbass, INTERSALT, and Tanaka equations, underestimating sodium excretion when intake was high. Conclusion: These findings do not support the use of spot urine specimens to estimate dietary sodium intake in patients with CKD and research studies enriched with patients with CKD. The parent data for this
High sodium consumption can increase hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Reducing sodium intake can reduce blood pressure, and population-wide reductions of 40% over 10 years are projected to save at least 280,000 lives. Average U.S. sodium intake remains in excess of He...
Dunford, Elizabeth K; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M
The US population consumes dietary sodium well in excess of recommended levels. It is unknown how the contribution of snack foods to sodium intake has changed over time, and whether disparities exist within specific subgroups of the US population. To examine short and long term trends in the contribution of snack food sources to dietary sodium intake for US adults and children over a 37-year period from 1977 to 2014. We used data collected from eight nationally representative surveys of food intake in 50,052 US children aged 2-18 years, and 73,179 adults aged 19+ years between 1977 and 2014. Overall, patterns of snack food consumption, trends in sodium intake from snack food sources and trends in food and beverage sources of sodium from snack foods across race-ethnic, age, gender, body mass index, household education and income groups were examined. In all socio-demographic subgroups there was a significant increase in both per capita sodium intake, and the proportion of sodium intake derived from snacks from 1977-1978 to 2011-2014 ( p sodium intake from snacks. While in 1977-1978 Non-Hispanic Blacks had a lower sodium intake from snacks compared to Non-Hispanic Whites ( p sodium intake from snack sources in Non-Hispanic Blacks. Our findings have implications for future policy interventions targeting specific US population subgroups.
Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Møller, Grith
Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the daily dietary phosphorus intake compared with recommendations in CKD patients and to evaluate the reproducibility of the 2...... to estimate the individual phosphorus excretion.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.247....
The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium.
Full Text Available Evidence suggests individuals less sensitive to fat taste (high fat taste thresholds (FTT may be overweight or obese and consume greater amounts of dietary fat than more sensitive individuals. The aims of this study were to assess associations between FTT, anthropometric measurements, fat intake, and liking of fatty foods. FTT was assessed in 69 Australian females (mean age 41.3 (15.6 (SD years and mean body mass index 26.3 (5.7 kg/m2 by a 3-alternate forced choice methodology and transformed to an ordinal scale (FT rank. Food liking was assessed by hedonic ratings of high-fat and reduced-fat foods, and a 24-h food recall and food frequency questionnaire was completed. Linear mixed regression models were fitted. FT rank was associated with dietary % energy from fat ( β ^ = 0.110 [95% CI: 0.003, 0.216], % energy from carbohydrate ( β ^ = −0.112 [−0.188, −0.035], and frequency of consumption of foods per day from food groups: high-fat dairy ( β ^ = 1.091 [0.106, 2.242], meat & meat alternatives ( β ^ = 0.669 [0.168, 1.170], and grain & cereals ( β ^ = 0.771 [0.212, 1.329] (adjusted for energy and age. There were no associations between FT rank and anthropometric measurements or hedonic ratings. Therefore, fat taste sensitivity appears to be associated with short-term fat intake, but not body size in this group of females.
Dong, Zefeng; Gao, Zhifeng; McFadden, Brandon
To examine how the food consumption from various food groups would impact American adults' sodium intake and whether this impact structurally changes over time, data were obtained from six-cycle National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010. Foods were categorized by the first two digits of the USDA food code. Regression models were employed to investigate the associations between the consumption of each food group and sodium intake, and whether there were changes in the associations in consecutive six cycles. Results show that the calorie consumption of oils, beverages and water, fruit juices, fruits, lamb, fruit products, and sugars and sweets had no significant impact on individuals' sodium intake, while calorie consumption of tomatoes, fish, dark-green vegetables, and crackers contributes the most to sodium intake. The contribution to sodium intake of most food groups does not change significantly over time, with the exception of salad dressing whose contribution to sodium intake increased in four consecutive years when compared to that of 1999-2000. The sodium amount contributed by one calorie consumption (sodium density) of most food was above the daily recommendation level, 1.2 mg per calorie per day. Lowering individuals' sodium intake involves either guiding individuals to consume more fruit related products or decreasing the amount of sodium in most food groups at the production or food preparation stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shim, Eugene; Ryu, Ha-Jung; Hwang, Jinah; Kim, Soo Yeon; Chung, Eun-Jung
Dietary sodium intake is considered one of the major causal factors for hypertension. Thus, to control the increase of blood pressure and reduce the risk of hypertension-related clinical complications, a reduction in sodium intake is recommended. The present study aimed at determining the association of dietary sodium intake with meal and snack frequency, snacking time, and taste preference in Korean young adults aged 20-26 years, using a 125-item dish-frequency questionnaire. The mean dietary sodium intakes of men and women were 270.6 mmol/day and 213.1 mmol/day, which were approximately 310% and 245% of the daily sodium intake goal for Korean men and women, respectively. Dietary sodium intake was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure in the total group, and BMI in the total and men-only groups. In the total and men-only groups, those who consumed meals more times per day consumed more dietary sodium, but the number of times they consumed snacks was negatively correlated with dietary sodium intake in the total, men-only, and women-only groups. In addition, those who consumed snacks in the evening consumed more sodium than those who did so in the morning in the men-only group. The sodium intake was also positively associated with preference for salty and sweet taste in the total and women-only groups. Such a high intake of sodium in these young subjects shows that a reduction in sodium intake is important for the prevention of hypertension and related diseases in the future.
Tatano, Hiroshi; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Zhou, Bei; Adachi, Chisaki; Kawakami, Yuka; Katayama, Takafumi; Masuda, Masashi; Takeda, Eiji; Taketani, Yutaka
Reducing dietary calorie density (CD) is useful in body weight management. This study investigates the association between dietary habits and preferences for different CDs. We conducted a randomized crossover study of 232 healthy subjects who consumed packed lunch boxes containing a control, high-meat and low-rice, low-vegetable, medium-fat and low-vegetable, high-fat, and high-fat and low-vegetable meals over six sessions. The subjective levels of sensory properties were assessed over time using a visual analog scale and the area under the curve. Subjects were assessed for dietary habits using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) and were divided into two groups based on a daily fat energy ratio ≥ 25% (high fat [HF], n=116) and kcal low-CD meals, a high-protein meal provided greater fullness and satisfaction and lower prospective consumption in the HF group than in the normal group. Therefore, our study demonstrates that postprandial appetite sensation is associated with dietary habits of fat intake. J. Med. Invest. 63: 241-247, August, 2016.
Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyong Joo; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Baik, Soon Koo
Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P sodium values. High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.
Rabić, Dora; Sindik, Joško; Missoni, Saša
Food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) are designed to assess habitual diet by asking about the frequency with which food items or specific food groups are consumed over a reference period. In this study, we have developed a FFQ to assess habitual dietary intake of healthy adults to estimate the quality of their nutrition and conducted a study to validate the developed FFQ against a three-day 24-hour recall. Second aim of the study is to establish the correlation between the FFQ to assess habitual dietary intake and a three-day 24-hour recall, in relation with participants' age and education level. FFQ used in our study was adapted from the Harvard Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire, consisted of 101 food items, divided into 9 groups. The 24-hour recalls were collected during one week (the same week when the FFQ was completed) and on each different day of the week (two weekdays and one weekend day). Both the FFQ and three day 24-hour recall were distributed to 100 healthy, employed subjects, 32 males (aged 39.73 +/- 14.02) and 36 females (aged 34.20 +/- 10.63). The results indicated that the developed FFQ is valid instrument to assess the habitual intake of energy and most of the nutrients in healthy adults in the Republic of Croatia, while men tended to have higher correlation coefficients than women and therefore a higher correlation of the FFQ with the three 24-hour recalls. Statistically significant correlations are not found between energy and nutrient intake based on the education level of the participants.
Damgaard, M.; Gabrielsenm A.; Heer, M.
and controlled laboratory conditions at the end of two consecutive 5-day periods with sodium intakes of 70 (low) and 250 (high) mmol/24 h or vice versa, respectively. Comparing high and low sodium intake, plasma volume and plasma protein concentrations were 9 and 8% higher in the seated and the supine position...
Nowak, Kristen L; Fried, Linda; Jovanovich, Anna; Ix, Joachim; Yaffe, Kristine; You, Zhiying; Chonchol, Michel
Dietary sodium may influence cognitive function through its effects on cerebrovascular function and cerebral blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary sodium intake with cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. We also evaluated the associations of dietary potassium and sodium:potassium intake with cognitive decline, and associations of these nutrients with micro- and macro-structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices. In all, 1,194 participants in the Health Aging and Body Composition study with measurements of dietary sodium intake (food frequency questionnaire [FFQ]) and change in the modified Mini Mental State Exam (3MS) were included. The age of participants was 74 ± 3 years with a mean dietary sodium intake of 2,677 ± 1,060 mg/day. During follow-up (6.9 ± 0.1 years), 340 (28%) had a clinically significant decline in 3MS score (≥1.5 SD of mean decline). After adjustment, dietary sodium intake was not associated with odds of cognitive decline (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.50-1.84 per doubling of sodium). Similarly, potassium was not associated with cognitive decline; however, higher sodium:potassium intake was associated with increased odds of cognitive decline (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.01-4.03] per unit increase). Neither sodium or potassium alone nor sodium:potassium were associated with micro- or macro-structural brain MRI indices. These results are limited by the use of FFQ. In community-dwelling older adults, higher sodium:potassium, but not sodium or potassium intake alone, was associated with decline in cognitive function, with no associations observed with micro- and macro-structural brain MRI indices. These findings do not support reduction dietary sodium/increased potassium intake to prevent cognitive decline with aging. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Rostami, Hosein; Samadi, Mohammad; Yuzbashian, Emad; Zarkesh, Maryam; Asghari, Golaleh; Hedayati, Mehdi; Daneshafrooz, Afsoon; Mirmiran, Parvin; Khalaj, Alireza
The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues with habitual fatty acid intake and its subtypes in adults. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were gathered from 97 participants aged ≥ 20, who had undergone elective abdominal surgery. Dietary fatty acid intakes including total fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues was measured by Real-Time PCR. After controlling for body mass index (BMI) and insulin, energy-adjusted dietary intake of SFA was positively and MUFA and n-3 fatty acids were negatively associated with subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues leptin gene expression. Besides, a significant negative association of PUFA, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids with leptin mRNA from visceral adipose tissue were observed. In order to better interpretations of the results, the participants were allocated two groups including non-obese (BMI fatty acids had a negative association with visceral leptin gene expression. Habitual intake of SFA, MUFA, and n-3 fatty acids were associated with leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, suggesting an important role of quality and quantity of fatty acids intake in adipose tissue to regulate leptin expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.
Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843
Gorissen, Stefan Hm; Horstman, Astrid Mh; Franssen, Rinske; Kouw, Imre Wk; Wall, Benjamin T; Burd, Nicholas A; de Groot, Lisette Cpgm; van Loon, Luc Jc
Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis rates and the ability to increase muscle protein synthesis after protein ingestion. To our knowledge, no previous studies have evaluated the impact of habituation to either low protein intake (LOW PRO) or high protein intake (HIGH PRO) on the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response. We assessed the impact of LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO on basal and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after the ingestion of 25 g whey protein. Twenty-four healthy, older men [age: 62 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25.9 ± 0.4 (mean ± SEM)] participated in a parallel-group randomized trial in which they adapted to either a LOW PRO diet (0.7 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; n = 12) or a HIGH PRO diet (1.5 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; n = 12) for 14 d. On day 15, participants received primed continuous l-[ring- 2 H 5 ]-phenylalanine and l-[1- 13 C]-leucine infusions and ingested 25 g intrinsically l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine- and l-[1- 13 C]-leucine-labeled whey protein. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were collected to assess muscle protein synthesis rates as well as dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics. Plasma leucine concentrations and exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased after protein ingestion (P 0.05). Plasma exogenous phenylalanine availability over the 5-h postprandial period was greater after LOW PRO than after HIGH PRO (61% ± 1% compared with 56% ± 2%, respectively; P protein synthesis rates increased from 0.031% ± 0.004% compared with 0.039% ± 0.007%/h in the fasted state to 0.062% ± 0.005% compared with 0.057% ± 0.005%/h in the postprandial state after LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO, respectively (P protein-derived amino acids in the circulation and does not lower basal muscle protein synthesis rates or increase postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after ingestion of 25 g protein in older men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT
Larsson, S.C.; Virtanen, M.J.; Mars, M.; Mannisto, S.; Pietinen, P.; Albanes, D.; Virtamo, J.
Background A high intake of magnesium, calcium, and potassium and a low intake of sodium have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of stroke. However, prospective data relating intake of these minerals to risk of stroke are inconsistent. Methods We examined the relationship of dietary magnesium,
Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Gunn, Janelle P; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah; Galuska, Deborah A; Barrett, Jan; Hirschman, Jay; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Rhodes, Donna; Ahuja, Jaspreet; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert; Bowman, Barbara A
A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed per calorie, and proportions of sodium from food categories, place obtained, and eating occasion were estimated among 2,266 school-aged (6–18 years) participants in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010. U.S. school-aged children consumed an estimated 3,279 mg of sodium daily with the highest total intake (3,672 mg/d) and intake per 1,000 kcal (1,681 mg) among high school–aged children. Forty-three percent of sodium came from 10 food categories: pizza, bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, savory snacks, sandwiches, cheese, chicken patties/nuggets/tenders, pasta mixed dishes, Mexican mixed dishes, and soups. Sixty-five percent of sodium intake came from store foods, 13% from fast food/pizza restaurants, 5% from other restaurants, and 9% from school cafeteria foods. Among children aged 14–18 years, 16% of total sodium intake came from fast food/pizza restaurants versus 11% among those aged 6–10 years or 11–13 years (plunch (29%), snacks (16%), and breakfast (15%). Sodium intake among school-aged children is much higher than recommended. Multiple food categories, venues, meals, and snacks contribute to sodium intake among school-aged children supporting the importance of populationwide strategies to reduce sodium intake. New national nutrition standards are projected to reduce the sodium content of school meals by approximately 25%–50% by 2022. Based on this analysis, if there is no replacement from other sources, sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children will be reduced by an average of about 75–150 mg per day and about 220–440 mg on days children consume school meals.
McLean, Rachael M; Farmer, Victoria L; Nettleton, Alice; Cameron, Claire M; Cook, Nancy R; Campbell, Norman R C
Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are often used to assess dietary sodium intake, although 24-hour urinary excretion is the most accurate measure of intake. The authors conducted a systematic review to investigate whether FFQs are a reliable and valid way of measuring usual dietary sodium intake. Results from 18 studies are described in this review, including 16 validation studies. The methods of study design and analysis varied widely with respect to FFQ instrument, number of 24-hour urine collections collected per participant, methods used to assess completeness of urine collections, and statistical analysis. Overall, there was poor agreement between estimates from FFQ and 24-hour urine. The authors suggest a framework for validation and reporting based on a consensus statement (2004), and recommend that all FFQs used to estimate dietary sodium intake undergo validation against multiple 24-hour urine collections. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Padilha, Bruna Merten; Ferreira, Raphaela Costa; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Holanda, Lidiana de Souza; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; Cabral, Poliana Coelho
Restricted sodium intake has been recommended for more than 1 century for the treatment of hypertension. However, restriction seems to increase blood cholesterol. In women with excess weight, blood cholesterol may increase even more because of insulin resistance and the high lipolytic activity of adipose tissue.The aim of this study was to assess the association between blood cholesterol and sodium intake in hypertensive women with and without excess weight.This was a cross-sectional study with hypertensive and nondiabetic women aged 20 to 59 years, recruited at the primary healthcare units of Maceio, Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. Excess weight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25.0 kg/m. Sodium intake was estimated by the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium. Blood cholesterol was the primary outcome investigated by this study, and its relationship with sodium intake and other variables was assessed by Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression using a significance level of 5%.This study included 165 hypertensive women. Of these, 135 (81.8%) were with excess weight. The mean sodium intake was 3.7 g (±1.9) and 3.4 g (±2.4) in hypertensive women with and without excess weight, respectively. The multiple normal linear regression models fitted to the "blood cholesterol" in the 2 groups reveal that for the group of hypertensive women without excess weight only 1 independent variable "age" is statistically significant to explain the variability of the blood cholesterol levels. However, for the group of hypertensive women with excess weight, 2 independent variables, age and sodium intake, can statistically explain variations of the blood cholesterol levels.Blood cholesterol is statistically inversely related to sodium intake for hypertensive women with excess weight, but it is not statistically related to sodium intake for hypertensive women without excess weight.
Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, W.L. van; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Temme, E.H.M.
Background: Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective: To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of
Höhne, Claudia; Boemke, Willehad; Schleyer, Nora; Francis, Roland C; Krebs, Martin O; Kaczmarczyk, Gabriele
Acute hypoxia causes hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis, often combined with increased diuresis and sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate excretion. With a low sodium intake, the excretion of the anion bicarbonate may be limited by the lower excretion rate of the cation sodium through activated sodium-retaining mechanisms. This study investigates whether the short-term renal compensation of hypoxia-induced respiratory alkalosis is impaired by a low sodium intake. Nine conscious, tracheotomized dogs were studied twice either on a low-sodium (LS = 0.5 mmol sodium x kg body wt-1 x day-1) or high-sodium (HS = 7.5 mmol sodium x kg body wt-1 x day-1) diet. The dogs breathed spontaneously via a ventilator circuit during the experiments: first hour, normoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction = 0.21); second to fourth hour, hypoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction = 0.1). During hypoxia (arterial PO2 34.4 +/- 2.1 Torr), plasma pH increased from 7.37 +/- 0.01 to 7.48 +/- 0.01 (P respiratory alkalosis was not impaired by a low sodium intake. The increased sodium excretion during hypoxia seems to be combined with a decrease in plasma aldosterone and angiotensin II in LS as well as in HS dogs. Other factors, e.g., increased mean arterial blood pressure, minute ventilation, and renal blood flow, may have contributed.
Shin, Jung-a; Ahn, Young-mo; Lee, Hye-ah; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Young-ju; Lee, Hwa-young
Postnatal brain development is affected by the in utero environment. Modern people usually have a high sodium intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium hyperingestion during pregnancy on the postnatal brain development of rat offspring. The sodium-overloaded rats received 1.8% NaCl in their drinking water for 7 days during the last week of gestation. Their body weight, urine, and blood levels of sodium and other parameters were measured. Some rats were sacrificed at pregnancy day 22 and the weight and length of the placenta and foetus were measured. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus were obtained from their offspring at postnatal day 1 and at postnatal weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8. Western blot analyses were conducted with brain tissue lysates. The sodium-overloaded animals had decreased weight gain in the last week of gestation as well as decreased food intake, increased water intake, urine volume, urine sodium, and serum sodium. There were no differences in placental weight and length. The foetuses of sodium-overloaded rats showed decreased body weight and size, and this difference was maintained postnatally for 2 weeks. In the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring, the protein levels of myelin basic protein, calmodulin/calcium-dependent protein kinase II, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were decreased or aberrantly expressed. The present data suggest that increased sodium intake during pregnancy affects the brain development of the offspring.
Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni
Background Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test......) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg−1 body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Results Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively......-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior intake of sodium bicarbonate in trained young men, with concomitant elevations in blood alkalosis and peak blood lactate levels, as well as lowered rating of perceived exertion....
Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim
Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environmen...
Rush, T M; Kritz-Silverstein, D; Laughlin, G A; Fung, T T; Barrett-Connor, E; McEvoy, L K
To examine the association of dietary sodium intake with cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional study. Southern California community. White men (n=373) and women (n=552), aged 50-96 years from the Rancho Bernardo Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease risk factors and healthy aging. During the 1992-1996 research clinic visit, a food frequency questionnaire was used to determine daily sodium intake; cognitive function was assessed with Trails Making Test, part B (Trails B), Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), and Verbal Fluency Test (VFT); and medical, clinical and demographic information was obtained. Linear regression was used to assess the association between calorie-adjusted sodium intake and cognitive test scores with adjustment for demographic, behavioral and health measures. Logistic regression examined the odds of having cognitive impairment by sodium intake. Lower sodium intake was associated with poorer performance on Trails B (p=0.008) and MMSE (p=0.003) after controlling for age, sex, and education. Associations did not differ by sex, but there was a significant interaction by age for the Trails B: older (≥80 years), but not younger, adults showed worse performance with lower sodium intake (p=0.03). Associations remained significant after additional adjustment for smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, diuretic medication use, and diet quality. Lower daily sodium intake was associated with increased odds of cognitive impairment on the MMSE (score cognitive function in older community-dwelling adults. For the maintenance of cognitive health, older adults may be advised to avoid very low sodium diets.
Kim, Min Hee; Lee, Hae-Jeung
[Purpose] The purpose of present study was to investigate the effects of exercise intensity on hypertension prevalence in Korean men with high sodium intake. [Subjects and Methods] This study was based on the data collected from 2007 to 2013 in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. A total of 8853 male adults were included in the analysis. The odds ratios for hypertension according to exercise groups were assessed by using logistic regression of each sodium intake gro...
Gkza, Anastasia; Davenport, Andrew
In clinical practice, dietary sodium assessment requires reliable and rapid screening tools. We wished to evaluate the usefulness of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in estimating dietary sodium intakes in haemodialysis patients. We used the Derby Salt Questionnaire (DSQ), and Scored Sodium Questionnaire (SSQ) to estimate sodium intake. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. In total, 139 haemodialysis patients (95 men) completed the FFQs, with mean ± standard deviation age 67 ± 15 years. The mean FFQ scores were DSQ 3.5 ± 2.0 and SSQ 68.4 ± 24.5. Men had higher estimated dietary sodium intakes [DSQ median (range) 3.6 (0.6-10.1) versus female 2.2 (0.5-9.1), P = 0.007)]. Younger patients and those aged >75 years had the higher SSQ dietary sodium scores; 70.7 ± 27.8 and 76.8 ± 24.6 versus those aged 55-75 years, 61.8 ± 22.3, P = 0.04. Patients with greater estimated sodium intake had higher extracellular water (ECW) to intracellular water (ICW) ratios pre-dialysis [75.1 ±12.5 versus 67.7 ± 4.8, P sodium group (0.9 ± 13.7% versus 6.5 ± 14.1%, P = 0.04). Both questionnaires were acceptable to patients and identified higher estimated dietary sodium intake for men, those with greater ECW and, somewhat surprisingly, we found that older patients had a greater dietary sodium intake than expected. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.
Lee, Jounghee; Park, Sohyun
Targeting consumers who consume lunches at their worksite cafeterias would be a valuable approach to reduce sodium intake in South Korea. To assess the relationships between socio-demographic factors, consumer satisfaction, attitudes, barriers and the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. We implemented a cross-sectional research, analyzing data from 738 consumers aged 18 years or older (327 males and 411 females) at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We used the ordinary least squares regression analysis to determine the factors related to overall satisfaction with sodium-reduced meal. General linear models with LSD tests were employed to examine the variables that differed by the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. Most subjects always or usually consumed the sodium-reduced meal (49%), followed by sometimes (34%) and rarely or never (18%). Diverse menus, taste and belief in the helpfulness of the sodium-reduced meal significantly increased overall satisfaction with the sodium-reduced diet (P < 0.05). We found importance of needs in the following order: 1) 'menu diversity' (4.01 points), 2) 'active promotion' (3.97 points), 3) 'display of nutrition labels in a visible location' (3.96 points), 4) 'improvement of taste' (3.88 points), and 5) 'education of sodium-reduction self-care behaviors' (3.82 points). Dietitians could lead consumers to choose sodium-reduced meals by improving their taste and providing diverse menus for the sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias.
Murtaugh, Maureen A; Beasley, Jeannette M; Appel, Lawrence J; Guenther, Patricia M; McFadden, Molly; Greene, Tom; Tooze, Janet A
Dietary Na recommendations are expressed as absolute amounts (mg/d) rather than as Na density (mg/kcal). Our objective was to determine whether the strength of the relationship of Na intake with blood pressure (BP) varied with energy intake. The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)-Sodium trial was a randomized feeding trial comparing 2 diets (DASH and control) and 3 levels of Na density. Participants with pre- or stage 1 hypertension consumed diets for 30 days in random order; energy intake was controlled to maintain body weight. This secondary analysis of 379 non-Hispanic black and white participants used mixed-effects models to assess the association of Na and energy intakes with BP. The relationships between absolute Na and both systolic and diastolic BP varied with energy intake. BP rose more steeply with increasing Na at lower energy intake than at higher energy intake ( P interaction<0.001). On the control diet with 2300 mg Na, both systolic and diastolic BP were higher (3.0 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-5.8; and 2.7 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.5, respectively) among those with lower energy intake (higher Na density) than among those with higher energy intake (lower Na density). The association of Na with systolic BP was stronger at lower levels of energy intake in both blacks and whites ( P <0.001). The association of Na and diastolic BP varied with energy intake only among blacks ( P =0.001). Sodium density should be considered as a metric for expressing dietary Na recommendations. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt
Selenium status of the Danish population is below that assumed optimal for the suggested protective effects against chronic diseases, including certain cancers. Fish and shellfish are important dietary sources of selenium in Denmark. We investigated the effect of increased fish and mussel intake...... on selenium blood concentrations in a population with relatively low habitual dietary selenium intake. We randomly assigned 102 healthy men and women (all non-smokers) aged 48-76 years to an intervention group (n = 51) or a control group (n = 51). Intervention participants received 1000 g fish and mussels....../week for 26 weeks (similar to 50 mu g selenium/day). Controls received no intervention. Non-fasting blood samples were taken and whole blood selenium was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and plasma selenoprotein P (SelP) was determined by high performance liquid...
Cortese, Marianna; Yuan, Changzheng; Chitnis, Tanuja; Ascherio, Alberto; Munger, Kassandra L
To prospectively investigate the association between dietary sodium intake and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. In this cohort study, we assessed dietary sodium intake by a validated food frequency questionnaire administered every 4 years to 80,920 nurses in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1984-2002) and to 94,511 in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) (1991-2007), and calibrated it using data from a validation study. There were 479 new MS cases during follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the effect of energy-adjusted dietary sodium on MS risk, adjusting also for age, latitude of residence at age 15, ancestry, body mass index at age 18, supplemental vitamin D intake, cigarette smoking, and total energy intake in each cohort. The results in both cohorts were pooled using fixed effects models. Total dietary intake of sodium at baseline was not associated with MS risk (highest [medians: 3.2 g/d NHS; 3.5 g/d NHSII] vs lowest [medians: 2.5 g/d NHS; 2.8 g/d NHSII] quintile: HR pooled 0.98, 95% CI 0.74-1.30, p for trend = 0.75). Cumulative average sodium intake during follow-up was also not associated with MS risk (highest [medians: 3.3 g/d NHS; 3.4 g/d NHSII] vs lowest [medians: 2.7 g/d NHS; 2.8 g/d NHSII] quintile: HR pooled 1.02, 95% CI 0.76-1.37, p for trend = 0.76). Comparing more extreme sodium intake in deciles yielded similar results ( p for trend = 0.95). Our findings suggest that higher dietary sodium intake does not increase the risk of developing MS. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Drewnowski, A; Rehm, C D; Maillot, M; Monsivais, P
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommended that Americans increase potassium and decrease sodium intakes to reduce the burden of hypertension. One reason why so few Americans meet the recommended potassium or sodium goals may be perceived or actual food costs. This study explored the monetary costs associated with potassium and sodium intakes using national food prices and a representative sample of US adults. Dietary intake data from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were merged with a national food prices database. In a population of 4744 adults, the association between the energy-adjusted sodium and potassium intakes, and the sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na:K) and energy-adjusted diet cost was evaluated. Diets that were more potassium-rich or had lower Na:K ratios were associated with higher diet costs, while sodium intakes were not related to cost. The difference in diet cost between extreme quintiles of potassium intakes was $1.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.69). A food-level analysis showed that beans, potatoes, coffee, milk, bananas, citrus juices and carrots are frequently consumed and low-cost sources of potassium. Based on existing dietary data and current American eating habits, a potassium-dense diet was associated with higher diet costs, while sodium was not. Price interventions may be an effective approach to improve potassium intakes and reduce the Na:K ratio of the diet. The present methods helped identify some alternative low-cost foods that were effective in increasing potassium intakes. The identification and promotion of lower-cost foods to help individuals meet targeted dietary recommendations could accompany future dietary guidelines.
Angell, Sonia Y; Yi, Stella; Eisenhower, Donna; Kerker, Bonnie D; Curtis, Christine J; Bartley, Katherine; Silver, Lynn D; Farley, Thomas A
We estimated sodium intake, which is associated with elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and assessed its association with related variables among New York City adults. In 2010 we conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey of 1656 adults, the Heart Follow-Up Study, that collected self-reported health information, measured blood pressure, and obtained sodium, potassium, and creatinine values from 24-hour urine collections. Mean daily sodium intake was 3239 milligrams per day; 81% of participants exceeded their recommended limit. Sodium intake was higher in non-Hispanic Blacks (3477 mg/d) and Hispanics (3395 mg/d) than in non-Hispanic Whites (3066 mg/d; both P < .05). Higher sodium intake was associated with higher blood pressure in adjusted models, and this association varied by race/ethnicity. Higher sodium intake among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics than among Whites was not previously documented in population surveys relying on self-report. These results demonstrate the feasibility of 24-hour urine collection for the purposes of research, surveillance, and program evaluation.
In this study, males and females consumed on average three times the recommended daily intake of added sugar, and more than half of the recommended daily salt intake from these purchased foods alone. These dietary patterns during adolescence may exacerbate the risk of obesity and hypertension in later adult life.
Zhang, Donglan; Li, Yan; Wang, Guijing; Moran, Andrew E.; Pagán, José A.
Introduction High sodium intake is a major risk factor for hypertension, but evidence is limited on which interventions are effective in reducing sodium consumption. This study examined the associations between frequent use of nutrition labels and daily sodium intake and the consumption of high-sodium foods in the U.S. Methods Using the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 Flexible Consumer Behavior Survey, this study compared sodium intake measured from the 24-hour dietary recalls, availability of salty snacks at home, and frequencies of eating frozen meals/pizzas between frequent (i.e., always or most of the time) and infrequent nutrition label users. Also, the study examined the association between nutrition label use and sodium-related dietary behaviors across different demographic and socioeconomic groups. Data were analyzed in 2016. Results Frequent users of nutrition labels consumed 92.79 mg less sodium per day (95% CI= −160.21, −25.37), were less likely to always or most of the time have salty snacks available at home (OR =0.86, 95% CI=0.76, 0.97), but were just as likely to eat frozen meals or pizzas (incidence rate ratio =0.96, 95% CI=0.84, 1.08) compared with infrequent label users. The associations between nutrition label use and sodium intake differed considerably across age, gender, and socioeconomic groups. Conclusions Frequent use of nutrition labels appears to be associated with lower consumption of sodium and high-sodium foods in the U.S. Given this small reduction, interventions such as enhancing nutrition label use could be less effective if implemented without other strategies. PMID:29153124
Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water
.... This new report, the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, establishes nutrient recommendations on water, potassium...
Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, van W.L.; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Temme, E.H.M.
Background Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of
Beauséjour, Annie; Auger, Karine; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michéle
Despite an increase of circulatory volume and of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity, pregnancy is paradoxically accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. We have reported that the decrease in blood pressure was maintained in pregnant rats despite overactivation of RAAS following reduction in sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the opposite condition, e.g., decreased activation of RAAS during pregnancy in the rat. To do so, 0.9% or 1.8% NaCl in drinking water was given to nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days (last week of gestation). Increased sodium intakes (between 10- and 20-fold) produced reduction of plasma renin activity and aldosterone in both nonpregnant and pregnant rats. Systolic blood pressure was not affected in nonpregnant rats. However, in pregnant rats, 0.9% sodium supplement prevented the decreased blood pressure. Moreover, an increase of systolic blood pressure was obtained in pregnant rats receiving 1.8% NaCl. The 0.9% sodium supplement did not affect plasma and fetal parameters. However, 1.8% NaCl supplement has larger effects during gestation as shown by increased plasma sodium concentration, hematocrit level, negative water balance, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. With both sodium supplements, decreased AT1 mRNA levels in the kidney and in the placenta were observed. Our results showed that a high-sodium intake prevents the pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in rats. Nonpregnant rats were able to maintain homeostasis but not the pregnant ones in response to sodium load. Furthermore, pregnant rats on a high-sodium intake (1.8% NaCl) showed some physiological responses that resemble manifestations observed in preeclampsia.
Leshem, M; Levin, T; Schulkin, J
These experiments sought to distinguish whether increased calcium intake during pregnancy and lactation in the rat is due to arousal of a specific calcium appetite, with altered taste hedonics, as occurs with sodium depletion, to reduced taste sensitivity, or to the hyperdipsia of reproduction. We find that, during pregnancy and lactation, CaCl(2) intake is not increased more (in fact less) than intakes of control tastants, MgCl(2) and quinine HCl, and multiparous dams do not have a greater calcium intake than primaparous dams. Changes in taste reactivity to CaCl(2) and to NaCl do not correlate with changes in intake of these minerals during pregnancy or lactation, suggesting that alterations in hedonics or sensitivity do not explain the increased intake of these minerals. Taken together with the increased intake of all the tastants, it may be that the increased intakes of calcium and sodium during reproduction are not due to respective specific appetites or to a general mineral appetite but rather to the reproduction-increased ingestion that may meet all the dam's increased mineral and nutrient requirements. Differences in the degree of increased intakes of tastes may be due to specific alterations in their transduction during reproduction.
Janssen, Anke M; Kremer, Stefanie; van Stipriaan, Willeke L; Noort, Martijn W J; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Temme, Elisabeth H M
Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of consuming reduced-sodium lunches on 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. A single-blind randomized controlled pretest-posttest design with two parallel treatment groups was used. Participants chose foods in an experimental real-life canteen setting at the Restaurant of the Future in Wageningen, the Netherlands, from May 16 until July 1, 2011. After a run-in period with regular foods for both groups, the intervention group (n=36) consumed foods with 29% to 61% sodium reduction (some were partially flavor compensated). The control group (n=38) continued consuming regular foods. Outcomes for assessment of acceptance were the amount of foods consumed, energy and sodium intake, remembered food liking, and intensity of sensory aspects. Influence on daily dietary sodium intake was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Between and within-subject comparisons were assessed by analysis of covariance. Energy intake and amount consumed of each food category per lunch remained similar for both groups. Compared with the control group, the intervention group's sodium intake per lunch was significantly reduced by -1,093 mg (adjusted difference) (95% CI -1,285 to -901), equivalent to 43 mmol sodium. Remembered food liking, taste intensity, and saltiness were scored similarly for almost all of the reduced-sodium foods compared with the regular foods. After consuming reduced-sodium lunches, compared with the control group, intervention participants' 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was significantly lower by -40 mEq (adjusted difference) (95% CI -63 to -16) than after consuming regular lunches, and this reflects a decreased daily sodium intake of 1 g. Comparing the two treatment groups, consumption of reduced-sodium
Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Munger, Kassandra L; Hartung, Hans-Peter
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a high-salt diet, as measured by urinary sodium concentration, is associated with faster conversion from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to multiple sclerosis (MS) and MS activity and disability. METHODS: BENEFIT was a randomized clinical trial comparing early versus...... delayed interferon beta-1b treatment in 465 patients with a CIS. Each patient provided a median of 14 (interquartile range = 13-16) spot urine samples throughout the 5-year follow-up. We estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion level at each time point using the Tanaka equations, and assessed whether...... in T2 lesion volume: -0.11, 95% CI = -0.25 to 0.04; change in EDSS: -0.01, 95% CI = -0.09 to 0.08; relapse rate: HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.56-1.07). Results were similar in categorical analyses using quintiles. INTERPRETATION: Our results, based on multiple assessments of urine sodium excretion over 5...
Larsson, Susanna C; Virtanen, Mikko J; Mars, Monica; Männistö, Satu; Pietinen, Pirjo; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo
A high intake of magnesium, calcium, and potassium and a low intake of sodium have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of stroke. However, prospective data relating intake of these minerals to risk of stroke are inconsistent. We examined the relationship of dietary magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intake with risk of stroke in a cohort of 26 556 Finnish male smokers, aged 50 to 69 years, who were free from stroke at baseline. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a detailed and validated food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years (1985-2004), 2702 cerebral infarctions, 383 intracerebral hemorrhages, and 196 subarachnoid hemorrhages were identified in the national registries. After adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors, a high magnesium intake was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of cerebral infarction but not with intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhages. The multivariate relative risk of cerebral infarction was 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.97; P for trend = .004) for men in the highest quintile of magnesium intake compared with those in the lowest quintile. The inverse association between magnesium intake and cerebral infarction was stronger in men younger than 60 years (relative risk, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.89; P for interaction = .02). Calcium, potassium, and sodium intake was not significantly associated with risk of any subtype of stroke (P for trend > .05). These findings in male smokers suggest that a high magnesium intake may play a role in the primary prevention of cerebral infarction.
Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water
... intake to the risk of high blood pressure and hypertension as well as other diseases and the amounts of water from beverages and foods needed to maintain hydration. In addition, since requirements for sulfur can be met by inorganic sulfate in the diets of animals, a review of the role in inorganic sulfur in the form of sulfate is included. The gro...
Damgaard, Morten; Norsk, Peter; Gustafsson, Finn
inhibitors and beta-adrenoreceptor blockers. Therefore, we determined the hemodynamic and neuroendocrine responses to 1 wk of a low-sodium diet (70 mmol/day) and 1 wk of a high-sodium diet (250 mmol/day) in 12 HF patients and 12 age-matched controls in a randomized, balanced fashion. During steady......-state conditions, hemodynamic and neuroendocrine examinations were performed at rest and during bicycle exercise. In seated HF patients, high sodium intake increased body weight (1.6 +/- 0.4%), plasma volume (9 +/- 2%), cardiac index (14 +/- 6%), and stroke volume index (21 +/- 5%), whereas mean arterial pressure...
Campino, Carmen; Hill, Caroline; Baudrand, Rene; Martínez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Aglony, Marlene; Carrasco, Carmen A; Ferrada, Clarita; Loureiro, Carolina; Vecchiola, Andrea; Bancalari, Rodrigo; Grob, Francisca; Carvajal, Cristian A; Lagos, Carlos F; Valdivia, Carolina; Tapia-Castillo, Alejandra; Fuentes, Cristobal A; Mendoza, Carolina; Garcia, Hernan; Uauy, Ricardo; Fardella, Carlos E
High sodium intake has been associated with various noncommunicable disease like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or stroke. To estimate accurately sodium intake is challenging in clinical practice. We investigate the usefulness and limitations of assessing sodium intake simultaneously by dietary assessment and urinary samples in both children and adults. We used a cross-sectional study design inviting 298 Chilean subjects (74 children and 222 adults) aged between 9 and 66 years of both genders. Sodium intake by dietary assessment was obtained from Chilean food composition data, based on FAO tables. Sodium and creatinine excretion were measured in 24-hour urine samples, in all participants. Adequate urinary collection was obtained in 81% of children (59/74) and 61% of adults (135/222). The mean sodium intake by dietary assessment was similar to the sodium excretion in 24 hours (3,121±1,153mg/d vs. 3,114±1,353mg/24h, P = nonsignificant) in children but was significantly lower (3,208±1,284mg/d vs. 4,160±1,651mg/24h, P < 0.001) in adults. In both children and adults, sodium intake correlated with urinary sodium excretion (r = 0.456, P < 0.003 and r = 0.390, P < 0.001, respectively). Secondary analyses also suggested that the dietary assessment was more inaccurate in overweight adult subjects. Our results showed that average sodium intake was higher than recommended in both children and adults (WHO ≤2,000mg/d). The sodium intake estimated by dietary assessment correlated with urinary excretion in all subjects, but in obese adults was more inaccurate than in children. Future studies to validate the appropriate test to assess sodium intake by age and nutritional status are warranted. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Meuleman, Yvette; ten Brinke, Lucia; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Vogt, Liffert; Rotmans, Joris I.; Bos, Willem Jan W.; van der Boog, Paul J. M.; Navis, Gerjan; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W.; van Dijk, Sandra
Reducing sodium intake can prevent cardiovascular complications and further decline of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the vast majority of patients fail to reach an adequate sodium intake, and little is known about why they do not succeed. This study aims to
Meuleman, Yvette; ten Brinke, Lucia; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Vogt, Liffert; Rotmans, Joris I.; Bos, Willem Jan W.; van der Boog, Paul J. M.; Navis, Gerjan; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W.; van Dijk, Sandra
Reducing sodium intake can prevent cardiovascular complications and further decline of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the vast majority of patients fail to reach an adequate sodium intake, and little is known about why they do not succeed. This study aims to
Ahn, So-Hyun; Kwon, Jong Sook; Kim, Kyungmin; Kim, Hye-Kyeong
High sodium intake increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the importance of behavioral changes to reducing sodium intake, this study aims to investigate the stages of change and the differences in cognitive and behavioral characteristics by stage in Korean consumers. Adult participants ( N = 3892) completed a questionnaire on the stages of behavioral change, recognition of social efforts, outcome expectancy, barriers to practice, nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviors, and self-efficiency related to reduced sodium intake. The numbers of participants in each stage of behavioral change for reducing sodium intake was 29.5% in the maintenance stage, 19.5% in the action stage, and 51.0% in the preaction stage that included the precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages. Multiple logistic regression showed that the factors differentiating the three stages were recognizing a supportive social environment, perceived barriers to the practice of reducing sodium intake, and self-efficacy to be conscious of sodium content and to request less salt when eating out. Purchasing experience of sodium-reduced products for salty foods, knowledge of the recommended intake of salt and the difference between sodium and salt, and improving dietary habits of eating salted fish, processed food, and salty snacks were factors for being in the action stage versus the preaction stage. These findings suggest that tailored intervention according to the characteristics of each stage is helpful in reducing sodium intake.
Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik H.; Andersen, Klaus K.; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja
Selenium status of the Danish population is below that assumed optimal for the suggested protective effects against chronic diseases, including certain cancers. Fish and shellfish are important dietary sources of selenium in Denmark. We investigated the effect of increased fish and mussel intake on selenium blood concentrations in a population with relatively low habitual dietary selenium intake. We randomly assigned 102 healthy men and women (all non-smokers) aged 48–76 years to an intervention group (n = 51) or a control group (n = 51). Intervention participants received 1000 g fish and mussels/week for 26 weeks (~50 μg selenium/day). Controls received no intervention. Non-fasting blood samples were taken and whole blood selenium was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and plasma selenoprotein P (SelP) was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. All available observations were included in linear multiple regression analysis to evaluate the effect of the intervention. The difference in mean change for intervention compared with control persons was 14.9 ng/mL (95% CI: 10.2, 19.7) for whole blood selenium, and 7.0 ng/mL (95% CI: 3.1, 10.9) for plasma SelP (Weeks 0–26). Selenium concentrations were significantly increased after 26 weeks of intervention, albeit to a lower degree than expected. PMID:25599275
Short sleep duration has been associated with greater risks of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Also, common genetic variants in the human Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) show associations with ghrelin and total energy intake. We examined associations betw...
Binns, A; Gray, M; Henson, A C; Fort, I L
Examine the associations between dietary protein intake, lean mass (LM), and serum myostatin (Mstn) levels among community-dwelling older adults participating in a 20-week high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) program. This longitudinal study consisted of 33 community-dwelling, older adults (mean age 77.0 years, SD = 6.4); all of which obtained physician clearance prior to study participation. Twenty-five females and eight males were randomized to a control (CON) or HVRT group. Anthropometric measures were obtained via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral venous blood draw used for serum myostatin analysis. Exercise was performed twice per week for 20 consecutive weeks. Food intake estimation with a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) was used for protein intake comparison to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). All measures were recorded both prior to and following study participation. Altogether, protein was consumed in amounts more generous (1.01 ± 0.47 g·kg-1·d-1) than that of the RDA (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1). As a result of significant LM differences among men and women (p myostatin was greater among females (6681.8 ± 3155.0 pg·mL-1) than males (5560.0 ± 2946.1 pg·mL-1); however, these values were not significantly different (p = 0.39). Combined, protein consumption and serum myostatin did not significantly influence LM among males (p = 0.09) or females (p = 0.71). Irrespective of training group, significant changes were not exhibited in dietary intake patterns, LM, or serum myostatin. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis, results suggest protein consumption and circulating serum myostatin levels did not significantly influence LM among older adults. Although HVRT positively impacts LM, neither exercise group displayed significant changes in LM. Therefore, further research is needed examining dietary intake, exercise modality, and myostatin downregulation as non-pharmacological approaches to combating sarcopenia.
Colin-Ramirez, Eloisa; Miranda-Alatriste, Paola Vanessa; Tovar-Villegas, Verónica Ivette; Arcand, JoAnne; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo
Excessive dietary sodium intake increases blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. In Western diets, the majority of dietary sodium comes from packaged and prepared foods (≈75%); however, in Mexico there is no available data on the main food sources of dietary sodium. The main objective of this study was to identify and characterize the major food sources of dietary sodium in a sample of the Mexican Salt and Mexico (SALMEX) cohort. Adult male and female participants of the SALMEX study who provided a complete and valid three-day food record during the baseline visit were included. Overall, 950 participants (mean age 38.6 ± 10.7 years) were analyzed to determine the total sodium contributed by the main food sources of sodium identified. Mean daily sodium intake estimated by three-day food records and 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 2647.2 ± 976.9 mg/day and 3497.2 ± 1393.0, in the overall population, respectively. Processed meat was the main contributor to daily sodium intake, representing 8% of total sodium intake per capita as measured by three-day food records. When savory bread (8%) and sweet bakery goods (8%) were considered together as bread products, these were the major contributor to daily sodium intake, accounting for the 16% of total sodium intake, followed by processed meat (8%), natural cheeses (5%), and tacos (5%). These results highlight the need for public health policies focused on reducing the sodium content of processed food in Mexico. PMID:28749449
Yu, Yan Han; Farmer, Anna; Mager, Diana; Willows, Noreen
Objective: To document the sodium intake and food sources of sodium of Canadian-born Chinese (CBC) and Asian-born Chinese (ABC) individuals at a Canadian university campus. Participants: Healthy adults aged 18-58 years originating from Canada, China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan were recruited from the University of Alberta (n = 40 CBC, n = 41 ABC)…
Moore, Lori B; Liu, Sarah V; Halliday, Tanya M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M
Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents. Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents. Methods: In a crossover controlled feeding study design, 33 adolescents [12-18 y of age, 47 ± 25th percentile (mean ± SD) of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) for age] consumed 5% AS [low added sugars (LAS)] and 25% AS [high added sugars (HAS)] isocaloric, macronutrient-matched (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 15% protein) diets for 7 d each, in a randomly assigned order, with a 4-wk washout period between diets. On the final 2 d of each diet period, 24-h urine samples were collected. Thirty-two adolescents completed all measurements (97% retention). Results: Urinary sodium was not different from the expected 90% recovery (mean ± SD: 88% ± 18%, P = 0.50). Urinary nitrogen was correlated with protein intake ( r = 0.69, P sodium appears to be a valid biomarker for sodium intake in nonobese adolescents. Urinary nitrogen is associated with protein intake, but nitrogen excretion rates were less than previously reported for adults, possibly owing to adolescent growth rates. TS excretion reflects AS at 25% AS intake and was responsive to the change in AS intake. Thus, urinary biomarkers are promising objective indicators of dietary intake in adolescents, although larger-scale feeding trials are needed to confirm these findings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02455388. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia
Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation ( p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status ( p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester ( p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.
Lee, Yongkuk; Howe, Connor; Mishra, Saswat; Lee, Dong Sup; Mahmood, Musa; Piper, Matthew; Kim, Youngbin; Tieu, Katie; Byun, Hun-Soo; Coffey, James P; Shayan, Mahdis; Chun, Youngjae; Costanzo, Richard M; Yeo, Woon-Hong
Recent wearable devices offer portable monitoring of biopotentials, heart rate, or physical activity, allowing for active management of human health and wellness. Such systems can be inserted in the oral cavity for measuring food intake in regard to controlling eating behavior, directly related to diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, existing devices using plastic circuit boards and rigid sensors are not ideal for oral insertion. A user-comfortable system for the oral cavity requires an ultrathin, low-profile, and soft electronic platform along with miniaturized sensors. Here, we introduce a stretchable hybrid electronic system that has an exceptionally small form factor, enabling a long-range wireless monitoring of sodium intake. Computational study of flexible mechanics and soft materials provides fundamental aspects of key design factors for a tissue-friendly configuration, incorporating a stretchable circuit and sensor. Analytical calculation and experimental study enables reliable wireless circuitry that accommodates dynamic mechanical stress. Systematic in vitro modeling characterizes the functionality of a sodium sensor in the electronics. In vivo demonstration with human subjects captures the device feasibility for real-time quantification of sodium intake, which can be used to manage hypertension.
Healey, Genelle; Murphy, Rinki; Butts, Chrissie; Brough, Louise; Whelan, Kevin; Coad, Jane
Dysbiotic gut microbiota have been implicated in human disease. Diet-based therapeutic strategies have been used to manipulate the gut microbiota towards a more favourable profile. However, it has been demonstrated that large inter-individual variability exists in gut microbiota response to a dietary intervention. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether habitually low dietary fibre (LDF) v. high dietary fibre (HDF) intakes influence gut microbiota response to an inulin-...
Egun, G N; Atinmo, T
A short-term N balance study was conducted in twelve healthy female adults aged 21-32 years to determine their protein requirement. Four dietary protein levels (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 g protein/kg per d) were used. Energy intake of the subjects was kept constant at 0.18 MJ/kg per d. All subjects maintained their normal activity throughout the study period. N excretion was determined from the measurements of N in a total collection of urine, faeces, sweat and menstrual fluid for each dietary period. N balance during the four protein levels were -15.15 (SD 5.95), -5.53 (SD 6.71), +6.15 (SD 4.76) and +12.05 (SD 8.63) mg N/kg per d for 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 g protein/kg per d respectively. The calculated average N requirements from regression analysis was 76.0 (SD 3.37) mg N/kg per d (0.48 g protein/kg per d). The estimate of allowance for individual variation to cover the 97.5% population was 95 mg N/kg per d (0.6 g protein/kg per d). The net protein utilization (NPU) of the diet was 0.55. When compared with a similar study with men, there was a significant difference in the protein requirement between sexes. Thus, the unjustifiable sex difference in the protein allowance recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (1985) Expert Consultation group must be reviewed.
Nerbass, F B; Pecoits-Filho, R; McIntyre, N J; McIntyre, C W; Taal, M W
An increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is observed in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) even in early stages. Dietary sodium intake has been associated with important CVD and CKD progression risk factors such as hypertension and proteinuria in this population. We aimed to investigate the relationship between sodium intake and CVD or CKD progression risk factors in a large cohort of patients with CKD stage 3 recruited from primary care. A total of 1733 patients with previous estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-59 ml/min/1.73m(2), with a mean age 72.9±9.0 years, were recruited from 32 general practices in primary care in England. Medical history was obtained and participants underwent clinical assessment, urine and serum biochemistry testing. Sodium intake was estimated from three early-morning urine specimens using an equation validated for this study population. Sixty percent of participants who had estimated sodium intake above recommendation (>100 mmol/day or 6 g salt/day) also had higher diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, high-sensitive C-reactive protein and uric acid and used a greater number of anti-hypertensive drugs. In multivariable regression analysis, excessive sodium intake was an independent predictor of MAP (B=1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-2.72; P=0.008) and albuminuria (B=1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.79; P=0.03). High sodium intake was associated with CVD and CKD progression risk factors in patients with predominantly early stages of CKD followed up in primary care. This suggests that dietary sodium intake could afffect CVD risk even in early or mild CKD. Intervention studies are warranted to investigate the potential benefit of dietary advice to reduce sodium intake in this population.
Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Olde Engberink, Rik H. G.; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C.; Titze, Jens
The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on
Meuleman, Yvette; Ten Brinke, Lucia; Kwakernaak, Arjan J; Vogt, Liffert; Rotmans, Joris I; Bos, Willem Jan W; van der Boog, Paul J M; Navis, Gerjan; van Montfrans, Gert A; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W; van Dijk, Sandra
Reducing sodium intake can prevent cardiovascular complications and further decline of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the vast majority of patients fail to reach an adequate sodium intake, and little is known about why they do not succeed. This study aims to identify perceived barriers and support strategies for reducing sodium intake among both patients with chronic kidney disease and health-care professionals. A purposive sample of 25 patients and 23 health-care professionals from 4 Dutch medical centers attended 8 focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed thematically and afterwards organized according to the phases of behavior change of self-regulation theory. Multiple themes emerged across different phases of behavior change, including the patients' lack of practical knowledge and intrinsic motivation, the maladaptive illness perceptions and refusal skills, the lack of social support and feedback regarding disease progression and sodium intake, and the availability of low-sodium foods. The results indicate the need for the implementation of support strategies that target specific needs of patients across the whole process of changing and maintaining a low-sodium diet. Special attention should be paid to supporting patients to set sodium-related goals, strengthening intrinsic motivation, providing comprehensive and practical information (e.g., about hidden salt in products), increasing social support, stimulating the self-monitoring of sodium intake and disease progression, and building a supportive patient-professional relationship that encompasses shared decision making and coaching. Moreover, global programs should be implemented to reduce sodium levels in processed foods, introduce sodium-related product labels, and increase consumer awareness.
van Buul, B J; Steegers, E A; Jongsma, H W; Rijpkema, A L; Eskes, T K; Thomas, C M; Baadenhuysen, H; Hein, P R
Dietary sodium restriction is used in the Netherlands in the prophylaxis of preeclampsia. To study the effects of long-term sodium restriction on the intake of other nutrients and the outcome of pregnancy, 68 healthy nulliparous pregnant women were randomly assigned to either a low-sodium diet (20 mmol/24 h) or an unrestricted diet. The diet was consumed between week 14 of gestation and delivery. The dietary intakes of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrate, sodium, potassium, and calcium were estimated with the dietary-history technique. A low-sodium diet reduced the intake of protein (by approximately 15 g/24 h), fat (by 20 g/24 h), and calcium (by 350 mg/24 h) and tended to decrease the energy intake (by approximately 0.7 MJ/24 h). The intakes of carbohydrate and potassium did not differ between the groups. The maternal weight gain was less in the low-sodium group (6.0 +/- 3.7 compared with 11.7 +/- 4.7 kg). Mean birth weight was not significantly different (3.2 +/- 0.5 compared with 3.4 +/- 0.5 kg).
Similar to the non-exercising control group, resistance training resulted in no significant (p > 0.05) changes in the habitual intake of daily intake of total ... as a mode of training may not be an effective mode of exercise to promote overall physical activity in an attempt to modify the patterns of macronutrient and energy intake.
Healey, Genelle; Murphy, Rinki; Butts, Christine; Brough, Louise; Whelan, Kevin; Coad, Jane
Dysbiotic gut microbiota have been implicated in human disease. Diet-based therapeutic strategies have been used to manipulate the gut microbiota towards a more favourable profile. However, it has been demonstrated that large inter-individual variability exists in gut microbiota response to a dietary intervention. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether habitually low dietary fibre (LDF) v. high dietary fibre (HDF) intakes influence gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, thirty-four healthy participants were classified as LDF or HDF consumers. Gut microbiota composition (16S rRNA bacterial gene sequencing) and SCFA concentrations were assessed following 3 weeks of daily prebiotic supplementation (Orafti® Synergy 1; 16 g/d) or placebo (Glucidex® 29 Premium; 16 g/d), as well as after 3 weeks of the alternative intervention, following a 3-week washout period. In the LDF group, the prebiotic intervention led to an increase in Bifidobacterium (P=0·001). In the HDF group, the prebiotic intervention led to an increase in Bifidobacterium (Pgut microbiota response and are therefore more likely to benefit from an inulin-type fructan prebiotic than those with LDF intakes. Future studies aiming to modulate the gut microbiota and improve host health, using an inulin-type fructan prebiotic, should take habitual dietary fibre intake into account.
Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A
Background: Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. Objective: We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y. Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005–2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Results: Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake. PMID:23676421
Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A; Loria, Catherine M
Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y. We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005-2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake.
Vera Favila Ribeiro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study determined the sodium content of processed foods aimed at children and adolescents and the adequacy of its content in relation to the dietary reference intakes, and verified label compliance. METHODS: The sodium content of 17 food samples (instant noodles, breaded items, hamburger patties, hot dogs and bologna sausages was determined by flame photometry and chloride titration, and the results were compared with nutritional data. The labels were checked for compliance with the pertinent laws. RESULTS: According to flame photometry and chloride titration, 13 and 5 products, respectively, had sodium contents that exceeded those reported on the nutrition facts label by more than 20%. All samples had more than 480mg of sodium per serving. The tolerable upper intake level for sodium for children aged 4-8 years was exceeded in 8 instant noodles and 3 breaded items according to flame photometry, and in 9 items according to chloride titration. Regarding the legislation, 5 products used a daily reference intake other than that provided by the legislation to report their percent sodium content per serving. Moreover, the serving sizes of 3 instant noodles, the terminology used in 1 instant noodles and the protein content of 1 breaded item were also not compliant with the legislation. CONCLUSION: The sodium contents in the study samples were high and there was no regard for the legislation.
Antman, Elliott M; Appel, Lawrence J; Balentine, Douglas; Johnson, Rachel K; Steffen, Lyn M; Miller, Emily Ann; Pappas, Antigoni; Stitzel, Kimberly F; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Whitsel, Laurie
A 2-day interactive forum was convened to discuss the current status and future implications of reducing sodium in the food supply and to identify opportunities for stakeholder collaboration. Participants included 128 stakeholders engaged in food research and development, food manufacturing and retail, restaurant and food service operations, regulatory and legislative activities, public health initiatives, healthcare, academia and scientific research, and data monitoring and surveillance. Presentation topics included scientific evidence for sodium reduction and public health policy recommendations; consumer sodium intakes, attitudes, and behaviors; food technologies and solutions for sodium reduction and sensory implications; experiences of the food and dining industries; and translation and implementation of sodium intake recommendations. Facilitated breakout sessions were conducted to allow for sharing of current practices, insights, and expertise. A well-established body of scientific research shows that there is a strong relationship between excess sodium intake and high blood pressure and other adverse health outcomes. With Americans getting >75% of their sodium from processed and restaurant food, this evidence creates mounting pressure for less sodium in the food supply. The reduction of sodium in the food supply is a complex issue that involves multiple stakeholders. The success of new technological approaches for reducing sodium will depend on product availability, health effects (both intended and unintended), research and development investments, quality and taste of reformulated foods, supply chain management, operational modifications, consumer acceptance, and cost. The conference facilitated an exchange of ideas and set the stage for potential collaboration opportunities among stakeholders with mutual interest in reducing sodium in the food supply and in Americans' diets. Population-wide sodium reduction remains a critically important component of
Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik Hg Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens
The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long-term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland-Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik HG Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens
Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. PMID:27225435
Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni
Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 performance in trained young men. Thirteen men aged 23 ± 1 year (height: 180 ± 2 cm, weight: 78 ± 3 kg; VO2max: 61.3 ± 3.3 mlO2 · kg(-1) · min(-1); means ± SEM) performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) on two separate occasions in randomized order with (SBC) and without (CON) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg(-1) body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively). Blood pH and bicarbonate were similar between trials at baseline, but higher (P = 0.003) immediately prior to the Yo-Yo IR2 test in SBC than in CON (7.44 ± 0.01 vs 7.32 ± 0.01 and 33.7 ± 3.2 vs 27.3 ± 0.6 mmol · l(-1), respectively). Blood lactate was 0.9 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.1 mmol · l(-1) at baseline and increased to 11.3 ± 1.4 and 9.4 ± 0.8 mmol · l(-1) at exhaustion in SBC and CON, respectively, being higher (P = 0.03) in SBC. Additionally, peak blood lactate was higher (P = 0.02) in SBC than in CON (11.7 ± 1.2 vs 10.2 ± 0.7 mmol · l(-1)). Blood glucose, plasma K(+) and Na(+) were not different between trials. Peak heart rate reached at exhaustion was 197 ± 3 and 195 ± 3 bpm in SBC and CON, respectively, with no difference between conditions. RPE was 7% lower (P = 0.003) in SBC than in CON after 440 m, but similar at exhaustion (19.3 ± 0.2 and 19.5 ± 0.2). In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior
Bolhuis, D.P.; Temme, E.H.M.; Koeman, F.T.; Noort, M.W.J.; Kremer, S.; Janssen, A.M.
Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without
Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Tabatabaei, Seyed Zia; Mun, Chan Yoke; Tajik, Esra
Calcium intake in developing countries is lower than that in developed countries. In Iran, inadequate calcium intake in the general population, especially among women, is a public health concern. This cross-sectional study examined the correlation between sociodemographic, obstetrical and lifestyle factors with calcium intake among pregnant women in Rafsanjan city, southeast Iran. A sample of 308 healthy pregnant women aged 18-35 years from seven urban health-care centers participated in the study. All women were measured for height and weight and interviewed for demographic and socioeconomic, obstetrical, lifestyle and dietary intake information while pre-pregnancy weight was obtained from prenatal record. Stepwise multiple regression was used to assess factors associated with calcium intake. The mean daily calcium intake of women was 968.51±363.05mg/day and only 46.4% of the pregnant women met the dietary reference intakes of 1000 mg for calcium. Milk and milk products showed the greatest contribution to calcium intake (75.11%). Energy-adjusted calcium intake was positively associated with years of schooling (Psodium (P<0.01) intakes. This information would be useful in planning and developing appropriate strategies to improve calcium intake in pregnant women. Efforts to increase calcium intake in pregnant women should focus on promoting nutrient-dense food and making these foods available and accessible, particularly to socioeconomically deprived women. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Sung, Ho Kyung; Ryu, Yong Wun; Koh, Joo Hwan
Marked augmentation of urinary aldosterone excretion following furosemide administration was observed in previous experiment. In this study, author measured the changes of aldosterone secretion after furosemide administration in normotensive young volunteers with high sodium intake. After intravenous injection of 1.2- 3 H-aldosterone, urine samples were collected in course of time until 24 hours after the injection. Furosemide administration was done at 30 minutes prior to aldosterone injection. Specific activities of 3H-aldosterone during and after diuresis were measured and aldosterone secretion rates were calculated dividing the doses by specific activities. Results were as followed. 1) Furosemide resulted in a marked increase in urinary aldosterone excretion. 2) Furosemide lead to an increase in both sodium and potassium excretion. 3) Aldosterone secretion rate was also increase d during furosemide diuresis, but the rate was smaller than that of urinary excretion. 4) Continuous modest increase in aldosterone secretion rate was shown after diuresis and total excess amount of aldosterone secretion for 24 hrs was equivalent to the amount of aldosterone excretion produced by diruesis. 5) Abrupt marked loss of circulating aldosterone produced by diuresis was supplemented by long lasting increase in secretion for over twenty four hours.
Temme, E.H.M.; Voet, van der H.; Roodenburg, A.; Bulder, A.; Donkersgoed, van A.; Klaveren, van J.D.
Objective Health logos are introduced to distinguish foods with ‘healthier’ nutrient composition from regular foods. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of changed food compositions according to health logo criteria on the intake of saturated fat, sugar and sodium in a Dutch population of
We have pooled data from five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. We reported on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were...
Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao
To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.
Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong; Say, Yee-How
This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic
Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong
This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic
Many studies suggest that high salt intakes are related to high blood pressure and consequently cardiovascular diseases. In addition salt intake was found to be related with obesity, renal stones, osteoporosis and stomach cancer. Belgium, such as other European countries, is suffering from both salt intakes that are twice as high as the recommended intakes and mild iodine deficiency. No comprehensive strategy encompassing both public health problems has been developed. While specific salt reduction targets for processed foods are still under discussion using a consensus approach with industry, an agreement was signed between the bakery sector and the Ministry of Health in April 2009, to encourage and increase the use of iodised salt in the production of bread. Based on results of recent surveys on population iodine status it is advised not to currently revise iodine concentrations in salt in bread but to advocate for a higher percentage of bakers using iodised salt and to install a good monitoring system to control the percentage of bakers effectively using adequately iodised salt. With regard to salt reduction, it is of utmost importance that all companies contribute and harmonise the salt content of their products according to the lowest possible thresholds in a first step. In order to achieve this goal, it will be necessary, in addition to the consensus approach, to come up with at least some legislative tools such as a salt tax or mandatory labelling of foods exceeding a specific sodium concentration. Once salt reduction targets have been clearly defined in Belgium over the longer term, a legal framework should be set in place where iodine concentration in salt for the production of bread and household salt is strictly regulated by law, to avoid a large variability in the iodine content of salt brands consumed. In conclusion, it is possible to tackle salt reduction and iodine deficiency at the same time on the condition that the approach is coordinated and well
Horikawa, Chika; Yoshimura, Yukio; Kamada, Chiemi; Tanaka, Shiro; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hanyu, Osamu; Araki, Atsushi; Ito, Hideki; Tanaka, Akira; Ohashi, Yasuo; Akanuma, Yasuo; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Sone, Hirohito
Many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes should reduce their dietary sodium intake. However, the relationship between dietary sodium intake and incidence of diabetic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been explored. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between dietary sodium intake and incidence of diabetes complications. The study was of a nationwide cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes aged 40 to 70 years with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥6.5%. After excluding nonresponders to a dietary survey, 1588 patients were analyzed. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire based on food groups. Primary outcomes were times to cardiovascular disease (CVD), overt nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and all-cause mortality. Mean daily dietary sodium intake in quartiles ranged from 2.8 to 5.9 g. After adjustment for confounders, hazard ratios for CVD in patients in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of sodium intake compared with the first quartile were 1.70 (95% confidence interval, 0.98-2.94), 1.47 (0.82-2.62), and 2.07 (1.21-3.90), respectively (trend P sodium intake was dramatically elevated compared with patients with HbA1c sodium intake. Findings suggested that high dietary sodium intake is associated with elevated incidence of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes and that there is a synergistic effect between HbA1c values and dietary sodium intake for the development of CVD.
Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.
record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. Main outcome measure: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages....... Difference between reported energy intake from both methods and estimated energy expenditure in different subgroups. Results: Energy and macronutrient intake was assessed slightly higher by the 7 day food record than by the diet history interview, but in absolute terms the differences were negligible......-reporting increased by BMI in both sexes and by age in men. Conclusions: Energy and macronutrient intake data collected under even conditions by either a 7 day food record or a diet history interview may be collapsed and analysed independent of the underlying diet method. Both diet methods, however, appear...
Bonfils, Peter K; Taskiran, Mustafa; Damgaard, Morten
fluid compartments and haemodynamic responses (at rest and during exercise) after 5 days of a low-sodium diet (90 mmol/day) and 5 days of a high-sodium diet (250 mmol/day) in 12 morbidly obese, hypertensive patients; 12 morbidly obese, normotensive patients and 12 nonobese controls. RESULTS: High sodium......BACKGROUND: Many patients with morbid obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m) have hypertension. The complex pathophysiological abnormalities linking hypertension to obesity have not been fully clarified, but abnormal sodium handling could be an important mechanism. METHOD: Therefore, we examined changes in body...... intake as compared to low sodium intake was associated with an increase in plasma volume (obese, hypertensive patients: 5 ± 4%; obese, normotensive patients: 10 ± 11%; nonobese controls: 7 ± 6%), cardiac output (CO) (obese, hypertensive patients: 17 ± 12%; obese, normotensive patients: 20 ± 16%; nonobese...
Full Text Available There have been few studies investigating interactions of G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3 C825T (rs5443 and dietary sodium intake on the risk of hypertension, i.e., BP salt sensitivity. The study aims to evaluate joint effects of GNB3 polymorphisms and sodium consumption on the development of hypertension. A cohort-based case-control study was conducted in 2014. There are 233 participants with newly diagnosed hypertension in the case group and 699 participants in the gender-matched control group. The primary outcome is the development of hypertension over a 10-year period. The determinants of hypertension were three genotypes of SNP in GNB3 (TT; CT; and CC and two dietary salt categories on the basis of the level of sodium consumption representing high (>4800 mg/day and low-sodium (<2400 mg/day diets. The development of hypertension increased with participants carrying TT genotype and high-sodium diets comparing with those carrying TC or CC genotype with low-sodium diets (adjusted OR 3.23, 95% CI 1.52–6.83 (Rothman synergy index = 3.79. The study suggests that GNB3 C825T polymorphism may influence the response of the renin-angiotensin system to high-sodium diet. It implies that GNB3 can be served as an easy, inexpensive, and early genetic marker of salt sensitivity to blood pressure. Salt-sensitive individuals should pay more attention to salt intake to reduce cardiovascular morbidity or mortality.
Webb, Michael; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali M; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Powles, John
Objective To quantify the cost effectiveness of a government policy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce sodium intake in 183 countries worldwide. Design Global modeling study. Setting 183 countries. Population Full adult population in each country. Intervention A “soft regulation” national policy that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education to reduce population sodium intake, modeled on the recent successful UK program. To account for heterogeneity in efficacy across countries, a range of scenarios were evaluated, including 10%, 30%, 0.5 g/day, and 1.5 g/day sodium reductions achieved over 10 years. We characterized global sodium intakes, blood pressure levels, effects of sodium on blood pressure and of blood pressure on cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease rates in 2010, each by age and sex, in 183 countries. Country specific costs of a sodium reduction policy were estimated using the World Health Organization Noncommunicable Disease Costing Tool. Country specific impacts on mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were modeled using comparative risk assessment. We only evaluated program costs, without incorporating potential healthcare savings from prevented events, to provide conservative estimates of cost effectiveness Main outcome measure Cost effectiveness ratio, evaluated as purchasing power parity adjusted international dollars (equivalent to the country specific purchasing power of US$) per DALY saved over 10 years. Results Worldwide, a 10% reduction in sodium consumption over 10 years within each country was projected to avert approximately 5.8 million DALYs/year related to cardiovascular diseases, at a population weighted mean cost of I$1.13 per capita over the 10 year intervention. The population weighted mean cost effectiveness ratio was approximately I$204/DALY. Across nine world regions, estimated cost effectiveness of sodium reduction
Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D
Sodium intakes, from foods and beverages, of 22,852 persons in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2003-2008) were examined by specific food source and by food location of origin. Analyses were based on a single 24-h recall. Separate analyses were conducted for children (6-11 years of age), adolescents (12-19), and adults (20-50 and ≥51 years). Grouping of like foods (e.g., food sources) used a scheme proposed by the National Cancer Institute, which divides foods/beverages into 96 food subgroups (e.g., pizza, yeast breads or cold cuts). Food locations of origin were stores (e.g., grocery, convenience and specialty stores), quick-service restaurant/pizza (QSR), full-service restaurant (FSR), school, or other. Food locations of sodium were also evaluated by race/ethnicity amongst adults. Stores provided between 58.1% and 65.2% of dietary sodium, whereas QSR and FSR together provided between 18.9% and 31.8% depending on age. The proportion of sodium from QSR varied from 10.1% to 19.9%, whereas that from FSR varied from 3.4% to 13.3%. School meals provided 10.4% of sodium for 6-11 year olds and 6.0% for 12-19 year olds. Pizza from QSR, the top away from home food item, provided 5.4% of sodium in adolescents. QSR pizza, chicken, burgers and Mexican dishes combined provided 7.8% of total sodium in adult diets. Most sodium came from foods purchased in stores. Food manufacturers, restaurants, and grocery stores all have a role to play in reducing the amount of sodium in the American diet.
Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong; Say, Yee-How
This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respect...
Full Text Available Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs published in the period 1973–2014. 63 of the RCTs including 72 study populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p < 0.00001, corresponding to 2.4% of the baseline heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction increases heart rate by as much (2.4% as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%. This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines.
Kim, Yunmi; Kim, Hyun-Young; Kim, Jung Hwan
Osteoporosis is prevalent among postmenopausal women, and increasing evidence has linked salt intake with this disease. In this article, we explored the association between dietary sodium intake and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. We analyzed data for 3635 postmenopausal women extracted from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We found that 1542 participants (42.4%) have osteoporosis. The adjusted prevalence rates of osteoporosis at the lumbar spine were significantly higher in participants who consumed ≥4001 mg of salt than those who consumed ≤2000 mg. At the femoral neck, rates were significantly higher for those who consumed ≥5001 mg compared with those who consumed ≤4000 mg. Participants with a higher sodium intake showed a significantly higher odds ratio of developing lumbar and femoral neck osteoporosis, compared with those with a lower intake. Our results suggest that excessive daily sodium intake is associated with a higher osteoporosis prevalence in Korean postmenopausal women.
Lindsy S. Kass
Full Text Available The effects of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure (BP have been studied for over 25 years and results have been inconsistent. Blood pressure reductions in randomized studies have varied from 12 mmHg reductions to no reduction. The objective of this pilot intervention was to investigate the effect of magnesium supplementation on systolic blood pressure whilst resting and during recovery from aerobic and resistance exercise and on performance. A further objective was to see whether the effect of a high vs low habitual dietary magnesium intake affected these results. Sixteen male volunteers were randomly assigned to either a 300 mg·d-1 magnesium oxide supplementation (MO or a control group (CG for 14 days. Resting blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR were measured before subjects performed a maximal 30 minute cycle, immediately followed by three x 5 second isometric bench press, both at baseline and after the intervention. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded immediately post exercise and after five minutes recovery. A 3 day food diary was recorded for all subjects to measure dietary magnesium intake. At the end of the intervention, the supplemented group, had a reduction in mean resting systolic BP by 8.9 mmHg (115.125 ± 9.46 mmHg, p = 0.01 and post exercise by 13 mmHg (122.625 ± 9. 88 mmHg, p = 0.01. Recovery BP was 11.9 mmHg lower in the intervention group compared to control (p = 0.006 and HR decreased by 7 beats per minute in the experimental group (69.0 ± 11.6 bpm, p = 0. 02. Performance indicators did not change within and between the groups. Habitual dietary magnesium intake affected both resting and post exercise systolic BP and the subsequent effect of the magnesium supplementation. These results have an implication in a health setting and for health and exercise but not performance.
Sharma, Shailendra; McFann, Kim; Chonchol, Michel; Kendrick, Jessica
The relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake with elevated blood pressure (BP) levels is unclear. We examined the association between dietary sodium and potassium intake and BP levels in 6985 adults 18 years of age or older with no prior history of hypertension who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001–2006). After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, diabetes and eGFR, there was no association between higher quartiles of sodium or potassium intake with the risk of a BP >140/90 mmHg or >130/80 mmHg. There was also no relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake with BP when systolic and diastolic BP were measured as continuous outcomes (p=0.68 and p=0.74, respectively). Furthermore, no association was found between combinations of sodium and potassium intake with elevated BP. In the US adult population without hypertension, increased dietary sodium or low potassium intake was not associated with elevated BP levels. PMID:24720647
Swanepoel, Bianca; Schutte, Aletta E; Cockeran, Marike; Steyn, Krisela; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss
Limited number of studies on salt intake has been conducted in the South Africa. The present study established the sodium and potassium excretion (24-hour urine collection) of three different South African populations. In total, 692 successful 24-hour urine collections were analyzed for sodium, potassium, and iodine levels. The median sodium and potassium excretion was 122.9 and 33.5 mmol/d, respectively, and the median salt intake was 7.2 g/d. The majority (92.8%) of the population did not meet the recommended potassium intake/d, and 65.6% consumed more than 6 g of salt/d. Potassium excretion showed a linear relationship with salt intake (P-trend ≤ .001). The median sodium-to-potassium ratio was 3.5. These findings support the South African government's sodium reduction legislation, as well as global initiatives. More consideration should be given to promoting the intake of potassium-rich foods, as this may have a greater public health impact than focusing only on dietary sodium reduction. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...
Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Mill, José Geraldo; Sichieri, Rosely; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi
Biomarkers are a good choice to be used in the validation of food frequency questionnaire due to the independence of their random errors. To assess the validity of the potassium and sodium intake estimated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil. A subsample of participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort was included in this study in 2009. Sodium and potassium intake were estimated using three methods: Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, 12-hour nocturnal urinary excretion and three 24-hour food records. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the methods, and the validity coefficient was calculated using the method of triads. The 95% confidence intervals for the validity coefficient were estimated using bootstrap sampling. Exact and adjacent agreement and disagreement of the estimated sodium and potassium intake quintiles were compared among three methods. The sample consisted of 246 participants, aged 53±8 years, 52% of women. Validity coefficient for sodium were considered weak (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.37 and рbiomarker actual intake = 0.21) and moderate (рfood records actual intake 0.56). The validity coefficient were higher for potassium (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.60; рbiomarker actual intake = 0.42; рfood records actual intake = 0.79). Conclusions: The Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil showed good validity in estimating potassium intake in epidemiological studies. For sodium validity was weak, likely due to the non-quantification of the added salt to prepared food.
Wakasugi, Minako; James Kazama, Junichiro; Narita, Ichiei
In Japan, reducing the consumption of miso soup and Japanese pickles, both traditional Japanese dishes, is recommended in order to decrease dietary salt intake. With the Westernization of dietary habits, however, these dishes are now consumed less frequently, and thus a reduction in their effect on sodium intake is suspected. This study examined cross-sectional associations between the frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles and the estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion using data obtained from health examination surveys conducted in 2013 in Sado City, Japan. The level of daily salt intake was estimated based on spot urine sodium and creatinine measurements. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles was determined using a self-reported questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess associations. Among a total of 8,821 participants (3,956 men; age range, 19-97 years), the mean daily salt intake was 9.4 g/day. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles increased with age and was associated with the level of daily salt intake (p for trend soup (psoup and Japanese pickles may be an effective approach for decreasing the level of dietary salt intake in the general Japanese population, although not in octogenarians or nonagenarians.
Lee, Yo A; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Hyesook; Kim, Ki Nam; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook; Ha, Mina; Kim, Yangho; Hong, Yun-Chul; Chang, Namsoo
Pb is released from bone stores during pregnancy, which constitutes a period of increased bone resorption. A high Na intake has been found to be negatively associated with Ca and adversely associated with bone metabolism. It is possible that a high Na intake during pregnancy increases the blood Pb concentration; however, no previous study has reported on the relationship between Na intake and blood Pb concentration. We thus have investigated this relationship between Na intake and blood Pb concentrations, and examined whether this relationship differs with Ca intake in pregnant Korean women. Blood Pb concentrations were analysed in 1090 pregnant women at mid-pregnancy. Dietary intakes during mid-pregnancy were estimated by a 24 h recall method covering the use of dietary supplements. Blood Pb concentrations in whole-blood samples were analysed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Multiple regression analysis performed after adjustment for covariates revealed that maternal Na intake was positively associated with blood Pb concentration during pregnancy, but only when Ca intake was below the estimated average requirement for pregnant Korean women (P= 0·001). The findings of the present study suggest that blood Pb concentration during pregnancy could be minimised by dietary recommendations that include decreased Na and increased Ca intakes.
Conclusion: In order to control the effect of sodium on diseases, attention must also be paid to the influence of potassium on diseases as a covariate, and it is considered that additional research should be made regarding the role of potassium in studying the impact of sodium on health in the future.
Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela; Nadbrzuch, Rachel
The rate of habituation to food is inversely related to energy intake, and overweight children may habituate slower to food and consume more energy. This study compared patterns of sensitization, as defined by an initial increase in operant or motivated responding for food, and habituation, defined by gradual reduction in responding, for macaroni…
Harris, S.J.; Gilmore, A.
Measurements have been made of the rate at which tritiated water and 125 I-labelled sodium iodide solution penetrate various types of protective gloves, both isotopes being in common use in this form in universities and similar establishments. Diffusion coefficients relating to the glove materials are also determined. The health physics aspects are discussed and it is concluded that intakes by workers through intact gloves are not likely to be of major significance and can easily be minimised by the correct use and choice of glove. (author)
Monfá, Elena; Rodrigo, Emilio; Belmar, Lara; Sango, Cristina; Moussa, Fozi; Ruiz San Millán, Juan Carlos; Piñera, Celestino; Fernández-Fresnedo, Gema; Arias, Manuel
Post-transplant proteinuria is associated with lower graft and patient survival. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers are used to reduce proteinuria and improve renal outcome. Although it is known that a high salt intake blunts the antiproteinuric effect of ACEI and ARB drugs in non-transplant patients, this effect has not been studied in kidney transplant recipients. To analyse the relationship between sodium intake and the antiproteinuric effect of ACEI/ARB drugs in kidney transplant recipients. We selected 103 kidney transplant recipients receiving ACEI/ARB drugs for more than 6 months due to proteinuria>1 g/day. Proteinuria was analysed at baseline and at 6 months after starting ACEI/ARB treatment. Salt intake was estimated by urinary sodium to creatinine ratio (uNa/Cr). Proteinuria fell to less than 1g/day in 46 patients (44.7%). High uNa/Cr was associated with a smaller proteinuria decrease (r=-0.251, P=.011). The percentage proteinuria reduction was significantly lower in patients in the highest uNa/Cr tertile [63.9% (IQR 47.1%), 60.1% (IQR 55.4%), 38.9% (IQR 85.5%), P=.047]. High uNa/Cr independently relates (OR 2.406 per 100 mEq/g, 95% CI: 1.008-5.745, P=.048) to an antiproteinuric response <50% after renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade. A high salt intake results in a smaller proteinuria decrease in kidney transplant recipients with proteinuria treated with ACEI/ARB drugs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Webb, Michael; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali M; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Powles, John; Mozaffarian, Dariush
To quantify the cost effectiveness of a government policy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce sodium intake in 183 countries worldwide. Global modeling study. 183 countries. Full adult population in each country. A "soft regulation" national policy that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education to reduce population sodium intake, modeled on the recent successful UK program. To account for heterogeneity in efficacy across countries, a range of scenarios were evaluated, including 10%, 30%, 0.5 g/day, and 1.5 g/day sodium reductions achieved over 10 years. We characterized global sodium intakes, blood pressure levels, effects of sodium on blood pressure and of blood pressure on cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease rates in 2010, each by age and sex, in 183 countries. Country specific costs of a sodium reduction policy were estimated using the World Health Organization Noncommunicable Disease Costing Tool. Country specific impacts on mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were modeled using comparative risk assessment. We only evaluated program costs, without incorporating potential healthcare savings from prevented events, to provide conservative estimates of cost effectiveness MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Cost effectiveness ratio, evaluated as purchasing power parity adjusted international dollars (equivalent to the country specific purchasing power of US$) per DALY saved over 10 years. Worldwide, a 10% reduction in sodium consumption over 10 years within each country was projected to avert approximately 5.8 million DALYs/year related to cardiovascular diseases, at a population weighted mean cost of I$1.13 per capita over the 10 year intervention. The population weighted mean cost effectiveness ratio was approximately I$204/DALY. Across nine world regions, estimated cost effectiveness of sodium reduction was best in South Asia (I$116/DALY); across the world
Nilsen, Bente B; Yngve, Agneta; Monteagudo, Celia; Tellström, Richard; Scander, Henrik; Werner, Bo
The aim of this study was to examine the reported frequency of breakfast intake and selected food and beverages in the investigated group of Swedish children in comparison with recommended intakes. Furthermore, the study analyses these food habits and some demographic and lifestyle factors in relation to overweight and obesity. This cross-sectional study builds on data collected in 2008 and 2010. Measured anthropometric data and parent questionnaire data were collected. A total of 2620 Swedish children (52.1% boys) aged seven to nine years were included. The majority of parents reported that their children (95.4%) had breakfast every day. The majority of children had fresh fruit (84.7%) and vegetables (83.9%) most days a week. Only 1.6% of the children were reported to have fast food and 6.0% to have sugar containing soft drinks, four days a week or more. The prevalence of overweight including obesity (OW/OB) was 17.8% for boys, 18.6% for girls. The odds of being OW/OB was higher among those not having breakfast every day (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-2.96), drinking diet soft drink (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.52-4.42) and skimmed/semi-skimmed milk (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.37-2.36) four days a week or more. Parents being overweight and having low education levels were also related to a higher risk of their children being overweight. The parental reports of children's food habits pointed at favourable eating patterns for most investigated children. Breakfast skipping, diet soft drinks and low-fat milk consumption were more frequent among OW/OB children. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the causal relationships.
Maia, D R R; Lopes, K L; Heimann, J C; Furukawa, L N S
This study aimed to evaluate the systemic and renal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) at birth in male and female offspring and in mothers fed a high sodium diet (HSD) before and during gestation. Female Wistar rats were fed a HSD (8.0% NaCl) or a normal sodium diet (1.3% NaCl) from 8 weeks of age until delivery of their first litter. Maternal body weight, tail blood pressure, and food and water intake were evaluated. The litter sizes were assessed, and the body and kidney weights of the offspring were measured. Both mothers and offspring were euthanized immediately following the birth of the pups to evaluate plasma renin activity (PRA), renal renin content (RRC), renal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, renal angiotensin (Ang) II content, serum aldosterone (ALDO) levels, and renal cortical and medullary renin messenger RNA expression. In mothers in the HSD group, water intake and kidney mass were higher, whereas renal ACE activity, Ang II, PRA, ALDO and RRC were decreased. In the offspring of HSD-fed dams, the body and kidney mass were lower in both genders, renal ACE activity was lower in females and renal Ang II was lower in males. PRA, RRC, renin gene expression and ALDO levels did not differ between the groups of offspring. The data presented herein showed that a maternal HSD during pregnancy induces low birth weight and a sex-specific response in the RAAS in offspring.
Terezila M. Coimbra
Full Text Available Exposure to an adverse environment in utero appears to programme physiology and metabolism permanently, with long-term consequences for health of the fetus or offspring. It was observed that the offspring from dams submitted to high-sodium intake during pregnancy present disturbances in renal development and in blood pressure. These alterations were associated with lower plasma levels of angiotensin II (AII and changes in renal AII receptor I (AT1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK expressions during post natal kidney development. Clinical and experimental evidence show that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS participates in renal development. Many effects of AII are mediated through MAPK pathways. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs play a pivotal role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, high-sodium intake during pregnancy and lactation can provoke disturbances in renal development in offspring leading to functional and structural alterations that persist in adult life. These changes can be related at least in part with the decrease in RAS activity considering that this system has an important role in renal development.
protein (CP) had alleviated these detrimental effects to some extent. This was a ... feed intake and changes in certain rumen parameters of young Merino ..... in saliva, with a commensurate increase in the K ... its relation to feeding in cattle. 1.
Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela; Nadbrzuch, Rachel
The rate of habituation to food is inversely related to energy intake, and overweight children may habituate slower to food and consume more energy. This study compared patterns of sensitization, as defined by an initial increase in operant or motivated responding for food, and habituation, defined by gradual reduction in responding, for macaroni and cheese and pizza in overweight and non-overweight 8−12 year-old children. Non-overweight children habituated faster to both foods than overweigh...
Hea Young Oh
Full Text Available Hypertension and hypertriglycemia are the most important contributors to metabolic syndrome (MetS and cardiovascular disease risk in South Koreans with a relatively lean body mass. These major contributors differ from those identified in Western populations. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the Korean diet associated with increased risk of MetS, whose prevalence has been steadily increasing in South Korea. On the basis of data collected from 5,320 subjects by the 2007-2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 3 dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis and their association with the risk of MetS and its components was examined. The balanced Korean diet, a typical Korean diet of rice and kimchi intake supplemented by a variety of foods had a desirable macronutrient composition and was associated with a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.45-0.84 and hypertriglyceridemia (0.69, 0.49-0.88 in men and a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (0.59, 0.41-0.85 and MetS (0.67, 0.47-0.96 in women. The unbalanced Korean diet, characterized by a high intake of carbohydrates and sodium and little variety, was associated with a higher risk of MetS (1.44, 1.03-2.01 and elevated blood pressure (1.41, 1.00-1.98 in women. The semi-western diet, characterized by a relatively high intake of meat, poultry, and alcohol, was associated with a lower risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.70, 0.54-0.89 in women. Thus, macronutrient composition and sodium intake are associated with the risk of MetS and prehypertension in women. Maintaining a desirable macronutrient composition and avoiding excessive consumption of carbohydrates and sodium should be emphasized for prevention of MetS and hypertension in South Korean women.
Anderson, Cheryl A M; Cobb, Laura K; Miller, Edgar R; Woodward, Mark; Hottenstein, Annette; Chang, Alex R; Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; White, Karen; Charleston, Jeanne; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thomas, Letitia; Appel, Lawrence J
For decades, dietary sodium intake in the United States has remained high, and few studies have examined strategies for maintaining recommended intakes. We examined the effects of a behavioral intervention, which emphasized spices and herbs, on the maintenance of sodium intake at the recommended intake of 1500 mg/d in individuals to whom the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans apply. We conducted a 2-phase study that included adults ≥18 y of age for whom Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends 1500 mg Na/d. The study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, from 2012 to 2014. In phase 1, 55 individuals consumed a low-sodium diet for 4 wk. Participants were provided all foods, snacks, and calorie-containing drinks. In phase 2, 40 participants from phase 1 were randomly assigned to either a behavioral intervention to reduce sodium intake (n = 20) or a self-directed control group (n = 20) for 20 wk. The primary study outcome was the change in mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion during phase 2. Linear regression analyses were used to determine intervention effects on urinary sodium excretion. Participant characteristics were as follows: women: 65%; African American: 88%; hypertension: 63%; diabetes: 18%; mean age: 61 y; and mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30. At the end of phase 2, mean 24-h sodium excretion was lower in the behavioral intervention than in the self-directed group (mean difference: -956.8 mg/d; 95% CI: -1538.7, -374.9 mg/d) after sodium intake at screening was controlled for (P = 0.002). These findings persisted in sensitivity analyses that excluded potentially incomplete urine collections [Mage's equation mean difference: -1090 mg/d (P = 0.001); Joosens' equation mean difference: -796 mg/d (P = 0.04)]. A multifactorial behavioral intervention emphasizing spices and herbs significantly reduced sodium intake. Because of the ubiquity of sodium in the US food supply, multilevel strategies addressing individual behaviors and the food supply are needed
David R Lloyd; David R Lloyd; Douglas J Medina; Larry W Hawk; Whitney D Fosco; Jerry B Richards
In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We ar...
Massaro, Laura; Barbati, Cristiana; Vomero, Marta; Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Riccieri, Valeria; Spagnoli, Alessandra; Alessandri, Cristiano; Desideri, Giovambattista; Conti, Fabrizio
We aimed at investigating whether the frequency and function of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) are affected by a restriction of dietary sodium intake in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We enrolled RA and SLE patients not receiving drugs known to increase urinary sodium excretion. Patients underwent a dietary regimen starting with a restricted daily sodium intake followed by a normal-sodium daily intake. The timepoints were identified at baseline (T0), after 3 weeks of low-sodium dietary regimen (T3), after 2 weeks of normal-sodium dietary regimen (T5). On these visits, we measured the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, the frequency and function of Th17 and Treg cells in the peripheral blood, the serum levels of cytokines. Analysis of urinary sodium excretion confirmed adherence to the dietary regimen. In RA patients, a trend toward a reduction in the frequencies of Th17 cells over the low-sodium dietary regimen followed by an increase at T5 was observed, while Treg cells exhibited the opposite trend. SLE patients showed a progressive reduction in the percentage of Th17 cells that reached a significance at T5 compared to T0 (p = 0.01) and an increase in the percentage of Treg cells following the low-sodium dietary regimen at both T1 and T3 compared to T0 (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). No significant apoptosis or proliferation modulation was found. In RA patients, we found a reduction at T5 compared to T0 in serum levels of both TGFβ (p = 0.0016) and IL-9 (p = 0.0007); serum IL-9 levels were also reduced in SLE patients at T5 with respect to T0 (p = 0.03). This is the first study investigating the effects of dietary sodium intake on adaptive immunity. Based on the results, we hypothesize that a restricted sodium dietary intake may dampen the inflammatory response in RA and SLE patients. PMID:28877244
The technical report on sodium intake and cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries by the joint working group of the World Heart Federation, the European Society of Hypertension and the European Public Health Association.
Mancia, Giuseppe; Oparil, Suzanne; Whelton, Paul K; McKee, Martin; Dominiczak, Anna; Luft, Friedrich C; AlHabib, Khalid; Lanas, Fernando; Damasceno, Albertino; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; La Torre, Giuseppe; Weber, Michael; O'Donnell, Martin; Smith, Sidney C; Narula, Jagat
Ingestion of sodium is essential to health, but excess sodium intake is a risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Defining an optimal range of sodium intake in populations has been challenging and controversial. Clinical trials evaluating the effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure have shown blood pressure lowering effects down to sodium intake of less than 1.5 g/day. Findings from these blood pressure trials form the basis for current guideline recommendations to reduce sodium intake to less than 2.3 g/day. However, these clinical trials employed interventions that are not feasible for population-wide implementation (i.e. feeding studies or intensive behavioural interventions), particularly in low and middle-income countries. Prospective cohort studies have identified the optimal range of sodium intake to reside in the moderate range (3-5 g/day), where the risk of cardiovascular disease and death is lowest. Therefore, there is consistent evidence from clinical trials and observational studies to support reducing sodium intake to less than 5 g/day in populations, but inconsistent evidence for further reductions below a moderate intake range (3-5 g/day). Unfortunately, there are no large randomized controlled trials comparing low sodium intake ( 5 g/day), which should be embedded within an overall healthy dietary pattern. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Mossman, K.L.; Martini, A.J.; Henkin, R.I.
An animal model has been used in an investigation of taste dysfunction, which is a side effect of radiotherapy of the head and neck. Rats were 60 Co γ-irradiated (1.5, 5 or 20 Gy) to the head, abdomen or tail, and fluid preference was measured with a two-bottle free choice technique up to 120 days post-irradiation. Doses of 1.5 or 5 Gy delivered to the head, abdomen or tail did not change fluid preference, body weight or total fluid intake, but there were significant differences in all three in 20 Gy head-irradiated rats only. There were differences in the changes with time after irradiation in fluid intake and preference for these head irradiated animals. (UK)
This paper proposes embodied rhythmic sound habituation as a possible resource when designing contextualized technologies in critical atmospheres. The main contribution is collating the concept of rhythm as presented by Henri Lefebvre with the concept of sound habituation to help operationalize...... functionality for the staff, but are stressful for visitors and patients, as they are designed to demand attention even though they have no direct functional meaning to them. By introducing sounds from the ward, integrated in the furniture as simple sound sample triggers, KidKit invites children to become...... accustomed to the alarming sounds through rhythmic interaction in the waiting room, and bringing the furniture with them afterwards as a secure anchor, when entering the ward. This rhythmic habituation can enable the child to focus her attention on the meeting with the hospitalized relative....
Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...
The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...
Grimes, Carley A; Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A
Overweight and obesity in children and adults is a major public health concern. Emerging evidence suggests dietary sodium intake may be associated with obesity. This systematic review and meta-analysis will aim to (i) assess the relation between dietary sodium intake and measures of adiposity in children and adults and (ii) examine the relation between sodium intake and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, which is a known risk factor for obesity. An electronic search will be conducted using Medline Complete, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase and Cochrane central register of controlled trials (CENTRAL). The search strategy will identify published peer-reviewed articles that report on dietary sodium and either a marker of adiposity or SSB consumption. Only human studies (ages >1 year) in English will be included, and no limits will be placed on publication date. No restrictions will be placed on the method of sodium intake assessment. Cross-sectional, prospective studies, and randomised controlled trials with a duration of ≥ 3 months will be included. Studies with participants with renal disease, cancer, type 1 diabetes or heart failure or who are pregnant will be excluded. To assess the quality of studies, the Cochrane's Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials will be used for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale will be used for cross-sectional and prospective studies. Meta-analysis will be used to assess the relation of sodium intake with two primary outcomes: (i) BMI and body weight in adults and BMI z-score in children and (ii) weight category (i.e. healthy weight vs. overweight/obese). For any outcomes in which meta-analysis is not possible, we will present data as a systematic review. Findings will be grouped and reported separately for children and adolescents (ages 1-17 years) and adults (ages >18 years). This review and meta-analysis will provide insight into the relation between dietary
Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Frølich, Wenche; Dahl, Knut Helkås; Iversen, Per Ole; Lyche, Jan Ludvig; Lillegaard, Inger Therese Laugsand; Alexander, Jan
High sodium chloride (NaCl) intake is associated with health risks. NaCl may be replaced by potassium chloride (KCl) to decrease sodium intake. However, increased potassium may also have negative health effects. We conducted a benefit and risk assessment of increasing potassium by ratios of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 (weight % K + : weight % Na + ) in children, adolescents and adults in Norway, using intake data from national food consumption surveys and available literature on potassium health effects. An intake of at least 3.5 g/day of potassium decreases risk of stroke and hypertension, and this level was used in the benefit assessment of the healthy population. Three g/day of potassium added to mean food intake is assumed safe, and these levels were used in the risk assessment. Not all persons reached the protective level of potassium, and increasing numbers exceeded the safe levels, in these scenarios. In addition, elderly above 85 years and infants below one year of age, as well as several patient groups and medication users, are particularly vulnerable to hyperkalemia. In conclusion, the number of Norwegians facing increased risk is far greater than the number likely to benefit from this replacement of sodium with potassium in industrially produced food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moreira, M C S; da Silva, E F; Silveira, L L; de Paiva, Y B; de Castro, C H; Freiria-Oliveira, A H; Rosa, D A; Ferreira, P M; Xavier, C H; Colombari, E; Pedrino, Gustavo R
Epigenetic studies suggest that diseases that develop in adulthood are related to certain conditions to which the individual is exposed during the initial stages of life. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that offspring born to mothers maintained on high-Na diets during pregnancy have higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in adulthood. Although these studies have demonstrated the importance of prenatal phases to hypertension development, no evidence regarding the role of high Na intake during postnatal phases in the development of this pathology has been reported. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of Na overload during childhood on induced water and Na intakes and on cardiovascular parameters in adulthood were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in two groups of 21-d-old rats: experimental group, maintained on hypertonic saline (0.3 m-NaCl) solution and food for 60 d, and control group, maintained on tap water and food. Later, both groups were given water and food for 15 d (recovery period). After the recovery period, chronic cannulation of the right femoral artery was performed in unanaesthetised rats to record baseline MAP and heart rate (HR). The experimental group was found to have increased basal MAP (98.6 (sem 2.6) v. 118.3 (sem 2.7) mmHg, P< 0.05) and HR (365.4 (sem 12.2) v. 398.2 (sem 7.5) beats per min, P< 0.05). There was a decrease in the baroreflex index in the experimental group when compared with that in the control group. A water and Na intake test was performed using furosemide. Na depletion was found to induce an increase in Na intake in both the control and experimental groups (12.1 (sem 0.6) ml and 7.8 (sem 1.1), respectively, P< 0.05); however, this increase was of lower magnitude in the experimental group. These results demonstrate that postnatal Na overload alters behavioural and cardiovascular regulation in adulthood.
Yılmaz, Zehra Vural; Akkaş, Elif; Türkmen, Gülenay Gençosmanoğlu; Kara, Özgür; Yücel, Aykan; Uygur, Dilek
In this study, we hypothesized that dietary salt and potassium intake may be related with blood pressure, kidney damage and perinatal outcome in pregnants with preeclampsia (PE). In total, 200 women (50 control women with healthy pregnancy, 150 women with PE) were recruited for the study. Daily salt and potassium intake was estimated based on calculation of 24-hour urinary sodium U[Na+] and potassium U[K+] excretion. U[Na+]/[K+] was calculated by dividing U[Na+] by U[K+]. At the end of the measurements, the pregnant women with PE (n=150) were divided into tertiles according to U[Na+]/[K+]: low Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 1,04±0,32), medium Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 2,49± 0,54), high Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 6,62±3,41). The mean SBP and DBP levels were significantly lower in low Na/K group compared with medium or high Na/K groups (p=0.024, p=0.0002; respectively). Serum creatinine was significantly lower in low Na/K group than high Na/K group (p=0.025). Frequency of severe preeclampsia is lower in low Na/K group than medium or high Na/K groups (p=0.002, p=0.0001; respectively). Birth weight and gestational age at birth were higher in low Na/K group compared with high Na/K group (p=0.045, p=0.0002; respectively). After adjusting for covariates, SBP and DBP and creatinine levels were independently associated with 24 hours urinary [Na+]/[K+] Conclusion: These findings suggest that pregnant with PE with high dietary salt and low potassium intake may have greater maternal and neonatal morbidity risk than pregnant with PE under low dietary salt and high potassium intake.
Full Text Available Hypertension is common and contributes, via cardiovascular disease, towards a large proportion of adult deaths in the Western World. High salt intake leads to high blood pressure, even when occurring prior to birth - a mechanism purported to reside in altered kidney development and later function. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches we tested whether increased maternal salt intake influences fetal kidney development to render the adult individual more susceptible to salt retention and hypertension. We found that salt-loaded pregnant rat dams were hypernatraemic at day 20 gestation (147±5 vs. 128±5 mmoles/L. Increased extracellular salt impeded murine kidney development in vitro, but had little effect in vivo. Kidneys of the adult offspring had few structural or functional abnormalities, but male and female offspring were hypernatraemic (166±4 vs. 149±2 mmoles/L, with a marked increase in plasma corticosterone (e.g. male offspring; 11.9 [9.3-14.8] vs. 2.8 [2.0-8.3] nmol/L median [IQR]. Furthermore, adult male, but not female, offspring had higher mean arterial blood pressure (effect size, +16 [9-21] mm Hg; mean [95% C.I.]. With no clear indication that the kidneys of salt-exposed offspring retained more sodium per se, we conducted a preliminary investigation of their gastrointestinal electrolyte handling and found increased expression of proximal colon solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger, member 3 (SLC9A3 together with altered faecal characteristics and electrolyte handling, relative to control offspring. On the basis of these data we suggest that excess salt exposure, via maternal diet, at a vulnerable period of brain and gut development in the rat neonate lays the foundation for sustained increases in blood pressure later in life. Hence, our evidence further supports the argument that excess dietary salt should be avoided per se, particularly in the range of foods consumed by physiologically immature young.
Felippe, Leandro C; Lopes-Silva, João P; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; McGinley, Cian; Lima-Silva, Adriano E
The combined supplementation of caffeine (CAF) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) may have a potential ergogenic effect during intermittent-exercise tasks such as judo; however, its effect in this sport has not been tested. To investigate the isolated and combined effects of CAF and NaHCO3 on judo performance. Ten judokas performed 4 supplementation protocols-NaHCO3, CAF, NaHCO3 + CAF, and placebo (PLA) (cellulose)-followed by 3 Special Judo Fitness Tests (SJFTs) interspaced with 5 min rest. In the first SJFT, the combined supplement (NaHCO3 + CAF) resulted in a higher number of throws than with PLA (24.4 ± 0.9 and 23.2 ± 1.5 throws, respectively, P = .02). There was no significant difference between conditions for the 2nd SJFT (P = .11). In the 3rd SJFT, NaHCO3 and NaHCO3 + CAF resulted in more throws than with PLA (23.7 ± 1.6, 24.4 ± 1.0, and 22.0 ± 1.6 throws, P = .001 and P = .03, respectively). When the total throws performed in the 3 SJFTs were summed, they were higher than PLA only for NaHCO3 + CAF (68.8 ± 4.4 and 72.7 ± 3.1 throws, respectively, P = .003). Postexercise plasma lactate after each SJFT was higher in all experimental conditions than with PLA (P = .001). There was no significant difference in rating of perceived exertion across the conditions (P = .18). The results of the current study show that the combined supplementation of NaHCO3 + CAF increases judo performance compared with PLA.
David R Lloyd
Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.
Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Temme, Elisabeth H M; Koeman, Fari T; Noort, Martijn W J; Kremer, Stefanie; Janssen, Anke M
Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without flavor compensation (KCl and yeast extract), on bread consumption and sodium intake compensation by choice of sandwich fillings. A total of 116 participants (age: 21 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed a buffet-style breakfast on weekdays for 4 wk. Participants received either regular bread (control group: n = 39), bread whose salt content was gradually lowered each week by 0, 31, 52, and 67% (reduced group: n = 38), or bread whose salt content was also gradually lowered each week but which was also flavor compensated (compensated group: n = 39). A reduction of up to 52% of salt in bread did not lead to lower consumption of bread compared to the control (P = 0.57), whereas less bread was consumed when salt was reduced by 67% (P = 0.006). When bread was flavor compensated, however, a reduction of 67% did not lead to lower consumption (P = 0.69). Salt reduction in bread (with and without flavor compensation) did not induce sodium intake compensation (P = 0.31). In conclusion, a salt reduction of up to 52% in bread or even up to 67% in flavor-compensated bread neither affected bread consumption nor choice of sandwich fillings.
Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of the injection into the supraoptic nucleus (SON of non-peptide AT1- and AT2-angiotensin II (ANG II receptor antagonists, DuP753 and PD123319, as well as of the arginine-vasopressin (AVP receptor antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP, on water and 3% NaCl intake induced by the injection of ANG II into the medial septal area (MSA. The effects on water or 3% NaCl intake were assessed in 30-h water-deprived or in 20-h water-deprived furosemide-treated adult male rats, respectively. The drugs were injected in 0.5 ml over 30-60 s. Controls were injected with a similar volume of 0.15 M NaCl. Antagonists were injected at doses of 20, 80 and 180 nmol. Water and sodium intake was measured over a 2-h period. Previous administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist DuP753 into the SON decreased water (65%, N = 10, P<0.01 and sodium intake (81%, N = 8, P<0.01 induced by the injection of ANG II (10 nmol into the MSA. Neither of these responses was significantly changed by injection of the AT2-receptor antagonist PD123319 into the SON. On the other hand, while there was a decrease in water intake (45%, N = 9, P<0.01, ANG II-induced sodium intake was significantly increased (70%, N = 8, P<0.01 following injection of the V1-type vasopressin antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP into the SON. These results suggest that both AT1 and V1 receptors within the SON may be involved in water and sodium intake induced by the activation of ANG II receptors within the MSA. Furthermore, they do not support the involvement of MSA AT2 receptors in the mediation of these responses.
Siobhan A. O’Halloran
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial. The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male, mean age 3.5 (0.19 (SD years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267 mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5 and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%, fruit (19%, and vegetable (14% products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8, white bread/rolls (6.0, and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4. Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75 serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72 dairy, and 0.52 (0.32 serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits.
Park, Sohyun; Lee, Heeseung; Seo, Dong-Il; Oh, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Taik Gun; Choi, Bo Youl
This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a sodium reduction program at local restaurants through nutrition education and examination of the health of restaurant owners and cooks. The study was a single-arm pilot intervention using a pre-post design in one business district with densely populated restaurants in Seoul, South Korea. The intervention focused on improving nutrition behaviors and psychosocial factors through education, health examination, and counseling of restaurant personnel. Forty-eight restaurant owners and cooks completed the baseline survey and participated in the intervention. Forty participants completed the post-intervention survey. The overweight and obesity prevalences were 25.6% and 39.5%, respectively, and 74.4% of participants had elevated blood pressure. After health examination, counseling, and nutrition education, several nutrition behaviors related to sodium intake showed improvement. In addition, those who consumed less salt in their baseline diet (measured with urine dipsticks) were more likely to agree that providing healthy foods to their customers is necessary. This study demonstrated the potential to reduce the sodium contents of restaurant foods by improving restaurant owners' and cooks' psychological factors and their own health behaviors. This small pilot study demonstrated that working with restaurant owners and cooks to improve their own health and sodium intake may have an effect on participation in restaurant-based sodium reduction initiatives. Future intervention studies with a larger sample size and comparison group can focus on improving the health and perceptions of restaurant personnel in order to increase the feasibility and efficacy of restaurant-based sodium reduction programs and policies.
Lloyd, David R; Medina, Douglas J; Hawk, Larry W; Fosco, Whitney D; Richards, Jerry B
In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect "accelerated-HRE." Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.
Full Text Available The maximum content of sodium in selected processed foods (PF in Argentina was limited by a law enacted in 2013. Data about intake of these and other foods are necessary for policy planning, implementation, evaluation, and monitoring. We examined data from the CESCAS I population-based cohort study to assess the main dietary sources among PF and frequency of discretionary salt use by sex, age, and education attainment, before full implementation of the regulations in 2015. We used a validated 34-item FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess PF intake and discretional salt use. Among 2127 adults in two Argentinean cities, aged 35–76 years, mean salt intake from selected PFs was 4.7 g/day, higher among male and low education subgroups. Categories of foods with regulated maximum limits provided near half of the sodium intake from PFs. Use of salt (always/often at the table and during cooking was reported by 9% and 73% of the population, respectively, with higher proportions among young people. Reducing salt consumption to the target of 5 g/day may require adjustments to the current regulation (reducing targets, including other food categories, as well as reinforcing strategies such as education campaigns, labeling, and voluntary agreement with bakeries.
Nikić, Petar M; Andrić, Branislav R; Stojimirović, Biljana B; Trbojevic-Stanković, Jasna; Bukumirić, Zoran
Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants' response to a dietary questionnaire. Sixty-seven subjects (78%) consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients. Normal mental performance was more often in habitual coffee users (25% versus 16%). Regular coffee drinkers achieved higher mean scores on all tested cognitive domains, but a significant positive correlation was found only for items that measure attention and concentration (P = 0.024). Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance.
Petar M. Nikić
Full Text Available Objective. Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants’ response to a dietary questionnaire. Results. Sixty-seven subjects (78% consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients. Normal mental performance was more often in habitual coffee users (25% versus 16%. Regular coffee drinkers achieved higher mean scores on all tested cognitive domains, but a significant positive correlation was found only for items that measure attention and concentration (P=0.024. Conclusions. Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance.
In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle. Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 3/4/2013.
Gątarska, Anna; Ciborska, Joanna; Tońska, Elżbieta
Natural mineral waters are purchased and consumed according to consumer preferences and possible recommendations. The choice of appropriate water should take into account not only the general level of mineralization but also the content of individual components, including electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Sodium is necessary to ensure the proper physiological functions of the body. It is defined as a health risk factor only when its excessive intake occurs. Potassium acts antagonistically towards sodium and calcium ions, contributes to a reduction of the volume of extracellular fluids and at the same time reduces muscle tension and permeability of cell membranes. The demand for sodium and potassium is of particular importance in people expending significant physical effort, where an increased electrolyte supply is recommended. The aim of the study was to estimate the content of sodium and potassium in natural mineral waters available in the Polish market and to evaluate the intake of those components with the commercially available mineral waters by different groups of consumers at the assumed volume of their consumption. The research material consisted of natural mineral waters of forty various brands available on the Polish market. The examined products were either produced in Poland or originated in other European countries. Among the products under examination, about 30% of the waters were imported from Lithuania, Latvia, the Czech Republic, France, Italy and Germany. A sample for analyses consisted of two package units of the examined water from different production lots. Samples for research were collected at random. The study was conducted with the same samples in in which calcium and magnesium content was determined, which was the subject of the first part of the study. The content of sodium and potassium was determined using the emission technique (acetylene-air flame), with the use of atomic absorption spectrometer – ICE 3000 SERIES – THERMO
Nwanguma, B C; Okorie, C H
Bread has been identified as a major contributor to the excessive salt (sodium chloride) intake of consumers in many countries, some of which have very high incidences of hypertension and related cardiovascular complications, such as stroke. This has prompted a global rise in interest in the salt content of breads produced and consumed in many other countries. The sodium contents of retail samples of 100 brands of Nigerian white bread were determined by photometry with a view to estimating the relative contribution of bread to the recommended daily sodium intake of both normotensive and hypertensive adults in the country. The salt content of the bread samples varied extensively, ranging from 0.51 g per 100 g (0.51%) to 1.8 g per 100 g (1.8%). The average salt content was 1.36 g per 100 g. Based on an estimated consumption of six slices of bread (about 180 g) per meal of bread, this equates to a daily intake of between 0.99 g and 3.33 g of salt from bread alone. This represents between 19.8% and 66.6% of the recommended daily allowance of 5 g for normotensive adults, and between 24.75% and 83.25% of the recommended daily allowance of 4 g for hypertensive adults. The consumption of some brands of bread by normotensive and hypertensive adults puts them at great risk of exceeding their recommended daily allowance for salt. Thus, there is an urgent need to regulate the amount of salt added to bread. In the interim, compelling bakers to declare the salt content of their products on the packaging could help consumers, especially hypertensive adults, avoid brands with a high salt content. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Full Text Available En el presente artículo se describen los avances logrados en Costa Rica -así como los desafíos y limitaciones- en la reducción del consumo de sal. El establecimiento del Plan Nacional para la Reducción del Consumo de Sal/sodio en la Población de Costa Rica 2011 - 2021 se complementó con programas y proyectos multisectoriales específicos dirigidos a: 1 conocer la ingesta de sodio y el contenido de sal o sodio en los alimentos de mayor consumo; identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos del consumidor respecto a la sal/sodio, su relación con la salud y el etiquetado nutricio-nal; evaluar la relación costo-efectividad de las medidas dirigidas a reducir la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial; 2 implementar estrategias para disminuir el contenido de sal/sodio en los alimentos procesados y los preparados en casa; 3 promover cambios de conducta en la población para reducir el consumo de sal en la alimentación; y 4 monitorear y evaluar las acciones dirigidas a reducir el consumo de sal o sodio en la población. Para alcanzar las metas propuestas se debe lograr una exitosa coordinación interinstitucional con los actores estratégicos, negociar compromisos con la industria alimentaria y los servicios de alimentación, y mejorar la regulación de los nutrientes críticos asociados con las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, en los alimentos. Se espera que a partir de los avances logrados durante la ejecución del Plan Nacional, Costa Rica logre alcanzar la meta internacional de reducción del consumo de sal.This article describes the progress-as well as the challenges and limitations-in reducing salt intake in Costa Rica. The National Plan to Reduce Public Consumption of Salt/Sodium in Costa Rica 2011 - 2021 was complemented with multisectoral programs and projects specifically designed to: 1 determine sodium intake and the salt/sodium content of the most widely consumed foods; identify the consumer knowledge, attitudes
Ohguro, Hiroshi; Katsushima, Harumi; Maruyama, Ikuyo; Maeda, Tadao; Yanagihashi, Satsuki; Metoki, Tomomi; Nakazawa, Mitsuru
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of glutamate accumulation in vitreous on retinal structure and function, due to a diet high in sodium glutamate. Three different diet groups were created, consisting of rats fed on a regular diet (diet A), a moderate excess of sodium glutamate diet (diet B) and a large excess of sodium glutamate diet (diet C). After 1, 3 and 6 months of the administration of these diets, amino acids concentrations in vitreous were analyzed. In addition, retinal morphology and function by electroretinogram (ERG) of three different diet groups were studied. Significant accumulation of glutamate in vitreous was observed in rats following addition of sodium glutamate to the diet as compared to levels with a regular diet. In the retinal morphology, thickness of retinal neuronal layers was remarkably thinner in rats fed on sodium glutamate diets than in those on a regular diet. TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labelling (TUNEL) staining revealed significant accumulation of the positive staining cells within the retinal ganglion cell layers in retinas from diets B and C as compared with that from diet A. Similar to this, immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) within the retinal inner layers from diets B and C as compared with diet A. Functionally, ERG responses were reduced in rats fed on a sodium glutamate diets as compared with those on a regular diet. The present study suggests that a diet with excess sodium glutamate over a period of several years may increase glutamate concentrations in vitreous and may cause retinal cell destruction.
Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Loke, Yoon K.; Luben, Robert N.; Yeong, Jessica K.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Myint, Phyo K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee
To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency
Joy, Jolly; McClure, Neil; Hepper, Peter G; Cooke, Inez
Neurodevelopment outcomes of children conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)have been the subject of much recent attention. To date there are no reports of neurodevelopmental performance before birth in this group. To compare habituation (a measure of brain function) in fetuses conceived by assisted reproduction techniques (ART) with naturally conceived (NC) fetuses. Case control study. Women with singleton pregnancies matched for maternal age, parity and smoking were recruited in 2 groups: ART (n=20) and NC (n=20). Sound stimuli (250 Hz, 110 dB) at 10 second intervals lasting 2 s were administered to the fetus. The end point was habituation (cessation of movement for five consecutive stimuli) or a maximum of 30 stimuli. Responses of the fetus were observed with ultrasound at 28, 32 and 36 weeks' gestation, video-recorded and anonymised for analysis. At 28 weeks' gestation significantly more ART fetuses responded to sound of 250 Hz, 110 dB (p=0.02) but this difference did not persist at 32 and 36 weeks'. There was a significant increase in nonresponders as gestation advanced in the ART group. There was no difference in habituation or mean number of trials to habituate at all three gestations. ART fetuses demonstrated no differences in habituation suggesting that there is no neurodevelopment delay. However, a decrease in response to sound as gestation advances might be a harbinger for poor perinatal outcomes and needs exploration. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gulturk, Sefa; Akyol, Melih; Kececi, Hulusi; Ozcelik, Sedat; Cinar, Ziynet; Demirkazik, Ayse
The autonomic nervous system in Behcet's patients may be affected due to various reasons. This entity may be detected with the measurement of the electrodermal activities, heart rate variability and pupillometric methods. Habituation is one of the implicit forms of learning and memory and the loss of habituation can reveal pathological changes in the synaptic regions. To determine whether there is a functional decrease in the synaptic effectiveness (habituation) of the pathways to sympathetic neurons that had been repeatedly activated in Behcet's. Twelve patients with Behcet's disease and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Sympathetic skin potential (SSP) records were taken at normal room temperature in a quiet place within a Faraday cage. Sixteen square wave single shock impulses (duration: 1200 ms, strength: 5 mA) were applied on each case. After the 1st stimulus, the SSP amplitudes were lower in the patients compared to the controls (P0.05). Whereas there was no significant differences among the SSP amplitudes after the 9th impulse in the controls (P>0.05). The habituation rate of the SSP after consecutive impulses was slowest in the patients compared to controls (P<0.001, t value=12.39). There is a delayed habituation in Behcet's disease and that may due to pathologic changes with vasculitis through their peripheral nerves.
Zhou, Bo; Webster, Jacqui; Fu, Ling-Yu; Wang, Hai-Long; Wu, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Wen-Li; Shi, Jing-Pu
Lowering salt intake is one of the successful and cost-effective methods to reduce blood pressure (BP). In this randomized controlled study, we investigated the effects of a 3-year substitution of table salt with a low-sodium salt substitute in a rural population of North China. Subjects from 200 families residing in five villages in Liaoning, North China were registered in this study and randomly divided into two groups: normal salt (100% sodium chloride) and low salt substitute (65% NaCl, 25% KCl, 10% MgSO4). We compared the effects of the low-sodium salt substitute and normal salt on differences in BP from baseline to various follow-up time points during this 3-year study period. We also examined several factors that may affect the long-term changes in BP. Hypertension was defined per World Health Organization guidelines as BP≥140/90mmHg. The low sodium substitute significantly reduced the increase in both systolic and diastolic BP compared with the regular salt (P=0.000). Also, the population aged 40-70years showed most beneficial response to the salt substitute compared with those aged 70years. The low salt substitute had similar beneficial effects in both males and females. In addition, the salt type consumed and body mass index significantly affected the change in BP. Use of the salt substitute significantly reduces the increase in BP over a long term, and thus, the salt substitute can be used as a replacement for regular salt in the daily diet to prevent/diminish the incidence of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Todd, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Hendriks, W.H.
The response of cats to dietary sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) and organically bound selenium was studied in two separate studies with four cats per treatment and three levels of selenium supplementation (targets 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µg/g DM) for each Se source. Whole blood and plasma selenium concentrations
Pavelka, Stanislav; Babický, Arnošt; Vobecký, Miloslav
Roč. 54, č. 6 (2005), s. 639-644 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : biological half-life * bromide * sodium Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005
Marin, Evelyn Cristina Santana; Balbi, Ana Paula Coelho; Francescato, Heloísa Della Coletta; Alves da Silva, Cleonice Giovanini; Costa, Roberto Silva; Coimbra, Terezila M
Adult rats submitted to perinatal salt overload presented renin-angiotensin system (RAS) functional disturbances. The RAS contributes to the renal development and renal damage in a 5/6 nephrectomy model. The aim of the present study was to analyze the renal structure and function of offspring from dams that received a high-salt intake during pregnancy and lactation. We also evaluated the influence of the prenatal high-salt intake on the evolution of 5/6 nephrectomy in adult rats. A total of 111 sixty-day-old rat pups from dams that received saline or water during pregnancy and lactation were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy (nephrectomized) or to a sham operation (sham). The animals were killed 120 days after surgery, and the kidneys were removed for immunohistochemical and histological analysis. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), albuminuria, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were evaluated. Increased SBP, albuminuria, and decreased GFR were observed in the rats from dams submitted to high-sodium intake before surgery. However, there was no difference in these parameters between the groups after the 5/6 nephrectomy. The scores for tubulointerstitial lesions and glomerulosclerosis were higher in the rats from the sham saline group compared to the same age control rats, but there was no difference in the histological findings between the groups of nephrectomized rats. In conclusion, our data showed that the high-salt intake during pregnancy and lactation in rats leads to structural changes in the kidney of adult offspring. However, the progression of the renal lesions after 5/6 nephrectomy was similar in both groups.
Bond, DS; Raynor, HA; McCaffery, JM; Wing, RR
Objective Research shows that slower habituation of salivary responses to food stimuli is related to greater energy intake and that obese (Ob) individuals habituate slower than those of normal weight (NW). No study has examined habituation rates in weight loss maintainers (WLMs) who have reduced from obese to normal weight, relative to those who are Ob or NW. Design Salivation to two baseline water trials and 10 lemon-flavored lollipop trials were studied in 14 WLMs, 15 Ob and 18 NW individuals comparable in age, gender and ethnicity. Linear mixed models were used to compare WLMs with Ob and NW groups. Results Salivation in the WLM and NW groups decreased significantly (for both P <0.005) across trials, indicative of habituation. Salivary responses in the Ob group did not habituate (P=0.46). When compared with Ob group, WLMs showed a quicker reduction in salivation (P<0.05). WLM and NW groups did not differ in habituation rate (P=0.49). Conclusions WLMs have habituation rates that are comparable to NW individuals without previous history of obesity, and show quicker habituation than those who are currently obese. These results suggest that physiological responses to food may ‘normalize’ with successful weight loss maintenance. PMID:20010900
Mercado, Carla I; Cogswell, Mary E; Perrine, Cria G; Gillespie, Cathleen
Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa) <2300 mg/day in the United States (US) is unknown. Using data from 2011-2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), we examined 24-h dietary recalls ( n = 10,142) from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal), age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old), and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal) ( p -values ≤ 0.001). With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component) increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15). Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level.
Carla I. Mercado
Full Text Available Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa <2300 mg/day in the United States (US is unknown. Using data from 2011–2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined 24-h dietary recalls (n = 10,142 from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010. Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal, age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old, and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal (p-values ≤ 0.001. With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15. Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level.
GlycA, a novel proinflammatory glycoprotein biomarker, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are inversely associated with sodium intake after controlling for adiposity : the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease study
Gruppen, Eke G.; Connelly, Margery A.; Vart, Priya; Otvos, James D.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.
Background: The extent to which dietary sodium intake may confer alterations in the inflammatory status is unclear. GlycA is a novel proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-measured biomarker of systemic inflammation, which is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and
Faulkender, Patricia J.; And Others
An evaluation of selective generalization of habituation on the basis of meaningful categories of stimuli. Also explored are the sex differences in conceptual generalization of habituation. Subjects were 36 toddlers with a mean age of 40 months. (SDH)
Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Walton, Mark E; Peirson, Stuart N; Bannerman, David M
The importance of sleep for behavioural performance during waking is long-established, but the underlying reasons and mechanisms remain elusive. Waking and sleep are associated with changes in the levels of GluA1 AMPAR subunit in synaptic membranes, while studies using genetically-modified mice have identified an important role for GluA1-dependent synaptic plasticity in a non-associative form of memory that underlies short-term habituation to recently experienced stimuli. Here we posit that sleep may play a role in dishabituation, which restores attentional capacity and maximises the readiness of the animal for learning and goal-directed behaviour during subsequent wakefulness. Furthermore we suggest that sleep disturbance may fundamentally change the nature of behaviour, making it more model-free and habitual as a result of reduced attentional capacity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Taskiran, Mustafa
AIMS: In patients with heart failure (HF), the use of diuretics may be a double-edged sword that can alleviate symptoms of congestion, but also result in over-diuresis and intravascular volume depletion. The purpose of the present study was to examine plasma volume (PV) in HF patients receiving...... difference in PV between patients with HF and control subjects (37.3 +/- 6.0 and 40.2 +/- 5.8 mL/kg, respectively, P = 0.092) with a significant tendency towards a contraction of PV with increasing use of diuretics (P = 0.031). There was no difference in extracellular volume between patients with HF...... and control subjects (P = 0.844). NT-proBNP plasma concentrations had no correlation to either sodium excretion (P = 0.193) or PV (P = 0.471) in patients with HF. CONCLUSION: Plasma volume in patients with HF was within normal limits, but patients treated with high doses of loop-diuretics tended to have...
Deboer, Mark D; Li, Yongli
In boys, inflammatory bowel disease often results in delayed puberty associated with decreased bone mineral density and decreased linear growth. Our goal was to investigate whether pubertal timing and levels of leptin differed between prepubertal male mice with colitis and food-restricted (FR) mice maintained at a similar weight. We induced colitis in 32-d-old male mice using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), resulting in 10 d of worsening colitis. We followed up these mice for separation of the prepuce from the glans penis as a marker of pubertal progression. Compared with free-feeding control mice, DSS and FR mice had significantly lower weight on d 7-10 of treatment. DSS mice had later puberty than control and FR mice. DSS mice also had smaller testes, lower FSH levels, increased systemic cytokines, and increased colonic inflammation by histology. Leptin levels were similar between DSS and FR mice, whereas both had decreases in leptin compared with controls. We conclude that DSS colitis causes delayed puberty in sexually immature male mice beyond what is seen among FR mice of similar weight, food intake, and leptin levels. These experiments provide support for the hypothesis that pubertal delay in colitis is influenced by factors beyond poor weight gain alone.
Gulturk Sefa; Akyol Melih; Kececi Hulusi; Ozcelik Sedat; Cinar Ziynet; Demirkazik Ayse
Background: The autonomic nervous system in Behcet′s patients may be affected due to various reasons. This entity may be detected with the measurement of the electrodermal activities, heart rate variability and pupillometric methods. Habituation is one of the implicit forms of learning and memory and the loss of habituation can reveal pathological changes in the synaptic regions. Aim: To determine whether there is a functional decrease in the synaptic effectiveness (habituation) of ...
Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Loke, Yoon K; Luben, Robert N; Yeong, Jessica K; Wareham, Nicholas J; Myint, Phyo K; Khaw, Kay-Tee
Objective: To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. Methods: We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency questionnaire (1993–1997) and cardiovascular end points were ascertained up to March 2008. A systematic review was performed to evaluate chocolate consumption and cardiovascular out...
Tigchelaar, E. F.; Mujagic, Z.; Zhernakova, A.; Hesselink, M. A. M.; Meijboom, S.; Perenboom, C. W. M.; Masclee, A. A. M.; Wijmenga, C.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Jonkers, D. M. A. E.
Background: Diet is considered to be a key factor in symptom generation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and patients tend to exclude food products from their diet in pursue of symptom relief, which may impair diet quality. Methods: We evaluated habitual dietary intake in IBS patients with regard
Saito, Aki; Imai, Shino; Htun, Nay Chi; Okada, Emiko; Yoshita, Katsushi; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi
Monitoring nutritional status of the population is essential in the development and evaluation of national or local health policies. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate analysis on the trends in dietary intake of energy and macronutrients, as well as Na, in Japanese population using the data of series of cross-sectional national surveys - the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) and the National Health Nutrition Survey (NHNS) - during the period from 1995 to 2016. The NNS and NHNS participants aged 20-79 years were included in the analysis. Dietary intake was estimated using 1-d household-based dietary record. The trend in total energy intake, energy intake from macronutrients (fat and protein), Na intake and energy-adjusted Na intake were analysed using regression models adjusted to 2010 age distribution and anthropometry status. A total of 94 270 men and 107 890 women were included the analysis. Total energy intake showed a decreasing trend in both men and women. Similarly, energy intake from protein decreased, but energy intake (%) from fat increased in both sexes. Energy-adjusted Na intake showed a decreasing trend in both men and women. This study identified the decrease in total energy intake and energy intake from protein, whereas there were inverse trends in energy intake from fat among Japanese adults. Continued monitoring of trends in dietary intake will be needed, and there should be efforts to increase the accuracy of current survey procedures.
Graudal, Niels Albert; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjorn; Jurgens, Gesche
Background: In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of whether a reduced sodium intake improves health is still unsolved. Objectives: To estimate the effects of low sodium intake versus high sodium intake on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), plasma or serum...... results: A total of 185 studies were included. The average sodium intake was reduced from 201 mmol/day (corresponding to high usual level) to 66 mmol/day (corresponding to the recommended level). The effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure (BP) was as follows: white people with normotension: SBP.......0005) and triglyceride (P sodium intake as compared with high sodium intake. All effects were stable in 125 study populations with a sodium intake below 250 mmol/day and a sodium reduction intervention of at least one week. Authors' conclusions: Sodium reduction from an average high usual sodium...
Complement C3 is inversely associated with habitual intake of provitamin A but not with dietary fat, fatty acids, or vitamin E in Middle-aged to older white adults and positively associated with intake of retinol in middle-aged to older white women
Greevenbroek, M.M.; Arts, I.C.W.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Ferreira, I.; Jansen, G.H.E.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.
Complement factor 3 (C3) has been identified as a novel risk factor for obesity-associated cardiometabolic diseases. Data in the literature suggest that C3 concentrations may be influenced by diet. Therefore, we investigated the associations of intake of total fat, specific fatty acids, and
Favazza, A R; Conterio, K
Data are presented on 240 female habitual self-mutilators. The typical subject is a 28-year-old Caucasian who first deliberately harmed herself at age 14. Skin cutting is her usual practice, but she has used other methods such as skin burning and self-hitting, and she has injured herself on at least 50 occasions. Her decision to self-mutilate is impulsive and results in temporary relief from symptoms such as racing thoughts, depersonalization, and marked anxiety. She now has or has had an eating disorder, and may be concerned about her drinking. She has been a heavy utilizer of medical and mental health services, although treatment generally has been unsatisfactory. In desperation over her inability to control her self-mutilative behavior this typical subject has attempted suicide by a drug overdose.
Costa Ricardo JS
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C; simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74 and control (CON, n = 12 through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM, hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD: total daily 7.7 (1.5 L/day, during running 732 (183 ml/h and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3 g/day, during running 270 (151 mg/L ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p vs. CON. Exercise-induced BM loss was 2.4 (1.2% (p p > 0.05 vs. CON pre-stage. Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p p Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition, irrespective of running speed and gender. Normonatraemia was observed in the majority of ultra-runners throughout MSUM, despite sodium ingestion under benchmark recommendations.
Gonçalves, Lívia de Souza; Painelli, Vitor de Salles; Yamaguchi, Guilherme; Oliveira, Luana Farias de; Saunders, Bryan; da Silva, Rafael Pires; Maciel, Erika; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno
This study investigates the influence of habitual caffeine intake on aerobic exercise-performance responses to acute caffeine supplementation. A double-blind, crossover, counterbalanced study was performed. Forty male endurance-trained cyclists were allocated into tertiles, according to their daily caffeine intake: low (58 ± 29 mg/d), moderate (143 ± 25 mg/d), and high (351 ± 139 mg/d) consumers. Participants completed three trials in which they performed simulated cycling time trials (TTs) in the fastest time possible following ingestion of the following: caffeine (CAF: 6 mg/kg body mass), placebo (PLA), and no supplement (CON). A mixed-model analysis revealed that TT performance was significantly improved in CAF compared with PLA and CON (29.92 ± 2.18 vs. 30.81 ± 2.67 and 31.14 ± 2.71 min, respectively; P = 0.0002). Analysis of covariance revealed no influence of habitual caffeine intake as a covariate on exercise performance ( P = 0.47). TT performance was not significantly different among tertiles ( P = 0.75). No correlation was observed between habitual caffeine intake and absolute changes (CAF - CON) in TT performance with caffeine ( P = 0.524). Individual analysis showed that eight, seven, and five individuals improved above the variation of the test in CAF in the low, moderate, and high tertiles, respectively. A Fisher's exact test did not show any significant differences in the number of individuals who improved in CAF among the tertiles ( P > 0.05). Blood lactate and ratings of perceived exertion were not different between trials and tertiles ( P > 0.05). Performance effects of acute caffeine supplementation during an ~30-min cycling TT performance were not influenced by the level of habitual caffeine consumption. NEW & NOTEWORTHY There has been a long-standing paradigm that habitual caffeine intake may influence the ergogenicity of caffeine supplementation. Low, moderate, and high caffeine consumers showed similar absolute and
Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka
It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These fi...
information on the patterns of habitual food consumption and nutrient intakes for ... the benefits of antiretroviral treatment and reducing side effects of the drugs, whilst ...... Scrimshaw NS, Taylor CE and JE Gordon Interactions of nutrition and.
Lee, M; Kwon, D Y; Park, J
Backgrounds/Objectives:This panel study was to predict the incidences of pediatric obesity by the interaction of sodium (Na) intake and nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of salt-sensitive genes (SSGs), ACE(angiotensin-converting enzyme), ADD1 G460W,AGT M235T,CYP11β2 (cytochrome P450 family 11-subfamily β-2, -aldosterone synthase),GNB3 C285T,GRK4(A142V)(G-protein-coupled receptor kinases type 4),GRK4 (A486V),NEDD4L (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 4 like; rs2288774) and SLC12A3 (solute carrier family 12 (Na/Cl transporters)-member 3), selected from genome-wide association study. Non-obese (non-OB) Korean children of 9 years old were recruited from eight elementary schools in Seoul in 2007 and 2009, each. Follow-up subjects (total=798) in 2010 and 2012 were final participants. Participants were classified as OB group for those whose body mass index were over the 85th percentile using the 'Korean National Growth Charts', and others were classified as non-OB. With nine SNPs typing, the genetic interaction with the variation of Na intake for 3 years was evaluated as an obesity risk. The obesity incidence rate for non-OB children at baseline after 3 years was 10.31%. Na intake in non-OB after 3 years was significantly decreased compared with the baseline, whereas Na intake reduction was undetectable in OB. We found gender differences on association between the changes of Na intake and the obesity incidence for 3 years by the SSG variation. Odds ratio for the obesity risk was 5.75 times higher in girls having hetero/mutant types of NEDD4L with higher Na intakes (Q2+Q3+Q4 in quartiles) compared with that in the wild type with the lowest Na intake (Q1). Girls with hetero/mutant of CYP11β2 tended to increase the obesity incidence as Na intake increased (Q1obesity incidence and Na intake, in particular, among girls. Girls with hetero/mutant allele of this gene should reduce their daily Na intake to prevent obesity.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hypertension, heart disease and stroke are a major cause of death in Indonesia. In 2013, the prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia about 25,8 persen. WHO concluded that excess sodium consumption showing a positive straightline relationship with increased incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The aim of data analysis was to get information about the contribution of sodium intake in children aged 6-18 years. The data came from Individual Food Consumption Study in 2014. The 24 hours recall were done in 2014 was administered to 34.956 children and young people boys and girls aged 6-18 years. Sodium intake were estimated indirectly from food consumption data. The analysis showed that the average of sodium intake in children age 6-18 years were 2609 mg /day, of which as much as 55.3 percent consume more than 2000 mg/day. The food groups that highly contribute to sodium intake were from seasoning (51.8%, cereals and cereals product (21.16%, fish and fish product (10.69%, meat and meat products (4.78%. The main source of sodium intake in children 6-18 years age came from salt (43.9%, followed by noodles (13.2%, other condiment (7.9% and fresh fish (5.4% processed fish (5.3% in consecutive. While other foods contribute less than 5 percent of sodium.ABSTRAK Saat ini, hipertensi, penyakit jantung dan stroke menjadi penyebab utama kematian di Indonesia. Menurut hasil riset kesehatan dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2013, prevalensi hipertensi di Indonesia sebesar 25,8 persen. Data WHO menunjukkan bahwa kelebihan konsumsi Natrium berkaitan dengan peningkatan kejadian hipertensi dan penyakit kardiovaskular. Tujuan analisis data untuk memperoleh informasi kontribusi bahan makanan terhadap asupan Natrium pada anak usia 6-18 tahun. Data yang digunakan adalah data Studi Konsumsi Makanan Individu 2014. Jumlah sampel yang dianalisis sebanyak 34.956 anak usia 6-18 tahun. Jumlah asupan Natrium diperoleh dari data recall 1x24 jam. Hasil analisis
Mattick, K. L.; Jørgensen, F.; Legan, J. D.; Lappin-Scott, H. M.; Humphrey, T. J.
The effect of habituation at reduced water activity (aw) on heat tolerance of Salmonella spp. was investigated. Stationary-phase cells were exposed to aw 0.95 in broths containing glucose-fructose, sodium chloride, or glycerol at 21°C for up to a week prior to heat challenge at 54°C. In addition, the effects of different aws and heat challenge temperatures were investigated. Habituation at aw 0.95 resulted in increased heat tolerance at 54°C with all solutes tested. The extent of the increase and the optimal habituation time depended on the solute used. Exposure to broths containing glucose-fructose (aw 0.95) for 12 h resulted in maximal heat tolerance, with more than a fourfold increase in D54 values. Cells held for more than 72 h in these conditions, however, became as heat sensitive as nonhabituated populations. Habituation in the presence of sodium chloride or glycerol gave rise to less pronounced but still significant increases in heat tolerance at 54°C, and a shorter incubation time was required to maximize tolerance. The increase in heat tolerance following habituation in broths containing glucose-fructose (aw 0.95) was RpoS independent. The presence of chloramphenicol or rifampin during habituation and inactivation did not affect the extent of heat tolerance achieved, suggesting that de novo protein synthesis was probably not necessary. These data highlight the importance of cell prehistory prior to heat inactivation and may have implications for food manufacturers using low-aw ingredients. PMID:11055944
Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle
. The case based, the study identifies eight factors, which contribute to consecutive venture creation. The findings suggest that boredom and passion are necessary conditions triggering habitual entrepreneurship. Other important mechanisms included the joy of discovering and exploiting an opportunity...
Hameleers, P. A. H. M; Van Boxtel, M. P. J; Hogervorst, E; Riedel, W. J; Houx, P. J; Buntinx, F; Jolles, J
The present study evaluated the association between habitual caffeine intake via coffee and tea and cognitive performance. This was done as part of a larger research programme into the determinants of cognitive ageing (the Maastricht Aging Study: MAAS). Possible withdrawal effects that may have explained in part the positive association between performance and intake in an earlier study were controlled for. In addition, all cognitive tests in this study were administered under strict laboratory conditions. A group of 1875 healthy adults, stratified for age (range 24 - 81 years), sex, and general ability, were screened for habitual intake of coffee and tea and took part in extensive cognitive testing. Multiple regression analysis with control for age, sex, socio-demographic variables, and substance use showed that habitual caffeine consumption was significantly related to better long-term memory performance and faster locomotor speed. No relationships were found between habitual caffeine consumption and short-term memory, information processing, planning, and attention as measured with the Stroop Test. Moreover, no difference in sensitivity to caffeine intake between different age groups was found, suggesting that caffeine intake did not counteract age-related cognitive decline. Several recommendations are made to improve the design of future studies in this field. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.
Conclusion: Sodium intake measured as 24-hour urinary sodium is increased in subjects with hypertension attesting to sodium intake as a risk factor for the development of high blood pressure. Subjects with high salt taste threshold also have increased urinary sodium excretion which may predispose them to deveploment ...
Schwedhelm, Carolina; Iqbal, Khalid; Knüppel, Sven; Schwingshackl, Lukas; Boeing, Heiner
Principal component analysis (PCA) is a widely used exploratory method in epidemiology to derive dietary patterns from habitual diet. Such dietary patterns seem to originate from intakes on multiple days and eating occasions. Therefore, analyzing food intake of study populations with different levels of food consumption can provide additional insights as to how habitual dietary patterns are formed. We analyzed the food intake data of German adults in terms of the relations among food groups from three 24-h dietary recalls (24hDRs) on the habitual, single-day, and main-meal levels, and investigated the contribution of each level to the formation of PCA-derived habitual dietary patterns. Three 24hDRs were collected in 2010-2012 from 816 adults for an European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam subcohort study. We identified PCA-derived habitual dietary patterns and compared cross-sectional food consumption data in terms of correlation (Spearman), consistency (intraclass correlation coefficient), and frequency of consumption across all days and main meals. Contribution to the formation of the dietary patterns was obtained through Spearman correlation of the dietary pattern scores. Among the meals, breakfast appeared to be the most consistent eating occasion within individuals. Dinner showed the strongest correlations with "Prudent" (Spearman correlation = 0.60), "Western" (Spearman correlation = 0.59), and "Traditional" (Spearman correlation = 0.60) dietary patterns identified on the habitual level, and lunch showed the strongest correlations with the "Cereals and legumes" (Spearman correlation = 0.60) habitual dietary pattern. Higher meal consistency was related to lower contributions to the formation of PCA-derived habitual dietary patterns. Absolute amounts of food consumption did not strongly conform to the habitual dietary patterns by meals, suggesting that these patterns are formed by complex combinations of variable food
Tayo, B O; Luke, A; McKenzie, C A; Kramer, H; Cao, G; Durazo-Arvizu, R; Forrester, T; Adeyemo, A A; Cooper, R S
Habitual levels of dietary sodium and potassium are correlated with age-related increases in blood pressure (BP) and likely have a role in this phenomenon. Although extensive published evidence exists from randomized trials, relatively few large-scale community surveys with multiple 24-h urine collections have been reported. We obtained three 24-h samples from 2704 individuals from Nigeria, Jamaica and the United States to evaluate patterns of intake and within-person relationships with BP. The average (±s.d.) age and weight of the participants across all the three sites were 39.9±8.6 years and 76.1±21.2 kg, respectively, and 55% of the total participants were females. Sodium excretion increased across the East-West gradient (for example, 123.9±54.6, 134.1±48.8, 176.6±71.0 (±s.d.) mmol, Nigeria, Jamaica and US, respectively), whereas potassium was essentially unchanged (for example, 46.3±22.9, 40.7±16.1, 44.7±16.4 (±s.d.) mmol, respectively). In multivariate analyses both sodium (positively) and potassium (negatively) were strongly correlated with BP (P<0.001); quantitatively the association was stronger, and more consistent in each site individually, for potassium. The within-population day-to-day variation was also greater for sodium than for potassium. Among each population group, a significant correlation was observed between sodium and urine volume, supporting the prior finding of sodium as a determinant of fluid intake in free-living individuals. These data confirm the consistency with the possible role of dietary electrolytes as hypertension risk factors, reinforcing the relevance of potassium in these populations.
Full Text Available Serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase (SGK plays a critical role in the regulation of renal sodium transport. We examined the association between SGK genes and salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP using single-marker and gene-based association analysis.A 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/day followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention (307.8 mmol sodium/day was conducted among 1,906 Chinese participants. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Additive associations between each SNP and salt-sensitivity phenotypes were assessed using a mixed linear regression model to account for family dependencies. Gene-based analyses were conducted using the truncated p-value method. The Bonferroni-method was used to adjust for multiple testing in all analyses.In single-marker association analyses, SGK1 marker rs2758151 was significantly associated with diastolic BP (DBP response to high-sodium intervention (P = 0.0010. DBP responses (95% confidence interval to high-sodium intervention for genotypes C/C, C/T, and T/T were 2.04 (1.57 to 2.52, 1.79 (1.42 to 2.16, and 0.85 (0.30 to 1.41 mmHg, respectively. Similar trends were observed for SBP and MAP responses although not significant (P = 0.15 and 0.0026, respectively. In addition, gene-based analyses demonstrated significant associations between SGK1 and SBP, DBP and MAP responses to high sodium intervention (P = 0.0002, 0.0076, and 0.00001, respectively. Neither SGK2 nor SGK3 were associated with the salt-sensitivity phenotypes in single-maker or gene-based analyses.The current study identified association of the SGK1 gene and BP salt-sensitivity in the Han Chinese population. Further studies are warranted to identify causal SGK1 gene variants.
Results: Habitual physical activity index (3.2 ± 0.83) was highest in work-related activities; 69 (26.1 %) patients presented with peripheral neuropathy and 52 (19. 7%) had the lowest limb function. Pes planus was the most prevalent foot deformity (20.1%). Significant differences existed in physical activity indices across ...
Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tatjana; Ladevig, Jan
Habituation to frightening stimuli plays an important role in horse training. To investigate the extent to which horses generalise between different visual objects, 2-year-old stallions were habituated to feeding from a container placed inside a test arena and assigned as TEST (n = 12) or REFERENCE...... horses (n = 12). In Experiment 1, TEST horses were habituated to six objects (ball, barrel, board, box, cone, cylinder) presented in sequence in a balanced order. The objects were of similar size but different colour. Each object was placed 0.5 m in front of the feed container, forcing the horses to pass...... the object to get to the food. TEST horses received as many 2 min exposures to each object as required to meet a habituation criterion. We recorded behavioural reactions to the object, latency to feed, total eating time, and heart rate (HR) during all exposures. There was no significant decrease in initial...
Background and Objectives: Stress is associated with gains in adiposity. One factor that determines how much stress is experienced is how quickly an adolescent reduces responding (habituates) across repeated stressors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of body mass index pe...
Fujiwara, Aya; Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi
To identify dietary patterns in the current Japanese diet and evaluate the associations between these patterns and Na and K intakes. Dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis from the intakes of food groups assessed with a validated self-administrated diet history questionnaire. Na and K intakes and urinary Na:K were assessed by repeated 24 h urine collection. Healthy Japanese adults aged 20-69 years (353 men and 349 women). Twenty study areas in twenty-three prefectures in Japan. Result Four dietary patterns were identified in each sex. After adjustment for several confounding factors, the 'Fish and vegetable' pattern was associated with higher urinary Na excretion, but the association was not significant (P=0·37 in men and P=0·06 in women). This pattern was also associated with higher K excretion in both sexes. The 'Noodle' pattern tended to be associated with higher urinary Na excretion (P=0·17 in men and P=0·04 in women) and higher Na:K (P=0·02 in men). The 'Meat, vegetable and oil' (in men)/'Meat and oil' (in women) and 'Bread and confectioneries' patterns were not associated with urinary Na excretion (in men) or were negatively associated (in women). Contrary to the case in Western countries, the 'Fish and vegetable' and 'Noodle' patterns contributed to higher Na intake in Japan. Target foods for salt reduction should be set based on careful consideration of the relationships between dietary patterns and Na and K intakes in the target population.
Whitlow, Jesse William, Jr.
The present research evaluated the refractorylike response decrement, as found in habituation of auditory evoked peripheral vasoconstriction in rabbits, to determine whether or not it represents a short-term habituation process distinct from effector fatigue or sensory adaptation. (Editor)
Habitual physical activity levels are positively correlated with CD4 counts in an ... per month) and functional independence as assessed from the responses to the ... and between CD4 cell counts and total habitual physical activity levels (p ...
DEBOER, MARK D.; LI, YONGLI
In boys, inflammatory bowel disease often results in delayed puberty associated with decreased bone mineral density and decreased linear growth. Our goal was to investigate whether pubertal timing and levels of leptin differed between prepubertal male mice with colitis and food-restricted (FR) mice maintained at a similar weight. We induced colitis in 32-d-old male mice using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), resulting in 10 d of worsening colitis. We followed up these mice for separation of the ...
Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrill F.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P.
Background The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Methods Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Results Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Conclusions Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness. PMID:27493901
Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P
The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness.
Full Text Available Introduction: Primary aldosteronism (PA is a group of disorders which are characterized by inadequate and non-suppressible production of aldosterone. The prevalence of PA is increasing in hypertensive population. The golden standard of screening for primary aldosteronism, determination of aldosterone/plasma renin activity (ARR, is influenced by numerous exogenous and endogenous factors. Testing cannot always be conducted under optimal conditions. Objective: To determine influence of antihypertensive drugs and concentrations of potassium and sodium in blood and urine on values of aldosterone and plasma renin activity. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed medical reports of patients admitted to Department of thyroid gland disease in the period from 2009 to 2011, with increased risk for primary aldosteronism. Body weight and height, sodium and potassium in serum and urine, plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity, data on medicines and comorbidity were analyzed in all patients. In processing data, statistical methods descriptive analysis, Student T test and univariate linear regression were applied. Result: Of 137 patients, there were more patients with resistant hypertension (53,28% than with adrenal tumors (46,72%. Most patients used calcium channel blockers. Treatment with alpha blockers and calcium channel blockers does not influence ARR. Beta blockers and ACE inhibitors can influence ARR and diuretics and vasodilatators have definite influence. Diabetes mellitus can have higher risk of false negative results. Urine sodium excretion is significantly correlated with plasma aldosteron and serum potassium. Plasma aldosteron and PRA are significantly correlated with concentrations of electrolites in urine. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of primary aldosteronism necessitates need for accurate and better diagnostics.
Grace E. Giles
Full Text Available Information processing is generally biased toward global cues, often at the expense of local information. Equivocal extant data suggests that arousal states may accentuate either a local or global processing bias, at least partially dependent on the nature of the manipulation, task and stimuli. To further differentiate the conditions responsible for such equivocal results we varied caffeine doses to alter physiological arousal states and measured their effect on tasks requiring the retrieval of local versus global spatial knowledge. In a double-blind, repeated-measures design, non-habitual (Exp. 1; N=36, M=42.5±29 mg/day caffeine and habitual (Exp. 2; N=34, M=579.5±311.5 mg/day caffeine caffeine consumers completed four test sessions corresponding to each of four caffeine doses (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg. During each test session, participants consumed a capsule containing one of the three doses of caffeine or placebo, waited sixty minutes, and then completed two spatial tasks, one involving memorizing maps and one spatial descriptions. A spatial statement verification task tested local versus global spatial knowledge by differentially probing memory for proximal versus distal landmark relationships. On the map learning task, results indicated that caffeine enhanced memory for distal (i.e. global compared to proximal (i.e. local comparisons at 100 (marginal, 200, and 400 mg caffeine in non-habitual consumers, and marginally beginning at 200 mg caffeine in habitual consumers. On the spatial descriptions task, caffeine enhanced memory for distal compared to proximal comparisons beginning at 100 mg in non-habitual but not habitual consumers. We thus provide evidence that caffeine-induced physiological arousal amplifies global spatial processing biases, and these effects are at least partially driven by habitual caffeine consumption.
Biel, Anders; Dahlstrand, Ulf; Grankvist, Gunne
Society increasingly requests that individuals adopt environmentally benign behavior. Information campaigns purported to change people's attitudes are often regarded as prerequisites to installing such changes. While such information may be a necessary step, it is not sufficient by itself. We argue that many everyday behaviors with environmental consequences are habitual, and that little attention is given to information directed toward changing these habitual behaviors. In other instances, behavior is guided by values in a more reflective process. However, other information besides environmental consequences may draw a person's attention and affect behavioral choice. Using surveys and experimental studies targeting consumer behavior, we studied under what conditions different kinds of information is likely to influence people with varying levels of environmental concern. Based on results from these studies, implications for behavioral change are discussed.
Habit is a key concept in Husserl’s genetic phenomenology. In this paper, I want to flesh out Husserl’s conception of habit (for which he employs a wide variety of terms including: Habitus, Habitualität, Gewohnheit, das Habituelle, Habe, Besitz, Sitte, Tradition) to illustrate the complexity, range and depth of the phenomenological treatment of habit. I shall show that Husserl was by no means offering a limited Cartesian intellectualist explication of habitual action, rather he attempted to c...
The phenomena of habituation and sensitization are considered most useful for studying the neuronal substrates of information processing in the CNS. Both were studied in primary headaches, that are functional disorders of the brain characterized by an abnormal responsivity to any kind of incoming innocuous or painful stimuli and it’s cycling pattern over time (interictal, pre-ictal, ictal). The present review summarizes available data on stimulus responsivity in primary headaches obtained with clinical neurophysiology. In migraine, the majority of electrophysiological studies between attacks have shown that, for a number of different sensory modalities, the brain is characterised by a lack of habituation of evoked responses to repeated stimuli. This abnormal processing of the incoming information reaches its maximum a few days before the beginning of an attack, and normalizes during the attack, at a time when sensitization may also manifest itself. An abnormal rhythmic activity between thalamus and cortex, namely thalamocortical dysrhythmia, may be the pathophysiological mechanism subtending abnormal information processing in migraine. In tension-type headache (TTH), only few signs of deficient habituation were observed only in subgroups of patients. By contrast, using grand-average responses indirect evidence for sensitization has been found in chronic TTH with increased nociceptive specific reflexes and evoked potentials. Generalized increased sensitivity to pain (lower thresholds and increased pain rating) and a dysfunction in supraspinal descending pain control systems may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of central sensitization in chronic TTH. Cluster headache patients are chrarcterized during the bout and on the headache side by a pronounced lack of habituation of the brainstem blink reflex and a general sensitization of pain processing. A better insight into the nature of these ictal/interictal electrophysiological dysfunctions in primary
Blanch, Angel; Balada, Ferran; Aluja, Anton
This study analyzed the relationship of individual differences in personality with habituation in the acoustic startle response (ASR). Data from nine trials in ASR to white noise bursts and a personality questionnaire based on the alternative big five personality approach were modelled with a latent growth curve (LCM) including intercept and slope habituation growth factors. There was a negative correlation between the intercept and slope, indicating that individuals with higher initial ASR levels had also a more pronounced and faster decrease in the ASR. Contrary to expectations, Extraversion and Sensation Seeking did not relate with habituation in ASR. Neuroticism and Aggressiveness related asymmetrically with the habituation rate in ASR. Higher levels of Neuroticism were related with faster habituation, whereas higher levels of Aggressiveness were related with slower habituation. Further studies with the LCM should be undertaken to clarify in a greater extent the association of personality with habituation in ASR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Toft, Ulla; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Andreasen, Anne Helms
BACKGROUND: A simple and valid alternative for 24-hour urine collection to estimate populational 24-hour urinary sodium excretion would be desirable for monitoring sodium intake in populations. AIM: To assess the validity of the predicted 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine and two ...
Olde Engberink, R.H.G.
High sodium intake is associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular and renal risk. In this thesis we assessed whether these negative effects of sodium can be neutralised by glycosaminoglycans in the endothelial surface layer (i.e. nonosmotic sodium storage). Also, we investigate the
Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie
High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the util...
Paci, A.; Cocci, F.; Cristofani, R.; Piras, F.; Balzan, S.; Mezzasalma, L.; Ghione; Giachetti, M.
The Sodium content of mononuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes and the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes were measured in 22 young male volunteers before and after three days of increased Sodium intake. Analysis of variance for repeated measurements showed no significant correlations between intraleucocyte and intraerythrocyte Sodium and between intraerythrocyte Sodium and osmotic fragility. On the other hand, a highly significant relation was present between osmotic fragility and intraleucocyte Sodium before high salt intake, which disappeared after 3 days of increased salt intake
Santana-Mora, Urbano; López-Cedrún, José; Mora, María J.; Otero, Xosé L.; Santana-Penín, Urbano
Background Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side) and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. Methods The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms) was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. Results Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher’s exact test, P = .003) and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002) were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88) degrees versus 46.16(7.25) degrees; P = .001), and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35) degrees versus 48.32(9.53) degrees P = .036) on the symptomatic side. Discussion The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, “habitual chewing side syndrome”, instead of the nonspecific symptom-based “temporomandibular joint disorders”; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side. PMID:23593156
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. METHODS: The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. RESULTS: Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher's exact test, P = .003 and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002 were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88 degrees versus 46.16(7.25 degrees; P = .001, and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35 degrees versus 48.32(9.53 degrees P = .036 on the symptomatic side. DISCUSSION: The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, "habitual chewing side syndrome", instead of the nonspecific symptom-based "temporomandibular joint disorders"; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side.
Full Text Available We recently showed that combination therapy with losartan and pioglitazone provided synergistic effects compared with monotherapy in improving lesions of renal structure and function in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat, high-sodium diet and 20% sucrose solution. This study was designed to explore the underlying mechanisms of additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy. Losartan, pioglitazone, and their combination were orally administered for 8 weeks. The increased level of renal malondialdehyde and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47phox and nitrotyrosine as well as the decreased total superoxide dismutase activity and copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase expression were tangible evidence for the presence of oxidative and nitrative stress in the kidney of model rats. Treatment with both drugs, individually and in combination, improved these abnormal changes. Combination therapy showed synergistic effects in reducing malondialdehyde level, p47phox, and nitrotyrosine expression to almost the normal level compared with monotherapy. All these results suggest that the additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy might be attributed to a further reduction of oxidative and nitrative stress.
Missbach, Benjamin; Florack, Arnd; Weissmann, Lukas; König, Jürgen
Research has shown that imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. In the present research, we replicated these effects and further examined whether the depletion of self-regulatory resources would reduce the habituation effects of imagined food consumption. Since self-regulatory resources have been shown to reduce habituation effects during the perception of emotional stimuli, we expected a reduction in habituation effects from imagined food consumption when self-regulatory resources were depleted. In Study 1, we replicated habituation effects as a response to imagining gummy bear consumption with a high (36) and medium number (18) of repetitions in a camouflaged taste test. Participants imagining gummy bear intake showed decreased food intake compared with participants who imagined putting a coin into a laundry machine. The number of repetitions did not significantly moderate the observed habituation effect. In Study 2, we investigated whether self-regulatory depletion would impede habituation effects evoked by the imagination of walnut consumption. Participants in a depleted state did not show a reduction in food intake after imagining walnut intake compared with participants in a non-depleted state. We discuss directions for future research and processes that might underlie the observed moderating effect of self-regulatory resources.
Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine
BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P
Full Text Available The habituation/cross-habituation test (HaXha is a spontaneous odor discrimination task that has been used for many decades to evaluate olfactory function in animals. Animals are presented repeatedly with the same odorant after which a new odorant is introduced. The time the animal explores the odor object is measured. An animal is considered to cross-habituate during the novel stimulus trial when the exploration time is higher than the prior trial and indicates the degree of olfactory patency. On the other hand, habituation across the repeated trials involves decreased exploration time and is related to memory patency, especially at long intervals. Classically exploration is timed using a stopwatch when the animal is within 2 cm of the object and aimed toward it. These criteria are intuitive, but it is unclear how they relate to olfactory exploration, that is, sniffing. We used video tracking combined with plethysmography to improve accuracy, avoid observer bias, and propose more robust criteria for exploratory scoring when sniff measures are not available. We also demonstrate that sniff rate combined with proximity is the most direct measure of odorant exploration and provide a robust and sensitive criterion.
Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro
Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275±31mg Ca; 20.7±1.9μg Cr; 5.7±0.4mg Fe; 861±46mg K; 9.44±0.48μg Se; 1928±278mg Na; 4.25±0.24mg Zn; 1.53±0.43μg As and 1.31±0.16μg Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market Basket of this study represented
Ramanathan, Kiruthika; Ning, Ning; Dhanasekar, Dhiviya; Li, Guoqi; Shi, Luping; Vadakkepat, Prahlad
Our paper explores the interaction of persistent firing axonal and presynaptic processes in the generation of short term memory for habituation. We first propose a model of a sensory neuron whose axon is able to switch between passive conduction and persistent firing states, thereby triggering short term retention to the stimulus. Then we propose a model of a habituating synapse and explore all nine of the behavioral characteristics of short term habituation in a two neuron circuit. We couple the persistent firing neuron to the habituation synapse and investigate the behavior of short term retention of habituating response. Simulations show that, depending on the amount of synaptic resources, persistent firing either results in continued habituation or maintains the response, both leading to longer recovery times. The effectiveness of the model as an element in a bio-inspired memory system is discussed.
Orozco Arbelaez, Edilbeto; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez Artalejo, Fernando; López García, Esther
There are associations described between dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and foods with a high content of polyphenols. To assess the infl uence of habitual chocolate consumption over the MMSE in Spanish older adults. Cross-sectional study, using data of the follow-up of the Seniors-Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA) cohort. Habitual chocolate consumption in the last year was assessed with a computerized dietary history; differences between dark chocolate and milk chocolate were recorded. Chocolate intake was classified into the following categories: no consumption, chocolate consumption of ≥ 10 g/d had a better MMSE score (adjusted beta coefficient and 95% confidence interval: 0.26 (0.02-0.50; p trend = 0.05); for dark chocolate, the results were also statistically significant (0.48 [0.18-0.78]; p trend chocolate consumption was not associated with higher likelihood of having MCI. However, dark chocolate consumption was associated with less likelihood of MCI (OR and 95%CI for MMSE ≤ 25: 0.39 [0.20-0.77]; for MMSE ≤ 24: 0.26 [0.10-0.67]; and for MMSE ≤ 23: 0.25 [0.07-0.82]). Our results suggest that habitual dark chocolate consumption might improve cognitive function among the older population.
Mendler, Edward Charles
The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.
Full Text Available Lithuanian has regular past habitual forms with the suffix -dav-, which can be explained as an originally iterative suffix -dau- restricted to the past tense (Fraenkel 1936. Dialectal and Old Lithuanian, in addition to -dav-, also feature habituals with the suffixes -lav- and -dlav-, which could have followed the same path of development (Fraenkel 1936, as evidenced by a number of diverse languages (Bybee et al. 1994. Using an electronic edition of Lietuvių kalbos žodynas (The Dictionary of Lithuanian as the data source, a limited number of possible iteratives with -dau- and other related suffixes were found, which has led to two main conclusions. (1 Habituals were restricted to the past tense before the appearance of the first written Lithuanian texts (mid-16th c. and the present and the infinitive stems went out of use. If this had not been the case, more corresponding verbal formations should have remained. (2 Iteratives with the habitual-to-be suffixes had to be productive to some extent in the dialects, which grammaticalized them as past habituals. If these formations had been productive in all dialects of Lithuanian, more iteratives should have been found in the areas that did not grammaticalize them as past habituals. It is also suggested that the form-frequency correspondence principle (Haspelmath 2008, 2014, 2017 should have operated in the formation of the Lithuanian habitual. Longer suffixes were chosen to mark habitual situations as a less frequent subtype of iterative situations and habitual forms were restricted to the past tense because habituality is one of the default (more frequent readings of the present and hence the habituals in the past tend to be marked explicitly (Bybee et al. 1994.
Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise
Breakfast has been shown to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, there is a paucity of studies which examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and academic performance and a complete absence of studies in UK school children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) performance, a reasoning test routinely used in UK schools. Adolescents aged 11-13 years (n = 292; males: 53.8%) completed a questionnaire to report usual weekly breakfast intake frequency. Breakfast was subjectively defined by the participants. Habitual weekly breakfast consumption frequency was categorized as rare (0-2 days), occasional (3-4 days), or frequent (5-7 days). Participants' CAT performance was used as a proxy measure of academic performance. The CAT has three components: verbal, non-verbal, and quantitative reasoning. Normative standard age scores (SAS) for verbal, non-verbal, quantitative reasoning, and overall mean SAS were obtained from school records and hierarchical linear regression models were applied, adjusting for the confounders: gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, English as an Additional Language, and body mass index. Habitual breakfast consumption frequency did not significantly predict any CAT SAS in all models (crude and adjusted). However, methodological considerations which could account for this disagreement with previous research, were identified. These included the isolation of school-day breakfast consumption, use of a standard definition of breakfast, and measurement of actual academic performance. The findings of the current study suggest more comprehensive ways in which future studies might investigate the relationship between habitual breakfast consumption and academic performance.
Full Text Available Breakfast has been shown to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, there is a paucity of studies which examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and academic performance and a complete absence of studies in UK school children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT performance, a reasoning test routinely used in UK schools. Adolescents aged 11-13 years (n=292; males: 53.8% completed a questionnaire to report usual weekly breakfast intake frequency. Breakfast was subjectively defined by the participants. Habitual weekly breakfast consumption frequency was categorized as rare (0-2 days, occasional (3-4 days or frequent (5-7 days. Participants’ CAT performance was used as a proxy measure of academic performance. The CAT has three components: verbal, non-verbal and quantitative reasoning. Normative standard age scores (SAS for verbal, nonverbal, quantitative reasoning and overall mean SAS were obtained from school records and hierarchical linear regression models were applied, adjusting for the confounders: gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, English as an Additional Language and body mass index. Habitual breakfast consumption frequency did not significantly predict any CAT SAS in all models (crude and adjusted. However, methodological considerations which could account for this disagreement with previous research were identified. These included the isolation of school-day breakfast consumption, use of a standard definition of breakfast, and measurement of actual academic performance. The findings of the current study suggest more comprehensive ways in which future studies might investigate the relationship between habitual breakfast consumption and academic performance.
Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L.; Dye, Louise
Breakfast has been shown to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, there is a paucity of studies which examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and academic performance and a complete absence of studies in UK school children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) performance, a reasoning test routinely used in UK schools. Adolescents aged 11–13 years (n = 292; males: 53.8%) completed a questionnaire to report usual weekly breakfast intake frequency. Breakfast was subjectively defined by the participants. Habitual weekly breakfast consumption frequency was categorized as rare (0–2 days), occasional (3–4 days), or frequent (5–7 days). Participants’ CAT performance was used as a proxy measure of academic performance. The CAT has three components: verbal, non-verbal, and quantitative reasoning. Normative standard age scores (SAS) for verbal, non-verbal, quantitative reasoning, and overall mean SAS were obtained from school records and hierarchical linear regression models were applied, adjusting for the confounders: gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, English as an Additional Language, and body mass index. Habitual breakfast consumption frequency did not significantly predict any CAT SAS in all models (crude and adjusted). However, methodological considerations which could account for this disagreement with previous research, were identified. These included the isolation of school-day breakfast consumption, use of a standard definition of breakfast, and measurement of actual academic performance. The findings of the current study suggest more comprehensive ways in which future studies might investigate the relationship between habitual breakfast consumption and academic performance. PMID:26000270
Full Text Available Mitochondrial disease is the most common neuromuscular disease and has a profound impact upon daily life, disease and longevity. Exercise therapy has been shown to improve mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disease. However, no information exists about the level of habitual physical activity of people with mitochondrial disease and its relationship with clinical phenotype.Habitual physical activity, genotype and clinical presentations were assessed in 100 patients with mitochondrial disease. Comparisons were made with a control group individually matched by age, gender and BMI.Patients with mitochondrial disease had significantly lower levels of physical activity in comparison to matched people without mitochondrial disease (steps/day; 6883±3944 vs. 9924±4088, p = 0.001. 78% of the mitochondrial disease cohort did not achieve 10,000 steps per day and 48% were classified as overweight or obese. Mitochondrial disease was associated with less breaks in sedentary activity (Sedentary to Active Transitions, % per day; 13±0.03 vs. 14±0.03, p = 0.001 and an increase in sedentary bout duration (bout lengths/fraction of total sedentary time; 0.206±0.044 vs. 0.187±0.026, p = 0.001. After adjusting for covariates, higher physical activity was moderately associated with lower clinical disease burden (steps/day; r(s = -0.49; 95% CI -0.33, -0.63, P<0.01. There were no systematic differences in physical activity between different genotypes mitochondrial disease.These results demonstrate for the first time that low levels of physical activity are prominent in mitochondrial disease. Combined with a high prevalence of obesity, physical activity may constitute a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in mitochondrial disease.
Apabhai, Shehnaz; Gorman, Grainne S; Sutton, Laura; Elson, Joanna L; Plötz, Thomas; Turnbull, Douglass M; Trenell, Michael I
Mitochondrial disease is the most common neuromuscular disease and has a profound impact upon daily life, disease and longevity. Exercise therapy has been shown to improve mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disease. However, no information exists about the level of habitual physical activity of people with mitochondrial disease and its relationship with clinical phenotype. Habitual physical activity, genotype and clinical presentations were assessed in 100 patients with mitochondrial disease. Comparisons were made with a control group individually matched by age, gender and BMI. Patients with mitochondrial disease had significantly lower levels of physical activity in comparison to matched people without mitochondrial disease (steps/day; 6883±3944 vs. 9924±4088, p = 0.001). 78% of the mitochondrial disease cohort did not achieve 10,000 steps per day and 48% were classified as overweight or obese. Mitochondrial disease was associated with less breaks in sedentary activity (Sedentary to Active Transitions, % per day; 13±0.03 vs. 14±0.03, p = 0.001) and an increase in sedentary bout duration (bout lengths/fraction of total sedentary time; 0.206±0.044 vs. 0.187±0.026, p = 0.001). After adjusting for covariates, higher physical activity was moderately associated with lower clinical disease burden (steps/day; r(s) = -0.49; 95% CI -0.33, -0.63, Pphysical activity between different genotypes mitochondrial disease. These results demonstrate for the first time that low levels of physical activity are prominent in mitochondrial disease. Combined with a high prevalence of obesity, physical activity may constitute a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in mitochondrial disease.
Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tjatjana; Chovaux, Elodie
The ability of horses to habituate to frightening stimuli greatly increases safety in the horse–human relationship. A recent experiment suggested, however, that habituation to frightening visual stimuli is relatively stimulus-specific in horses and that shape and colour are important factors...... for object generalisation (Christensen et al., 2008). In a series of experiments, we aimed to further explore the ability of horses (n = 30, 1 and 2-year-old mares) to recognise and generalise between objects during habituation. TEST horses (n = 15) were habituated to a complex object, composed of five...... simple objects of varying shape and colour, whereas CONTROL horses (n = 15) were habituated to the test arena, but not to the complex object. In the first experiment, we investigated whether TEST horses subsequently reacted less to i) simple objects that were previously part of the complex object (i...
Franx, A; Steegers, E A; de Boo, T; Thien, T; Merkus, J M
In non-pregnant individuals, a strong positive association of sodium intake with blood pressure has been established, but the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in human pregnancy remains obscure up to date. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to assess the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (as a measure for intake) and blood pressure from the early second trimester onwards throughout pregnancy. The study group consisted of 667 low-risk women with singleton pregnancies, of whom 350 were nulliparous and 317 parous. Blood pressure was measured in a standardised fashion at predetermined intervals from the first antenatal visit prior to 16 weeks gestation until delivery. Urinary sodium excretion was measured in 24-h urine collections on at least four occasions between 16 and 38 weeks gestation. Main outcome measures were the coefficients of correlation between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure during six different gestational epochs. No significant correlations were found between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure. Correlation coefficients were alike for nulliparous and parous women and for different gestational intervals. Prior to 32 weeks gestation, no differences were observed in sodium excretion between women who remained normotensive and those who developed gestational hypertension. These results suggest that changes in sodium intake are not associated with blood pressure changes in low-risk pregnant women. Blood pressure increases as observed in the second half of normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies are unlikely to be caused by changes in renal sodium handling.
Stevenson, Richard J
There are 3 motivations for studying the psychological correlates of habitual diet. First, diet is a major but modifiable cause of morbidity and mortality, and dietary interventions could be improved by knowing the psychological characteristics of consumers of healthy/unhealthy diets. Second, animal studies indicate that diet can impair cognition, stress responsiveness, and affective processing, but it is unclear whether this also happens in humans. Third, certain psychological traits are associated with obesity, but it is not known whether these precede and thus contribute to weight gain. Although many psychological correlates of diet have been identified, the literature is highly dispersed, and there has been no previous comprehensive narrative review. Organized here by psychological domain, studies linking diet with individual differences in perception, cognition, impulsivity, personality, affective processing, mental health, and attitudes, beliefs and values-in healthy adults-are reviewed. Although there is a growing literature on the psychological correlates of fruit/vegetable intake-the core of a healthy diet-consumers of unhealthy diets have characteristics that probably make them less responsive to education-based interventions. Diet may be a causal contributor to depression, and diet is consistently linked to impulsivity and certain personality traits. There are inconsistent and less explored links to perceptual, affective and cognitive processes, with several emerging parallels to the animal literature. Impulsivity and personality traits common to obese individuals also occur in lean consumers of unhealthy diets, suggesting these may contribute to weight gain. Diet-psychology correlates remain understudied even though this could significantly benefit human health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD and SenseWear armband (SWA, were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113 without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007. Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training
K?se, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; U?ar, Sema Kalkan; ?oker, Mahmut
In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...
Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review provides an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relations between habitual short sleep duration and dietary intake in a...
Halberstadt, Adam L; Buell, Mahálah R; Price, Diana L; Geyer, Mark A
The indirect serotonin (5-HT) agonist 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces a distinct behavioral profile in rats consisting of locomotor hyperactivity, thigmotaxis, and decreased exploration. The indirect 5-HT agonist α-ethyltryptamine (AET) produces a similar behavioral profile. Using the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM), the present investigation examined whether the effects of MDMA and AET are dependent on the novelty of the testing environment. These experiments were conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats housed on a reversed light cycle and tested during the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. We found that racemic MDMA (RS-MDMA; 3 mg/kg, SC) increased locomotor activity in rats tested in novel BPM chambers, but had no effect on locomotor activity in rats habituated to the BPM chambers immediately prior to testing. Likewise, AET (5 mg/kg, SC) increased locomotor activity in non-habituated animals but not in animals habituated to the test chambers. These results were unexpected because previous reports indicate that MDMA has robust locomotor-activating effects in habituated animals. To further examine the influence of habituation on MDMA-induced locomotor activity, we conducted parametric studies with S-(+)-MDMA (the more active enantiomer) in habituated and non-habituated rats housed on a standard or reversed light cycle. Light cycle was included as a variable due to reported differences in sensitivity to serotonergic ligands during the dark and light phases. In confirmation of our initial studies, rats tested during the dark phase and habituated to the BPM did not show an S-(+)-MDMA (3 mg/kg, SC)-induced increase in locomotor activity, whereas non-habituated rats did. By contrast, in rats tested during the light phase, S-(+)-MDMA increased locomotor activity in both non-habituated and habituated rats, although the response in habituated animals was attenuated. The finding that habituation and light cycle interact to influence MDMA- and AET
Derkach, Andriy; Sampson, Joshua; Joseph, Justin; Playdon, Mary C; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z
Background: High sodium intake is known to increase blood pressure and is difficult to measure in epidemiologic studies. Objective: We examined the effect of sodium intake on metabolites within the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial)-Sodium Trial to further our understanding of the biological effects of sodium intake beyond blood pressure. Design: The DASH-Sodium Trial randomly assigned individuals to either the DASH diet (low in fat and high in protein, low-fat dairy, and fruits and vegetables) or a control diet for 12 wk. Participants within each diet arm received, in random order, diets containing high (150 nmol or 3450 mg), medium (100 nmol or 2300 mg), and low (50 nmol or 1150 mg) amounts of sodium for 30 d (crossover design). Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each sodium intervention. We measured 531 identified plasma metabolites in 73 participants at the end of their high- and low-sodium interventions and in 46 participants at the end of their high- and medium-sodium interventions ( N = 119). We used linear mixed-effects regression to model the relation between each log-transformed metabolite and sodium intake. We also combined the resulting P values with Fisher's method to estimate the association between sodium intake and 38 metabolic pathways or groups. Results: Six pathways were associated with sodium intake at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of 0.0013 (e.g., fatty acid, food component or plant, benzoate, γ-glutamyl amino acid, methionine, and tryptophan). Although 82 metabolites were associated with sodium intake at a false discovery rate ≤0.10, only 4-ethylphenylsufate, a xenobiotic related to benzoate metabolism, was significant at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold ( P Sodium intake is associated with changes in circulating metabolites, including gut microbial, tryptophan, plant component, and γ-glutamyl amino acid-related metabolites. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000608. © 2017
Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche
The question of whether reduced sodium intake is effective as a health prophylaxis initiative is unsolved. The purpose was to estimate the effects of low-sodium vs. high-sodium intake on blood pressure (BP), renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, and lipids....
Audo, Isabelle; El Sanharawi, Mohamed; Vignal-Clermont, Catherine; Villa, Antoine; Morin, Annie; Conrath, John; Fompeydie, Dominique; Sahel, José-Alain; Gocho-Nakashima, Kiyoko; Goureau, Olivier; Paques, Michel
To describe foveal damage in habitual use of poppers, a popular recreational drug. Retrospective observational case series. Six patients with bilateral vision loss after chronic popper inhalation were seen in 4 university-based ophthalmology departments. Symptoms, medical history, ophthalmic examination, and functional and morphological tests are described. All patients experienced progressive bilateral vision loss, with central photopsia in 2 cases. Initial visual acuities ranged from 20/50 to 20/25. In all patients, a bilateral yellow foveal spot was present that, by optical coherence tomography, was associated with disruption of the outer segments of foveal cones. Functional and anatomical damage was restricted to the fovea. The poppers involved were identified as isopropyl nitrite in 3 cases. Four patients showed anatomical and/or functional improvement over several months after discontinuing popper inhalation. Repeated inhalation of poppers may be associated with prolonged bilateral vision loss due to the disruption of foveal cone outer segments. Retinal damage may progressively improve following drug discontinuation.
Brown, Ian J; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Candeias, Vanessa; Elliott, Paul
High levels of dietary sodium (consumed as common salt, sodium chloride) are associated with raised blood pressure and adverse cardiovascular health. Despite this, public health efforts to reduce sodium consumption remain limited to a few countries. Comprehensive, contemporaneous sodium intake data from around the world are needed to inform national/international public health initiatives to reduce sodium consumption. Use of standardized 24-h sodium excretion estimates for adults from the international INTERSALT (1985-87) and INTERMAP (1996-99) studies, and recent dietary and urinary sodium data from observational or interventional studies--identified by a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature--presented separately for adults and children. Review of methods for the estimation of sodium intake/excretion. Main food sources of sodium are presented for several Asian, European and Northern American countries, including previously unpublished INTERMAP data. Sodium intakes around the world are well in excess of physiological need (i.e. 10-20 mmol/day). Most adult populations have mean sodium intakes >100 mmol/day, and for many (particularly the Asian countries) mean intakes are >200 mmol/day. Possible exceptions include estimates from Cameroon, Ghana, Samoa, Spain, Taiwan, Tanzania, Uganda and Venezuela, though methodologies were sub-optimal and samples were not nationally representative. Sodium intakes were commonly >100 mmol/day in children over 5 years old, and increased with age. In European and Northern American countries, sodium intake is dominated by sodium added in manufactured foods ( approximately 75% of intake). Cereals and baked goods were the single largest contributor to dietary sodium intake in UK and US adults. In Japan and China, salt added at home (in cooking and at the table) and soy sauce were the largest sources. Unfavourably high sodium intakes remain prevalent around the world. Sources of dietary sodium vary largely worldwide
Jürgens, G; Graudal, N A
One of the controversies in preventive medicine is, whether a general reduction in sodium intake can decrease the blood pressure of a population and thereby reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. In recent years the debate has been extended by studies indicating that reducing sodium intake...... has effects on the hormone and lipid profile....
Graudal, Niels Albert; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjorn; Jurgens, Gesche
In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of reduced sodium intake as a health prophylaxis initiative is still unsolved.......In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of reduced sodium intake as a health prophylaxis initiative is still unsolved....
Singh, S P; Rani, D
To develop a simple diagnostic test to assess sodium status in large ruminants on the basis of the sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na:K) and to determine its relevance. 7 buffalo heifers and 21 lactating, pregnant, and nonpregnant dairy cows and heifers. Buffalo heifers were subjected in 2 experiments to variable dietary sodium intake or sodium depletion and changes in sodium and potassium concentrations; Na:K was simultaneously monitored in various body fluids to study its value for indicating sodium status. Validity of the muzzle secretion test was assessed. Muzzle secretion and urinary Na:K and sodium concentration, but not serum electrolyte concentrations, reflected the sodium status of buffalo heifers in response to the widely variable intake of sodium (0.03 to 0.16% of dry matter [DM]). Progressive sodium depletion during an 11-day period, using saliva deprivation caused reciprocal changes in sodium and potassium concentrations in saliva and muzzle secretion, but not in urine. Decreasing urine sodium concentration was associated with decreasing urine potassium concentration. Saliva, urine, and muzzle secretion Na:K closely reflected the degree of sodium deficit. Buffaloes or dairy cows maintained on optimal sodium intake had muzzle secretion and urine Na:K > 0.30. Muzzle secretion or urine Na:K muzzle secretion Na:K, and to a large extent urine Na:K, may be used as a convenient diagnostic tool to assess sodium status in large ruminants. It has accuracy similar to that of saliva Na:K.
Rogers, Peter J; Hohoff, Christa; Heatherley, Susan V; Mullings, Emma L; Maxfield, Peter J; Evershed, Richard P; Deckert, Jürgen; Nutt, David J
Caffeine, a widely consumed adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist, is valued as a psychostimulant, but it is also anxiogenic. An association between a variant within the ADORA2A gene (rs5751876) and caffeine-induced anxiety has been reported for individuals who habitually consume little caffeine. This study investigated whether this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) might also affect habitual caffeine intake, and whether habitual intake might moderate the anxiogenic effect of caffeine. Participants were 162 non-/low (NL) and 217 medium/high (MH) caffeine consumers. In a randomized, double-blind, parallel groups design they rated anxiety, alertness, and headache before and after 100 mg caffeine and again after another 150 mg caffeine given 90 min later, or after placebo on both occasions. Caffeine intake was prohibited for 16 h before the first dose of caffeine/placebo. Results showed greater susceptibility to caffeine-induced anxiety, but not lower habitual caffeine intake (indeed coffee intake was higher), in the rs5751876 TT genotype group, and a reduced anxiety response in MH vs NL participants irrespective of genotype. Apart from the almost completely linked ADORA2A SNP rs3761422, no other of eight ADORA2A and seven ADORA1 SNPs studied were found to be clearly associated with effects of caffeine on anxiety, alertness, or headache. Placebo administration in MH participants decreased alertness and increased headache. Caffeine did not increase alertness in NL participants. With frequent consumption, substantial tolerance develops to the anxiogenic effect of caffeine, even in genetically susceptible individuals, but no net benefit for alertness is gained, as caffeine abstinence reduces alertness and consumption merely returns it to baseline. PMID:20520601
Bee, M A
The aggressive response of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) habituates with repeated broadcasts of acoustic stimuli simulating a new territorial neighbor. The effects of stimulus repetition rate and stimulus intensity on bullfrog aggressive responses were tested in a field experiment designed to test the assumptions of a dual-process theory of habituation. Synthetic advertisement calls were broadcast at 2 repetition rates and 2 intensities in a factorial design. Bullfrogs were more aggressive at the higher stimulus intensity at both repetition rates. Aggressive responses habituated more slowly at the higher stimulus intensity and slower repetition rate compared with other treatments. Several biotic and abiotic factors had small or negligible effects on aggressive responses. Although consistent with the operation of 2 opposing processes, habituation and sensitization, the data provide only partial support for the assumptions of dual-process theory.
Excess sodium intake is a major preventable risk factor for high blood pressure, a leading cause for heart disease and stroke. The majority of sodium intake comes from packaged and restaurant foods. At present, data on the sodium content of restaurant foods is limited. The purpose of this study i...
... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...
Baik, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Hongmie
Efforts to reduce plate-waste (PW) are limited to those by a dietitian who serves the entire school rather than a better characterization of individuals who are served. We tested the hypothesis that children reporting habitual PW would have different physical or dietary characteristics compared with children without PW. Participants were 407 children aged 6 to 9 years in elementary schools in Kyeonggi, Korea. Information on eating behavior and food preference was collected using a questionnaire administered by parents. Among them, 91 students participated further in anthropometry, step counting, taste acuity tests, and nutrition intake from school lunches. Participants were divided into tertiles according to total frequency of leaving PW from each meal on a typical day: no PW, moderate PW, and habitual PW. Children with habitual PW showed several undesirable characteristics: consuming less of various vegetables, eating only what they like, poor table manners, and frequent consumption of street foods and cookies/beverages/fast foods. Whereas height, weight, and obesity index as well as taste acuity and daily steps in the habitual PW group were not significantly different, intakes of potassium, niacin, and folate were significantly lower compared with the other groups. Therefore, habitual PW did not seem to result from having a lower energy requirement or different taste acuity, or result in observed slowed growth, but it could place children at a risk for insufficient nutritional intake, consequently impairing growth and general health. The results emphasize the parental role in shaping children's diet and provide information for developing strategies to reduce PW of individual children.
Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen
Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide
Hypertension increased with mean age whiles stress decreased with mean age. Hypertensive subjects recorded a significantly higher BMI and sodium intake whiles high stress individuals recorded a lower animal protein but a higher cereal protein intake (p<.05). Chronic stress was associated with intake of low animal ...
Grønborg, Ida Marie; Tetens, Inge; Ege, Majken
Fortification of foods with vitamin D may be a population-based solution to low vitamin D intake. We performed modelling of vitamin D from diet, fortified foods and supplements in a population of Danish women 18-50 years, a risk group of vitamin D deficiency, to inform fortification policies...... on safe and adequate levels. Based on individual habitual dietary vitamin D intake of female participants from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (DANSDA) (n = 855), we performed graded intake modelling to predict the intake in six scenarios increasing the vitamin D intake...... from a habitual diet without fish to habitual diet including fish, fortified foods and supplements (40/80 µg). Four different foods were used as potential foods to fortify with vitamin D. The vitamin D intake was below the Average Requirement (AR) of 7.5 µg/day for 88% of the assessed women. Safe...
Stutz, B; Ahola, A J; Harjutsalo, V; Forsblom, C; Groop, P-H
In the general population, habitual coffee consumption is inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome, a syndrome that is rather common also in patients with type 1 diabetes. However, whether coffee intake is beneficially related to the metabolic syndrome also in type 1 diabetes, is not known. We, therefore, studied the potential association between coffee consumption and the metabolic syndrome in a large population of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, we investigated whether coffee consumption is associated with insulin resistance (estimated glucose disposal rate, eGDR), kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR), and low-grade chronic inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hsCRP). Data from 1040 participants in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study were included in these cross-sectional analyses. Metabolic syndrome was assumed if at least 3 of the following cardiovascular risk factors were present: central obesity, high blood pressure, low HDL-cholesterol concentration, high triglyceride concentration, and hyperglycaemia. Subjects were categorized based on self-reported daily coffee intake: non-consumers (metabolic syndrome. Moreover, any level of coffee consumption was associated with increased risk of the blood pressure-component. An increasing trend was observed in the eGFR with increasing coffee consumption. In type 1 diabetes, high coffee intake is associated with the metabolic syndrome, and especially its blood pressure-component. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
James, Jack E; Baldursdottir, Birna; Johannsdottir, Kamilla R; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
Most adolescents regularly consume caffeine. Whereas observational studies have suggested that coffee may be cardio-protective, pharmacological experimentation with adults shows that caffeine at dietary doses increases blood pressure, thereby implicating regular caffeine consumption as a potential source of harm for cardiovascular health. The present study was in response to the dearth of caffeine research among younger consumers. It was hypothesised that compared to the consumption of little or no caffeine, adolescents who habitually consume caffeine have overall higher blood pressure and increased vascular resistance. Using a quasi-experimental design, continuous measurements of blood pressure, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were taken non-invasively from adolescents (n = 333) aged 14-15 years and 18-19 years who reported "low", "moderate", or "high" levels of caffeine intake. Measurements were conducted when participants generally had negligible or low systematic caffeine levels while at rest, during stress, and during recovery from stress. Whereas habitual caffeine consumption did not predict blood pressure level, higher caffeine intake was associated with modestly increased vascular resistance during all phases of the experiment (i.e., at rest, during stress, and during recovery from stress). Present findings are important because they suggest that early exposure to caffeine may lead to persistent increases in vascular resistance, which in turn is an acknowledged risk factor for the development of hypertension. These results highlight the need for further studies of adolescents to determine the robustness of any persistent caffeine-related hemodynamic effects, and the implications such effects could have for long-term cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Monte, Daniel F. M.; Tavares, Adassa G.; Albuquerque, Allan R.; Sampaio, Fábio C.; Oliveira, Tereza C. R. M.; Franco, Octavio L.; Souza, Evandro L.; Magnani, Marciane
Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolates from human outbreaks or from poultry origin were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance to sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lactic acid, acetic acid, and ciprofloxacin after habituation in subinhibitory amounts ( of the minimum inhibitory concentration – (MIC) and of the minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC) of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO) at different time intervals. The habituation of S. enterica to OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by the modulation of MIC values. However, cells habituated to OVEO maintained or increased susceptibility to the tested antimicrobials agents, with up to fourfold double dilution decrease from previously determined MIC values. This study reports for the first time the non-inductive effect of OVEO on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in multidrug-resistant S. enterica strains to antimicrobial agents that are largely used in food preservation, as well as to CIP, the therapeutic drug of salmonellosis. PMID:25566231
Lanini, Juliana; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes; Pompéia, Sabine
Caffeine is widely used, often consumed with food, and improves simple and complex/executive attention under fasting conditions. We investigated whether these cognitive effects are observed when personalized habitual doses of caffeine are ingested by caffeine consumers, whether they are influenced by nutriments and if various executive domains are susceptible to improvement. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 60 young, healthy, rested males randomly assigned to one of four treatments: placebo fasting, caffeine fasting, placebo meal and caffeine meal. Caffeine doses were individualized for each participant based on their self-reported caffeine consumption at the time of testing (morning). The test battery included measures of simple and sustained attention, executive domains (inhibiting, updating, shifting, dual tasking, planning and accessing long-term memory), control measures of subjective alterations, glucose and insulin levels, skin conductance, heart rate and pupil dilation. Regardless of meal intake, acute habitual doses of caffeine decreased fatigue, and improved simple and sustained attention and executive updating. This executive effect was not secondary to the habitual weekly dose consumed, changes in simple and sustained attention, mood, meal ingestion and increases in cognitive effort. We conclude that the morning caffeine "fix" has positive attentional effects and selectively improved executive updating whether or not caffeine is consumed with food. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....
Fisher, Abigail; Reilly, John J; Kelly, Louise A; Montgomery, Colette; Williamson, Avril; Paton, James Y; Grant, Stan
To test for relationships between objectively measured habitual physical activity and fundamental movement skills in a relatively large and representative sample of preschool children. Physical activity was measured over 6 d using the Computer Science and Applications (CSA) accelerometer in 394 boys and girls (mean age 4.2, SD 0.5 yr). Children were scored on 15 fundamental movement skills, based on the Movement Assessment Battery, by a single observer. Total physical activity (r=0.10, Pmovement skills score. Time spent in light-intensity physical activity was not significantly correlated with motor skills score (r=0.02, P>0.05). In this sample and setting, fundamental movement skills were significantly associated with habitual physical activity, but the association between the two variables was weak. The present study questions whether the widely assumed relationships between motor skills and habitual physical activity actually exist in young children.
Ampatzoglou, Antonios; Atwal, Kiranjit K; Maidens, Catherine M; Williams, Charlotte L; Ross, Alastair B; Thielecke, Frank; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Kennedy, Orla B; Yaqoob, Parveen
Whole-grain (WG) foods have been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, but studies are inconsistent and effects on cardiovascular risk markers are not clear. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of increasing WG consumption to at least 80 g/d on overall dietary intake, body composition, blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, blood glucose, gastrointestinal microbiology, and gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy, middle-aged adults with habitual WG intake food frequency questionnaires and subsequently completed 3-day food diaries (3DFDs) to confirm habitual WG consumption. Subjects consumed diets high in WG (>80 g/d) or low in WG [range of cereal food products. The 3DFDs, diet compliance diaries, and plasma alkylresorcinols were used to verify compliance. During the WG intervention, consumption increased from 28 g/d to 168 g/d (P increase in plasma alkylresorcinols (P increased 24-h fecal weight (P = 0.08) and reduction in body weight (P = 0.10) and BMI (P = 0.08) during the WG intervention compared with the RG period. A combination of dietary advice and provision of commercially available food items enabled subjects with a low-moderate habitual consumption of WG to substantially increase their WG intake, but there was little effect on blood biochemical markers, body composition, BP, fecal measurements, or gut microbiology. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN36521837. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Calin-Jageman, Robert J
Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by
... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...
... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...
Barbour, Jayne A; Stojanovski, Emilija; Moran, Lisa J; Howe, Peter R C; Coates, Alison M
Snacking is associated with intakes of non-core foods which may predispose to obesity. Peanuts have potential satiety benefits and may assist with weight management; we hypothesized that peanut consumption would reduce intake of non-core snack foods due to compensation. We investigated the effects of adding peanuts to a habitual diet on snacking habits and energy intake. Sixty-one healthy participants (65±7years, body mass index 31±4kg/m 2 ) consumed their habitual diet with or without peanuts (56g/d for 32 women, 84g/d for 29 men) for 12weeks each in a randomized crossover design. Food diaries were analyzed at baseline and after each 12-week period for meal and snack content and timing. Total energy intake was higher (17% for men [PSnacking occasions increased during the peanut phase (53% for men [P=.001], 14% for women [P=.01]). Servings of other snack foods did not change during the peanut phase (P=.6) compared with control. However, sex-specific analysis revealed that men and women consumed less savory (Psnacks, respectively, during the peanut phase. Despite increased energy intake and snacking frequency, peanuts may improve the diet through sex-specific reductions of non-core foods; for optimal energy balance, peanuts should be substituted rather than added to the diet. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hasselbalch, Ann L; Angquist, Lars; Christiansen, Lene
We investigated the role of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) and variants near the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) in modulating habitual intake of total energy and macronutrients, glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary energy density, and energy from 20 food groups in adults...... with intake of energy from whole grains (P >or= 0.04). These associations did not remain significant after controlling for multiple testing. The outcome of this study indicates that polymorphisms in the FTO gene and near the MC4R gene do not have a role in regulating food intake and preference for specific....... In a population-based sample of 756 healthy adult twin pairs, we studied associations between FTO rs9939609, near-MC4R rs12970134, rs17700633, and rs17782313 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and habitual dietary intake. Habitual dietary intake was assessed by a 247-question FFQ. Nontransformed variables...
Greenberg, James A.; Buijsse, Brian
Objective Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. Methods We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987–98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (∼28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Results Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1–4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Conclusions Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body
Greenberg, James A; Buijsse, Brian
Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987-98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (~28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body weight did not apply to participants without
James A Greenberg
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. METHODS: We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987-98, and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (~28 g serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. RESULTS: Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2 of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44 and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55, respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. CONCLUSIONS: Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with
This article describes the concept of moral education and its foundation according to Abu Hamid Ghazali as one of the most influential scholars in the world of Islam. Ghazali equates moral education with habituation. Causality holds a prominent place in philosophical foundations of his theory of moral education. Even though Ghazali recommends…
Psychosocial stress is a disabling condition and is common among people with diabetes mellitus in view of the complexity of the disorder. It is however not clear if the psychosocial stress has any link with habitual physical activity, which is an important component in the care of people with diabetes. This study was ...
Pettersson, H; Theander, G; Danielsson, L [Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology
The clinical and radiologic findings in a child with habitual voluntary dislocation of the hip are reported. Observations made in this case and in 6 others on record suggest that this rare condition is a specific pediatric entity with a good prognosis.
A total of 193 adults with type 2 diabetes took part in this study. Psychosocial stress was ... KEY WORDS: Type 2 diabetes, psychosocial stress, habitual physical activity. INTRODUCTION ..... to address them: A qualitative study. PLoS ONE 9(9):.
Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Walter, Gimme H; Sullivan, Nicola; El-Sayed, Ashraf M
Habituation to sex pheromones is one of the key mechanisms in mating disruption, an insect control tactic. Male moths often show reduced sexual response after pre-exposure to female sex pheromone. Mating disruption is relatively rare in insect orders other than Lepidoptera. As a positive control we confirmed habituation in a moth (Epiphyas postvittana) using 24 h pre-exposure to sex pheromone to reduce subsequent activation behaviour. We then tested the impact of pre-exposure to sex or trail pheromone on subsequent behavioural response with insects from three other orders. Similar pre-exposure for 24 h to either sex pheromone [Pseudococcus calceolariae (Homoptera) and apple leaf curling midge Dasineura mali (Diptera), or trail pheromone of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera)], followed by behavioural assay in clean air provided no evidence of habituation after pre-exposure in these latter cases. The moths alone were affected by pre-exposure to pheromone. For pests without habituation, sustained attraction to a point source may make lure and kill more economical. Improved knowledge of behavioural processes should lead to better success in pest management and mechanisms should be investigated further to inform studies and practical efforts generally enhancing effectiveness of pheromone-based management. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Adassa Gama Tavares
Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains that were isolated from foods were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to sodium chloride (NaCl, potassium chloride (KCl, lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA after habituation in sublethal amounts (1/2 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/2 MIC and 1/4 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/4 MIC of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO. The habituation of S. aureus to 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC of OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by modulation of MIC values. Otherwise, exposing the strains to OVEO at sublethal concentrations maintained or increased the sensitivity of the cells to the tested stressing agents because the MIC values of OVEO, NaCl, KCl, LA and AA against the cells that were previously habituated to OVEO remained the same or decreased when compared with non-habituated cells. These data indicate that OVEO does not have an inductive effect on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents that are typically used in food preservation.
Zhu, Haidong; Pollock, Norman K; Kotak, Ishita; Gutin, Bernard; Wang, Xiaoling; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Parikh, Samip; Harshfield, Gregory A; Dong, Yanbin
To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodium intake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps sodium intake and visceral adipose tissue, skinfold thickness, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. All the significant associations persisted after correction for multiple testing (all false discovery rates sodium consumption of our adolescents is as high as that of adults and more than twice the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption.
Interpersonal stressors promote eating. Habituation to the sensory properties of a food slows or stops motivated responding for a food. Stress may increase eating by acting as a dishabituator that prolongs responding for a food. Mental arithmetic (memory requirements), Stroop task (cognitive disson...
Swartz, Johnna R.; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Carrasco, Melissa; Lord, Catherine; Monk, Christopher S.
Objective: Amygdala habituation, the rapid decrease in amygdala responsiveness to the repeated presentation of stimuli, is fundamental to the nervous system. Habituation is important for maintaining adaptive levels of arousal to predictable social stimuli and decreased habituation is associated with heightened anxiety. Input from the ventromedial…
Beaulieu, Kristine; Hopkins, Mark; Long, Cecilia; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham
Evidence suggests that homeostatic satiety signaling is enhanced with higher levels of physical activity (PA), with active individuals demonstrating an improved ability to compensate for previous energy intake (EI). However, prior studies lacked objective assessment of both PA level and EI. This study examined the effect of objectively measured PA level on homeostatic (energy compensation) and hedonic (liking and wanting) responses to high-energy (HEP), low-energy (LEP), and control preloads. Thirty-four nonobese individuals were grouped by tertiles of accelerometry-measured habitual moderate-to-vigorous PA (low, LoMVPA; moderate, ModMVPA; high, HiMVPA), similar in age, sex, and body mass index. After a preliminary assessment, EI (fixed-energy breakfast and ad libitum lunch, dinner, and evening snack box meals) was determined for three probe meal days in which preloads varying in energy content (HEP, 699 kcal; LEP, 258 kcal; control, 0 kcal) were consumed before the lunch meal. Liking and wanting were assessed before and after preload consumption (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire), and appetite ratings were taken throughout the day. Relative to control, EI at lunch was reduced to a greater extent after consumption of HEP compared with LEP in ModMVPA (P reflecting more accurate energy compensation in HiMVPA and ModMVPA. There were no effects on cumulative EI after preload consumption of (lunch, dinner, and snack box combined). HEP led to a greater suppression of hunger, liking, and wanting compared with LEP in all MVPA tertiles. Nonobese individuals with lower levels of measured PA were insensitive to the nutritional manipulation of the preloads, suggesting a weaker satiety response to food. This study provides objective evidence that higher habitual PA improves acute homeostatic appetite control.
Estado nutricional e adequação da ingestão de energia e nutrientes em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca Estado nutricional y adecuación de la ingesta de energía y nutrientes en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca Nutritional status and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes among heart failure patients
Bárbara Hatzlhoffer Lourenço
.1 ± 9.8 years, BMI 26.9 ± 4.4 kg/m2. Anthropometric variables were compared between genders, and the adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes was analyzed according to current recommendations. RESULTS: Muscle depletion or risk of depletion was present in 38.4% of patients (association with male gender, p <0.0001. In 69.6% of cases the mean energy intake was lower than the one required (p <0.0001. Among the micronutrients evaluated in this study, there was an important prevalence of inadequacy in magnesium, zinc, iron and thiamine intakes, and most patients had calcium and potassium intakes below the adequate levels, and sodium intake above the adequate levels. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatients with HF showed muscle depletion, and inadequate energy and nutrient intakes. There was no significant association between habitual dietary energy intake and nutritional status. Multidisciplinary care should be encouraged to better assess the general condition of these patients.
de Vries, Y C; van den Berg, M M G A; de Vries, J H M; Boesveldt, S; de Kruif, J Th C M; Buist, N; Haringhuizen, A; Los, M; Sommeijer, D W; Timmer-Bonte, J H N; van Laarhoven, H W M; Visser, M; Kampman, E; Winkels, R M
Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect dietary habits. This study assessed the intake of energy, macronutrients and food groups before and during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared with women without cancer, and determined the association between symptoms and energy and macronutrient intake. This study included 117 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients scheduled for chemotherapy and 88 women without cancer. Habitual intake before chemotherapy was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Two 24-h dietary recalls were completed on random days for each participant during the whole chemotherapy treatment for patients and within 6 months after recruitment for women without cancer. Shortly, after the dietary recall, participants filled out questionnaires on symptoms. Before chemotherapy, habitual energy and macronutrient intake was similar for breast cancer patients and women without cancer. During chemotherapy, breast cancer patients reported a significantly lower total energy, fat, protein and alcohol intake than women without cancer, as shown by a lower intake of pastry and biscuits, cheese, legumes and meat products. A decline in subjective taste perception, appetite and hunger and experiencing a dry mouth, difficulty chewing, lack of energy and nausea were associated with a lower energy intake. Symptoms induced by chemotherapy are associated with lower dietary intake and manifested by a lower intake of specific food groups. To ensure an optimal dietary intake during chemotherapy, it is important to monitor nutritional status and symptom burden during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.
O'Keefe, James H; Bhatti, Salman K; Patil, Harshal R; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; Lavie, Carl J
Coffee, after water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the United States, and is the principal source of caffeine intake among adults. The biological effects of coffee may be substantial and are not limited to the actions of caffeine. Coffee is a complex beverage containing hundreds of biologically active compounds, and the health effects of chronic coffee intake are wide ranging. From a cardiovascular (CV) standpoint, coffee consumption may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, as well as other conditions associated with CV risk such as obesity and depression; but it may adversely affect lipid profiles depending on how the beverage is prepared. Regardless, a growing body of data suggests that habitual coffee consumption is neutral to beneficial regarding the risks of a variety of adverse CV outcomes including coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. Moreover, large epidemiological studies suggest that regular coffee drinkers have reduced risks of mortality, both CV and all-cause. The potential benefits also include protection against neurodegenerative diseases, improved asthma control, and lower risk of select gastrointestinal diseases. A daily intake of ∼2 to 3 cups of coffee appears to be safe and is associated with neutral to beneficial effects for most of the studied health outcomes. However, most of the data on coffee's health effects are based on observational data, with very few randomized, controlled studies, and association does not prove causation. Additionally, the possible advantages of regular coffee consumption have to be weighed against potential risks (which are mostly related to its high caffeine content) including anxiety, insomnia, tremulousness, and palpitations, as well as bone loss and possibly increased risk of fractures. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Of radioiodine metabolism in man, the relations between intake, thyroidal uptake and excretion are explained. The internal radiation dose to the thyroid for public population is mainly given through the intake of contaminated food in all the ages. In the gestation, the fetus is exposed most to radioiodine immediately before delivery and the dose is estimated to amount a few times higher than the maternal thyroid. Importance of both the cow's milk and the breast milk as the sources of contaminant, is emphasized. Babyhood for 6 months after delivery, in this age are estiperiod as to the thyroidal exposure by radioiodine because the dose in his age are estimated to be over 30 times for 131 I and about 9 times for 129 I as compared with that to the adult. Because of its long-term residence in the environment, 129 I is incorporated into cereals, leafy vegetables and meat besides milk. However, the critical age is still in the babyhood for 6 months after birth. Radioiodine given in a form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroidal uptake rate and the biological half-life are depresesed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine given in the form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroids uptake rate and the biological half-life are depressed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine both in the protein-binding fraction and in the total fraction of metabolised cow's milk, reaches the thyroid in the same manner as that given in a form of inorganic iodide. While, rats given radioiodine incorporated into seaweed, excreted tremendous amount of the nuclide into feces which resulted in very low uptake of the nuclide by the thyroid. To estimate population dose from radioiodine, the absorption rate of radioiodine may be one of the most important parameters. (author)
... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...
Valeri, Eva; Cherchi, Elisabetta
Because of the recent improvements in the electrification process of cars, several types of alternative fuel vehicles are appearing in the car market. However, these new engine technologies are not easily penetrating the market around the world and the conventional ones are still the leaders....... A vast literature has explored the reasons for such low market penetration, due mainly to car's features. Using a hybrid choice model approach, in this research we study if, and to which extent, habitual car use influences individual propensity to buy a specific type of engine technology. We found...... of a conventional one. The importance of taking into account this latent construct is demonstrated also with the results of the simulated elasticity measures. In fact, the exclusion of latent habitual effect significantly underestimates the elasticity of diesel and hybrid cars and overestimates the elasticity...
Shea, John J
Archeologists have long assumed that earlier hominins were obligatory stone tool users. This assumption is deeply embedded in traditional ways of describing the lithic record. This paper argues that lithic evidence dating before 1.7 Ma reflects occasional stone tool use, much like that practiced by nonhuman primates except that it involved flaked-stone cutting tools. Evidence younger than 0.3 Ma is more congruent with obligatory stone tool use, like that among recent humans. The onset of habitual stone tool use at about 1.7 Ma appears correlated with increased hominin logistical mobility (carrying things). The onset of obligatory stone tool use after 0.3 Ma may be linked to the evolution of spoken language. Viewing the lithic evidence dating between 0.3-1.7 Ma as habitual stone tool use explains previously inexplicable aspects of the Early-Middle Pleistocene lithic record. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pallister, Tess; Jennings, Amy; Mohney, Robert P.; Yarand, Darioush; Mangino, Massimo; Cassidy, Aedin; MacGregor, Alexander; Spector, Tim D.; Menni, Cristina
Using dietary biomarkers in nutritional epidemiological studies may better capture exposure and improve the level at which diet-disease associations can be established and explored. Here, we aimed to identify and evaluate reproducibility of novel biomarkers of reported habitual food intake using targeted and non-targeted metabolomic blood profiling in a large twin cohort. Reported intakes of 71 food groups, determined by FFQ, were assessed against 601 fasting blood metabolites in over 3500 ad...
Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mechanistically mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review aims to provide an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relationships between habitual short sleep durat...
Buijsse, G.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.
Background: Small, short-term, intervention studies indicate that cocoa-containing foods improve endothelial function and reduce blood pressure. We studied whether habitual cocoa intake was cross-sectionally related to blood pressure and prospectively related with cardiovascular mortality. Methods:
Boisseau, Romain P.; Vogel, David; Dussutour, Audrey
Learning, defined as a change in behaviour evoked by experience, has hitherto been investigated almost exclusively in multicellular neural organisms. Evidence for learning in non-neural multicellular organisms is scant, and only a few unequivocal reports of learning have been described in single-celled organisms. Here we demonstrate habituation, an unmistakable form of learning, in the non-neural organism Physarum polycephalum. In our experiment, using chemotaxis as the behavioural output and...
Sarabjot Kaur Bhatia
Full Text Available Chronic biting of oral mucosa is an innocuous self inflicted injury, commonly seen in children suffering from developmental and psychological problems and has rarely been reported in normal unaffected individuals. The management strategies vary from counseling, prescription of sedatives to different prosthetic shields. The paper highlights the efficacy of a simple approach using soft mouth guard in the management of self inflicted lesions due to habitual biting of oral mucosa in two normal healthy children.
Nissensohn, Mariela; López-Ufano, Marisa; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis
habitual beverage intake. Similar study was developed in China, but in this case, the use of Smartphone technology was employed for beverage assessment. The methodology for measuring beverage intake in population studies remains controversial. There are few validated and reproducible studies, so there is still lacking an ideal method (ie, short, easy to administer, inexpensive and accurate) in this regard. Clearly, this is an area of scientific interest that is still in development and seems to be very promising for improving health research. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Van Horn, Linda
Sodium intake in the United States exceeds recommended amounts across all age, gender and ethnic groups. National dietary guidelines advocate reduced intake by at least 1,000mg per day or more, but whether there is population-wide benefit from further reductions to levels of 1500mg per day remains controversial. A brief review of current evidence-based dietary guidelines is provided and key prospective, randomized studies that report dietary and urinary sodium data are summarized. Dietary sources of sodium and eating patterns that offer nutritiously sound approaches to nutrient dense, reduced sodium intake are compared. No studies suggest that high sodium intake at the levels of the population's current diet is optimal. On the contrary, national and international evidence and systematic reviews consistently recommend reducing sodium intake overall, generally by 1000mg/day. Recommendations to reduce intakes to 2400mg/d are generally accepted as beneficial. Whether further reductions to 1500mg/d are useful, feasible and safe among specific subgroups in the population who are at increased risk of hypertension or stroke remains controversial and requires individualized consideration by patients and their health care providers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boisseau, Romain P; Vogel, David; Dussutour, Audrey
Learning, defined as a change in behaviour evoked by experience, has hitherto been investigated almost exclusively in multicellular neural organisms. Evidence for learning in non-neural multicellular organisms is scant, and only a few unequivocal reports of learning have been described in single-celled organisms. Here we demonstrate habituation, an unmistakable form of learning, in the non-neural organism Physarum polycephalum In our experiment, using chemotaxis as the behavioural output and quinine or caffeine as the stimulus, we showed that P. polycephalum learnt to ignore quinine or caffeine when the stimuli were repeated, but responded again when the stimulus was withheld for a certain time. Our results meet the principle criteria that have been used to demonstrate habituation: responsiveness decline and spontaneous recovery. To distinguish habituation from sensory adaptation or motor fatigue, we also show stimulus specificity. Our results point to the diversity of organisms lacking neurons, which likely display a hitherto unrecognized capacity for learning, and suggest that slime moulds may be an ideal model system in which to investigate fundamental mechanisms underlying learning processes. Besides, documenting learning in non-neural organisms such as slime moulds is centrally important to a comprehensive, phylogenetic understanding of when and where in the tree of life the earliest manifestations of learning evolved. © 2016 The Author(s).
Estimativa de consumo de sódio pela população brasileira, 2002-2003 Estimación del consumo de sodio por la población brasilera, 2002-2003 Estimated sodium intake by the Brazilian population, 2002-2003
socioeconómica del consumo de sodio en Brasil e identificar las fuentes alimenticias que más contribuyen para ese consumo. MÉTODOS: Las estimaciones fueron basadas en los datos de la Pesquisa de Presupuestos Familiares, realizada en Brasil entre julio de 2002 y junio de 2003. Fueron analizados 969.989 registros de adquisición de alimentos efectuados por una muestra probabilística de 48.470 domicilios localizados en 3.984 sectores censados del País. Se realizó conversión de los registros de las adquisiciones de alimentos en nutrientes por medio de tablas de composición de alimentos. Fueron calculadas la disponibilidad promedio de sodio por persona y por día y la disponibilidad promedio ajustada para un consumo energético equivalente a 2.000 kcal. Se calculó la contribución de grupos de alimentos seleccionados para el total de sodio disponible para consumo en el domicilio. Las estimaciones son presentadas según regiones, situación urbana o rural del domicilio e estratos de renta. RESULTADOS: La cantidad diaria de sodio disponible para consumo en los domicilios brasileros fue de 4,5 g por persona (o 4,7 g para una ingestión diaria de 2.000 kcal, excediendo así, en más del doble el límite recomendado de ingestión de ese nutriente. A pesar de que la mayor parte del sodio disponible para consumo en todas clases de renta provenga de la sal de cocina y de condimentos a base de sal (76,2%, la fracción proveniente de alimentos procesados con adición de sal aumenta linear e intensamente con el poder adquisitivo domiciliar, representando 9,7% del total de sodio en el quinto inferior de la distribución de la renta per capita y 25,0% en el quinto superior. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados indican que el consumo de sodio en Brasil excede grandemente la recomendación máxima para ese nutriente en todas las macroregiones brasileras y en todas las clases de renta.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude and distribution of sodium intake in Brazil and to identify major dietary
Gunn, Janelle Peralez
Restaurant foods can be a substantial source of sodium in the American diet. According to the Institute of Medicine, the significant contribution made by restaurants and food service menu items to Americans’ sodium intake warrants targeted attention. Public health practitioners are uniquely poised to support sodium-reduction efforts in restaurants and help drive demand for lower-sodium products through communication and collaboration with restaurant and food service professionals and through incentives for restaurants. This article discusses the role of the public health practitioner in restaurant sodium reduction and highlights select strategies that have been taken by state and local jurisdictions to support this effort. PMID:24456646
Ohta, Yuko; Iwayama, Keiko; Suzuki, Hirotoshi; Sakata, Satoko; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwashima, Yoshio; Takata, Akira; Kawano, Yuhei
Salt restriction is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension; however, salt consumption is still high in Japan. Improvements in dietary habits, including salt reduction in childhood, may contribute to the prevention of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salt intake of school-aged children and the relationship between their diet diary and actual salt intake. The subjects comprised 580 schoolchildren (471 elementary school pupils and 109 junior high school pupils) who wanted to evaluate their salt intake in Kuji, a northeast coastal area in Japan. We estimated salt intake using spot urine samples and a formula. Lifestyle was assessed using a questionnaire. We also evaluated the salt intake and the lifestyles of 440 parents. The estimated salt intakes of elementary school pupils, junior high school pupils and their parents were 7.1±1.5, 7.6±1.5 and 8.0±1.7 g per day, respectively. The proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. In the multivariate analysis, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children correlated with their age, estimated salt intake of their parents and the menu priorities of the household. The estimated salt intake of the parents was associated with female gender, obesity, age and the habitual consumption of bread and noodles. In conclusion, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children positively correlated with the estimated salt intake of their parents, and the proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. Guidance on salt restriction for children and their parents may reduce the salt intake of school-aged children.
Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt
from the mean urinary excretion of sodium in four 24-h collections. Household salt, added to the food by the volunteers, was assessed using a lithium-marker technique. Results: Total salt intake was 10.6 +/- 3.3 g day(-1) (mean +/- s.d.) in men and 7.1 +/- 2.3 g day(-1) in women. Median intake...
Krikken, Jan A.; Laverman, Gozewijn D.; Navis, Gerjan
Purpose of review To evaluate the role of restricting dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications. Recent findings A consistent line of evidence shows that high dietary sodium intake is a determinant of therapy resistance to blockade of the
Kong, Yee Wen; Baqar, Sara; Jerums, George; Ekinci, Elif I.
Guidelines have recommended significant reductions in dietary sodium intake to improve cardiovascular health. However, these dietary sodium intake recommendations have been questioned as emerging evidence has shown that there is a higher risk of cardiovascular disease with a low sodium diet, including in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This may be related to the other pleotropic effects of dietary sodium intake. Therefore, despite recent review of dietary sodium intake guidelines by multiple organizations, including the dietary guidelines for Americans, American Diabetes Association, and American Heart Association, concerns about the impact of the degree of sodium restriction on cardiovascular health continue to be raised. This literature review examines the effects of dietary sodium intake on factors contributing to cardiovascular health, including left ventricular hypertrophy, heart rate, albuminuria, rennin–angiotensin–aldosterone system activation, serum lipids, insulin sensitivity, sympathetic nervous system activation, endothelial function, and immune function. In the last part of this review, the association between dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular outcomes, especially in individuals with diabetes, is explored. Given the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in individuals with diabetes and the increasing incidence of diabetes worldwide, this review is important in summarizing the recent evidence regarding the effects of dietary sodium intake on cardiovascular health, especially in this population. PMID:28066329
Takase, Hiroyuki; Sugiura, Tomonori; Kimura, Genjiro; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki
Although there is a close relationship between dietary sodium and hypertension, the concept that persons with relatively high dietary sodium are at increased risk of developing hypertension compared with those with relatively low dietary sodium has not been studied intensively in a cohort. We conducted an observational study to investigate whether dietary sodium intake predicts future blood pressure and the onset of hypertension in the general population. Individual sodium intake was estimated by calculating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from spot urine in 4523 normotensive participants who visited our hospital for a health checkup. After a baseline examination, they were followed for a median of 1143 days, with the end point being development of hypertension. During the follow-up period, hypertension developed in 1027 participants (22.7%). The risk of developing hypertension was higher in those with higher rather than lower sodium intake (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.50). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, baseline sodium intake and the yearly change in sodium intake during the follow-up period (as continuous variables) correlated with the incidence of hypertension. Furthermore, both the yearly increase in sodium intake and baseline sodium intake showed significant correlations with the yearly increase in systolic blood pressure in multivariate regression analysis after adjustment for possible risk factors. Both relatively high levels of dietary sodium intake and gradual increases in dietary sodium are associated with future increases in blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension in the Japanese general population. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
The effect of regularity of exposure to two different chronic stressors (noise or immobilization (IMO)) on the pattern of habituation of pituitary-adrenal (PA) hormones, prolactin and glucose was evaluated in adult male rats. Animals were chronically subjected to either regular or irregular time schedule of noise (30 min/day) or IMO (2 h/day) for two weeks. The day after the last stress session the rats were killed without stress or after having been subjected to 30 min of the homotypic stressor. Whereas regular noise did not affect food intake, body weight gain or adrenal weight, irregular noise decreased body weight gain and induced a moderate adrenal hypertrophy. In addition, previous daily exposure to regular but not to irregular noise reduced both prolactin and corticosterone responses to acute noise. In contrast, glucose response to acute noise was reduced after both regular and irregular exposure to chronic noise. Either regular or irregular exposure to chronic IMO decreased food intake and body weight and increased adrenal weight to the same extent. Likewise, no influence of regularity of exposure to chronic IMO on corticosterone and prolactin responses to acute IMO was observed. However, habituation of the ACTH response to acute IMO was observed in rats subjected to chronic regular IMO, but not in rats subjected to chronic irregular IMO. Finally, acute IMO-induced hyperglycemia diminished to the same extent after regular and irregular IMO. From these results we can conclude that: first, the process of habituation of the PA axis to chronic stress is greatly dependent upon factors such as regularity of exposure to the stressor and stressor intensity, and second, the influence of regularity on the pattern of habituation to a repeated stressor is dependent on the physiological variable we are dealing with.
Wright, Julie A; Cavanaugh, Kerri L
Despite existing guidelines, dietary sodium intake among people worldwide often exceeds recommended limits. Research evidence is growing in both animal and human studies showing indirect and direct adverse consequences of high dietary sodium on the kidney. In patients with kidney disease, dietary sodium may have important effects on proteinuria, efficacy of antiproteinuric pharmacologic therapy, hypertension control, maintaining an optimal volume status, and immunosuppressant therapy. Dietary sodium intake is an important consideration in patients with all stages of chronic kidney disease, including those receiving dialysis therapy or those who have received a kidney transplant. We review in detail the dietary sodium recommendations suggested by various organizations for patients with kidney disease. Potential barriers to successfully translating current sodium intake guidelines into practice include poor knowledge about the sodium content of food among both patients and providers, complex labeling information, patient preferences related to taste, and limited support for modifications in public policy. Finally, we offer existing and potential solutions that may assist providers in educating and empowering patients to effectively manage their dietary sodium intake.
Andersen, L.J.; Jensen, T.U.; Bestle, M.H.
The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered by a nasogas......-angiotensin system....
Basuray, Anupam; Dolansky, Mary; Josephson, Richard; Sattar, Abdus; Grady, Ellen M.; Vehovec, Anton; Gunstad, John; Redle, Joseph; Fang, James; Hughes, Joel W.
Background We sought to determine the rates and predictors of dietary sodium restriction, while evaluating the reliability of the 24-hour urine collection as a tool to estimate dietary sodium intake in heart failure (HF) patients. Methods and Results We evaluated the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion of 305 outpatients with HF and reduced ejection fraction who were educated on following a sodium diet. The mean sodium excretion using a single sample from each participant was 3.15 ± 1.58 grams, and 23% were adherent to the sodium excretion of 3.21 ± 1.20 grams and lower adherence rates to the sodium and creatinine showed poor reproducibility between samples. Conclusions In this chronic HF population, sodium consumption probably exceeds recommended amounts, particularly in men and those with higher BMI. Urine analyses were not highly reproducible, suggesting variation in both diet and urine collection. PMID:25576680
This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...
Amanda de Moura Souza
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR. A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years. Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%. Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.
Consumo de fibra dietética, sodio, potasio y calcio y su relación con la presión arterial en hombres adultos normotensos Dietary fiber, energy, sodium, potassium and calcium intake and its relationship to blood pressure in normotensive male adults
Martha Nydia Ballesteros-Vásquez
Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética, energía, sodio, potasio y calcio sobre la presión arterial de un grupo de adultos normotensos, tomando en cuenta indicadores tales como la edad, el sexo, la actividad física y la obesidad. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron 38 sujetos del sexo masculino de 30 a 45 años de edad, normotensos, aparentemente sanos y residentes de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se midió la presión arterial y se realizó una evaluación dietética, antropométrica y de actividad física. Resultados. La dieta resultó ser alta en fibra y en grasa. El sodio estaba 56% por arriba de la recomendación en 87% de los casos y fue la variable que más efecto mostró sobre la presión diastólica. De los sujetos estudiados, 36.9% tenían sobrepeso y obesidad, y se encontró una asociación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal y la presión diastólica y sistólica. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación significativa entre la hipertensión arterial y el alto consumo de sodio, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en sujetos normotensos.Objective. To evaluate the effect of dietary fiber, energy, sodium, calcium and potassium intake on the blood pressure of a group of normotensive adults. Material and methods. Subjects were 38 healthy normotensive adult males aged 30-45 years, resident of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Blood pressure, diet, anthropometric data and physical activity were recorded. Results. Their diet was high in fiber and fat. Sodium intake was 56% above the recommended values in 87% of the subjects, and the variable with the highest correlation to diastolic blood pressure. Of the subjects, 36.9% were overweight and obese, and a significant statistic association was found between BMI and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions. A significant relationship was found between hypertension and high consumption of sodium, overweight and obesity in healthy adult normotensive males.
Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Loke, Yoon K; Luben, Robert N; Yeong, Jessica K; Wareham, Nicholas J; Myint, Phyo K; Khaw, Kay-Tee
To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency questionnaire (1993-1997) and cardiovascular end points were ascertained up to March 2008. A systematic review was performed to evaluate chocolate consumption and cardiovascular outcomes. A total of 20,951 men and women were included in EPIC-Norfolk analysis (mean follow-up 11.3±2.8 years, median 11.9 years). The percentage of participants with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the highest and lowest quintile of chocolate consumption was 9.7% and 13.8%, and the respective rates for stroke were 3.1% and 5.4%. The multivariate-adjusted HR for CHD was 0.88 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.01) for those in the top quintile of chocolate consumption (16-99 g/day) versus non-consumers of chocolate intake. The corresponding HR for stroke and cardiovascular disease (cardiovascular disease defined by the sum of CHD and stroke) were 0.77 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.97). The propensity score matched estimates showed a similar trend. A total of nine studies with 157,809 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Higher compared to lower chocolate consumption was associated with significantly lower CHD risk (five studies; pooled RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.92), stroke (five studies; pooled RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.87), composite cardiovascular adverse outcome (two studies; pooled RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.05), and cardiovascular mortality (three studies; pooled RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83). Cumulative evidence suggests that higher chocolate intake is associated with a lower risk of future cardiovascular events, although residual confounding cannot be excluded. There does not appear to be any evidence to say that chocolate should be avoided in those who are concerned about
Cornelis, Marilyn C
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zaenuri, Z.; Sudarmin, S.; Utomo, Y.
is designed using a qualitative approach. This study is focused on the implementation of environmental education in primary schools. Data collection uses observation sheet instrument (observation), focused interview, and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The research data were analyzed descriptively. The results......The purpose of this study is to analyze the implementation of environmental education in Elementary School. The study was conducted at SDN 1 Kota Banda Aceh. The research subjects are school residents (students, teachers, education personnel, principals, and school committees). This research...... show that the implementation of environmental education can be realized in habituation to maintain personal hygiene, class cleanliness, and worship together according to his beliefs and sports....
de Wit, Sanne; Barker, Roger A; Dickinson, Anthony D; Cools, Roshan
This study presents the first direct investigation of the hypothesis that dopamine depletion of the dorsal striatum in mild Parkinson disease leads to impaired stimulus-response habit formation, thereby rendering behavior slow and effortful. However, using an instrumental conflict task, we show that patients are able to rely on direct stimulus-response associations when a goal-directed strategy causes response conflict, suggesting that habit formation is not impaired. If anything our results suggest a disease severity-dependent deficit in goal-directed behavior. These results are discussed in the context of Parkinson disease and the neurobiology of habitual and goal-directed behavior.
Potvin, A. R.; Sadoff, M.; Billingham, J.
Astronauts, particularly in Skylab flights, experienced varying degrees of motion sickness lasting 3-5 days. One possible mechanism for this motion sickness adaptation is believed to be a reduction in otolith sensitivity with an attendant reduction in sensory conflict. In an attempt to determine if this hypothesis is valid, a ground-based pilot study was conducted on a vertical linear accelerator. The extent of habituation to accelerations which initially produced motion sickness was evaluated, along with the possible value of habituation training to minimize the space motion sickness problem. Results showed that habituation occurred for 6 of the 8 subjects tested. However, in tests designed to measure dynamic and static otolith function, no significant differences between pre- and post-habituation tests were observed. Cross habituation effects to a standard Coriolis acceleration test were not significant. It is unlikely that ground-based pre-habituation to linear accelerations of the type examined would alter susceptibility to space motion sickness.
Chandler, Marjorie L
Healthy dogs and cats appear to be able to adjust to differing amounts of sodium in their diet via the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanisms. There is no strong evidence that increased dietary sodium increases the risk of hypertension in dogs and cats, and the current recommendation for hypertensive animals is to avoid high dietary salt intake without making a specific effort to restrict it. The prevalence of salt sensitivity and its effect on blood pressure has not been determined for cats or dogs. The ideal amount of sodium in the diet of dogs and cats with cardiac deficiency has not been determined, as increasing may detrimentally increase the extracellular fluid volume, but decreasing it may detrimentally increase the activation of the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Increased dietary sodium increases urine output and may decrease the risk of forming calcium oxalate uroliths due to the decrease in relative supersaturation of solutes. However, caution should be used in increasing the sodium intake of patients with renal disease as increased dietary sodium may have a negative effect on the kidneys independent of any effect on blood pressure.
Cornelis, Marilyn C; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Campos, Hannia
Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant in the world, and individual differences in response to its stimulating effects may explain some of the variability in caffeine consumption within a population. We examined whether genetic variability in caffeine metabolism [cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) -163A-->C] or the main target of caffeine action in the nervous system [adenosine A(2A) receptor (ADORA2A) 1083C-->T] is associated with habitual caffeine consumption. Subjects (n=2735) were participants from a study of gene-diet interactions and risk of myocardial infarction who did not have a history of hypertension. Genotype frequencies were examined among persons who were categorized according to their self-reported daily caffeine intake, as assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The ADORA2A, but not the CYP1A2, genotype was associated with different amounts of caffeine intake. Compared with persons consuming caffeine/d, the odds ratios for having the ADORA2A TT genotype were 0.74 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.03), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.83), and 0.57 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.77) for those consuming 100-200, >200-400, and >400 mg caffeine/d, respectively. The association was more pronounced among current smokers than among nonsmokers (P for interaction = 0.07). Persons with the ADORA2A TT genotype also were significantly more likely to consume less caffeine (ie, caffeine consumption increases. This observation provides a biologic basis for caffeine consumption behavior and suggests that persons with this genotype may be less vulnerable to caffeine dependence.
Atinmo, T; Egun, G; Mbofung, C M
1. A continuous 40 d metabolic nitrogen balance study was conducted on twelve young men aged 25 (SD 2.6) years to evaluate the adequacy of a previously determined safe level of protein intake. 2. Subjects were fed on diets which they were habitually accustomed to and which provided a protein level of 0.75 g protein (N x 6.25)/kg body-weight per d as the safe level and an energy intake level of 0.2 MJ/kg body-weight per d. N balances, including an estimate for integumental losses as well as certain biochemical variables, were determined for the last 5 d of two consecutive 20 d diet periods. 3. Only two of the twelve subjects were observed to be in negative N balance the final 5 d of the 40 d period. N balance was generally positive at 8.24 (SD 8.61) mg N/kg body-weight, thus confirming the adequacy of 0.75 g protein/kg body-weight per d as a safe level of protein intake in the majority of the subjects.
Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...
Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro
There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health.
Hurley, Seth. W.; Johnson, Alan Kim
Depletion of extracellular fluids motivates many animals to seek out and ingest water and sodium. Animals with a history of extracellular dehydration display enhanced sodium appetite and in some cases thirst. The progressive increase in sodium intake induced by repeated sodium depletions is known as sensitization of sodium appetite. Administration of the diuretic and natriuretic drug, furosemide, along with a low dose of captopril (furo/cap), elicits thirst and a rapid onset of sodium appetite. In the present studies the furo/cap model was used to explore the physiological mechanisms of sensitization of sodium appetite. However, when thirst and sodium appetite were measured concurrently in the furo/cap model, individual rats exhibited sensitization of either thirst or sodium appetite. In subsequent studies, thirst and sodium appetite were dissociated by offering either water prior to sodium or sodium before water. When water and sodium intake were dissociated in time, the furo/cap model reliably produced sensitization of sodium appetite. It is likely that neuroplasticity mediates this sensitization. Glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) activation is critical for the development of most forms of neuroplasticity. Therefore, we hypothesized that integrity of NMDA-R function is necessary for the sensitization of sodium appetite. Pharmacological blockade of NMDA-Rs with systemic administration of MK-801 (0.15mg/kg) prevented the sensitization of fluid intake in general when water and sodium were offered concurrently, and prevented sensitization of sodium intake specifically when water and sodium intake were dissociated. The involvement of NMDA-Rs provides support for the possibility that sensitization of sodium appetite is mediated by neuroplasticity. PMID:24341713
Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Adams, Alexandra K; Carrel, Aaron L; LaRowe, Tara L; Schoeller, Dale A
The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Hispanic children, 10-14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had "good" scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that "need improvement" (HEI, 51-80), and 14% had "poor" scores (HEI, food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health.
Goldstein, Pavel; Leshem, Micah
It is not known why salt is so attractive to humans. Here, guided by hypotheses suggesting that the attraction of salt is conditioned by postingestive benefits, we sought to establish whether there are such benefits in a population by analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 database (n = ~ 10,000). We focus on two potential benefits supported by the literature, growth and moderation of depression, and examine their relationship to sodium, dietary, added at table, and serum. We find that during growth (sodium intake, independent of caloric or other electrolyte intakes. We find that adding salt and depression are related. In contrast, and in women only, dietary sodium and depression are inversely related. The relationships are correlational, but we speculate that this constellation may reflect self-medication for depression by adding salt, and that men may be protected by their higher dietary sodium intake. Additional findings are that women add more salt than men below age ~30, after which men add more, and below 40 years of age, serum sodium is lower in women than in men. It remains possible that small but beneficial effects of sodium could condition salt preference and thus contribute to population-wide sodium intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tanaka, Kiyoji; Sakai, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Yoichi; Umeda, Noriko; Lee, Dong-Jun; Nakata, Yoshio; Hayashi, Yoichi; Akutsu, Tomomi; Okura, Tomohiro; Yamabuki, Keisuke
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of exercise habituation (3-32 years, mean 13.2 years) on physical vitality among five different groups. One hundred and two independent, community-dwelling elderly Japanese men, aged 64.6 +/- 6.6 years, were recruited as subjects. The vital age test battery consisted of various coronary heart disease risk factors and physical fitness elements. The results of analysis of variance revealed that vital age as an index of physical vitality was youngest in joggers (47.9 yr, N=18), intermediate in trekkers (55.8 yr, N=20) and walkers (59.1 yr, N=18), and oldest (69.6 yr, N=20) in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). The difference between chronological age and vital age was approximately 15 years (pexercising IHD patients. These results indicate that exercise habituation significantly affects the overall health status of most individuals, irrespective of mode of exercise. Among the three modes of exercise, jogging may be most beneficial. Furthermore, regularly exercising coronary patients may have physical vitality similar to that of sedentary men.
Full Text Available To cope with the everyday challenges that they encounter in their evolutionary niche, crayfish are considered to rely mainly on chemical information or, alternatively, on tactile information, but not much on vision. Hence, research has focused on chemical communication, whereas crayfish visual abilities remain poorly understood and investigated. To fill in this gap, we tested whether crayfish (Procambarus clarkii can distinguish between two different visual shapes matched in terms of luminance. To this aim, we measured both the habituation response to a repeated presentation of a given shape, a downright Y, and the response recovery when a novel shape was presented. The novel shape could be either a Möbius or the same Y-shape but upright rotated. Our results demonstrate that, after habituation to the downright Y, crayfish showed a significantly higher response recovery to the Möbius as compared to the upright rotated Y. Hence, besides relying on chemo-haptic information, we found that crayfish can use sight alone to discriminate between different abstract geometrical shapes when macroscopically different. Failure to discriminate between the downright Y and its inversion or a generalization from the presence of a shape with three points creating a simple category, are both likely parsimonious explanations that should be investigated systematically in further studies. A future challenge will be understanding whether crayfish are capable of generalized shape recognition.
This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)
Han, Liyuan; Ma, Wenjie; Sun, Dianjianyi; Heianza, Yoriko; Wang, Tiange; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Duan, Donghui; Bray, J George A; Champagne, Catherine M; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu
Background: Coffee consumption has been associated with glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: We examined whether the genetic variation determining habitual coffee consumption affected glycemic changes in response to weight-loss dietary intervention. Design: A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on 8 habitual coffee consumption-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. We used general linear models to test changes in glycemic traits in groups randomly assigned to high- and low-fat diets according to tertiles of the GRS. Results: We observed significant interactions between the GRS and low compared with high dietary fat intake on 6-mo changes in fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ( P -interaction = 0.023 and 0.022, respectively), adjusting for age, sex, race, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, seasonal variation, and baseline values of the respective outcomes. Participants with a higher GRS of habitual coffee consumption showed a greater reduction in fasting insulin and a marginally greater decrease in HOMA-IR in the low-fat diet intervention group. Conclusions: Our data suggest that participants with genetically determined high coffee consumption may benefit more by eating a low-fat diet in improving fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in a short term. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995 and NCT03258203. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Campbell, Norm R. C.; Willis, Kevin J.; L’Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric
Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of
Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the
The sodium is the best appropriate coolant for the fast neutrons reactors technology. Thus the fast neutrons reactors development is intimately bound to the sodium technology. This document presents the sodium as a coolant point of view: atomic structure and characteristics, sodium impacts on the fast neutron reactors technology, chemical properties of the sodium and the consequences, quality control in a nuclear reactor, sodium treatment. (A.L.B.)
Dayawansa, S.; Peckins, S.; Ruch, S.
Rats with bilateral lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) fail to exhibit sodium appetite. Lesions of the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) also block salt appetite. The PBN projection to the LH is largely ipsilateral. If these deficits are functionally dependent, damaging the PBN on one side and the LH on the other should also block Na appetite. First, bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the LH were needed because the electrolytic damage used previously destroyed both cells and axons. The ibotenic LH lesions produced substantial weight loss and eliminated Na appetite. Controls with ipsilateral PBN and LH lesions gained weight and displayed robust sodium appetite. The rats with asymmetric PBN-LH lesions also gained weight, but after sodium depletion consistently failed to increase intake of 0.5 M NaCl. These results dissociate loss of sodium appetite from the classic weight loss after LH damage and prove that Na appetite requires communication between neurons in the LH and the PBN. PMID:21270347
Lucia, Kimberly J; Curtis, Kathleen S
Most investigators use a single treatment such as water deprivation or dietary sodium deficiency to evaluate thirst or sodium appetite, which underlie behavioral responses to body fluid challenges. The goal of the present experiments was to assess the effects of combined treatments in driving behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of combined overnight water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency on water intake and salt intake by adult male rats in 2-bottle (0.5M NaCl and water) tests. Overnight water deprivation alone increased water intake, and 10days of dietary sodium deficiency increased 0.5M NaCl intake, with a secondary increase in water intake. During combined water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency, water intake was enhanced and 0.5M NaCl was reduced, but not eliminated, suggesting that physiologically relevant behavioral responses persist. Nonetheless, the pattern of fluid intake was altered by the combined treatments. We also assessed the effect of these behaviors on induced deficits in body sodium and fluid volume during combined treatments and found that, regardless of treatment, fluid ingestion partially repleted the induced deficits. Finally, we examined urine volume and sodium excretion during dietary sodium deficiency with or without overnight water deprivation and found that, whether or not rats were water deprived, and regardless of water consumption, sodium excretion was minimal. Thus, the combination of water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency appears to arouse drives that stimulate compensatory behavioral responses. These behaviors, in conjunction with physiological adaptations to the treatments, underlie body sodium and volume repletion in the face of combined water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment’s efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.
Köse, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; Uçar, Sema Kalkan; Çoker, Mahmut
In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment's efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.
Humalda, Jelmer K.; Navis, Gerjan
Purpose of review Restriction of dietary sodium is recommended at a population level as well as for groups at high cardiovascular risk, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review addresses recent evidence for the protective effect of dietary sodium restriction in CKD patients specifically. Recent findings Sodium intake in CKD populations is generally high, and often above population average. Recent data demonstrated that moderately lower sodium intake in CKD patients is associated with substantially better long-term outcome of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)-blockade, in diabetic and nondiabetic CKD, related to better effects of RAAS-blockade on proteinuria, independent of blood pressure. This is in line with better short-term efficacy of RAAS-blockade during moderate sodium restriction in diabetic and nondiabetic CKD. This effect of sodium restriction is likely mediated by its effects on volume status. Sustainable sodium restriction can be achieved by approaches on the basis of behavioral sciences. Summary Moderate restriction of dietary sodium can substantially improve the protective effects of RAAS-blockade in CKD, by specific renal effects apparent from proteinuria reduction. The latter precludes straightforward extrapolation of data from nonrenal populations to CKD. Concerns regarding the adverse effects of a very low sodium intake should not distract from the protective effects of moderate sodium restriction. Prospective studies should assess the efficacy and sustainability of different strategies to target high sodium intake in CKD, along with measures at population level. Video abstract http://links.lww.com/CONH/A14 PMID:25222815
Chen, Wen; Ducharme-Smith, Kirstie; Davis, Laura; Hui, Wun Fung; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L; Abraham, Alison G; Betoko, Aisha
Our purpose was to identify the main food contributors to energy and nutrient intake in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this cross-sectional study of dietary intake assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study, we estimated energy and nutrient intake and identified the primary contributing foods within this population. Completed FFQs were available for 658 children. Of those, 69.9% were boys, median age 12 (interquartile range (IQR) 8-15 years). The average daily energy intake was 1968 kcal (IQR 1523-2574 kcal). Milk was the largest contributor to total energy, protein, potassium, and phosphorus intake. Fast foods were the largest contributors to fat and sodium intake, the second largest contributors to energy intake, and the third largest contributors to potassium and phosphorus intake. Fruit contributed 12.0%, 8.7%, and 6.7% to potassium intake for children aged 2-5, 6-13, and 14-18 years old, respectively. Children with CKD consumed more sodium, protein, and calories but less potassium than recommended by the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines for pediatric CKD. Energy, protein, and sodium intake is heavily driven by consumption of milk and fast foods. Limiting contribution of fast foods in patients with good appetite may be particularly important for maintaining recommended energy and sodium intake, as overconsumption can increase the risk of obesity and cardiovascular complications in that population.
Habitual intake of black tea has predominantly been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trials evaluating the potential effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have had inconsistent results. These mixed results could be expl...
Collins, Aoife; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Máiréad
Low phylloquinone (vitamin K1) intakes have been associated with low bone mineral density in older adults. Phylloquinone intakes and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) levels were assessed in ninety-seven apparently healthy, free-living Irish women aged 50-75 years. Phylloquinone intakes were estimated using a detailed dietary history, which measured habitual food intakes from a typical 14 d period, and recently published food composition data for phylloquinone. Fasting serum ucOC was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. The median daily intake of phylloquinone in the group from all sources was 108.8 microg and from food sources only was 106.6 microg, indicating that approximately 99 % of the phylloquinone came from food. Vegetables and vegetable dishes contributed 67 % of the total phylloquinone intake, but further analysis showed that broccoli, cabbage and lettuce were the primary sources, making a total contribution of 44 %. Twenty per cent of the women had a phylloquinone intake below the UK recommendation of 1 microg/kg body weight per day and 34 % failed to meet the US Adequate Intake value of 90 microg/day. Mean serum ucOC levels in the women were 6.2 (SD 1.7) ng/ml and were predicted by phylloquinone intake (beta -2.20, generated from log-transformed phylloquinone intake data; P=0.04). On the basis of comparisons with both UK recommendations and US Adequate Intakes for phylloquinone, the habitual intakes of phylloquinone in a high proportion of Irish postmenopausal women may not be adequate.
Myhre, Ronny; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Myking, Solveig; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian; Sengpiel, Verena; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Jacobsson, Bo
Preterm delivery represents a substantial problem in perinatal medicine worldwide. Current knowledge on potential influences of probiotics in food on pregnancy complications caused by microbes is limited. We hypothesized that intake of food with probiotics might reduce pregnancy complications caused by pathogenic microorganisms and, through this, reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. This study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort on the basis of answers to a food-frequency questionnaire. We studied intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli and spontaneous preterm delivery by using a prospective cohort study design (n = 950 cases and 17,938 controls) for the pregnancy outcome of spontaneous preterm delivery (delivery were associated with any intake of milk-based probiotic products in an adjusted model [odds ratio (OR): 0.857; 95% CI: 0.741, 0.992]. By categorizing intake into none, low, and high intakes of the milk-based probiotic products, a significant association was observed for high intake (OR: 0.820; 95% CI: 0.681, 0.986). Women who reported habitual intake of probiotic dairy products had a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.
Fantino, Marc; Fantino, Agnès; Matray, Marie; Mistretta, Frédéric
The usefulness of replacement of caloric sugars by low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) for weight management has been questioned on the grounds that the uncoupling of LCS sweet taste and dietary energy may confuse physiological mechanisms, leading potentially to higher energy and sugar intake. The aim of the present study was to determine whether LCS beverages compared to water, when consumed with meals, differ in their effects on energy and food intake in acute trials and after long-term habituation. Ad libitum food intake of 166 (80 women; 86 men) healthy non-obese adults (BMI between 19 and 28 kg/m2), infrequent consumers of LCS was measured in four 2-consecutive-day testing sessions (Day 1 in the laboratory, Day 2 free-living). During the first 3 sessions, held one-week apart, participants were required to drink either water or commercial non-carbonated LCS lemonade (330 ml) with their main meals (randomised cross-over design). On Day 1, motivational ratings were obtained using visual analogue scales and ad libitum food intakes (amounts and types of foods selected) were measured using the plate waste method. On Day 2, participants reported their ad libitum intakes using a food diary. After Session 3, participants were randomly assigned to the LCS habituation group or to the water control group. The habituation (660 ml LCS lemonade daily vs 660 ml water) lasted 5 weeks. The fourth and final test session measured food intakes and motivational ratings after habituation. Water and LCS beverage did not differ in their effects on total energy intake, macronutrient intakes or the selection of sweet foods and on motivational ratings. Similar results were obtained in both LCS-naïve and LCS-habituated individuals.
Leo van Buren
Full Text Available Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106. Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day. Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.
Biddle, Martha; Moser, Debra; Song, Eun Kyeung; Heo, Seongkum; Payne-Emerson, Heather; Dunbar, Sandra B; Pressler, Susan; Lennie, Terry
The antioxidant lycopene may be beneficial for patients with heart failure (HF). Processed tomato products are a major source of lycopene, although they are also high in sodium. Increased sodium intake may counter the positive antioxidant effect of lycopene. This was a prospective study of 212 patients with HF. Dietary intake of lycopene and sodium was obtained from weighted 4-day food diaries. Patients were grouped by the median split of lycopene of 2471 µg/day and stratified by daily sodium levels above and below 3 g/day. Patients were followed for 1 year to collect survival and hospitalization data. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to compare cardiac event-free survival between lycopene groups within each stratum of sodium intake. Higher lycopene intake was associated with longer cardiac event-free survival compared with lower lycopene intake (p = 0.003). The worst cardiac event-free survival was observed in the low lycopene intake group regardless of sodium intake (> 3 g/day HR = 3.01; p = 0.027 and ≤ 3 g/day HR= 3.34; p = 0.023). These findings suggest that increased lycopene intake has the potential to improve cardiac event-free survival in patients with HF independent of sodium intake.
Maya N. Clark-Cutaia
Conclusion: Curbing dietary sodium intake may lead to improvement in intradialytic symptom amelioration and potential for better long-term outcomes. Generating empirical support will be critical to ascertain, and espouse, the appropriate level of sodium intake for patients receiving HD.
Waerden, van der P.J.H.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Da Silva, A.N.R.
This paper discusses some results of a study on the influence of car drivers' characteristics on habitual parking behavior. First, the level of habitual parking behavior is determined in two ways: car drivers' regularity in choosing a parking facility and car drivers' self-reporting scores for
Blom, A.; Cipolletta, C.; Brunsting, A.M.H.; Prins, H.H.T.
We monitored the impact of habituation for tourism through changes in gorillas' behavior during the habituation process at Bai Hokou (Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic) from August 1996 to December 1999. From August 1998 onwards we focused on one gorilla group: the Munye. During
Todd, Alwyn S; Walker, Robert J; MacGinley, Robert J; Kelly, Jaimon; Merriman, Tony R; Major, Tanya J; Johnson, Richard J
Subjects with hypertension are frequently obese or insulin resistant, both conditions in which hyperuricemia is common. Obese and insulin-resistant subjects are also known to have blood pressure that is more sensitive to changes in dietary sodium intake. Whether hyperuricemia is a resulting consequence, moderating or contributing factor to the development of hypertension has not been fully evaluated and very few studies have reported interactions between sodium intake and serum uric acid. We performed further analysis of our randomized controlled clinical trials (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #12609000161224 and #12609000292279) designed to assess the effects of modifying sodium intake on concentrations of serum markers, including uric acid. Uric acid and other variables (including blood pressure, renin, and aldosterone) were measured at baseline and 4 weeks following the commencement of low (60 mmol/day), moderate (150 mmol/day), and high (200-250 mmol/day) dietary sodium intake. The median aldosterone-to-renin ratio was 1.90 [pg/ml]/[pg/ml] (range 0.10-11.04). Serum uric acid fell significantly in both the moderate and high interventions compared to the low sodium intervention. This pattern of response occurred when all subjects were analyzed, and when normotensive or hypertensive subjects were analyzed alone. Although previously reported in hypertensive subjects, these data provide evidence in normotensive subjects of an interaction between dietary sodium intake and serum uric acid. As this interaction is present in the absence of hypertension, it is possible it could play a role in hypertension development, and will need to be considered in future trials of dietary sodium intake. The trials were registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000161224 and ACTRN1260. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
de Leeuw, P W; Peeters, L L
Even in an early phase of pregnancy marked haemodynamic changes occur, including a fall in vascular resistance and blood pressure and a rise in cardiac output. To compensate for the increased intravascular capacity the kidney retains more sodium and water. Apparently, the set point of sodium homeostasis shifts to a higher level at the expense of an expansion of extracellular volume. Studies during the normal menstrual cycle have shown that these changes, albeit smaller, also occur during the luteal phase. These fluctuations with the menstrual cycle are less apparent if salt intake is low, suggesting that a high salt intake is needed to facilitate the process of sodium retention. In pregnancies complicated by hypertension and/or pre-eclampsia body fluid volumes are low with an enhanced tendency to retain sodium after a volume challenge. These data, together with the lack of an apparent benefit of sodium restriction, suggest that the practice of prescribing a low-salt diet to hypertensive pregnant women should be abandoned.
Park, Sohyun; Lee, Jounghee; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Jong-Wook; Byun, Jae-Eon; Kang, Baeg-Won; Choi, Bo Youl; Park, Hye-Kyung
South Korean's sodium consumption level is more than twice the upper limit level suggested by the WHO. Steep increases in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Korea necessitate more effective sodium reduction programs. This study was conducted in order to compare sodium intake-related eating behaviors and key psychosocial factors according to age group and gender. Using an online survey, a total of 1,564 adults (20-59 years old) considered to be geographically representative of South Korea were recruited and surveyed. The major outcomes were perceived behaviors, knowledge, intentions, and self-efficacy related to sodium intake. The results show that perceived behavior and level of self-efficacy related to low sodium consumption differed by age and gender. Female participants showed better behavior and intention towards low sodium intake than male counterparts. Young participants in their 20s showed the lowest intention to change their current sodium intake as well as lowest self-efficacy measures. Future sodium reduction interventions should be developed with tailored messages targeting different age and gender groups. Specifically, interventions can be planned and implemented at the college level or for workers in their early career to increase their intention and self-efficacy as a means of preventing future health complications associated with high sodium intake.
Turcio, Karina Helga Leal; Zuim, Paulo Renato Junqueira; Guiotti, Aimée Maria; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Brandini, Daniela Atili
To compare electrical activity in the anterior temporal and masseter muscles on the habitual (HMS) and non-habitual mastication side (NHMS), during mastication and in the mandibular postural position. In addition, the increase in electrical activity during mastication was assessed for the HMS and NHMS, analysing both working (WSM) and non-working side during mastication (NWSM). A total of 28 healthy women (18-32 years) participated in the study. They were submitted to Kazazoglu's test to identify the HMS. Bioresearch 'Bio EMG' software and bipolar surface electrodes were used in the exams. The exams were conducted in the postural position and during the unilateral mastication of raisins, on both the HMS and NHMS. The working and non-working side on HMS and NHMS were assessed separately. The obtained data were then statistically analysed with SPSS 20.0, using the Paired Samples Test at a significance level of 95%. The differences in the average EMG values between HMS and NHMS were not statistically significant in the postural position (Temporal p=0.2; Masseter p=0.4) or during mastication (Temporal WSM p=0.8; Temporal NWSM p=0.8; Masseter WSM p=0.6; Masseter NWSM p=0.2). Differences in the increase in electrical activity between the masseter and temporal muscles occurred on the working side, on the HMS and NHMS (p=0.0), but not on the non-working side: HMS (p=0.9) and NHMS (p=0.3). The increase in electrical activity was about 35% higher in the masseter than in the temporal muscle. Mastication side preference does not significantly impact electrical activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during mastication or in postural position. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Schicatano, E J; Blumenthal, T D
The present experiment tested the effects of caffeine on acoustic startle habituation during different attention tasks in which subjects either (a) attended to the acoustic startle stimulus (auditory attention; n = 9) (b) attended to a visual search task during presentation of acoustic startle stimuli (visual attention; n = 10), or (c) were given no specific instructions during acoustic startle testing (no attention; n = 9). Startle eyeblink responses were measured after subjects received either caffeine (1 mg/kg) or placebo. Caffeine significantly delayed response habituation in the no attention group and in the auditory attention group, but had no effect on habituation in the visual attention group. These data show that startle habituation can occur with minimal attention being directed to the acoustic startle stimulus, and that visual attention cancels the effects of caffeine on startle habituation.
Johnston, R E
The memory of hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) for the flank scent of other male hamsters was investigated in a series of habituation experiments. In 2 types of habituation tasks (Experiments 1 and 2), male hamsters habituated to the flank scent of 1 male and then increased their level of investigation to that of a novel male; similar results were obtained when the intervals between trials ranged from 1 s to 2 days. When the test trial was 10 or 21 days after habituation (Experiment 3), males discriminated between familiar and novel flank scents at 10 days but not at 21 days. The results demonstrate recognition of familiar and unfamiliar individual odors and excellent memory for these differences. Habituation techniques yield extremely robust results and may be useful for investigations of other aspects of individual signatures.
This study investigates how habitual entrepreneurs (i.e. serial and portfolio entrepreneurs) discover and exploit opportunities, deal with risk and uncertainty, predict or control the future, and plan their businesses based on a causation and effectuation perspective. This study thereby uncovered...... the causation and effectuation logics applied by habitual entrepreneurs with regard to four dimensions of the venture creation: View of the future (VF), Opportunity Discovery (OD), Opportunity Exploitation (OE), and Dealing with Risk (DR). Six habitual entrepreneurs, who had to meet three strictly defined...... criteria, where sampled and case studies performed. The findings clearly indicate that habitual entrepreneurs mainly apply an effectual logic with regards to the four dimensions examined. Some of the more inexperienced habitual entrepreneurs tend to apply both logics, but almost exclusively become...
Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)
Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)
Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)
Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Heo, Young-Ran; Hyun, Tai-Sun; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Ro, Hee-Kyong; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Yeon Kyung
The aim of this study was to explore the association between sodium intake, as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion, and various obesity parameters among South Korean adults. The associations of 24-h urinary sodium excretion and sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire with obesity parameters also were compared. This multicenter, cross-sectional study analyzed data of 640 healthy adults from eight provinces in South Korea. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was calculated from repeatedly collected 24-h urine samples. Participants' dietary intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recall interview on the days before 24-h urine collection. In both sexes, the means of all anthropometric measurements tended to increase proportionally with 24-h urinary sodium excretion quartiles, regardless of adjustment. Men in the highest quartile (Q4) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion had increased odds of obesity (as assessed by BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR) compared with men in the three lower quartiles (Q1-Q3) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Women in Q4 of 24-h urinary sodium excretion exhibited a higher chance of general obesity and abdominal obesity. Sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire was not significantly associated with obesity in either sex. In Korean adults, there was a positive association between higher sodium intake as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity independent of energy intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaplan, Peter S.; Werner, John S.
Tests infants' dual-process performance (a process mediating response decrements called habituation and a state-dependent process mediating response increments called sensitization) on visual habituation-dishabituation tasks. (HOD)
Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.
Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack
Ana Maria Cervato
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudo descritivo por amostragem em munícípio do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em 1990, com objetivo de analisar, mediante entrevistas domiciliares, a dieta habitual e fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares em indivíduos maiores de 20 anos. METODOLOGIA: Foram entrevistados 557 indivíduos, de idade entre 20 e 88 anos, que fazem parte de subamostra de um estudo global na região. A dieta habitual, identificada pelo histórico alimentar foi comparada às recomendações da OMS e os fatores de risco estudados (obesidade, dislipidemias, diabetes melito diagnosticados pelo Índice de Massa Corpórea e dosagens bioquímicas. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se que 60% da população consome dieta com energia total abaixo da estimativa das necessidades e que a contribuição calórica dos carboidratos foi de 56%, dos lipídios de 29% e das proteínas de 15%. Entretanto, na análise por percentil, a contribuição calórica dos lipídios e das proteínas encontra-se muito acima dos padrões recomendados em detrimento dos carboidratos. A energia, distribuição calórica e quantidade de colesterol foi adequada em apenas 5% das dietas. Dentre os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares estudados observou-se a prevalência de obesidade em 38% dos indivíduos, de dislipidemias em 26% e de diabetes melito em 5%. A atividade física leve preponderante com dieta inadequada, tanto em termos de qualitativos quanto quantitativos, agravam ainda mais esse quadro.INTRODUCTION: A survey by sampling in a county of the State of S. Paulo in 1990 sought, by means of home interviews, to analyse the habitual diet and risk factors for cardiovascular disease of people over 20 years of age. METHODOLOGY: Of the sub-specimen of a comprehensive study population, 557 individuals, aged between 20 and 88, were interviewed. The habitual diet, characterized by the dietary history, was compared with the recommendations on energy and nutrients of the
Fenton, Robert A; Poulsen, Søren B; de la Mora Chavez, Samantha; Soleimani, Manoocher; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A; Rieg, Timo
The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3 loxloxCre) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3 loxloxCre mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower. Water deprivation revealed a small urinary concentrating defect in NHE3 loxloxCre mice on a control diet, exaggerated on low sodium chloride. Ten days of low or high sodium chloride diet did not affect plasma sodium in control mice; however, NHE3 loxloxCre mice were susceptible to low sodium chloride (about -4 mM) or high sodium chloride intake (about +2 mM) versus baseline, effects without differences in plasma aldosterone between groups. Blood pressure was significantly lower in NHE3 loxloxCre mice and was sodium chloride sensitive. In control mice, the expression of the sodium/phosphate co-transporter Npt2c was sodium chloride sensitive. However, lack of tubular NHE3 blunted Npt2c expression. Alterations in the abundances of sodium/chloride cotransporter and its phosphorylation at threonine 58 as well as the abundances of the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, and its cleaved form, were also apparent in NHE3 loxloxCre mice. Thus, renal NHE3 is required to maintain blood pressure and steady-state plasma sodium levels when dietary sodium chloride intake is modified. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schneider, Markus P; Raff, Ulrike; Kopp, Christoph; Scheppach, Johannes B; Toncar, Sebastian; Wanner, Christoph; Schlieper, Georg; Saritas, Turgay; Floege, Jürgen; Schmid, Matthias; Birukov, Anna; Dahlmann, Anke; Linz, Peter; Janka, Rolf; Uder, Michael; Schmieder, Roland E; Titze, Jens M; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe
The pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with CKD is incompletely understood. Sodium intake, which is usually assessed by measuring urinary sodium excretion, has been inconsistently linked with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, tissues such as skin and muscle may store sodium. Using 23 sodium-magnetic resonance imaging, a technique recently developed for the assessment of tissue sodium content in humans, we determined skin sodium content at the level of the calf in 99 patients with mild to moderate CKD (42 women; median [range] age, 65 [23-78] years). We also assessed total body overhydration (bioimpedance spectroscopy), 24-hour BP, and left ventricular mass (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Skin sodium content, but not total body overhydration, correlated with systolic BP ( r =0.33, P =0.002). Moreover, skin sodium content correlated more strongly than total body overhydration did with left ventricular mass ( r =0.56, P skin sodium content is a strong explanatory variable for left ventricular mass, unaffected by BP and total body overhydration. In conclusion, we found skin sodium content to be closely linked to left ventricular mass in patients with CKD. Interventions that reduce skin sodium content might improve cardiovascular outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Leljak-Levanić, Dunja; Mrvková, Mihaela; Turečková, Veronika; Pěnčík, Aleš; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav; Mihaljević, Snježana
Habituated embryogenic line of pumpkin contained more CKs and IAA, but less ABA than the non-habituated line. Pronounced hypomethylation correlated with the absence of 2,4-D, addition of 5-azaC, and the process of habituation. A comparative analysis between habituated and non-habituated embryogenic cultures of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) in relation to endogenous phytohormones, global DNA methylation, and developmental and regeneration capacities of the cultures was conducted. The analysis revealed more cytokinins (CKs) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but less abscisic acid (ABA) in the habituated HEC line than in the non-habituated DEC line. Ribosides and ribotides were the most abundant CK forms in both HEC and DEC lines (75.9 and 57.6 %, respectively). HEC contained more free-base CKs (5.8 vs. 3.2 %), whereas DEC contained considerably more O-glycosides (39.1 vs. 18.3 %). Although prevalence of IAA was common for both lines, relative ratio of CKs and ABA differed between DEC and HEC lines. ABA was prevailing over CKs in DEC, while CKs prevailed over ABA in HEC line. Taking into account the importance of ABA for embryo maturation, the reduced endogenous ABA content in HEC line might be the reason for a 5-fold reduction in regeneration capacity compared to DEC. Both habituated and non-habituated embryogenic lines were highly methylated in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Pronounced hypomethylation correlated with the absence of 2,4-D, addition of 5-azacytidine (5-azaC), but also with the process of habituation. The habituated line was resistant to the effect of hypomethylation drug 5-azaC and remained highly methylated even after the addition of 5-azaC. Also, 5-azaC did not change the developmental pattern in the habituated line, indicating the existence of separate mechanisms by which 2,4-D influences global DNA methylation in comparison to habituation-related global DNA methylation.
Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly R
The objective was to examine the effect of consuming breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Participants who habitually ate breakfast and those who skipped breakfast were recruited for two studies. Using a randomized crossover design, the first study examined the effect of having participants consume either (a) no breakfast, (b) a high carbohydrate breakfast (335 kcals), or (c) a high fiber breakfast (360 kcals) on three occasions and measured ad libitum intake at lunch. The second study again used a randomized crossover design but with a larger, normal carbohydrate breakfast consumed ad libtum. Intake averaged 624 kcals and subsequent food intake was measured throughout the day. Participants ate only foods served from the Cornell Human Metabolic Research Unit where all foods were weighed before and after consumption. In the first study, neither eating breakfast nor the kind of breakfast consumed had an effect on the amount consumed at lunch despite a reduction in hunger ratings. In the second study, intake at lunch as well as hunger ratings were significantly increased after skipping breakfast (by 144 kcal), leaving a net caloric deficit of 408 kcal by the end of the day. These data are consistent with published literature demonstrating that skipping a meal does not result in accurate energy compensation at subsequent meals and suggests that skipping breakfast may be an effective means to reduce daily energy intake in some adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fardy, J J; McOrist, G D; Farrar, Y J; Bowles, C J [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)
A study of the status of essential, toxic and trace elements in the foods and diets of Australian has been in progress for six years. Results for sodium, potassium and chloride levels are reported here. The average daily dietary intake of sodium and chloride exceeded the range of values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for most population groups with grain and dairy products the main contributor to these high intakes. In contrast, the average daily intakes of potassium fell well within the recommended values for all age groups with intakes for adult females close to the recommended minimum figure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.
Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.; Bowles, C.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)
A study of the status of essential, toxic and trace elements in the foods and diets of Australian has been in progress for six years. Results for sodium, potassium and chloride levels are reported here. The average daily dietary intake of sodium and chloride exceeded the range of values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for most population groups with grain and dairy products the main contributor to these high intakes. In contrast, the average daily intakes of potassium fell well within the recommended values for all age groups with intakes for adult females close to the recommended minimum figure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.
Menani, Jose Vanderlei; DeLuca, Laurival Antonio, Jr.; Johnson, Alan Kim
This study investigated the effects of bilateral injections of a serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist into the lateral parabrachial nucleus on the intake of NaCl and water induced by 24-h water deprivation or by sodium depletion followed by 24 h of sodium deprivation (injection of the diuretic furosemide plus 24 h of d sodium-deficient diet). Rats had stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally into the LPBN. Bilateral LPBN injections of the serotonergic 5-HT(1/2) receptor antagonist methysergide (4 micro-g/200 nl at each site) increased hypertonic NaCl intake when tested 24 h after sodium depletion and after 24 h of water deprivation. Water intake also increased after bilateral injections of methysergide into the LPBN. In contrast, the intake of a palatable solution (0.06 M sucrose) under body fluid-replete conditions was not changed after bilateral LPBN methysergide injections. The results show that serotonergic mechanisms in the LPBN modulate water and sodium intake induced by volume depletion and sodium loss. The finding that sucrose intake was not affected by LPBN serotonergic blockade suggests that the effects of the methysergide treatment on the intakes of water and NaCl are not due to a mechanism producing a nonspecific enhancement of all ingestive behaviors.
Bell, Alison M.; Peeke, Harman V.S.
Habituation, or the relatively permanent waning of a response as a result of repeated stimulation, is a form of behavioural plasticity that allows animals to filter out irrelevant stimuli and to focus selectively on important stimuli. Individuals that fail to habituate might be at a disadvantage if they continue to respond to irrelevant stimuli; therefore, habituation can have adaptive significance. In this study we compared rates of behaviour over time toward three different ecologically-relevant stimuli (food, a male intruder and a gravid female) in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We detected evidence for habituation to the stimuli, and males in this study were especially aggressive toward both male and female conspecifics. Although there were some clear temporal patterns that could be detected by looking at average behaviour, not all individuals behaved in the same ‘average’ way. We detected substantial inter-individual variation in behaviour toward all three stimuli, inter-individual variation in rates of habituation to both male and female conspecifics, but no evidence for correlations between behaviours across stimuli (behavioural syndromes). These results suggest that individual animals vary in rates of habituation, and prompt hypotheses about the causes and consequences of variation in rates of habituation. PMID:25678715
Ardiel, Evan L.; Yu, Alex J.; Giles, Andrew C.; Rankin, Catharine H.
Habituation is a non-associative form of learning characterized by a decremented response to repeated stimulation. It is typically framed as a process of selective attention, allowing animals to ignore irrelevant stimuli in order to free up limited cognitive resources. However, habituation can also occur to threatening and toxic stimuli, suggesting that habituation may serve other functions. Here we took advantage of a high-throughput Caenorhabditis elegans learning assay to investigate habituation to noxious stimuli. Using real-time computer vision software for automated behavioral tracking and optogenetics for controlled activation of a polymodal nociceptor, ASH, we found that neuropeptides mediated habituation and performed an RNAi screen to identify candidate receptors. Through subsequent mutant analysis and cell-type-specific gene expression, we found that pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) neuropeptides function redundantly to promote habituation via PDFR-1-mediated cAMP signaling in both neurons and muscles. Behavioral analysis during learning acquisition suggests that response habituation and sensitization of locomotion are parts of a shifting behavioral strategy orchestrated by pigment dispersing factor signaling to promote dispersal away from repeated aversive stimuli.
Full Text Available Qualifications such as "global warming hysteria" and "energy policy schizophrenia" put forward by some climate change skeptics, usually outside the academic arena, may suggest that people who seriously worry about the environment suffer from psychological imbalance. The present study aimed to refute this thesis. While habitual worrying in general is strongly associated with psychopathological symptoms, in a survey a near-zero correlation was found between habitual ecological worrying and pathological worry. Instead, habitual ecological worrying was associated with pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors, and with a personality structure characterized by imagination and an appreciation for new ideas. The study had sufficient statistical power and measures were valid and reliable. The results confirm that those who habitually worry about the ecology are not only lacking in any psychopathology, but demonstrate a constructive and adaptive response to a serious problem. In the public domain, these findings may contribute to a more rational and less emotional debate on climate change and to the prevention of stigmatization of people who are genuinely concerned about our habitat and are prepared to do something about it ("habitual worriers are not crazy". In the academic arena this study may contribute to environmental psychology ("habitual worrying is part of a green identity", as well as to the literature on worry and anxiety ("habitual worrying can be a constructive response".
Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; New, Antonia S; Goldstein, Kim E; Rosell, Daniel; Yuan, Qiaoping; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hodgkinson, Colin; Goldman, David; Siever, Larry J; Hazlett, Erin A
A deficit in amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli may be an endophenotype of disorders characterized by emotion dysregulation, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). Amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli is genetically modulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) variants. Whether amygdala habituation itself is also modulated by BDNF genotypes remains unknown. We used imaging-genetics to examine the effect of BDNF Val66Met genotypes on amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 57 subjects (19 BPD patients, 18 patients with schizotypal personality disorder [SPD] and 20 healthy controls [HC]) during a task involving viewing of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant pictures, each presented twice to measure habituation. Amygdala responses across genotypes (Val66Met SNP Met allele-carriers vs. Non-Met carriers) and diagnoses (HC, BPD, SPD) were examined with ANOVA. The BDNF 66Met allele was significantly associated with a deficit in amygdala habituation, particularly for emotional pictures. The association of the 66Met allele with a deficit in habituation to unpleasant emotional pictures remained significant in the subsample of BPD patients. Using imaging-genetics, we found preliminary evidence that deficient amygdala habituation may be modulated by BDNF genotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Giles, Grace E; Cantelon, Julie A; Eddy, Marianna D; Brunyé, Tad T; Urry, Heather L; Mahoney, Caroline R; Kanarek, Robin B
Habitual exercise is associated with enhanced domain-general cognitive control, such as inhibitory control, selective attention, and working memory, all of which rely on the frontal cortex. However, whether regular exercise is associated with more specific aspects of cognitive control, such as the cognitive control of emotion, remains relatively unexplored. The present study employed a correlational design to determine whether level of habitual exercise was related to performance on the Stroop test measuring selective attention and response inhibition, the cognitive reappraisal task measuring cognitive reappraisal success, and associated changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. 74 individuals (24 men, 50 women, age 18-32 years) participated. Higher habitual physical activity was associated with lower Stroop interference (indicating greater inhibitory control) and enhanced cognitive reappraisal success. Higher habitual exercise was also associated with lower oxygenated hemoglobin (O 2 Hb) in the PFC in response to emotional information. However, NIRS data indicated that exercise was not associated with cognitive control-associated O 2 Hb in the PFC. Behaviorally, the findings support and extend the previous findings that habitual exercise relates to more successful cognitive control of neutral information and cognitive reappraisal of emotional information. Future research should explore whether habitual exercise exerts causal benefits to cognitive control and PFC oxygenation, as well as isolate specific cognitive control processes sensitive to change through habitual exercise.
Chan, Kevin K S; Mak, Winnie W S
As habitual self-stigma can have a tremendous negative impact on people with mental illness, it is of paramount importance to identify its risk factors. The present study aims to examine the potential contributory role of attentional bias in habitual self-stigma. People with mental illness having strong (n = 47) and weak (n = 47) habitual self-stigma completed a computerized emotional Stroop task which included stigma-related, positive, and non-affective words as stimuli. The strong habit group was found to exhibit faster color-naming of stigma-related words (compared to non-affective words), whereas the weak habit group showed no difference in the speed of response to different stimuli. These findings suggest that people with stronger habitual self-stigma may be more able to ignore the semantic meaning of stigma-related words and focus on the color-naming task. Moreover, people with stronger habitual self-stigma may have greater attentional avoidance of stigma-related material. The present study is the first to demonstrate a specific relationship between habitual self-stigma and biased processing of stigma-related information. In order to further determine the role and the nature of attentional bias in habitual self-stigma, future research should employ a broader range of experimental paradigms and measurement techniques to examine stigma-related attentional bias in people with mental illness.
Full Text Available Background: Abnormalities in habituation have been documented in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and Williams syndrome (WS. Such abnormalities have been proposed to underlie the distinctive social and non-social difficulties that define ASD, including sensory features and repetitive behaviours, and the distinctive social phenotype characterizing WS. Methods: We measured habituation in 39 preschoolers with ASD, 20 peers with WS and 19 typically developing (TD children using an eye-tracking protocol that measured participants’ duration of attention in response to a repeating stimulus and a novel stimulus presented side by side across multiple trials. Results: Participants in the TD group and the WS group decreased their attention toward the repeating stimulus and increased their attention to the novel stimulus over time. Conversely, the ASD group showed a similar attentional response to the novel and repeating stimuli. Habituation was correlated with social functioning in the WS but not in the ASD group. Contrary to predictions, slower habituation in ASD was associated with lower severity of repetitive behaviours. Conclusions: Habituation appears to be intact in WS and impaired in ASD. More research is needed to clarify the nature of the syndrome-specific patterns of correlations between habituation and social and non-social functioning in these neurodevelopmental disorders. Keywords: Habituation, Learning, Eye-tracking, Repetitive behaviours, Social cognition, Autism, Williams syndrome
Verplanken, Bas; Roy, Deborah
Qualifications such as "global warming hysteria" and "energy policy schizophrenia" put forward by some climate change skeptics, usually outside the academic arena, may suggest that people who seriously worry about the environment suffer from psychological imbalance. The present study aimed to refute this thesis. While habitual worrying in general is strongly associated with psychopathological symptoms, in a survey a near-zero correlation was found between habitual ecological worrying and pathological worry. Instead, habitual ecological worrying was associated with pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors, and with a personality structure characterized by imagination and an appreciation for new ideas. The study had sufficient statistical power and measures were valid and reliable. The results confirm that those who habitually worry about the ecology are not only lacking in any psychopathology, but demonstrate a constructive and adaptive response to a serious problem. In the public domain, these findings may contribute to a more rational and less emotional debate on climate change and to the prevention of stigmatization of people who are genuinely concerned about our habitat and are prepared to do something about it ("habitual worriers are not crazy"). In the academic arena this study may contribute to environmental psychology ("habitual worrying is part of a green identity"), as well as to the literature on worry and anxiety ("habitual worrying can be a constructive response").
Butte, Nancy F; Fox, Mary Kay; Briefel, Ronette R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dwyer, Johanna T; Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C
To assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS conducted in 2002 and 2008. The FITS 2008 is a cross-sectional survey of a national random sample of US children from birth through age 47 months. Usual nutrient intakes derived from foods, beverages, and supplements were ascertained using a telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recall. Infants aged birth to 5 months (n=382) and 6 to 11 months (n=505), toddlers aged 12 to 23 months (n=925), and preschoolers aged 24 to 47 months (n=1,461) were surveyed. All primary caregivers completed one 24-hour dietary recall and a random subsample (n=701) completed a second 24-hour dietary recall. The personal computer version of the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation was used to estimate the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles, as well as the proportions below and above cutoff values defined by the Dietary Reference Intakes or the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Usual nutrient intakes met or exceeded energy and protein requirements with minimal risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. The usual intakes of antioxidants, B vitamins, bone-related nutrients, and other micronutrients were adequate relative to the Adequate Intakes or Estimated Average Requirements, except for iron and zinc in a small subset of older infants, and vitamin E and potassium in toddlers and preschoolers. Intakes of synthetic folate, preformed vitamin A, zinc, and sodium exceeded Tolerable Upper Intake Level in a significant proportion of toddlers and preschoolers. Macronutrient distributions were within acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, except for dietary fat, in some toddlers and preschoolers. Dietary fiber was low in the vast majority of toddlers and preschoolers, and saturated fat intakes exceeded
Fields, D.E.; Miller, C.W.; Cooper, A.C.
Liquid-metal-cooled breeder reactors are expected to use large quantities of sodium or sodium-potassium alloy, and evaluation of the possible consequences of a liquid-metal fire, henceforth referred to as a sodium fire, is an important consideration. Of particular interest is the sodium aerosol concentration at the air intake ports that are used for reactor cooling, and which might suffer restricted flow under high aerosol concentrations. The authors have devised and applied a methodology for estimating the concentration of aerosols released vertically and horizontally from building surfaces and monitored at other building surface points. This methodology has been used to make calculations that indicate the time development of aerosol buildup, and the maximum aerosol concentration, at air intake ports. Building wake effects, momentum-driven plume rise, and density-driven plume rise are considered
O'Reilly, Gillian A; Black, David S; Huh, Jimi; Davis, Jaimie N; Unger, Jennifer; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
The impact of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake by overweight adolescents is unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent ad libitum sugar intake by overweight adolescents and whether habitual sugar intake and impulsivity influence the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake. This was an in-laboratory crossover feeding trial with sugar-exposure and sugar-restriction conditions. Eighty-seven overweight Latino and African-American adolescents underwent both meal conditions in two separate 8-hour in-laboratory visits. Participants had access to ad libitum snack trays for 3 hours after the condition-specific meals. Ad libitum sugar intake during the snack period was measured at each visit. Habitual sugar intake and impulsivity were assessed at baseline. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to examine the within-person effect of meal condition on ad libitum sugar intake. Mixed models were used to examine the moderating effects of habitual sugar intake and impulsivity on the meal condition-ad libitum sugar intake relationship. Participants consumed more ad libitum sugar during the snack period in the sugar-restriction condition than in the sugar-exposure condition (sugar restriction=78.63±38.84 g, sugar exposure=70.86±37.73 g; F=9.64, P=0.002). There was no relationship between habitual sugar intake and how much ad libitum sugar participants consumed during either condition. Higher impulsivity was associated with greater ad libitum sugar intake during both conditions (sugar restriction: b=.029, standard error=.01, Poverweight adolescents restricted from sugar intake consume greater amounts of sugar when they are later given access to high-sugar foods. Overweight adolescents with higher impulsivity appear to consume greater amounts of sugar regardless of previous levels of sugar consumption. Compensatory sugar intake and trait impulsivity may have implications for dietary interventions in this
Boyer, Elizabeth R; Rooney, Brandon D; Derrick, Timothy R
Shear loading rates (LR) have not been investigated in runners with a mid- or forefoot strike (FFS) versus rearfoot strike (RFS). The purpose of this study was to compare three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRF) and LR during impact in habitual rearfoot strikers (hRF) and habitual forefoot strikers (hFF) strikers. Thirty competitive runners performed 10 overground running trials with both foot strike styles. Peak three-dimensional and resultant GRF and instantaneous LR during impact were compared. Vertical LR significantly decreased for hRF using an FFS (RFS = 148 ± 36 body weight [BW]·s(-1), FFS = 98 ± 31 BW·s(-1)) but was similar for hFF running with either foot strike (FFS = 136 ± 35 BW·s(-1), RFS = 135 ± 28 BW·s(-1)). Posterior impact forces were present during FFS but not during RFS, and posterior LR was significantly greater for both groups during FFS (-58 ± 17 vs -19 ± 6 BW·s(-1)). Medial impact forces were also present during FFS but not during RFS, and medial LR was significantly larger for both groups during FFS (-21 ± 7 vs -6 ± 6 BW·s(-1)). Interestingly, hFF had greater impact peaks and LR in all directions compared with hRF during FFS. This may be explained by hFF using a smaller strike index (hFF = 62% ± 9%, hRF = 67% ± 9%; P = 0.02), which was significantly inversely related to vertical LR and impact peak. Peak resultant and vertical LR are not ubiquitously lower when using a shod FFS versus RFS despite an absence of resultant and vertical impact peaks. Furthermore, there were impact peaks in the posterior and medial directions, leading also to greater LR in these directions during FFS. Therefore, transitioning from RFS to FFS in traditional running shoes may not offer long-term protection against impact-related running injuries because hFF running with an FFS demonstrated many GRF and LR similar to or greater than RFS.
Barker, Jacqueline M; Taylor, Jane R
The transition from goal-directed actions to habitual ethanol seeking models the development of addictive behavior that characterizes alcohol use disorders. The progression to habitual ethanol-seeking behavior occurs more rapidly than for natural rewards, suggesting that ethanol may act on habit circuit to drive the loss of behavioral flexibility. This review will highlight recent research that has focused on the formation and expression of habitual ethanol seeking, and the commonalities and distinctions between ethanol and natural reward-seeking habits, with the goal of highlighting important, understudied research areas that we believe will lead toward the development of novel treatment and prevention strategies for uncontrolled drinking. PMID:25193245
Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K; Kristensen, Mette
Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (pfiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (pfiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest.
Full Text Available Background. There is a little published data regarding the association between salt intake and albuminuria as an important alarm for progression of cardiovascular and renal dysfunction. We aimed to assess this relationship to emphasize the major role of restricting salt intake to minimize albuminuria and prevent these life-threatening events. Methods. The study population comprised 820 individuals. Participants were assigned to groups as follows: normal albuminuria, slight albuminuria, and clinical albuminuria. Daily salt intake was assessed on the basis of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, since urinary sodium excretion largely equals sodium intake. Results. In normotensive participants, the mean level of urine albumin was higher in those who had higher amounts of salt intake with a significantly upward trend (the mean urinary albumin level in low-salt-diet group, in medium-salt-intake group, and in high-salt-intake group was 42.70±36.42, 46.89±38.91, and 53.38±48.23, resp., (P=0.017. There was a significant positive correlation between 24-hour urinary sodium secretion and the level of urine albumin (beta = 0.130, P<0.001. The amount of salt intake was significantly associated with urine albumin concentration (beta = 3.969, SE = 1.671, P=0.018. Conclusion. High salt intake was shown to be associated with higher level of microalbuminuria even adjusted for potential underlying risk factors.
Full Text Available Although prosocial behaviors have been widely studied across disciplines, the mechanisms underlying them are not fully understood. Evidence from psychology, biology and economics suggests that prosocial behaviors can be driven by a variety of seemingly opposing factors: altruism or egoism, intuition or deliberation, inborn instincts or learned dispositions, and utility derived from actions or their outcomes. Here we propose a framework inspired by research on reinforcement learning and decision making that links these processes and explains characteristics of prosocial behaviors in different contexts. More specifically, we suggest that prosocial behaviors inherit features of up to three decision-making systems employed to choose between self- and other- regarding acts: a goal-directed system that selects actions based on their predicted consequences, a habitual system that selects actions based on their reinforcement history, and a Pavlovian system that emits reflexive responses based on evolutionarily prescribed priors. This framework, initially described in the field of cognitive neuroscience and machine learning, provides insight into the potential neural circuits and computations shaping prosocial behaviors. Furthermore, it identifies specific conditions in which each of these three systems should dominate and promote other- or self- regarding behavior.
Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Wilke, Andreas; Scheibehenne, Benjamin; McCanney, Paige; Barrett, H Clark
Why do people gamble? A large body of research suggests that cognitive distortions play an important role in pathological gambling. Many of these distortions are specific cases of a more general misperception of randomness, specifically of an illusory perception of patterns in random sequences. In this article, we provide further evidence for the assumption that gamblers are particularly prone to perceiving illusory patterns. In particular, we compared habitual gamblers to a matched sample of community members with regard to how much they exhibit the choice anomaly 'probability matching'. Probability matching describes the tendency to match response proportions to outcome probabilities when predicting binary outcomes. It leads to a lower expected accuracy than the maximizing strategy of predicting the most likely event on each trial. Previous research has shown that an illusory perception of patterns in random sequences fuels probability matching. So does impulsivity, which is also reported to be higher in gamblers. We therefore hypothesized that gamblers will exhibit more probability matching than non-gamblers, which was confirmed in a controlled laboratory experiment. Additionally, gamblers scored much lower than community members on the cognitive reflection task, which indicates higher impulsivity. This difference could account for the difference in probability matching between the samples. These results suggest that gamblers are more willing to bet impulsively on perceived illusory patterns.
K N Sarveswari
Full Text Available A 3-year-old male child was brought by his parents with a nonhealing ulcer on the right middle finger having no significant history except for an injury sustained to the right elbow in December 2013. On further probing, the mother revealed that the child used to indulge in habitual biting of his right middle finger while watching TV. Initially he was investigated extensively by a vascular surgeon and no abnormality was detected. He was later referred to the dermatology department and on examination, the patient was attentive with normal behaviour. The right upper limb was slightly larger than left. There was no deformity of the right elbow. The right third fingertip was enlarged and mutilated. There was no nerve thickening or hypopigmented patch. There was loss of sensation on the right hand and arm. Differential diagnosis of Lesch–Nyhan syndrome and congenital sensory neuropathy were considered. The patient was referred to a neurologist who investigated further with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and the final diagnosis of syringomyelia was made based on MRI findings.
Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges
Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.
Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...
Koenders, E E; Franken, C P G; Cotter, J D; Thornton, S N; Rehrer, N J
Exercise-associated hyponatremia can be life-threatening. Excessive hypotonic fluid ingestion is the primary etiological factor but does not explain all variability. Possible effects of chronic sodium intake are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary sodium affects plasma sodium concentration [Na + ] during exercise in the heat, when water intake nearly matches mass loss. Endurance-trained men (n = 9) participated in this crossover experiment. Each followed a low-sodium (lowNa) or high-sodium (highNa) diet for 9 days with 24-h fluid intakes and urine outputs measured before experimental trials (day 10). The trials were ≥2 week apart. Trials comprised 3 h (or if not possible to complete, to exhaustion) cycling (55% VO 2max ; 34 °C, 65% RH) with water intake approximating mass loss. Plasma [Na + ], hematocrit, sweat and urine [Na + ], heart rate, core temperature, and subjective perceptions were monitored. Urine [Na + ] was lower on lowNa 24 h prior to (31 ± 24, 76 ± 30 mmol/L, P = 0.027) and during trials (10 ± 10, 52 ± 32 mmol/L, P = 0.004). Body mass was lower on lowNa (79.6 ± 8.5, 80.5 ± 8.9, P = 0.03). Plasma [Na + ] was lower on lowNa before (137 ± 2, 140 ± 3, P = 0.007) and throughout exercise (P = 0.001). Sweat [Na + ] was unaffected by diet (54.5 ± 40, 54.5 ± 23 mmol/L, P = 0.99). Heart rate and core temperature were higher on lowNa (P ≤ 0.001). Despite decreased urinary sodium losses, plasma sodium was lower on lowNa, with decreased mass indicating (extracellular) water may have been less, explaining greater heart rate and core temperature. General population health recommendations to lower salt intake may not be appropriate for endurance athletes, particularly those training in the heat. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...
Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...
Guer, M.; Guiton, P.
Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads
... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...
Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...
ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)
Ha, Mi-Sun; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Sung-Hee; Bae, Dong-Ho
The dietary intakes of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside were estimated on the basis of food consumption data of the Korean consumer and the concentration of sweeteners in processed foods. Results were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of sweeteners. Among the 28 food categories for which the application of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside is permitted in Korea, they were detected in 5, 12 and 13 categories, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of sodium saccharin and aspartame were high in infants and children, whereas the EDI of stevioside was high in adolescents and adults. The most highly consumed sweetener was aspartame, and the highest EDI/ADI ratio was found for sodium saccharin. The main food categories contributing to sweetener consumption were beverages, including alcoholic beverages. For most Korean consumers, the EDIs were no greater than 20% of their corresponding ADI; however, the EDI of sodium saccharin for conservative consumers aged 1-2 years reached 60% of their ADI.
Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens
Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed 2 independent ultralong-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 g/d and collected all urine. The subjects' daily menus consisted of 27 279 individual servings, of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady-state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour urine collection for sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-g difference in salt intake. Because of the biological variability in UNaV, only every other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to 3 consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6 to 12 g salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-g difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.
This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)
O'Hare, Justin K; Li, Haofang; Kim, Namsoo; Gaidis, Erin; Ade, Kristen; Beck, Jeff; Yin, Henry; Calakos, Nicole
Habit formation is a behavioral adaptation that automates routine actions. Habitual behavior correlates with broad reconfigurations of dorsolateral striatal (DLS) circuit properties that increase gain and shift pathway timing. The mechanism(s) for these circuit adaptations are unknown and could be responsible for habitual behavior. Here we find that a single class of interneuron, fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), modulates all of these habit-predictive properties. Consistent with a role in habits, FSIs are more excitable in habitual mice compared to goal-directed and acute chemogenetic inhibition of FSIs in DLS prevents the expression of habitual lever pressing. In vivo recordings further reveal a previously unappreciated selective modulation of SPNs based on their firing patterns; FSIs inhibit most SPNs but paradoxically promote the activity of a subset displaying high fractions of gamma-frequency spiking. These results establish a microcircuit mechanism for habits and provide a new example of how interneurons mediate experience-dependent behavior.
Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.
Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.
Cohen, H.; Cohen, B.; Raphan, T.; Waespe, W.
We habituated the dominant time constant of the horizontal vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) of rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys by repeated testing with steps of velocity about a vertical axis and adapted the gain of the VOR by altering visual input with magnifying and reducing lenses. After baseline values were established, the nodulus and ventral uvula of the vestibulocerebellum were ablated in two monkeys, and the effects of nodulouvulectomy and flocculectomy on VOR gain adaptation and habituation were compared. The VOR time constant decreased with repeated testing, rapidly at first and more slowly thereafter. The gain of the VOR was unaffected. Massed trials were more effective than distributed trials in producing habituation. Regardless of the schedule of testing, the VOR time constant never fell below the time constant of the semicircular canals (approximately 5 s). This finding indicates that only the slow component of the vestibular response, the component produced by velocity storage, was habituated. In agreement with this, the time constant of optokinetic after-nystagmus (OKAN) was habituated concurrently with the VOR. Average values for VOR habituation were obtained on a per session basis for six animals. The VOR gain was adapted by natural head movements in partially habituated monkeys while they wore x 2.2 magnifying or x 0.5 reducing lenses. Adaptation occurred rapidly and reached about +/- 30%, similar to values obtained using forced rotation. VOR gain adaptation did not cause additional habituation of the time constant. When the VOR gain was reduced in animals with a long VOR time constant, there were overshoots in eye velocity that peaked at about 6-8 s after the onset or end of constant-velocity rotation. These overshoots occurred at times when the velocity storage integrator would have been maximally activated by semicircular canal input. Since the activity generated in the canals is not altered by visual adaptation, this finding indicates that the gain
Full Text Available Abstract Background High salt intake in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD may cause high blood pressure and increased albuminuria. Although, the estimation of salt intake is essential, there are no easy methods to estimate real salt intake. Methods Salt intake was assessed by determining urinary sodium excretion from the collected urine samples. Estimation of salt intake by spot urine was calculated by Tanaka’s formula. The correlation between estimated and measured sodium excretion was evaluated by Pearson´s correlation coefficients. Performance of equation was estimated by median bias, interquartile range (IQR, proportion of estimates within 30% deviation of measured sodium excretion (P30 and root mean square error (RMSE.The sensitivity and specificity of estimated against measured sodium excretion were separately assessed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results A total of 334 urine samples from 96 patients were examined. Mean age was 58 ± 16 years, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was 53 ± 27 mL/min. Among these patients, 35 had CKD stage 1 or 2, 39 had stage 3, and 22 had stage 4 or 5. Estimated sodium excretion significantly correlated with measured sodium excretion (R = 0.52, P 170 mEq/day (AUC 0.835. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that spot urine can be used to estimate sodium excretion, especially in patients with low eGFR.
Iwanaga, Joe; Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Kusukawa, Jingo; Tubbs, R. Shane
Eminectomy which is one of the popular and most effective treatments for habitual temporomandibular joint luxation was first described by Myrhaug in 1951. There are few reports which described eminectomy being performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation. We present a case series of habitual luxation of the TMJ treated by eminectomy performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation and general anesthesia. Five patients were examined and found to have recurrent luxation of the...
Verplanken, Bas; Roy, Deborah
Qualifications such as "global warming hysteria" and "energy policy schizophrenia" put forward by some climate change skeptics, usually outside the academic arena, may suggest that people who seriously worry about the environment suffer from psychological imbalance. The present study aimed to refute this thesis. While habitual worrying in general is strongly associated with psychopathological symptoms, in a survey a near-zero correlation was found between habitual ecological worrying and path...
Hansen, Jakob Møller; Bolla, M; Magis, D
have associated with disturbed ion homeostasis, altered cellular excitability, neurotransmitter release, and decreased threshold for cortical spreading depression. The common forms of migraine are characterized interictally by a habituation deficit of cortical and subcortical evoked responses that has...... been attributed to neuronal dysexcitability. FHM and the common forms of migraine are thought to belong to a spectrum of migraine phenotypes with similar pathophysiology, and we therefore examined whether an abnormal habituation pattern would also be found in FHM patients....
Lee, N-Y; Park, S-Y; Lee, Y-M; Choi, S-Y; Jeong, S-H; Chung, M-S; Chang, Y-S; Choi, S-H; Bae, D-H; Ha, S-D
This study was conducted to help better understand the current sodium intake of Korean children and to establish children's good eating habits through investigation of the sodium content of ready-to-eat foods collected from nine major amusement parks in Korea. The sodium content of a total of 322 products was analysed by using ICP and then the potential risk based on the recommended daily intake of sodium as described in the Korean dietary reference intakes was determined. The results showed that sodium content was the lowest in muffins (245 mg/100 g) and the highest in seasoned dried filefish (1825 mg/100 g). The average amounts of sodium per serving of seasoned dried filefish, tteokbokki and fish paste were 1150, 1248 and 1097 mg, respectively. The values were above 50% of the daily intake of sodium recommended by the Korean dietary reference intake. The ready-to-eat foods were also classified into high, medium and low sodium content on the basis of standards recommended by the Korean Food and Drug Administration. Most snacks were classified as high sodium foods because they exceeded "300 mg (84.5% of the total daily allowance)". Furthermore, the meal substitution foods such as kimbab, tteokbokki, mandus, sandwiches and hamburgers exceeded "600 mg (90.3% of the total daily allowance)" and were also classified as high sodium foods. In addition, ready-to-eat foods in amusement parks are similar to foods eaten on streets and foods around school zones, which contain high sodium content; thus, the intake frequency might be high, which would induce high risk to children health. Koreans already consume a high amount of sodium daily via their usual diets. So, the sodium content in snacks and substitution foods needs to be reduced. Consequently, this study noted that parents and guardians should carefully consider their children's consumption of ready-to-eat foods from Korean amusement parks.
Weir, R R; Carson, E L; Mulhern, M S; Laird, E; Healy, M; Pourshahidi, L K
Dietary sources of vitamin D (both natural and fortified) are increasingly contributing to consumers' vitamin D intake and status. Therefore, the present study aimed to validate a vitamin D food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual vitamin D intake. A total of 49 apparently healthy consenting adults (aged 18-64 years) from the local community were sampled at the end of winter. Dietary intakes were recorded using a 4-day weighed food record (4d-WFR) and a 17-item FFQ based on foods known to contribute to dietary vitamin D intake. Fasting vitamin D status was quantified by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method of triads was applied using these three measurements to determine the overall validity of the FFQ. Vitamin D intakes from 4d-WFR ranged between 0.42 and 31.65 μg day(-1), whereas intakes determined from the FFQ ranged from 1.03 to 36.08 μg day(-1). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations ranged between 12.89 and 279.00 nmol L(-1). The mean (SD) difference between the FFQ and 4d-WFR was +1.62 ( 3.86). There were strong correlations between the vitamin D intake estimated by the FFQ and that from the 4d-WFR (r = 0.562) and also with serum 25(OH)D concentrations (r = 0.567). Vitamin D intake estimated from the 4d-WFR was also strongly correlated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations (r = 0.411). The overall validity coefficient calculated using the method of triads was high (0.881). The vitamin D FFQ has been validated for use in future studies aiming to assess habitual vitamin D intake. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Fan, Fan; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Wu, Bao-Hua; He, Ming-Guang; Xie, Hai-Li; Ouyang, Wei-Fu; Tu, Su-lan; Chen, Yu-Ming
OBJECTIVES: Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. METHODS: A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years), were enrolled from four hospitals. ...
Sebelien, Mari Bøe
Background and aims: The risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) can be modified by diet- and lifestyle related factors such as intake of red meat, dietary fiber and alcohol, as well as obesity. These risk factors may also increase the risk of recurrence, secondary cancers and comorbidity. The prevalence of obesity and the habitual diet of CRC patients directly prior to diagnosis is, however, not well characterized. Thus, the aim of this thesis was to characterize BMI and dietary intake of...
Campbell, Miranda L; Gorka, Stephanie M; McGowan, Sarah K; Nelson, Brady D; Sarapas, Casey; Katz, Andrea C; Robison-Andrew, E Jenna; Shankman, Stewart A
Individuals with anxiety disorders have previously demonstrated abnormal habituation to aversiveness over time. As anxiety sensitivity (AS), or an individuals' propensity to fear of anxiety-related sensations, has been shown to be a risk factor for anxiety disorders (particularly panic disorder), the present study examined whether AS was also associated with abnormal habituation. This association was examined in two independent samples of undergraduates (Ntotal=178). Habituation was operationalised as the reduction in startle response to multiple startle probes presented over 2.5 minutes and three definitions of this reduction were employed. Results indicated that individuals with higher levels of AS evidenced deficits in startle habituation, but the strength of this relationship was somewhat dependent on the definition of startle habituation, with the most robust definition being an analysis of participants' individual slopes across all nine blinks. The present findings suggest that startle habituation is a key mechanism underlying AS, and may help elucidate the role this risk factor plays in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders.
Zheng, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Lina; Shen, Lijun; Song, Lulu; Li, Hui; Liu, Bingqing; Li, Yuanyuan; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Shunqing; Wang, Youjie
Habitual midday napping is a common habit in China, especially for pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to examine whether duration and frequency of maternal habitual midday napping were associated with high birthweight (HBW). A total of 10,482 participants from Healthy Baby Cohort were include in our analysis. The information of the mothers and their infants were abstracted from medical records, or obtained from questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of habitual midday napping duration and frequency with HBW. Of the participants, 8,705 (83.0%) reported having habitual midday napping. Duration and frequency of napping had a positive association with HBW without adjustment. After controlling for potential confounders, increasing risk of HBW was observed in participants who napped 1.5-2 hours (OR, 1.50, 95% CI, 1.14, 1.98), and ≥2 hours (OR, 1.35, 95% CI, 1.03, 1.78) compared with no habitual midday napping. Participants who took naps ≥5 days/week had a higher risk of HBW (OR, 1.37, 95% CI, 1.07, 1.77) compared with the women without naps. This suggests that longer (≥1.5 hours) and more frequent (≥5 days/week) maternal habitual midday napping were associated with an increased risk of HBW.
Background There is limited data on objectively determined habitual physical activity (PA) in 16-year old South African adolescents. The purpose of this study was to objectively determine the habitual PA of adolescents from the North West Province of South Africa by race and gender. Methods Adolescents (137 girls, 89 boys) from the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHL study), participated in the present study. Habitual PA was objectively recorded by means of the Actiheart® over a period of 7 days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed. Results Average MVPA for the study sample was 50.9 ± 40.3 minutes/day. Girls were significantly more active than boys expending more time in MVPA (61.13 ± 52.2 minutes/day; p Physical activity varies by both gender and race in adolescents from the North West Province of South Africa. Objectively determined data from our study indicates that girls habitually spend more time in MVPA per day than boys, and that white adolescents habitually engage in more MVPA than black adolescents. Seeing as the average MVPA per day for the entire study sample falls below the recommended daily average of 60minutes/day, adolescents should be the foremost targets of interventions aimed at enhancing habitual PA. PMID:24885503
Zachriat, Claudia; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit
Using a randomized control group trial the long-term efficacy of a habituation-based treatment as conceived by Jastreboff, and a cognitive-behavioural tinnitus coping training were compared. An educational intervention was administered as a control condition. Both treatments were conducted in a group format (habituation-based treatment, 5 sessions; tinnitus coping training, 11 sessions). Educational intervention was delivered in a single group session. Patients were categorized according to their level of disability due to tinnitus (low, high), age and gender and then randomly allocated to the treatment conditions (habituation-based treatment, n = 30; tinnitus coping training, n = 27; educational intervention, n = 20). Data assessment included follow-ups of up to 21 months. Several outcome variables including disability due to tinnitus were assessed either by questionnaire or diary. Findings reveal highly significant improvements in both tinnitus coping training and habituation-based treatment in comparison with the control group. While tinnitus coping training and habituation-based treatment do not differ significantly in reduction of tinnitus disability, improvement in general well-being and adaptive behaviour is greater in tinnitus coping training than habituation-based treatment. The decrease in disability remains stable throughout the last follow-up in both treatment conditions.
Full Text Available Foot morphology and function has received increasing attention from both biomechanics researchers and footwear manufacturers. In this study, 168 habitually unshod runners (90 males whose age, weight & height were 23±2.4 years, 66±7.1 kg & 1.68±0.13 m and 78 females whose age, weight & height were 22±1.8 years, 55±4.7 kg & 1.6±0.11 m (Indians and 196 shod runners (130 males whose age, weight & height were 24±2.6 years, 66±8.2 kg & 1.72±0.18 m and 66 females whose age, weight & height were 23±1.5 years, 54±5.6 kg & 1.62±0.15 m (Chinese participated in a foot scanning test using the easy-foot-scan (a three-dimensional foot scanning system to obtain 3D foot surface data and 2D footprint imaging. Foot length, foot width, hallux angle and minimal distance from hallux to second toe were calculated to analyze foot morphological differences. This study found that significant differences exist between groups (shod Chinese and unshod Indians for foot length (female p = 0.001, width (female p = 0.001, hallux angle (male and female p = 0.001 and the minimal distance (male and female p = 0.001 from hallux to second toe. This study suggests that significant differences in morphology between different ethnicities could be considered for future investigation of locomotion biomechanics characteristics between ethnicities and inform last shape and design so as to reduce injury risks and poor performance from mal-fit shoes.
Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Ostlund, Richard E
Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI). Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI. Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.
Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI. Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI.Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P < 0.01.The ratio of plasma campesterol to the coordinately regulated endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol is a biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.
Rietveld, W J; van Schravendijk, K
Long-term application of sodium-valproate was studied while recording food intake of rats. It was found that sodium valproate was able to decrease the period length of free-running circadian rhythmicity. After withdrawal of the drug, the period length returned to the predrug values.
Gillen, Jenna B; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C; Brinkmans, Naomi Y J; Versteegen, Joline J; Jonvik, Kristin L; Kapp, Christoph; de Vries, Jeanne; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C
Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various proteincontaining food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes. Well-trained male (n=327) and female (n=226) athletes completed multiple web-based 24-hr dietary recalls over a 2-4 wk period. Total energy intake, the contribution of animal- and plant-based proteins to daily protein intake, and protein intake at six eating moments were determined. Daily protein intake averaged 108±33 and 90±24 g in men and women, respectively, which corresponded to relative intakes of 1.5±0.4 and 1.4±0.4 g/kg. Dietary protein intake was correlated with total energy intake in strength (r=0.71, p sport (r=0.77, p protein intake was 57% and 43%, respectively. The distribution of protein intake was 19% (19±8 g) at breakfast, 24% (25±13 g) at lunch and 38% (38±15 g) at dinner. Protein intake was below the recommended 20 g for 58% of athletes at breakfast, 36% at lunch and 8% at dinner. In summary, this survey of athletes revealed they habitually consume > 1.2 g protein/kg/d, but the distribution throughout the day may be suboptimal to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to training.
Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki
The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)
Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.
The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)
Mar 1, 2016 ... with high stress (32.89%) especially in females (57.14%, p=.036). Hypertension increased with mean age whiles stress decreased with mean age. Hypertensive subjects recorded a significantly higher BMI and sodium intake whiles high stress individuals recorded a lower animal protein but a higher cereal ...
This podcast is based on the September 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Many children in the U.S. eat more sodium than recommended and one in six has elevated blood pressure. Learn what you can do to lower sodium intake.
Correa-Rodríguez, María; Pocovi, Gabriela; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Rueda-Medina, Blanca
Nutritional intake during early ages has been associated to disease onset later in life. This study aimed to assess dietary intake in Spanish university students of health sciences as compared to national recommended dietary intakes (DRIs). A cross-sectional study was conducted including 585 university students of health sciences aged 18-25 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 72-h diet recall. A control group was selected from Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (ENIDE) data. Intake of energy, protein, fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.001) in university students compared to controls, while fiber intake showed the opposite trend (p<0.001). Total fat and carbohydrate intake was consistent with recommendations, but protein intake was lower than recommended. Intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) was markedly higher than nutrition goals, while intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) was lower. Both students and the reference control group did not reach the optimal dietary intake of iodine and vitamins D and E, while sodium intake was excessive in both groups. Dietary habits of university students were mainly characterized by low intakes of energy, protein, fats, fatty acids, and cholesterol, and high intake of fiber as compared to the general population. Intake of iodine and vitamins D and E was low, while sodium intake was excessive in both university students and the general population. Dietary interventions should be considered to prevent nutritional deficiencies and to ensure a balanced diet. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Tureck, Camila; Locateli, Gelvani; Corrêa, Vanesa Gesser; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica
The study of dietary antioxidants has gained prominence owing to the elucidation of the deleterious effects of oxidative stress to the human body. Objective: To evaluate the Brazilian population's intake of antioxidant nutrients and their association with the nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was carried out including secondary data on food consumption of 33,459 individuals from both sexes, aged 10 years or older, from all Brazilian regions based on microdata of the "2008-2009 Household Budget Survey, Brazilian Dairy Survey." The content of vitamins E, A, and C; zinc; manganese; copper; and selenium from 188 food items, divided into 12 groups, according to the habitual consumption form was analyzed. The means of antioxidant nutrient intake according to the nutritional status were compared using Bonferroni's t-test. Higher percentages of insufficient intake of vitamins than antioxidant minerals were seen. A significant difference in the intake of vitamin E as to the nutritional status was noticed, wherein the intake in overweight individuals was lower than in those with proper weight. Participants with low weight presented lower intake of almost all antioxidant minerals, except for copper, in which the intake of participants with low weight was equal to those with normal weight. High percentages of insufficient intake of antioxidant nutrients were observed in the studied population, especially vitamins. It was also found that the intake of antioxidant nutrients varied based on nutritional status, gender, and life stage.
Javier Carrascosa González
Full Text Available International successions have often raised controversies for Private International Law. This paper deals with the general ground of jurisdiction of the deceased’s last habitual residence. In this field, the flexible, fluid and changing concept of the last “habitual residence” of the deceased needs an appropriate interpretation both for academics and for the practitioners of Private International Law. However, this essay holds that the liquidity of the concept “habitual residence” of the deceased may be an advantage to grant international jurisdiction on the courts which are best placed to rule on the merits of the case. Moreover, this paper sustains that a careful and holistic interpretation of the text of the Regulation and a proper analysis of the function of this ground of international jurisdiction leads to a surprising conclusion, i.e., the concept of the “habitual residence” is not as complex and difficult to specify as, at first glance, it might appear.
Dötsch, Mariska; Busch, Johanneke; Batenburg, Max; Liem, Gie; Tareilus, Erwin; Mueller, Rudi; Meijer, Gert
The global high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease has raised concerns regarding the sodium content of the foods which we consume. Over 75% of sodium intake in industrialized diets is likely to come from processed and restaurant foods. Therefore international authorities, such as the World Health Organisation, are encouraging the food industry to reduce sodium levels in their products. Significant sodium reduction is not without complications as salt plays an important role in taste, and in some products is needed also for preservation and processing. The most promising sodium reduction strategy is to adapt the preference of consumers for saltiness by reducing sodium in products in small steps. However, this is a time-consuming approach that needs to be applied industry-wide in order to be effective. Therefore the food industry is also investigating solutions that will maintain the same perceived salt intensity at lower sodium levels. Each of these has specific advantages, disadvantages, and time lines for implementation. Currently applied approaches are resulting in sodium reduction between 20-30%. Further reduction will require new technologies. Research into the physiology of taste perception and salt receptors is an emerging area of science that is needed in order to achieve larger sodium reductions.
Basuray, Anupam; Dolansky, Mary; Josephson, Richard; Sattar, Abdus; Grady, Ellen M; Vehovec, Anton; Gunstad, John; Redle, Joseph; Fang, James; Hughes, Joel W
We sought to determine the rates and predictors of dietary sodium restriction and to evaluate the reliability of 24-hour urine collection as a tool to estimate dietary sodium intake in heart failure (HF) patients. We evaluated the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion of 305 outpatients with HF and reduced ejection fraction who were educated on following a sodium diet. The mean sodium excretion according to a single sample from each participant was 3.15 ± 1.58 g, and 23% were adherent to the sodium excretion of 3.21 ± 1.20 g and lower adherence rates to the sodium and creatinine showed poor reproducibility between samples. In this chronic HF population, sodium consumption probably exceeds recommended amounts, particularly in men and those with higher BMI. Urine analyses were not highly reproducible, suggesting variation in both diet and urine collection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
John, Katherine A; Cogswell, Mary E; Zhao, Lixia; Maalouf, Joyce; Gunn, Janelle P; Merritt, Robert K
Dietary data from a nationally representative survey indicate about 80% of US toddlers aged 1-3 years consume too much dietary sodium, which can influence their preference for salty foods in later life. Information on consumer attitudes can inform strategies to reduce sodium in baby and toddler foods. Data were obtained from a 2012 online survey sent to a sample of 11636 US adults aged ≥18 years enrolled in a national probability-based consumer panel; 6378 completed the survey and had non-missing responses to the question of interest, "It is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium." Prevalence of agreement was estimated. Logistic regression was used to describe associations of respondent characteristics with agreement. The majority of respondents were non-Hispanic white and had a household income ≥$60,000. About 7 in 10 (68%, 95% CI: 66%-70%) respondents agreed it is important for baby or toddler foods to be low in sodium. More than 6 of 10 respondents in most subgroups agreed. Among parents with a child currently aged <2 years (N = 390), 82% agreed (95% CI: 77%-87%); the highest agreement included parents who thought sodium was very harmful to their own health (92%, 95% CI: 85%-99%) or who were watching/reducing their own sodium intake (95%, 95% CI: 90%-100%). After adjusting for sex, age, race-ethnicity, agreement was most strongly associated with being a parent of a child <2 years, thinking sodium was harmful, and watching/reducing sodium intake (adjusted odds ratios ≥ 2.5, 95% CI's ≠1.0). The majority of respondents including most parents agreed it is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium, suggesting wide consumer support for strategies to lower sodium in these foods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte
Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.
While the clinical manifestations of elevated blood pressure (BPI) occur predominately in adults, the antecedents of chronic diseases (obesity, diabetes, atherosclerotic heart disease, and stroke) begin in childhood. Hence the contemporary approach to halting the epidemic of cardiovascular disease(...
de Borst, Martin H; Navis, Gerjan
Pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers is the current standard treatment to prevent progressive renal function loss in patients with chronic kidney disease. Yet in many patients the
Powell, Lisa M; Nguyen, Binh T; Dietz, William H
Pizza consumption is a top contributor to children's and adolescents' caloric intake. The objective of this study was to examine children's and adolescents' pizza consumption patterns and its impact on their energy and nutrient intake. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data for children aged 2 to 11 and adolescents aged 12 to 19 were drawn from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We tested changes in consumption patterns, including by race/ethnicity, income, meal occasion, and source. Individual-level fixed effects regression models estimated the impact of pizza consumption on total energy intake (TEI) and intakes of sugar, saturated fat, and sodium. From 2003-2004 to 2009-2010, overall energy intake from pizza declined 25% among children (110 to 83 kcal, P ≤ .05). Among adolescents, although caloric intake from pizza among those who consumed pizza fell (801 to 624 kcal, P ≤ .05), overall pizza intake remained unchanged due to slightly higher pizza consumption prevalence. For children and adolescents, pizza intake fell (P ≤ .05) at dinner time and from fast food. For children and adolescents, respectively, pizza consumption was significantly associated with higher net daily TEI (84 kcal and 230 kcal) and higher intakes of saturated fat (3 g and 5 g) and sodium (134 mg and 484 mg) but not sugar intake, and such affects generally did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Pizza consumption as a snack or from fast-food restaurants had the greatest adverse impact on TEI. The adverse dietary effects of pizza consumption found in this study suggest that its consumption should be curbed and its nutrient content improved. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Fluoride is an essential element for the normal development and growth of human beings. The main source of fluoride for humans is the intake of groundwater. At high levels, fluoride causes dental and skeletal fluorosis. In this study, control and sodium fluoride (NaF) treated groups of rats had significant (p < 0.05) higher ...
Krediet, Raymond T.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiovascular mortality is high in peritoneal dialysis patients. This may be due to the presence of hypertension and fluid overload. Dietary intake of water and sodium are likely to be important, especially in anuric patients. METHODS: A review of the literature on assessment of
Fernández-Llama, P; Calero, F
Abundant evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies has established a link between salt and blood pressure. However, there is heterogeneity in the blood pressure responses of humans to changes in sodium intake. Those individuals in whom a severe, abrupt change in salt intake causes the least change in arterial pressure and are termed salt-resistant, whereas in those in whom this leads to large changes in blood pressure, are called salt sensitive. Classically, Guyton's theory of the pressure-natriuresis phenomenon has been accepted to explain the pressor effect of salt, as well as the fundamental role played by the different protein sodium transporters of the renal tubules. In recent years, new theories have emerged pointing to the possible role of the immune system and the existence of a third sodium store in the body as aetiopathogenic factors. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Graudal, Niels Albert; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjorn; Jurgens, Gesche
In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of whether a reduced sodium intake improves health is still unsolved. To estimate the effects of low sodium intake versus high sodium intake on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), plasma or serum levels of renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides. The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to March 2016: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. Studies randomising persons to low-sodium and high-sodium diets were included if they evaluated at least one of the above outcome parameters. Two review authors independently collected data, which were analysed with Review Manager 5.3. A total of 185 studies were included. The average sodium intake was reduced from 201 mmol/day (corresponding to high usual level) to 66 mmol/day (corresponding to the recommended level).The effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure (BP) was as follows: white people with normotension: SBP: mean difference (MD) -1.09 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): -1.63 to -0.56; P = 0.0001); 89 studies, 8569 participants; DBP: + 0.03 mmHg (MD 95% CI: -0.37 to 0.43; P = 0.89); 90 studies, 8833 participants. High-quality evidence. Black people with normotension: SBP: MD -4.02 mmHg (95% CI:-7.37 to -0.68; P = 0.002); seven studies, 506 participants; DBP: MD -2.01 mmHg (95% CI:-4.37 to 0.35; P = 0.09); seven studies, 506 participants. Moderate-quality evidence. Asian people with normotension: SBP: MD -0.72 mmHg (95% CI: -3.86 to 2.41; P = 0.65); DBP: MD -1.63 mmHg (95% CI:-3.35 to 0
Hashmi, Javeria A; Davis, Karen D
We recently reported that women report greater pain adaptation and habituation to moderately painful heat stimuli than men (Hashmi and Davis ); but slightly lower temperatures were needed to evoke moderate pain in the women. Hardy et al (1962) and LaMotte (1979) suggested that pain adaptation is most prominent at modest noxious heat temperatures and may occur at temperatures close to pain thresholds. Thus, as a follow-up to our previous study, we examined the role of absolute temperature in pain adaptation and habituation in men and women and assessed whether pain threshold impacts these findings. We hypothesised that pain adaptation and habituation would be more prominent at low and moderate temperatures, and that higher temperatures would induce pain adaptation and habituation in women but not in men. We further hypothesized that pain adaptation would not be correlated with pain thresholds. To test this, we obtained continuous ratings of pain evoked by 44.5-47.5°C stimuli applied to the dorsal foot of men and women. Each run consisted of three 30s stimuli at the same temperature with a 60s inter-stimulus interval. Women showed within-stimulus adaptation of total pain at all temperatures, but men showed significant adaptation to temperatures less than 47°C. There were no sex differences in inter-stimulus habituation and both men and women reported habituation to temperatures less than 46°C. Pain thresholds did not correlate with pain adaptation. These data highlight the temperature-sensitivity and sex differences of pain adaptation and habituation. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The use of liquid sodium as the primary coolant in fast-breeder reactors poses potential health concerns because of the chemical toxicity of sodium oxides and the radioactive toxicity of 24 Na and 22 Na. The paper describes some procedures which can significantly reduce the radiation dose to the body from 24 Na and 22 Na which might be accidentally inhaled or ingested. Studies with rats indicate that the retention time of the sodium isotopes which have exchanged with the body sodium pool can be reduced by a factor of 10 by ingestion of high levels of stable sodium. In addition, the ingestion of a sodium salt at the time or immediately after the inhalation incident could result in at least 60% or more of the inhaled radioactive sodium being excreted before it exchanges with the body sodium pool. The combined effects of both immediate and sustained sodium ingestion in rats can result in a radiation dose from 22 Na of only 4% or less of that which would result if no additional salt is administered. The dose reduction for 24 Na would not be as much as that for 22 Na but would be significant. The tolerance for high levels of stable sodium intake in humans will be discussed and optimum intakes will be suggested which will provide the maximum radioactive sodium excretion with minimum harm to the physiological processes of the body. (author)
Thuesen, Betina H; Toft, Ulla; Buhelt, Lone P
BACKGROUND: Excessive salt intake causes increased blood pressure which is considered the leading risk for premature death. One major challenge when evaluating associations between daily salt intake and markers of non-communicable diseases is that a high daily salt intake correlates with obesity...... 3294 men and women aged 18-69 years from a general population based study in Copenhagen, Denmark. Estimated 24-hour sodium excretion was calculated by measurements of creatinine and sodium concentration in spot urine in combination with information of sex, age, height and weight. The relations...
Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S
This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed.
Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.
Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables
Colin D Chapman
Full Text Available Obesity is a serious and growing health concern worldwide. Watching television (TV represents a condition during which many habitually eat, irrespective of hunger level. However, as of yet, little is known about how the content of television programs being watched differentially impacts concurrent eating behavior. In this study, eighteen normal-weight female students participated in three counter-balanced experimental conditions, including a 'Boring' TV condition (art lecture, an 'Engaging' TV condition (Swedish TV comedy series, and a no TV control condition during which participants read (a text on insects living in Sweden. Throughout each condition participants had access to both high-calorie (M&Ms and low-calorie (grapes snacks. We found that, relative to the Engaging TV condition, Boring TV encouraged excessive eating (+52% g, P = 0.009. Additionally, the Engaging TV condition actually resulted in significantly less concurrent intake relative to the control 'Text' condition (-35% g, P = 0.05. This intake was driven almost entirely by the healthy snack, grapes; however, this interaction did not reach significance (P = 0.07. Finally, there was a significant correlation between how bored participants were across all conditions, and their concurrent food intake (beta = 0.317, P = 0.02. Intake as measured by kcals was similarly patterned but did not reach significance. These results suggest that, for women, different TV programs elicit different levels of concurrent food intake, and that the degree to which a program is engaging (or alternately, boring is related to that intake. Additionally, they suggest that emotional content (e.g. boring vs. engaging may be more associated than modality (e.g. TV vs. text with concurrent intake.
Chapman, Colin D; Nilsson, Victor C; Thune, Hanna Å; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Le Grevès, Madeleine; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B
Obesity is a serious and growing health concern worldwide. Watching television (TV) represents a condition during which many habitually eat, irrespective of hunger level. However, as of yet, little is known about how the content of television programs being watched differentially impacts concurrent eating behavior. In this study, eighteen normal-weight female students participated in three counter-balanced experimental conditions, including a 'Boring' TV condition (art lecture), an 'Engaging' TV condition (Swedish TV comedy series), and a no TV control condition during which participants read (a text on insects living in Sweden). Throughout each condition participants had access to both high-calorie (M&Ms) and low-calorie (grapes) snacks. We found that, relative to the Engaging TV condition, Boring TV encouraged excessive eating (+52% g, P = 0.009). Additionally, the Engaging TV condition actually resulted in significantly less concurrent intake relative to the control 'Text' condition (-35% g, P = 0.05). This intake was driven almost entirely by the healthy snack, grapes; however, this interaction did not reach significance (P = 0.07). Finally, there was a significant correlation between how bored participants were across all conditions, and their concurrent food intake (beta = 0.317, P = 0.02). Intake as measured by kcals was similarly patterned but did not reach significance. These results suggest that, for women, different TV programs elicit different levels of concurrent food intake, and that the degree to which a program is engaging (or alternately, boring) is related to that intake. Additionally, they suggest that emotional content (e.g. boring vs. engaging) may be more associated than modality (e.g. TV vs. text) with concurrent intake.
Berstad, P; Haugum, B; Helgeland, M; Bukholm, I; Almendingen, K
Both malnutrition and obesity are related to worsened post-operative outcomes after colorectal surgery. Obese cancer patients may be malnourished as a result of short-term weight loss. The present study aimed to evaluate preoperative nutritional status, body composition and dietary intake related to post-operative complications (POC) and post-operative hospital days (POHD) in elective colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Anthropometry, body composition measured by bioelectric spectroscopy and dietary habits assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire were examined in 100 newly-diagnosed CRC patients. Data from 30-day POC and POHD were collected from medical records. Nonparametric and chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used to analyse associations between body and dietary variables and post-operative outcome. Twenty-nine patients had at least one POC. The median POHD was six. Body size and composition measures and short-term weight loss were no different between patients with and without POC, or between patients with POHD body size, body composition and short-term weight loss were not related to 30-day post-operative outcomes in CRC patients. A high content of marine n-3 PUFA in preoperative habitual diets may protect against POC after CRC surgery. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Spanos, D; Hankey, C R
Dietary patterns and food choices in western and northern European countries can differ from those in countries that surround the Mediterranean basin. However, irregular meal patterns and the consumption of high-energy snacks tend to become common in most countries and their association with the prevalence of obesity has been examined in many studies. The first aim of the present study was to describe the habitual meal and snack intakes, including the use of vending machines, for two groups of first-year university students in two countries of different cultural backgrounds. The second aim was to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and snacking for these two groups. One hundred and sixty first-year undergraduate university students from two defined universities in Greece (n = 80) and Scotland (n = 80) volunteered to complete a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ comprised 16 questions assessing their meal and snacking habits. Self-assessed height and weight data were collected. The majority of the 160 students reported a BMI in the healthy range (vending machines (P vending machines and the consumption of crisps and low fat yogurts were related to BMI (P < 0.05) for both groups. University students living in different countries report similar dietary patterns but differ in their snacking habits. No relationships were found between BMI and snacking. There is a need to carry out research to further our understanding of this relationship.
Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.
A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)
Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.
Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)
Marilyn C Cornelis
Full Text Available We report the first genome-wide association study of habitual caffeine intake. We included 47,341 individuals of European descent based on five population-based studies within the United States. In a meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and eigenvectors of population variation, two loci achieved genome-wide significance: 7p21 (P = 2.4 × 10(-19, near AHR, and 15q24 (P = 5.2 × 10(-14, between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Both the AHR and CYP1A2 genes are biologically plausible candidates as CYP1A2 metabolizes caffeine and AHR regulates CYP1A2.
O’Brien Potato Brown Gravy Rice Pilaf Turkey a la King Steamed Rice Parsley Seasoned Potato Seasoned Cabbage Seasoned Peas Lyonnaise Wax Beans O’Brien...Fried Bacon Fresh Hot Toast Baked Sausage Patties Hot Maple Syrup Creamed Ground Beef Peanut butter Home Fried Potato Ketchup Fried Eggs Skim Milk...sandwiches including submarine sandwiches, assorted pizzas, fried chicken, chili con came, ravioli, baked beans, french fries, onion rings. potato chips
Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)
Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)
Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)
Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.
With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective
Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.
A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)
Smith, Kyle S.; Virkud, Arti; Deisseroth, Karl; Graybiel, Ann M.
Habits tend to form slowly but, once formed, can have great stability. We probed these temporal characteristics of habitual behaviors by intervening optogenetically in forebrain habit circuits as rats performed well-ingrained habitual runs in a T-maze. We trained rats to perform a maze habit, confirmed the habitual behavior by devaluation tests, and then, during the maze runs (ca. 3 s), we disrupted population activity in a small region in the medial prefrontal cortex, the infralimbic cortex. In accordance with evidence that this region is necessary for the expression of habits, we found that this cortical disruption blocked habitual behavior. Notably, however, this blockade of habitual performance occurred on line, within an average of three trials (ca. 9 s of inhibition), and as soon as during the first trial (habit, and, simultaneously, the more recently acquired habit was blocked. These online changes occurred within an average of two trials (ca. 6 s of infralimbic inhibition). Measured changes in generalized performance ability and motivation to consume reward were unaffected. This immediate toggling between breaking old habits and returning to them demonstrates that even semiautomatic behaviors are under cortical control and that this control occurs online, second by second. These temporal characteristics define a framework for uncovering cellular transitions between fixed and flexible behaviors, and corresponding disturbances in pathologies. PMID:23112197